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Sample records for cac tinh phia

  1. CAC Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír DOBOŠ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Service (QoS represent one ofmajor parameters that describe mobile wirelesscommunication systems. Thanks growing popularity ofmobile communication in last years, there is anincreasing expansion of connection admission controlschemes (CAC that plays important role in QoSdelivering in terms of connection blocking probability,connection dropping probability, data loss rate andsignal quality.With expansion of services provided by the mobilenetworks growing the requirements to QoS andtogether growing requirements to CAC schemes.Therefore, still more sophisticated CAC schemes arerequired to guarantee the QoS. This paper containsshort introduction into division of connectionadmission control schemes and presents thresholdoriented CAC scheme with fuzzy logic used foradaptation of the threshold value.

  2. Review - Synthesis and superconducting properties of CaC6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Emery, Claire Herold, Jean-François Mareche and Philippe Lagrange

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the superconducting graphite intercalation compounds, CaC6 exhibits the highest critical temperature Tc=11.5 K. Bulk samples of CaC6 are obtained by immersing highly oriented pyrographite pieces in a well-chosen liquid Li–Ca alloy for 10 days at 350 °C. The crystal structure of CaC6 belongs to the { m R}ar{3}{ m m} space group. In order to study the superconducting properties of CaC6, magnetisation was measured as a function of temperature and direction of magnetic field applied parallel or perpendicular to the c-axis. Meissner effect was evidenced, as well as a type II superconducting behaviour and a small anisotropy. In agreement with calculations, experimental results obtained from various techniques suggest that a classical electron-phonon mechanism is responsible for the superconductivity of CaC6. Application of high pressure increases the Tc up to 15.1 K at 8 GPa.

  3. Isolation and characterization of higher metallofullerenes Ca@C92 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ... Ca@C94 for the first time. The o-dichlo- robenzene extraction, chlorobenzene and benzene mo- bile phase for isolation of fullerenes and endohedral fullerenes in our work had never been reported before. 2. Experimental. Our raw soot containing Ca metallofullerenes was produced by an optimized direct current arc (DC) ...

  4. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) classification with deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuming; Wang, Shice; Deng, Yufeng; Chen, Kuan

    2017-03-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a typical marker of the coronary artery disease, which is one of the biggest causes of mortality in the U.S. This study evaluates the feasibility of using a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) to automatically detect CAC in X-ray images. 1768 posteroanterior (PA) view chest X-Ray images from Sichuan Province Peoples Hospital, China were collected retrospectively. Each image is associated with a corresponding diagnostic report written by a trained radiologist (907 normal, 861 diagnosed with CAC). Onequarter of the images were randomly selected as test samples; the rest were used as training samples. DCNN models consisting of 2,4,6 and 8 convolutional layers were designed using blocks of pre-designed CNN layers. Each block was implemented in Theano with Graphics Processing Units (GPU). Human-in-the-loop learning was also performed on a subset of 165 images with framed arteries by trained physicians. The results from the DCNN models were compared to the diagnostic reports. The average diagnostic accuracies for models with 2,4,6,8 layers were 0.85, 0.87, 0.88, and 0.89 respectively. The areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.92, 0.95, 0.95, and 0.96. As the model grows deeper, the AUC or diagnostic accuracies did not have statistically significant changes. The results of this study indicate that DCNN models have promising potential in the field of intelligent medical image diagnosis practice.

  5. Using Blackboard's Learning Suite in ABET-CAC Outcomes Assessment and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, J. Packy; Wood, David F.; Turchek, John C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-use and flexible approach for data collection supporting the ABET-CAC accreditation cycle. This approach to accreditation requires program objectives, program outcomes and continuous improvement. ABET-CAC accreditation requires continuous improvement between accreditation visits. Closing the loop on Outcome-Based…

  6. Added value of CAC in risk stratification for cardiovascular events: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Bakker, Marina; den Ruijter, Hester M; Bots, Michiel L

    2012-01-01

    Identification of individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is important to initiate adequate treatment and to prevent future events. Moreover, identification of low-risk individuals is important to refrain from unneeded therapy. Current risk prediction models do not accurately predict the risk of CVD in individuals, and new markers have been sought to improve the risk assessment in individuals. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a marker of atherosclerosis that might improve current risk assessment when added to traditional risk factors. We performed a systematic review on PubMed search (1 February 2011) on studies reporting on the added value of CAC in risk prediction in asymptomatic individuals. Of 39 publications on CAC and CVD, nine studies were carried out in asymptomatic individuals. All studies showed an increase in area under the curve ranging from 0.05 to 0.20 when CAC was added to the risk model. Four studies reported on improvements of individuals in low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories. Addition of CAC to the risk model resulted in a net reclassification improvement ranging from 14% to 30%, meaning that CAC measurement reclassified a substantial proportion of individuals into correct risk categories. This improvement was most pronounced in those at intermediate Framingham risk. The available studies consistently showed that CAC scoring improves risk stratification in CVD risk categories when added to traditional risk factors only, especially among individuals at intermediate risk for CVD. Cost-effectiveness analyses together with a randomized controlled trial are needed before widespread introduction of CAC in clinical care. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. The Cac2 subunit is essential for productive histone binding and nucleosome assembly in CAF-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiroli, Francesca; Gu, Yajie; Balsbaugh, Jeremy L.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Luger, Karolin

    2017-04-18

    Nucleosome assembly following DNA replication controls epigenome maintenance and genome integrity. Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is the histone chaperone responsible for histone (H3-H4)2 deposition following DNA synthesis. Structural and functional details for this chaperone complex and its interaction with histones are slowly emerging. Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry, combined with in vitro and in vivo mutagenesis studies, we identified the regions involved in the direct interaction between the yeast CAF-1 subunits, and mapped the CAF-1 domains responsible for H3-H4 binding. The large subunit, Cac1 organizes the assembly of CAF-1. Strikingly, H3-H4 binding is mediated by a composite interface, shaped by Cac1-bound Cac2 and the Cac1 acidic region. Cac2 is indispensable for productive histone binding, while deletion of Cac3 has only moderate effects on H3-H4 binding and nucleosome assembly. These results define direct structural roles for yeast CAF-1 subunits and uncover a previously unknown critical function of the middle subunit in CAF-1.

  8. Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reviewer

    place in periodic cycles is termed as flushesgrowth. Vegetative growth through flushes .... Effect of different levels of wax-coated CaC2 with NPK on vegetative, reproductive, physical, physiological and biochemical attributes of mango ..... performance of potato (solanum tuberosum) tubers. New Zealand J. crop. Hort. Sci.

  9. Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cv. ... photosynthetic rate, final fruit drop, yield per plant, fruit weight, fruit volume, pulp weight, peel weight, juice weight and fruit skin color were significantly affected by the calcium carbide treatment while number of new flushes per branch, ...

  10. The reactions of TiCl3, and of UF4 with TiCl3 in liquid ammonia: unusual coordination spheres in [Ti(NH3)8]Cl3·6NH3 and [UF(NH3)8]Cl3·3.5NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woidy, Patrick; Karttunen, Antti J; Rudel, Stefan S; Kraus, Florian

    2015-07-28

    TiCl3 and NH3 form octaammine titanium(III) chloride ammonia (1/6), [Ti(NH3)8]Cl3·6NH3, which is the first structurally characterized octaammine complex of a transition metal. An excess of TiCl3 reacts with UF4 in liquid NH3 and forms octaammine fluorido uranium(IV) chloride ammonia (1/3.5), [UF(NH3)8]Cl3·3.5NH3. It shows a distorted threefold-capped trigonal-prismatic coordination sphere around U(IV).

  11. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction of sp3CaC O3 at lower mantle pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Sergey S.; Dong, Xiao; Martirosyan, Naira S.; Samtsevich, Artem I.; Stevanovic, Vladan; Gavryushkin, Pavel N.; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Greenberg, Eran; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Oganov, Artem R.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2017-09-01

    The exceptional ability of carbon to form sp2 and sp3 bonding states leads to a great structural and chemical diversity of carbon-bearing phases at nonambient conditions. Here we use laser-heated diamond-anvil cells combined with synchrotron x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and first-principles calculations to explore phase transitions in CaC O3 at P >40 GPa . We find that postaragonite CaC O3 transforms to the previously predicted P 21/c CaC O3 with sp3-hybridized carbon at 105 GPa (˜30 GPa higher than the theoretically predicted crossover pressure). The lowest-enthalpy transition path to P 21/c CaC O3 includes reoccurring sp2 and sp3CaC O3 intermediate phases and transition states, as revealed by our variable-cell nudged-elastic-band simulation. Raman spectra of P 21/c CaC O3 show an intense band at 1025 c m-1 , which we assign to the symmetric C-O stretching vibration based on empirical and first-principles calculations. This Raman band has a frequency that is ˜20 % lower than the symmetric C-O stretching in sp2CaC O3 due to the C-O bond length increase across the sp2-sp3 transition and can be used as a fingerprint of tetrahedrally coordinated carbon in other carbonates.

  12. Corrosion of aluminium metal in OPC- and CAC-based cement matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Hajime, E-mail: h.kinoshita@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Swift, Paul; Utton, Claire [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Carro-Mateo, Beatriz [The Public University of Navarra, C/Esquíroz, 30 trasera, Pamplona 31007 (Spain); Marchand, Geraldine [The National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) Lyon, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Collier, Nick [National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); Milestone, Neil [Industrial Research Ltd., 69 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt, 5040 (New Zealand)

    2013-08-15

    Corrosion of aluminium metal in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based pastes produces hydrogen gas and expansive reaction products causing problems for the encapsulation of aluminium containing nuclear wastes. Although corrosion of aluminium in cements has been long known, the extent of aluminium corrosion in the cement matrices and effects of such reaction on the cement phases are not well established. The present study investigates the corrosion reaction of aluminium in OPC, OPC-blast furnace slag (BFS) and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) based systems. The total amount of aluminium able to corrode in an OPC and 4:1 BFS:OPC system was determined, and the correlation between the amount of calcium hydroxide in the system and the reaction of aluminium obtained. It was also shown that a CAC-based system could offer a potential matrix to incorporate aluminium metal with a further reduction of pH by introduction of phosphate, producing a calcium phosphate cement.

  13. CAC on a MAC: Setting up a DOD Common Access Card Reader on the Macintosh OS X Operating System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopfner, Phil

    2006-01-01

    .... The CAC readers in conjunction with the user's Smart Card enables access to DoD PKI-enabled websites and allows the user to send signed and encrypted email utilizing the DoD Public Key Infrastructure (PKI...

  14. Impact of The Protective Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) on The Vasoreparative Function of CD34+ CACs in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yaqian; Moldovan, Leni; Miller, Rehae C.; Beli, Eleni; Salazar, Tatiana; Hazra, Sugata; Al-Sabah, Jude; Chalam, KV; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi; hide

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In diabetes, the impaired vasoreparative function of Circulating Angiogenic Cells (CACs) is believed to contribute to the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Accumulating evidence suggests that the protective arm of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) ACE2 Angiotensin-(1-7) Mas plays an important role in restoring the function of diabetic CACs. We examined the protective RAS in CACs in diabetic individuals with different stages of retinopathy. Methods: Study subjects (n43) were recruited as controls or diabetics with either no DR, mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe NPDR or proliferative DR (PDR). Fundus photography and fluorescein angiograms were analyzed using Vessel Generation Analysis (VESGEN) software in a cohort of subjects. CD34+ CACs were isolated from peripheral blood of diabetics and control subjects. RAS gene expressions in CACs were measured by qPCR. The vasoreparative function of CACs was assessed by migration ability toward CXCL12 using the QCM 5M 96-well chemotaxis cell migration assay. Results: ACE2 gene is a key enzyme converting the deleterious Angiotensin II to the beneficial Angiotensin-(1-7). ACE2 expression in CACs from diabetic subjects without DR was increased compared to controls, suggestive of compensation (p0.0437). The expression of Mas (Angiotensin-(1-7) receptor) in CACs was also increased in diabetics without DR, while was reduced in NPDR compared to controls (p0.0002), indicating a possible loss of compensation of the protective RAS at this stage of DR. The presence of even mild NPDR was associated with CD34+ CAC migratory dysfunction. When pretreating CACs of DR subjects with Angiotensin-(1-7), migratory ability to a chemoattractant CXCL12 was restored (p0.0008). By VESGEN analysis, an increase in small vessel density was observed in NPDR subjects when compared with the controls. Conclusions: These data suggest the protective RAS axis within diabetic CACs may help maintain their vasoreparative potential

  15. Targeted deletion of Kif18a protects from colitis-associated colorectal (CAC) tumors in mice through impairing Akt phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Houbao [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Research Center for Experimental Medicine, Rui-Jin Hospital and Department of Medical Genetics, E-Institutes of Shanghai Universities, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTUSM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Xu, Wangyang [Department of Clinical Laboratories, Ninth People’s Hospital, SJTUSM, Shanghai 200011 (China); Zhang, Hongxin [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Research Center for Experimental Medicine, Rui-Jin Hospital and Department of Medical Genetics, E-Institutes of Shanghai Universities, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTUSM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Liu, Jianbing [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Research Center for Experimental Medicine, Rui-Jin Hospital and Department of Medical Genetics, E-Institutes of Shanghai Universities, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTUSM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Shanghai Research Center for Model Organisms, Shanghai 201203 (China); Xu, Haimin [Department of Pathology, Rui-Jin Hospital, SJTUSM, Shanghai 200025 (China); Lu, Shunyuan; Dang, Suying [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Research Center for Experimental Medicine, Rui-Jin Hospital and Department of Medical Genetics, E-Institutes of Shanghai Universities, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTUSM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Kuang, Ying [Shanghai Research Center for Model Organisms, Shanghai 201203 (China); Jin, Xiaolong [Department of Pathology, Rui-Jin Hospital, SJTUSM, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Zhugang, E-mail: zhugangw@shsmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Research Center for Experimental Medicine, Rui-Jin Hospital and Department of Medical Genetics, E-Institutes of Shanghai Universities, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTUSM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Shanghai Research Center for Model Organisms, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Kif18A is up-regulated in CAC of mouse model. •Kif18a{sup −/−} mice are protected from CAC. •Tumor cells from Kif18a{sup −/−} mice undergo more apoptosis. •Kif18A deficiency induces poor Atk phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Kinesins are a superfamily of molecular motors involved in cell division or intracellular transport. They are becoming important targets for chemotherapeutic intervention of cancer due to their crucial role in mitosis. Here, we demonstrate that the kinesin-8 Kif18a is overexpressed in murine CAC and is a crucial promoter during early CAC carcinogenesis. Kif18a-deficient mice are evidently protected from AOM–DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis. Kif18A is responsible for proliferation of colonic tumor cells, while Kif18a ablation in mice promotes cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, Kif18a is responsible for induction of Akt phosphorylation, which is known to be associated with cell survival regulation. In conclusion, Kif18a is critical for colorectal carcinogenesis in the setting of inflammation by mechanisms of increased PI3K-AKT signaling. Inhibition of Kif18A activity may be useful in the prevention or chemotherapeutic intervention of CAC.

  16. Analisa Performansi Algoritma Admission CAC Dan Lucent Pada Berbagai Karakteristik Trafik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tora Fahrudin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Jaringan Metro Ethernet umumnya didefinisikan sebagai bridge dari suatu jaringan atau menghubungkan wilayah yang terpisah bisa juga menghubungkan LAN dengan WAN atau backbone network yang umumnya dimiliki oleh service provider. Admission control adalah suatu mekanisme yang mencegah jaringan mengalami over-loaded. Jika QoS yang diminta tidak dapat disediakan, maka jaringan tidak akan mengirimkan tanda ke aplikasi untuk memulai mengirimkan data. Jika aplikasi telah memulai pengiriman data, maka sumber daya pada jaringan yang sudah dipesan aplikasi tersebut akan terus dikelola secara end-to-end sampai aplikasi tersebut selesai.  Didalam penelitian ini akan di lihat pengaruh Algoritma Lucent dan CAC pada Router Cisco yang di implementasikan dengan simulasi OPNET 14.0. Akan dilihat performansi dari 2 buah alogoritma tersebut, dengan karakteristik Distribusi trafik yang berbeda beda untuk 3 layanan, voice, video dan data.

  17. Charge density waves in the graphene sheets of the superconductor CaC(6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnejat, K C; Howard, C A; Shuttleworth, N E; Schofield, S R; Iwaya, K; Hirjibehedin, C F; Renner, Ch; Aeppli, G; Ellerby, M

    2011-11-29

    Graphitic systems have an electronic structure that can be readily manipulated through electrostatic or chemical doping, resulting in a rich variety of electronic ground states. Here we report the first observation and characterization of electronic stripes in the highly electron-doped graphitic superconductor, CaC(6), by scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy. The stripes correspond to a charge density wave with a period three times that of the Ca superlattice. Although the positions of the Ca intercalants are modulated, no displacements of the carbon lattice are detected, indicating that the graphene sheets host the ideal charge density wave. This provides an exceptionally simple material-graphene-as a starting point for understanding the relation between stripes and superconductivity. Furthermore, our experiments suggest a strategy to search for superconductivity in graphene, namely in the vicinity of striped 'Wigner crystal' phases, where some of the electrons crystallize to form a superlattice.

  18. On the source of stochastic volatility: Evidence from CAC40 index options during the subprime crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Skander

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the performance of time-changed Lévy processes with distinct sources of return volatility variation for modeling cross-sectional option prices on the CAC40 index during the subprime crisis. Specifically, we propose a multi-factor stochastic volatility model: one factor captures the diffusion component dynamics and two factors capture positive and negative jump variations. In-sample and out-of-sample tests show that our full-fledged model significantly outperforms nested lower-dimensional specifications. We find that all three sources of return volatility variation, with different persistence, are needed to properly account for market pricing dynamics across moneyness, maturity and volatility level. Besides, the model estimation reveals negative risk premium for both diffusive volatility and downward jump intensity whereas a positive risk premium is found to be attributed to upward jump intensity.

  19. SVM-Based CAC System for B-Mode Kidney Ultrasound Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, M B; Kumar, Vinod; Mukherjee, Shaktidev; Saini, Manju

    2015-08-01

    The present study proposes a computer-aided classification (CAC) system for three kidney classes, viz. normal, medical renal disease (MRD) and cyst using B-mode ultrasound images. Thirty-five B-mode kidney ultrasound images consisting of 11 normal images, 8 MRD images and 16 cyst images have been used. Regions of interest (ROIs) have been marked by the radiologist from the parenchyma region of the kidney in case of normal and MRD cases and from regions inside lesions for cyst cases. To evaluate the contribution of texture features extracted from de-speckled images for the classification task, original images have been pre-processed by eight de-speckling methods. Six categories of texture features are extracted. One-against-one multi-class support vector machine (SVM) classifier has been used for the present work. Based on overall classification accuracy (OCA), features from ROIs of original images are concatenated with the features from ROIs of pre-processed images. On the basis of OCA, few feature sets are considered for feature selection. Differential evolution feature selection (DEFS) has been used to select optimal features for the classification task. DEFS process is repeated 30 times to obtain 30 subsets. Run-length matrix features from ROIs of images pre-processed by Lee's sigma concatenated with that of enhanced Lee method have resulted in an average accuracy (in %) and standard deviation of 86.3 ± 1.6. The results obtained in the study indicate that the performance of the proposed CAC system is promising, and it can be used by the radiologists in routine clinical practice for the classification of renal diseases.

  20. Superconducting graphene sheets in CaC6 enabled by phonon-mediated interband interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S-L; Sobota, J A; Howard, C A; Pickard, C J; Hashimoto, M; Lu, D H; Mo, S-K; Kirchmann, P S; Shen, Z-X

    2014-03-20

    There is a great deal of fundamental and practical interest in the possibility of inducing superconductivity in a monolayer of graphene. But while bulk graphite can be made to superconduct when certain metal atoms are intercalated between its graphene sheets, the same has not been achieved in a single layer. Moreover, there is a considerable debate about the precise mechanism of superconductivity in intercalated graphite. Here we report angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements of the superconducting graphite intercalation compound CaC6 that distinctly resolve both its intercalant-derived interlayer band and its graphene-derived π* band. Our results indicate the opening of a superconducting gap in the π* band and reveal a substantial contribution to the total electron-phonon-coupling strength from the π*-interlayer interband interaction. Combined with theoretical predictions, these results provide a complete account for the superconducting mechanism in graphite intercalation compounds and lend support to the idea of realizing superconducting graphene by creating an adatom superlattice.

  1. CAC DPLB MCN: A Distributed Load Balancing Scheme in Multimedia Mobile Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Abhijit

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of non-uniform traffic demand in different cells of a cellular network may lead to a gross imbalance in the system performance. Thus, the users in hot cells may suffer from low throughput. In this paper, an effective and simple load balancing scheme CAC_DPLB_MCN is proposed that can effectively reduce the overall call blocking. This model considers dealing with multi-media traffic as well as time-varying geographical traffic distribution. The proposed scheme uses the concept of cell-tiering thereby creating fractional frequency reuse environment. A message exchange based distributed scheme instead of centralized one is used which help the proposed scheme be implemented in a multiple hot cell environment also. Furthermore, concept of dynamic pricing is used to serve the best interest of the users as well as for the service providers. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared with two other existing schemes in terms of call blocking probability and bandwidth utilization. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can reduce the call blocking significantly in highly congested cell with highest bandwidth utilization. Use of dynamic pricing also makes the scheme useful to increase revenue of the service providers in contrast with compared schemes.

  2. Patients choice for method of early abortion among comprehensive abortion care (CAC) clients at Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital (KMCTH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, R; Shrestha, N S; Koirala, B; Kandel, P; Shrestha, S

    2007-01-01

    The over all objective of the study was to determine different methods of abortion opted by CAC clients at KMCTH. The specific objective of the study was to know the reasons for pregnancy termination and to know the reasons opted for either medical or surgical method of abortion. A hospital based prospective study was carried out for a period of six months at KMCTH from 1st January 2006 to 31st June 2006. All the patient undergoing CAC services were included for the study. Clients were provided with written and verbal information regarding the methods of terminating early abortion and its associated complications. After that they were asked to give their informed choice and decision. All the pertinent information was entered on pre-structured questionnaire. During the study period a total of 100 patients underwent CAC services. The commonest reason for termination pregnancy was no desire for additional children (60%) followed by youngest child too small or short spacing (21%). 74% of the patients opted for surgical abortion, 23% patient opted for medical abortion and 3% of the patient remain undecided. Reasons for favouring surgical method of abortion was that surgical abortion is complete (35), repeated visits are avoided (18), quick (10) would be with service provider and feel safe (5), lack of expectancy (2) side effect of medical treatment (1), twin pregnancy (1), easy (1), fear of pain (1). Medical method of abortion was favoured due to fear of surgery (9), easy and less painful (8) and maintains privacy (6). Factors affecting the choice of abortion method appear to be numerous and complex. Providers need to be sensitive to differences in women's values and life circumstances when counselling them about an abortion method. In particular, providers should incorporate into their counselling sessions what women need to know about the characteristics of abortion methods and help women to identify what is the best option for them. Key words: Early abortion medical

  3. Laparoscopic treatment of celiac axis compression syndrome (CACS) and hiatal hernia: Case report with bleeding complications and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Libero, Lorenzo; Varricchio, Antonio; Tartaglia, Ernesto; Iazzetta, Igino; Tartaglia, Alberto; Bernardo, Antonella; Bernardo, Rosanna; Triscino, Giovangiuseppe; Conte, Domenico Lo

    2013-01-01

    Median arcuate ligament (MAL) malposition is a rare cause of celiac axis compression syndrome (CACS) or Dunbar syndrome. A 26-year-old female presented with severe postprandial epigastric pain, weight loss, heartburn and regurgitation unresponsive to medical therapy. CT angiography and duplex ultrasound demonstrated the MAL crossing anterior to the celiac artery (CA). Reconstructions demonstrated CA compression, while the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was normal. The MAL was laparoscopically divided, releasing the celiac axis. A concomitant Nissen fundoplication was performed. At 3-months follow-up, the CT-scan demonstrated no evidence of CACS with complete symptom resolution. Dunbar's syndrome can be treated with endovascular surgery, laparoscopic MAL division or vascular surgery.Six anatomical and morphologic variations of aortic and esophageal hiatus are described. The result of the analysis of these anatomical data leads to the conclusion that hiatus hernia, Dunbar's syndrome and GERD have a common etiopathogenesis and physiopathology. Laparoscopic treatment is useful and feasible in centers with experience in majorlaparoscopic surgery with reduced invasiveness, better cosmetic effect and shorter postoperative course. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Laparoscopic treatment of celiac axis compression syndrome (CACS) and hiatal hernia: Case report with bleeding complications and review☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Libero, Lorenzo; Varricchio, Antonio; Tartaglia, Ernesto; Iazzetta, Igino; Tartaglia, Alberto; Bernardo, Antonella; Bernardo, Rosanna; Triscino, Giovangiuseppe; Conte, Domenico Lo

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Median arcuate ligament (MAL) malposition is a rare cause of celiac axis compression syndrome (CACS) or Dunbar syndrome. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 26-year-old female presented with severe postprandial epigastric pain, weight loss, heartburn and regurgitation unresponsive to medical therapy. CT angiography and duplex ultrasound demonstrated the MAL crossing anterior to the celiac artery (CA). Reconstructions demonstrated CA compression, while the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was normal. The MAL was laparoscopically divided, releasing the celiac axis. A concomitant Nissen fundoplication was performed. At 3-months follow-up, the CT-scan demonstrated no evidence of CACS with complete symptom resolution. DISCUSSION Dunbar's syndrome can be treated with endovascular surgery, laparoscopic MAL division or vascular surgery.Six anatomical and morphologic variations of aortic and esophageal hiatus are described. The result of the analysis of these anatomical data leads to the conclusion that hiatus hernia, Dunbar's syndrome and GERD have a common etiopathogenesis and physiopathology. CONCLUSION Laparoscopic treatment is useful and feasible in centers with experience in majorlaparoscopic surgery with reduced invasiveness, better cosmetic effect and shorter postoperative course. PMID:23973901

  5. Pressure induced polymerization of acetylide anions in CaC2 and 107 fold enhancement of electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haiyan; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Kuo; Yang, Youyou; Wang, Yajie; Wu, Jiajia; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Chun-Hai; Tulk, Christopher A; Molaison, Jamie J; Ivanov, Ilia N; Feygenson, Mikhail; Yang, Wenge; Guthrie, Malcolm; Zhao, Yusheng; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Jin, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    Transformation between different types of carbon-carbon bonding in carbides often results in a dramatic change of physical and chemical properties. Under external pressure, unsaturated carbon atoms form new covalent bonds regardless of the electrostatic repulsion. It was predicted that calcium acetylide (also known as calcium carbide, CaC2) polymerizes to form calcium polyacetylide, calcium polyacenide and calcium graphenide under high pressure. In this work, the phase transitions of CaC2 under external pressure were systematically investigated, and the amorphous phase was studied in detail for the first time. Polycarbide anions like C66- are identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and several other techniques, which evidences the pressure induced polymerization of the acetylide anions and suggests the existence of the polyacenide fragment. Additionally, the process of polymerization is accompanied with a 107 fold enhancement of the electrical conductivity. The polymerization of acetylide anions demonstrates that high pressure compression is a viable route to synthesize novel metal polycarbides and materials with extended carbon networks, while shedding light on the synthesis of more complicated metal organics.

  6. PERBAIKAN VISKOSITAS ALGINAT DARI Sargassum filipendula DAN Turbinaria decurens MENGGUNAKAN CaC03 DAN LOCUST BEAN GUM (LBG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subaryono Subaryono

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian untuk meningkatkan viskositas alginat dari Sargassum filipendula dan Turbinaria decurens telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan bahanbakurumput laut dari Perairan Binuangeun, Provinsi Banten. Peningkatan viskositas alginat dari kedua jenis rurnput laut yang umurnnya rendah, dilakukan dengan pembentukan ikatan silang menggunakan ion Ca² sebagai jembatan penghubung dan interaksinya dengan locust bean gum (LBG. Pembentukan ikatan silang antar molekul alginat dilakukan dengan penambahan CaC03 sebagai sumber ion Ca². Konsentrasi CaCO3 yang digunakan divariasi 2,5; 3,5; dan 4,5; mM. Sebagai pembanding digunakan alginat kontrol tanpa penambahan CaCO3. Penarnbahan LBG dilakukan pada konsentrasi CaCO3 terpilih yaitu 3,5 mM. Penambahan LBG divariasi 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, dan 50 g/100 g alginat. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan tiga kali ulangan. Data dianalisis dengan uji sidik ragam dan jika berbeda nyata dilanjutkan dengan uji beda nyata terkecil (BNT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penarnbahan CaC03 berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap peningkatan viskositas alginat. Viskositas alginat dari S. filipendula dan T decurens meningkat masing-masing dari 108 cP menjadi 274 cP dan 72 cP menjadi 111 cP pada penambahan CaCO3 3,5 mM. Locust bean gum (LBG mempunyai efek sinergis dalarn meningkatkan viskositas alginat. Viskositas alginat dari S. filipendula dan T decurens meningkat masing-masing menjadi 556 cP dan 238 cP pada penambahan LBG 30 g/100 g alginat. Penambahan CaCO3 dan LBG tidak hanya meningkatkan viskositas alginat tetapi juga meningkatkan stabilitas viskositas alginat terhadap pengaruh panas.

  7. An indoxyl compound 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, suppresses activation of Fyn kinase in mast cells and IgE-mediated allergic responses in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Ho [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyung [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, A-Ram [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do-Kyun [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Young Hwan; Her, Erk; Park, Yeong Min [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mi [College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women' s University, Seoul 132-714 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wahn Soo, E-mail: wahnchoi@kku.ac.kr [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Mast cells, constituents of virtually all organs and tissues, are critical cells in IgE-mediated allergic responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of an indoxyl chromogenic compound, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, on IgE-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in mice. CAC-0982 reversibly suppressed antigen-stimulated degranulation in murine mast cells (IC{sub 50}, ~ 3.8 μM) and human mast cells (IC{sub 50}, ~ 3.0 μM). CAC-0982 also inhibited the expression and secretion of IL-4 and TNF-α in mast cells. Furthermore, CAC-0982 suppressed the mast cell-mediated allergic responses in mice in a dose-dependent manner (ED{sub 50} 27.9 mg/kg). As for the mechanism, CAC-0982 largely suppressed the phosphorylation of Syk and its downstream signaling molecules, including LAT, Akt, Erk1/2, p38, and JNK. Notably, the tyrosine kinase assay of antigen-stimulated mast cells showed that CAC-0982 inhibited Fyn kinase, one of the upstream tyrosine kinases for Syk activation in mast cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CAC-0982 may be used as a new treatment for regulating IgE-mediated allergic diseases through the inhibition of the Fyn/Syk pathway in mast cells. - Highlights: • The anti-allergic effect of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, was measured. • CAC-0982 reversibly suppressed the activation of mast cells by IgE and antigen. • CAC-0982 inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. • CAC-0982 suppresses mast cells through inhibition of Fyn activation in mast cells.

  8. The influence hydrogen atom addition has on charge switching during motion of the metal atom in endohedral Ca@C60H4 isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, G.; Besley, E.; Stace, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory has been applied in a study of charge transfer between an endohedral calcium atom and the fullerene cage in Ca@C60H4 and [Ca@C60H4]+ isomers. Previous calculations on Ca@C60 have shown that the motion of calcium within a fullerene is accompanied by large changes in electron density on the carbon cage. Based on this observation, it has been proposed that a tethered endohedral fullerene might form the bases of a nanoswitch. Through the addition of hydrogen atoms to one hemisphere of the cage it is shown that, when compared with Ca@C60, asymmetric and significantly reduced energy barriers can be generated with respect to motion of the calcium atom. It is proposed that hydrogen atom addition to a fullerene might offer a route for creating a bi-stable nanoswitch that can be fine-tuned through the selection of an appropriate isomer and number of atoms attached to the cage of an endohedral fullerene. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Fullerenes: past, present and future, celebrating the 30th anniversary of Buckminster Fullerene’. PMID:27501967

  9. Methylation-assisted bisulfite sequencing to simultaneously map 5fC and 5caC on a genome-wide scale for DNA demethylation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Francesco; Incarnato, Danny; Krepelova, Anna; Parlato, Caterina; Oliviero, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    Active DNA demethylation is mediated by ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins that progressively oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). We have developed a methylation-assisted bisulfite sequencing (MAB-seq) method that enables direct genome-scale mapping and quantification of 5fC and 5caC marks together at single-base resolution. In bisulfite sequencing (BS), unmethylated cytosine residues (Cs), 5fCs and 5caCs, are converted to uracil and cannot be discriminated from each other. The pretreatment of the DNA with the CpG methylation enzyme M.SssI, which converts only the Cs to 5mCs, protects Cs but not 5fCs and 5caCs, which enables direct detection of 5fCs and 5caCs as uracils. Here we also describe an adapted version of the protocol to perform reduced-representation MAB-seq (RRMAB-seq) that provides increased coverage on CpG-rich regions, thus reducing the execution costs and increasing the feasibility of the technique. The main advantage of MAB-seq is to reduce the number of chemical/enzymatic DNA treatments required before bisulfite treatment and to avoid the need for prohibitive sequencing coverage, thus making it more reliable and affordable than subtractive approaches. The method presented here is the ideal tool for studying DNA demethylation dynamics in any biological system. Overall timing is ∼3 d for library preparation.

  10. Noncoronary Measures Enhance the Predictive Value of Cardiac CT Above Traditional Risk Factors and CAC Score in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabadi, Amir A; Lehmann, Nils; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Pundt, Noreen; Dykun, Iryna; Roggenbuck, Ulla; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Kälsch, Hagen

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether noncoronary measures from cardiac computed tomography (CT) may enhance the prognostic value of this imaging technology. When cardiac CT is performed for quantification of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, information on other cardiac and thoracic structures is available. Participants without known cardiovascular disease from the prospective population based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study underwent noncontrast cardiac CT for CAC score quantification. From CT, epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume, left ventricular and left atrial (LA) axial area index, ascending and descending aortic diameters, as well as aortic valve, mitral ring, and thoracic aortic calcification (TAC) were assessed. Incident cardiovascular events included myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. The prognostic value of CT-derived parameters was assessed by Cox regression analysis, receiver operating characteristics, and net reclassification improvement. From 3,630 subjects (59 ± 8 years of age, 46% male), 241 (6.6%) developed a cardiovascular event during 9.9 ± 2.6 years of follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression analysis including Framingham Risk Score, CAC (as log[CAC + 1]), and CT parameters, LA index (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.22 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.41] per SD; p = 0.010) and EAT volume (HR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01 to 1.30] per SD; p = 0.031) were significantly associated with incident events. In addition, presence of TAC showed an elevated event rate (HR: 1.33 [95% CI: 0.97 to 1.81]; p = 0.08), whereas all other CT-derived parameters showed no relevant association. The LA index, EAT volume, and presence of TAC together improved the prediction of events over Framingham Risk Score and CAC in receiver operating characteristics analysis (area under the curve: 0.749 to 0.764; p = 0.011), and let to a significant net reclassification improvement (HR: 38.0%; 95% CI: 25.1% to 50.8%). Assessment of LA index, EAT

  11. Anisotropic electron-phonon coupling and dynamical nesting on the graphene sheets in superconducting CaC6 using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, T; Camacho, J; Pan, Z-H; Fedorov, A V; Walters, A C; Howard, C A; Ellerby, M

    2009-03-13

    We present the first angle-resolved photoemission studies of electronic structure in CaC6, a superconducting graphite intercalation compound with T_{c}=11.6 K. We find that, contrary to theoretical models, the electron-phonon coupling on the graphene-derived Fermi sheets with high-frequency graphene-derived phonons is surprisingly strong and anisotropic. The shape of the Fermi surface is found to favor a dynamical intervalley nesting via exchange of high-frequency phonons. Our results suggest that graphene sheets play a crucial role in superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds.

  12. OPTIMIZACIÓN DE REDES 3G UTILIZANDO ALGORITMOS CONTROL DE ADMISIÓN DE LLAMADA (CAC Y REORGANIZACIÓN DE CARGA (LDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Fernando Romo Cabrera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el comportamiento de los algoritmos control de admisión de llamada CAC y reorganización de la carga LDR. Se  analizan dos escenarios donde son utilizados para mejorar el rendimiento de la red 3G. En el primero de ellos se presenta un caso de congestión de potencia en el uplink y en el segundo se analiza el nivel de congestión de elementos de canal CE en el uplink.

  13. Genetic profiling reveals cross-contamination and misidentification of 6 adenoid cystic carcinoma cell lines: ACC2, ACC3, ACCM, ACCNS, ACCS and CAC2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janyaporn Phuchareon

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands. Most patients survive more than 5 years after surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. The 10 year survival rate, however, drops to 40%, due to locoregional recurrences and distant metastases. Improving long-term survival in ACC requires the development of more effective systemic therapies based on a better understanding of the biologic behavior of ACC. Much preclinical research in this field involves the use of cultured cells and, to date, several ACC cell lines have been established. Authentication of these cell lines, however, has not been reported. We performed DNA fingerprint analysis on six ACC cell lines using short tandem repeat (STR examinations and found that all six cell lines had been contaminated with other cells. ACC2, ACC3, and ACCM were determined to be cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells, whereas the ACCS cell line was composed of T24 urinary bladder cancer cells. ACCNS and CAC2 cells were contaminated with cells derived from non-human mammalian species: the cells labeled ACCNS were mouse cells and the CAC2 cells were rat cells. These observations suggest that future studies using ACC cell lines should include cell line authentication to avoid the use of contaminated or non-human cells.

  14. Validation and real-world assessment of the Functional Assessment of Anorexia-Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) scale in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Thomas W; Samsa, Greg P; Wolf, Steven P; Locke, Susan C; Cella, David F; Abernethy, Amy P

    2015-08-01

    Patients with cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) suffer a significant symptom burden, impaired quality of life (QoL), and shorter survival. Measurement of QoL impairments related to CACS is thereby important both in clinical practice and in research. We aimed to further validate the Functional Assessment of Anorexia-Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) scale in an advanced lung cancer population. We tested the performance of the FAACT and its anorexia-cachexia subscale (ACS) within a dataset of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC), using standard statistical methods. We then compared the performance of commonly used QoL measures stratified by CACS status and by patient self-report of appetite and weight loss. The FAACT and its ACS demonstrate internal validity consistent with acceptable published ranges for other QoL scales (Cronbach alpha = 0.9 and 0.79, respectively). Correlation coefficients demonstrate moderate correlations in the expected directions between FAACT and ACS and scales that measure related constructs. Comparing patients with and without CACS, the ACS is more sensitive to change than other QoL instruments (mean score 33.1 vs. 37.2, p = 0.011, ES = 0.58). In patients with aNSCLC, the FAACT and its ACS performed well compared with other instruments, further supporting their validity and value in clinical research. FAACT and ACS scores covaried with symptoms and other QoL changes that are typical hallmarks of CACS, lending further support to their use as QoL endpoints in clinical trials among patients with CACS.

  15. Value of CACS compared with ETT and myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting long-term cardiac outcome in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients at low risk for coronary disease: clinical implications in a multimodality imaging world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su Min; Nabi, Faisal; Xu, Jiaqiong; Pratt, Craig M; Mahmarian, Angela C; Frias, Maria E; Mahmarian, John J

    2015-02-01

    This prospective, observational study in 988 asymptomatic or symptomatic low-risk patients without prior coronary artery disease was conducted to define the relative value of coronary artery calcium score (CACS), exercise treadmill testing (ETT), and stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) variables in predicting long-term risk stratification. CACS, ETT, and stress myocardial perfusion SPECT results predict patients' outcome. There are currently no data comparing their relative value in long-term risk stratification. Patients were stratified by Framingham risk score (FRS), with a median follow-up of 6.9 years. Cardiac events were defined as a composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and the need for coronary revascularization. Most patients (87%) were considered appropriate candidates for functional testing as defined by current appropriate use criteria. The long-term cardiac event rate was 11.2% (1.6% per year). Multivariate risk predictors in all patients and in the appropriate use cohort were abnormal SPECT (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.83 and 1.99), ETT ischemia (HR: 1.70 and 1.76), decreasing exercise capacity (HR: 1.11 and 1.17), decreasing Duke treadmill score (HR: 1.07 for both), and CACS severity (HR: 1.29 for both), respectively. Throughout the 10-year follow-up, CACS improved risk prediction, with event rates ranging from 0.6% per year (CACS ≤10) to 3.7% per year (CACS >400) (p risk prediction in all patients, in the appropriate use cohort and among those with low-risk ETT and SPECT results (all, p risk stratification beyond FRS, ETT, and SPECT results across the spectrum of clinical risk and importantly even among those who are currently considered appropriate candidates for functional testing or have low-risk functional test results. Our findings support CACS as a first-line test over ETT or SPECT for accurately assessing long-term risk in such patients. Copyright © 2015 American College of

  16. Fresh cut yellow melon (CAC submitted to different type cuts and concentrations of calcion chloride stored under modified passive atmosphereMelão amarelo (CAC minimamente processado submetido a diferentes cortes e concentrações de cloreto de cálcio armazenado em atmosfera modificada passiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lopes Vieites

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of yellow melon inodorus Valenciano Amarelo (CAC fresh cut submitted to two cut types and with application postharvest of calcium chloride. After preparation cubes and slices melon were immersed in solution with different calcium chloride (CaCl2 concentrations for two minutes, afterwards they were conditioned in trays of expanded polystyrene (EPS, covered by plastic film of low density polyethylene (PEBD, stored in cold camera to 5°C ±1 and analyzed for 8 days. They were evaluated pH, firmness, tritable acidity (AT, soluble solids (SS sugar reducer and ratio. The pH values varied from 5.27 to 5.68. The sugars reducers content and the ratio were superior in the slices compared to the cubes. The melon slices maintained larger firmness values compared to the cubes and in general there was reduction in the values of this parameter along the storage period for all treatments. Concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5% of CaCl2, result in larger values of firmness. The storage temperature and modified passive atmosphere they contributed to quality maintenance of MP melon. Concentrations of up to 1.0% of CaCl2 they could be recommended to maintain the melon quality MP melon yellow inodorus (CAC.Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade de melão amarelo inodorus (cultivar Valenciano Amarelo CAC minimamente processado (MP submetido a dois tipos de corte e com aplicação pós-colheita de cloreto de cálcio. Após preparo cubos e fatias de melão foram imersos em solução com diferentes concentrações de cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2 por dois minutos, sendo em seguida acondicionados em bandejas de poliestireno expandido (EPS, revestidas por filme plástico de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, armazenados em câmara fria a 5°C ±1 e analisadas durante 8 dias. Foram avaliados pH, firmeza, acidez titulável (AT, sólidos solúveis (SS, açúcar redutor e ratio. Os valores de pH variaram de 5,27 a 5,68. O teor

  17. Monte Carlo analysis of the oxygen knock-on effects induced by synchrotron x-ray radiation in the B i2S r2CaC u2O8 +δ superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsello, Daniele; Mino, Lorenzo; Bonino, Valentina; Agostino, Angelo; Operti, Lorenza; Borfecchia, Elisa; Vittone, Ettore; Lamberti, Carlo; Truccato, Marco

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the microscopic mechanism responsible for the change of macroscopic electrical properties of the B i2S r2CaC u2O8 +δ high-temperature superconductor induced by intense synchrotron hard x-ray beams. The possible effects of secondary electrons on the oxygen content via the knock-on interaction are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The change in the oxygen content expected from the knock-on model is computed convoluting the fluence of photogenerated electrons in the material with the Seitz-Koehler cross section. This approach has been adopted to analyze several experimental irradiation sessions with increasing x-ray fluences. A close comparison between the expected variations in oxygen content and the experimental results allows determining the irradiation regime in which the knock-on mechanism can satisfactorily explain the observed changes. Finally, we estimate the threshold displacement energy of loosely bound oxygen atoms in this material Td=0 .15-0.01+0.025eV .

  18. Health Informatics as an ABET-CAC Accreditable IS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jeffrey P.; Daigle, Roy J.; Pardue, Harold; Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Campbell, S. Matt

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds on prior work defending innovative information systems programs as ABET-accreditable. A proposal for a four-year degree program in health informatics, initiated at the authors' university to combat enrollment declines and to therefore help information systems to survive and thrive, is described. The program proposal is then…

  19. The celiac axis compression syndrome (CACS: critical review in the laparoscopic era Síndrome de compresión del tronco celiaco: Revisión crítica en la era de la cirugía laparoscópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cienfuegos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The celiac axis compression syndrome (CACS due to median arcuate ligament (MAL was first described by Harjola in 1963; originating postpandrial abdominal pain, weight loss, epigastric bruit and celiac axis stenosis > 75% in angiographic studies. This clinical condition has been the origin of controversies about its pathogenesis, diagnosis and its long term clinical results. Advances in diagnostic imaging as 64 multidetector-row CT (MDCT, 3-D reconstruction, magnetic resonance (MR and color duplex ultrasonography, provide better understanding of the syndrome and allow to identify the best candidates for surgical division of MAL fibers. Since the introduction of laparoscopic approach, and also endovascular procedures, in 2000, a new perspective has established in this challenging syndrome. With the occasion of our own experience, a critical review of the syndrome is presented.El síndrome de compresión del tronco celiaco fue descrito por Harjola en 1963 como la compresión extrínseca del tronco celiaco por las fibras tendinosas del ligamento arcuato; causando un cuadro de dolor intenso post-pandrial en epigastrio, pérdida de peso, soplo epigástrico y estenosis mayor del 75% en la angiografía selectiva. Desde entonces, dicho síndrome ha sido motivo de múltiples controversias relacionadas con su patogenia y la variabilidad de los resultados obtenidos con la cirugía. Debido a la proliferación y accesibilidad de técnicas de imagen más precisas y menos invasivas (angio-TAC multicorte, angio-RMN, eco-doppler, el diagnóstico de dicho síndrome puede realizarse con mayor precisión y sentar las bases de la indicación quirúrgica con mayor seguridad y eficacia. La introducción, en el año 2000, de técnicas laparoscópicas en la liberación del tronco celiaco, junto con procedimientos endovasculares complementarios, ha representado un notable avance en el tratamiento del síndrome. Basados en nuestra experiencia personal, presentamos una

  20. Drill bit seismic, vertical seismic profiling, and seismic depth imaging to aid drilling decisions in the Tho Tinh structure, Nam Con Son basin, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, W.; Hayashida, N.; Kusaka, H.; Leaney, W.; Nakanishi, S.

    1996-10-01

    This paper reviews the problem of overpressure, a common reason for acquiring look-ahead VSPs, and the seismic trace inversion problem, a fundamental issue in look-ahead prediction. The essential components of intermediate VSPs were examined from acquisition through processing to inversion, and recently acquired real data were provided, which were indicative of the advances being made toward developing an exclusive high resolution VSP service. A simple interpretation method and an end product of predicted mud weight versus depth were also presented, which were obtained from the inverted acoustic impedance and empirical relations. Of paramount importance in predicting the depth to a target was the velocity function used below the intermediate TD. The use of empirical or assumed density functions was an obvious weak link in the procedure. The advent of real-time time-depth measurements from drill bit seismic allowed a continuously updated predicted target depth below the present bit depth. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Um século de caça comercial na Amazônia

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, André Pinassi

    2015-01-01

    A Amazônia é uma das últimas fronteiras aonde ainda são possíveis a conservação e o uso sustentável da fauna silvestre. Nosso conhecimento sobre os fatores que determinam a resiliência das espécies cinegéticas à caça advém principalmente de estudos pontuais, seja no espaço, como no tempo. Utilizando de um vasto acervo documental inédito sobre o comércio de peles na Amazônia centro-ocidental brasileira, realizamos o primeiro estudo cobrindo ampla escala temporal e regional, e el...

  2. [Use of a synthetic oligonucleotide (CAC)5 in the genomic "dactyloscopy" method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korokhov, N P; Popovskiĭ, A V; Sharonova, D A; Novoselov, V P

    1993-01-01

    Potentialities of a chemically synthetized oligonucleotide of a certain structure in the genomic "dactyloscopy" method were under study. A random sample analysis has demonstrated a high resolving power of this variant of the method. Arguments in favor of introducing this approach in practical forensic medical direct identification of biologic material are presented.

  3. SVM-Based CAC System for B-Mode Kidney Ultrasound Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subramanya, M B; Kumar, Vinod; Mukherjee, Shaktidev; Saini, Manju

    2015-01-01

    .... normal, medical renal disease (MRD) and cyst using B-mode ultrasound images. Thirty-five B-mode kidney ultrasound images consisting of 11 normal images, 8 MRD images and 16 cyst images have been used...

  4. NOAA/NMC/CAC Arctic and Antarctic Monthly Sea Ice Extent, 1973-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea ice extent from January 1973 through August 1990 was digitized from weekly operational sea ice charts produced by the Navy/NOAA Joint Ice Center. Charts were...

  5. Energy analysis handbook. CAC document 214. [Combining process analysis with input-output analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, C. W.; Penner, P. S.; Pilati, D. A.

    1976-10-01

    Methods are presented for calculating the energy required, directly and indirectly, to produce all types of goods and services. Procedures for combining process analysis with input-output analysis are described. This enables the analyst to focus data acquisition cost-effectively, and to achieve a specified degree of accuracy in the results. The report presents sample calculations and provides the tables and charts needed to perform most energy cost calculations, including the cost of systems for producing or conserving energy.

  6. Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reviewer

    volume, pulp weight, peel weight, juice weight and fruit skin color were significantly affected by the calcium carbide treatment while number of new flushes per branch, number of .... MSTAT- C. Analysis of variance techniques were employed to test the overall significance of the data, while the least significant difference.

  7. Cyber Forensics and Security as an ABET-CAC Accreditable Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David F.; Kohun, Frederick G.; Ali, Azad; Paullet, Karen; Davis, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper frames the recent ABET accreditation model with respect to the balance between IS programs and innovation. With the current relaxation of the content of the information systems requirement by ABET, it is possible to include innovation into the accreditation umbrella. To this extent this paper provides a curricular model that provides…

  8. Kernels para la clasificacíon de preguntas en español y catalán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Vicedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo presenta una aproximacíon a la clasificación automática de preguntas en español y catalán. El sistema de clasificación está basado en el algoritmo SVM y en el uso de diferentes funciones kernel, empleando únicamente características textuales superficiales que permiten la obtencíon de un sistema fácilmente adaptable a diferentes idiomas. Se ha realizado un estudio sobre el correcto a juste de parámetros de los kernels, la precisíon de los mismos, la definicíon de distintos vectores de características de aprendizaje y el rendimiento en función del idioma de trabajo. Adicionalmente, se ha experimentado con el algoritmo LIBLINEAR, aplicado aquí por vez primera a la tarea de clasificación de preguntas. Con este algoritmo, así como con los kernels definidos, se han obtenido valores de precisión por encima del 80 % para los dos idiomas tratados, superando a otros algoritmos tradicionales de clasificación. Para el entrenamiento y evaluación del sistema se ha desarrollado un corpus paralelo de 2.393 preguntas en inglés, español y catalán.

  9. Kernels para la clasificacíon de preguntas en español y catalán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tomás

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una aproximacíon a la clasificación automática de preguntas en español y catalán. El sistema de clasificación está basado en el algoritmo SVM y en el uso de diferentes funciones kernel, empleando únicamente características textuales superficiales que permiten la obtencíon de un sistema fácilmente adaptable a diferentes idiomas. Se ha realizado un estudio sobre el correcto a juste de parámetros de los kernels, la precisíon de los mismos, la definicíon de distintos vectores de características de aprendizaje y el rendimiento en función del idioma de trabajo. Adicionalmente, se ha experimentado con el algoritmo LIBLINEAR, aplicado aquí por vez primera a la tarea de clasificación de preguntas. Con este algoritmo, así como con los kernels definidos, se han obtenido valores de precisión por encima del 80 % para los dos idiomas tratados, superando a otros algoritmos tradicionales de clasificación. Para el entrenamiento y evaluación del sistema se ha desarrollado un corpus paralelo de 2.393 preguntas en inglés, español y catalán.

  10. Quyen Duoc Gan Bo. Mot bai giang ve tam quan trong cua khai niem ‘huong’ trong Phap luat So sanh ve Xu huong Tinh duc [The right to relate. On the importance of "orientation" in comparative sexual orientation law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.

    2013-01-01

    The right to establish and develop relationships with other human beings was first articulated - as an aspect of the right to respect for private life - by the European Commission of Human Rights in 1976. Since then such a right has been recognized in similar words by national and international

  11. A new type of thrombin inhibitor, noncytotoxic phospholipase A2, from the Naja haje cobra venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Alexey V; Filkin, Sergey Yu; Makarova, Yana V; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2010-01-01

    Thrombin is a key enzyme in the blood coagulation cascade and is also involved in carcinogenesis; therefore, its inhibitors are of fundamental and clinical importance. Snake venoms are widely used as sources of proteins that affect blood coagulation. We have isolated a new protein, called TI-Nh, from the Naja haje cobra venom. TI-Nh is a mixed-type inhibitor of thrombin (K(i) of 72.8 nM for a synthetic peptide substrate) and effectively inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) value of 0.2 nM. At concentrations up to approximately 50 nM, at which the thrombin-clotting time is substantially prolonged, TI-Nh exerts no detectable effects on both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. It does not hydrolyze either fibrinogen or thrombin. Although TI-Nh bears structural features typical of group IB phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s), it possesses relatively weak enzymatic activity and is nontoxic to PC12 cells at concentrations up to 15 microM. Nevertheless, TI-Nh evokes neurite outgrowth in these cells at a concentration of approximately 1 microM, similar to cytotoxic snake PLA(2)s with strong enzymatic activity. TI-Nh is the first thrombin inhibitor found in the venom of the Elapidae snake family, and it is the first phospholipase shown to inhibit thrombin. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spécificités cognitives des conseils d’administration et performance des entreprises : Etude empirique sur les entreprises du CAC 40.

    OpenAIRE

    Houda Ghaya; Gilles Lambert

    2010-01-01

    L’approche contractuelle de la gouvernance a largement été le support des études menées sur le conseil d’administration (CA). Les résultats de ces recherches sont en général contradictoires et peu concluants. Malgré son apport pour expliquer les limites de l’approche dominante, peu d’études ont été réalisées pour analyser l’efficacité du CA par l’approche cognitive. L’objectif de notre étude est d’analyser l’impact des spécificités cognitives des CA des grandes entreprises françaises sur la p...

  13. Public Perception of CCS Technology. The Effects of Information on Attitude; Percepcion Publica de la Tecnologia de CAC. El Efecto de la Informacion en la Actitud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Marin, R.; Sala, R.

    2011-11-10

    This report examines the public perception of Carbon Capture and Storage technology and the impacts of information on perception. We analyze, from an electronic questionnaire with technical and contextual information, dimensions such as the initial reaction to the technology, the acceptance of CO{sub 2} storage, the perception of risk of storage and the degree of antagonism toward the organizations involved. The determinants of attitudes and reactions to CCS are also analyzed. A favorable initial reaction to CCS is found after some information and contextualization of CCS as well as significant risk perception. The type of information transmitted appears to influence the attitude of participants to the technology. The broader positive impact on attitude occurs when transmitting the idea of CO{sub 2} as a natural resource. (Author) 4 refs.

  14. Commutated inversor at low frequency for application of fuel cells in distributed generation; Inversor comutado em baixa frequencia para aplicacao de CaCs na geracao distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Geomar Machado; Pomilio, Jose Antenor; Vendrusculo, Edson A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao], e-mail: antenor@dsce.fee.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The connection of Fuel Cell Power Plants with the utility grid generally needs an electronic power converter for processing the locally generated power and injecting current into the system. Since the source provides a DC voltage, the converter must be able to produce a low-distortion, high-power factor AC current. This paper presents the results obtained with use of a three-phase and a single-phase inverter using low-frequency commutation. An auxiliary circuit is added to the inverter topologies in order to reduce the output voltage distortion, thus improving the current waveform. The main advantages of this approach are the minimization of the switching losses (i.e. high efficiency) and the elimination of the EMI (which avoids high-frequency filters necessary in high-frequency commutation inverters). (author)

  15. Minimalist hybrid ligand/receptor-based pharmacophore model for CXCR4 applied to a small-library of marine natural products led to the identification of phidianidine a as a new CXCR4 ligand exhibiting antagonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Rosa Maria; Gatti, Monica; Carbone, Marianna; Barbieri, Federica; Felicità, Vera; Gavagnin, Margherita; Florio, Tullio; Amodeo, Pietro

    2013-12-20

    Here, we present a minimal hybrid ligand/receptor-based pharmacophore model (PM) for CXCR4, a chemokine receptor deeply involved in several pathologies, such as HIV infection, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer development/progression, and metastasization. This model, considerably simpler than those thus far proposed for this receptor, has been used to search for new CXCR4 inhibitors in a small marine natural product library available at ICB-CNR Institute (Pozzuoli, NA, Italy), since natural products, with their naturally selected chemical and functional diversity, represent a rich source of bioactive scaffolds; computational approaches allow searching for new scaffolds with a minimal waste of possibly precious natural product samples; and our "stripped-down" model substantially increases the probabilities of identifying potential hits even in small-sized libraries. This search, also validated by a systematic virtual screening of the same library, has led to the identification of a new CXCR4 ligand, phidianidine A (PHIA). Docking studies supported PHIA activity and suggested its possible binding modes to CXCR4. Using the CXCR4-expressing/CXCR7-negative GH4C1 cell line we show that PHIA inhibits CXCL12-induced DNA synthesis, cell migration, and ERK1/2 activation. The specificity of these effects was confirmed by the lack of PHIA activity in GH4C1 cells, in which siRNA highly reduces CXCR4 expression and the lack of cytoxicity of PHIA was also verified. Thus, PHIA represents a promising lead for a new family of CXCR4 modulators with wide margins of improvement in potency and specificity offered by the small and very simple underlying PM.

  16. Experts Perception on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Spain; La Percepcion de la Captura y Almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} (CAC) por Parte de los Expertos Espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Oltra, C.

    2010-12-24

    This report presents the results from a survey on experts attitudes towards the development of CCS in Spain. This is the fi rst study carried out in Spain trying to report an empirical analysis of stake holders perception on the risks, challenges and barriers facing CCS deployment. Results show a positive attitude towards CCS implementation in Spain. Experts are concerned about the existence of suitable storage sites in Spain, safety of storage and costs from capture. They tend to support of CCS as a bridging solution to climate change and have a general low level of perceived risk from CCS. Experts risk perception is influenced, to some extent, by prior values and beliefs as well as by socio demographics and, to a lesser extent, by group membership. (Author) 15 refs.

  17. Monitoring Protein Conformation Changes as an Activating Step for Protein Interactions with Cross-linking/MS Analysis. / Chen, Zhuo; Rasmussen, Morten; Tahir, Salman; Clark, C.A.C; Barlow, Paul; Rappsilber, Juri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    -linked peptides have been enriched with SCX-StageTips. High resolution MS/MS spectra were acquired on an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer coupled online to a nanoHPLC. Singly and doubly charged ions were rejected for fragmentation. Peak lists were generated with MaxQuant. The database searches for cross......, the cross-link data and the crystal structure can be harmonized. We suggest that cross-linking can capture aspects of protein dynamics in solution that are not observable in static crystal structures....

  18. Estudos sôbre óleos do fígado de cacão Desmobrânquios da família Sphyrnidae, Mir. Rib., gêneros Carcharias, Raf., Galeocerdo, Ranz., e Odontaspis, Shau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto T. Cardoso

    1943-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. The author suggests a tecnique for the determination of vitamin A on shark liver oils in industrial plants. The advantages of using oly four ml. of reagent and of permitting a quickly rigorous reading by photoeletric cell, contribute to the possibility of the examination of a great number of samples daily; 2. It is described a survey on the vitamin A content of oils from shark livers, which has been made at the Finishing School Darcy Vargas, Marammaia Is., Rio de Janeiro State. The conclusions are the following: a Male individuals have showed generally tendency for higher vitamin A pontency oils; b The size of the fish does not interfere in the vitamin content of the oil (graphic 4; c The data collected upon 3.085 individuals led to the conclusion that some species are richer in the reservated vitamin although it was possible to catch in the same specie fishes with widely variable potency in vitamin A. One fish belonging to the specie C. lamia produced the highest vitamin potency oil with 167.712 international units per gram; d The fishing season appears to have no influence on the oils; e The adventitous food seems to be the most important factor affecting the content of vitamin A of the shark-liver oils; 3. The presence and the quantity of vitamin D in those oils was investigated and two of the determinations are presented.

  19. L’ANALYSE DU DISCOURS DE LA RESPONSABILITE SOCIALE DE L’ENTREPRISE A TRAVERS LES RAPPORTS ANNUELS DE DEVELOPPEMENT DURABLE D’ ENTREPRISES FRANÇAISES DU CAC 40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques IGALENS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sous la pression des parties prenantes, le nombre de rapports dedéveloppement durable ne cesse d'augmenter. Jusqu'ici les méthodesd'analyse des informations qu'ils contiennent sont essentiellementcomptables. L'enjeu de ces rapports va au-delà des indicateurs chiffrésfournis par exemple par la GRI, Global Reporting Initiative. Il s'agit pour uneentreprise de légitimer son action et les conséquences de son action dansles domaines sociaux, environnementaux et societaux. La place tenue par lediscours dans ces rapports est essentielle et la méthode proposée dans cetarticle est ainsi celle de "l'analyse des discours" notamment en s'appuyantsur les caractéristiques de l'énonciation et sur celles des procédésrhétoriques. Ainsi apparaît que les entreprises ne se contentent pas de "faireun rapport" mais qu'elles essaient de construire un monde, un monde danslequel elles se présentent en héros positif, un monde dont elles définissentles règles.

  20. Press Coverage of CCS: A New Technology in the Media; Analisis de la Cobertura de la Tecnologia de Captura y Almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} (CAC) en la Prensa Escrita: Una Nueva Tecnologia en los Medios de Comunicacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Oltra, C.; Sala, R.; Di Masso, M.

    2009-12-19

    Public knowledge of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is very low among the Spanish population. Only 17% of the Spanish said to have heard about CCS. There is also an important percentage of the population who is not sure about the use of CCS as a mitigation option for climate change. In that sense, the media could play an important role in the formation of public attitudes of CCS. The objective of the present work is to identify the picture of CCS transmitted in the Spanish press from January 2005 to July 2008. We carried out a quantitative analysis of a total of 139 press articles, considering different dimensions as the general attitude to CCS, the actors mentioned and their attitude, benefits and risks related to CCS, or the link with climate change. Data show a significant increase of CCS coverage in the Spanish press from 2007. The CCS technology is framed in the climate change context, as a possible solution to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The general attitude transmitted is positive: the benefits of the technology are emphasized versus the risks. Nevertheless, data show an important polarization in the attitudes through CCS between environmental NGOs (against it) and all the other actors (in favour). (Author) 5 refs.

  1. Assessing decentralised policy implementation in Vietnam : The case of land recovery and resettlement in the Vung Ang Economic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Wit (Joop); L. Viet Sang (Luong); L. Van Chien (Le); L. Thu Hien (Luong); H. Viet Hung (Ha); D. Thi Anh Tuyet (Dang); D. Ngoc Bau (Dao); Q. Hoa (Quang); M. Thi Thanh Tam (Mai)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFrom 2006 plans were implemented to create a deep-sea water port linked to an Economic Zone in the coastal Province of Ha Tinh, located in north central Vietnam. The multi-purpose Zone entitled ‘Vung Ang’, was to attract foreign investors, while the port would provide a link to nearby

  2. Evaluation of potato hash silage from two bacterial inoculants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNkosi

    drums were therefore closed with a rubber lid to prevent damages to the bags by rodents. After three months of ensiling, samples were collected and analysed for .... (Manihot esculanta) meal on egg production characteristics of laying hens. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 33,. 69-72. Peters, D., Tinh, T.T., Hoan, M.T., Yen, N.T., Thach, ...

  3. Shoot regeneration and micropropagation of Panax vietnamensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-26

    Dec 26, 2011 ... Tay Nguyen Institute of Biology, 116 Xo Viet Nghe Tinh, Dalat, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Accepted 23 November, 2011. The methods for leaf-derived callus induction, callus proliferation, adventitious shoot induction and plant regeneration of Vietnamese ginseng (Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv.) ...

  4. Prediction of coronary artery calcium progression by FDG uptake of large arteries in asymptomatic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Park, Ki Seong; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gwang-ju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sae-Ryung; Kwon, Seong Young; Jabin, Zeenat; Kim, Young Jae; Jeong, Geum-Cheol; Song, Minchul; Min, Jung-Joon; Bom, Hee-Seung [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of); Seon, Hyun Ju [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of the large arteries can predict coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression in asymptomatic individuals. Ninety-six asymptomatic individuals who underwent FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and CAC scoring on the same day for health screening and follow-up CAC scoring ≥1 year after baseline studies (mean 4.3 years) were included. Vascular FDG uptake was measured and corrected for blood pool activity to obtain peak and average target-to-blood pool ratios (TBRpeak and TBRavg, respectively) for the carotid arteries, and ascending and abdominal aorta. CAC scores at baseline and follow-up of each individual were measured and absolute CAC change (ΔCAC), annual CAC change (ΔCAC/year), and annual CAC change rate (ΔCAC%/year) were calculated. CAC progression was defined as ΔCAC >0 for individuals with negative baseline CAC; ΔCAC/year ≥10 for those with baseline CAC of 0CAC%/year ≥10 % for those with baseline CAC ≥100. Vascular FDG uptake and other clinical risk factors were compared between CAC-progressors and non-CAC-progressors. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate whether vascular FDG uptake can independently predict CAC progression. Thirty-one subjects showed CAC progression. CAC-progressors showed significantly higher TBRpeak and TBRavg as compared to non-CAC-progressors for all three arteries. TBRpeak of the abdominal aorta was significantly associated with CAC progression in multivariate analysis, with age and baseline CAC. A higher TBRpeak of the abdominal aorta (≥2.11) was associated with CAC progression among subjects with negative baseline CAC only. In subjects with positive baseline CAC, only the amount of baseline CAC was significantly associated with CAC progression. However, the positive predictive value of the TBRpeak of the abdominal aorta was <40 % when age was <58 or baseline CAC was negative. Higher FDG uptake of the large arteries is

  5. Observations on the oesophageal glands in some Tanzanian anurans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In: Handbuch der. vergJeichcnden Anatomic der Wirbe[tiere, eds, Bolk, L., Goppert,. E., Kallius, E. & Lubosch, W. Vol. IJI Urban & Schwarzenberg. Berlin and Vienna. PORTER, K.R. 1972. Herpetology. Saunders Company, Philadel- phia, London and Toronto. REEDER. W.G. 1964. The digestive system. In: Physiology or (he.

  6. Scaffold-Free Coculture Spheroids of Human Colonic Adenocarcinoma Cells and Normal Colonic Fibroblasts Promote Tumorigenicity in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-il Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to form a scaffold-free coculture spheroid model of colonic adenocarcinoma cells (CACs and normal colonic fibroblasts (NCFs and to use the spheroids to investigate the role of NCFs in the tumorigenicity of CACs in nude mice. We analysed three-dimensional (3D scaffold-free coculture spheroids of CACs and NCFs. CAC Matrigel invasion assays and tumorigenicity assays in nude mice were performed to examine the effect of NCFs on CAC invasive behaviour and tumorigenicity in 3D spheroids. We investigated the expression pattern of fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α by immunohistochemical staining. CAC monocultures did not form densely-packed 3D spheroids, whereas cocultured CACs and NCFs formed 3D spheroids. The 3D coculture spheroids seeded on a Matrigel extracellular matrix showed higher CAC invasiveness compared to CACs alone or CACs and NCFs in suspension. 3D spheroids injected into nude mice generated more and faster-growing tumors compared to CACs alone or mixed suspensions consisting of CACs and NCFs. FAP-α was expressed in NCFs-CACs cocultures and xenograft tumors, whereas monocultures of NCFs or CACs were negative for FAP-α expression. Our findings provide evidence that the interaction between CACs and NCFs is essential for the tumorigenicity of cancer cells as well as for tumor propagation.

  7. Advanced Life Analysis Methods. Volume 2. Crack Growth Analysis Methods for Attachment Lugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    series of elements located in the same radial direction were used to extrap - olate to the edge location. This procedure was used to determine the tan...1? tor cotparisosm. This simple empirical equa- tion may be used for interpolating for taper angles less than 4𔃺’ ot extrap - oa4tinh for 0Roi values...44. Atluri, S. N., and Kathiresan, K., "Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Arbitrarily ShapeI Surface Flaws in Reactor Pressure Vessel Nozzle

  8. Site Investigations with the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrator System at Fort Dix, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    34Remote In-situ Determination of Fuel Products in Soils.* Field Results and Laboratory Investigations. Anagusi, Vol. 20, 461-474. ASTM . (1991...Annual Book of AS77M standards. 04.08:439-444. Philadel- phia: ASTM . Barrows, L. and Rocchio, J. E. (1990). "Magnetic Surveying for Buried Metallic...PeO€Ii ,P Q4’ C * a > a I * I a. upso - 0 D96 Appendix D 4400 Area Motor Pool S

  9. Diabetes and male sex are key risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Wiklund, Urban

    2017-01-01

    for CAC scoring. RESULTS: Among all patients, male sex (OR = 4.85, pdyslipidemia and smoking also showing a relationship. Among patients with CAC, age, diabetes, hypertension...... and dyslipidemia were associated with an increasing CAC score in males and females, with diabetes being the strongest dichotomous risk factor (p... males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes....

  10. Prevalence of carotid artery calcifications detected on panoramic radiographs and confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography: Their relationship with systemic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Queiroz Abreu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: CACs can be detected in PRJs, and are more frequent in common carotid arteries. No significant associations were detected between the presence of unilateral or bilateral CAC in PRJ and hypertension, diabetes, or obesity.

  11. PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURE (PKI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Common Access Card (CAC)Enterprise Testing Overview:Established in 2003Performs test and evaluations of the DOD PKI CAC issuance systems from an enterprise level all...

  12. Coronary atherosclerosis evaluation among Iranian patients with zero coronary calcium score in computed tomography coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moradi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although, CAC scoring is a noninvasive and valuable method to evaluate CAD; but zero CAC score does not absolutely exclude the CAD, especially in the presence of risk factors such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking.

  13. 77 FR 2515 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-know. System software uses Primary Key Infrastructure (PKI)/Common Access Card (CAC) authentication to... Infrastructure (PKI)/Common Access Card (CAC) authentication to lock out unauthorized access. System software...

  14. 77 FR 94 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... software uses Primary Key Infrastructure (PKI)/Common Access Card (CAC) authentication to lock out... for need-to-know. System software uses Primary Key Infrastructure (PKI)/Common Access Card (CAC...

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study for Coronary Artery Calcification With Follow-Up in Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Kavousi, Maryam; Smith, Albert V.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Sun, Yan V.; Province, Michael A.; Aspelund, Thor; Dehghan, Abbas; Hoffmann, Udo; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Fox, Caroline S.; de Andrade, Mariza; Kraja, Aldi T.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Elias-Smale, Suzette E.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Launer, Lenore J.; van der Lugt, Aad; Kathiresan, Sekar; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Herrington, David M.; Howard, Timothy D.; Liu, Yongmei; Post, Wendy S.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Shen, Haiqing; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Altshuler, David; Elosua, Roberto; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David S.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Bis, Joshua C.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Heiss, Gerardo; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Wild, Philipp S.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Schillert, Arne; Ziegler, Andreas; Muenzel, Thomas; White, Charles C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Nalls, Michael; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Johnson, Andrew D.; Newman, Anne B.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Cunningham, Julie; Harris, Tamara B.; Hofman, Albert; Peyser, Patricia A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background-Coronary artery calcification (CAC) detected by computed tomography is a noninvasive measure of coronary atherosclerosis, which underlies most cases of myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to identify common genetic variants associated with CAC and further investigate their associations

  16. Long-term evaluation of asymptomatic patients operated on for intracranial epidermoid cysts. Comparison of the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and computer-assisted cisternography for detection of cholesterin fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, P; Fortuna, A; Cantore, G; Missori, P

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computer-assisted cisternography (CAc) assessment of latent late recurrences in long-term asymptomatic patients surgically treated for intracranial epidermoid cyst is here presented. MRI was exclusively utilized in one patient; CAc was exclusively employed in three patients with metalic operative clips; both CAc and MRI were employed in another four patients. CAc appears to be more reliable than MRI in detecting cholesterin fragments in asymptomatic patients operated on for intracranial epidermoid cyst.

  17. Exon: CBRC-HSAP-11-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-11-0005 ATGGCAACACCCTCCTCTAGCACACAGACCAGTGGTACTcccccatcactgaccaccacggccactacgatcacggccaccggctccacc...accaacccctcctcaactccagggacaacacctatccccccagtgctgaccaccaccgccaccacacctgcagccaccagcag...cacAGTGACTCCCTCCTCTGCCCTAGGGACCACCCACACACCCCCAGTGCCGAACACCACGGCCACCACACACGGGCGATCCCTGTCCCCCAGCAGTCCCCACACGGT...GCGCACAGCCTGGACTTCGGCCACCTCAGGCACCTTGGGCACCACCCACATCACAGAGCCTTCCACGGGGACTTCCCACACCCCAGCAGCAACCACCGGTACCA...CCCAGCACTCGACTCCAGCCCTGTCCAGCCCTCACCCTAGCAGCAGGACCACCGAGTCACCCCCTTCTCCAGGGACGACCACCCCGGGCCACACCA

  18. Use of coronary artery calcium scanning beyond coronary computed tomographic angiography in the emergency department evaluation for acute chest pain: the ROMICAT II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursnani, Amit; Chou, Eric T; Zakroysky, Pearl; Deaño, Roderick C; Mamuya, Wilfred S; Woodard, Pamela K; Nagurney, John T; Fleg, Jerome L; Lee, Hang; Schoenfeld, David; Udelson, James E; Hoffmann, Udo; Truong, Quynh A

    2015-03-01

    Whether a coronary artery calcium (CAC) scan provides added value to coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in emergency department patients with acute chest pain remains unsettled. We sought to determine the value of CAC scan in patients with acute chest pain undergoing CCTA. In the multicenter Rule Out Myocardial Infarction using Computer-Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) II trial, we enrolled low-intermediate risk emergency department patients with symptoms suggesting acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this prespecified subanalysis of 473 patients (54±8 years, 53% men) who underwent both CAC scanning and CCTA, the ACS rate was 8%. Overall, 53% of patients had CAC=0 of whom 2 (0.8%) developed ACS, whereas 7% had CAC>400 with 49% whom developed ACS. C-statistic of CAC>0 was 0.76, whereas that using the optimal cut point of CAC≥22 was 0.81. Continuous CAC score had lower discriminatory capacity than CCTA (c-statistic, 0.86 versus 0.92; P=0.03). Compared with CCTA alone, there was no benefit combining CAC score with CCTA (c-statistic, 0.93; P=0.88) or with selective CCTA strategies after initial CAC>0 or optimal cut point CAC≥22 (P≥0.09). Mean radiation dose from CAC acquisition was 1.4±0.7 mSv. Higher CAC scores resulted in more nondiagnostic CCTA studies although the majority remained interpretable. In emergency department patients with acute chest pain, CAC score does not provide incremental value beyond CCTA for ACS diagnosis. CAC=0 does not exclude ACS, nor a high CAC score preclude interpretation of CCTA in most patients. Thus, CAC results should not influence the decision to proceed with CCTA, and the decision to perform a CAC scan should be balanced with the additional radiation exposure required. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01084239. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Cloning of the human carnitine-acylcarnitine carrier cDNA and identification of the molecular defect in a patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, M.; Iacobazzi, V.; IJlst, L.; Savelkoul, P.; Ruitenbeek, W.; van den Heuvel, L.; Indiveri, C.; Smeitink, J.; Trijbels, F.; Wanders, R.; Palmieri, F.

    1997-01-01

    The carnitine-acylcarnitine carrier (CAC) catalyzes the translocation of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. We cloned and sequenced the human CAC cDNA, which has an open reading frame of 903 nucleotides. Northern blot studies revealed different expression levels of CAC

  20. Painful nerve injury decreases resting cytosolic calcium concentrations in sensory neurons of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, Andreas; Lirk, Philipp; Stucky, Cheryl; Abram, Stephen E.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2005-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is difficult to treat and poorly understood at the cellular level. Although cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca]c) critically regulates neuronal function, the effects of peripheral nerve injury on resting sensory neuronal [Ca]c are unknown. Resting [Ca]c was determined by microfluorometry in

  1. Automatic coronary calcium scoring in cardiac CT angiography using convolutional neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, Jelmer M.; Leiner, Tim; Viergever, Max A.; Isgum, I

    2015-01-01

    The amount of coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Non-contrast enhanced cardiac CT is considered a reference for quantification of CAC. Recently, it has been shown that CAC may be quantified in cardiac CT angiography (CCTA). We present

  2. How long is the warranty period for nil or low coronary artery calcium in patients new to hemodialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellasi, Antonio; Kooienga, Laura; Block, Geoffrey A; Veledar, Emir; Spiegel, David M; Raggi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is common in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease on dialysis. A sizeable proportion of patients has no or minimal CAC at the inception of dialysis, but it is unclear how long they remain free of it. For the purpose of this study, 36 incident hemodialysis patients were submitted to sequential chest computed tomography to quantify CAC at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 30 months. Among them, 15 had absent or minimal CAC score (CACS 0 to 30) and 21 had a CACS>30 at baseline. Overall, the median baseline CACS was 129 (interquartile range [IQR]=0-709) and it increased to 364 (IQR=8.3-1683) at study completion (182% increase). Among the 15 patients with minimal CACS, only 3 progressed and the median CACS increase was 20, as opposed to 15 of 21 patients with a baseline CACS>30 whose median progression was 431 (pmanagement of mineral metabolism appears to be one of the main factors that limit progression of CAC.

  3. MDSCs are involved in the protumorigenic potentials of GM-CSF in colitis-associated cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Qilin; Hou, Lin; Wang, Yalin; Liu, Ziling

    2017-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is thought to be a major driving force for the development of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). As one member of proinflammatory cytokine family, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been identified to play a key role in CAC pathogenesis recently. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated increasingly in the lesions during the progression from colitis to cancer, which was critical for CAC formation. Importantly, this MDSC accumulation was controlled by GM-CSF. MDSC number decreased significantly in GM-CSF-deficient mice suffering from CAC induction, and transfusion of MDSCs from wild-type CAC-bearing mice into GM-CSF-deficient counterparts led to recurrence of CAC. Furthermore, the supernatants of CAC lesions or GM-CSF alone was sufficient to differentiate hematopoietic precursors into MDSCs. Addition of neutralizing anti-GM-CSF antibody impaired the MDSC-differentiating effects of the supernatants of CAC lesions. Overall, these findings shed new insights into the mechanisms of GM-CSF underlying CAC development, by inducing/recruiting CAC-promoting MDSCs. Blocking GM-CSF activity or MDSC function may represent new therapeutic strategies for CAC in clinic.

  4. Integrating the wisdom and experience of indigenous farmworkers to improve farmworker safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Stephanie; de Jesus Gonzalez, Carmen; Hall, Jen; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2013-01-01

    Community advisory committees (CACs) increasingly are formed to cultivate partnerships between researchers and communities. This article details the processes used to recruit CAC members, the purpose and structure of the committees, members' motivation to participate, and examples of member input and influence. In-depth interviews, meeting notes, and partners' reflections were synthesized to identify key lessons regarding establishing and sustaining effective CACs. Findings highlight the need for partner agreement on the role of CACs, structured meeting procedures, intentional integration of CAC input into project activities, and training on sharing research information with the community. CAC members' expertise regarding indigenous culture and experiences increased the project relevance for workers and strengthened research and intervention efforts. Members also reported greater knowledge of safety, health, and workers' rights, and increased confidence to share information. This influence extends beyond the project and contributes to sustained change among CAC members and in the participating communities.

  5. Rapid and sensitive detection of Yersinia pestis using amplification of plague diagnostic bacteriophages monitored by real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V Sergueev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, has caused many millions of human deaths and still poses a serious threat to global public health. Timely and reliable detection of such a dangerous pathogen is of critical importance. Lysis by specific bacteriophages remains an essential method of Y. pestis detection and plague diagnostics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this work was to develop an alternative to conventional phage lysis tests--a rapid and highly sensitive method of indirect detection of live Y. pestis cells based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR monitoring of amplification of reporter Y. pestis-specific bacteriophages. Plague diagnostic phages phiA1122 and L-413C were shown to be highly effective diagnostic tools for the detection and identification of Y. pestis by using qPCR with primers specific for phage DNA. The template DNA extraction step that usually precedes qPCR was omitted. phiA1122-specific qPCR enabled the detection of an initial bacterial concentration of 10(3 CFU/ml (equivalent to as few as one Y. pestis cell per 1-microl sample in four hours. L-413C-mediated detection of Y. pestis was less sensitive (up to 100 bacteria per sample but more specific, and thus we propose parallel qPCR for the two phages as a rapid and reliable method of Y. pestis identification. Importantly, phiA1122 propagated in simulated clinical blood specimens containing EDTA and its titer rise was detected by both a standard plating test and qPCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, we developed a novel assay for detection and identification of Y. pestis using amplification of specific phages monitored by qPCR. The method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and specific and allows the detection of only live bacteria.

  6. Relationship between coronary artery calcification and osteopenic syndrome in men with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Raskina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the relationship between coronary artery calcification (CAC and osteopenic syndrome in men with coronary heart disease (CHD.Subjects and methods. A total of 102 men aged 51 to 75 years (mean age 61 (55; 65 years with verified CHD were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD and its T-score of LI–IV and femoral neck were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. According to the T-score, the men were divided into 3 groups: 1 33 (32.4% patients with osteoporosis (OP (T-score <-2.5; 2 48 (47.0% patients with osteopenia (OSP (T-score -1 to -2.5 and 3 21 (20.6% examinees with normal BMD (NBMD (T-score ≥-1. In all the patients, CAC was quantified by multislice spiral computed tomography. The investigators calculated CA calcium scores by the Agatston method and rated the extent of calcification: none (0, minimal (1–10, mild (11–100, moderate (101–400, or severe (>400.Results and discussion. Severe CAC was detected in 57.8% of the men; moderate CAC was in 25.5%; mild CAC was in 6.9; minimal CAC was in 2.0%; and none CAC was in 7.8%. In the OP group, the majority (69.7% of the patients had severe CAC; 15.1% had moderate CAC, 6.1% had mild CAC; 3.0% had minimal CAC; CAC was undetected in 6.1% of cases. In the OSP group, there was severe CAC in 60.4%, moderate CAC in 33.3%, mild CAC in 4.2%, and minimal CAC in 2.1%. The patients without CAC were absent in this group. In the NBMD group, 33.3% of the examinees were recorded to have severe CAC; 23.8% had moderate CAC; 14.3% had mild CAC; CAC was undetected in 28.6%. Minimal CAC was also undetected in the patients of this group. There was a preponderance of patients with severe CAC in all the groups of those identified by the T-score. The extent of CAC was significantly lower in the NBMD group than in the OSP group (p<0.05. CAC was significantly more frequently absent in the NBMD group than in the low BMD group (p<0.05. There was an inverse correlation between

  7. Proceedings of the NASTRAN (Tradename) Users’ Colloquium (10th) Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on 13-14 May 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Bisplinghoff, Mel Rosche, Doug Michel, Milton Ames, Red Rowsome, Harry Rowell, Martha Dwyer, and John Stern. 6 One thing that must be mentioned about the...EPT,MPT//C,N,-1/C,N,11/V,N,LABL-SMODES $ ALTER 74,74 READ KLL,MLL, ...EED, ,CASECC/ LAMA ,PHIL,MI,OEIGS/*MODES*/S,N,NEIGV $ UMERGE USETD,PHIL,/PHIA/V,N...SIGNC5=O/ V,N,PREC5-O $ ALTER 84,84 DIAGONAL MGG/DMGG//$ OUTPU’r2 OGPWG,OEIGS, LAMA ,PHIG,DMGG//C,N,O/C,N,11/VN,LABL $ OUTPUT2 PARTFC,GENMS1,MMASS,USET

  8. Shared Genetic Architecture in the Relationship between Adult Stature and Subclinical Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Sheedy, Patrick F.; Turner, Stephen T.; Chu, Julia S.; Peyser, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Short stature is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD); although the mechanisms for this relationship are unknown, shared genetic factors have been proposed. Subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC), is associated with CHD events and represents part of the biological continuum to overt CHD. Many molecular mechanisms of CAC development are shared with bone growth. Thus, we examined whether there was evidence of shared genes (pleiotropy) between adult stature and CAC. Methods 877 asymptomatic white adults (46% men) from 625 families in a community-based sample had computed tomography measures of CAC. Pleiotropy between height and CAC was determined using maximum-likelihood estimation implemented in SOLAR. Results Adult height was significantly and inversely associated with CAC score (P=0.01). After adjusting for age, sex, and CHD risk factors, the estimated genetic correlation between height and CAC score was -0.37 and was significantly different than 0 (P=0.001) and -1 (P<0.001). The environmental correlation between height and CAC score was 0.60 and was significantly different than 0 (P=0.024). Conclusions Further studies of shared genetic factors between height and CAC may provide important insight into the complex genetic architecture of CHD, in part through increased understanding of the molecular pathways underlying the process of both normal growth and disease development. Bivariate genetic linkage analysis may provide a powerful mechanism for identifying specific genomic regions associated with both height and CAC. PMID:21937044

  9. Fasting plasma glucose levels and coronary artery calcification in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Young-Mi; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the association of impaired glucose tolerance with CVD has been shown in many studies, the relationship between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and CVD remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of participants with normal fasting glucose versus those with IFG, according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and to assess whether differences in CAC scores were independent of important confounders. Retrospective study. Health Promotion Center of the University Hospital (Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), during the period 2010-2014. Participants were enrolled from the general population who visited for a medical check-up. CAC was assessed in asymptomatic individuals by multidetector computed tomography. Anthropometric parameters and metabolic profiles were also recorded. Subjects were divided into four fasting glucose groups. Participants with a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus were excluded. Correlation between FPG and CAC scores, CAC score categories, and association between CAC score and FPG categories. Of 1112 participants, 346 (34.2%) had a CAC score > 0. FPG values in the IFG patients were positively but weakly correlated with CAC scores (r=0.099, P=.001). The incidence of CAC differed according to FPG level (P =110 mg/dL had a significantly higher risk of CAC than did subjects with normal fasting glucose (110.

  10. Coronary artery calcification detected by a mobile helical CT unit in a mass screening. The frequency and relationship to coronary risk factors and coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itani, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Hanamura, Kazuhisa; Asakura, Kazuhiro; Sone, Shusuke; Sunami, Yuko; Shimura, Akimitsu; Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2001-06-01

    A strong relationship is known to exist between coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) detected by CT. In this study, we investigated the frequency of CAC and the relationship between coronary risk factors, CAD and CAC in a mass screening using a mobile helical CT unit. The total number of participants was 10008 people undergoing a medical examination for lung cancer and tuberculosis using a mobile helical CT unit. We measured the CT density of the coronary artery to detect CAC. The CT density threshold for determining CAC was above +110HU. The frequency of CAC was 16.0% in the overall patient population and significantly higher in males than in females (20.6% vs 10.7%). Frequency increased with age in both genders. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significantly related to CAC. Smoking showed a correlation with CAC only in males. A significant relationship was observed between CAD and CAC in males. In particular, the relationship between them was strongest in males under 60 years of age. Furthermore, the odds ratio of CAC in predicting CAD increased with increasing risk factors in both genders. (author)

  11. [Prevalence and extent of coronary artery calcification in an asymptomatic cardiovascular Mexican population: Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Romero, Carlos; López-Bautista, Fabiola; Rodas-Díaz, Marco A; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Kimura-Hayama, Eric; Juárez-Rojas, Juan G; Medina-Urrutia, Aida X; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Jorge-Galarza, Esteban

    The prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a specific marker of atherosclerosis, is unknown in Mexico. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and quantity of CAC and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in a Mexican population. CAC was measured by multidetector computed tomography in asymptomatic subjects who participated in the Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease study. Cardiovascular risk factors and medication were recorded. The sample included 1,423 individuals (49.5% men), aged 53.7±8.4 years. Those with CAC showed a higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia, diabetes, hypertension, and other risk factors. The prevalence of CAC>0 Agatston units was significantly higher among men (40%) than among women (13%). Mean values of CAC score increased consistently with increasing age and were higher in men than women in each age group. Age and high low density lipoprotein cholesterol were independently associated with prevalence of CAC>0 in men and women, while increasing systolic blood pressure in women and age in both genders showed an independent association with CAC extension. In the Mexican population the prevalence and extent of CAC were much higher in men than in women, and strongly increased with age. Independent predictors of CAC prevalence were age and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Establishing the colitis-associated cancer progression mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haiming; Lu, Zhanjun; Wang, Ruhua; Chen, Niwei; Zheng, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been reported as an important inducer of colorectal cancer (CRC). The most malignant IBD-associated CRC type has been highlighted as colitis-associated cancer (CAC). However, lack of CAC cases and difficulties of the long follow-up research have challenged researchers in molecular mechanism probing. Here, we established pre-CAC mouse models (dextran sulfate sodium [DSS] group and azoxymethane [AOM] group) and CAC mouse model (DSS/AOM group) to mimic human CAC development through singly or combinational treatment with DSS and AOM followed by disease activity index analysis. We found that these CAC mice showed much more severe disease phenotype, including serious diarrhea, body weight loss, rectal prolapse and bleeding, bloody stool, tumor burden, and bad survival. By detecting expression patterns of several therapeutic targets-Apc, p53, Kras, and TNF-α-in these mouse models through western blot, histology analysis, qRT-PCR, and ELISA methods, we found that the oncogene Kras expression remained unchanged, while the tumor suppressors-Apc and p53 expression were both significantly downregulated with malignancy progression from pre-CAC to CAC, and TNF-α level was elevated the most in CAC mice blood which is of potential clinical use. These data indicated the successful establishment of CAC development mouse models, which mimics human CAC well both in disease phenotype and molecular level, and highlighted the promoting role of inflammation in CAC progression. This useful tool will facilitate the further study in CAC molecular mechanism. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Candidate Gene Association Study of Coronary Artery Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jane F; Matthews, Gregory J; Townsend, Raymond R; Raj, Dominic S; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Budoff, Matthew; Fischer, Michael J; Rosas, Sylvia E; Kanthety, Radhika; Rahman, Mahboob; Master, Stephen R; Qasim, Atif; Li, Mingyao; Mehta, Nehal N.; Shen, Haiqing; Mitchell, Braxton D; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Ho, Weang Kee; Young, Robin; Rasheed, Asif; Danesh, John; He, Jiang; Kusek, John W; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Flack, John; Go, Alan S; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Wright, Jackson T; Saleheen, Danish; Feldman, Harold I; Rader, Daniel J; Foulkes, Andrea S; Reilly, Muredach P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify loci for coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Background CKD is associated with increased CAC and subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) but the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Genetic studies of CAC in CKD may provide a useful strategy for identifying novel pathways in CHD. Methods We performed a candidate gene study (~2,100 genes; ~50,000 SNPs) of CAC within the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (n=1,509; 57% European, 43% African ancestry). SNPs with preliminary evidence of association with CAC in CRIC were examined for association with CAC in PennCAC (n=2,560) and Amish Family Calcification Study (AFCS; n=784) samples. SNPs with suggestive replication were further analyzed for association with myocardial infarction (MI) in the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction study (PROMIS) (n=14,885). Results Of 268 SNPs reaching P <5×10−4 for CAC in CRIC, 28 SNPs in 23 loci had nominal support (P <0.05 and in same direction) for CAC in PennCAC or AFCS. Besides chr9p21 and COL4A1, known loci for CHD, these included SNPs having reported GWAS association with hypertension (e.g., ATP2B1). In PROMIS, four of the 23 suggestive CAC loci (chr9p21, COL4A1, ATP2B1 and ABCA4) had significant associations with MI consistent with their direction of effect on CAC. Conclusions We identified several loci associated with CAC in CKD that also relate to MI in a general population sample. CKD imparts a high risk of CHD and may provide a useful setting for discovery of novel CHD genes and pathways. PMID:23727086

  14. Glutathione controls the redox state of the mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier Cys residues by glutathionylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangregorio, Nicola; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Indiveri, Cesare

    2013-11-01

    The mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier (CAC) is essential for cell metabolism since it catalyzes the transport of acylcarnitines into mitochondria allowing the β-oxidation of fatty acids. CAC functional and structural properties have been characterized. Cys residues which could form disulfides suggest the involvement of CAC in redox switches. The effect of GSH and GSSG on the [(3)H]-carnitine/carnitine antiport catalyzed by the CAC in proteoliposomes has been studied. The Cys residues involved in the redox switch have been identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Glutathionylated CAC has been assessed by glutathionyl-protein specific antibody. GSH led to increase of transport activity of the CAC extracted from liver mitochondria. A similar effect was observed on the recombinant CAC. The presence of glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1) accelerated the GSH activation of the recombinant CAC. The effect was more evident at 37°C. GSSG led to transport inhibition which was reversed by dithioerythritol (DTE). The effects of GSH and GSSG were studied on CAC Cys-mutants. CAC lacking C136 and C155 was insensitive to both reagents. Mutants containing these two Cys responded as the wild-type. Anti-glutathionyl antibody revealed the formation of glutathionylated CAC. CAC is redox-sensitive and it is regulated by the GSH/GSSG couple. C136 and C155 are responsible for the regulation which occurs through glutathionylation. CAC is sensitive to the redox state of the cell switching between oxidized and reduced forms in response to variation of GSSG and GSH concentrations. © 2013.

  15. Comparison of adenosine-induced myocardial ischemia and atherosclerosis measured by coronary calcium tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, I. H.; Chun, K. A.; Won, K. C.; Lee, H. W.; Hong, K. L.; Park, J. S.; Shin, D. K.; Kim, Y. C.; Sim, B. S. [Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Coronary artery calcium shows a anatomic information and coronary atherosclerotic burde, but myocardial perfusion SPECT shows a physiologic significance of coronary stenosis and stress induced ischemia. Both are valuable in the noninvasive assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. There has been little evaluation regarding the relationship between CAC and adenosine-induced ischemia and how to integrate CAC with myocardial perfusion SPECT. We assessed the relationship between adenosine-induced myocardial ischemia on myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (MPS) and magnitude of coronary calcification (CAC) by MDCT in patients undergoing both tests. A total of 111 patients underwent adenosine-induced MPS and CAC within 2days. Coronary angiography was done in 55 patients. The frequency of ischemia by MPS was compared to the magnitude of CAC. Among 56 patients with ischemic MPS, the CAC scores were >0 in 87.5%, >100 in 76.8%, and > 400 in 50.0%. Of 25 normal MPS, the CAC scores were >0 in 70.9%. >100 in 34.5%, and > 400 in 14.5%, respectively. Of 38 patient with coronary artery stenosis proved by coronary angiography, the CAC scores were >0 in 92.1%, >100 in 78.9%, and > 400 in 50.0 %, respectively. Of 12 patient without coronary artery stenosis, the CAC scores were >100 in 66.7%, and > 400 in 41.7%. Ischemic MPS is associated with a high likelihood of subclinical atherosclerosis by CAC, but it can be also seen for CAC scores <100. The patient without significant coronary artery stenosis, however, may have extensive atherosclerosis by CAC criteria. Although, low CAC scores appear to obviate the need for subsequent testing, but MPS is still needed to diagnosis the myocardial ischemia.

  16. Candidate gene association study of coronary artery calcification in chronic kidney disease: findings from the CRIC study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jane F; Matthews, Gregory J; Townsend, Raymond R; Raj, Dominic S; Kanetsky, Peter A; Budoff, Matthew; Fischer, Michael J; Rosas, Sylvia E; Kanthety, Radhika; Rahman, Mahboob; Master, Stephen R; Qasim, Atif; Li, Mingyao; Mehta, Nehal N; Shen, Haiqing; Mitchell, Braxton D; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Ho, Weang Kee; Young, Robin; Rasheed, Asif; Danesh, John; He, Jiang; Kusek, John W; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Flack, John; Go, Alan S; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Wright, Jackson T; Saleheen, Danish; Feldman, Harold I; Rader, Daniel J; Foulkes, Andrea S; Reilly, Muredach P

    2013-08-27

    This study sought to identify loci for coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD is associated with increased CAC and subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD), but the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Genetic studies of CAC in CKD may provide a useful strategy for identifying novel pathways in CHD. We performed a candidate gene study (∼2,100 genes; ∼50,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) of CAC within the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) study (N = 1,509; 57% European, 43% African ancestry). SNPs with preliminary evidence of association with CAC in CRIC were examined for association with CAC in the PennCAC (Penn Coronary Artery Calcification) (N = 2,560) and AFCS (Amish Family Calcification Study) (N = 784) samples. SNPs with suggestive replication were further analyzed for association with myocardial infarction (MI) in the PROMIS (Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study) (N = 14,885). Of 268 SNPs reaching p < 5 × 10(-4) for CAC in CRIC, 28 SNPs in 23 loci had nominal support (p < 0.05 and in same direction) for CAC in PennCAC or AFCS. Besides chr9p21 and COL4A1, known loci for CHD, these included SNPs having reported genome-wide association study association with hypertension (e.g., ATP2B1). In PROMIS, 4 of the 23 suggestive CAC loci (chr9p21, COL4A1, ATP2B1, and ABCA4) had significant associations with MI, consistent with their direction of effect on CAC. We identified several loci associated with CAC in CKD that also relate to MI in a general population sample. CKD imparts a high risk of CHD and may provide a useful setting for discovery of novel CHD genes and pathways. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Coronary artery calcification identification and labeling in low-dose chest CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yiting; Liu, Shuang; Miller, Albert; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Markowitz, Steven; Akhund, Ali; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2017-03-01

    A fully automated computer algorithm has been developed to evaluate coronary artery calcification (CAC) from lowdose CT scans. CAC is identified and evaluated in three main coronary artery groups: Left Main and Left Anterior Descending Artery (LM + LAD) CAC, Left Circumflex Artery (LCX) CAC, and Right Coronary Artery (RCA) CAC. The artery labeling is achieved by segmenting all CAC candidates in the heart region and applying geometric constraints on the candidates using locally pre-identified anatomy regions. This algorithm was evaluated on 1,359 low-dose ungated CT scans, in which each artery CAC content was categorically visually scored by a radiologist into none, mild, moderate and extensive. The Spearman correlation coefficient R was used to assess the agreement between three automated CAC scores (Agatston-weighted, volume, and mass) and categorical visual scores. For Agatston-weighted automated scores, R was 0.87 for total CAC, 0.82 for LM + LAD CAC, 0.66 for LCX CAC and 0.72 for RCA CAC; results using volume and mass scores were similar. CAC detection sensitivities were: 0.87 for total, 0.82 for LM + LAD, 0.65 for LCX and 0.74 for RCA. To assess the impact of image noise, the dataset was further partitioned into three subsets based on heart region noise level (low110HU). The low and medium noise subsets had higher sensitivities and correlations than the high noise subset. These results indicate that location specific heart risk assessment is possible from low-dose chest CT images.

  18. Gender and age effects on risk factor-based prediction of coronary artery calcium in symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, R; Wiklund, U; Zhao, Y

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The influence of gender and age on risk factor prediction of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in symptomatic patients is unclear. METHODS: From the European Calcific Coronary Artery Disease (EURO-CCAD) cohort, we retrospectively investigated 6309 symptomatic patients, 62......, diabetes and smoking were independently predictive of CAC presence in both genders. In addition to a progressive increase in CAC with age, the most important predictors of CAC presence were dyslipidaemia and diabetes (β = 0.64 and 0.63, respectively) in males and diabetes (β = 1.08) followed by smoking (β...... = 0.68) in females; these same risk factors were also important in predicting increasing CAC scores. There was no difference in the predictive ability of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in either gender for CAC presence in patients aged 70, only...

  19. Evaluation of calcium hydrogen carbonate mesoscopic crystals as a disinfectant for influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Ryuji; Kawamoto, Masaomi; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Onishi, Rumiko; Furusaki, Koichi; Osaki, Maho; Kirisawa, Rikio; Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi

    2017-05-23

    In this study, the virucidal effect of a novel electrically charged disinfectant CAC-717 was investigated. CAC-717 is produced by applying an electric field to mineral water containing calcium hydrogen carbonate to generate mesoscopic crystals. Virus titration analysis showed a >3 log reduction of influenza A viruses after treatment with CAC-717 for 1 min in room temperature, while infectivity was undetectable after 15 min treatment. Adding bovine serum albumin to CAC-717 solution did not affect the disinfectant effect. Although CAC-717 is an alkaline solution (pH=12.39), upon contact with human tissue, its pH becomes almost physiological (pH 8.84) after accelerated electric discharge, which enables its use against influenza viruses. Therefore, CAC-717 may be used as a preventative measure against influenza A viruses and for biosecurity in the environment.

  20. Substratos renováveis na produção de mudas de Ficus enormis proveniente de jardim clonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar substratos renováveis à base de casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC e fibra de coco (FC sobre o enraizamento e qualidade final de mudas de Ficus enormis Mart. ex Miq. via estaquia caulinar de plantas provenientes de jardim clonal. Foram avaliados seis substratos: comercial (controle, composto por casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC, fibra de coco (FC e vermiculita (S1; 100% FC (S2; 100% CAC (S3; 50% FC e 50% CAC (S4; 30% (FC e 70% CAC (S5; 70% FC e 30% CAC (S6. O substrato comercial (S1 e as composições com maior proporção de FC apresentam qualificação superior para a produção de mudas de F. enormis.

  1. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Coronary Artery Calcification in Adults With Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Simonsen, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in adults with polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM) compared to healthy controls and to assess the association between CV risk factors, PM/DM, and CAC score. METHODS......: Traditional CV risk factors were assessed in a cross-sectional, observational study of 76 patients with PM/DM and in 48 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. CAC was quantified by means of cardiac computed tomography scan and expressed in Agatston units. The associations between CV risk factors, PM...... of triglycerides (P = 0.0009). High CAC score occurred more frequently in patients (20% versus 4%; P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis of patient factors associated with CAC were age (P = 0.02) and smoking (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In this study, traditional CV risk factors and severe CAC were commonly found...

  2. Implementing a GPS Waveform Under the Software Communication Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    or Modem RF front-end), GPS signal processing/correlation deployed on an FPGA or DSP (CAC), GPS (Receiver and Tracking) and Network- Assistance...processing/correlation in an FPGA or DSP (in the testbed this is the CAC board). GPS Receiver, Tracking and Network-Assistance software...application components are deployed on the Host GPP. The GPS applications running on the host GPP are coupled with the VHDL Modem Components through the CAC

  3. Using the coronary artery calcium score to guide statin therapy: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletcher, Mark J; Pignone, Michael; Earnshaw, Stephanie; McDade, Cheryl; Phillips, Kathryn A; Auer, Reto; Zablotska, Lydia; Greenland, Philip

    2014-03-01

    The coronary artery calcium (CAC) score predicts future coronary heart disease (CHD) events and could be used to guide primary prevention interventions, but CAC measurement has costs and exposes patients to low-dose radiation. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of measuring CAC and prescribing statin therapy based on the resulting score under a range of assumptions using an established model enhanced with CAC distribution and risk estimates from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Ten years of statin treatment for 10,000 55-year-old women with high cholesterol (10-year CHD risk, 7.5%) was projected to prevent 32 myocardial infarctions, cause 70 cases of statin-induced myopathy, and add 1108 years to total life expectancy. Measuring CAC and targeting statin treatment to the 2500 women with CAC>0 would provide 45% of the benefit (+501 life-years), but CAC measurement would cost $2.25 million and cause 9 radiation-induced cancers. Treat all was preferable to CAC screening in this scenario and across a broad range of other scenarios (CHD risk, 2.5%-15%) when statin assumptions were favorable ($0.13 per pill and no quality of life penalty). When statin assumptions were less favorable ($1.00 per pill and disutility=0.00384), CAC screening with statin treatment for persons with CAC>0 was cost-effective (cost and disutility and relatively robust to other assumptions. Alternate CAC treatment thresholds (>100 or >300) were generally not cost-effective. CAC testing in intermediate risk patients can be cost-effective but only if statins are costly or significantly affect quality of life.

  4. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis: racial profiling is necessary!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakzai, Sarwar H; Orakzai, Raza H; Nasir, Khurram; Santos, Raul D; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Budoff, Matthew J; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2006-11-01

    We aim to review the studies comparing coronary calcification across different ethnic groups. There is still uncertainty regarding ethnic differences in the prevalence, progression, and risk of coronary artery disease. Clues to possible racial differences in rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) may be found by identifying subclinical disease. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) can be used to predict risk of CHD in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Online databases were searched for studies assessing racial differences in CAC. Most of the published studies have shown that racial differences exist in the prevalence and severity of CAC. Whites have a higher prevalence of CAC as compared to African Americans and other ethnic groups even after adjustment for risk factors. These differences in CAC are even more pronounced in men and in the elderly. Data regarding the distribution of CAC in ethnic groups outside the United States are limited. Emerging evidence indicates that while several ethnic groups outside the United States tend to have a greater prevalence of CHD risk factors, their prevalence of CAC is lower, as compared with Americans. Thus, the data obtained in the United States may not be able to be fully extrapolated to populations outside the United States for assessment of CHD risk. The presence and extent of CAC varies among different racial groups within and outside the United States. The relationship between calcification and the incidence of CHD in these ethnic groups needs further exploration. Thus, it is important to develop ethnic specific CAC nomograms to more accurately determine the underlying CHD risk associated with CAC in these individuals. It will also be imperative to obtain outcome data and relate it to baseline levels of CAC to help us put in perspective the significance of racial differences in CAC and how they impact on cardiac risk prediction.

  5. Abdominal aortic calcium, coronary artery calcium, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criqui, Michael H; Denenberg, Julie O; McClelland, Robyn L; Allison, Matthew A; Ix, Joachim H; Guerci, Alan; Cohoon, Kevin P; Srikanthan, Preethi; Watson, Karol E; Wong, Nathan D

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of coronary artery calcium (CAC). We evaluated the association of AAC with CVD in 1974 men and women aged 45 to 84 years randomly selected from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants who had complete AAC and CAC data from computed tomographic scans. AAC and CAC were each divided into following 3 percentile categories: 0 to 50th, 51st to 75th, and 76th to 100th. During a mean of 5.5 years of follow-up, there were 50 hard coronary heart disease events, 83 hard CVD events, 30 fatal CVD events, and 105 total deaths. In multivariable-adjusted Cox models including both AAC and CAC, comparing the fourth quartile with the ≤ 50th percentile, AAC and CAC were each significantly and independently predictive of hard coronary heart disease and hard CVD, with hazard ratios ranging from 2.4 to 4.4. For CVD mortality, the hazard ratio was highly significant for the fourth quartile of AAC, 5.9 (P=0.01), whereas the association for the fourth quartile of CAC (hazard ratio, 2.1) was not significant. For total mortality, the fourth quartile hazard ratio for AAC was 2.7 (P=0.001), and for CAC, it was 1.9, P=0.04. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed improvement for both AAC and CAC separately, although improvement was greater with CAC for hard coronary heart disease and hard CVD, and greater with AAC for CVD mortality and total mortality. Sensitivity analyses defining AAC and CAC as continuous variables mirrored these results. AAC and CAC predicted hard coronary heart disease and hard CVD events independent of one another. Only AAC was independently related to CVD mortality, and AAC showed a stronger association than CAC with total mortality. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. How the Army Runs: A Senior Leader Reference Handbook. 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In addition to councils, the EO provides for employees and their union representatives to have pre- decisional involvement in all workplace...Activity ( TOMA ), provides oversight for technical training on 132 Army military specialties with over 1400 specialized courses for approximately 377,000...Management Activity ( TOMA ) (FOA) e. CAC. CAC has the primary mission of preparing the Army and its leaders for war http://usacac.army.mil/cac2

  7. Classification of coronary artery calcifications according to motion artifacts in chest CT using a convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šprem, Jurica; de Vos, Bob D.; de Jong, Pim A.; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2017-02-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular events (CVEs). CAC can be quantified in chest CT scans acquired in lung screening. However, in these images the reproducibility of CAC quantification is compromised by cardiac motion that occurs during scanning, thereby limiting the reproducibility of CVE risk assessment. We present a system for the identification of CACs strongly affected by cardiac motion artifacts by using a convolutional neural network (CNN). This study included 125 chest CT scans from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Images were acquired with CT scanners from four different vendors (GE, Siemens, Philips, Toshiba) with varying tube voltage, image resolution settings, and without ECG synchronization. To define the reference standard, an observer manually identified CAC lesions and labeled each according to the presence of cardiac motion: strongly affected (positive), mildly affected/not affected (negative). A CNN was designed to automatically label the identified CAC lesions according to the presence of cardiac motion by analyzing a patch from the axial CT slice around each lesion. From 125 CT scans, 9201 CAC lesions were analyzed. 8001 lesions were used for training (19% positive) and the remaining 1200 (50% positive) were used for testing. The proposed CNN achieved a classification accuracy of 85% (86% sensitivity, 84% specificity). The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can identify CAC lesions that are strongly affected by cardiac motion. This could facilitate further investigation into the relation of CAC scoring reproducibility and the presence of cardiac motion artifacts.

  8. Enhancement of Corneal Visibility in Optical Coherence Tomography Images with Corneal Opacification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheuk Wang; Ang, Marcus; Farook, Mohamed; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Mehta, Joddhbir S; Mari, Jean Martial; Girard, Michaël J A

    2016-09-01

    To establish and to rank the performance of a corneal adaptive compensation (CAC) algorithm in enhancing corneal images with scars acquired from three commercially available anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) devices. Horizontal B-scans of the cornea were acquired from 10 patients using three ASOCT devices (Spectralis, RTVue, and Cirrus). We compared ASOCT image quality (with and without CAC) by computing the intralayer contrast (a measure of shadow removal), the interlayer contrast (a measure of tissue boundary visibility), and the tissue/background contrast (a measure of overall corneal visibility). All six groups (Spectralis, RTVue, Cirrus, Spectralis+CAC, RTVue+CAC, and Cirrus+CAC) were ranked according to a global performance index that averaged all contrast quantities. CAC provided mean intralayer contrasts improvement for all devices (all P images of corneal scars may be enhanced by CAC through shadow removal, improved tissue boundary visibility, and enhanced corneal visibility against the image background. RTVue produces the finest baseline images but the best image quality can be achieved by applying CAC to Spectralis images. CAC could enhance visibility of corneal images with scars acquired from commercially available ASOCT devices and could aid preoperative planning of patients for ophthalmic procedures.

  9. Association of Big Endothelin-1 with Coronary Artery Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Ping; Li, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Yan; Li, Yi-Lin; Xu, Rui-Xia; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Li, Sha; Wu, Na-Qiong; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The coronary artery calcification (CAC) is clinically considered as one of the important predictors of atherosclerosis. Several studies have confirmed that endothelin-1(ET-1) plays an important role in the process of atherosclerosis formation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether big ET-1 is associated with CAC. A total of 510 consecutively admitted patients from February 2011 to May 2012 in Fu Wai Hospital were analyzed. All patients had received coronary computed tomography angiography and then divided into two groups based on the results of coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The clinical characteristics including traditional and calcification-related risk factors were collected and plasma big ET-1 level was measured by ELISA. Patients with CAC had significantly elevated big ET-1 level compared with those without CAC (0.5 ± 0.4 vs. 0.2 ± 0.2, Panalysis, big ET-1 (Tertile 2, HR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.66-5.74, P predictive factor of the presence of CAC. There was a positive correlation of the big ET-1 level with CACS (r = 0.567, p0 and the highest tertile of big ET-1 (Pbig ET-1 level in predicting CAC was 0.83 (95% CI 0.79-0.87, pdata firstly demonstrated that the plasma big ET-1 level was a valuable independent predictor for CAC in our study.

  10. Mood patterns based on momentary assessment of positive and negative moods over a day and coronary artery calcification in the CARDIA study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Seeman, Teresa; Matthews, Karen; Adler, Nancy; Epel, Elissa

    2012-01-01

    .... Using momentary assessment, we evaluated associations between average positive and negative mood states and diurnal mood patterns, with prevalent and incident coronary artery calcification (CAC...

  11. Association between circulating vitamin K1 and coronary calcium progression in community-dwelling adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Booth, Sarah L; Miller, Michael E; Burke, Gregory L; Chen, Haiying; Cushman, Mary; Tracy, Russell P; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that vitamin K treatment reduced vascular calcification, but human data are limited. Objective: We determined the association between vitamin K status and coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis by using a case-cohort design. Design: Serum phylloquinone (vitamin K1) was measured in 296 participants with extreme CAC progression and 561 randomly selected participants without extreme CAC progression; all subjects had baseline and follow-up CAC measures (mean follow-up: 2.5 y). A serum vitamin K1 concentration was considered low at antihypertension medication use was detected (P = 0.016). Hypertension medication users with low serum vitamin K1 were more likely to have extreme CAC progression than were medication users without extreme CAC progression [OR (95% CI): 2.37 (1.38, 4.09)]. In replication, baseline antihypertensive medication users in the supplementation group had less CAC progression than did those in the control group [adjusted mean ± SEM of the 3-y CAC change was +5 ± 20 Agatston units (AU) in the vitamin K1 group (n = 40) and +44 ± 13 AU in the placebo group (n = 49); P antihypertension medication users, which, to our knowledge, is a novel finding conditionally replicated by using an independent sample. Intervention trials are needed to determine whether improving serum vitamin K1 reduces CAC progression, especially in hypertensive individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00183001. PMID:23719555

  12. Association between circulating vitamin K1 and coronary calcium progression in community-dwelling adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Booth, Sarah L; Miller, Michael E; Burke, Gregory L; Chen, Haiying; Cushman, Mary; Tracy, Russell P; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2013-07-01

    Animal studies have shown that vitamin K treatment reduced vascular calcification, but human data are limited. We determined the association between vitamin K status and coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis by using a case-cohort design. Serum phylloquinone (vitamin K1) was measured in 296 participants with extreme CAC progression and 561 randomly selected participants without extreme CAC progression; all subjects had baseline and follow-up CAC measures (mean follow-up: 2.5 y). A serum vitamin K1 concentration was considered low at antihypertension medication use was detected (P = 0.016). Hypertension medication users with low serum vitamin K1 were more likely to have extreme CAC progression than were medication users without extreme CAC progression [OR (95% CI): 2.37 (1.38, 4.09)]. In replication, baseline antihypertensive medication users in the supplementation group had less CAC progression than did those in the control group [adjusted mean ± SEM of the 3-y CAC change was +5 ± 20 Agatston units (AU) in the vitamin K1 group (n = 40) and +44 ± 13 AU in the placebo group (n = 49); P antihypertension medication users, which, to our knowledge, is a novel finding conditionally replicated by using an independent sample. Intervention trials are needed to determine whether improving serum vitamin K1 reduces CAC progression, especially in hypertensive individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00183001.

  13. Relation of Coronary Artery Calcium Score and Risk of Cancer (from a Danish Population-Based Follow-up Study in Patients Who Underwent Cardiac Computed Tomography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinter, Nicklas; Christesen, Amanda M S; Mortensen, Leif S; Lindholt, Jes S; Johnsen, Søren P; Tjønneland, Anne; Frost, Lars

    2017-08-15

    Evidence of a causal link between atherosclerosis and cancer is sparse and conflicting. Therefore, we examined the association between extent of coronary atherosclerosis determined by coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and risk of cancer. We conducted a historical population-based cohort study of 28,549 cancer-free patients identified in the Western Denmark Heart Registry. All patients underwent cardiac computed tomography for measurement of CACS for suspected coronary artery disease. The outcome was an incident cancer diagnosis: total, tobacco-related, lung, prostate, breast, and colorectal. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analyses stratified by gender to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for relations between CACS and cancer with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). During follow-up, 455 men and 527 women had a cancer diagnosis. In a multivariable model (reference group: CACS 0), adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for total cancer were as follows: CACS 1 to 99: 1.07 (0.83 to 1.39), CACS 100 to 399: 1.24 (0.94 to 1.63), CACS 400 to 999: 0.88 (0.62 to 1.25), CACS ≥1,000: 0.96 (0.66 to 1.41) in men; and CACS 1 to 99: 0.96 (0.77 to 1.19), CACS 100 to 399: 0.99 (0.75 to 1.31), CACS 400 to 999: 1.11 (0.76 to 1.62), and CACS ≥1,000: 1.16 (0.73 to 1.83) in women. We found no significant association between CACS and the specified outcomes for men or women, except for an increased risk of lung cancer among women with a high CACS. In conclusion, extent of coronary atherosclerosis determined by CACS was not associated with development of total, tobacco-related, lung, prostate, breast, or colorectal cancer. However, we did observe an association between CACS and risk of lung cancer in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relative predictive value of lung cancer screening CT versus myocardial perfusion attenuation correction CT in the evaluation of coronary calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Grant; Healy, Abigail; Young, Bryan D; Sharma, Esseim; Meadows, Judith; Chun, Hyung J; Wu, Wen-Chih; Choudhary, Gaurav; Morrison, Alan R

    2017-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) from lung cancer screening computed tomography (LCSCT) or myocardial perfusion attenuation correction computed tomography (ACCT) are not routinely performed or reported. CACS from LCSCT and ACCT have not been directly compared in the same patient population. We identified 66 patients who underwent both LCSCT (non-gated) and ECG-gated cardiac CT (CCT) within a 2-year span. Of this population, 40 subjects had also undergone ACCT. Using the Agatston method, CACS for 264 individual vessels from the LCSCT population and for 160 vessels from ACCT population were calculated and evaluated for agreement with ECG-gated CCT as the gold standard. Secondary analysis included a comparison of individual vessel contribution to variations in agreement and a comparison of total CACS from CCT, LCSCT, and ACCT for respective MACE prediction. CACS from LCSCT demonstrated a strong Pearson correlation, r = 0.9017 (0.876-0.9223), with good agreement when compared to CACS from CCT. CACS from ACCT demonstrated a significantly (P calcium scoring by providing better agreement and comparable risk assessment to CCT despite the absence of ECG-gating. It is therefore reasonable to use LCSCT images to derive and report Agatston-based CACS for cardiovascular risk assessment, whereas the use of ACCT images to report Agatston-based CACS is not currently practical.

  15. Relation of Stress Hormones (Urinary Catecholamines/Cortisol) to Coronary Artery Calcium in Men Versus Women (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipursky, Rachel T; Press, Marcella Calfon; Srikanthan, Preethi; Gornbein, Jeff; McClelland, Robyn; Watson, Karol; Horwich, Tamara B

    2017-06-15

    The relation between high levels of psychosocial stress and the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been increasingly recognized, especially in women. We hypothesized that simple biomarkers of stress, urinary catecholamines/cortisol levels, are associated with more coronary artery calcium (CAC), an indicator of CAD, and that this relation is stronger in women compared with men. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Stress study, we examined the relation between urinary catecholamines/cortisol and CAC. The study cohort (n = 654) was 53% women, and 56.4% of the cohort had detectable CAC. Multivariable regression analyses assessed the relation between urinary catecholamines/cortisol and CAC (odds CAC >0 through logistic and ln CAC through Tobit model). There was an association between increased cortisol and increased CAC and an inverse association between dopamine and CAC. These relations were seen in men and women, with no difference between the genders. In conclusion, higher cortisol and lower dopamine levels are independently associated with higher CAC to a similar degree in men and women. These simple urinary biomarkers contribute to our understanding of the role of stress in the pathogenesis of CAD and may be incorporated into future strategies to prevent and treat CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 74122 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... on Oversight and Government Reform, the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental... system's software uses Primary Key Infrastructure (PKI)/Common Access Card (CAC) authentication to...

  17. Baseline Subclinical Atherosclerosis Burden and Distribution are Associated with the Frequency and Mode of Future Coronary Revascularization: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankstein, Ron; Budoff, Matthew J.; Agatston, Arthur S.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Lima, Joao A; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We sought to evaluate the impact of coronary artery calcium (CAC) burden and regional distribution on the need for and type of future coronary revascularization (percutaneous [PCI] vs. surgical [CABG]) among asymptomatic individuals. Background The need for coronary revascularization and the chosen mode of revascularization are thought to be a function of disease burden and anatomic distribution. The association between the baseline burden and regional distribution of CAC and the risk and type of future coronary revascularization remains unknown. Methods 6,540 MESA participants (individuals aged 45-84 years, free of known baseline cardiovascular disease) with vessel-specific CAC measurement were followed for median 8.5 (7.7 – 8.6) years. Annualized rates and multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for revascularization and revascularization type were analyzed according to CAC score category, number of vessels with CAC (0-4, including the left main), and by involvement of individual coronary arteries. Results A total of 265 revascularizations (4.2%) occurred during follow-up, and 206 (78% of total) were preceded by adjudicated symptoms. Revascularization was uncommon when CAC=0 (0.6%), with graded increase over both rising CAC burden and increasingly diffuse CAC distribution. The revascularization rate per 1,000 person-years for CAC 1-100, 101-400, and >400 was 4.9, 11.7 and 25.4; for 1, 2, 3, and 4 vessels with CAC the rates were 3.0, 8.0, 16.1, and 24.8. In multivariable models adjusting for CAC score, number of vessels with CAC remained predictive of mode of revascularization. Independent predictors of CABG vs. PCI included 3 or 4 vessel CAC, higher CAC burden, and involvement of the left main. Risk for CABG was extremely low with revascularizations. Conclusions In this multi-ethnic cohort of asymptomatic individuals, baseline CAC was highly predictive of future coronary revascularization procedures, with measures of CAC burden and distribution each

  18. The relationship between adiposity-associated inflammation and coronary artery and abdominal aortic calcium differs by strata of central adiposity: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Austin, Jan M; Wassel, Christina L; Jiménez, Jessica; Criqui, Michael H; Ix, Joachim H; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Budoff, Matthew J; Jenny, Nancy S; Allison, Matthew A

    2014-08-01

    Adipokines regulate metabolic processes linked to coronary artery (CAC) and abdominal aorta calcification (AAC). Because adipokine and other adiposity-associated inflammatory marker (AAIM) secretions differ between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, we hypothesized that central adiposity modifies associations between AAIMs and CAC and AAC. We evaluated 1878 MESA participants with complete measures of AAIMs, anthropometry, CAC, and AAC. Associations of AAIMs with CAC and AAC prevalence and severity were analyzed per standard deviation of predictors (SD) using log binomial and linear regression models. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was dichotomized at median WHR values based on sex/ethnicity. CAC and AAC prevalence were defined as any calcium (Agatston score >0). Severity was defined as ln (Agatston score). Analyses examined interactions with WHR and were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Each SD higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), fibrinogen and CRP was associated with 5% higher CAC prevalence; and each SD higher IL-6 and fibrinogen was associated with 4% higher AAC prevalence. Associations of IL-6 and fibrinogen with CAC severity, but not CAC prevalence, were significantly different among WHR strata. Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher IL-6 was associated with 24.8% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction=0.012). Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher fibrinogen was associated with 19.6% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction=0.034). Adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were not associated with CAC or AAC prevalence or severity. These results support findings that adiposity-associated inflammation is associated with arterial calcification, and further add that central adiposity may modify this association. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Bone biomarkers help grading severity of coronary calcifications in non dialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Morena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23 are recognized as strong risk factors of vascular calcifications in non dialysis chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between FGF23, OPG, and coronary artery calcifications (CAC in this population and to attempt identification of the most powerful biomarker of CAC: FGF23? OPG? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 195 ND-CKD patients (112 males/83 females, 70.8 [27.4-94.6] years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All underwent chest multidetector computed tomography for CAC scoring. Vascular risk markers including FGF23 and OPG were measured. Logistic regression analyses were used to study the potential relationships between CAC and these markers. The fully adjusted-univariate analysis clearly showed high OPG (≥10.71 pmol/L as the only variable significantly associated with moderate CAC ([100-400[ (OR = 2.73 [1.03;7.26]; p = 0.04. Such association failed to persist for CAC scoring higher than 400. Indeed, severe CAC was only associated with high phosphate fractional excretion (FEPO(4 (≥38.71% (OR = 5.47 [1.76;17.0]; p = 0.003 and high FGF23 (≥173.30 RU/mL (OR = 5.40 [1.91;15.3]; p = 0.002. In addition, the risk to present severe CAC when FGF23 level was high was not significantly different when OPG was normal or high. Conversely, the risk to present moderate CAC when OPG level was high was not significantly different when FGF23 was normal or high. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that OPG is associated to moderate CAC while FGF23 rather represents a biomarker of severe CAC in ND-CKD patients.

  20. Sleep characteristics and progression of coronary artery calcification: Results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowall, Bernd; Lehmann, Nils; Mahabadi, Amir-Abbas; Lehnich, Anna-Therese; Moebus, Susanne; Budde, Thomas; Seibel, Rainer; Grönemeyer, Dietrich; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stang, Andreas

    2018-02-09

    Sleep characteristics are associated with incident cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but there is a lack of studies on the association between sleep characteristics and incidence/progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC). In the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based cohort study in Germany, CAC was assessed by electron-beam tomography at baseline and at 5-year follow-up. In an analysis set of 3043 subjects (age at baseline 45-74 years; 47% men), we fitted logistic and linear regression models to assess associations between self-rated sleep characteristics (nocturnal and total sleep duration; napping; various sleep disorders) and CAC incidence/CAC progression. Progression was measured as 5-year progression factor, as categories of absolute CAC change, and additionally characterized as rapid or slow compared to an extrapolation of baseline CAC values. We observed barely any association between sleep characteristics and CAC progression regardless of the chosen statistical approach; associations between sleep and CAC incidence were slightly larger, e.g., the geometric mean of the 5-year CAC progression factor was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: -9.5; 25.9) larger for ≤5 h, 2.9% (-7.3; 14.3) larger for 5.1-6.9 h and 7.1% (-2.4; 15.7) smaller for ≥7.5 h total sleep compared to 7- <7.5 h total sleep. For subjects with any regular sleep disorder, the geometric mean of the 5-year CAC progression was 3.5% (-4.7; 11.2) smaller compared to subjects without any regular sleep disorder. In this German cohort study, sleep characteristics were barely associated with CAC progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genomic Alterations Observed in Colitis-associated Cancers are Distinct from Those Found in Sporadic Colorectal Cancers and Vary by Type of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, Rona; Shah, Manish A.; Miller, Vincent A.; Kelsen, Judith R.; Wang, Kai; Heins, Zachary J.; Ross, Jeffrey S.; He, Yuting; Sanford, Eric; Yantiss, Rhonda K.; Balasubramanian, Sohail; Stephens, Philip J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Oren, Moshe; Tang, Laura; Kelsen, David

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk for small bowel or colorectal cancers (colitis-associated cancers, CACs). We compared the spectrum of genomic alterations in CACs with those of sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) and investigated differences between CACs from patients with CD vs UC. Methods We studied tumor tissues from patients with CACs, treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center or Weill Cornell Medical College from 2003 through 2015. We performed hybrid capture based next-generation sequencing analysis of over 300 cancer-related genes to comprehensively characterize genomic alterations. Results We performed genomic analyses of 47 CACs (from 29 patients with UC and 18 with CD; 43 primary tumors and 4 metastases). Primary tumors developed in the ileum (n=2), right colon (n=18), left colon (n=6) and rectosigmoid or rectum (n=21). We found genomic alterations in TP53, IDH1, and MYC to be significantly more frequent, and mutations in APC to be significantly less frequent, than those reported in sporadic CRCs by The Cancer Genome Atlas or Foundation Medicine. We identified genomic alterations that might be targeted by a therapeutic agent in 17/47 (36%) of CACs. These included the mutation encoding IDH1 R132; amplification of FGFR1, FGFR2, and ERBB2; and mutations encoding BRAF V600E and an EML4-ALK fusion protein. Alterations in IDH1 and APC were significantly more common in CACs from patients with CD than UC. Conclusions In an analysis of CACs from 47 patients, we found significant differences in the spectrum of genomic alterations in CACs compared to sporadic CRCs. We observed a high frequency of IDH1 R132 mutations in patients with CD but not UC, as well as a high frequency of MYC amplification in CACs. Many genetic alterations observed in CACs could serve as therapeutic targets. PMID:27063727

  2. Mood patterns based on momentary assessment of positive and negative moods over a day and coronary artery calcification in the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Seeman, Teresa; Matthews, Karen; Adler, Nancy; Epel, Elissa

    2012-06-01

    Retrospective assessments of negative mood have predicted coronary artery disease development and progression. Using momentary assessment, we evaluated associations between average positive and negative mood states and diurnal mood patterns, with prevalent and incident coronary artery calcification (CAC), a measure of calcified atherosclerosis. In a prospective cohort study of 669 white and African American men and women, aged 33 to 45 years, from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, mood was assessed at Year 15 examination, six times over a weekday. Prevalent, progressive, and 5-year incident CAC (any detectable CAC [score >0]) and substantial CAC (CAC score ≥ 20) were assessed at examinations at Years 15 and 20 by electron-beam tomographic scans. We employed a modified Poisson regression approach for binary data with robust error estimation to quantify relative risk. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, those with high-average positive mood that improved over a day had a lower risk of prevalent CAC higher than 0 (relative risk [RR] = 0.17 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 0.04-0.67]) and substantial CAC (RR = 0.25 [95% CI = 0.06-0.95]). In contrast, those with high-average, increasingly negative mood over a day had a higher risk of prevalent CAC (RR = 1.85 [95% CI = 0.86-3.99]) and substantial CAC (RR = 3.11 [95% CI = 1.29-7.49]). Findings were similar for progressive CAC at Year 20. This pattern of high/worsening negative mood (not positive mood) during the day was also predictive of 5-year incident CAC (RR = 2.99 [95% CI = 1.00-8.93]). Diurnal mood patterns were associated with the progression of calcified atherosclerosis, with negative mood predicting greater progression and positive mood predicting lower progression.

  3. Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongsin; Lee, Eun Seo; Lee, Da Young; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: 25 kg/m² (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0. When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]). Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI.

  4. Increased association of coronary artery calcification in apparently healthy Korean adults with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byung Sub; Park, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Min-Kyung; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Yong; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a simple screening parameter to identify people at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype increases the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 32,186 participants (mean age 41.3, 80.2% men) in a health screening program, in whom the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured, were analyzed. Subjects were divided into four groups: 1) normal waist circumference (WC)-normal triglyceride (TG) (NWNT), 2) normal WC-high TG (NWHT), 3) enlarged WC-normal TG (EWNT), and 4) enlarged WC-high TG (EWHT). Enlarged WC was defined as WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 85 cm for women; high serum TG was defined as TG ≥ 150 mg/dL. The presence of CAC was defined by CACS >0, and CACS was analyzed in a logarithmized form of CACS plus 1 {ln(CACS+1)}. A total of 14.9% of the participants had CAC. The EWHT group showed the highest mean value for ln(CACS+1) among the four groups. The EWHT group showed the highest odds ratio for CAC, with NWHT group the second, and with EWNT group the third compared with the NWNT group after adjusting for confounding variables (1.579, 1.302, and 1.266 vs. NWNT). The EWHT group showed the highest association for CAC, suggesting this HTGW phenotype as a useful marker for the detection of subjects with high cardiometabolic risk in healthy Korean adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Association of low baseline free thyroxin levels with progression of coronary artery calcification over 4 years in euthyroid subjects: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Eun Jin; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. It is unclear whether thyroid hormone levels within the normal range are also associated with atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between normal variations in thyroid function and changes in CAC. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study of 2173 apparently healthy men and women with normal thyroid hormone levels. Their free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multidetector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years > 0. The mean CACS changes over 4 years by quartiles of baseline FT4 level (lowest to highest) were 12·9, 8·43, 7·82 and 7·81 (P = 0·028). CAC progression was not significantly associated with either the baseline FT3 or TSH levels. The odds ratios (OR) for CAC progression over 4 years (highest vs lowest quartile for baseline FT4) were 0·647 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0·472-0·886) after adjustment for confounding factor, which were attenuated with further adjustment for lipid profiles, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and hypertension [0·747 (95% CI 0·537-1·038)]. Quartiles of baseline FT3 or TSH level did not show any increased OR for CAC progression after adjustment for confounding factors. In this cohort of euthyroid men and women, a low baseline FT4 level was associated with a high risk of CACS progression over 4 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-02-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  7. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Geun Oh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe waist-to-height ratio (WHtR is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men.MethodsA total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0.ResultsDuring the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%. The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01. The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01. The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466.ConclusionIncreased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  8. Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongsin Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in apparently healthy Korean adults.MethodsThirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: 25 kg/m2 (obese. In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0.ResultsWhen logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI, 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group. When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461] and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461].ConclusionParticipants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI.

  9. One-Year Outcomes After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction With Varying Quantities of Coronary Artery Calcium (from a 13-Year Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Kornowski, Ran; Qamar, Arman; Greenberg, Gabriel; Bental, Tamir; Rechavia, Eldad; Lev, Eli I; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Assali, Abid R

    2016-10-15

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is associated with poor angiographic results and higher rates of complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Limited data are available regarding the impact of angiographically evident CAC on long-term outcomes after primary PCI in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this single-center, registry-based retrospective cohort analysis, we analyzed 2,143 consecutive patients presenting with STEMI who underwent primary PCI within 12 hours of symptom onset. Patients were divided based on degree of CAC (determined by visual inspection of angiograms) as follows: (1) moderate-to-severe CAC (n = 306; 14.3%) and (2) minimal-to-none CAC (n = 1,837; 85.7%). The primary end point was all-cause mortality at 1-year after PCI. Patients with moderate-to-severe CAC were older, women, and had higher rates of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate-to-severe CAC was associated with higher rates of anterior myocardial infarction, advanced Killip class, and poor final angiographic results. At 1-year follow-up, rates of all-cause mortality were higher in the moderate-to-severe CAC cohort than those in the minimal-to-none CAC cohort (8.5% vs 4.7%; p = 0.008). However, after accounting for major clinical and angiographic characteristics, moderate-to-severe CAC on presenting STEMI angiogram was no longer predictive of 1-year all-cause mortality. In conclusion, advanced CAC burden occurs in ∼15% of patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI and reflects a marker of adverse prognosis late into follow-up after PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coronary artery calcium can predict all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events on low-dose CT screening for lung cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.C.; Gondrie, M.J.; Graaf, Y. van der; Koning, H.J. de; Isgum, I.; Ginneken, B. van; Mali, W.P.Th.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Performing coronary artery calcium (CAC) screening as part of low-dose CT lung cancer screening has been proposed as an efficient strategy to detect people with high cardiovascular risk and improve outcomes of primary prevention. This study aims to investigate whether CAC measured on

  11. Coronary artery calcium can predict all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events on low-dose ct screening for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Jacobs (Peter); M.J. Gondrie (Martijn); Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda); H.J. de Koning (Harry); I. Isgum (Ivana); B.T.J. van Ginneken (Berbke); W.P. Mali (Willem)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE. Performing coronary artery calcium (CAC) screening as part of low-dose CT lung cancer screening has been proposed as an efficient strategy to detect people with high cardiovascular risk and improve outcomes of primary prevention. This study aims to investigate whether CAC

  12. Domestic Violence Assessments in the Child Advocacy Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Jonathan D.; Scribano, Philip V.; Rhoda, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to identify the frequency, methods, and practices of universal assessments for domestic violence (DV) within child advocacy centers (CACs) and determine which factors are associated with CACs that conduct universal DV assessments. Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, web-based survey distributed to…

  13. Renal Function Is Related to Severity of Coronary Artery Calcification in Elderly Persons : The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Barzouhi, Abdelilah; Elias-Smale, Suzette; Dehghan, Abbas; Vliegenthart-Proenca, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been proposed to be the underlying mechanism of the increased risk of coronary heart disease with reductions in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Since renal function diminishes with aging we examined the association between GFR and CAC in the

  14. Impact of iterative reconstruction on CT coronary calcium quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurata, Akira; Dharampal, Anoeshka; Dedic, Admir

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) on the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score by computed tomography (CT).......We evaluated the influence of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) on the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score by computed tomography (CT)....

  15. Impact of filter convolution and displayed field of view on estimation of coronary Agatston scores in low-dose lung computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yung-Liang; Tsay, Pei-Kwei; Wu, Patricia Wanping; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Tsai, Hui-Yu; Lin, Chung-Yin; Yeh, Chih-Sheng; Wang, Chun-Hua; Chen, Chun-Chi

    2017-06-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) may be quantified on low-dose computed tomography (CT) of the lung (LDCT). This study aims to evaluate the effects of filter convolution (FC) and displayed field of view (dFOV) in a Toshiba 320-row CT scanner in quantifying CAC, and to compare the CAC scores obtained by LDCT with standard cardiac CT. Fifty subjects (52 to 85years, mean 68.5, 36 males) with visible CAC underwent both standard cardiac CT and LDCT. CAC scores were obtained from standard cardiac CT using conventional FC12(22) (FC12 with 22-cm dFOV) and four different LDCT protocols: FC02(22), FC02(40), FC08(22), and FC08(40). CAC scores obtained by each LDCT protocol were compared with those obtained by standard cardiac CT. CAC scores obtained by all four LDCT protocols were well correlated with those by standard protocol (Pearson's coefficient=0.978 to 0.987, pToshiba 320-row CT scanner, CAC scores obtained by FC08(22) agree well with standard cardiac CT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The origin, development and a brief appraisal of the doctrine of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-12

    Mar 12, 2013 ... figure in CAC, states that Babalola told members of the. FTN in 1929 that God had sent him to '…fara mo ... a member of Faith Tabernacle when The Apostolic Church from the white man's land affiliated the ... Baptism of the Holy Ghost for believers with signs following.' Some CAC leaders deny that the CAC ...

  17. 76 FR 40714 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... & Electronics USA, Inc. From the Department of Energy Commercial Package Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Test... Case No. CAC-030, which grants Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. (Mitsubishi) a waiver from.... Decision and Order In the Matter of: Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. (Mitsubishi) (Case No. CAC...

  18. Child Forensic Interviewing in Children's Advocacy Centers: Empirical Data on a Practice Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.; Walsh, Wendy A.; Simone, Monique; Kolko, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Children's Advocacy Centers (CACs) aim to improve child forensic interviewing following allegations of child abuse by coordinating multiple investigations, providing child-friendly interviewing locations, and limiting redundant interviewing. This analysis presents one of the first rigorous evaluations of CACs' implementation of these…

  19. Relationship between Conventional Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Coronary Artery Calcification in Group Exposed to Inorganic Dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jeong; Park, So Young [Occupational Lung Diseases Institute, KCOMWEL, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the coronary artery calcification (CAC) and the conventional cardiovascular disease risk assessment (CCDRA). This study included 101 subjects who were exposed to inorganic dusts and underwent CAC scoring by multidetector CT (MDCT), laboratory tests, and a standardized questionnaire for CCDRA, after being approved from the Institutional Review Board and providing informed consent. All subjects were divided as either non-calcified group (< 1, 55.4%) or calcified group ({>=} 1, 44.6%) from total CAC, and evaluated by CCDRA, such as Framingham risk score (FRS) and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area of FRS was generated for predicting CAC risk using SPSS program (ver. 19.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Total CAC was significantly correlated with FRS (r = 0.283, p = 0.004). Crude odds ratio for CAC risk was 3.64 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-9.52] in FRS {>=} 20%, and 2.87 (95% CI 1.24-6.65) in the high risk group of NCEP. Subjects with pneumoconiosis showed higher values of CAC (p 0.541) and FRS (p = 0.035) scores compared with subjects without pneumoconiosis. ROC area of FRS was 0.69 (95% CI 0.59-0.79) with a cutoff point of 13.5%. CAC measured MDCT is significantly correlated with FRS than other CCDRA.

  20. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i4.4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    The purpose of this manuscript was to study the regulation effects of β-elemene combined with radiotherapy on three ... were also found on the MDR (multi-drug- resistance) induced by radiotherapy. ... primer: 5'- CGC TGT CAT CCC TTT ATC G-3' mTOR reverse primer: 5'- ATG CTC AAA CAC CTC CAC C-3', annealing.

  1. The origin, development and a brief appraisal of the doctrine of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected leaders of CAC were interviewed, and the data from the two sources were compared, interpreted and discussed in terms of related literature. A theological appraisal concluded the work. The findings are that, whilst CAC tenets appear to conform to the Classical Pentecostal model, the opinions of the church's ...

  2. Coronary calcification in SLE: comparison with the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Adnan N; Magder, Laurence S; Post, Wendy S; Szklo, Moyses; Bathon, Joan M; Schreiner, Pam J; O'Leary, Daniel; Petri, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    Accelerated atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and death in SLE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the prevalence and extent of coronary artery calcium (CAC) is higher in female SLE patients compared with a non-SLE sample from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). CAC was measured in 80 female SLE patients and 241 female MESA controls from the Baltimore Field Centre, ages 45-64 years, without evidence of clinical cardiovascular disease. Binary regression was used to estimate the ratio of CAC prevalence in SLE vs MESA controls, controlling for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. To compare the groups with respect to the quantity of CAC among those with non-zero Agatston scores, we used linear models in which the outcome was a log-transformed Agatston score. The prevalence of CAC was substantially higher in SLE. The differences were most pronounced and statistically significant in those aged 45-54 years (58% vs 20%, P SLE patients still had a significantly higher prevalence of CAC than controls. Among those with CAC, the mean log Agatston score did not differ significantly between SLE and MESA participants. Women with SLE have a higher prevalence of CAC than comparable women without SLE, even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, especially among those aged 45-54 years. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. The Antiaircraft Journal. Volume 92, Number 4, July-August 1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-08-01

    8217 ~ iC i’ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ iC iC THE BATTERYCOMMANDER STilL SWEATSIT OUT! By Captain Peter P. Genero , CAC Any skeptic who doesn’t hold with the title should be... Genero , CAC, is serving at Fort Bliss, Texas, where he has entered upon a competitive tour of extended active duty. Throughout his service, his

  4. Blood flow dependence of the intratumoral distribution of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor binding in intact mouse fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amitani, Misato [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan) and Course of Allied Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: amitani@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Zhang, Ming-Rong [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Noguchi, Junko [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); SHI Accelerator Service, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8686 (Japan); Kumata, Katsushi [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ito, Takehito [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); SHI Accelerator Service, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8686 (Japan); Takai, Nobuhiko [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazutoshi [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Hosoi, Rie [Course of Allied Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Inoue, Osamu [Course of Allied Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    The intratumoral distribution of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 binding, a novel peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand, was examined by autoradiography both in vitro and in vivo using a murine fibrosarcoma model. The regional distribution of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 in a tumor in vivo was significantly heterogeneous; the uptake of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 was comparatively higher in the outer rim of the tumor and was lower in the central area. In contrast, the images obtained following the injection of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 with a large amount of nonlabeled PK11195 showed a relatively homogeneous distribution, suggesting that [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 uptake represented specific binding to PBRs. In vitro autoradiograms of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 binding were also obtained using the section of the fibrosarcoma that was the same as that used to examine in vivo binding. In vitro autoradiographic binding images showed homogeneous distribution, and significant discrepancies of the intratumoral distribution of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 were observed between in vivo and in vitro images. The in vivo images of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 uptake, compared with those of [{sup 14}C]iodoantipyrine uptake, obtained by dual autoradiography to evaluate the influence of blood flow revealed the similar intratumoral distributions of both tracers. These results indicate that the delivery process from the plasma to the tumor might be the rate-limiting step for the intratumoral distribution of PBR binding in vivo in a fibrosarcoma model.

  5. Factors Associated With Low Levels of Subclinical Vascular Disease in Older Adults: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Michos, Erin D.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Szklo, Moyses; Burke, Gregory L.; Siscovick, David S; Tracy, Russell P.; Barr, R. Graham; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Greenland, Philip; David R Jacobs; Post, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid intimal medial thickness (cIMT), and reduced ankle brachial indices (ABI) are markers of subclinical vascular disease strongly associated with aging. We identified factors associated with low levels of subclinical vascular disease in 1824 participants ≥70 years in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. 452 had low CAC (

  6. Comparing coronary artery calcium and thoracic aorta calcium for prediction of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events on low-dose non-gated computed tomography in a high-risk population of heavy smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Peter C.; Prokop, Mathias; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Gondrie, Martijn J.; Janssen, Kristel J.; de Koning, Harry J.; Isgum, Ivana; van Klaveren, Rob J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van Ginneken, Bram; Mali, Willem P.

    Background: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and thoracic aorta calcium (TAC) can be detected simultaneously on low-dose, non-gated computed tomography (CT) scans. CAC has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CVD) and coronary (CHD) events. A comparable association between TAC and CVD events has yet

  7. Documentation of the 1996-2002 Chicago Annenberg Research Project Strand on Authentic Intellectual Demand Exhibited in Assignments and Student Work. A Technical Process Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Stacy; Nagaoka, Jenny; Morris, Loretta; Billings, Sabrina; Fendt, Carol

    2002-01-01

    In March 1996, the Consortium on Chicago School Research (CCSR) proposed to evaluate the Chicago Annenberg Challenge's (CAC) newly funded reform efforts in the Chicago public schools. The evaluation aimed to understand how schools involved in CAC efforts developed as organizations and, in turn, how these developments benefited students. The study…

  8. Circulating angiogenic cell function is inhibited by cortisol in vitro and associated with psychological stress and cortisol in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Density of calcium in the ascending thoracic aorta and risk of incident cardiovascular disease events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Isac C; McClelland, Robyn L; Michos, Erin D; Allison, Matthew A; Forbang, Nketi I; Longstreth, W T; Post, Wendy S; Wong, Nathan D; Budoff, Matthew J; Criqui, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The volume and density of coronary artery calcium (CAC) both independently predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) beyond standard risk factors, with CAC density inversely associated with incident CVD after accounting for CAC volume. We tested the hypothesis that ascending thoracic aorta calcium (ATAC) volume and density predict incident CVD events independently of CAC. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a prospective cohort study of participants without clinical CVD at baseline. ATAC and CAC were measured from baseline cardiac computed tomography (CT). Cox regression models were used to estimate the associations of ATAC volume and density with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events and CVD events, after adjustment for standard CVD risk factors and CAC volume and density. Among 6811 participants, 234 (3.4%) had prevalent ATAC and 3395 (49.8%) had prevalent CAC. Over 10.3 years, 355 CHD and 562 CVD events occurred. One-standard deviation higher ATAC density was associated with a lower risk of CHD (HR 0.48 [95% CI 0.29-0.79], pdensity was inversely associated with incident CHD and CVD after adjustment for CVD risk factors and CAC volume and density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Breast arterial calcifications are correlated with subsequent development of coronary artery calcifications, but their aetiology is predominantly different

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Angela H.E.M. [Department of Cardiology, Isala Klinieken, Groot Wezenland 20, 8011 JW Zwolle (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.maas@diagram-zwolle.nl; Schouw, Yvonne T. van der; Atsma, Femke [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Beijerinck, David; Deurenberg, Jan J.M. [Preventicon Breast Cancer Screening Center, Stationsplein 91, 3511ED Utrecht (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.Th.M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Y. van der [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study whether calcifications in breast arteries, as seen on mammograms, predict future development of coronary artery calcifications. Methods: We studied 499 women, aged 49-70 years, participating in a breast cancer screening program and investigated whether arterial calcifications in the breast (BAC) are associated with coronary arterial calcifications (CAC) after 9 years follow-up. Mammograms were reviewed for the presence of BAC. CAC was assessed by multi slice computed tomography (MSCT). With logistic regression analysis the independent effect of various risk factors on BAC and CAC was measured. Results: BAC was present in 58 of 499 women (12%) and CAC score > 0 was present in 262 of 499 women (53%). BAC was strongly associated with CAC (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.71-6.04) and this remained significant after adjustment for age at baseline and the duration of follow-up (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10-4.23). Most CV risk factors were associated with CAC but not with BAC. Only parity was significantly associated with both increased CAC (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.60) and increased BAC (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.23-22.43). Breastfeeding was associated with BAC (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.40-8.23) but not with CAC (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.84-1.93). Conclusion: Breast arterial calcifications are predictive of subsequent development of calcifications in the coronary arteries.

  11. Advanced Electrocardiogram Analysis in the Amitriptyline-poisoned Pig Treated with Activated Charcoal Haemoperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Tejs; Hoegberg, Lotte C.G.; Eriksen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Coated activated charcoal haemoperfusion (CAC-HP) does not reduce the plasma concentration in amitriptyline (AT)-poisoned pigs. The aim of this non-blinded, randomized, controlled animal trial was to determine if CAC-HP reduces the pathological ECG changes caused by AT poisoning. Fourteen female ...

  12. Coronary calcification with no flow limiting lesions: A potential cause for ischaemic dysfunction in syndrome X patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Palmerini

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: In symptomatic patients with no obstructive coronary lesions and with more than mild CAC, long axis disturbances and wall motion score index rise occur with stress, at the time of symptom development and correlate with severity of arterial calcification. These findings suggest CAC as a potential mechanism for coronary wall stiffness and consequently exertional ischaemic changes as a result of limited flow reserve.

  13. Does coronary calcium scoring with a SCORE better predict significant coronary artery stenosis than without? Correlation with computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durhan, Gamze; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Akata, Deniz [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Sunman, Hamza; Aytemir, Kudret [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Karakaya, Jale; Karaagaoglu, Ergun [Hacettepe University, Department of Biostatistics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-03

    To determine effectiveness of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) alone and combined with Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) in adult patients for significant coronary artery stenosis by using computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) as reference standard. Two thousand twenty-one patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CACS test and CTCA. Patients were examined with dual-source CT and were grouped according to their age, gender, CACS, and estimated SCORE risk. Coronary plaque existence and degree of stenosis were assessed with CTCA. Sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curves were analyzed. CACS was the single independent variable in estimating relative risk of critical stenosis and had superior outcome when compared with SCORE risk in logistic regression and ROC curve. Area under the ROC curve was greatest in the interval between 50-59 years. When SCORE was combined with CACS in patients with zero CACS, percentage of significant stenosis increased from 1.4% to 7.0% in patients with high or very high SCORE risk, and decreased to 0.9 % in patients with low or moderate SCORE risk. CACS combination with SCORE risk predicts coronary artery stenosis. When CACS is zero, CTCA can be performed in patients with high or very high SCORE risk. (orig.)

  14. 75 FR 64715 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... submitting office/claimant and subordinate commands financial management personnel, human resources... single web based interface utilizing one consolidated data warehouse. Routine Uses of Records Maintained... DoD issued Common Access Card (CAC) at a CAC enabled computer at https://twms.nmci.navy.mil...

  15. An evaluation of automatic coronary artery calcium scoring methods with cardiac CT using the orCaScore framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, J.M.; Leiner, T.; Vos, B.D. de; Coatrieux, J.L.; Kelm, B.M.; Kondo, S.; Salgado, R.A.; Shahzad, R.; Shu, H.; Snoeren, M.M.; Takx, R.A.P.; Vliet, L.J. van; Walsum, T. van; Willems, T.P.; Yang, G.; Zheng, Y.; Viergever, M.A.; Isgum, I.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The amount of coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. In clinical practice, CAC is manually identified and automatically quantified in cardiac CT using commercially available software. This is a tedious and

  16. An evaluation of automatic coronary artery calcium scoring methods with cardiac CT using the orCaScore framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, Jelmer M.; Leiner, Tim; de Vos, Bob D.; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Kelm, B. Michael; Kondo, Satoshi; Salgado, Rodrigo A.; Shahzad, Rahil; Shu, Huazhong; Snoeren, Miranda; Takx, Richard A. P.; van Vliet, Lucas J.; van Walsum, Theo; Willems, Tineke P.; Yang, Guanyu; Zheng, Yefeng; Viergever, Max A.; Isgum, Ivana

    Purpose: The amount of coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. In clinical practice, CAC is manually identified and automatically quantified in cardiac CT using commercially available software. This is a tedious and

  17. Less increase of CT-based calcium scores of the coronary arteries. Effect three years after breast-conserving radiotherapy using breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, M.E.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Petoukhova, A.L. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Heijenbrok, M.W. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Scholten, A.N. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wolterbeek, R. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden (Netherlands); Schreur, J.H.M. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Struikmans, H. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores determined before the start of whole breast irradiation with those determined 3 years afterwards. Changes in CAC scores were analysed in 99 breast cancer patients. Three groups were compared: patients receiving left- and right-sided radiotherapy, and those receiving left-sided radiotherapy with breath-hold. We analysed overall CAC scores and left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) CAC scores. Between the three groups, changes of the value of the LAD minus the RCA CAC scores of each individual patient were also compared. Three years after breath-hold-based whole breast irradiation, a less pronounced increase of CAC scores was noted. Furthermore, LAD minus RCA scores in patients treated for left-sided breast cancer without breath-hold were higher when compared to LAD minus RCA scores of patients with right-sided breast cancers and those with left-sided breast cancer treated with breath-hold. Breath-hold in breast-conserving radiotherapy leads to a less pronounced increase of CT-based CAC scores. Therefore, breath-hold probably prevents the development of radiation-induced coronary artery disease. However, the sample size of this study is limited and the follow-up period relatively short. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser prospektiven Langzeitstudie war der Vergleich der Coronary-Artery-Calcium-(CAC-)Werte vor Beginn der Brustbestrahlung mit den Werten nach 3 Jahren. Aenderungen der CAC-Werte wurden bei 99 Brustkrebspatienten analysiert. Drei Gruppen wurden untersucht: Patienten nach links- und rechtsseitiger Strahlentherapie sowie mit Bestrahlung unter Atemanhalt. Wir analysierten die Gesamt-CAC-Werte sowie die CAC-Werte der vorderen linken absteigenden (''left anterior descending'', LAD) und der rechten Koronararterie (''right coronary artery'', RCA). Zwischen den drei Gruppen wurden auch die Veraenderungen

  18. Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sanchita

    2013-01-01

    Call Admission Control (CAC) and Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) are important decision-making problems in mobile cellular communication systems. Current research in mobile communication considers them as two independent problems, although the former greatly depends on the resulting free channels obtained as the outcome of the latter. This book provides a solution to the CAC problem, considering DCA as an integral part of decision-making for call admission. Further, current technical resources ignore movement issues of mobile stations and fluctuation in network load (incoming calls) in the control strategy used for call admission. In addition, the present techniques on call admission offers solution globally for the entire network, instead of considering the cells independently.      CAC here has been formulated by two alternative approaches. The first approach aimed at handling the uncertainty in the CAC problem by employing fuzzy comparators.  The second approach is concerned with formulation of CAC ...

  19. Coronary artery calcification detected in lung cancer screening predicts cardiovascular death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Køber, Lars; Abdulla, Jawdat

    2015-01-01

    to conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis including previously published studies regarding CAC in lung cancer screening. DESIGN: In DLCST, we measured Agatston CAC scores in 1,945 current and former smokers. Causes of death were extracted from the Danish National Death Registry. We used Cox......OBJECTIVES: It remains unknown whether non-electrocardiogram-gated coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in lung cancer screening provides incremental prognostic value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of CAC in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST), in addition......-electrocardiogram-gated CAC in lung cancer screening programs is a robust prognostic measure of fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events in current and former smokers independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors....

  20. [Relationship between cystatin C and coronary artery calcification in patients with intermediate cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Salas, Amalio; Cortés-Rodríguez, Miriam; Alegre-Bayo, Nieves; Algarra-García, José; de Teresa Galván, Eduardo; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel F

    2014-12-23

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbimortality in industrialized countries. Quantification of coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been shown to have an independent and incremental prognostic value over traditional risk factors for the prediction of mortality and cardiovascular events. The aim of our study was to determine the possible relationship between CAC and cystatin C (CTC). We included 104 patients with stable chest pain, free of cardiovascular disease and nephropathy, with intermediate cardiovascular risk. Both CAC (Agatston) and CTC were determined. CTC was independently associated with the CAC level and the presence of coronary disease. CTC values may be associated with CAC and coronary disease. Further studies are needed to know the importance of these markers in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of coronary artery calcification in percutaneous coronary intervention with paclitaxel-eluting stents: Two-year clinical outcomes of paclitaxel-eluting stents in patients from the ARRIVE program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Yang, Tae; Lasala, John; Cox, David

    2016-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with coronary artery calcification (CAC). Smaller studies have reported worse clinical outcomes in patients with CAC who undergo PCI. The impact of CAC in the drug-eluting stent era is unclear. Data from 7,492 patients treated by PCI with ≥1 TAXUS Express stent in the ARRIVE registry with no inclusion/exclusion criteria were stratified by the severity of CAC, as determined by the operator. Endpoints were independently adjudicated. All major adverse cardiac events were assessed at 2 years. Moderate/severe CAC was present in 19.6%. The nil/mild CAC group had higher rate of current smokers. The moderate/severe CAC group was older and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, kidney disease, prior coronary artery bypass grafting, congestive heart failure, and left main disease. After adjustment for imbalanced baseline variables, patients with moderate/severe CAC had higher 2 year rates of major adverse cardiac events (18.3% vs 13.5%, p = 0.01) and death (10.3% vs 5.6%, p = 0.02). Moderate/severe CAC was associated with increased clinical events in patients who underwent PCI with TAXUS stents. This may be explained in part due to differences important baseline characteristics including more patients with more comorbidities and more complex lesions. After adjustment for imbalanced baseline variables, the moderate/severe CAC group had a higher risk of major adverse cardiac events and death. Improvements in treatment strategies are needed for this high-risk group of patients who undergo PCI. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Coronary artery calcification in CKD-5D 
patients is tied to adverse cardiac function 
and increased mortality
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Paul; Blomquist, Gustav A; Davenport, Daniel L; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Sorrell, Vincent L; Malluche, Hartmut H

    2016-12-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis (CKD-5D) and is an important predictor of mortality. However, cardiac functional links between CAC and mortality have not been well established. This study tested the hypothesis that CAC increases mortality by adversely affecting cardiac function. Patients were recruited from 37 regional dialysis centers. 2-D and Doppler echocardiographic analyses were performed, and CAC was measured using 64-slice computed tomography. Relationships between CAC and echocardiographic measures of left ventricular (LV) function were analyzed. Survival was assessed with median follow-up of 37 months. There were 157 patients: 59% male, 46% Caucasian, 48% diabetic. Median age was 55 years, and median duration of CKD-5D was 45 months. Agatston CAC scores 100 were found in 69% of patients, with 51% having a score  400. CAC was associated with measures of LV systolic and diastolic function (global longitudinal strain (GLS; rho = 0.270, p = 0.004)), peak LV systolic velocity (rho = -0.259, p = 0.004), and estimate of LV filling pressure (E:E'; rho = 0.286, p = 0.001). Multivariate regression confirmed these relationships after adjustment for age, gender, LV ejection fraction, and coronary artery disease. Valvular calcification varied linearly with CAC (p diastolic and systolic functional measures were significant predictors of mortality, the strongest of which was LV diastolic dysfunction. These findings show a link between CAC, cardiac function, and mortality in CKD-5D. LV diastolic function (E:E'), peak LV systolic velocity, and GLS are independent predictors of mortality. Valvular calcification may be an important marker of CAC in CKD-5D. These effects on cardiac function likely explain the high mortality with CKD-5D and describe a potentially-valuable role for echocardiography in the routine management of these patients.
.

  3. Significant inverse association of equol-producer status with coronary artery calcification but not dietary isoflavones in healthy Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vasudha; Miura, Katsuyuki; Vishnu, Abhishek; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Evans, Rhobert; Zaid, Maryam; Miyagawa, Naoko; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadota, Aya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Sekikawa, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Equol, a metabolite of the dietary isoflavone daidzein, is produced by the action of gut bacteria in some individuals who are termed as equol-producers. It is proposed to have stronger atheroprotective properties than dietary isoflavones. We examined a cross-sectional association of dietary isoflavones and equol-producer status with coronary artery calcification (CAC), a biomarker of coronary atherosclerosis, among men in Japan. A population-based sample of 272 Japanese men aged 40-49 years recruited from 2004 to 2007 was examined for serum isoflavones, serum equol, CAC and other factors. Equol-producers were classified as individuals having a serum level of equol >83 nm. The presence of CAC was defined as a coronary Ca score ≥10 Agatston units. The associations of dietary isoflavones and equol-producers with CAC were analysed using multiple logistic regression. The median of dietary isoflavones, equol and CAC were 512·7 (interquartile range (IQR) 194·1, 1170·0), 9·1 (IQR 0·10, 33·1) and 0·0 (IQR 0·0, 1·0) nm, respectively. Prevalence of CAC and equol-producers was 9·6 and 16·0 %, respectively. Dietary isoflavones were not significantly associated with CAC. After multivariable adjustment, the OR for the presence of CAC in equol-producers compared with equol non-producers was 0·10 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·90, PEquol-producers had significantly lower CAC than equol non-producers, but there was no significant association between dietary isoflavones and CAC, suggesting that equol may be a key factor for atheroprotective properties of isoflavones in Japanese men. This finding must be confirmed in larger studies or clinical trials of equol that is now available as a dietary supplement.

  4. Serum cystatin C levels are associated with coronary artery calcification in women without chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Hiroyasu; Miyoshi, Toru; Osawa, Kazuhiro; Miki, Takashi; Koide, Yuji; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Morita, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    Chronic renal disease (CKD) is a determinant of coronary artery calcification (CAC), which is a predictor of cardiovascular events. However, in a population without CKD, the association between CAC and renal function is unclear. CAC is affected by sex. This study aimed to determine whether serum cystatin C, a sensitive marker of kidney function, or sex differences are associated with CAC in patients without CKD. We evaluated 456 consecutive patients (61±13 years, 42% women) without CKD and evidence of coronary artery disease. The CAC (Agatston) score was examined by multidetector computed tomography. When patients were categorized into three CAC groups based on the Agatston score, mild (C levels gradually increased by severity of CAC in women, but not men. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that, in women, a cut-off value of 0.97mg/l for cystatin C discriminated patients with severe CAC with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 77% (area under the curve, 0.74; 95% CI: 0.62-0.86; pC was not associated with severe CAC in all patients and men, but this association was observed in women (OR: 7.80 for cystatin C≥0.97mg/l, 95% CI: 1.76-34.6, pC levels are associated with greater CAC in women without CKD. Measurement of cystatin C may be useful for identifying women who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery calcium progression in a multiethnic US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Veeranna, Vikas; Panaich, Sidakpal; Kottam, Anupama; Afonso, Luis

    2014-02-01

    Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLc) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease risk, with elevated levels signifying an increased risk beyond low-density lipoprotein. Previous data have shown inconsistent association of lipid subfractions with progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC), a surrogate marker of incident cardiovascular disease. We sought to evaluate the association between non-HDLc and development (incident) and progression of CAC in a cohort of multiethnic asymptomatic subjects. The cohort (n = 5,705) was derived from the limited access data set of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis obtained from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to derive the association between non-HDLc and incident CAC (n = 2,927) and non-HDLc and progression of CAC (n = 2,778). In the population without CAC at baseline, non-HDLc, especially >190 mg/dl, was independently associated with incident CAC (relative risk 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.79, p = 0.008) after adjustments with age, gender, race, systolic blood pressure, antihypertension medication use, smoking, diabetes, lipid-lowering therapy use, follow-up duration, and waist-hip ratio. Similarly, among those with CAC at baseline, non-HDLc levels >190 mg/dl were associated with significant CAC progression in the overall population (β 16.4, 95% confidence interval -5.63 to 27.2, p = 0.003) after adjustments. In conclusion, non-HDLc levels, especially >190 mg/dl, are consistently associated with increased risk of CAC progression. Our results suggest that among lipid fractions, non-HDLc may be best suited for the prediction of future CAC progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Compost de ave de corral como componente de sustratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Alejandra Barbaro¹

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El sustrato para cultivo es un material que colocado en un contenedor permite el anclaje del sistema radicular, proporcionando agua y nutrientes. Entre los materiales empleados para formular sustratos se encuentran los compost. Entre ellos el compost de cama de ave de corral (CAC, elaborado en base al estiércol de aves mezclado con los materiales que forman su lecho. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar dos compost de CAC como componente de sustrato, mediante el desarrollo de plantas de Coral (Salvia splendens. Uno de los compost contenía cama de stud (CAC+S durante su compostaje. Se formularon sustratos con diferentes proporciones de compost de CAC, compost de corteza de pino y pinocha, luego fueron analizados física y químicamente. A las plantas cultivadas en cada sustrato se midió la longitud y el diámetro del tallo, peso fresco y seco de la parte aérea y radicular. La densidad, porosidad y capacidad de retención de agua de todos los sustratos fueron aceptables. El pH de ambos compost de CAC fue mayor a 6,3, y los valores de las mezclas se encontraron dentro del rango aceptable. Todos los sustratos superaron 1 dS m-1 (1+5 v/v, principalmente los formulados con compost de CAC+S, cuyo material puro contenía altos niveles salinos. Al disminuir el porcentaje de CAC en las mezclas, diminuyó la concentración de cada nutriente. Las plantas cultivadas en el sustrato comercial y en las mezclas con 20% de CAC fueron las que lograron los mayores pesos aéreos y radiculares, diámetro y longitud del tallo. Por lo tanto, el compost de ave de corral podría ser una alternativa viable como componente de sustrato si se lo utiliza hasta un 20%.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of coronary artery calcium testing for coronary heart and cardiovascular disease risk prediction to guide statin allocation: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eric T; Horne, Aaron; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Blankstein, Ron; Budoff, Matthew J; Sibley, Christopher; Polak, Joseph F; Frick, Kevin D; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) showed that the addition of coronary artery calcium (CAC) to traditional risk factors improves risk classification, particularly in intermediate risk asymptomatic patients with LDL cholesterol levels cost-effectiveness of incorporating CAC into treatment decision rules has yet to be clearly delineated. To model the cost-effectiveness of CAC for cardiovascular risk stratification in asymptomatic, intermediate risk patients not taking a statin. Treatment based on CAC was compared to (1) treatment of all intermediate-risk patients, and (2) treatment on the basis of United States guidelines. We developed a Markov model of first coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. We modeled statin treatment in intermediate risk patients with CAC≥1 and CAC≥100, with different intensities of statins based on the CAC score. We compared these CAC-based treatment strategies to a "treat all" strategy and to treatment according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines. Clinical and economic outcomes were modeled over both five- and ten-year time horizons. Outcomes consisted of CHD and CVD events and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Sensitivity analyses considered the effect of higher event rates, different CAC and statin costs, indirect costs, and re-scanning patients with incidentalomas. We project that it is both cost-saving and more effective to scan intermediate-risk patients for CAC and to treat those with CAC≥1, compared to treatment based on established risk-assessment guidelines. Treating patients with CAC≥100 is also preferred to existing guidelines when we account for statin side effects and the disutility of statin use. Compared to the alternatives we assessed, CAC testing is both effective and cost saving as a risk-stratification tool, particularly if there are adverse effects of long-term statin use. CAC may enable providers to better tailor preventive therapy to patients

  8. Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Örjan; Fagman, Erika; Angerås, Oskar; Schmidt, Caroline; Rosengren, Annika; Börjesson, Mats; Bergström, Göran

    2018-02-01

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO 2 max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  9. Higher association of coronary artery calcification with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than with abdominal obesity in middle-aged Korean men: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Kyung; Park, Hye-Jeong; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-07-15

    It is uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or abdominal obesity is more associated with atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether NAFLD or abdominal obesity is more strongly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis represented by coronary artery calcification (CAC). A total of 21,335 male participants in a health screening program (mean age 41 years) were enrolled. Ultrasonographic measurements of fatty liver and multi-detector computed tomography were performed to determine the coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The presence of CAC was defined as CACS > 0. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the presence or absence of NAFLD and/or abdominal obesity as assessed by waist-hip ratio (WHR) > 0.9. The presence of CAC was detected in 2,385 subjects (11.2%). The proportion of subjects with CAC was highest in the abdominal obesity only group (23.2%). After adjustment for age, diabetes history, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity, the odds ratio (OR) for CAC was the highest in the group with both abnormalities [1.465 (1.324-1.623)]. The NAFLD only group showed significantly increased OR for CAC compared to that in the abdominal obesity only group [1.286 (1.151-1.436) vs. 1.076 (0.939-1.233)]. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is more closely associated with CAC than abdominal obesity as assessed by the WHR. NAFLD could be considered an independent determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by CAC.

  10. Vitamin K supplementation and progression of coronary artery calcium in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Hoffmann, Udo; Dallal, Gerard E; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Ordovas, José M; Price, Paul A; Williamson, Matthew K; Booth, Sarah L

    2009-06-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. A preventive role for vitamin K in CAC progression has been proposed on the basis of the properties of matrix Gla protein (MGP) as a vitamin K-dependent calcification inhibitor. The objective was to determine the effect of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) supplementation on CAC progression in older men and women. CAC was measured at baseline and after 3 y of follow-up in 388 healthy men and postmenopausal women; 200 received a multivitamin with 500 microg phylloquinone/d (treatment), and 188 received a multivitamin alone (control). In an intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference in CAC progression between the phylloquinone group and the control group; the mean (+/-SEM) changes in Agatston scores were 27 +/- 6 and 37 +/- 7, respectively. In a subgroup analysis of participants who were > or =85% adherent to supplementation (n = 367), there was less CAC progression in the phylloquinone group than in the control group (P = 0.03). Of those with preexisting CAC (Agatston score > 10), those who received phylloquinone supplements had 6% less progression than did those who received the multivitamin alone (P = 0.04). Phylloquinone-associated decreases in CAC progression were independent of changes in serum MGP. MGP carboxylation status was not determined. Phylloquinone supplementation slows the progression of CAC in healthy older adults with preexisting CAC, independent of its effect on total MGP concentrations. Because our data are hypothesis-generating, further studies are warranted to clarify this mechanism. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00183001.

  11. Microparticle-Induced Coagulation Relates to Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Horn

    Full Text Available Circulating microparticles (MPs derived from endothelial cells and blood cells bear procoagulant activity and promote thrombin generation. Thrombin exerts proinflammatory effects mediating the progression of atherosclerosis. Aortic valve stenosis may represent an atherosclerosis-like process involving both the aortic valve and the vascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MP-induced thrombin generation is related to coronary atherosclerosis and aortic valve calcification.In a cross-sectional study of 55 patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, we assessed the coronary calcification score (CAC as indicator of total coronary atherosclerosis burden, and aortic valve calcification (AVC by computed tomography. Thrombin-antithrombin complex (TATc levels were measured as a marker for thrombin formation. Circulating MPs were characterized by flow cytometry according to the expression of established surface antigens and by measuring MP-induced thrombin generation.Patients with CAC score below the median were classified as patients with low CAC, patients with CAC Score above the median as high CAC. In patients with high CAC compared to patients with low CAC we detected higher levels of TATc, platelet-derived MPs (PMPs, endothelial-derived MPs (EMPs and MP-induced thrombin generation. Increased level of PMPs and MP-induced thrombin generation were independent predictors for the severity of CAC. In contrast, AVC Score did not differ between patients with high and low CAC and did neither correlate with MPs levels nor with MP-induced thrombin generation.In patients with severe aortic valve stenosis MP-induced thrombin generation was independently associated with the severity of CAC but not AVC indicating different pathomechanisms involved in coronary artery and aortic valve calcification.

  12. Increased risk of coronary artery calcification progression in subjects with high baseline Lp(a) levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Hwan; Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Results from previous studies support the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and coronary artery disease risk. In this study, we analyzed the association between baseline Lp(a) levels and future progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 2611 participants (mean age: 41years, 92% mend) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2010 and 2014 were enrolled. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Baseline Lp(a) was measured by high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Progression of CAC was defined as a change in CACS >0 over four years. Bivariate correlation analyses with baseline Lp(a) and other metabolic parameters revealed age, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and CACS to have a significant positive correlation, while body weight, fasting glucose level, blood pressure and triglyceride level were negatively correlated with baseline Lp(a) level. After four years of follow-up, 635 subjects (24.3%) had CAC progression. The participants who had CAC progression were older, composed of more men, more obese, and had higher fasting glucose levels and worse baseline lipid profiles compared to those who did not have CAC progression. The mean serum Lp(a) level was significantly higher in subjects who had CAC progression compared to those who did not (32.5 vs. 28.9mg/dL, p<0.01). When the risk for CAC progression according to baseline Lp(a) was calculated, those with Lp(a) level≥50mg/dL had an odds ratio of 1.333 (95% CI 1.027-1.730) for CAC progression compared to those with Lp(a)<50mg/dL after adjusting for confounding factors. In this study, the subjects who had higher Lp(a) were at significantly higher risk for CAC progression after four years of follow-up, suggesting the role of high Lp(a) in CAC progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Automatic Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring on Radiotherapy Planning CT Scans of Breast Cancer Patients: Reproducibility and Association with Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernaat, Sofie A. M.; Išgum, Ivana; de Vos, Bob D.; Takx, Richard A. P.; Young-Afat, Danny A.; Rijnberg, Noor; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; de Jong, Pim A.; Leiner, Tim; van den Bongard, Desiree H. J.; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assesses reproducibility of automatic CAC scoring on radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT) scans of breast cancer patients, and examines its association with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods This study included 561 breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy between 2013 and 2015. CAC was automatically scored with an algorithm using supervised pattern recognition, expressed as Agatston scores and categorized into five categories (0, 1–10, 11–100, 101–400, >400). Reproducibility between automatic and manual expert scoring was assessed in 79 patients with automatically determined CAC above zero and 84 randomly selected patients without automatically determined CAC. Interscan reproducibility of automatic scoring was assessed in 294 patients having received two scans (82% on the same day). Association between CAC and CVD risk factors was assessed in 36 patients with CAC scores >100, 72 randomly selected patients with scores 1–100, and 72 randomly selected patients without CAC. Reliability was assessed with linearly weighted kappa and agreement with proportional agreement. Results 134 out of 561 (24%) patients had a CAC score above zero. Reliability of CVD risk categorization between automatic and manual scoring was 0.80 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.74–0.87), and slightly higher for scans with breath-hold. Agreement was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72–0.85). Interscan reliability was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50–0.72) with an agreement of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.80–0.89). Ten out of 36 (27.8%) patients with CAC scores above 100 did not have other cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Automatic CAC scoring on radiotherapy planning CT scans is a reliable method to assess CVD risk based on Agatston scores. One in four breast cancer patients planned for radiotherapy have elevated CAC score. One in three patients with high CAC

  14. A Postsynthetic Modified MOF Hybrid as Heterogeneous Photocatalyst for α-Phenethyl Alcohol and Reusable Fluorescence Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao; Yan, Bing

    2016-11-21

    The recent discovery of lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) offers the potential to extend the chemical sensing and catalysis capabilities of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Herein, a new europium functionalized material based on MIL-125(Ti)-NH 2 is synthesized by covalent postsynthetic modification and shows photocatalytic oxidation properties of α-phenethyl alcohol, and their fluorescence quenching behaviors are investigated. The catalytic efficiency is tested by monitoring the photocatalytic oxidation of α-phenethyl alcohol under ultraviolet light irradiation. Furthermore, MIL-125(Ti)-AM-Eu is developed as a fluorescence sensor integrated with its photocatalytic and luminescent properties. The MIL-125(Ti)-AM-Eu is used for detecting α-phenethyl alcohol, which could be successfully oxidized to acetophenone by the catalyst, and the fluorescence of MIL-125(Ti)-AM-Eu has changed accordingly.

  15. Slow crack growth resistance and bridging stress determination in alumina-rich magnesium aluminate spinel/tungsten composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Suarez, T.; Lopez-Esteban, S.; Pecharroman, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Moya, J.S. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jsmoya@icmm.csic.es; El Attaoui, H.; Benaqqa, C.; Chevalier, J. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, Villeurbanne F-69621 (France)

    2009-04-15

    The slow crack growth (SCG) resistance (V-K{sub I} diagrams) of magnesium aluminate spinel and its tungsten composites with different metallic content (7, 10, 14 and 22 vol.%) is reported. It is found that tungsten plays a crucial role in the composite by increasing crack resistance: the higher the W content, the higher the stress intensity factor needed for crack extension at a given rate. The reinforcement is due to the bridging mechanism performed by metal particles, as it strongly affects the compliance of cracked specimens. Its magnitude is estimated by a compliance function {phi}(a) from a double torsion test. From the compliance function, R-curve behaviour is predicted for the composite with highest tungsten content. It explains the effect of metal particles on SCG curves. The W-MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} interface is believed to influence the reinforcement mechanism.

  16. Study of the a_0(980) meson via the radiative decay phi->eta pi^0 gamma with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Archilli, F; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Crucianelli, F; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Sibidanov, A; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Volpe, R; Xu, G

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the phi->a_0(980) gamma process with the KLOE detector at the Frascati phi-factory DAPhNE by detecting the phi->eta pi^0 gamma decays in the final states with eta->gamma gamma and eta->pi^+ pi^- pi^0. We have measured the branching ratios for both final states: Br(phi->eta pi^0 gamma)=(7.01 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.20)x10^-5 and (7.12 +/- 0.13 +/- 0.22)x10^-5 respectively. We have also extracted the a_0(980) mass and its couplings to eta pi^0, K^+ K^-, and to the phi meson from the fit of the eta pi^0 invariant mass distributions using different phenomenological models.

  17. Underwater Inspection of Fleet Moorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    Sl.pin,,~. Phi ladel phia PA: RO I ( ( . I llniract’.. (‘rane IN S-A S I -Al I \\( ,( O’sI - P.A( 1)15 K s ) (od e 11( 1 . Pearl Hark.r. HI: ( ode 2...114 i Mr 114am). Pearl Hath.r HI: ( tide 31t2 RI) I A I - Pe.,rl Flarkir Ill . Commander . Pe ir l HlurI14’r. HI 5.5 5 I -At I- N(,( 1 )51 SI)) Ill l...Monlerdy (A : J. Garrison Monterey (.A S -AA I’IIIIt ,AS E ( 1 ) . ,A CH 2 N1,rf,Clk . V A : ( ode SI! Norfolk V A : Harbo r Clearance Enit i w o

  18. Anti-UV Radiation Textiles Designed by Embracing with Nano-MIL (Ti, In)-Metal Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Hossam E; Abdelhameed, Reda M

    2017-08-23

    Protective textiles against harmful solar radiation are quite important materials for outdoor workers to secure their skin from several diseases. Current report focuses on production of anti-ultraviolet radiation (UVR) textiles by incorporation of nano-metal-organic frameworks (n-MOFs). Two different MIL-MOFs, namely, MIL-68(In)-NH2 and MIL-125(Ti)-NH2, were immediately formed inside natural textiles (cotton and silk) matrix in nano size using quite simple and one-pot process. The formation of n-MIL-MOFs inside textiles were confirmed by using electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Different size and morphology were seen depending on textile type reflecting the textiles' chemical composition role in the nature of prepared MIL-MOFs. For MIL-68(In)-NH2, particles with size distribution of 70.6-44.5 nm in cotton and 81.3-52.2 nm in silk were detected, while crystalline disc of MIL-125(Ti)-NH2 was clearly seen inside textiles. The natural textiles exhibited full UVR blocking after modification, and the UV protection factor (UPF) was linearly proportional with MIL-MOFs and metal contents. Whatever metal type, direct incorporation of MIL-MOF contents greater than or equal to 10.4 g/kg was sufficient to attain excellent UV blocking property. Although 38.5-41.0% of MIL-MOFs was lost during five washings, the washed samples showed very good blocking rate (UPF = 26.7-36.2) supporting good laundering durability.

  19. The lactic acid bacteria metabolite phenyllactic acid inhibits both radial growth and sporulation of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanström, Åsa; Boveri, Silvio; Boström, Emma; Melin, Petter

    2013-11-14

    Food spoilage caused by molds is a severe problem. In food and feed, e.g. dairy products, sourdough bread and silage, lactic acid bacteria are used as starter cultures. Besides lactic and acetic acid, some strains produce other low molecular weight compounds with antifungal activities. One of these metabolites is phenyllactic acid (PLA), well known for its antifungal effect. The inhibitory effect of PLA has only partially been investigated, and the objective of this study was to elucidate in detail the antifungal properties of PLA. We investigated the outgrowth of individual conidia from Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium roqueforti, and observed the morphologies of resulting colonies on solid media using different acid concentrations. We found that PLA inhibits molds similar to weak acid preservatives. Furthermore, it has an additional activity: at sub-inhibitory concentrations, fungal colonies displayed slower radial growth and inhibited sporulation. The L isoform of PLA is a more potent inhibitor than the D form. Increased expression of phiA was observed during PLA treatment. This gene was initially identified as being induced by Streptomyces-produced macrolide antibiotics, and is shown to be a structural protein in developed cells. This suggests that PhiA may act as a general stress protectant in fungi. From a food protection perspective, the results of this study support the usage of lactic acid bacteria strains synthesizing PLA as starter cultures in food and feed. Such starter cultures could inhibit spore synthesis, which would be beneficial as many food borne fungi are spread by airborne spores.

  20. Diabetes and male sex are key risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification: A Euro-CCAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Wiklund, Urban; Diederichsen, Axel; Mickley, Hans; Ovrehus, Kristian; Zamorano, Jose; Gueret, Pascal; Schmermund, Axel; Maffei, Erica; Cademartiri, Filippo; Budoff, Matt; Henein, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Although much has been written about the conventional cardiovascular risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification (CAC), few studies have been carried out on symptomatic patients. This paper assesses the potential ability of risk factors to associate with an increasing CAC score. From the European Calcific Coronary Artery Disease (Euro-CCAD) cohort, we retrospectively investigated 6309 symptomatic patients, 62% male, from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the USA. All had conventional cardiovascular risk factor assessment and CT scanning for CAC scoring. Among all patients, male sex (OR = 4.85, pdichotomous risk factor (p<0.001 for both). These results were echoed in quantile regression, where diabetes was consistently the most important correlate with CAC extent in every quantile in both males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively. In addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between framingham risk score and coronary artery calcium score in asymptomatic Korean individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, So Young; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Seong, Su Ok [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We explored the association between Framingham risk score (FRS) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in asymptomatic Korean individuals. We retrospectively analyzed 2216 participants who underwent routine health screening and CACS using the 64-slice multidetector computed tomography between January 2010 and June 2014. Relationship between CACS and FRS, and factors associated with discrepancy between CACS and FRS were analyzed. CACS and FRS were positively correlated (p < 0.0001). However, in 3.7% of participants with low coronary event risk and high CACS, age, male gender, smoker, hypertension, total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index (BMI; ≥ 35) were associated with the discrepancy. In the diagnostic prediction model for discrepancy, the receiver operating characteristic curve including factors associated with FRS, diastolic blood pressure (≥ 75 mm Hg), diabetes mellitus, and BMI (≥ 35) showed that the area under the curve was 0.854 (95% confidence interval, 0.819–0.890), indicating good sensitivity. Diabetes mellitus or obesity (BMI ≥ 35) compensate for the weakness of FRS and may be potential indicators for application of CACS in asymptomatic Koreans with low coronary event risk.

  2. Coronary Artery Calcium Imaging in the ROBINSCA Trial: Rationale, Design, and Technical Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonder, Marleen; van der Aalst, Carlijn M; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Ooijen, Peter M A; Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Gratama, Jan Willem; de Koning, Harry J; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2018-01-01

    To describe the rationale, design, and technical background of coronary artery calcium (CAC) imaging in the large-scale population-based cardiovascular disease screening trial (Risk Or Benefit IN Screening for CArdiovascular Diseases [ROBINSCA]). First, literature search was performed to review the logistics, setup, and settings of previously performed CAC imaging studies, and current clinical CAC imaging protocols of participating centers in the ROBINSCA trial were evaluated. A second literature search was performed to evaluate the impact of computed tomography parameter settings on CAC score. Based on literature reviews and experts opinion an imaging protocol accompanied by data management protocol was created for ROBINSCA. The imaging protocol should consist of a fixed tube voltage, individually tailored tube current setting, mid-diastolic electrocardiography-triggering, fixed field-of-view, fixed reconstruction kernel, fixed slice thickness, overlapping reconstruction and without iterative reconstruction. The analysis of scans is performed with one type and version of CAC scoring software, by two dedicated and experienced researchers. The data management protocol describes the organization of data handling between the coordinating center, participating centers, and core analysis center. In this paper we describe the rationale and technical considerations to be taken in developing CAC imaging protocol, and we present a detailed protocol that can be implemented for CAC screening purposes. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Adenylyl Cyclase Complex Proteins Using Versatile Protein-Tagging Plasmid Systems in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Yee-Seul; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Jung, Kwang-Woo; Huh, Won-Ki; Bahn, Yong-Sun

    2017-02-28

    In this study, we aimed to generate a series of versatile tagging plasmids that can be used in diverse molecular biological studies of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. We constructed 12 plasmids that can be used to tag a protein of interest with a GFP, mCherry, 4×FLAG, or 6×HA, along with nourseothricin-, neomycin-, or hygromycin-resistant selection markers. Using this tagging plasmid set, we explored the adenylyl cyclase complex (ACC), consisting of adenylyl cyclase (Cac1) and its associated protein Aca1, in the cAMP-signaling pathway, which is critical for the pathogenicity of C. neoformans. We found that Cac1-mCherry and Aca1-GFP were mainly colocalized as punctate forms in the cell membrane and nonnuclear cellular organelles. We also demonstrated that Cac1 and Aca1 interacted in vivo by coimmunoprecipitation, using Cac1-6×HA and Aca1-4×FLAG tagging strains. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation further confirmed the in vivo interaction of Cac1 and Aca1 in live cells. Finally, protein pull-down experiments using aca1Δ::ACA1-GFP and aca1Δ::ACA1- GFP cac1Δ strains and comparative mass spectrometry analysis identified Cac1 and a number of other novel ACC-interacting proteins. Thus, this versatile tagging plasmid system will facilitate diverse mechanistic studies in C. neoformans and further our understanding of its biology.

  4. Association of Big Endothelin-1 with Coronary Artery Calcification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Qing

    Full Text Available The coronary artery calcification (CAC is clinically considered as one of the important predictors of atherosclerosis. Several studies have confirmed that endothelin-1(ET-1 plays an important role in the process of atherosclerosis formation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether big ET-1 is associated with CAC.A total of 510 consecutively admitted patients from February 2011 to May 2012 in Fu Wai Hospital were analyzed. All patients had received coronary computed tomography angiography and then divided into two groups based on the results of coronary artery calcium score (CACS. The clinical characteristics including traditional and calcification-related risk factors were collected and plasma big ET-1 level was measured by ELISA. Patients with CAC had significantly elevated big ET-1 level compared with those without CAC (0.5 ± 0.4 vs. 0.2 ± 0.2, P0 and the highest tertile of big ET-1 (P<0.01. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the big ET-1 level in predicting CAC was 0.83 (95% CI 0.79-0.87, p<0.001, with a sensitivity of 70.6% and specificity of 87.7%.The data firstly demonstrated that the plasma big ET-1 level was a valuable independent predictor for CAC in our study.

  5. Biophysical and Structural Studies on the Capsid Protein of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: A New Drug Target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Neira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIDS affects 30 million people worldwide and is one of the deadliest epidemics in human history. It is caused by a retrovirus, HIV, whose mature capsid (enclosing the RNA with other proteins is formed by the assembly of several hundred copies of a protein, CA*. The C-terminal domain of such protein, CAC, is a driving force in virus assembly and the connections in the mature capsid lattice indicate that CAC joins through homodimerization of the CA hexamers. In the first part of this work, I shall review the biophysical studies carried out with the dimeric wild-type CAC protein and a mutant monomeric variant. The results open new venues for the development of drugs able to interact either with the dimeric species, hampering its assembly, or with the monomeric species, obstructing its folding. In the second part of this review, I shall describe the structures of complexes of CAC with small molecules able to weaken its dimerization. Furthermore, interactions with other proteins and lipids are also described. The whole set of results suggests that much of the surface of CAC does not accommodate binding per se, but rather binding sites in the protein are predefined, i.e., there are “hot” spots for binding in CAC (whatever be the molecule to bind. These “hot” residues involve most of the dimerization interface (an α-helix of the CAC wild-type protein, but also polypeptide patches at the other helices.

  6. Determination of carbonic anhydrase C and. beta. /sub 2/-microglobulin by radioimmunoassay in urine of heavy-metal-exposed subjects and patients with renal tubular acidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, N. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan); Tanaka, M.; Kishihara, C.; Ohno, H.; Kondo, T.; Matsuda, I.; Fujino, T.; Harada, M.

    1979-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase C (CA-C) was measured by the radioimmunoassay in urine specimens from normal individuals, residents in mercury-polluted area, cadmium-exposed workers, lead-exposed workers, and patients with primary or secondary renal tubular acidosis. None of the urine in the normal subjects demonstrated CA-C levels above 40 ..mu..g/g creatinine. Some of the cadmium-exposed workers, residents in mercury-polluted area, and patients with renal tubular acidosis excreted large amounts of CA-C that were 10-250 times higher than the normal. Urinary ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin (BMG) was also determined in relation to the CA-C levels. Most of the subjects exposed to heavy metals had high levels of urine CA-C or BMG or both. Some individuals had high levels of urine CA-C although BMG levels were within normal values. These findings seem to suggest that the mechanisms of urinary excretion of these two proteins were different and the quantitative determination of urinary CA-C by radioimmunoassay appears to be also a useful and sensitive test for detecting the renal tubular disorders in environmental exposure of heavy metals or those in renal tubular acidosis.

  7. [Aortic valve calcification prevalence and association with coronary risk factors and atherosclerosis in Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Valerio, Jorge; Rodas-Díaz, Marco A; Macias-Garrido, Enrico; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Juárez-Rojas, Juan G; Medina-Urrutia, Aida X; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Joge-Galarza, Esteban; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    The prevalence of aortic valve calcification (AVC), strongly influenced by ethnicity, is unknown in Mexican population. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of AVC and its associations with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC), in Mexican subjects. In 1,267 subjects (53% women) without known coronary heart disease, aged 35 to 75 years, AVC and CAC were assessed by multidetector-computed tomography using the Agatston score. Cardiovascular risk factors were documented in all participants. The associations of AVC with CAC and risk factors were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analyses. The overall prevalence of AVC and CAC was 19.89% and 26.5%, respectively. AVC and CAC increased with age and were found more frequently in men (25.5% and 37.1%, respectively) than in women (14.9% and 13.0%, respectively). AVC was observed in only 8.5% of subjects without CAC, while those with CAC 1-99, 100-399, and >400 Agatston units had AVC prevalences of 36.8%, 56.8%, and 84.0%, respectively. The multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, gender, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and high insulin levels, showed that the presence of CAC (OR [CI95%]: 3.23 [2.26-4.60]), obesity (1.94 [1.35-2.79]), male gender (1.44 [1.01-2.05]) and age (1.08 [1.03-1.10]), were significant independent predictors of AVC. Prevalence of AVC is high and significantly associated with atherosclerotic risk factors and CAC in this Mexican population. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. A Three-Phase Decision Model of Computer-Aided Coding for the Iranian Classification of Health Interventions (IRCHI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadmanjir, Zahra; Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Mokhtaran, Mehrshad; Kameli, Mohammad Esmail

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Accurate coded data in the healthcare are critical. Computer-Assisted Coding (CAC) is an effective tool to improve clinical coding in particular when a new classification will be developed and implemented. But determine the appropriate method for development need to consider the specifications of existing CAC systems, requirements for each type, our infrastructure and also, the classification scheme. Aim: The aim of the study was the development of a decision model for determining accurate code of each medical intervention in Iranian Classification of Health Interventions (IRCHI) that can be implemented as a suitable CAC system. Methods: first, a sample of existing CAC systems was reviewed. Then feasibility of each one of CAC types was examined with regard to their prerequisites for their implementation. The next step, proper model was proposed according to the structure of the classification scheme and was implemented as an interactive system. Results: There is a significant relationship between the level of assistance of a CAC system and integration of it with electronic medical documents. Implementation of fully automated CAC systems is impossible due to immature development of electronic medical record and problems in using language for medical documenting. So, a model was proposed to develop semi-automated CAC system based on hierarchical relationships between entities in the classification scheme and also the logic of decision making to specify the characters of code step by step through a web-based interactive user interface for CAC. It was composed of three phases to select Target, Action and Means respectively for an intervention. Conclusion: The proposed model was suitable the current status of clinical documentation and coding in Iran and also, the structure of new classification scheme. Our results show it was practical. However, the model needs to be evaluated in the next stage of the research. PMID:28883671

  9. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9{+-}7.1 years)) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans.

  10. The effect of iterative model reconstruction on coronary artery calcium quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilveszter, Bálint; Elzomor, Hesham; Károlyi, Mihály; Kolossváry, Márton; Raaijmakers, Rolf; Benke, Kálmán; Celeng, Csilla; Bartykowszki, Andrea; Bagyura, Zsolt; Lux, Árpád; Merkely, Béla; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring with computed tomography (CT) is an established tool for quantifying calcified atherosclerotic plaque burden. Despite the widespread use of novel image reconstruction techniques in CT, the effect of iterative model reconstruction on CAC score remains unclear. We sought to assess the impact of iterative model based reconstruction (IMR) on coronary artery calcium quantification as compared to the standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR). In addition, we aimed to simulate the impact of iterative reconstruction techniques on calcium scoring based risk stratification of a larger asymptomatic population. We studied 63 individuals who underwent CAC scoring. Images were reconstructed with FBP, HIR and IMR and CAC scores were measured. We estimated the cardiovascular risk reclassification rate of IMR versus HIR and FBP in a larger asymptomatic population (n = 504). The median CAC scores were 147.7 (IQR 9.6-582.9), 107.0 (IQR 5.9-526.6) and 115.1 (IQR 9.3-508.3) for FBP, HIR and IMR, respectively. The HIR and IMR resulted in lower CAC scores as compared to FBP (both p < 0.001), however there was no difference between HIR and IMR (p = 0.855). The CAC score decreased by 7.2 % in HIR and 7.3 % in IMR as compared to FBP, resulting in a risk reclassification rate of 2.4 % for both HIR and IMR. The utilization of IMR for CAC scoring reduces the measured calcium quantity. However, the CAC score based risk stratification demonstrated modest reclassification in IMR and HIR versus FBP.

  11. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on Coronary Artery Calcification Progression According to High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies reported that many patients are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite achieving recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Therefore, we investigated whether the association between LDL-C and the risk for incident CVD differed according to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels using coronary artery calcium score (CACS) progression as a surrogate marker for predicting CVD. We investigated 2132 Korean men in a health screening program, in which CACS was measured at baseline and after 4 years. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression was defined as a change in CACS ≥0 over 4 years. We divided the subjects into nine groups according to baseline HDL-C and LDL-C levels and compared their risks for CAC progression. After 4 years, 475 subjects (22.3%) exhibited CAC progression. We identified a positive relationship between baseline LDL-C levels and the risk for incident CAC. However, this association was attenuated by high baseline HDL-C levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, smoking, and exercise status revealed that the odds ratios for incident CAC in the lowest HDL-C tertile were 3.08 for LDL-C tertile 3 and 2.02 for LDL-C tertile 2 compared to LDL-C tertile 1. However, these differences disappeared in the highest HDL-C tertile (HDL-C ≥54.0 mg/dL). In this longitudinal study, we found that the positive relationship between LDL-C and the relative risk for incident CAC was attenuated by higher HDL-C levels. Therefore, HDL-C levels should be considered when estimating CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification measurements - implications for contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moselewski, Fabian [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ferencik, Maros [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Achenbach, Stephan [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Internal Medicine II (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany); Abbara, Suhny [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cury, Ricardo C. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Booth, Sarah L. [Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, 711 Washington St., Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Jang, Ik-Kyung [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Brady, Thomas J. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hoffmann, Udo [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: uhoffman@partners.org

    2006-03-15

    Introduction: The present study investigated the threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurements and the potential to quantify CAC in contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: We compared the mean CT attenuation of CAC to luminal contrast enhancement of the coronary arteries in 30 patients (n = 30) undergoing standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT. The modified Agatston score [AS], calcified plaque volume [CV], and mineral mass [MM] at four different thresholds (130, 200, 300, and 400 HU) were measured in 50 patients who underwent non-contrast-enhanced MDCT. Results: Mean CT attenuation of CAC was similar to the attenuation of the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen (CAC 297.1 {+-} 68.7 HU versus 295 {+-} 65 HU (p < 0.0001), respectively). Above a threshold of 300 HU CAC measurements significantly varied to standard measurements obtained at a threshold of 130 HU (p < 0.0001). The threshold-dependent variation of MM measurements was significantly smaller than for AS and CV (130 HU versus 400 HU: 63, 75, and 81, respectively; p < 0.001). These differences resulted in a change of age and gender based percentile category for AS in 78% of subjects. Discussion: We demonstrated that CAC measurements are threshold dependent with MM measurements having significantly less variation than AS or CV. Due to the similarity of mean CT attenuation of CAC and the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen accurate quantification of CAC may be difficult in standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT.

  14. Calcium Intake From Diet and Supplements and the Risk of Coronary Artery Calcification and its Progression Among Older Adults: 10-Year Follow-up of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John J B; Kruszka, Bridget; Delaney, Joseph A C; He, Ka; Burke, Gregory L; Alonso, Alvaro; Bild, Diane E; Budoff, Matthew; Michos, Erin D

    2016-10-11

    Recent randomized data suggest that calcium supplements may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Using a longitudinal cohort study, we assessed the association between calcium intake, from both foods and supplements, and atherosclerosis, as measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC). We studied 5448 adults free of clinically diagnosed CVD (52% female; aged 45-84 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Baseline total calcium intake was assessed from diet (using a food frequency questionnaire) and calcium supplements (by a medication inventory) and categorized into quintiles. Baseline CAC was measured by computed tomography, and CAC measurements were repeated in 2742 participants ≈10 years later. At baseline, mean calcium intakes across quintiles were 313.3, 540.3, 783.0, 1168.9, and 2157.4 mg/day. Women had higher calcium intakes than men. After adjustment for potential confounders, among 1567 participants without baseline CAC, the relative risk (RR) of developing incident CAC over 10 years, by quintile 1 to 5 of calcium intake, were 1 (reference), 0.95 (0.79-1.14), 1.02 (0.85-1.23), 0.86 (0.69-1.05), and 0.73 (0.57-0.93). After accounting for total calcium intake, calcium supplement use was associated with increased risk for incident CAC (RR=1.22 [1.07-1.39]). No relation was found between baseline calcium intake and 10-year changes in log-transformed CAC among those participants with baseline CAC >0. High total calcium intake was associated with a decreased risk of incident atherosclerosis over long-term follow-up, particularly if achieved without supplement use. However, calcium supplement use may increase the risk for incident CAC. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. Adipokines and severity and progression of coronary artery calcium: Findings from the Rancho Bernardo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Britta A; Laughlin, Gail A; Cummins, Kevin; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Wassel, Christina L

    2017-10-01

    Adipokines are known to predict cardiovascular events, yet their association with coronary artery calcium (CAC), a surrogate marker of coronary atherosclerosis and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is unclear. We aimed at assessing the association between adipokines and the severity and progression of CAC in healthy older adults, and at exploring potential modification by gender. 409 men and women from the Rancho Bernardo Study with no known CVD underwent a chest computed tomography scan to determine baseline CAC severity; 329 returned 4.5 years later for a repeat scan to evaluate CAC progression. Adipokines (IL-6, adiponectin, leptin, and TNF-α) were measured from baseline blood samples. Ordinal linear and logistic regression models were used to determine the association of each adipokine with baseline severity and future progression of CAC. Adjusting for age and sex, IL-6 and leptin were associated with greater odds of increasing CAC severity (OR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.22-2.19; OR = 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.43, respectively, per SD). The association with IL-6 remained significant in models further adjusted for lifestyle, body size, CVD risk factors, and body fat distribution. Adiponectin was associated with CAC progression (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.92 in fully adjusted models). This was modified by sex, with protective effects seen for men (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.38-0.85), but not for women (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.67-1.32; p-for-interaction = 0.04). IL-6 and leptin predicted greater CAC severity while adiponectin predicted lower odds of CAC progression. More research is needed to explore biological mechanisms, including differences by sex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. TRIIODOTHYRONINE INCREASES MYOCARDIAL FUNCTION AND PYRUVATE ENTRY INTO THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE AFTER REPERFUSION IN A MODEL OF INFANT CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Aaron; Bouchard, Bertrand; Ning, Xue-Han; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2012-03-01

    We utilized a translational model of infant CPB to test the hypothesis that T3 modulates pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) thereby providing the energy support for improved cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion. Methods and Results: Neonatal piglets received intracoronary [2-13Carbon(13C)]-pyruvate for 40 minutes (8 mM) during control aerobic conditions (Cont) or immediately after reperfusion (IR) from global hypothermic ischemia. A third group (IR-Tr) received T3 (1.2 ug/kg) during reperfusion. We assessed absolute CAC intermediate levels (aCAC) and flux parameters into the CAC through oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC ) and anaplerotic carboxylation (PC; ) using 13C-labeled pyruvate and isotopomer analysis by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13C NMR. Neither IR nor IR-Tr modified aCAC. However, compared to IR, T3 (group IR-Tr) increased cardiac power and oxygen consumption after CPB while elevating both PDC and PC (~ four-fold). T3 inhibited IR induced reductions in CAC intermediate molar percent enrichment (MPE) and oxaloacetate(citrate)/malate MPE ratio; an index of aspartate entry into the CAC. Conclusions: T3 markedly enhances PC and PDC thereby providing substrate for elevated cardiac function and work after reperfusion. The increases in pyruvate flux occur with preservation of the CAC intermediate pool. Additionally, T3 inhibition of reductions in CAC intermediate MPEs indicates that T3 reduces the reliance on amino acids (AA) for anaplerosis after reperfusion. Thus, AA should be more available for other functions such as protein synthesis.

  17. Crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis em substratos à base de casca de arroz carbonizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagma Kratz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com base na importância do substrato na produção de mudas florestais, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a viabilidade técnica de 13 substratos, preparados com misturas de substrato comercial à base de casca de pinus e vermiculita (SC, casca de arroz carbonizada com diferentes granulometrias [maior que 2 mm (CAC1, CAC com granulometria entre 1 - 2 mm (CAC2, CAC com granulometria entre 0,5 - 1 mm (CAC3, CAC com granulometria menor que 0,5 mm (CAC4], fibra de coco (FC e vermiculita média (VM, na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, e a correlação de suas propriedades físicas e químicas com seu crescimento. Foram utilizados tubetes de 55 cm³. As mudas permaneceram 60 dias em estufa de vidro e 30 dias a pleno sol. Foram avaliadas a altura, diâmetro de colo, fitomassas secas aérea e radicial, facilidade de retirada do tubete, agregação das raízes ao substrato e relação entre altura e diâmetro de colo. Concluiu-se que o substrato formado por CAC pura, em diferentes granulometrias e em mistura com os outros componentes, é viável tecnicamente para a produção de mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, embora aquele formado pela mistura de 50% de CAC e VM tenha resultado em maior crescimento das mudas. As propriedades dos substratos, densidade aparente, pH e capacidade de troca catiônica são importantes na produção de mudas, pois apresentaram correlações significativas com as variáveis biométricas.

  18. Scoring of coronary artery calcium scans: history, assumptions, current limitations, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Krishna; Joshi, Parag H; Henry, Travis S; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scanning is a reliable, noninvasive technique for estimating overall coronary plaque burden and for identifying risk for future cardiac events. Arthur Agatston and Warren Janowitz published the first technique for scoring CAC scans in 1990. Given the lack of available data correlating CAC with burden of coronary atherosclerosis at that time, their scoring algorithm was remarkable, but somewhat arbitrary. Since then, a few other scoring techniques have been proposed for the measurement of CAC including the Volume score and Mass score. Yet despite new data, little in this field has changed in the last 15 years. The main focus of our paper is to review the implications of the current approach to scoring CAC scans in terms of correlation with the central disease - coronary atherosclerosis. We first discuss the methodology of each available scoring system, describing how each of these scores make important indirect assumptions in the way they account (or do not account) for calcium density, location of calcium, spatial distribution of calcium, and microcalcification/emerging calcium that might limit their predictive power. These assumptions require further study in well-designed, large event-driven studies. In general, all of these scores are adequate and are highly correlated with each other. Despite its age, the Agatston score remains the most extensively studied and widely accepted technique in both the clinical and research settings. After discussing CAC scoring in the era of contrast enhanced coronary CT angiography, we discuss suggested potential modifications to current CAC scanning protocols with respect to tube voltage, tube current, and slice thickness which may further improve the value of CAC scoring. We close with a focused discussion of the most important future directions in the field of CAC scoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship of change in traditional cardiometabolic risk factors to change in coronary artery calcification among individuals with detectable subclinical atherosclerosis: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguelles, William; Llabre, Maria M; Penedo, Frank J; Daviglus, Martha L; Sacco, Ralph L; Liu, Kiang; Szklo, Moyses; Polak, Joseph F; Eng, John; Burke, Gregory L; Schneiderman, Neil

    2014-06-01

    Data describing relationships between change in risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are lacking and could inform optimal cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment strategies. This study aimed to examine how change in traditional cardiometabolic risk factors related to change in CAC among individuals with detectable subclinical atherosclerosis. Latent growth modeling was used to examine change in cardiometabolic risk factors (waist circumference, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose) related to change in CAC up to an average 4.9-year follow-up in a multi-ethnic cohort of 3398 asymptomatic individuals (57.8% men) who had detectable CAC (score>0) at baseline, adjusting for baseline risk factor levels and CAC values, age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, family history of CVD, income, and use of antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and glucose-lowering medications. Greater declines in blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at follow-up were each associated with greater CAC progression. The observed inverse associations were attributable to greater CAC progression in participants taking antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs who, as expected, had declines in blood pressure and lipid levels, respectively. These inverse associations did not emerge in participants not taking these medications. Among individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis, the unexpected inverse associations observed between change in blood pressure and lipid levels with CAC progression emphasize the importance of considering medication use, and, when feasible, the severity and duration of disease, in exploring associations between risk factors and CAC change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between circulating serum osteoprotegerin and total receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand levels, triglycerides, and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, Indu G; Mackey, Rachel H; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cauley, Jane A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the relationship of blood osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL) levels with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiovascular risk factors in two studies of postmenopausal women. OPG, a marker of bone turnover, and its ligand, RANKL, may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that serum OPG and RANKL levels were associated with CAC and cardiovascular disease risk factors among postmenopausal women in the Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition Study (WOMAN Study; n = 86; mean [SD], age 58 [2.9] y) and replicated our findings in the Healthy Women Study (HWS; n = 205; mean [SD] age, 61 [2.3] y). Serum OPG, total RANKL, and CAC were measured at baseline and 48 months in the WOMAN Study and on the eighth postmenopausal visit in the HWS. In the WOMAN Study, higher OPG was associated with higher CAC, and higher total RANKL was associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In the HWS, higher total RANKL was also associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index and triglycerides, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in OPG were 1.78 (1.17-2.73) for the WOMAN Study and 1.02 (0.84-1.24) for the HWS, and the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in log total RANKL were 0.86 (0.64-1.17) for the WOMAN Study and 0.83 (0.72-0.96) for the HWS. The inverse association of total RANKL with CAC and triglycerides is a new finding and may have important implications given the increasing use of drugs that modify total RANKL and its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear κ-B.

  1. Impact of Coronary Calcification on Clinical Management in Patients With Acute Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Daniel O; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Bamberg, Fabian; Hallett, Travis R; Janjua, Sumbal; Addison, Daniel; Nagurney, John T; Udelson, James E; Lu, Michael T; Truong, Quynh A; Woodard, Pamela K; Hollander, Judd E; Miller, Chadwick; Chang, Anna Marie; Singh, Harjit; Litt, Harold; Hoffmann, Udo; Ferencik, Maros

    2017-05-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) may impair diagnostic assessment of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). We determined whether CAC affects efficiency of coronary CTA in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This is a pooled analysis of ACRIN-PA (American College of Radiology Imaging Network-Pennsylvania) 4005 and the ROMICAT-II trial (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography) comparing an initial coronary CTA strategy to standard of care in acute chest pain patients. In the CTA arms, we investigated appropriateness of downstream testing, cost, and diagnostic yield to identify patients with obstructive coronary artery disease on subsequent invasive coronary angiography across CAC score strata (Agatston score: 0, >0-10, >10-100, >100-400, >400). Out of 1234 patients (mean age 51±8.8 years), 80 (6.5%) had obstructive coronary artery disease (≥70% stenosis) and 68 (5.5%) had ACS. Prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease (1%-64%), ACS (1%-44%), downstream testing (4%-72%), and total (2337-8484 US$) and diagnostic cost (2310-6678 US$) increased across CAC strata (P400, cost to diagnose one ACS was lowest in this group (19 283 US$ versus 464 399 US$) as compared with patients without CAC. The diagnostic yield of invasive coronary angiography was highest in patients with CAC>400 (87% versus 38%). Downstream testing, total, and diagnostic cost increased with increasing CAC, but were found to be appropriate because obstructive coronary artery disease and ACS were more prevalent in patients with high CAC. In patients with acute chest pain undergoing coronary CTA, cost-efficient testing and excellent diagnostic yield can be achieved even with high CAC burden. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01084239 and NCT00933400. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Assessing Level of Agreement for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Categorization Between Coronary Artery Calcium Score and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines and the Potential Impact on Treatment Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isma'eel, Hussain; Min, David; Al-Shaar, Laila; Hachamovitch, Rory; Halliburton, Sandra; Gentry, James; Griffin, Brian; Schoenhagen, Paul; Phelan, Dermot

    2016-11-15

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cardiovascular prevention guidelines use a new pooled cohort equation (PCE) to predict 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events which form the basis of treatment recommendations. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) has been proposed as a means to assess atherosclerotic risk. We sought to study the level of agreement in predicted ASCVD risk by CACS and PCE-calculated models and the potential impact on therapy of additional CACS testing. We studied 687 treatment naive, consecutive patients (mean age 53.5 years, 72% men) who had a CACS study at our institution. Clinical and imaging data were recorded. ASCVD risk was calculated using the published PCE-based algorithm. CACS-based risk was categorized by previously published recommendations. Risk stratification comparisons were made and level of agreement calculated. In the cohort, mean ASCVD PCE-calculated risk was 5.3 ± 5.2% and mean CACS was 80 ± 302 Agatston units (AU). Of the intermediate PCE-calculated risk (5% to guidelines, 40% had a CACS of 0 AU and an additional 44% had CACS >0 but <100 AU. The level of agreement between the new PCE model of ASCVD risk and demonstrable coronary artery calcium is low. CACS testing may be most beneficial in those with an intermediate risk of ASCVD (PCE-calculated risk of 5% to <7.5%) where, in approximately half of patients, CACS testing significantly refined risk assessment primarily into a very low-risk category. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseti Cesare

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  4. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Theodoridis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  5. Lack of Correlation Between Depression and Coronary Artery Calcification in a Non-Selected Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Sand, Niels Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the Major Depression Inventory questionnaire. Quantification of CAC was performed using the Agatston method. The Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's correlational analysis, and logistic regression were used to assess the association between depression and CAC. RESULTS: The median Agatston score......, after the exclusion of an outlier, no significant association between CAC and depression was found in either the unadjusted or adjusted logistic regression model, OR = 1.00 (95% CI: 0.88-1.14; p = 0.994) and OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 0.92-1.18; p = 0.529), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Depression...

  6. Prognostic Value of Coronary Artery Calcium Score in Acute Chest Pain Patients Without Known Coronary Artery Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikriangkrai, Kongkiat; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Jhun, Hye Yeon; Ungprasert, Patompong; Sigurdsson, Gardar; Nabi, Faisal; Mahmarian, John J; Chang, Su Min

    2016-12-01

    Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a well-established test for risk stratifying asymptomatic patients. Recent studies also indicate that CACS may accurately risk stratify stable patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain; however, many were underpowered. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the prognostic value and accuracy of a zero (normal) CACS for identifying patients at acceptable low risk for future cardiovascular events who might be safely discharged home from the ED. We searched multiple databases for longitudinal studies of CACS in symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease that reported major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death and myocardial infarction. Pooled risk ratios, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were analyzed. Eight studies evaluated 3,556 patients, with a median follow-up of 10.5 months. Pooled prevalence of zero CACS was 60%. Patients with CACS=0 had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular events compared with those with CACS greater than 0 (MACEs: relative risk 0.06, 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.11, I(2)=0%; death/myocardial infarction: relative risk 0.19; 95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.47, I(2)=0%). The pooled event rates for CACS=0 (MACEs 0.8%/year; death/myocardial infarction 0.5%/year) were significantly lower than for CACS greater than 0 (MACEs 14.6%/year; death/myocardial infarction 3.5%/year). Analysis of summary testing parameters showed a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 60%, positive likelihood ratio of 2.36, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.07. Acute chest pain patients without history of coronary artery disease, ischemic ECG changes, or increased cardiac enzyme levels commonly have a CACS of zero, with a very low subsequent risk of MACEs or death or myocardial infarction. This meta-analysis proffers the potential role of initial CACS testing for avoiding unnecessary hospitalization and further

  7. 78 FR 37801 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... replace with ``Must have Common Access Card (CAC) or ] Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) to enter the... members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http...

  8. 75 FR 81249 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    .... Safeguards: System login is accomplished by DoD Common Access Card (CAC). Public Key Infrastructure (PKI... the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  9. Correlation of dental pulp stones, carotid artery and renal calcifications using digital panoramic radiography and ultrasonography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garima Yeluri; C Kumar; Namita Raghav

    2015-01-01

    ...), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Materials and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of 50 patients with the presence of pulp stones and suspected CAC were subjected to carotid artery and renal ultrasonography (USG...

  10. Magnesium intake is inversely associated with coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine whether magnesium intake is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). BACKGROUND: Animal and cell studies suggest that magnesium may prevent calcification within atherosclerotic plaques underlying c...

  11. Relation of Coronary Artery Calcium Score and Risk of Cancer (from a Danish Population-Based Follow-up Study in Patients Who Underwent Cardiac Computed Tomography)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Nicklas; Christesen, Amanda M S; Mortensen, Leif Spange

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of a causal link between atherosclerosis and cancer is sparse and conflicting. Therefore, we examined the association between extent of coronary atherosclerosis determined by coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and risk of cancer. We conducted a historical population-based cohort study...... of 28,549 cancer-free patients identified in the Western Denmark Heart Registry. All patients underwent cardiac computed tomography for measurement of CACS for suspected coronary artery disease. The outcome was an incident cancer diagnosis: total, tobacco-related, lung, prostate, breast, and colorectal....... We used Cox proportional hazards regression analyses stratified by gender to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for relations between CACS and cancer with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). During follow-up, 455 men and 527 women had a cancer diagnosis. In a multivariable model (reference group: CACS 0...

  12. 76 FR 65710 - Decision and Order Amending Waivers Granted to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From the Department of Energy Commercial Package Air Conditioner and Heat... Matter of: Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. (Mitsubishi) (Case No. CAC-037). Background Title...

  13. Turkey's religious outreach in Central Asia and the Caucasus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balci, Bayram

    2014-01-01

      First and foremost, the Turkish government sought to build strong relations with the new Turkic republics as a result of Ankara's ambition to form a greater Turkic political union with the CAC rooted...

  14. Activated Charcoal Hemoperfusion in the Treatment of Experimental Amitriptyline Poisoning in Pigs - The Effect on Amitriptyline Plasma Concentration and Hemodynamic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Tejs; Petersen, Henrik; Malskaer, Cecilie M

    2017-01-01

    aimed at quantifying the efficacy of modern CAC-HP as an adjunctive treatment of AT intoxication compared to standard care alone. Fourteen female Danish landrace pigs were randomized to either standard care or standard care plus 4 hr of CAC-HP. The pigs were anaesthetized and vital parameters were...... continuously recorded. Amitriptyline infusion (7.5 mg/kg) was completed in 20 min. Thirty minutes following AT infusion, activated charcoal was instilled orally in both groups. In the intervention group, CAC-HP was initiated 60 min. after AT infusion. Blood and urine samples were collected as were vital...... group were found when analysing for differences in AT levels in plasma at any time point. Furthermore, significant differences between the control and intervention group in regard to vital parameters could not be found either. In our animal model, the addition of CAC-HP did not improve the clearance...

  15. Electrocardiogram Abnormalities and Coronary Calcification in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Sabour

    2010-03-01

    Results: LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15 of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34, whereas 8.5% (n = 48 had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4-10.2. Similarly, compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0-4.1. Conclusion: Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities.

  16. 76 FR 1473 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Boston Stock Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... multiple European markets, including stocks comprising the AEX, DAX, FTSE100, CAC40, and SMI20 indexes... of Corporations and Taxation of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts because NASDAQ OMX and its...

  17. Dataset of calcified plaque condition in the stenotic coronary artery lesion obtained using multidetector computed tomography to indicate the addition of rotational atherectomy during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Hamazaki, Yuji; Sekimoto, Teruo; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Suyama, Jumpei; Gokan, Takehiko; Sakai, Koshiro; Kosaki, Ryota; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Tsujita, Hiroaki; Tsukamoto, Shigeto; Sakurai, Masayuki; Sambe, Takehiko; Oguchi, Katsuji; Uchida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Aoki, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Youichi

    2016-06-01

    Our data shows the regional coronary artery calcium scores (lesion CAC) on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and the cross-section imaging on MDCT angiography (CTA) in the target lesion of the patients with stable angina pectoris who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). CAC and CTA data were measured using a 128-slice scanner (Somatom Definition AS+; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) before PCI. CAC was measured in a non-contrast-enhanced scan and was quantified using the Calcium Score module of SYNAPSE VINCENT software (Fujifilm Co. Tokyo, Japan) and expressed in Agatston units. CTA were then continued with a contrast-enhanced ECG gating to measure the severity of the calcified plaque condition. We present that both CAC and CTA data are used as a benchmark to consider the addition of rotational atherectomy during PCI to severely calcified plaque lesions.

  18. Dataset of calcified plaque condition in the stenotic coronary artery lesion obtained using multidetector computed tomography to indicate the addition of rotational atherectomy during percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Akutsu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our data shows the regional coronary artery calcium scores (lesion CAC on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT and the cross-section imaging on MDCT angiography (CTA in the target lesion of the patients with stable angina pectoris who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. CAC and CTA data were measured using a 128-slice scanner (Somatom Definition AS+; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany before PCI. CAC was measured in a non-contrast-enhanced scan and was quantified using the Calcium Score module of SYNAPSE VINCENT software (Fujifilm Co. Tokyo, Japan and expressed in Agatston units. CTA were then continued with a contrast-enhanced ECG gating to measure the severity of the calcified plaque condition. We present that both CAC and CTA data are used as a benchmark to consider the addition of rotational atherectomy during PCI to severely calcified plaque lesions.

  19. Coronary calcification among 3477 asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øvrehus, Kristian A; Jasinskiene, Jurgita; Sand, Niels P

    2015-01-01

    referred for cardiac CT, to assess whether differences in CAC may be explained by symptoms or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: The presence and extent of CAC, gender, family history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes and tobacco were compared in 1220......BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) can be detected by cardiac computed tomography (CT), is associated to cardiovascular risk, and common in asymptomatic individuals and patients referred for cardiac CT. DESIGN: CAC was evaluated in asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic patients...... asymptomatic individuals aged 49-61 years and 2257 age-matched symptomatic patients referred for cardiac CT with suspected coronary artery disease. RESULTS: Symptomatic individuals had a higher frequency of a family history of coronary artery disease (46% vs. 23%, p 

  20. ABSORPTION, SCATTERING, ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS from SATELLITE From World-Wide Distribution from 19910101 to 19910630 (NODC Accession 9100148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Global blended Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) data for January-June 1991 was provided by Ms. Diane Marsico of the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), National Weather...

  1. 78 FR 35610 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... formulate response letters may contain name, Social Security Number (SSN), business or company name, home.... System software uses Primary Key Infrastructure (PKI)/Common Access Card (CAC) authentication to lock out...

  2. Additive prognostic value of coronary artery calcium score and renal function in patients with acute chest pain without known coronary artery disease: up to 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikriangkrai, Kongkiat; Nabi, Faisal; Mahmarian, John J; Chang, Su Min

    2015-12-01

    Long-term incremental prognostic value of renal function over coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine additive prognostic value of renal function over CACS in patients with acute chest pain suspected of CAD. Renal function and CACS were assessed in patients without known CAD who presented to the emergency department with chest pain from 2005 to 2008. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as eGFR 400: HR 8.88, p renal function and CACS significantly improved the overall predictive performance (p renal function were independent predictors for future cardiac events and provided additive prognostic value to each other and over either Framingham risk categories or TIMI risk score.

  3. New Jersey: Clean Air Communities (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clean Air Communities (CAC) is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement to implement recommendations by the state’s Environmental Justice Task Force and the Air Toxics Pilot Project to reduce environmental risks.

  4. Removal of nitrate-nitrogen from drinking water using bamboo powder charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Kei; Matsumoto, Toshitatsu; Hatate, Yasuo; Nishihara, Keiichi; Nakanishi, Tomoki

    2004-12-01

    The adsorption effectiveness of bamboo powder charcoal (BPC); made from the residual of Moso bamboo manufacturing; in removing nitrate-nitrogen from water has been investigated. Commercial activated carbon (CAC) was also used to compare the effectiveness of adsorption in removal of nitrate-nitrogen. The adsorption effectiveness of BPC was higher than that of CAC; regardless of the concentration of nitrate-nitrogen; in the range of 0-10 mg/l. The effect of temperature on adsorption by BPC and CAC in the range of 10-20 degrees C was also investigated. From the results, it was found that the temperature dependency of the adsorption effectiveness of BPC was weaker than that of CAC. This fact indicates that BPC can be an attractive option for the in situ treatment by adsorption of nitrate-nitrogen-contaminated underground and surface water.

  5. Influence of different pulp capping materials to induce coronal tooth discoloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Gomes e Silva Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that all tested materials induced teeth shade changes after 30 days of simulated pulpotomy. The mean variation of color was similar between groups and CAC caused the higher color change.

  6. Citizen Science Air Sensor Project with Clean Air Carolina and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientists are partnering with Clean Air Carolina (CAC) in Charlotte, N.C., and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI) in Cherokee, N.C., to conduct a citizen science air quality project in these regions.

  7. Combined evaluation of regional coronary artery calcium and myocardial perfusion by82Rb PET/CT in the identification of obstructive coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampella, Emilia; Acampa, Wanda; Assante, Roberta; Nappi, Carmela; Gaudieri, Valeria; Mainolfi, Ciro Gabriele; Green, Roberta; Cantoni, Valeria; Panico, Mariarosaria; Klain, Michele; Petretta, Mario; Slomka, Piotr J; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2018-01-25

    Cardiac imaging with PET/CT allows measurement of coronary artery calcium (CAC), myocardial perfusion and coronary vascular function. We investigated whether the combined assessment of regional CAC score, ischemic total perfusion deficit (ITPD) and quantitative coronary vascular function would further improve the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT in predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We analyzed 113 patients with suspected CAD referred to 82 Rb PET/CT myocardial perfusion imaging with available coronary angiographic data. Obstructive CAD was defined as ≥75% stenosis. The receiver operating characteristic area under curve (AUC) was applied to evaluate the ability of CAC score, ITPD, hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) to identify CAD. Vessels with obstructive CAD (71 vessels) had higher ITPD (4.6 ± 6.2 vs. 0.6 ± 1.3) and lower hyperemic MBF (1.01 ± 0.5 vs. 1.75 ± 0.6 ml/min/g) and CFR (1.56 ± 0.6 vs. 2.38 ± 0.7; all p < 0.001) than those without. In prediction of per-vessel CAD, the AUCs for the models including CAC/ITPD/hyperemic MBF (0.869) and CAC/ITPD/CFR (0.875) were higher (both p < 0.01) than for the model including CAC/ITPD (0.790). Compared with CAC/ITPD, continuous net reclassification improvement was 0.69 (95% bootstrap confidence interval, CI, 0.365-1.088) for the CAC/ITPD/hyperemic MBF model and 0.99 (95% bootstrap CI 0.64-1.26) for the CAC/ITPD/CFR model. Hyperemic MBF and CFR provide incremental information about the presence of CAD over CAC score and perfusion imaging parameters. The combined use of CAC, myocardial perfusion imaging and quantitative coronary vascular function in may help predict more accurately the presence of obstructive CAD.

  8. Association Between Coronary Artery Calcification and the Hemoglobin Glycation Index: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Cho, Jung-Hwan; Kwon, Hyemi; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Ho, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Lee, Won-Young

    2017-09-27

    The hemoglobin glycation index (HGI) is known to be correlated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. To analyze the association between incident coronary artery calcification (CAC) and the changes in the HGI in participants without diabetes, over 4 years. Setting, and Participants: A retrospective study of two-thousand-and-fifty-two participants in whom the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured repeatedly over 4 years, as part of a health check-up program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, and had no CAC at the baseline. Those with diabetes at the baseline and who were using anti-diabetic medication at the follow-up were excluded. The HGI was defined as the difference between the measured and predicted HbA1c levels. Two-hundred-and-one participants developed CAC after 4 years, and the mean baseline HGI was significantly higher in those who developed CAC. The incidence of CAC gradually increased from the 1st to 4th quartile groups of baseline HGI. The odds ratio (OR) for incident CAC was the highest among the 4 groups divided by the quartiles of the baseline HGI, and was significant after adjustment for confounding variables {1.632 (1.024∼2.601) vs. 1st quartile group}. The incidence and risk of CAC development was significantly higher than in other groups compared to the low to low group after adjustment for confounding factors; however, when the baseline HbA1c level was included in the model, only those with a low to high HGI over 4 years showed a significantly increased OR for CAC development compared to the low to low group {1.722 (1.046∼2.833)}. The participants with a high baseline HGI and consistently high HGI showed a higher risk for incident CAC than those with a low baseline HGI. An increased HGI over 4 years significantly increased the risk for CAC regardless of the baseline HbA1c levels.

  9. Genomic Alterations Observed in Colitis-Associated Cancers Are Distinct From Those Found in Sporadic Colorectal Cancers and Vary by Type of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, Rona; Shah, Manish A; Miller, Vincent A; Kelsen, Judith R; Wang, Kai; Heins, Zachary J; Ross, Jeffrey S; He, Yuting; Sanford, Eric; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Balasubramanian, Sohail; Stephens, Philip J; Schultz, Nikolaus; Oren, Moshe; Tang, Laura; Kelsen, David

    2016-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are at increased risk for small bowel or colorectal cancers (colitis-associated cancers [CACs]). We compared the spectrum of genomic alterations in CACs with those of sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) and investigated differences between CACs from patients with CD vs UC. We studied tumor tissues from patients with CACs treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center or Weill Cornell Medical College from 2003 through 2015. We performed hybrid capture-based next-generation sequencing analysis of >300 cancer-related genes to comprehensively characterize genomic alterations. We performed genomic analyses of 47 CACs (from 29 patients with UC and 18 with CD; 43 primary tumors and 4 metastases). Primary tumors developed in the ileum (n = 2), right colon (n = 18), left colon (n = 6), and rectosigmoid or rectum (n = 21). We found genomic alterations in TP53, IDH1, and MYC to be significantly more frequent, and mutations in APC to be significantly less frequent, than those reported in sporadic CRCs by The Cancer Genome Atlas or Foundation Medicine. We identified genomic alterations that might be targeted by a therapeutic agent in 17 of 47 (36%) CACs. These included the mutation encoding IDH1 R132; amplification of FGFR1, FGFR2, and ERBB2; and mutations encoding BRAF V600E and an EML4-ALK fusion protein. Alterations in IDH1 and APC were significantly more common in CACs from patients with CD than UC. In an analysis of CACs from 47 patients, we found significant differences in the spectrum of genomic alterations in CACs compared with sporadic CRCs. We observed a high frequency of IDH1 R132 mutations in patients with CD but not UC, as well as a high frequency of MYC amplification in CACs. Many genetic alterations observed in CACs could serve as therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Instructional Methods Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    authorized users – training developers and facilitators with common access cards (CAC)6 – would have access to the application. However, developing... Training Network ATRRS Army Training Requirements and Resources System CAC Common Access Card CD-ROM Compact Disk Read-Only Memory CoEs...words): This research was a follow-on project to two U.S. Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC)-sponsored research projects on the implementation of

  11. Fasting glucose, obesity, and coronary artery calcification in community-based people without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Martin K; Massaro, Joseph M; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Fox, Caroline S

    2012-09-01

    Our objective was to assess whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and obesity are independently related to coronary artery calcification (CAC) in a community-based population. We assessed CAC using multidetector computed tomography in 3,054 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean [SD] age was 50 [10] years, 49% were women, 29% had IFG, and 25% were obese) free from known vascular disease or diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that IFG (5.6-6.9 mmol/L) and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) were independently associated with high CAC (>90th percentile for age and sex) after adjusting for hypertension, lipids, smoking, and medication. High CAC was significantly related to IFG in an age- and sex-adjusted model (odds ratio 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.7], P = 0.002; referent: normal fasting glucose) and after further adjustment for obesity (1.3 [1.0-1.6], P = 0.045). However, IFG was not associated with high CAC in multivariable-adjusted models before (1.2 [0.9-1.4], P = 0.20) or after adjustment for obesity. Obesity was associated with high CAC in age- and sex-adjusted models (1.6 [1.3-2.0], P fasting glucose. In this community-based cohort, CAC was associated with obesity, but not IFG, after adjusting for important confounders. With the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and nondiabetic hyperglycemia, these data underscore the importance of obesity in the pathogenesis of CAC.

  12. Controlling for apolipoprotein A-I concentrations changes the inverse direction of the relationship between high HDL-C concentration and a measure of pre-clinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Wild, Sarah H; Byrne, Christopher D

    2013-12-01

    The independent effect of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration to confer cardiovascular disease protection has been questioned. We investigated whether the inverse association between HDL-C concentration and a measure of preclinical atherosclerosis was modified by other risk factors. Cross-sectional data were analysed from an occupational cohort of 12,031 men who had measurements of cardiovascular risk factors and a cardiac computed tomography (CT) estimation of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, a measure of pre-clinical atherosclerosis. Logistic regression was used to describe associations between both HDL-C and Apo-A-I concentrations and their ratio as exposures, and CAC scores > 0, ≥ 20 and ≥ 100, as outcomes. 1351 (11.2%), 665 (5.5%) and 230 (1.9%) of participants had a CAC score > 0, ≥ 20 and ≥ 100, respectively. Adjusting for age, glucose, triglyceride, LDL-C, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, prior cerebrovascular accident, prior coronary artery disease, prior hypertension, alcohol consumption, smoking status and exercise, a negative association existed between HDL-C and CAC score. (E.g. odds ratio (OR) for top compared to bottom HDL-C quartile for CAC > 0 = 0.78 [95%CI 0.64, 0.94], p = 0.01). Further adjustment for Apo A-I changed the direction of the association between HDL-C and CAC score > 0 (OR for top compared to bottom quartiles 1.61 [95%CI 1.18, 2.21], p = 0.003). Sensitivity analyses showed that point estimates for ORs were very similar regardless of CAC score threshold (CAC > 0, ≥ 20 and ≥ 100). Controlling for Apo A-I concentrations changes the inverse direction of relationship between high HDL-C concentration and a measure of pre-clinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coffee consumption and calcified atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries: The NHLBI Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yash R; Gadiraju, Taraka V; Ellison, R Curtis; Hunt, Steven C; Carr, John Jeffrey; Heiss, Gerardo; Arnett, Donna K; Pankow, James S; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2017-02-01

    While a recent meta-analysis of prospective studies reported that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality, limited and inconsistent data are available on the relation of coffee intake with subclinical disease. Thus, the aim of the present study was to see the association of coffee consumption with the prevalence of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries in NHLBI Family Heart Study. In a cross-sectional design, we studied 1929 participants of the NHLBI Family Heart Study without known coronary heart disease. Coffee consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and coronary-artery calcium (CAC) was measured by cardiac computed tomography. We defined prevalent CAC as an Agatston score of ≥100 and used generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence ratios of CAC as well as a sensitivity analysis at a range of cutpoints for CAC. Mean age was 56.7 years and 59% of the study subjects were female. In adjusted analysis for age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, field center, and energy intake, prevalence ratio (95% CI) for CAC was 1.0 (reference), 0.92 (0.57-1.49), 1.34 (0.86-2.08), 1.30 (0.84-2.02), and 0.99 (0.60-1.64) for coffee consumption of almost never, coffee consumption and prevalent CAC when CAC cut points of 0, 50, 150, 200, and 300 were used. These data do not provide evidence for an association between coffee consumption and prevalent CAC in adult men and women. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of carbonate apatite-collagen scaffolds with some cytokines for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Salim

    2015-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: By histological observation and measurement of bone area ratio, CA-CS with cytokines showed higher bone formation ability (bFGF/CA-CS: 50.7 ± 7.3%, rh-BMP2/CA-CS: 54.2 ± 5.0% than other groups. From the limited results of this study, it is suggested that CA collagen scaffolds with some cytokines may become an attractive scaffold for bone regeneration.

  15. Sustainable coal : An energy for the future; El carbon sostenible: una energia para el futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, J. C.

    2010-07-01

    In this article is described a view about the concept of capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CAC in Spanish acronym) and the different systems of a capture. CAC (Capture and Storage of CO{sub 2}) is to separate, and therefore to concentrate, the CO{sub 2} from the fossil fuel combustion gases and transport it to the geologic underground storage in a permanent and safe way. (Author)

  16. Oral Treatment with the Ghrelin Receptor Agonist HM01 Attenuates Cachexia in Mice Bearing Colon-26 (C26) Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Villars, Fabienne O.; Pietra, Claudio; Giuliano, Claudio; Lutz, Thomas A.; Riediger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin reduces energy expenditure and stimulates food intake. Ghrelin analogs are a possible treatment against cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS). This study aimed to investigate whether oral treatment with the non-peptidergic ghrelin receptor agonist HM01 counteracts CACS in colon-26 (C26) tumor-bearing mice. The C26 tumor model is characterized by pronounced body weight (BW) loss and muscle wasting in the absence of severe anorexia. We analyzed the time c...

  17. Coffee consumption and coronary artery calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhang, Yiyi; Ahn, Jiin; Lima, Joao A C; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the association between regular coffee consumption and the prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic men and women. This cross-sectional study included 25 138 men and women (mean age 41.3 years) without clinically evident cardiovascular disease who underwent a health screening examination that included a validated food frequency questionnaire and a multidetector CT to determine CAC scores. We used robust Tobit regression analyses to estimate the CAC score ratios associated with different levels of coffee consumption compared with no coffee consumption and adjusted for potential confounders. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 13.4% (n=3364), including 11.3% prevalence for CAC scores 1-100 (n=2832), and 2.1% prevalence for CAC scores >100 (n=532). The mean ±SD consumption of coffee was 1.8±1.5 cups/day. The multivariate-adjusted CAC score ratios (95% CIs) comparing coffee drinkers of coffee drinkers were 0.77 (0.49 to 1.19), 0.66 (0.43 to 1.02), 0.59 (0.38 to 0.93), and 0.81 (0.46 to 1.43), respectively (p for quadratic trend=0.02). The association was similar in subgroups defined by age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, status of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolaemia. In this large sample of men and women apparently free of clinically evident cardiovascular disease, moderate coffee consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Correction Factors for CT Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring Using Advanced Modeled Iterative Reconstruction Instead of Filtered Back Projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Damiano; De Cecco, Carlo N; Schoepf, U Joseph; Felmly, Lloyd M; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Mangold, Stefanie; Canstein, Christian; Allmendinger, Thomas; Fuller, Stephen R; Laghi, Andrea; Wichmann, Julian L

    2016-12-01

    Iterative reconstruction (IR) computed tomography (CT) techniques allow for radiation dose reduction while maintaining image quality. However, CT coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores may be influenced by certain IR algorithms. The aim of our study is to identify suitable correction factors to ensure consistency between IR and filtered back projection (FBP)-based CAC scoring. A phantom study was performed to derive suitable correction factors for CAC scores and volume (VOL) values with advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (or ADMIRE) strength level 3 (ADM3) and 5 (ADM5) vs FBP. CT data from 40 patients were retrospectively analyzed, and CAC score and VOL values were obtained following reconstruction with FBP, ADM3, and ADM5. Linear regression analysis was performed to obtain correction factors. Results with and without application of the correction factors were compared. Inter-reader agreement for risk class stratification was analyzed. Phantom experiments determined a correction factor of 1.14 for ADM3 and 1.25 for ADM5. FBP-based CAC scores (897 ± 1413) were significantly higher than uncorrected scores with ADM3 (746 ± 1184, P ≤ .001) and ADM5 (640 ± 1036, P ≤ .001). After application of correction factors, no significant differences were found for CAC scores based on FBP (897 ± 1413) and ADM3 (853 ± 1353, P = .07). The inter-reader agreement for risk stratification was excellent (k = 0.91). ADM3 can be applied to CAC scoring with use of a correction factor. When applying a correction factor of 1.14, excellent agreement with standard FBP for both CAC score and VOL can be achieved. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cortisol responses to mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification in healthy men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD. The mechanisms are incompletely understood, although dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis might be involved. We examined the association between cortisol responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC.Participants were 466 healthy men and women (mean age = 62.7±5.6 yrs, without history or objective signs of CHD, drawn from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort. At the baseline assessment salivary cortisol was measured in response to mental stressors, consisting of a 5-min Stroop task and a 5-min mirror tracing task. CAC was measured at baseline and at 3 years follow up using electron beam computed tomography. CAC progression was defined as an increase >10 Agatston units between baseline and follow up. 38.2% of the sample demonstrated CAC progression over the 3 years follow up. There was considerable variation in the cortisol stress response, with approximately 40% of the sample responding to the stress tasks with an increase in cortisol of at least 1 mmol/l. There was an association between cortisol stress reactivity (per SD and CAC progression (odds ratio = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.02-1.60 after adjustments for age, sex, pre-stress cortisol, employment grade, smoking, resting systolic BP, fibrinogen, body mass index, and use of statins. There was no association between systolic blood pressure reactivity and CAC progression (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.85-1.24. Other independent predictors of CAC progression included age, male sex, smoking, resting systolic blood pressure, and fibrinogen.Results demonstrate an association between heightened cortisol reactivity to stress and CAC progression. These data support the notion that cortisol reactivity, an index of HPA function, is one of the possible mechanisms through which psychosocial stress may influence the risk of CHD.

  20. Coronary Artery Calcium Distribution Is an Independent Predictor of Incident Major Coronary Heart Disease Events: Results From the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencik, Maros; Pencina, Karol M; Liu, Ting; Ghemigian, Khristine; Baltrusaitis, Kristin; Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Hoffmann, Udo

    2017-10-01

    The presence and extent of coronary artery calcium (CAC) are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events. We determined whether information on the distribution of CAC and coronary dominance as detected by cardiac computed tomography were incremental to traditional Agatston score (AS) in predicting incident major coronary heart disease (CHD). We assessed total AS and the presence of CAC per coronary artery, per segment, and coronary dominance by computed tomography in participants from the offspring and third-generation cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study. The primary outcome was major CHD (myocardial infarction or CHD death). We performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis and calculated relative integrated discrimination improvement. In 1268 subjects (mean age, 56.2±10.3 years, 63.2% men) with AS >0 and no history of major CHD, a total of 42 major CHD events occurred during median follow-up of 7.4 years. The number of coronary arteries with CAC (hazard ratio, 1.68 per artery; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.57; P =0.02) and the presence of CAC in the proximal dominant coronary artery (hazard ratio, 2.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-5.83; P =0.02) were associated with major CHD events after multivariable adjustment for Framingham risk score and categories of AS. In addition, measures of CAC distribution improved discriminatory capacity for major CHD events (relative integrated discrimination improvement, 0.14). Distribution of coronary atherosclerosis, especially CAC in the proximal dominant coronary artery and an increased number of coronary arteries with CAC, predict major CHD events independently of the traditional AS in community-dwelling men and women. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Koronararteriecalciumscore ved hjertecomputertomografi øger den prognostiske information hos udvalgte personer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Zacho, Mette; Kourmaeva, Daria

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the western countries. Conventional risk evaluation of asymptomatic individuals is unfortunately inaccurate. There is a need for better diagnostic tools to identify persons, who will benefit from intensified preventive treatment. Coronary...... artery calcium score (CACS) measured by multi-slice CT scan contributes significantly to risk stratification especially in persons with intermediate risk assessed by conventional risk analysis. A CACS-guided preventive intervention strategy seems appealing to reduce mortality due to cardiovascular...

  2. Stearic acid at physiologic concentrations induces in vitro lipotoxicity in circulating angiogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigoni, Valentina; Fantuzzi, Federica; Fontana, Alessia; Cito, Monia; Derlindati, Eleonora; Zavaroni, Ivana; Cnop, Miriam; Bonadonna, Riccardo C; Dei Cas, Alessandra

    2017-10-01

    Saturated free fatty acids (SFAs) can induce lipotoxicity in different cells. No studies have investigated the effects of SFA in circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), which play a key role in endothelial repair processes. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of SFAs, specifically stearic acid (SA), on viability and function of CACs and to investigate potential underlying molecular mechanisms. CACs were isolated from healthy subjects by established methods. CACs were incubated with BSA-complexed stearate (100 μM) to assess the time course (from 8 to 24 h exposure) of the effects on viability and apoptosis (activation of caspases 3/7), angiogenic function (tube formation assay), pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and TNFα) gene expression (qPCR) and secretion (ELISA), activation of MAPK (JNK, p38 and Erk1/2) by Western blot and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker (CHOP, BIP, ATF4, XBP-1 and sXBP-1) gene expression by qPCR. Stearic acid activates effector caspases in CACs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. SA also impairs CAC function and increases pro-inflammatory molecule (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and TNFα) gene expression and secretion in CACs starting from 3 h of incubation. The activation of JNK by SA mediates pro-inflammatory response, but it may be not necessary for apoptosis. Moreover, SA induces the expression of ER stress markers across the three branches of the ER stress response. In humans, both function and viability of CACs are exquisitely vulnerable to physiologic concentrations of stearate; lipotoxic impairment of endothelial repair processes may be implicated in vascular damage caused by SFAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Frequency and Duration of Periodontal Disease With Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium in Patients With and Without Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Daniel W; Krantz, Mori J; Hokanson, John E; Johnson, Lonnie R; Eckel, Robert H; Kinney, Gregory L; Rewers, Marian; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Alman, Amy C

    2015-09-15

    People with type 1 diabetes mellitus manifest a greater burden of both periodontal disease and coronary artery disease (CAD); however, little is known about their interrelation. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) measures subclinical atherosclerosis and predicts major adverse coronary events. The relation between periodontal disease and CAC progression in individuals with type 1 diabetes has not been previously described. We determined the prevalence and progression of CAC in relation to self-reported periodontal disease. Multivariate logistic and tobit regression models were used to examine the relation between periodontal disease duration and CAC progression and whether this relation differs by diabetes status after controlling for age, gender, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes, and baseline CAC. A total of 473 patients with type 1 diabetes and 548 without diabetes were followed for a mean of 6.1 years. At baseline, the prevalence and duration of periodontal disease did not differ between subjects with and without diabetes (14.5% vs 13.4%, p = 0.60; 6 vs 9 years, p = 0.18). Duration of periodontal disease was not significantly associated with baseline CAC prevalence. In patients with type 1 diabetes, periodontal disease duration was significantly related to CAC progression (p = 0.004) but not in subjects without diabetes (p = 0.63). In conclusion, this study suggests that periodontal disease is an independent predictor of long-term progression of CAC in patients with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Concurrent atomistic and continuum simulation of bi-crystal strontium titanate with tilt grain boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shengfeng; Chen, Youping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the development of a concurrent atomistic–continuum (CAC) methodology for simulation of the grain boundary (GB) structures and their interaction with other defects in ionic materials. Simulation results show that the CAC simulation allows a smooth passage of cracks through the atomistic–continuum interface without the need for additional constitutive rules or special numerical treatment; both the atomic-scale structures and the energies of the four different [001] ti...

  5. The effects of multiple coronary artery disease risk factors on subclinical atherosclerosis in a rural population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Paul, Timir K; Wang, Liang; Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Panchal, Hemang B; Alamian, Arsham; Sarnosky, Kamrie; Budoff, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    The risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are associated with coronary atherosclerosis and having multiple risk factors potentiates atherosclerosis. This study examined the prevalence of multiple biological and lifestyle/behavioral risk factors and their association with coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. This is a cross-sectional study of 1607 community-dwelling asymptomatic individuals from central Appalachia who participated in CAC screening between January 2011 and December 2012. Data on demographics (sex and age) and 7 traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) were collected and categorized into 5 groups (0-1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥5). Prevalence of these risk factors and CAC scores (0, 1-99, 100-399, ≥400) were assessed, and the impact of the number of risk factors on CAC scores were delineated using multiple logistic regression. Over 98% of participants had ≥1 risk factor. While obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and family history of CAD significantly increased the odds of having CAC, CAC scores significantly increased with number of risk factors. After adjusting for demographic factors, having 3, 4, and ≥5 risk factors was significantly associated with increased odds of having higher CAC scores when compared to zero CAC score by more than one and half times [OR=1.65, CI (1.20-2.25)], two times [OR=2.32, CI (1.67-3.23)] and three times [OR=3.45, CI (2.42-4.92)], respectively. The high prevalence of multiple risk factors in the study population suggests the need for aggressive multiple risk factors interventions for primary prevention of CAD, which could address CVD health disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Carotid plaque burden as a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter; Adourian, Aram

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare carotid plaque burden, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and abdominal aortic diameter (AAD) to coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in people without known cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to compare carotid plaque burden, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and abdominal aortic diameter (AAD) to coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in people without known cardiovascular disease....

  7. The relation between coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic subjects and both traditional risk factors and living in the city centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrechtsen, J; Gerke, Oke; Egstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Objective:  To evaluate the association between the risk factor of living in the city centre as a surrogate for air pollution and the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in a population of asymptomatic Danish subjects. Design and subjects:  A random sample of 1825 men and women...... the greatest association with the presence of CAC: the odds ratio (OR) for men compared with women was 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-4.2; P...

  8. The structure of contemporaneous price-volume relationships in financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Henryk Gurgul; Robert Syrek

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is an examination of the interdependence stuctures of stock returns, volatility and trading volumes of companies listed on the CAC40 and FTSE100. The authors establish that the mean values of respective measures are different on the markets under study. In general, they are larger for equities from CAC40 than from FTSE100. The Mixture of Distributions Hypothesis with long memory is rejected for about 70 % of stocks from both markets. Additionally fractional cointeg...

  9. Lanthanum carbonate delays progression of coronary artery calcification compared with calcium-based phosphate binders in patients on hemodialysis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Takayasu; Kobayashi, Shuzo; Oka, Machiko; Furuya, Rei; Iwagami, Masao; Tsutsumi, Daimu; Mochida, Yasuhiro; Maesato, Kyoko; Ishioka, Kunihiro; Moriya, Hidekazu; Hidaka, Sumi

    2013-09-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with future cardiovascular events and/or death of patients on hemodialysis (HD). We investigated whether progression of CAC in patients on HD could be delayed by switching from a calcium (Ca)-based phosphate (Pi) binder to lanthanum carbonate. The CAC scores were evaluated at study enrollment and after 6 months in 52 patients on HD using calcium carbonate (CC) as a Pi binder. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups assigned to receive either CC or lanthanum carbonate (LC), and the CAC scores were evaluated after a 6-month treatment period. Progression of CAC was assessed, as were serum levels of Ca, Pi, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Forty-two patients completed the study (23 receiving CC and 19 receiving LC). In the 6 months prior to randomization, all patients were treated with CC. During this 6-month period, the CAC scores increased significantly in all 42 patients. Once randomized, there was significantly less progression in the group treated with LC than with CC. Changes in CAC scores from 6 to 12 months were significantly smaller in the LC group than the CC group (-288.9 ± 1176.4 vs 107.1 ± 559.6, P = .036), and percentage changes were also significantly different (-6.4% vs 41.2%, P = .024). Serum Ca, Pi, and iPTH levels were similar in both groups during the study period. This pilot study suggested that LC delayed progression of CAC in patients on HD compared with CC.

  10. Traumatic brain injury, coronary atherosclerosis and cardiovascular mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Naser; Hajsadeghi, Fereshteh; Yehuda, Rachel; Anderson, Nils; Garfield, David; Ludmer, Charles; Vaidya, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic-brain-injury (TBI) is a devastating-condition resulting in cerebral edema and ischemia. This study investigates the association of mild-TBI (mTBI) to sub-clinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Five hundred and forty-three veterans without known coronary artery disease or diagnosed mental disorder, who underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) scanning for clinical indications, were followed for a median of 4-years. Veterans' medical diagnoses and neuropsychiatric health status (mTBI vs non-mTBI) were evaluated using VA electronic medical records. CAC was defined as 0, 1-100, 101-400 and 400+. CAC was higher in mTBI, compared to without-mTBI (p mortality rate was 25% in mTBI and 10.5% in without-mTBI (p = 0.0001). Multivariable survival regression analyses revealed a significant-association between mTBI and CAC, with increased-risk of CV mortality (p mortality was 5.25 in mTBI & CAC > 0, compared to without-mTBI & CAC = 0 (p mortality was 2.25 for mTBI & CAC = 1-100, 4.93 for mTBI & CAC = 101-400 and 7.06 for mTBI & CAC ≥ 400, compared to matched CAC-categories without-mTBI (p mortality was 0.64 for mTBI, 0.69 for mTBI & PTSD, 0.85 for mTBI & CAC > 0 and 0.92 for the combination. The prognostication of mTBI to predict CV mortality is superior to the Framingham risk score. Also the combination of mTBI & PTSD provided incremental prognostic values to predict CV mortality (p atherosclerosis and independently predicts CV mortality.

  11. Quality of life (GIQLI) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy usefulness in patients with gallbladder dysfunction or chronic non-lithiasic biliary pain (chronic acalculous cholecystitis) Calidad de vida (GIQLI) y utilidad de la colecistectomía laparoscópica en pacientes con disfunción vesicular o dolor crónico biliar alitiásico (colecistitis crónica alitiásica)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Planells Roig; J. Bueno Lledó; A. Sanahuja Santafé; R. García Espinosa

    2004-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, clinical features and role of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in patients with chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC) in comparison with a control group of patients who underwent cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis (CCC). Material and methods: prospective evaluation of 34 patients with CAC in contrast with 297 patients with CCC. Outcome measures: clinical presentation, quality of life using the Gastrointestinal ...

  12. Hidratación del cemento de aluminato de calcio en condiciones de muy elevada alcalinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor, C.; Fernández-Jiménez, A.; Vázquez, T.; Palomo, Á.

    2009-01-01

    [ES] El presente trabajo forma parte de una amplia investigación cuyo objetivo principal es el de elaborar nuevos materiales con propiedades cementantes mediante la activación alcalina de materiales de naturaleza silito-aluminosa. En estos estudios se contempla la posibilidad de utilizar pequeños porcentajes de cemento de aluminato de calcio (CAC) como fuente de aluminio reactivo. Por ello inicialmente se ha estudiado el comportamiento de los CAC en medios fuertemente ...

  13. The Balancing Role of Turkey for the Influence of China in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    alternative-partner-west-turkey’s-growing-relations-china. 6 Edward N. Luttwak, “From Geopolitics to Geoeconomics: Logic of Conflict, Grammar of... teaching role not only to the CACs, but also to the powerful, and meddling external actors.188 Third, Turkey can be an economic model to the CACs... Grammar of Commerce.” Geopolitics Reader (2011). Makarenko, Tamara “Central Asia: Where Power, Politics And Economics Collide.” NATO, 2009

  14. Multimodality Intracoronary Imaging With Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Intravascular Ultrasound in Asymptomatic Individuals With High Calcium Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madder, Ryan D; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Klungle, David; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Decker, Jeffrey M; Langholz, David; Boyden, Thomas F; Parker, Jessica; Muller, James E

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to determine the frequency of large lipid-rich plaques (LRP) in the coronary arteries of individuals with high coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) and to determine whether the CACS correlates with coronary lipid burden. Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound was performed in 57 vessels in 20 asymptomatic individuals (90% on statins) with no prior history of coronary artery disease who had a screening CACS ≥300 Agatston units. Among 268 10-mm coronary segments, near-infrared spectroscopy images were analyzed for LRP, defined as a bright yellow block on the near-infrared spectroscopy block chemogram. Lipid burden was assessed as the lipid core burden index (LCBI), and large LRP were defined as a maximum LCBI in 4 mm ≥400. Vessel plaque volume was measured by quantitative intravascular ultrasound. Vessel-level CACS significantly correlated with plaque volume by intravascular ultrasound (r=0.69; Pinfrared spectroscopy (r=0.24; P=0.07). Despite a high CACS, no LRP was detected in 8 (40.0%) subjects. Large LRP having a maximum LCBI in 4 mm ≥400 were infrequent, found in only 5 (25.0%) of 20 subjects and in only 5 (1.9%) of 268 10-mm coronary segments analyzed. Among individuals with a CACS ≥300 Agatston units mostly on statins, CACS correlated with total plaque volume but not LCBI. This observation may have implications on coronary risk among individuals with a high CACS considering that it is coronary LRP, rather than calcification, that underlies the majority of acute coronary events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Assessment of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for Statin Treatment Strategy according to ACC/AHA Guidelines in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghee; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Lee, Ji Hyun; Rizvi, Asim; Park, Hyo Eun; Choi, Su Yeon; Sung, Jidong; Chang, Hyuk Jae

    2017-01-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) cholesterol management guidelines advocate the use of statin treatment for prevention of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the usefulness of coronary artery calcium (CAC) for stratifying potential candidates of statin use among asymptomatic Korean individuals. A total of 31375 subjects who underwent CAC scoring as part of a general health examination were enrolled in the current study. Statin eligibility was categorized as statin recommended (SR), considered (SC), and not recommended (SN) according to ACC/AHA guidelines. Cox regression analysis was employed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidential intervals (CI) after stratifying the subjects according to CAC scores of 0, 1-100, and >100. Number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one mortality event during study follow up was calculated for each group. Mean age was 54.4±7.5 years, and 76.3% were male. During a 5-year median follow-up (interquartile range; 3-7), there were 251 (0.8%) deaths from all-causes. A CAC >100 was independently associated with mortality across each statin group after adjusting for cardiac risk factors (e.g., SR: HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.07-2.38; SC: HR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.09-8.13, and SN: HR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.08-9.17). Notably, patients with CAC >100 displayed a lower NNT in comparison to the absence of CAC or CAC 1-100 in SC and SN groups. In Korean asymptomatic individuals, CAC scoring might prove useful for reclassifying patient eligibility for receiving statin therapy based on updated 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines.

  16. Incremental benefit of coronary artery calcium score above traditional risk factors for all-cause mortality in asymptomatic Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghee; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Gransar, Heidi; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Joon; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Choi, Su-Yeon; Sung, Jidong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a well-recognized marker for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, particularly in asymptomatic populations. To date, however, the added prognostic benefit of CACS compared with traditional risk factors in an Asian population remains unknown. This study therefore investigated the benefit of CACS over traditional risk factors for all-cause mortality in a large multicenter registry of asymptomatic Korean adults. A total of 34,386 individuals were retrospectively enrolled to participate in a general health examination. The Framingham 10-year risk score (FRS) was calculated according to the traditional risk stratification algorithm and CACS was calculated in log(CACS+1) for continuous data and categorized as 0, 1-100, 101-400 and >400. During a median follow-up of 4.9 years (IQR, 3.0-7.1), there were 303 all-cause deaths (0.9%). Following adjustment, CACS was independently associated with all-cause death (hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.17; P<0.001). Notably, CACS added further prognostic value above and beyond FRS (likelihood ratio, χ(2)=75.42, P<0.001; continuous net reclassification improvement=0.40, 95% CI: 0.29-0.51, P≤0.001; improving C-statistic from 0.64, 95% CI: 0.61-0.67 to 0.68, 95% CI: 0.64-0.71; ∆C=0.04, 95% CI: 0.01-0.06, P=0.002). In an asymptomatic Korean population, CACS improved prediction of all-cause mortality over and above that of a conventional risk tool.

  17. Coronary Artery Calcium and Risk of Dementia in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Jacobs, David R; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Alonso, Alvaro; Duprez, Daniel A; Sharrett, A Richey; Seeman, Teresa; Blaha, Michael J; Luchsinger, José A; Rapp, Stephen R

    2017-05-01

    Studies suggest a link between vascular injuries and dementia. Only a few studies, however, examined a longitudinal relation of subclinical vascular disease with dementia. We tested whether baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC), a biomarker of subclinical vascular disease, is associated with incident dementia independent of vascular risk factors and APOE-ε4 genotype in a community-based sample. We analyzed 6293 participants of MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), aged 45 to 84 years at baseline (2000-2002), initially free of cardiovascular disease and noticeable cognitive deficit. Dementia cases were identified using hospital and death certificate International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes. Cox models were used to obtain hazard ratios according to CAC category, or per 1 SD log2[CAC+1], adjusted for vascular risk factor, APOE-ε4, with or without exclusion of interim stroke or cardiovascular disease. We observed 271 dementia cases in a median follow-up of 12.2 years. Baseline CAC had a graded positive association with dementia risk. Compared with no CAC, CAC score of 1 to 400, 401 to 1000, and ≥1001 had increased risk of dementia by 23%, 35%, and 71%, respectively, (Ptrend=0.026) after adjustment. 1 SD higher log2[CAC+1] was associated with 24% (95% confidence interval, 8%-41%; P=0.002) increase in dementia risk. Although the association was partially explained by interim stroke/cardiovascular disease, it remained significant even after excluding the interim events, or regardless of baseline age. Higher baseline CAC was significantly associated with increased risk of dementia independent of vascular risk factor, APOE-ε4, and incident stroke. This is consistent with a hypothesis that vascular injuries play a role in the development of dementia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography (CT) Angiography and Coronary Artery Calcium Score Performed Before Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-08-21

    Cardiac events after revascularization are equally attributable to recurrence at site of culprit lesions and development of nonculprit lesions. We evaluated the hypothesis that coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) performed before revascularization predicts cardiac events after treatment. Among 2238 consecutive patients without known coronary artery disease who underwent coronary CT angiography and CACS, 359 patients underwent revascularization within 30 days after CT; in 337 of 359 (93.9%) follow-up clinical information was available. In addition to known cardiac risk factors, CT findings were evaluated as predictors of cardiac events after revascularization: CACS and the presence of CT-verified high-risk plaque (CT-HRP). Improvement of predictive accuracy by including CT findings was evaluated from a discrimination (Harrell's C-statistics) standpoint. During the follow-up period (median: 673, interquartile range: 47 to 1529 days), a total of 98 cardiac events occurred. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that age, diabetes, triglyceride, CACS, and nonculprit CT-HRP were significant predictors of overall cardiac events. Although not statistically significant, discriminatory power was greater for the model with CACS (C-stat: 63.2%) and the model with both CACS and CT-HRP (65.8%) compared to the model including neither CACS nor CT-HRP (60.7%). High CACS and the presence of nonculprit CT-HRP performed before revascularization are significant predictors of cardiac events after revascularization. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Preliminary genetic linkage map of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F: TCA CTG AGC ACA GGA AGG CAG GAA TG. R: ATTGGTGCCGACGGAACAGGAAGTCT. F: TCT СТG CGC СТG TCT ACC T. R: TGT TTA TTA AAG CAC TTT CCT CAT. F: TCA GTC TTT AAG CGT GTG GAG TGC. R: A TGG GAA CGA GGA GAG GAC GAA. F: TGA CGC CGA CGT GAA TGT CAC. R: CT GCT GAT GAC CGT ...

  20. Self-reported racial discrimination, response to unfair treatment, and coronary calcification in asymptomatic adults - the North Texas Healthy Heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Richard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accruing evidence supports the hypothesis that psychosocial factors are related to cardiovascular disease. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the pathophysiologic pathways through which these associations occur. The purpose of this study was to assess whether experiences of self-reported racial discrimination and reactions to unfair treatment were associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC, an indicator of subclinical coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 571 subjects (45 years and older who were asymptomatic of CHD from Fort Worth, Texas from 2006 to 2008. Subjects completed a questionnaire, a multi-slice computed tomography scan to assess for CAC presence (measured as Agatston score >0, and serum chemistries. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the association between self-reported discrimination and CAC. Results were stratified by response to unfair treatment as it was found to significantly modify the relationship between discrimination and CAC. Results Among those who passively responded to unfair treatment, the odds of having CAC present were approximately 3 times higher for those experiencing discrimination (OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.19-7.32 after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, hyperlipidemia, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, and first degree relative with heart disease. Conclusions This is the first multi-racial/ethnic study to find racial discrimination associated with CAC, which differs based on how one responds to unfair treatment.

  1. Effects of scuba diving on vascular repair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culic, Vedrana Cikes; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline; Muzinic, Nikolina Rezic; Ljubkovic, Marko; Marinovic, Jasna; Conraads, Viviane; Dujic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    A single air dive causes transient endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) contribute synergistically to endothelial repair. In this study (1) the acute effects of diving on EPC numbers and CAC migration and (2) the influence of the gas mixture (air/nitrox-36) was investigated. Ten divers performed two dives to 18 meters on Day (D) 1 and D3, using air. After 15 days, dives were repeated with nitrox-36. Blood sampling took place before and immediately after diving. Circulating EPCs were quantified by flow cytometry, CAC migration of culture was assessed on D7. When diving on air, a trend for reduced EPC numbers is observed post-dive, which is persistent on D1 and D3. CAC migration tends to improve acutely following diving. These effects are more pronounced with nitrox-36 dives. Diving acutely affects EPC numbers and CAC function, and to a larger extent when diving with nitrox-36. The diving-induced oxidative stress may influence recruitment or survival of EPC. The functional improvement of CAC could be a compensatory mechanism to maintain endothelial homeostasis.

  2. Modeling and adaptive control of a camless engine using neural networks and estimation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, S. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-08-09

    A system to control the cylinder air charge (CAC) in a camless internal combustion (IC) engine was recently developed. The performance of an IC engine connected to an adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) based feedback controller was then investigated. A control oriented model for the engine intake process was created based on thermodynamics laws and was validated against engine experimental data. Input-output data at a speed of 1500 RPM was generated and used to train an ANN model for the engine. The inputs were the intake valve lift (IVL) and closing timing (IVC). The output was the CAC. The controller consisted of a feedforward controller, CAC estimator, and on-line ANN parameter estimator. The feedforward controller provided IVL and IVC that satisfied the driver's torque demand and was the inverse of the engine ANN model. The on-line ANN used the error between the CAC measurement from the CAC estimator and its predicted value from the ANN to update the network's parameters. The feedforward controller was therefore adapted since its operation depended on the ANN model. The adaptation scheme improved the ANN prediction accuracy when the engine parts degraded, the speed changed or when modeling errors occurred. The engine controller exhibited good CAC tracking performance. Computer simulation demonstrated the capability of the camless engine controller. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Prevalence of coronary artery calcium scores and silent myocardial ischaemia was similar in Indian Asians and European whites in a cross-sectional study of asymptomatic subjects from a U.K. population (LOLIPOP-IPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Piyush; Kooner, Jaspal S; Raval, Usha; Lahiri, Avijit

    2011-05-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is 70% higher among Indian Asians (IA) than European whites (EW), the reasons for this excess remain unexplained. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is highly correlated with coronary plaque burden and silent myocardial ischaemia in EW; but fails to identify excess risk in IA. We hypothesised that IA have a higher prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia compared to EW, despite similar CAC, and this may explain their excess CHD mortality. CAC was measured for 2,369 asymptomatic men and women, aged 35 to 75 years, as part of the London Life Sciences Population (LOLIPOP) study. 518 subjects had CAC scores >100 Agatston units and of these 256 (49%) patients underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). CAC scores were similar among IA and EW, after adjustment for conventional risk factors. MPS abnormalities were seen in 56 (22%) subjects. Presence of diabetes (P = .03) and increasing CAC (P < .001) were independent predictors for severity of silent myocardial ischaemia. Ethnicity did not influence the prevalence or the extent of silent myocardial ischaemia. MPS did not identify greater ischaemia among IA compared with EW. This appears incongruent with almost 2-fold higher risk of CHD mortality observed in IA.

  4. A quality improvement project to improve compliance with the joint commission children's asthma care-3 measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Stephanie; Mason, Brooke; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R

    2013-01-01

    Since the initiation of the Children's Asthma Care (CAC) core measures in 2008, hospitals have struggled to achieve a high rate of compliance with the CAC-3 measure of the Home Management Plan of Care (HMPC). At inception of this project in 2009, the national average was 65% compliance, which has now increased to 80%. These rates are below the Hospital Corporation of America's goal of 90% compliance. Our objective was to identify potential pitfalls that interfere with compliance on CAC-3 at our institution and to devise solutions to increase compliance to >90%. Inpatient pediatric patients at a community teaching hospital in a predominantly rural state were included in our interrupted time-series quality improvement project from 2008 to 2011. Patients were between 2 and 17 years of age with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), primary diagnosis code of asthma at time of discharge. We identified potential stumbling blocks that interfered with compliance of CAC measures and then implemented repeated Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles to improve processes, including redesign of the HMPC form, education, and electronic documentation tied to the discharge medication reconciliation form, which is also required by The Joint Commission. We started with an average quarterly compliance of 43% with CAC-3 before our PDSA cycles. We have improved our compliance after the 2 PDSA cycles to an average of 97%. By linking the HMPC form to the discharge medication reconciliation form, we were able to achieve and maintain >90% compliance with CAC-3.

  5. Prevalence and Distribution of Coronary Artery Calcification in Asymptomatic United States and Korean Adults - Cross-Sectional Propensity-Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghee; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Gransar, Heidi; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choi, Su-Yeon; Chun, Eun Ju; Sung, Jidong; Han, Hae-Won; Park, Sung Hak; Callister, Tracy; Lin, Fay Y; Min, James K; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2016-10-25

    The incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) varies depending on ethnicity, but the precise differences remain to be firmly established. This study therefore evaluated the disparity in coronary artery calcification (CAC), as a marker of CAD, in asymptomatic US and Korean adults.Methods and Results:CAC score was compared between asymptomatic Korean (n=15,128) and US (n=7,533) adults. Propensity score matching was performed according to age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and current smoking, which generated 2 cohorts of 5,427 matched pairs. Both cohorts were categorized according to age group: 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years. Overall, the prevalence of CAC score >0, >100, and >400 in Korean adults was lower than in US adults (PKorean adults, especially in Korean women. The odds of having CAC >400 in Korean adults aged 65-74 years was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48-0.91) overall, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.52-1.19) in men, and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.29-0.86) in women, compared with US counterparts. Korean adults have a lower prevalence and severity of atherosclerotic burden as assessed on CAC, compared with US adults, but the disparity in CAC according to ethnicity may decline with older age. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2349-2355).

  6. Influence of cigarette smoking on coronary artery and aortic calcium among random samples from populations of middle-age Japanese and Korean men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sekikawa, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Choo, Jina; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Kadota, Aya; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Masaki, Kamal; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Kuller, Lewis H.; Curb, J. David; Shin, Chol

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). Vascular calcification such as coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic calcium (AC) is associated with CHD. We hypothesized that cigarette smoking is associated with coronary artery and aortic calcifications in Japanese and Koreans with high smoking prevalence. Methods Random samples from populations of 313 Japanese and 302 Korean men aged 40 to 49 were examined for calcification of the coronary artery and aorta using electron beam computed tomography. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic calcium (AC) were quantified using the Agatston score. We examined the associations of cigarette smoking with CAC and AC after adjusting for conventional risk factors and alcohol consumption. Current and past smokers were combined and categorized into two groups using median pack-years as a cutoff point in each of Japanese and Koreans. The never smoker group was used as a reference for the multiple logistic regression analyses. Results The odds ratios of CAC (score ≥10) for smokers with higher pack-years were 2.9 in Japanese (PKoreans (non-significant) compared to never smokers. The odds ratios of AC (score ≥100) for smokers with higher pack-years were 10.4 in Japanese (PKoreans (Psmoking with higher pack-years is significantly associated with CAC and AC in Japanese men, while cigarette smoking with higher pack-years is significantly associated with AC but not significantly with CAC in Korean men. PMID:22844083

  7. Influence of cigarette smoking on coronary artery and aortic calcium among random samples from populations of middle-aged Japanese and Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sekikawa, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Choo, Jina; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Kadota, Aya; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Masaki, Kamal; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Kuller, Lewis H; Curb, J David; Shin, Chol

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor of coronary heart disease. Vascular calcification such as coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic calcium (AC) is associated with coronary heart disease. The authors hypothesised that cigarette smoking is associated with coronary artery and aortic calcifications in Japanese and Koreans with high smoking prevalence. Random samples from populations of 313 Japanese and 302 Korean men aged 40-49 years were examined for calcification of the coronary artery and aorta using electron beam CT. CAC and AC were quantified using the Agatston score. The authors examined the associations of cigarette smoking with CAC and AC after adjusting for conventional risk factors and alcohol consumption. Current and past smokers were combined and categorised into two groups using median pack-years as a cut-off point in each of Japanese and Koreans. The never-smoker group was used as a reference for the multiple logistic regression analyses. The ORs of CAC (score ≥10) for smokers with higher pack-years were 2.9 in Japanese (pKoreans (non-significant) compared with never-smokers. The ORs of AC (score ≥100) for smokers with higher pack-years were 10.4 in Japanese (pKoreans (psmoking with higher pack-years is significantly associated with CAC and AC in Japanese men, while cigarette smoking with higher pack-years is significantly associated with AC but not significantly with CAC in Korean men.

  8. Toward early diagnosis of arteriosclerotic diseases: collaborative detection of carotid artery calcifications by computer and dentists on dental panoramic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Takahashi, Ryo; Hara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have reported the presence of carotid artery calcifications (CACs) on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) as a possible sign of arteriosclerotic diseases. However, CACs are not easily visible at the common window level for dental examinations, and dentists, in general, are not looking for CACs. Computerized detection of CACs may help dentists in referring patients with a risk of arteriosclerotic diseases to have a detailed examination at a medical clinic. Downside of our previous method was a relatively large number of false positives (FPs). In this study, we attempted to reduce FPs by including an additional feature and selecting effective features for the classifier. A hundred DPRs including 34 cases with calcifications were included. Initial candidates were detected by thresholding the output of top-hat operation. For each candidate, 10 features and a new feature characterizing the relative position of a CAC with reference to the lower mandible edge were determined. After the rule-based FP reduction, candidates were classified into CACs and FPs by a support vector machine. Based on the leave-one-out cross-validation evaluations, an average number of FPs was 3.1 per image at 90.4% sensitivity using seven features selected. Compared to our previous method, the number of FPs was reduced by 38% at the same sensitivity level. The proposed method has a potential in identifying patients with a risk of arteriosclerosis early via general dental examinations.

  9. Compute raided classification of ventilation patterns inpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases at two-phase xenon-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Son Ho; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Chang Hyun; Lee, You Kyung; Jin, Kwang Nam; Choo, Ji Yung; Lee, Nyoung Keun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Julip; Hong, Helen [Dept. of Multimedia Engineering, Seoul Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate the technical feasibility, performance, and interobserver agreement of a computer-aided classification (CAC) system for regional ventilation at two-phase xenon-enhanced CT in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thirty-eight patients with COPD underwent two-phase xenon ventilation CT with resulting wash-in (WI) and wash-out (WO) xenon images. The regional ventilation in structural abnormalities was visually categorized into four patterns by consensus of two experienced radiologists who compared the xenon attenuation of structural abnormalities with that of adjacent normal parenchyma in the WI and WO images, and it served as the reference. Two series of image datasets of structural abnormalities were randomly extracted for optimization and validation. The proportion of agreement on a per-lesion basis and receiver operating characteristics on a per-pixel basis between CAC and reference were analyzed for optimization. Thereafter, six readers independently categorized the regional ventilation in structural abnormalities in the validation set without and with a CAC map. Interobserver agreement was also compared between assessments without and with CAC maps using multirater κ statistics. Computer-aided classification maps were successfully generated in 31 patients (81.5%). The proportion of agreement and the average area under the curve of optimized CAC maps were 94% (75/80) and 0.994, respectively. Multirater k value was improved from moderate (k=0.59: 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.62) at the initial assessment to excellent with the CAC map.

  10. Shotgun proteomic monitoring of Clostridium acetobutylicum during stationary phase of butanol fermentation using xylose and comparison with the exponential phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivagnanam, Kumaran [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Raghavan, Vijaya G. S. [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Lefsrud, Mark G [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec

    2012-01-01

    Economically viable production of solvents through acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation requires a detailed understanding of Clostridium acetobutylicum. This study focuses on the proteomic profiling of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from the stationary phase of ABE fermentation using xylose and compares with the exponential growth by shotgun proteomics approach. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 22.9% of the C. acetobutylicum genome and 18.6% was found to be common in both exponential and stationary phases. The proteomic profile of C. acetobutylicum changed during the ABE fermentation such that 17 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the two phases. Specifically, the expression of five proteins namely, CAC2873, CAP0164, CAP0165, CAC3298, and CAC1742 involved in the solvent production pathway were found to be significantly lower in the stationary phase compared to the exponential growth. Similarly, the expression of fucose isomerase (CAC2610), xylulose kinase (CAC2612), and a putative uncharacterized protein (CAC2611) involved in the xylose utilization pathway were also significantly lower in the stationary phase. These findings provide an insight into the metabolic behavior of C. acetobutylicum between different phases of ABE fermentation using xylose.

  11. Comparison between Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Coronary Artery Calcification in the Prediction of Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusli Muljadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the atherosclerosis etiologies that can lead to death. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of atherosclerosis. Screening tool is very beneficial for detecting atherosclerotic plaque, especially in subclinical atherosclerotic cases. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and coronary artery calcification score (CACS are two kinds of tools that are widely used, and each of these tools has its own superiority. This study was aimed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of both of these tools as screening tools. METHODS: The study was conducted with a cross sectional design involving 43 diabetic and 68 non-diabetic male subjects aged above 45 years old. All subjects fulfilled inclusion criteria. Carotid artery ultrasonography and CACS measurement were performed. RESULTS: Fischer exact test was used to show a significant correlation between CIMT and CACS (p<0.05. Diagnostic test was used to assess the sensitivity of CIMT toward CACS in above 75 percentile. The left common carotid artery (LCCA showed the highest sensitivity either in diabetic (76.4% or non-diabetic male subjects (90%. CONCLUSIONS: CIMT has the same sensitivity with CACS. CIMT can be used as the preferred screening tool for high risk patients and as a substitution tool to CACS for low risk patients in subclinical atherosclerosis detection. KEYWORDS: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, carotid intima-media thickness, coronary artery calciication score.

  12. Celiac artery compression syndrome: a radiological finding without clinical symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazan, V; Qu, W; Al-Natour, M; Abbas, J; Nazzal, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the paper is to determine the incidence of celiac artery compression (CAC) based on computed tomography (CT) scan and correlate the findings to the clinical presentation of patients presenting for CT scan in a hospital. Abdominal CT scans of patients were reviewed between September 2010 and November 2010. CAC was diagnosed if the celiac axis appeared to have a hook or U-shaped appearance with stenosis. The medical records of the patients were reviewed for gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea), as well as food fear and weight loss. Patients with CAC had lower incidence of symptoms compared with those without CAC (42.1 versus 65.3%, P = 0.042). A total of 450 patients were evaluated. In the end, 284 had both complete medical records and CT scans. The mean age for all patients was 51.3 ± 1.2 years. There were 124 men (42.6%) and 160 (57.4%) women. Nineteen (6.7%) patients had radiological evidence of CAC. CAC is not an uncommon CT finding in patients presenting for CT scan. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Low cardiorespiratory fitness and coronary artery calcification: Complementary cardiovascular risk predictors in asymptomatic type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrir, Barak; Azaiza, Mohanad; Gaspar, Tamar; Dobrecky-Mery, Idit; Azencot, Mali; Lewis, Basil S; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Halon, David A

    2015-08-01

    Despite its well-established prognostic value, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is not incorporated routinely in risk assessment tools. Whether low CRF provides additional predictive information in asymptomatic type 2 diabetics beyond conventional risk scores and coronary artery calcification (CAC) is unclear. We studied 600 type 2 diabetics aged 55-74 years without known coronary heart disease. CRF was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs) by maximal treadmill testing and categorized as tertiles of percent predicted METs (ppMETs) achieved. CAC was calculated by non-enhanced computed tomography scans. The individual and joint association of both measures with an outcome event of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, was determined over a mean follow-up period of 80 ± 16 months. There were 72 (12%) events during follow-up. Low CRF was independently associated with event risk after adjustment for traditional risk factors and CAC (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.41-3.57, p = 0.001). CRF (unfit/fit) allowed further outcome discrimination both amongst diabetics with low CAC scores (9.5% versus 2.0% event rate), and amongst diabetics with high CAC scores (23.5% versus 12.4% event rate), p mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, despite low CAC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors associated with one-year all-cause mortality among those with coronary artery calcium scores ≥400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rifai, Mahmoud; McEvoy, John W; Nasir, Khurram; Rumberger, Jon; Feldman, David; Budoff, Matthew J; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) reflects coronary plaque burden and independently predicts all-cause mortality. There is marked heterogeneity in the prognosis of individuals with a high burden of subclinical atherosclerosis, yet little research has focused on the proximate determinants of poor outcomes in this subgroup. Among 4234 persons with baseline CAC ≥400, multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to study the association of traditional cardiovascular risk factors with 1-year all-cause mortality. The mean age was 64 ± 10 years, with 56% male and a median CAC score of 809 (IQR 761). In multivariable models, diabetes, cigarette smoking, age (per SD), CAC (per SD) and dyslipidemia were significantly associated with all-cause mortality at 1 year: HR (95% confidence interval) = 2.62 (1.55-4.43), 2.42 (1.41-4.15), 1.52 (1.16-1.99), 1.33 (CAC 1.11-1.56) and 0.58 (0.34-0.98) respectively. There was no association with hypertension [HR (95% confidence interval) = 0.90 (0.55-1.47)]. Smoking and diabetes are strongly associated with one-year all-cause mortality among persons with extensive CAC, perhaps suggesting that these risk factors serve as triggers of acute events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fully automated synthesis of ¹¹C-acetate as tumor PET tracer by simple modified solid-phase extraction purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolan; Tang, Ganghua; Nie, Dahong

    2013-12-01

    Automated synthesis of (11)C-acetate ((11)C-AC) as the most commonly used radioactive fatty acid tracer is performed by a simple, rapid, and modified solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification. Automated synthesis of (11)C-AC was implemented by carboxylation reaction of MeMgBr on a polyethylene Teflon loop ring with (11)C-CO2, followed by acidic hydrolysis with acid and SCX cartridge, and purification on SCX, AG11A8 and C18 SPE cartridges using a commercially available (11)C-tracer synthesizer. Quality control test and animals positron emission tomography (PET) imaging were also carried out. A high and reproducible decay-uncorrected radiochemical yield of (41.0 ± 4.6)% (n=10) was obtained from (11)C-CO2 within the whole synthesis time about 8 min. The radiochemical purity of (11)C-AC was over 95% by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Quality control test and PET imaging showed that (11)C-AC injection produced by the simple SPE procedure was safe and efficient, and was in agreement with the current Chinese radiopharmaceutical quality control guidelines. The novel, simple, and rapid method is readily adapted to the fully automated synthesis of (11)C-AC on several existing commercial synthesis module. The method can be used routinely to produce (11)C-AC for preclinical and clinical studies with PET imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is coronary artery calcification associated with vertebral bone density in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Agostinho; Carvalho, Aluizio Barbosa; Tomiyama, Cristiane; Higa, Andrea; Rochitte, Carlos E; Santos, Raul D; Canziani, Maria Eugênia F

    2011-06-01

    Low bone mineral density and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and both conditions are strongly associated with higher mortality. The study presented here aimed to investigate whether reduced vertebral bone density (VBD) was associated with the presence of CAC in the earlier stages of CKD. Seventy-two nondialyzed CKD patients (age 52 ± 11.7 years, 70% male, 42% diabetics, creatinine clearance 40.4 ± 18.2 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) were studied. VBD and CAC were quantified by computed tomography. CAC > 10 Agatston units (AU) was observed in 50% of the patients (median 120 AU [interquartile range 32 to 584 AU]), and a calcification score ≥ 400 AU was found in 19% (736 [527 to 1012] AU). VBD (190 ± 52 Hounsfield units) correlated inversely with age (r = -0.41, P < 0.001) and calcium score (r = -0.31, P = 0.01), and no correlation was found with gender, creatinine clearance, proteinuria, lipid profile, mineral parameters, body mass index, and diabetes. Patients in the lowest tertile of VBD had expressively increased calcium score in comparison to the middle and highest tertile groups. In the multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for confounding variables, low VBD was independently associated with the presence of CAC. Low VBD was associated with CAC in nondialyzed CKD patients. The authors suggest that low VBD might constitute another nontraditional risk factor for cardiovascular disease in CKD.

  17. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Large-scale separation of amino acids by continuous displacement chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCarli, J.P. II; Carta, G.; Byers, C.H.

    1989-10-01

    Continuous annular chromatography (CAC) is a developing technology that allows truly continuous chromatographic separations. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of this technology for the separation of various materials by isocratic elution on a bench scale. Novel applications and improved operation of the process were studied in this work, demonstrating that CAC is a versatile apparatus which is capable of separations at high throughput. Three specific separation systems were investigated. Pilot-scale separations at high loadings were performed using an industrial sugar mixture as an example of scale-up for isocratic separations. Bench-scale experiments of a low concentration metal ion mixture were performed to demonstrate stepwise elution, a chromatographic technique which decreases dilution and increases sorbent capacity. Finally, the separation of mixtures of amino acids by ion exchange was investigated to demonstrate the use of displacement development on the CAC. This technique, which perhaps has the most potential, when applied to the CAC allowed simultaneous separation and concentration of multicomponent mixtures on a continuous basis. Mathematical models were developed to describe the CAC performance and optimize the operating conditions. For all the systems investigated, the continuous separation performance of the CAC was found to be very nearly the same as the batchwise performance of conventional chromatography. The technology appears, thus, to be very promising for industrial applications.

  19. Advanced techniques for energy-efficient industrial-scale continuous chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCarli, J.P. II (Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (USA)); Carta, G. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Byers, C.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Continuous annular chromatography (CAC) is a developing technology that allows truly continuous chromatographic separations. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of this technology for the separation of various materials by isocratic elution on a bench scale. Novel applications and improved operation of the process were studied in this work, demonstrating that CAC is a versatile apparatus which is capable of separations at high throughput. Three specific separation systems were investigated. Pilot-scale separations at high loadings were performed using an industrial sugar mixture as an example of scale-up for isocratic separations. Bench-scale experiments of a low concentration metal ion mixture were performed to demonstrate stepwise elution, a chromatographic technique which decreases dilution and increases sorbent capacity. Finally, the separation of mixtures of amino acids by ion exchange was investigated to demonstrate the use of displacement development on the CAC. This technique, which perhaps has the most potential, when applied to the CAC allowed simultaneous separation and concentration of multicomponent mixtures on a continuous basis. Mathematical models were developed to describe the CAC performance and optimize the operating conditions. For all the systems investigated, the continuous separation performance of the CAC was found to be very nearly the same as the batchwise performance of conventional chromatography. the technology appears, thus, to be very promising for industrial applications. 43 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Haptoglobin genotype predicts development of coronary artery calcification in a prospective cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery disease has been linked with genotypes for haptoglobin (Hp which modulates extracorpuscular hemoglobin. We hypothesized that the Hp genotype would predict progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods CAC was measured three times in six years among 436 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 526 control subjects participating in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI study. Hp typing was performed on plasma samples by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results The Hp 2-2 genotype predicted development of significant CAC only in subjects with diabetes who were free of CAC at baseline (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.07-3.56, p = 0.03, compared to those without the Hp 2-2 genotype, controlling for age, sex, blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol. Hp 2 appeared to have an allele-dose effect on development of CAC. Hp genotype did not predict CAC progression in individuals without diabetes. Conclusions Hp genotype may aid prediction of accelerated coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with type 1 diabetes.

  1. The Implication of Coronary Artery Calcium Testing for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Diabetes

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    Ron Blankstein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades coronary artery calcium (CAC scanning has emerged as a quick, safe, and inexpensive method to detect the presence of coronary atherosclerosis. Data from multiple studies has shown that compared to individuals who do not have any coronary calcifications, those with severe calcifications (i.e., CAC score >300 have a 10-fold increase in their risk of coronary heart disease events and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, those that have a CAC of 0 have a very low event rate (~0.1%/year, with data that now extends to 15 years in some studies. Thus, the most notable implication of identifying CAC in individuals who do not have known cardiovascular disease is that it allows targeting of more aggressive therapies to those who have the highest risk of having future events. Such identification of risk is especially important for individuals who are not on any therapies for coronary heart disease, or when intensification of treatment is being considered but has an uncertain role. This review will highlight some of the recent data on CAC testing, while focusing on the implications of those findings on patient management. The evolving role of CAC in patients with diabetes will also be highlighted.

  2. Coronary artery calcification in CKD-5D patients is tied to adverse cardiac function and increased mortality

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    Anaya, Paul; Blomquist, Gustav A.; Davenport, Daniel L.; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Sorrell, Vincent L.; Malluche, Hartmut H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis (CKD-5D) and is an important predictor of mortality. However, cardiac functional links between CAC and mortality have not been well established. This study tested the hypothesis that CAC increases mortality by adversely affecting cardiac function. Methods: Patients were recruited from 37 regional dialysis centers. 2-D and Doppler echocardiographic analyses were performed, and CAC was measured using 64-slice computed tomography. Relationships between CAC and echocardiographic measures of left ventricular (LV) function were analyzed. Survival was assessed with median follow-up of 37 months. Results: There were 157 patients: 59% male, 46% Caucasian, 48% diabetic. Median age was 55 years, and median duration of CKD-5D was 45 months. Agatston CAC scores > 100 were found in 69% of patients, with 51% having a score > 400. CAC was associated with measures of LV systolic and diastolic function (global longitudinal strain (GLS; rho = 0.270, p = 0.004)), peak LV systolic velocity (rho = –0.259, p = 0.004), and estimate of LV filling pressure (E:E’; rho = 0.286, p = 0.001). Multivariate regression confirmed these relationships after adjustment for age, gender, LV ejection fraction, and coronary artery disease. Valvular calcification varied linearly with CAC (p diastolic and systolic functional measures were significant predictors of mortality, the strongest of which was LV diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions: These findings show a link between CAC, cardiac function, and mortality in CKD-5D. LV diastolic function (E:E’), peak LV systolic velocity, and GLS are independent predictors of mortality. Valvular calcification may be an important marker of CAC in CKD-5D. These effects on cardiac function likely explain the high mortality with CKD-5D and describe a potentially-valuable role for echocardiography in the routine management of these patients

  3. Cost-effectiveness of coronary artery calcium testing for coronary heart and cardiovascular disease risk prediction to guide statin allocation: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA.

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    Eric T Roberts

    Full Text Available The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA showed that the addition of coronary artery calcium (CAC to traditional risk factors improves risk classification, particularly in intermediate risk asymptomatic patients with LDL cholesterol levels <160 mg/dL. However, the cost-effectiveness of incorporating CAC into treatment decision rules has yet to be clearly delineated.To model the cost-effectiveness of CAC for cardiovascular risk stratification in asymptomatic, intermediate risk patients not taking a statin. Treatment based on CAC was compared to (1 treatment of all intermediate-risk patients, and (2 treatment on the basis of United States guidelines.We developed a Markov model of first coronary heart disease (CHD and cardiovascular disease (CVD events. We modeled statin treatment in intermediate risk patients with CAC≥1 and CAC≥100, with different intensities of statins based on the CAC score. We compared these CAC-based treatment strategies to a "treat all" strategy and to treatment according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III guidelines. Clinical and economic outcomes were modeled over both five- and ten-year time horizons. Outcomes consisted of CHD and CVD events and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs. Sensitivity analyses considered the effect of higher event rates, different CAC and statin costs, indirect costs, and re-scanning patients with incidentalomas.We project that it is both cost-saving and more effective to scan intermediate-risk patients for CAC and to treat those with CAC≥1, compared to treatment based on established risk-assessment guidelines. Treating patients with CAC≥100 is also preferred to existing guidelines when we account for statin side effects and the disutility of statin use.Compared to the alternatives we assessed, CAC testing is both effective and cost saving as a risk-stratification tool, particularly if there are adverse effects of long-term statin use. CAC may enable providers to better tailor

  4. Calcicludine, a venom peptide of the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor family, is a potent blocker of high-threshold Ca2+ channels with a high affinity for L-type channels in cerebellar granule neurons.

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    Schweitz, H; Heurteaux, C; Bois, P; Moinier, D; Romey, G; Lazdunski, M

    1994-02-01

    Calcicludine (CaC) is a 60-amino acid polypeptide from the venom of Dendroaspis angusticeps. It is structurally homologous to the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, to dendrotoxins, which block K+ channels, and to the protease inhibitor domain of the amyloid beta protein that accumulates in Alzheimer disease. Voltage-clamp experiments on a variety of excitable cells have shown that CaC specifically blocks most of the high-threshold Ca2+ channels (L-, N-, or P-type) in the 10-100 nM range. Particularly high densities of specific 125I-labeled CaC binding sites were found in the olfactory bulb, in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the stratum oriens of CA3 field in the hippocampal formation, and in the granular layer of the cerebellum. 125I-labeled CaC binds with a high affinity (Kd = 15 pM) to a single class of noninteracting sites in rat olfactory bulb microsomes. The distribution of CaC binding sites in cerebella of three mutant mice (Weaver, Reeler, and Purkinje cell degeneration) clearly shows that the specific high-affinity labeling is associated with granule cells. Electrophysiological experiments on rat cerebellar granule neurons in primary culture have shown that CaC potently blocks the L-type component of the Ca2+ current (K0.5 = 0.2 nM). Then CaC, in the nanomolar range, appears to be a highly potent blocker of an L-subtype of neuronal Ca2+ channels.

  5. Early and Partial Reduction in CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells during Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer Induces CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Activation Inhibiting Tumorigenesis.

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    Olguín, Jonadab E; Medina-Andrade, Itzel; Molina, Emmanuel; Vázquez, Armando; Pacheco-Fernández, Thalia; Saavedra, Rafael; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Chirino, Yolanda I; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Arias-Romero, Luis E; Gutierrez-Cirlos, Emma B; León-Cabrera, Sonia A; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the third in men in North America and Europe. CRC is associated with inflammatory responses in which intestinal pathology is caused by different cell populations including a T cell dysregulation that concludes in an imbalance between activated T (Tact) and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Treg cells are CD4+Foxp3+ cells that actively suppress pathological and physiological immune responses, contributing to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. A tumor-promoting function for Treg cells has been suggested in CRC, but the kinetics of Treg cells during CRC development are poorly known. Therefore, using a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate, we observed the dynamic and differential kinetics of Treg cells in blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) as CAC progresses, highlighting a significant reduction in Treg cells in blood and spleen during early CAC development, whereas increasing percentages of Treg cells were detected in late stages in MLNs. Interestingly, when Treg cells were decreased, Tact cells were increased and vice versa. Treg cells from late stages of CAC displayed an activated phenotype by expressing PD1, CD127 and Tim-3, suggesting an increased suppressive capacity. Suppression assays showed that T-CD4+ and T-CD8+ cells were suppressed more efficiently by MLN Treg cells from CAC animals. Finally, an antibody-mediated reduction in Treg cells during early CAC development resulted in a better prognostic value, because animals showed a reduction in tumor progression associated with an increased percentage of activated CD4+CD25+Foxp3- and CD8+CD25+ T cells in MLNs, suggesting that Treg cells suppress T cell activation at early steps during CAC development.

  6. Implementation and Operational Research: Community-Based Adherence Clubs for the Management of Stable Antiretroviral Therapy Patients in Cape Town, South Africa: A Cohort Study.

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    Grimsrud, Anna; Lesosky, Maia; Kalombo, Cathy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Myer, Landon

    2016-01-01

    Community-based models of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery are widely discussed as a priority in the expansion of HIV treatment services, but data on their effectiveness are limited. We examined outcomes of ART patients decentralized to community-based adherence clubs (CACs) in Cape Town, South Africa and compared these to patients managed in the community health center. The analysis included 8150 adults initiating ART from 2002 to 2012 in a public sector service followed until the end of 2013. From June 2012, stable patients (on ART >12 months, suppressed viral load) were referred to CACs. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) was compared between services using proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates and inverse probability weights of CAC participation. Of the 2113 CAC patients (71% female, 7% youth ages ≤ 24 years), 94% were retained on ART after 12 months. Among CAC patients, LTFU [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26 to 3.73 ] and viral rebound (aHR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.00 to 5.04) were twice as likely in youth (16-24 years old) compared with older patients, but no difference in the risk of LTFU or viral rebound was observed by sex (P-values 0.613 and 0.278, respectively). CAC participation was associated with a 67% reduction in the risk of LTFU (aHR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.40) compared with community health centre, and this association persisted when stratified by patient demographic and clinic characteristics. CACs are associated with reduced risk of LTFU compared with facility-based care. Community-based models represent an important development to facilitate ART delivery and possibly improve patient outcomes.

  7. Chocolate Consumption is Inversely Associated with Calcified Atherosclerotic Plaque in the Coronary Arteries: The NHLBI Family Heart Study

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    Djoussé, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N.; Arnett, Donna K.; Pankow, James S.; Borecki, Ingrid; North, Kari E.; Ellison, R. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims While a diet rich in anti-oxidant has been favorably associated with coronary disease and hypertension, limited data have evaluated the influence of such diet on subclinical disease. Thus, we sought to examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries (CAC). Methods In a cross-sectional design, we studied 2,217 participants of the NHLBI Family Heart Study. Chocolate consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and CAC was measured by cardiac CT. We defined prevalent CAC using an Agatston score of at least 100 and fitted generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence odds ratios of CAC. Results There was an inverse association between frequency of chocolate consumption and prevalent CAC. Odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC were 1.0 (reference), 0.94 (0.66-1.35), 0.78 (0.53-1.13), and 0.68 (0.48-0.97) for chocolate consumption of 0, 1-3 times per month, once per week, and 2+ times per week, respectively (p for trend 0.022), adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, waist-hip ratio, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, ratio of total-to-HDL-cholesterol, non-chocolate candy, and diabetes mellitus. Controlling for additional confounders did not alter the findings. Exclusion of subjects with coronary heart disease or diabetes mellitus did not materially change the odds ratio estimates but did modestly decrease the overall significance (p = 0.07). Conclusions These data suggest that chocolate consumption might be inversely associated with prevalent CAC. PMID:20655129

  8. A Link Between Hypoglycemia and Progression of Atherosclerosis in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT)

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    Bahn, Gideon D.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether a link exists between serious hypoglycemia and progression of atherosclerosis in a substudy of the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) and to examine whether glycemic control during the VADT modified the association between serious hypoglycemia and coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Serious hypoglycemia was defined as severe episodes with loss of consciousness or requiring assistance or documented glucose <50 mg/dL. Progression of CAC was determined in 197 participants with baseline and follow-up computed tomography scans. RESULTS During an average follow-up of 4.5 years between scans, 97 participants reported severe hypoglycemia (n = 23) or glucose <50 mg/dL (n = 74). Serious hypoglycemia occurred more frequently in the intensive therapy group than in the standard treatment group (74% vs. 21%, P < 0.01). Serious hypoglycemia was not associated with progression of CAC in the entire cohort, but the interaction between serious hypoglycemia and treatment was significant (P < 0.01). Participants with serious hypoglycemia in the standard therapy group, but not in the intensive therapy group, had ∼50% greater progression of CAC than those without serious hypoglycemia (median 11.15 vs. 5.4 mm3, P = 0.02). Adjustment for all baseline differences, including CAC, or time-varying risk factors during the trial, did not change the results. Examining the effect of serious hypoglycemia by on-trial HbA1c levels (cutoff 7.5%) yielded similar results. In addition, a dose-response relationship was found between serious hypoglycemia and CAC progression in the standard therapy group only. CONCLUSIONS Despite a higher frequency of serious hypoglycemia in the intensive therapy group, serious hypoglycemia was associated with progression of CAC in only the standard therapy group. PMID:26786575

  9. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction of sp3CaCO3 at lower mantle pressures

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    Lobanov, Sergey S.; Dong, Xiao; Martirosyan, Naira S.; Samtsevich, Artem I.; Stevanovic, Vladan; Gavryushkin, Pavel N.; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Greenberg, Eran; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Oganov, Artem R.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2017-09-01

    The exceptional ability of carbon to form sp 2 and sp 3 bonding states leads to a great structural and chemical diversity of carbon-bearing phases at nonambient conditions. Here we use laser-heated diamond-anvil cells combined with synchrotron x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and first-principles calculations to explore phase transitions in CaC O 3 at P > 40 GPa . We find that postaragonite CaC O 3 transforms to the previously predicted P 2 1 / c CaC O 3 with sp 3 -hybridized carbon at 105 GPa ( ~ 30 GPa higher than the theoretically predicted crossover pressure). The lowest-enthalpy transition path to P2 1 / c CaC O 3 includes reoccurring sp 2 and sp 3 CaC O 3 intermediate phases and transition states, as revealed by our variable-cell nudged-elastic-band simulation. Raman spectra of P 2 1 / c CaC O 3 show an intense band at 1025 c m -1 , which we assign to the symmetric C-O stretching vibration based on empirical and first-principles calculations. This Raman band has a frequency that is ~ 20 % low-ymmetric C-O stretching in sp 2 CaC O 3 due to the C-O bond length increase across the sp 2 ~ sp 3 transition and can be used as a fingerprint of tetrahedrally coordinated carbon in other carbonates.

  10. APPLICATION OF CASSAVA PEELS ACTIVATED CARBON IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL REFINERY WASTEWATER – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

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    Kigho Moses Oghenejoboh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the efficiency of activated carbon produced from fermented cassava peels (CPB, unfermented cassava peels (CPA and commercial grade activated carbon (CAC in the treatment of refinery wastewater was carried out. CPB was found to be 8% and 18% more efficient when compared to CPA and CAC in the removal of COD, and 14% and 3% better than CAC and CPA respectively in the removal of BOD5. The removal efficiency of Pb2+ by CPB was 100% compared to 95% and 57% by CPA and CAC while 96% of phenol was removed by CPB against 93% and 83% by CPA and CAC respectively. This better performance of CPB over CPA and CAC is not unconnected with its higher pH resulting from the removal of cyanide from the peels during the fermentation process. However, despite the high phenol removal efficiency by CPB, the concentration of phenol in the treated effluent does not meet the environmental guidelines for disposal. It is therefore, recommended that a two-stage CPB adsorption column arranged in series is necessary to treat refinery wastewater efficiently if it is desired to totally remove phenol from the effluent or reduce the concentration to 0.005mg/l allowed by the Federal environmental protection agency (FEPA. The equilibrium adsorption test conducted showed that the Freundlich isotherm is a better fit for the adsorption of phenol by the three activated carbons with correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.9364, 0.9383 and 0.9541 for CAC, CPA and CPB respectively. CPB was found to be a better adsorbent as it has the highest adsorptive capacity as evidenced from its better Freundlich exponent.

  11. Increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with high visceral adiposity index in apparently healthy Korean adults: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-09-01

    The visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical tool that reflects a patient's visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have noted an association between VAI and cardiovascular event. We analyzed the association between VAI and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in Korean adults. For 33,468 participants (mean age 42 yrs) in a health screening program, VAI was calculated using the following formulae: [waist circumference (WC)/{39.68 + (1.88 * body mass index (BMI))}] * (triglyceride/1.03) * {1.31/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)} for men and [WC/{36.58 + (1.89 * BMI)}] * (triglyceride/0.81) * (1.52/HDL-C) for women. Coronary artery calcium scores were measured with multi-detector computed tomography. CACS was positively correlated with VAI (r = 0.027, p 0 as the dependent variable, subjects in the highest tertile of VAI (>1.777) had significantly increased odds ratio for CACS >0 compared to subjects in the lowest tertile (<0.967), even after adjusting for confounding variables, including BMI (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.147-1.381). Subjects with high VAI had increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis, as assessed by CACS. Key messages Recent studies have noted an association between visceral adiposity index (VAI) and cardiovascular event. Subjects with coronary artery calcification (CAC) showed significantly higher VAI compared to those without CAC. The subjects with high VAI showed increased odds ratio for CAC as compared to subjects with low VAI, suggesting high VAI reflects increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  12. The Influence of Iterative Reconstruction on Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring-Phantom and Clinical Studies.

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    Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Nakaura, Takeshi; Funama, Yoshinori; Yuki, Hideaki; Kidoh, Masafumi; Hirata, Kenichiro; Taguchi, Narumi; Honda, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Iyama, Yuji; Katahira, Kazuhiro; Noda, Katsuo; Oshima, Shuichi; Tokuyasu, Shinichi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2017-03-01

    We compared the effect of iterative model reconstruction (IMR), filtered back projection (FBP), and hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) on coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. CAC scans of 30 consecutive patients (18 men and 12 women, age 70.1 ± 12.2 years) were reconstructed with FBP, HIR, and IMR, and the image noise was measured on all images. Two radiologists independently measured the CAC scores using semiautomated software, and interobserver agreement was evaluated. Statistical analysis included the Spearman correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. The mean image noise on FBP, HIR, and IMR images was 48.0 ± 7.9, 29.6 ± 4.8, and 9.3 ± 1.3 Hounsfield units, respectively. The difference among all reconstruction combinations was significant (P HIR and IMR scans was 4.2% and 8.9% lower, respectively, than the CAC score on FBP images. There was no significant difference in the mean CAC score among the three reconstructions. The interobserver correlation was excellent for all three reconstructions (r(2) = 0.96 FBP, 0.99 HIR, 0.99 IMR); the best Bland-Altman measure of agreement was with IMR, followed by HIR and FBP. For CAC scoring, IMR can reduce the image noise and blooming artifacts, and consequently lowers the measured CAC score. IMR can lessen measurement variability and yield stable, reproducible measurements. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Computer-aided classification of visual ventilation patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at two-phase xenon-enhanced CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Goo, Jin Mo; Jung, Julip; Hong, Helen; Park, Eun Ah; Lee, Chang Hyun; Lee, Youkyung; Jin, Kwang Nam; Choo, Ji Yung; Lee, Nyoung Keun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility, performance, and interobserver agreement of a computer-aided classification (CAC) system for regional ventilation at two-phase xenon-enhanced CT in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thirty-eight patients with COPD underwent two-phase xenon ventilation CT with resulting wash-in (WI) and wash-out (WO) xenon images. The regional ventilation in structural abnormalities was visually categorized into four patterns by consensus of two experienced radiologists who compared the xenon attenuation of structural abnormalities with that of adjacent normal parenchyma in the WI and WO images, and it served as the reference. Two series of image datasets of structural abnormalities were randomly extracted for optimization and validation. The proportion of agreement on a per-lesion basis and receiver operating characteristics on a per-pixel basis between CAC and reference were analyzed for optimization. Thereafter, six readers independently categorized the regional ventilation in structural abnormalities in the validation set without and with a CAC map. Interobserver agreement was also compared between assessments without and with CAC maps using multirater κ statistics. Computer-aided classification maps were successfully generated in 31 patients (81.5%). The proportion of agreement and the average area under the curve of optimized CAC maps were 94% (75/80) and 0.994, respectively. Multirater κ value was improved from moderate (κ = 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.62) at the initial assessment to excellent (κ = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.85) with the CAC map. Our proposed CAC system demonstrated the potential for regional ventilation pattern analysis and enhanced interobserver agreement on visual classification of regional ventilation.

  14. Associations between elevated resting heart rate and subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic Korean adults undergoing coronary artery calcium scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghee; Lee, Ji Hyun; Rizvi, Asim; Baskaran, Lohendran; Park, Hyo Eun; Choi, Su-Yeon; Chun, Eun Ju; Sung, Jidong; Park, Sung Hak; Han, Hae-Won; Min, James K; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain

    2016-10-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) and the presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) are closely related with inflammatory activity and cardiovascular disease outcomes. To date, however, the relationship between a high RHR and CAC has not been well studied, especially in non-western populations. We therefore aimed to examine the cross-sectional relationship between high RHR and the burden of subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by CAC score in a large sample of Korean adults. A total 26,018 subjects were enrolled and underwent CAC screening as part of a broader general health examination. RHR was categorized into four groups as: 0, >100, or >400 based on RHR. Mean age of the study population was 53.9 ± 8.2 years, and 79.7 % were male. After adjustment, each 10 beat per minute increment in RHR was associated with greater odds of having a CAC score above 100 (OR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.08-1.18) or 400 (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.13-1.31). Likewise, following adjustment, the odds of having a CAC >100 or >400 for those with a RHR ≥80 beats per minute were 1.42 (95 % CI 1.19-1.69) and 1.86 (95 % CI 1.42-2.47), respectively, compared with those who had a RHR <60 beats per minute. In a large cohort of Korean adults, elevations in the RHR, particularly above 80 beats per minute, were found to be independently associated with the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by CAC scoring.

  15. Ten-year trends in coronary calcification in individuals without clinical cardiovascular disease in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E Bild

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD incidence has declined significantly in the US, as have levels of major coronary risk factors, including LDL-cholesterol, hypertension and smoking, but whether trends in subclinical atherosclerosis mirror these trends is not known.To describe recent secular trends in subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by serial evaluations of coronary artery calcification (CAC prevalence in a population over 10 years, we measured CAC using computed tomography (CT and CHD risk factors in five serial cross-sectional samples of men and women from four race/ethnic groups, aged 55-84 and without clinical cardiovascular disease, who were members of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA cohort from 2000 to 2012. Sample sizes ranged from 1062 to 4837. After adjusting for age, gender, and CT scanner, the prevalence of CAC increased across exams among African Americans, whose prevalence of CAC was 52.4% in 2000-02, 50.4% in 2003-04, 60.0% is 2005-06, 57.4% in 2007-08, and 61.3% in 2010-12 (p for trend <0.001. The trend was strongest among African Americans aged 55-64 [prevalence ratio for 2010-12 vs. 2000-02, 1.59 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.39; p = 0.005 for trend across exams]. There were no consistent trends in any other ethnic group. Risk factors generally improved in the cohort, and adjustment for risk factors did not change trends in CAC prevalence.There was a significant secular trend towards increased prevalence of CAC over 10 years among African Americans and no change in three other ethnic groups. Trends did not reflect concurrent general improvement in risk factors. The trend towards a higher prevalence of CAC in African Americans suggests that CHD risk in this population is not improving relative to other groups.

  16. Misturas de casca de tungue e casca de arroz carbonizada no enraizamento de Dendranthema morifolium Tzevelev ‘Golden Polaris’ sob método de transpiração.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Anghinoni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Árvore nativa da China, o tungue (Aleurites fordii Hemsl é cultivado em minifúndios do Rio Grande do Sul desde o início do século XX. A casca de tungue (CT é um resíduo do processo industrial de extração do óleo do seu fruto, matéria-prima para fabricação de tintas e vernizes. O elevado conteúdo de fibras desse material sugere sua utilização como componente para substratos. A CT apresenta alta retenção de água em microporos e a mistura com casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC é uma alternativa para melhorar suas propriedades físicas. Estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar misturas CT e CAC no enraizamento de estacas de crisântemo sob filme de polietileno, método denominado “transpiração”. Utilizaram-se as seguintes proporções (v:v: 1CT, 3CT:1CAC, 1CT:1CAC, 1CT:3CAC e 1CAC, tendo a mistura CACV (CAC:vermiculita superfina 6:1 v:v como substrato referencial. A caracterização das misturas baseou-se nos valores de pH, de salinidade, de densidade e em curvas de retenção de água. CACV comportou-se de forma similar à CAC, sendo ambos excelentes como substrato para enraizamento de crisântemos. A presença de CT nas misturas aumentou o número de raízes, que, no entanto, eram mais curtas e escurecidas, indicando a presença de compostos que interferem na sua gênese. Entre os tratamentos com CT, o de melhor desempenho foi 1CT:3CAC, seguido por 1CT, diferença relacionada com o maior volume de água disponível dessas misturas.

  17. Associations between C-reactive protein, coronary artery calcium, and cardiovascular events: implications for the JUPITER population from MESA, a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, Michael J; Budoff, Matthew J; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Blankstein, Ron; Rivera, Juan J; Agatston, Arthur; O'Leary, Daniel H; Lima, Joao; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2011-08-20

    The JUPITER trial showed that some patients with LDL-cholesterol concentrations less than 3·37 mmol/L (JUPITER, we established whether coronary artery calcium (CAC) might further stratify risk; additionally we compared hsCRP with CAC for risk prediction across the range of low and high hsCRP values. 950 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atheroslcerosis (MESA) met all criteria for JUPITER entry. We compared coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease event rates and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios after stratifying by burden of CAC (scores of 0, 1-100, or >100). We calculated 5-year number needed to treat (NNT) by applying the benefit recorded in JUPITER to the event rates within each CAC strata. Median follow-up was 5·8 years (IQR 5·7-5·9). 444 (47%) patients in the MESA JUPITER population had CAC scores of 0 and, in this group, rates of coronary heart disease events were 0·8 per 1000 person-years. 74% of all coronary events were in the 239 (25%) of participants with CAC scores of more than 100 (20·2 per 1000 person-years). For coronary heart disease, the predicted 5-year NNT was 549 for CAC score 0, 94 for scores 1-100, and 24 for scores greater than 100. For cardiovascular disease, the NNT was 124, 54, and 19. In the total study population, presence of CAC was associated with a hazard ratio of 4·29 (95% CI 1·99-9·25) for coronary heart disease, and of 2·57 (1·48-4·48) for cardiovascular disease. hsCRP was not associated with either disease after multivariable adjustment. CAC seems to further stratify risk in patients eligible for JUPITER, and could be used to target subgroups of patients who are expected to derive the most, and the least, absolute benefit from statin treatment. Focusing of treatment on the subset of individuals with measurable atherosclerosis could allow for more appropriate allocation of resources. National Institutes of Health-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Association of dietary patterns with five-year degree and progression of coronary artery calcification in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, S; Lehmann, N; Weyers, S; Wahl, S; Dragano, N; Budde, T; Kälsch, H; Mahabadi, A A; Erbel, R; Moebus, S; Jöckel, K H; Schmidt, B

    2017-11-01

    As a modifiable lifestyle factor, diet is hypothesized to play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to explore associations of comprehensive dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis with degree and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over five years of follow-up. In the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, 3718 participants (45-75 years; 47.6% men) without coronary heart disease completed a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Five distinct dietary patterns were identified using cluster analysis: "Health-conscious", "Traditional German/Less alcohol", "Mediterranean-like", "Western" and "Animal fat/Alcohol" (used as reference). CAC was measured using electron-beam computed tomography at baseline and five years later. CAC after five years was predicted based on sex- and age-specific baseline percentiles. After comparing observed and predicted CAC Scores, CAC progression was classified as slow, expected, or rapid. Compared to "Animal fat/Alcohol" diet, a "Mediterranean-like" diet was associated with a relative risk (RR) for a rapid CAC progression in both sexes (men: 0.61; 95%-confidence interval [95%-CI]: 0.41; 0.90; women: 0.59; 95%-CI: 0.45; 0.78). Furthermore, reduced RRs were observed in women with a "Health-conscious" and a "Traditional German/Less alcohol" diet (0.63; 95%-CI: 0.47; 0.84, respectively 0.69; 95%-CI: 0.52; 0.90). No association was observed for a "Western" diet for both sexes. Similar results were revealed for degree of CAC. The study results support the hypothesis that a "Mediterranean-like" diet is associated with a lower CAC-progression and lower degree of CAC in men and women. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Circulating matrix Gla protein is associated with coronary artery calcification and vitamin K status in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmeijer, Geertje W; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Vermeer, Cees; Magdeleyns, Elke J; Schurgers, Leon J; Beulens, Joline W J

    2013-04-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent protein and an inhibitor of vascular calcification. Vitamin K is required for the carboxylation of MGP and can thereby reduce calcification. Circulating MGP species with different conformations have been investigated as markers for coronary artery calcification (CAC). In high-risk populations, high total uncarboxylated MGP (t-ucMGP) was associated with decreased CAC, while high non-phosphorylated uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) was associated with a poor vitamin K status. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of MGP species with CAC, vitamin K status among 200 healthy women. Circulating dp-ucMGP, t-ucMGP and, non-phosphorylated carboxylated MGP (dp-cMGP) levels were measured by ELISA techniques and Agatston score by multi-detector computed tomography. The ratio of uncarboxylated to carboxylated osteocalcin was used as proxy of vitamin K status. A borderline significant (P=.06) association between higher circulating dp-ucMGP levels and high CAC was observed (β=0.091, 95% CI-0.01; 0.19). In the entire study population, high t-ucMGP levels tended to be associated (P=.09) with lower CAC (β=-0.36, 95% CI:-0.78; 0.06). This association strengthened amongst women with CAC to a significant relation between high t-ucMGP levels and lower CAC (β=-0.55, 95% CI-1.01;-0.10). Dp-cMGP was not associated with CAC. Low vitamin K-status was associated with high dp-ucMGP concentrations (β=0.138, 95% CI 0.09; 0.19) but not with other MGP species. These results show that dp-ucMGP may serve as a biomarker of vitamin K status. Circulating dp-ucMGP and t-ucMGP may serve as markers for the extent of CAC, but these findings need to be confirmed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coronary computed tomography angiography and calcium scoring in routine clinical practice for identification of patients who require revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonaviciene, Grazina; Isaksen, Christin; Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Buhl, Jørgen Selmer; Johansen, Jane Kirk; Nielsen, Agnete Hedemann; Nørgaard, Kirsten Schou; Nørgaard, Aage; Frost, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The predictive value of CCTA to predict coronary artery disease is high in particular in the absence of coronary calcification. However, the consideration of both CCTA and the calcium score, in addition to the risk factors to determine the indication for coronary revascularization, has not been yet studied. This study included 2302 patients (mean age: 60±9.8 years, 46% men), without known coronary artery disease (CAD), who underwent 320-row CCTA. Logistic regression, c-statistic and net reclassification improvement (NRI) were used to assess the role of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in predicting revascularization after CCTA. The revascularization rates were 0.75% in patients with a CACS of 0, and there were no adverse events during the follow-up period. The revascularization rates were 3.3% in patients with a CACS of 1-99, 15.4% in patients with a CACS of 100-399, 25.6% in patients with a CACS of 400-999, and 42.4% in patients with a CACS≥1000. The crude and adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for revascularization per CACS group category were 2.89 (2.53-2.3) and 2.71 (2.33-3.15), respectively; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.85 (0.83-0.88). The addition of CACS to conventional risk factors improved the accuracy of risk prediction model for revascularization (AUC 0.74 vs 0.63, P=0.001), but it did not reclassify a substantial proportion of patients with positive CACS to risk categories (NRI=-0.023, P=0.66). The 320-row CCTA might rule out CAD in low- to intermediate-risk patients. However, its accuracy in identifying patients who require revascularization is limited. The CACS added to the conventional risk factors did not improve the identification of patients who require revascularization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship Between Lifelong Exercise Volume and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengevaeren, Vincent L; Mosterd, Arend; Braber, Thijs L; Prakken, Niek H J; Doevendans, Pieter A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Thompson, Paul D; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Velthuis, Birgitta K

    2017-07-11

    Higher levels of physical activity are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, there is debate on the dose-response relationship of exercise and cardiovascular disease outcomes and whether high volumes of exercise may accelerate coronary atherosclerosis. We aimed to determine the relationship between lifelong exercise volumes and coronary atherosclerosis. Middle-aged men engaged in competitive or recreational leisure sports underwent a noncontrast and contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan to assess coronary artery calcification (CAC) and plaque characteristics. Participants reported lifelong exercise history patterns. Exercise volumes were multiplied by metabolic equivalent of task (MET) scores to calculate MET-minutes per week. Participants' activity was categorized as 2000 MET-min/wk. A total of 284 men (age, 55±7 years) were included. CAC was present in 150 of 284 participants (53%) with a median CAC score of 35.8 (interquartile range, 9.3-145.8). Athletes with a lifelong exercise volume >2000 MET-min/wk (n=75) had a significantly higher CAC score (9.4 [interquartile range, 0-60.9] versus 0 [interquartile range, 0-43.5]; P=0.02) and prevalence of CAC (68%; adjusted odds ratio [ORadjusted]=3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.6) and plaque (77%; ORadjusted=3.3; 95% CI, 1.6-7.1) compared with exercise (≥9 MET) was associated with CAC (ORadjusted=1.47; 95% CI, 1.14-1.91) and plaque (ORadjusted=1.56; 95% CI, 1.17-2.08). Among participants with CAC>0, there was no difference in CAC score (P=0.20), area (P=0.21), density (P=0.25), and regions of interest (P=0.20) across exercise volume groups. Among participants with plaque, the most active group (>2000 MET-min/wk) had a lower prevalence of mixed plaques (48% versus 69%; ORadjusted=0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.85) and more often had only calcified plaques (38% versus 16%; ORadjusted=3.57; 95% CI, 1.28-9.97) compared with the least active group (2000 MET-min/wk group had a higher

  2. Prevalence of coronary artery calcium among asymptomatic men and women in a developing country: comparison with the USA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakik, Habib A; Skouri, Hadi N; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Sibai, Tarek; Alam, Samir; Sawaya, Jaber; Nasrallah, Antoine; Wehbeh, Chadi; Ayach, Kamal; Abchee, Antoine B

    2005-11-01

    Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) correlates with atherosclerotic burden and predicts cardiac events. Most of the published data have been derived from the USA population. To study the prevalence of coronary calcium in an asymptomatic population from the eastern Mediterranean region and compare it to data obtained from a large population study in the USA. A total of 1154 asymptomatic men and women from Lebanon underwent EBCT screening because of the presence of one or more CAD risk factors. Mean CACS as well as the percentile cut-points increased consistently with increasing age and, except for those above 74 years of age, were higher in men than women in each age stratum. Age, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and smoking showed significant associations with CACS in men, while only age and hypercholesterolemia were significantly associated with CACS in women. Among men, the 75th and 90th percentile distributions were comparable to what is observed in developed countries such as the USA. Findings, from this first study in the region, suggest that despite a higher rate of diabetes and smokers in our study population, the CACS distribution in Lebanon is similar to that observed in the USA.

  3. Short-term effects of renal transplantation on coronary artery calcification: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratyusha Priyadarshini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality in renal transplant recipients. Coronary artery calcification (CAC has been found to have good correlation with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence of CAC and the long-term effects of renal transplantation on CAC and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT in Indian renal transplant recipients. Twenty-eight renal transplant recipients were included in this prospective study. Dual-source computed tomography and calcium scoring using Agatston′s method and CIMT measurement were performed at the time of transplant and then repeated at six and 12 months after transplantation. The prevalence of CAC in our study patients was low (32%, probably because they were young, had been on dialysis for a short duration and had undergone live-related renal transplant. An overall improvement in biochemical parameters was observed after transplantation. Patients with zero baseline calcium score did not show progression. Patients with baseline calcium score more than zero showed initial progression at 6 months and no further progression afterwards. There was good correlation between CIMT and CAC score. Our study suggests that renal transplantation does not reverse the calcification but appears to decrease the rate of progression in the long term.

  4. [Application of MSCT's coronary artery calcification score in evaluation of sudden death caused by coronary artery disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lei; Ying, Chong-Liang; Liu, Ning-Guo; Xia, Wen-Tao; Wang, Ya-Hui; Wei, Hua; Zhu, Guang-You

    2013-12-01

    To access application value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) and coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) in investigation the coronary artery disease (CAD), and to explore the effective way of virtual autopsy to evaluate the sudden death due to CAD. Nine cases of sudden cardiac death were collected to analyze MSCT before the autopsy. The quantitative analysis of the degree of coronary artery calcium was made by Agatston's method. The CACS of all the subjects were calculated based on the diagnostic criteria for CAD, in which calcium scoring was more than 400. The results of CACS were compared with that of the autopsy. Only 2 cases got the high calcium scoring which were more than 400 in the 9 cases died of CAD confirmed by the autopsy. The prediction rate of CACS for CAD was only 22.2%. Pulmonary edema of different severity was found in both autopsy and MSCT. There was a higher morbidity rate in the left anterior descending of coronary artery than the other branches. Obvious calcification of coronary artery can be detected by MSCT and calculating CACS. To detect subtle calcification needs other technologies such as postmortem angiography.

  5. Do neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and low social cohesion predict coronary calcification?: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Diez Roux, Ana V; Kiefe, Catarina I; Kawachi, Ichiro; Liu, Kiang

    2010-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that neighborhood characteristics may influence the risk of coronary heart disease. No studies have yet explored associations of neighborhood attributes with subclinical atherosclerosis in younger adult populations. Using data on 2,974 adults (1,699 women, 1,275 men) aged 32-50 years in 2000 from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study and 2000 US Census block-group-level data, the authors estimated multivariable-adjusted associations of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and perceived neighborhood cohesion with odds of coronary artery calcification (CAC) 5 years later. Among women, the quartiles of highest neighborhood deprivation and lowest cohesion were associated with higher odds of CAC after adjustment for individual-level demographic and socioeconomic factors (for deprivation, odds ratio = 2.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.22, 5.08 (P for trend = 0.03); for cohesion, odds ratio = 1.87, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 3.16 (P for trend = 0.02)). Associations changed only slightly after adjustment for behavioral, psychosocial, and biologic factors. Among men, neither neighborhood deprivation nor cohesion was related to CAC. However, among men in deprived neighborhoods, low cohesion predicted higher CAC odds (for interaction between neighborhood deprivation and cohesion, P = 0.03). This study provides evidence on associations of neighborhood deprivation and cohesion with CAC in younger, asymptomatic adults. Neighborhood attributes may contribute to subclinical atherosclerosis.

  6. Superconductivity in Ca-intercalated bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, I. I.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2010-10-01

    Recent observation of proximity effect [H.B. Heersche, P. Jarillo-Herrero, J.B. Oostinga, L.M.K. Vandersypen, and A.F. Morpurgo, Nature, bf 446 (2007) p. 05555.] has ignited interest in superconductivity in graphene and its derivatives. We consider Ca-intercalated graphene bilayer and argue that it is a superconductor, and likely with a sizeable T c . We find substantial and suggestive similarities between Ca-intercalated bilayer (C6CaC6), and CaC6, an established superconductor with T c = 11.5 K. In particular, the nearly free electron band, proven to be instrumental for superconductivity in intercalated graphites, does cross the chemical potential in (C6CaC6), despite the twice smaller doping level, satisfying the so-called "Cambridge criterion". Calculated properties of zone-center phonons are very similar to those of CaC6. This suggests that the critical temperature would probably be on the same scale as in CaC6.

  7. Fatty Liver, Insulin Resistance, and Obesity: Relationships With Increase in Coronary Artery Calcium Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Cheong, Eun Sun; Wild, Sarah H; Byrne, Christopher D

    2016-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance (IR), and obesity frequently coexist with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but it is uncertain whether these risk factors for vascular disease contribute to a change in atherosclerosis over time, independently of DM status. We hypothesized that the combination of fatty liver, IR, and obesity would be associated with an increase in coronary artery calcium (CAC) score over time, independently of DM status, other cardiovascular risk factors, and medications. Data were analyzed from a South Korean occupational cohort of 2175 people. The outcome was increase in cardiac computed tomography CAC score between baseline and follow-up. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥75th percentile and fatty liver by ultrasound. In 592 (27.2%) participants, CAC score increased from baseline (mean ± SD; mean age at baseline, 44.8 ± 5.5 years); and in 1583 subjects, CAC did not change or improved during follow-up (mean age, 41.6 ± 5.6 years). Diabetes mellitus, HOMA-IR, fatty liver, and obesity prevalence were all higher (all P obesity, and fatty liver was independently associated with increase in CAC score over time (hazard ratio: 2.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.50-4.03). The combination of fatty liver, IR, and obesity is associated with progression of atherosclerosis over time independently of DM, cardiovascular risk factors, and all medications for cardiovascular disease and DM. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Usefulness of fatty meal-stimulated cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic acalculous cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muqbel, Kusai; Bani Hani, Mohammed; Daradkeh, Mohammad; Rashdan, Abdullah

    2009-02-01

    Fatty meal cholescintigraphy (fatty meal CS) is a potential physiologic alternative for cholecystokinin (CCK) CS in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). However, there are limited data in the literature to support this assumption. Our objective was to determine the usefulness of fatty meal CS in the diagnosis and treatment of CAC. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 198 patients who had undergone fatty meal CS for presumed CAC. Data retrieved focused on symptom improvement following management. Gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) of 50% or less was considered abnormal. Patients were divided into groups on the basis of test results and management. In group 1a, patients with low GBEF and cholecystectomy, 88% (54 of 61) reported symptom improvement, whereas the remaining 12% (7 of 61) retained their symptoms. Group 1b consisted of patients with low GBEF and who were managed medically. Persistence of symptoms was noted in 76% (32 of 42) of patients, whereas the remaining 24% (10 of 42) had symptom improvement. Group 2 consisted of patients with normal GBEF. Follow-up showed that 60% (47 of 78) of patients had symptom improvement either spontaneously or on medical treatment, whereas the remaining 40% (31 of 78) retained their symptoms. Fatty meal CS is a very useful technique in the diagnosis of CAC. It predicts a good surgical outcome once GBEF is low in patients with high pre-test probability for CAC. Moreover, fatty meal CS may be a good alternative to CCK CS.

  9. Coronary artery calcium score and the long-term risk of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing non-contrast cardiac computed tomography for suspected coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Nicklas; Christesen, Amanda M S; Mortensen, Leif S

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To examine the association between coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and risk of future atrial fibrillation (AF), and to estimate the predictive accuracy of CACS for AF development in patients undergoing non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (nCCT). Methods and results: We conducted......CCT. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for AF was used to assess the predictive accuracy of CACS. Among the patients, 52% had a CACS of 0, 26% of 1-99, 13% of 100-399, 6% of 400.......33-2.35); and CACS ≥ 1000: 1.67 (1.20-2.34). An ROC curve showed an area under the curve of 0.68 (0.65-0.71) for the prediction of AF within one year after nCCT. Conclusion: A high CACS is associated with a high risk of subsequent AF development and may have potential to guide future follow-ups for AF detection...

  10. Animal Models of Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasa Kanneganti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a group of chronic inflammatory disorders that affect individuals throughout life. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of IBD are largely unknown, studies with animal models of colitis indicate that dysregulation of host/microbial interactions are requisite for the development of IBD. Patients with long-standing IBD have an increased risk for developing colitis-associated cancer (CAC, especially 10 years after the initial diagnosis of colitis, although the absolute number of CAC cases is relatively small. The cancer risk seems to be not directly related to disease activity, but is related to disease duration/extent, complication of primary sclerosing cholangitis, and family history of colon cancer. In particular, high levels and continuous production of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and chemokines, by colonic epithelial cells (CECs and immune cells in lamina propria may be strongly associated with the pathogenesis of CAC. In this article, we have summarized animal models of CAC and have reviewed the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlining the development of carcinogenic changes in CECs secondary to the chronic inflammatory conditions in the intestine. It may provide us some clues in developing a new class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of IBD and CAC in the near future.

  11. Mutations of the Calcium Channel Gene cacophony Suppress Seizures in Drosophila.

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    Arunesh Saras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bang sensitive (BS Drosophila mutants display characteristic seizure-like phenotypes resembling, in some aspects, those of human seizure disorders such as epilepsy. The BS mutant parabss1, caused by a gain-of-function mutation of the voltage-gated Na+ channel gene, is extremely seizure-sensitive with phenotypes that have proven difficult to ameliorate by anti-epileptic drug feeding or by seizure-suppressor mutation. It has been presented as a model for intractable human epilepsy. Here we show that cacophony (cacTS2, a mutation of the Drosophila presynaptic Ca++ channel α1 subunit gene, is a particularly potent seizure-suppressor mutation, reverting seizure-like phenotypes for parabss1 and other BS mutants. Seizure-like phenotypes for parabss1 may be suppressed by as much as 90% in double mutant combinations with cacTS2. Unexpectedly, we find that parabss1 also reciprocally suppresses cacTS2 seizure-like phenotypes. The cacTS2 mutant displays these seizure-like behaviors and spontaneous high-frequency action potential firing transiently after exposure to high temperature. We find that this seizure-like behavior in cacTS2 is ameliorated by 85% in double mutant combinations with parabss1.

  12. FRAX® Fracture Risks Are Associated with Coronary Artery Calcification Score

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    Tzyy-Ling Chuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the association between fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX scores and coronary artery calcification (CAC score in adults. Methods. The medical records of 81 adults who underwent both coronary computed tomography and bone mineral density (BMD studies in a package during their health exams were reviewed at a regional hospital in Southern Taiwan. Data collected included health history, anthropomorphic characteristics, clinical laboratory results, and BMD. Fracture risk was determined using FRAX. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to assess the association between CAC score and 10-year probability of hip fracture (HF and major osteoporotic fracture (MOF determined by FRAX. Results. The mean age of the patients was 55.8 years, and 63.0% were male. Univariate linear regression analysis showed that increases in MOF and HF risks, as measured by FRAX, were significantly and positively associated with CAC score. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders showed that CAC score remained significantly associated with four FRAX indicators, including right MOF (r=0.45, P<0.001, left MOF (r=0.31, P=0.021, right HF (r=0.38, P=0.001, and left HF (r=0.23, P=0.049. Conclusions. Increased risks of MOF and HF as determined by FRAX were significantly and independently associated with CAC score.

  13. CASCA DE ARROZ CARBONIZADA NA COMPOSIÇÃO DE SUBSTRATOS PARA EMERGÊNCIA E PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane Alves Bezerra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of carbonized rice husk on initial growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedlings. The experiment was carried out in the forest of the Federal University of Tocantins, Campus of Gurupi-TO, conducted in a completely randomized design, with five treatments T1: 0% Carbonized Rice Peel (CAC + 100% Bioflora® Commercial Substrate, T2 : 25% CCS + 75% Commercial substrate; T3: 50% CAC + 50% Commercial substrate; T4: 75% CAC + 25% Commercial substrate; T5: 100% CAC + 0% Commercial substrate, with 4 replicates, each replicate with 18 seeds. The percentage of emergence (% E, shoot height (H, shoot diameter (DC, shoot dry matter weight (PMSPA, root dry weight (PMSR and dry matter weight Total (PMST. Theresults indicated that the use of carbonized rice husk added in different proportions to commercial Bioflora ® substrate presented significant results in the parameters analyzed in Acacia mangium Willd seedlings. It is suggested that 25% CAC + 75% of Bioflora® commercial substrate is used in the alternative DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20873/uft.2359-3652.2017v4n3p25Revista Desafios –v. 04,n. 03, 201726substrate formulation, considering that this treatment was the one that presented the best result in initial growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedlings.

  14. Anamorelin hydrochloride for the treatment of cancer-anorexia-cachexia in NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Garcia, Jose M

    2015-06-01

    Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Anamorelin is a novel, orally active ghrelin receptor agonist in clinical development for the treatment of CACS in NSCLC. The aim of this review is to summarize preclinical and clinical studies evaluating anamorelin as a potential promising treatment for CACS in NSCLC. Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and metabolism, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of anamorelin for the treatment of CACS in NSCLC were reviewed. Anamorelin administration may lead to increases in food intake, body weight and lean body mass, and a stimulatory effect on growth hormone secretion in NSCLC patients. Anamorelin is well tolerated with no dose-limiting toxicities identified to date. Targeting ghrelin receptors presents the advantage of potentially addressing multiple mechanisms of CACS simultaneously including appetite, muscle protein balance, adipose tissue metabolism, energy expenditure and inflammation. Clinical data suggest that anamorelin is well tolerated and it effectively increases appetite, body weight and lean mass in patients with advanced NSCLC. Long-term safety remains unknown at this time. The potential synergistic effects of anamorelin with nutritional support or exercise as well as its efficacy/safety in other tumor types are also unknown.

  15. Concurrent atomistic and continuum simulation of bi-crystal strontium titanate with tilt grain boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengfeng; Chen, Youping

    2015-03-08

    In this paper, we present the development of a concurrent atomistic-continuum (CAC) methodology for simulation of the grain boundary (GB) structures and their interaction with other defects in ionic materials. Simulation results show that the CAC simulation allows a smooth passage of cracks through the atomistic-continuum interface without the need for additional constitutive rules or special numerical treatment; both the atomic-scale structures and the energies of the four different [001] tilt GBs in bi-crystal strontium titanate obtained by CAC compare well with those obtained by existing experiments and density function theory calculations. Although 98.4% of the degrees of freedom of the simulated atomistic system have been eliminated in a coarsely meshed finite-element region, the CAC results, including the stress-strain responses, the GB-crack interaction mechanisms and the effect of the interaction on the fracture strength, are comparable with that of all-atom molecular dynamics simulation results. In addition, CAC simulation results show that the GB-crack interaction has a significant effect on the fracture behaviour of bi-crystal strontium titanate; not only the misorientation angle but also the atomic-level details of the GB structure influence the effect of the GB on impeding crack propagation.

  16. Coronary artery calcification is associated with insulin resistance index in patients with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Rodrigues

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 consecutive T1D patients without coronary artery disease, with at least 5 years of diabetes and absence of end-stage renal disease. Mean age was 38 ± 10 years and 57% were males. CAC score was measured by multidetector computed tomography (Siemens Sensation 64 Cardiac. The insulin resistance index was measured using the estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR. The eGDR was lower among CAC-positive patients than among CAC-negative patients, suggesting an increased insulin resistance. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age (at 10-year intervals, eGDR, diabetic nephropathy and gender, CAC was associated with age [OR = 2.73 (95%CI = 1.53-4.86, P = 0.001] and with eGDR [OR = 0.08 (95%CI = 0.02-0.21, P = 0.004]. In T1D subjects, insulin resistance is one of the most important risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  17. Associations between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWagner, Lisa B; Ning, Hongyan; Lewis, Cora E; Shay, Christina M; Wilkins, John; Carr, J Jeffrey; Terry, James G; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Jacobs, David R; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2014-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-related condition associated with cardiovascular mortality. Yet, whether or not NAFLD is independently related to atherosclerosis is unclear. In a population-based cross-sectional sample of middle-aged adults free from liver or heart disease, we tested the hypothesis that NAFLD is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC)) independent of obesity. Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study with CT quantification of liver fat, CAC and AAC were included (n = 2424). NAFLD was defined as liver attenuation ≤40 Hounsfield Units after exclusion of other causes of liver fat. CAC and AAC presence was defined as Agatston score >0. Mean participant age was 50.1 ± 3.6 years, (42.7% men, 50.0% black) and BMI was 30.6 ± 7.2 kg/m(2). The prevalence of NAFLD, CAC, and AAC was 9.6%, 27.1%, and 51.4%. NAFLD participants had increased prevalence of CAC (37.9% vs. 26.0%, p subclinical atherosclerosis. Further studies evaluating the role of NAFLD duration on atherosclerotic progression and cardiovascular events are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of the Rietveld method to assess chromium(VI) speciation in chromite ore processing residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2007-03-15

    The Rietveld method allows the quantification of crystalline phases and amorphous material identified by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and other diffraction methods. The method assists in determining the speciation of contaminants in solid matrices both qualitatively and quantitatively in a statistically defensible approach, as it does not focus on a microscale. Rietveld was applied to chromite ore processing residue (COPR), a cementitious waste containing hexavalent chromium. Calcium aluminum chromium oxide hydrates (CACs) were the crystalline phases identified by XRPD that bind Cr(6+) in COPR according to their chemical formula. Rietveld quantification, combined with mass balances on Cr(6+), showed that CACs may bind Cr(6+) in variable percentages, ranging from 25% to 85%. Analysis of duplicate samples showed that material variability is the predominant factor of uncertainty in evaluating the role of CACs in Cr(6+) speciation, provided that a consistent quantification strategy is pursued. The choice of strategy was performed on the basis of the pertinent literature, preliminary analyses of the equipment and the software settings, and mass balances. The correlation between the average CAC-bound Cr(6+) concentration and the total Cr(6+) for five samples (R(2)=0.94), extracted from different zones and soil borings, suggests that CACs are a primary sink for Cr(6+) in COPR.

  19. Increased Prevalence and Severity of Coronary Artery Calcification in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Stage III and IV

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    Maria Koukoulaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. The pathophysiology of coronary artery disease in CKD is multifactorial including, in addition to traditional risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, parameters related to uremia. Methods: The study consisted of measuring coronary artery calcification (CAC score in patients with CKD stage III and IV without history of CVD and in a group of controls with normal renal function matched for age, gender and risk factors using multi-detector computed tomography. Results: The study included 49 patients and 49 controls. CAC was present in 79.6% in the CKD group versus 59.2% in the control group (p = 0.028. The median CAC score value in CKD patients was 139 (interquartile range (IQR: 23–321 versus 61 (IQR: 6–205 in controls (p = 0.007. CAC was associated with traditional risk factors such as older age, hypertension and baseline cardiovascular risk score, while CKD patients with severe calcification had marginally lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and increased levels of parathormone. Conclusions: CAC is more frequent and severe in patients with CKD stage III and IV compared to matched controls with normal renal function, even though kidney disease-related parameters are not directly correlated with intensity of calcification.

  20. Hydration of calcium aluminate cement determined by thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinherrová, Lenka; Trník, Anton

    2017-07-01

    Calcium aluminate cements (CACs) are a very important type of non-Portland or special cements. Since they are considerably more expensive, they are not used as a simple substitute for Portland cement. Their structure allows them to achieve high compressive strength. They resist very well to high temperatures and temperature changes, or also to chemical attacks. The original motivation, why the CACs were developed, was the idea of finding new cement chemistries that would be more resistant to sulfate attack then Portland cements. Nowadays, the main usage of the CACs is in high temperatures applications. In this paper, we study the hydration of a CAC up to one year of age to control what happens in CACs structure during aging. The variety in the main products of hydration is studied using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry in the temperature range from 25 °C to 1000 °C with a heating rate of 5 °C/min in an argon atmosphere. The basic physical and mechanical properties are also determined.

  1. The origin, development and a brief appraisal of the doctrine of the baptism in the Holy Spirit in Christ Apostolic Church, Nigeria

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    George O. Folarin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the development of the Christ Apostolic Church’s (CAC doctrine of the baptism in the Holy Spirit, its current official stance and the church ministers’ interpretations of the doctrine. To gather data for this work, focus-group discussions were held with groups of CAC ministers in 1992 and 2012. Data gathered were analysed. Selected leaders of CAC were interviewed, and the data from the two sources were compared, interpreted and discussed in terms of related literature. A theological appraisal concluded the work. The findings are that, whilst CAC tenets appear to conform to the Classical Pentecostal model, the opinions of the church’s ministers are divided along Pentecostal and Evangelical lines. The official view of the CAC is that the baptism in the Holy Spirit is distinct from the initial work of salvation and that the visible signs of receiving this baptism are multiple, but there are significant disagreements amongst the church ministers to this. The appraisal reveals that the tenet of the church needs to be reworked to conform to the teaching of the Scripture.

  2. A Two-Level Optimal Scheduling Strategy for Central Air-Conditioners Based on Metal Model with Comprehensive State-Queueing Control Models

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    Yebai Qi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike some thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs with small capacities, Central Air-conditioner (CAC has huge potential for demand response because of its large capacity. This paper presents a new CAC control strategy under multiple constraints. The CAC is modeled by three main modules: CAC central unit, water pumps, and temperature simulation of terminal users. The CAC’s power consumption is mainly determined by users’ load ratio. As the information and communication system have become the central nervous system of the smart grid, big data analysis is of great significance. Assuming that reliable two-way communication systems are preset, an integrated parameter priority list (IPPL control strategy is used to control and monitor CAC. A new intelligent algorithm, Space Exploration and Unimodal Region Elimination (SEUMRE algorithm, is introduced for solving the optimization problem of demand response targets generation under multiple constraints with the help of big data analysis. In this paper, influences and constrain factors, such as price and users’ comfortable levels are taken into account to satisfy the need of actual situation. Simulation results show that the proposed approach, when comparing with other typical optimization algorithms, yields better performances and efficiency.

  3. Computed tomography-derived cardiovascular risk markers, incident cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality in nondiabetics: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Joseph; Carr, J Jeffery; Terry, James G; Ding, Jingzhong; Zeb, Irfan; Liu, Songtao; Nasir, Khurram; Post, Wendy; Blumenthal, Roger S; Budoff, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    We assess the improvement in discrimination afforded by the addition of the computed tomography risk markers thoracic aorta calcium (TAC), aortic valve calcification (AVC), mitral annular calcification (MAC), pericardial adipose tissue volume (PAT), and liver attenuation (LA) to the Framingham risk score (FRS) + coronary artery calcium (CAC) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and incident cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in a multiethnic cohort. A total of 5745 participants were enrolled, with 2710 at intermediate Framingham risk, 210 CVD events, and 155 CHD events). Over 9 years of follow up, 251 had adjudicated CHD, 346 had CVD events, and 321 died. The data were analysed using Cox proportional hazard, receiver operator curve (ROC), and net reclassification improvement (NRI) analyses. In the whole cohort and also when the analysis was restricted to only the intermediate-risk participants, CAC, TAC, AVC, and MAC were all significantly associated with incident CVD, incident CHD, and mortality, and CAC had the strongest association. When added to the FRS, CAC had the highest area under the curve (AUC) for the prediction of incident CVD and incident CHD; LA had the least. The addition of TAC, AVC, MAC, PAT, and LA to FRS + CAC all resulted in a significant reduction in AUC for incident CHD (0.712 vs. 0.646, 0.655, 0.652, 0.648, and 0.569; all p cardiovascular risk prediction. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. What is the optimal cut-off point for low coronary artery calcium score assessed by computed tomography? Multi-Detector Computed Tomography ANIN Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarska, Edyta; Kępka, Cezary; Dzielińska, Zofia; Pracoń, Radosław; Kryczka, Karolina; Petryka, Joanna; Pręgowski, Jerzy; Kruk, Mariusz; Demkow, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the incidence and predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in relation to the low coronary artery calcium (CAC) score among patients with intermediate probability of CAD. A total of 1132 consecutive patients were included in the analysis (58.7 ±10.9 years, 46.7% males). Coronary computed tomography (CCT) angiography was performed in a multi-detector computed tomography scanner. Coronary artery calcium score was calculated by the Agatston method. Obstructive CAD was defined as the presence of coronary artery stenosis ≥ 50% on CCT angiography. Coronary artery disease was diagnosed in nearly one-fourth of patients (n = 272, 24%). In the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis a CAC score of 10 was used as an optimal cut-off point for discriminating obstructive CAD (sensitivity: 0.79, specificity: 0.75, p cut-off point of 10 for CAC score determined patients with CAD with the best sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, a total CAC score low". In patients with a low CAC score obstructive high risk plaques prone to rupture are presented and are associated with increasing age and male gender.

  5. Coronary calcium screening with dual-source CT: reliability of ungated, high-pitch chest CT in comparison with dedicated calcium-scoring CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutt, Antoine; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain; Deken, Valerie [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Biostatistics (EA 2694), Lille (France); Molinari, Francesco [Centre Hospitalier General de Tourcoing, Department of Radiology, Tourcoing (France)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate the reliability of ungated, high-pitch dual-source CT for coronary artery calcium (CAC) screening. One hundred and eighty-five smokers underwent a dual-source CT examination with acquisition of two sets of images during the same session: (a) ungated, high-pitch and high-temporal resolution acquisition over the entire thorax (i.e., chest CT); (b) prospectively ECG-triggered acquisition over the cardiac cavities (i.e., cardiac CT). Sensitivity and specificity of chest CT for detecting positive CAC scores were 96.4 % and 100 %, respectively. There was excellent inter-technique agreement for determining the quantitative CAC score (ICC = 0.986). The mean difference between the two techniques was 11.27, representing 1.81 % of the average of the two techniques. The inter-technique agreement for categorizing patients into the four ranks of severity was excellent (weighted kappa = 0.95; 95 % CI 0.93-0.98). The inter-technique differences for quantitative CAC scores did not correlate with BMI (r = 0.05, p = 0.575) or heart rate (r = -0.06, p = 0.95); 87.2 % of them were explained by differences at the level of the right coronary artery (RCA: 0.8718; LAD: 0.1008; LCx: 0.0139; LM: 0.0136). Ungated, high-pitch dual-source CT is a reliable imaging mode for CAC screening in the conditions of routine chest CT examinations. (orig.)

  6. Value of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification for Risk Prediction of Coronary and Cardiovascular Events: Result of the HNR Study (Heinz Nixdorf Recall).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Nils; Erbel, Raimund; Mahabadi, Amir A; Rauwolf, Michael; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Moebus, Susanne; Kälsch, Hagen; Budde, Thomas; Schmermund, Axel; Stang, Andreas; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Weimar, Christian; Roggenbuck, Ulla; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2018-02-13

    Computed tomography (CT) allows estimation of coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression. We evaluated several progression algorithms in our unselected, population-based cohort for risk prediction of coronary and cardiovascular events. In 3281 participants (45-74 years of age), free from cardiovascular disease until the second visit, risk factors, and CTs at baseline (b) and after a mean of 5.1 years (5y) were measured. Hard coronary and cardiovascular events, and total cardiovascular events including revascularization, as well, were recorded during a follow-up time of 7.8±2.2 years after the second CT. The added predictive value of 10 CAC progression algorithms on top of risk factors including baseline CAC was evaluated by using survival analysis, C-statistics, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination index. A subgroup analysis of risk in CAC categories was performed. We observed 85 (2.6%) hard coronary, 161 (4.9%) hard cardiovascular, and 241 (7.3%) total cardiovascular events. Absolute CAC progression was higher with versus without subsequent coronary events (median, 115 [Q1-Q3, 23-360] versus 8 [0-83], P 5 years after the first scan may be of additional value, except when a double-zero CT scan is present or when the subjects are already at high risk. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. The Heinz Nixdorf Recall study and its potential impact on the adoption of atherosclerosis imaging in European primary prevention guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabadi, Amir A; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Moebus, Susanne; Dragano, Nico; Kälsch, Hagen; Bauer, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund

    2011-10-01

    Non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging of the heart enables noninvasive quantification of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a surrogate marker of the atherosclerotic burden in the coronary artery tree. Multiple studies have underlined the ability of CAC score for individual risk stratification and, accordingly, the American Heart Association recommended cardiac CT for risk assessment in individuals with an intermediate risk of cardiovascular events as measured by Framingham Risk Score. However, limitations in transcribing risk stratification algorithms based on American cohort studies into European populations have been acknowledged in the past. Moreover, data on implications for reclassification into higher- or lower-risk groups based on CAC scores were lacking. The Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) study is a population-based cohort study that investigated the ability of CAC scoring in risk prediction for major cardiovascular events above and beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. According to Heinz Nixdorf Recall findings, CAC can be used for reclassification, especially in those in the intermediate-risk group, to advise on lifestyle changes for the reclassified low-risk category, or to implement intensive treatments for the reclassified high-risk individuals. This article discusses the present findings of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study with respect to the current literature, risk stratification algorithms, and current European guidelines for risk prediction.

  8. Quality of life (GIQLI) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy usefulness in patients with gallbladder dysfunction or chronic non-lithiasic biliary pain (chronic acalculous cholecystitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planells Roig, M; Bueno Lledó, J; Sanahuja Santafé, A; García Espinosa, R

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, clinical features and role of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in patients with chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC) in comparison with a control group of patients who underwent cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis (CCC). Prospective evaluation of 34 patients with CAC in contrast with 297 patients with CCC. Clinical presentation, quality of life using the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI), usefulness derived from the therapeutic procedure as measured in quality of life units by GIQLI, and clinical efficacy at one year of follow-up. The incidence of complicated biliary disease was higher in CAC (27%), in comparison with CCC (13.8%). The histological study of the excised gallbladder revealed a higher incidence of cholesterolosis associated with chronic cholecystitis in the CAC group (64.9%). GIQLI showed significant differences between preoperative and postoperative measurements in both groups. The associated usefulness of LC was similar in both groups (73 versus 67.3 percent), confirming an important increase in quality of life for both categories. The incidence of CAC is 11 per cent with a high association with cholesterolosis. Quality of life and LC usefulness are similar to those of patients with CCC. Due to the fact that cholecistogammagraphy is a technique not available in daily clinical practice, and that oral cholecystography and dynamic ultrasound are reliable when a positive result is obtained, extended clinical evaluation is still the most reliable indicator for cholecystectomy.

  9. Diabetes and Hypertension Consistently Predict the Presence and Extent of Coronary Artery Calcification in Symptomatic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Nicoll

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (age, gender, ethnicity, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity, exercise, and the number of risk factors to coronary artery calcification (CAC presence and extent has never before been assessed in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We included only English language studies that assessed at least three conventional risk factors apart from age, gender, and ethnicity, but excluded studies in which all patients had another confirmed condition such as renal disease. Results: In total, 10 studies, comprising 15,769 patients, were investigated in the systematic review and seven studies, comprising 12,682 patients, were included in the meta-analysis, which demonstrated the importance of diabetes and hypertension as predictors of CAC presence and extent, with age also predicting CAC presence. Male gender, dyslipidaemia, family history of coronary artery disease, obesity, and smoking were overall not predictive of either CAC presence or extent, despite dyslipidaemia being a key risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. Conclusion: Diabetes and hypertension consistently predict the presence and extent of CAC in symptomatic patients.

  10. Synthesized mesoporous silica and calcium aluminate cement fillers increased the fluoride recharge and lactic acid neutralizing ability of a resin-based pit and fissure sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surintanasarn, Atikom; Siralertmukul, Krisana; Thamrongananskul, Niyom

    2017-11-29

    This study evaluated the effect of different types of filler in a resin-based pit and fissure sealant on fluoride release, recharge, and lactic acid neutralization. Resin-based sealant was incorporated with 5% w/w of the following fillers: calcium aluminate cement (CAC), synthesized mesoporous silica (SI), a CAC and SI mixture (CAC+SI), glass-ionomer powder (GIC), and acetic acid-treated GIC (GICA). Sealant without filler served as control. The samples were immersed in deionized water or a lactic acid solution and the concentration of fluoride in the water, before and after fluoride recharge, and the lactic acid pH change, respectively, were determined. The CAC+SI group demonstrated the highest fluoride release after being recharged with fluoride gel. The CAC+SI group also demonstrated increased lactic acid pH. These findings suggest that a resin-based sealant containing synthesized mesoporous silica and calcium aluminate cement may enhance remineralization due to fluoride release and higher pH.

  11. Sprint interval and sprint continuous training increases circulating CD34+ cells and cardio-respiratory fitness in young healthy women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Harris

    Full Text Available The improvement of vascular health in the exercising limb can be attained by sprint interval training (SIT. However, the effects on systemic vascular function and on circulating angiogenic cells (CACs which may contribute to endothelial repair have not been investigated. Additionally, a comparison between SIT and sprint continuous training (SCT which is less time committing has not been made.12 women (22±2 yrs completed 12 sessions of either SIT (n = 6 or work-matched SCT (n = 6 on 3 days/week. Pre and post-training assessments included brachial artery endothelial function and peripheral blood analysis for CAC number (CD34+/CD34+CD45dim. CAC function was measured by migration and adhesion assays. Cardio-respiratory fitness, carotid arterial stiffness and carotid-radial and brachial-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV were also evaluated.CD34+ CACs increased following training in both groups but CD34+CD45dim did not (Pre CD34+: 40±21/105 leukocytes, Post CD34+: 56±24/105 leukocytes, main time effect p0.05.SCT involving little time commitment is comparable to SIT in increasing CD34+ cell number and [Formula: see text]. An increased mobilisation of CD34+ CACs suggests that sprint training may be an effective method to enhance vascular repair.

  12. Presumptive identification of Candida species other than C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis with the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida

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    Horvath Lynn L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CHROMagar Candida (CaC is increasingly being reported as a medium used to differentiate Candida albicans from non-albicans Candida (NAC species. Rapid identification of NAC can assist the clinician in selecting appropriate antifungal therapy. CaC is a differential chromogenic medium designed to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis based on colony color and morphology. Some reports have proposed that CaC can also reliably identify C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Methods We evaluated the usefulness of CaC in the identification of C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. firmetaria, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. inconspicua, C. kefyr, C. lipolytica, C. lusitaniae, C. norvegensis, C. parapsilosis, and C. rugosa. Results Most NAC produced colonies that were shades of pink, lavender, or ivory. Several isolates of C. firmetaria and all C. inconspicua produced colonies difficult to differentiate from C. krusei. Most C. rugosa isolates produced unique colonies with morphology like C. krusei except in a light blue-green color. C. glabrata isolates produced small dark violet colonies that could be differentiated from the pink and lavender colors produced by other species. All seventeen isolates of C. dubliniensis produced green colonies similar to those produced by C. albicans. Conclusion C. glabrata and C. rugosa appear distinguishable from other species using CaC. Some NAC, including C. firmetaria and C. inconspicua, could be confused with C. krusei using this medium.

  13. Presumptive identification of Candida species other than C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis with the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospenthal, Duane R; Beckius, Miriam L; Floyd, Karon L; Horvath, Lynn L; Murray, Clinton K

    2006-01-03

    CHROMagar Candida (CaC) is increasingly being reported as a medium used to differentiate Candida albicans from non-albicans Candida (NAC) species. Rapid identification of NAC can assist the clinician in selecting appropriate antifungal therapy. CaC is a differential chromogenic medium designed to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis based on colony color and morphology. Some reports have proposed that CaC can also reliably identify C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. We evaluated the usefulness of CaC in the identification of C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. firmetaria, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. inconspicua, C. kefyr, C. lipolytica, C. lusitaniae, C. norvegensis, C. parapsilosis, and C. rugosa. Most NAC produced colonies that were shades of pink, lavender, or ivory. Several isolates of C. firmetaria and all C. inconspicua produced colonies difficult to differentiate from C. krusei. Most C. rugosa isolates produced unique colonies with morphology like C. krusei except in a light blue-green color. C. glabrata isolates produced small dark violet colonies that could be differentiated from the pink and lavender colors produced by other species. All seventeen isolates of C. dubliniensis produced green colonies similar to those produced by C. albicans. C. glabrata and C. rugosa appear distinguishable from other species using CaC. Some NAC, including C. firmetaria and C. inconspicua, could be confused with C. krusei using this medium.

  14. Estudo do crescimento inicial de plântulas de Cereus jamacaru DC em diferentes substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlucia Silva Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de Cereus jamacaru DC, em substratos a base de fibra de coco e casca de arroz carbonizada. Os tratamentos utilizados foram dispostos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado constituídos por cinco substratos a base de fibra de coco (FC e casca de arroz carbonizado (CAC, misturados com diferentes proporções volumétricas. Os tratamentos constituíram-se dos substratos 100% FC (T1, 100% CAC (T2, 75%FC+25%CAC (T3, 50%FC+50%CAC (T4, e 25%FC+75%CAC (T5. Cada tratamento foi composto por 14 repetições com 2 plantas por tratamento. Caixas de plástico transparente foram utilizados como recipientes. Aos 125 dias após o transplantio, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis das plântulas: comprimento, número, massa fresco e massa seco de raiz; massa fresco e massa seco da parte aérea; comprimento da parte aérea. Nas condições do experimento, conclui-se que o substrato composto somente por fibra de coco apresentou melhores resultados em todas as variáveis analisadas.

  15. Activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse ash for melanoidins recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, A; Basu, S; Singh, K; Batra, V S; Balakrishnan, M

    2017-09-15

    This work investigates the value added utilization of two sugar-distillery wastes: (i) melanoidins, which are complex Maillard reaction products in molasses distillery wastewater, and (ii) unburnt carbon in sugarcane bagasse ash. Activated unburnt carbon (AUC), prepared by deashing and steam activation, had properties comparable to commercial activated carbon (CAC). Both carbons are suitable for melanoidins adsorption followed by desorption using 25% pyridine solution. For AUC, the equilibrium adsorption data is well described by Langmuir isotherm up to 35 °C while Freundlich model fits better at higher temperature. Adsorption using CAC followed Freundlich isotherm at all temperatures. Both carbons followed pseudo second order kinetics and displayed endothermic physisorption. Recovery of melanoidins from AUC (78%) was close to that observed with CAC (80%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac (82)Rb PET/CT for fast and non-invasive assessment of microvascular function and structure in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Hasbak, Philip; Christensen, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    .026). In multivariate regression analysis, a higher urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) tended to predict reduced CFR in the total population (p = 0.045). When the CAC score was added, there was also a trend (p = 0.032) towards an inverse association with reduced CFR. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Type 2 diabetic......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Coronary flow reserve (CFR) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) represent functional and structural aspects of atherosclerosis. We examined the prevalence of reduced CFR and high CAC scores in three predefined groups of participants without known cardiovascular disease: (1) patients...... with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria; (2) patients with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria; and (3) non-diabetic controls. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, cardiac (82)Rb positron emission tomography/computed tomography was conducted in 60 patients with type 2 diabetes who were free of overt...

  17. Coronary artery calcium score using electron beam tomography in the patients with acute obstructive coronary arterial disease : comparative study within asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive coronary arterial disease group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seok Jong; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    To compare, through analysis of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the risk factors for atherosclerosis, the characteristics of acute coronary syndrome between an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients and a chronic coronary arterial obstructive disease(CAOD) group. The CAC scores of an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients (group I, n=284), a chronic CAOD croup (group II, n=39) and an acute coronary syndrome group (group III, n=21) were measured by electron beam tomography. Forty-seven patients with CAOD from groups II and III underwent coronary angiography, and we scrutinized age, sex and risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and low high-density lipoproteinemia. The numbers of stenotic coronary arterial branches and degree of stenosis revealed by coronary angiography were also recorded. We determined the differences between the three groups in terms of CAC score and the risk factors, the relationship between CAC score and risk factors, and the characteristic features of each type of CAOD group. The mean CA score of group III (135.1) was not statistically different from that of group I (135.7) or group II (365.8). Among patients aged below 50, the mean CAC score of group III (127.4) was significantly higher than that of group I (6.2), (p=0.0006). The mean CAC score at the sixth decade was also significantly different between group I(81.5) and group II (266.9). The mean age of group III (54.2 years) was significantly lower than that of group I (58.1 years) (p=0.047) and of group II (60.1) (p=0.022). There was significant correlation between the number of stenotic coronary arterial branches and log(CAC +1) (p<.01). The square root of the CAC score and the maximal degree of stenosis was also well correlated (p<.01). There was no difference in the mean number of risk factors among the three groups, though the incidence of smoking in group III was significantly

  18. Increased discordance between HeartScore and coronary artery calcification score after introduction of the new ESC prevention guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel C P; Mahabadi, Amir-Abbas; Gerke, Oke

    2015-01-01

    -contrast Cardiac-CT scan was performed to detect coronary artery calcification (CAC). RESULTS: Agreement of HeartScore risk groups with CAC groups was poor, but higher when applying the algorithm for the low-risk compared to the high-risk country model (agreement rate: 77% versus 63%, and weighted Kappa: 0.......22 versus 0.15). However, the number of subjects with severe coronary calcification (CAC score ≥400) increased in the low and intermediate HeartScore risk group from 78 to 147 participants (from 2.7 % to 4.2 %, p = 0.001), when estimating the risk based on the algorithm for low-risk countries. CONCLUSION...

  19. The coronary calcium score is a more accurate predictor of significant coronary stenosis than conventional risk factors in symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, R; Wiklund, U; Zhao, Y

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: In this retrospective study we assessed the predictive value of the coronary calcium score for significant (>50%) stenosis relative to conventional risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 5515 symptomatic patients from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the USA. All had...... predictor of significant stenosis to be male gender (B=1.07) followed by diabetes mellitus (B=0.70) smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, family history of CAD and age but not obesity. When the log transformed CAC score was included, it became the most powerful predictor (B=1.25), followed by male...... gender (B=0.48), diabetes, smoking, family history and age but hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension lost significance. The CAC score is a more accurate predictor of >50% stenosis than risk factors regardless of the means of assessment of stenosis. The sensitivity of risk factors, CAC score...

  20. Coronary artery calcium score and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide as potential gatekeepers for myocardial perfusion imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Andersen, Kim Francis; Madsen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    -proBNP as potential gatekeepers for MPI. Patients with intermediate risk of CHD referred for standard MPI were included. CAC score and NT-proBNP were both assessed at the day of the stress study. Sensitivity, specificity and NPV for prediction of abnormal MPI scans were calculated for CAC, NT......-proBNP and the combination hereof. A total of 190 patients were included (mean age 61 ± 12 years, 55% female) of whom 24% had known CHD. In all 30% of the scans were abnormal. CAC score achieved the highest AUC regardless of whether patients with known CHD were included or not [AUC 0·75 95% CI (0·66-0·84) and AUC 0·79 (0...

  1. Superior Cardiac Function Via Anaplerotic Pyruvate in the Immature Swine Heart After Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Aaron; Hyyti, Outi M.; Cohen, Gordon A.; Ning, Xue-Han; Sadilek, Martin; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2008-12-01

    Pyruvate produces inotropic responses in the adult reperfused heart. Pyruvate oxidation and anaplerotic entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) via carboxylation are linked to stimulation of contractile function. The goals of this study were to determine if these metabolic pathways operate and are maintained in the developing myocardium after reperfusion. Immature male swine (age 10-18 days) were subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Intracoronary infusion of [2]-13C-pyruvate (to achieve a final concentration of 8 mM) was given for 35 minutes starting either during weaning (Group I), after discontinuation (Group II) or without (Control) CPB. Hemodynamic data was collected. 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the fraction of pyruvate entering the CAC via pyruvate carboxylation (PC) to total CAC entry (PC plus decarboxlyation via pyruvate dehydrogenase). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine total glutamate enrichment.

  2. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and CLA levels in the Longissimus muscle of Caracu and Caracu vs. Charolais cattle / Composição química, perfil de ácidos graxos e níveis de CLA no músculo Longissimus de bovinos Caracu e Caracu vs. Charolês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted in order to study the chemical composition, fatty acid profile, as well as the levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA present in the Longissimus muscle of Caracu and Caracu vs. Charolais genetic groups of cattle. This study was carried out at the Experimental Farm of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná, in southern Brazil. Twenty animals (10 Caracu – CAR and 10 Caracu vs. Charolais – CAC were used, with an initial average age between 8 and 10 months. The young bulls were slaughtered at 450 kg and 18 months of age. The moisture and crude protein percentages were similar between the two genetic groups. However, the percentage of ash was higher in the CAC group. Conversely, total lipid levels was lower in the CAC group. The fatty acid profiles were similar for CAR and CAC bulls. Percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and n-6 were higher in the CAC group. The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, saturated fatty acid, and n-3 percentages, as well n-6/n-3 and PUFA/MUFA ratios, were similar between CAR and CAC bulls. The 18:2 n-6, 18:2 c – 9 t – 11 and 20:3 n-6 contents (mg/g of total lipids were higher in the CAR group.Este trabalho foi realizado para estudar a composição química, perfil de ácidos graxos e a quantificação dos ácidos graxos n-3, n-6 e ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA no músculo Longissimus de bovinos inteiros dos grupos genéticos Caracu e Caracu vs. Charolês. Este estudo foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental do Instituto Agronômico do Paraná. Foram utilizados vinte animais (10 – Caracu – CAR e 10 Caracu vs. Charolês – CAC com idade inicial de 8-10 meses. Os animais foram abatidos com peso médio de 450 kg e 18 meses. A percentagem de umidade e proteína total foram similar entre os dois grupos genéticos. Entretanto, a percentagem de cinzas foi maior no grupo CAC. Ao contrário, a percentagem de lipídeos totais foi menor no grupo CAC. O perfil de

  3. Localization of Microfibrillar-Associated Protein 4 (MFAP4) in Human Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Johansson, Helle; Lock Johansson, Sofie; Schlosser, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is located in the extracellular matrix (ECM). We sought to identify tissues with high levels of MFAP4 mRNA and MFAP4 protein expression. Moreover, we aimed to evaluate the significance of MFAP4 as a marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to correlate...... myocardial infarction (STEMI), 2: patients with non-STEMI, 3: patients destined for vascular surgery because of various atherosclerotic diseases (stable atherosclerotic disease), 4: apparently healthy individuals with documented coronary artery calcification (CAC-positive), and 5: apparently healthy...... individuals without signs of coronary artery calcification (CAC-negative). Serum MFAP4 levels were significantly lower in patients with stable atherosclerotic disease than CAC-negative individuals (p...

  4. Electrochemical Studies for Cation Recognition with Diazo-Coupled Calix[4]arenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsu Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical properties of diazophenylcalix[4]arenes bearing ortho-carboxyl group (o-CAC and ortho-ester group (o-EAC, respectively, in the presence of various metal ions were investigated by voltammetry in CH3CN. o-CAC and o-EAC showed voltammetric changes toward divalent metal ions and no significant changes with monovalent alkali metal ions. However, o-CAC preferentially binds with alkaline earth and transition metal ions, whereas no significant changes in voltammetric signals are observed in o-EAC with alkaline earth metal ions. o-EAC only binds with other transition metal ions. This can be explained on metal ion complexation-induced release of proton from the azophenol to the quinone-hydrazone tautomer followed by internal complexation of the metal ion with aid of nitrogen atoms and ortho-carbonyl groups in the diazophenylazocalix[4]arenes.

  5. MeCP2 recognizes cytosine methylated tri-nucleotide and di-nucleotide sequences to tune transcription in the mammalian brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Lagger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene encoding the methyl-CG binding protein MeCP2 cause several neurological disorders including Rett syndrome. The di-nucleotide methyl-CG (mCG is the classical MeCP2 DNA recognition sequence, but additional methylated sequence targets have been reported. Here we show by in vitro and in vivo analyses that MeCP2 binding to non-CG methylated sites in brain is largely confined to the tri-nucleotide sequence mCAC. MeCP2 binding to chromosomal DNA in mouse brain is proportional to mCAC + mCG density and unexpectedly defines large genomic domains within which transcription is sensitive to MeCP2 occupancy. Our results suggest that MeCP2 integrates patterns of mCAC and mCG in the brain to restrain transcription of genes critical for neuronal function.

  6. Characteristics of Tacca leontopetaloides L. Kuntze collected from An Giang in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Quan Thi Hong; Le, Phung Thi Kim; Vo, Huy Pham Hoang; Nguyen, Triet Thanh; Nguyen, Tam Kim Minh

    2017-09-01

    Tacca leontopetaloides L. Kuntze has been known as a remedy in folk medicine and also a staple food source in many tropical countries. Nonetheless, there are currently few literature and research on the potential pharmaceutical benefits of this herbal plant. In this study, the constituents of leaves, peels and peeled tubers as well as its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Tacca cultivated from mountainous regions in Tinh Bien, An Giang Province, Vietnam were investigated. The results indicated that the highest of total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were presented in leaves of Tacca which were 16.69 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g dried weight, 57.24 mg QE (quercetin equivalent)/g dried weight, respectively. Besides, the yield of flour recovery process from Tacca tuber estimated from 18%-20%. The chemical compositions of Tacca flour were 0.66 % total of nitrogen, 0.91% lipid, 0.05% ash and 85.7% starch content on dried weight. Furthermore, the extract of peels possessed potential antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis whilst the extract of others did not show any significant inhibition at the same concentration. As a results, with high starch content (nearly 20% in tuber) is a highly promising new starch for food and pharmaceutical excipient industry, while the usefullness of peel in treatment need further investigation.

  7. Perception of Climate Risk among Rural Farmers in Vietnam: Consistency within Households and with the Empirical Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Alison C; Anderson, C Leigh

    2017-03-01

    Rural farmers in Vietnamese communes perceive climate risk and potential impacts on livelihood within a complex context that may influence individual and household decisions. In a primary survey of 1,145 residents of the Thach Ha district of Ha Tinh province, we gathered data regarding perception about stability in climate, potential risks to livelihood, demographic characteristics, orientation toward risk, and interest in expanding economic activity. Temporal analysis of meteorological and economic indicator data forms an empirical basis for comparison with human perception. We ask the basic question: Are rural farmers' perceptions of climate consistent with the historical record and reproducible within households? We find that respondents do perceive climate anomalies, with some anchoring on recent extreme events as revealed by climate observational data, and further that spouses disproportionately share perceptions relative to randomly simulated pairings. To put climate-related risk perception in a larger context, we examine patterns across a range of risks to livelihood faced by farmers (livestock disease, pests, markets, health), using dimension reduction techniques. We find that our respondents distinguish among potential causes of low economic productivity, with substantial emphasis on climate-related impacts. They do not express uniform concern across risks, but rather average patterns reveal common modes and distinguish climate concern. Still, among those expressing concern about climate-related risks to livelihood we do not find an association with expressed intention to pursue changes in economic activity as a risk management response. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. The genome and proteome of the Kluyvera bacteriophage Kvp1--another member of the T7-like Autographivirinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingohr, Erika J; Villegas, Andre; She, Yi-Min; Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Kropinski, Andrew M

    2008-10-20

    Kluyvera, a genus within the family Enterobacteriaceae, is an infrequent cause of human infections. Bacteriophage Kvp1, the only bacteriophage isolated for one of its species, Kluyvera cryocrescens, is a member of the viral family Podoviridae. The genome of Kvp1, the first Kluyvera cryocrescens-specific bacteriophage, was sequenced using pyrosequencing (454 technology) at the McGill University and Genome Québec Innovation Centre. The two contigs were closed using PCR and the sequence of the terminal repeats completed by primer walking off the phage DNA. The phage structural proteome was investigated by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. At 39,472 bp, the annotated genome revealed a closer relationship to coliphage T3 than T7 with Kvp1 containing homologs to T3 early proteins S-adenosyl-L-methionine hydrolase (0.3) and protein kinase (0.7). The quantitative nature of the relationships between Kvp1 and the other members of the T7-like virus genus (T7, T3, phiA1122, phiYeO3-12, Berlin, K1F, VP4 and gh-1) was confirmed using CoreGenes.

  9. Validation of the computed assessment of cleansing score with the Mirocam® system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ponte

    Full Text Available Background and aims: A computed assessment of cleansing (CAC score was developed to objectively evaluate small-bowel cleansing in the PillCam capsule endoscopy (CE system and to overcome the subjectivity and complexity of previous scoring systems. Our study aimed to adapt the CAC score to the Mirocam® system, evaluate its reliability with the Mirocam® CE system and compare it with three validated subjective grading scales. Patients and methods: Thirty CE were prospectively and independently reviewed by two authors who classified the degree of small-bowel cleanliness according to a quantitative index, a qualitative evaluation and an overall adequacy assessment. The authors were blinded for the CAC score of each CE, which was calculated as ([mean intensity of the red channel]/[mean intensity of the green channel] - 1 x 10. The mean intensities of the red and green channels of the small-bowel segment of the "Map View" bar in the Miroview Client® were determined using the histogram option of two photo-editing software. Results: There was a strong agreement between both CE readers for each of the three subjective scales used. The reproducibility of the CAC score was excellent and identical results were obtained with the two photo-editing software. Regarding the comparison between the CAC score and the subjective scales, there was a moderate-to-good agreement with the quantitative index, qualitative evaluation and overall adequacy assessment. Conclusions: CAC score represents an objective and feasible score in the assessment of small-bowel cleansing in the Mirocam® CE system, and could be used per se or as part of a more comprehensive score.

  10. Collective impact of conventional cardiovascular risk factors and coronary calcium score on clinical outcomes with or without statin therapy: The St Francis Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Salman; Pollack, Simcha; Roth, Marguerite; Reichek, Nathaniel; Guerci, Alan; Cao, Jie J

    2016-12-01

    The efficacy of statin therapy remains unknown in patients eligible for statin therapy with and without elevated coronary calcium score (CAC). The study sought to evaluate how cardiovascular risk factors, expressed in terms of statin eligibility for primary prevention, and CAC modify clinical outcomes with and without statin therapy. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of the St. Francis Heart Study treatment trial, a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized controlled trial of atorvastatin (20 mg), vitamin C (1 g), and vitamin E (1000 U) daily, versus placebos in 990 asymptomatic individuals with CAC ≥ 80th percentile for age and gender. Primary cardiovascular outcomes included non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death, coronary revascularization, stroke, and peripheral arterial revascularization. We further stratified the treatment and placebo groups by eligibility (eligible when statin indicated) for statin therapy based on 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines and based on CAC categories. After a median follow-up of 4.8 years, cardiovascular events had occurred in 3.9% of the statin treated but not eligible, 4.6% of the untreated and not eligible, 8.9% of the treated and eligible and 13.4% of the untreated and eligible groups, respectively (p300) occurred frequently in more than 35% of the statin not eligible subjects and was associated with a high 10-year event rate (≥17 per 100 person-years). Risk prediction improved significantly when both clinical risk profile and CAC score were combined (net reclassification index p = 0.002). Under the current statin treatment guidelines a small number of statin eligible subjects with low CAC might not benefit from statin therapy within 5 years. However, the statin not eligible subjects with high CAC have high event rate attributing to loss of opportunity for effective primary prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using coronary calcification to exclude an ischemic etiology for cardiomyopathy: A validation study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Manuja; Shamsaei, Mohabbat; Chow, Jonathan D H; Haddad, Tony; Erthal, Fernanda; Curran, Helen; Yam, Yeung; Szczotka, Agnieszka; Mielniczuk, Lisa; Wells, George A; Beanlands, Rob S; Hossain, Alomgir; Chow, Benjamin J W

    2017-03-01

    Preliminary data suggests the absence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) excludes ischemic etiologies of cardiomyopathy. We prospectively validate and perform a systematic review to determine the utility of an Agatston score=0 to exclude the diagnosis of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Patients with newly diagnosed LV dysfunction were prospectively enrolled. Patients underwent CAC imaging and were followed until an etiologic diagnosis of cardiomyopathy was made. Eighty-two patients were enrolled in the study and underwent CAC imaging with 81.7% patients having non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. An Agatston score=0 successfully excluded an ischemic etiology for cardiomyopathy with a specificity of 100% (CI: 74.7-100%) and a positive predictive value of 100% (CI: 85.0%-100%). A systematic literature review was performed and studies were deemed suitable for inclusion if: 1) patients with CHF, cardiomyopathy or LV dysfunction were enrolled, 2) underwent CAC imaging and patients were assessed for an Agatston score=0 or the absence of CAC, and 3) the final etiologic diagnosis (ischemic or non-ischemic) was provided. Eight studies provided sufficient information to calculate operating characteristics for an Agatston score=0 and were combined with our validation cohort for a total of 754 patients. An Agatston score=0 excluded ischemic cardiomyopathy with specificity and positive predictive values of 98.4% (CI: 95.6-99.5%), and 98.3% (CI: 95.5-99.5%), respectively. In patients with cardiomyopathy of unknown etiology, an Agatston score=0 appears to rule out an ischemic etiology. A screening CAC may be a simple and cost-effective method of triaging patients, identifying those who do and do not need additional CAD investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of ideal cardiovascular health and calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Jeremy M; Petrone, Andrew B; Carr, J Jeffrey; Pankow, James S; Hunt, Steven C; Heiss, Gerardo; Arnett, Donna K; Ellison, R Curtis; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-03-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) established recommendations based on 7 ideal health behaviors and factors with the goal of improving cardiovascular health (CVH) and reducing both morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease by 20% by 2020. Few studies have investigated their association with subclinical coronary heart disease. We sought to examine whether the 7 AHA CVH metrics were associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries. In a cross-sectional design, we studied 1,731 predominantly white men and women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study without prevalent coronary heart disease. Diet was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by cardiac computed tomography. We defined prevalent CAC using an Agatston score of 100+ and fitted generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence odds ratios of CAC. Mean age was 56.8 years, and 41% were male. The median number of ideal CVH metrics was 3, and no participant met all 7. There was a strong inverse relationship between number of ideal CVH metrics and prevalent CAC. Odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC of 100+ were 1.0 (reference), 0.37 (0.29-0.45), 0.35 (0.26-0.44), and 0.27 (0.20-0.36) among subjects with 0 to 1, 2, 3, and 4+ ideal CVH metrics, respectively (P = .0001), adjusting for sex, age, field center, alcohol, income, education, and energy consumption. These data demonstrate a strong and graded inverse relationship between AHA ideal CVH metrics and prevalent CAC in adult men and women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Elevated copeptin is associated with atherosclerosis and diabetic kidney disease in adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornstad, Petter; Maahs, David M; Jensen, Thomas; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Johnson, Richard J; Rewers, Marian; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K

    2016-08-01

    Vasopressin exerts important cardio-renal effects, but remains problematic to measure. Copeptin is a more stable peptide derived from the same precursor molecule. We examined the associations between copeptin, coronary artery calcium (CAC), albuminuria and impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Participants with (n=209) and without T1D (n=244) in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) study were assessed for serum copeptin, CAC measured using 128-slice spiral CT, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and eGFR calculated by CKD-EPI creatinine. Impaired GFR was defined as eGFR copeptin as >13pmol/L (>97.5th percentile for healthy adults). Unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, HbA1c, SBP and LDL-C) logistic models were applied to examine the relationships. Participants with T1D had greater ultrasensitive copeptin concentrations than non-diabetics (3.5 [95% CI 2.3-3.8] vs. 2.8 [2.7-3.1], p=0.003). In participants with T1D, elevated copeptin was associated with greater odds of impaired eGFR (OR: 18.52, 95% CI 4.03-85.02), albuminuria (10.55, 2.24-49.62), high CAC (6.61, 1.39-31.31) and very high CAC (6.24, 1.51-25.90) in multivariable models. Similar linear relationships were obtained with ultrasensitive copeptin, eGFR, UACR, CAC volume and CAC score in adjusted models. In this cross-sectional analysis, copeptin was strongly associated with diabetic kidney disease and coronary atherosclerosis in adults with T1D. Further research is needed to determine whether these relationships hold true longitudinally in people with T1D. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thyrotrophin levels and coronary artery calcification: Cross-sectional results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto de Miranda, Érique José F; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Staniak, Henrique Lane; Pereira, Alexandre C; Foppa, Murilo; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2017-11-01

    There is little information about the association between thyrotrophin (TSH) levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC). Our aim was to analyse the association between TSH quintiles and subclinical atherosclerosis measured by CAC, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional study. We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function and who self-reported cardiovascular disease. We included euthyroid subjects and individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCHypo) and subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCHyper). Logistic regression models evaluated CAC >100 Agatston units as the dependent variable, and increasing quintiles of TSH as the independent variable, adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Our sample included 3836 subjects, mean age 49 years (interquartile range 44-56); 1999 (52.1%) were female, 3551 (92.6%) were euthyroid, 239 (6.2%) had SCHypo and 46 (1.2%) had SCHyper. The frequency of women, White people and never smokers as well as body mass index and insulin resistance increased according to quintiles. The 1st quintile for TSH (0-0.99 mIU/L) was associated with CAC >100, using the 3rd quintile (1.39-1.85 mIU/L) as reference (adjusted OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35, P=.027), but no association was shown for the 5th quintile (2.68-35.5 mIU/L) compared to the 3rd. Restricting the analysis to euthyroid subjects did not change the results. For women, but not for men, we observed a U-shaped curve with 1st and 5th TSH quintiles associated with CAC>100. Low and low-normal (1st quintile) TSH levels were associated with CAC>100 Agatston units in a sample with subclinical thyroid disorders and euthyroid subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Leukocyte telomere length and coronary artery calcification in Palestinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Jeremy D; Nassar, Hisham; Shaham, Dorith; Sinnreich, Ronit; Goldberger, Nehama; Aboudi, Vartohi; Bogot, Naama R; Kimura, Masayuki; Aviv, Abraham

    2013-08-01

    Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and increased mortality. We examined the association of LTL with coronary artery calcification (CAC), which reflects the cumulative burden of coronary atherosclerosis, in an urban Arab sample of Palestinians, a population at high risk of CHD. Using a cross-sectional design, a random sample of East Jerusalem residents, comprising 250 men aged 45-77 and women aged 55-76 and free of CHD or past stroke, was drawn from the Israel national population register. LTL was measured by Southern blots. CAC was determined by 16-slice multidetector helical CT scanning using Agatston scoring. We applied multivariable logistic modeling to examine the association between sex-specific tertiles of LTL and CAC (comparing scores >100 vs. education and coronary risk factors. CAC, evident in 65% of men and 52% of women, was strongly associated with age (sex-adjusted Spearman's rho 0.495). The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for CAC >100 (found in 30% of men and 29% of women) were 2.92 (95% CI 1.28-6.68) and 2.29 (0.99-5.30) for the lower and mid-tertiles of LTL vs. the upper tertile, respectively (Ptrend = 0.008). Findings were similar for CAC scores in the upper tertile (Ptrend = 0.006), and persisted after the exclusion of patients with diabetes or receiving statins. Shorter LTL was associated with a greater prevalence of asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis in an urban Arab population-based sample. Mechanisms underlying this association should be sought. Copyright © 2013 [Author/Employing Institution]. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier is regulated by hydrogen sulfide via interaction with C136 and C155.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangregorio, Nicola; Tonazzi, Annamaria; Console, Lara; Lorusso, Imma; De Palma, Annalisa; Indiveri, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    The carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier (CAC or CACT) mediates transport of acylcarnitines into mitochondria for the β-oxidation. CAC possesses Cys residues which respond to redox changes undergoing to SH/disulfide interconversion. The effect of H2S has been investigated on the [(3)H]carnitine/carnitine antiport catalyzed by recombinant or native CAC reconstituted in proteoliposomes. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed for identifying Cys reacting with H2S. H2S led to transport inhibition, which was dependent on concentration, pH and time of incubation. Best inhibition with IC50 of 0.70 μM was observed at physiological pH after 30-60 min incubation. At longer times of incubation, inhibition was reversed. After oxidation of the carrier by O2, transport activity was rescued by H2S indicating that the inhibition/activation depends on the initial redox state of the protein. The observed effects were more efficient on the native rat liver transporter than on the recombinant protein. Only the protein containing both C136 and C155 responded to the reagent as the WT. While reduced responses were observed in the mutants containing C136 or C155. Multi-alignment of known mitochondrial carriers, highlighted that only the CAC possesses both Cys residues. This correlates well with the absence of effects of H2S on carriers which does not contain the Cys couple. Altogether, these data demonstrate that H2S regulates the CAC by inhibiting or activating transport on the basis of the redox state of the protein. CAC represents a specific target of H2S among mitochondrial carriers in agreement with the presence of a reactive Cys couple. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of lanthanum carbonate vs. calcium carbonate on serum calcium in hemodialysis patients: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toida, Tatsunori; Fukudome, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Sato, Yuji; Chiyotanda, Susumu; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2012-09-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LC) is a non-calcium-containing phosphate binder and shows a comparable effect with other phosphate binders on hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. LC also contributes to a reduced oral calcium load compared with calcium carbonate (CaC) treatment. However, no crossover studies which compare the influence on serum calcium level between treatments with LC and CaC in hemodialysis (HD) patients have been carried out. After washout for 2 weeks, 50 patients on HD were randomized (1 : 1) to receive LC or CaC for 3 months. Thereafter, patients underwent a second 2-week washout period and were switched to the alternative binder for the next 3 months. Mineral and bone metabolism markers were measured with the changes of vitamin D doses. The serum phosphate level showed a similar decrease from baseline to 3 months in both groups. During the study periods, hypercalcemia was observed only in patients taking CaC. The dose of vitamin D analogue was increased more frequently in the patients of the LC group compared with LC group. The iPTH level showed a significant decrease in the CaC group, but not in the LC group. Serum levels of BAP, TRAP5b, and ALP were significantly elevated in the LC group, whereas the FGF-23 level showed a significant decrease. LC effectively reduced the serum phosphate level (like CaC) and allowed the vitamin D analogue dosage to be increased without hypercalcemia in HD patients. LC is one of the useful phosphate binders without hypercalcemia. (UMIN-CTR registration number: UMIN000002331).

  18. Greater Volume but not Higher Density of Abdominal Aortic Calcium Is Associated With Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk: MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbang, Nketi I; Michos, Erin D; McClelland, Robyn L; Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Allison, Matthew A; Sandfort, Veit; Ix, Joachim H; Thomas, Isac; Rifkin, Dena E; Criqui, Michael H

    2016-11-01

    Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) independently and similarly predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The standard AAC and CAC score, the Agatston method, upweights for greater calcium density, thereby modeling higher calcium density as a CVD hazard. Computed tomography scans were used to measure AAC and CAC volume and density in a multiethnic cohort of community-dwelling individuals, and Cox proportional hazard was used to determine their independent association with incident coronary heart disease (CHD, defined as myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or CHD death), cardiovascular disease (CVD, defined as CHD plus stroke and stroke death), and all-cause mortality. In 997 participants with Agatston AAC and CAC scores >0, the mean age was 66±9 years, and 58% were men. During an average follow-up of 9 years, there were 77 CHD, 118 CVD, and 169 all-cause mortality events. In mutually adjusted models, additionally adjusted for CVD risk factors, an increase in ln(AAC volume) per standard deviation was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio=1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.33; P<0.01) and an increased ln(CAC volume) per standard deviation was significantly associated with CHD (hazard ratio=1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.59; P=0.02) and CVD (hazard ratio=1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.36; P<0.01). In contrast, both AAC and CAC density were not significantly associated with CVD events. The Agatston method of upweighting calcium scores for greater density may be inappropriate for CVD risk prediction in both the abdominal aorta and coronary arteries. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. KINETIC MODELLING AND HALF LIFE STUDY OF ADSORPTIVE BIOREMEDIATION OF SOIL ARTIFICIALLY CONTAMINATED WITH BONNY LIGHT CRUDE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, comparative potential effects of commercial activated carbon (CAC and plantain peel-derived biochar (PPBC of different particle sizes and dosage to stimulate petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil were investigated. Microcosms containing soil were spiked with weathered Bonny light crude oil (WBLCO (10% w/w and amended with different particle sizes (0.02, 0.07 and 0.48 mm and dosage (20, 30 and 40 g of CAC and PPBC, respectively. The bioremediation experiments were carried out for a period of 28 days under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there was a positive relationship between the rate of petroleum hydrocarbons reduction and presence of the CAC and PPBC in crude oil contaminated soil microcosms. The WBLCO biodegradation data fitted well to the first-order kinetic model. The model revealed that WBLCO contaminated-soil microcosms amended with CAC and PPBC had higher biodegradation rate constants (k as well as lower half-life times (t1/2 than unamended soil (natural attenuation remediation system. The rate constants increased while half-life times decreased with decreased particle size and increased dosage of amendment agents. ANOVA statistical analysis revealed that WBLCO biodegradation in soil was significantly (p = 0.05 influenced by the addition of CAC and biochar amendment agents, respectively. However, Tukey’s post hoc test (at p = 0.05 showed that there was no significant difference in the bioremediation efficiency of CAC and PPBC. Thus, amendment of soils with biochar has the potential to be an inexpensive, efficient, environmentally friendly and relatively novel strategy to mitigate organic compound-contaminated soil.

  20. Change in Neighborhood Characteristics and Change in Coronary Artery Calcium: A Longitudinal Investigation in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Jeffrey J; August, Ella; Adar, Sara D; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Hajat, Anjum; Sánchez, Brisa N; Stein, James H; Tattersall, Matthew C; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2016-08-16

    Although some evidence shows that neighborhood deprivation is associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis, prior studies have not identified what aspects of deprived neighborhoods were driving the association. We investigated whether social and physical neighborhood characteristics are related to the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in 5950 adult participants of the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) during a 12-year follow-up period. We assessed subclinical disease using coronary artery calcium (CAC). Neighborhood features examined included density of recreational facilities, density of healthy food stores, and survey-based measures of availability of healthy foods, walking environment, and social environment. We used econometric fixed-effects models to investigate how change in a given neighborhood exposure is related to simultaneous change in subclinical atherosclerosis. Increases in density of neighborhood healthy food stores were associated with decreases in CAC (mean changes in CAC Agatston units per 1-SD increase in neighborhood exposures, -19.99; 95% confidence interval, -35.21 to -4.78) after adjustment for time-varying demographic confounders and computed tomography scanner type. This association remained similar in magnitude after additional adjustment for time-varying behavioral risk factors and depression. The addition of time-varying biomedical factors attenuated associations with CAC slightly (mean changes in CAC per 1-SD increase in neighborhood exposures, -17.60; 95% confidence interval, -32.71 to -2.49). Changes across time in other neighborhood measures were not significantly associated with within-person change in CAC. Results from this longitudinal study provide suggestive evidence that greater access to neighborhood healthy food resources may slow the development of coronary atherosclerosis in middle-aged and older adults. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Association between Density of Coronary Artery Calcification and Serum Magnesium Levels among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sakaguchi

    Full Text Available The Agatston score, commonly used to quantify coronary artery calcification (CAC, is determined by the plaque area and density. Despite an excellent predictability of the Agatston score for cardiovascular events, the density of CAC has never been studied in patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD. This study aimed to analyze the CAC density and its association with serum mineral levels in CKD.We enrolled patients with pre-dialysis CKD who had diabetes mellitus, prior cardiovascular disease history, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, or smoking history. The average CAC density was calculated by dividing the Agatston score by the total area of CAC.The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of 109 enrolled patients was 35.7 mL/min/1.73 m2. The correlation of the Agatston score with density was much weaker than that with the total area (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.001; and R2 = 0.99, P < 0.001, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that serum magnesium level was inversely associated with the density, but not with the total area, after adjustment for demographics and clinical factors related to malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome and mineral and bone disorders including fibroblast growth factor 23 (P = 0.006. This inverse association was pronounced among patients with higher serum phosphate levels (P for interaction = 0.02.CAC density was inversely associated with serum magnesium levels, particularly in patients with higher serum phosphate levels.

  2. Cardiovascular risk assessment in the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a secondary analysis of the MOZART trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven C; Ang, Brandon; Hernandez, Carolyn; Bettencourt, Ricki; Jain, Rashmi; Salotti, Joanie; Richards, Lisa; Kono, Yuko; Bhatt, Archana; Aryafar, Hamed; Lin, Grace Y; Valasek, Mark A; Sirlin, Claude B; Brouha, Sharon; Loomba, Rohit

    2016-03-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. No US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapies for NASH are available; clinical trials to date have not yet systematically assessed for changes in cardiovascular risk. This study examines the prospective utility of cardiovascular risk assessments, the Framingham risk score (FRS) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, as endpoints in a NASH randomized clinical trial, and assesses whether histologic improvements lead to lower cardiovascular risk. Secondary analysis of a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (MOZART) in which 50 biopsy-proven NASH patients received oral ezetimibe 10 mg daily (n = 25) versus placebo (n = 25). Biochemical profiling, FRS, CAC scores, liver biopsies were obtained at baseline and endpoint. Ezetimibe improved FRS whereas placebo did not (4.4 ± 6.2 to 2.9 ± 4.8, p = 0.038; 3.0 ± 4.4 to 2.9 ± 4.2, p = 0.794). CAC scores did not change with ezetimibe or placebo (180.4 ± 577.2 to 194.1 ± 623.9, p = 0.293; 151.4 ± 448.9 to 183.3 ± 555.7, p = 0.256). Ezetimibe improved FRS and CAC scores in more patients than placebo (48% versus 23%, p = 0.079, and 21% versus 0%, p = 0.090, respectively), though not significantly. No differences were noted in cardiovascular risk scores among histologic responders versus nonresponders. Ezetimibe improved FRS whereas placebo did not. FRS and CAC scores improved in a greater proportion of patients with ezetimibe; this trend did not reach significance. These findings indicate the utility and feasibility of monitoring cardiovascular risk in a NASH trial. The utility of CAC scores may be higher in trials of longer duration (⩾52 weeks) and with older patients (age ⩾45). ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01766713.

  3. Evaluation of chondrocalcinosis and associated knee joint degeneration using MR imaging: Data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersing, Alexandra S.; Schwaiger, Benedikt J.; Heilmeier, Ursula; Joseph, Gabby B.; Facchetti, Luca; Kretzschmar, Martin; Steinbach, Lynne S.; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lynch, John A.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Nevitt, Michael C. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the ability of different MRI sequences to detect chondrocalcinosis within knee cartilage and menisci, and to analyze the association with joint degeneration. Subjects with radiographic knee chondrocalcinosis (n = 90, age 67.7 ± 7.3 years, 50 women) were selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative and matched to controls without radiographic chondrocalcinosis (n = 90). Visualization of calcium-containing crystals (CaC) was compared between 3D T1-weighted gradient-echo (T1GE), 3D dual echo steady-state (DESS), 2D intermediate-weighted (IW), and proton density (PD)-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences obtained with 3T MRI and correlated with a semiquantitative CaC score obtained from radiographs. Structural abnormalities were assessed using Whole-Organ MRI Score (WORMS) and logistic regression models were used to compare cartilage compartments with and without CaC. Correlations between CaC counts of MRI sequences and degree of radiographic calcifications were highest for GE (r{sub T1GE} = 0.73, P < 0.001; r{sub DESS} = 0.68, P < 0.001) compared to other sequences (P > 0.05). Meniscus WORMS was significantly higher in subjects with chondrocalcinosis compared to controls (P = 0.005). Cartilage defects were significantly more frequent in compartments with CaC than without (patella: P = 0.006; lateral tibia: P < 0.001; lateral femur condyle: P = 0.017). Gradient-echo sequences were most useful for the detection of chondrocalcinosis and presence of CaC was associated with higher prevalence of cartilage and meniscal damage. (orig.)

  4. Association of Inter-Arm Systolic Blood Pressure Difference with Coronary Atherosclerotic Disease Burden Using Calcium Scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Ae Young; Cho, Kyoung Im; Garg, Scot; Kim, Yong Hoon; Shin, Eun Seok

    2017-09-01

    There are no sufficient data on the correlation between inter-arm blood pressure (BP) difference and coronary atherosclerosis found using coronary artery calcium score (CACS). We aimed to investigate if the increased difference in inter-arm BP is independently associated with severity of CACS. Patients who had ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors or an intermediate Framingham Risk Score (FRS; ≥10) were enrolled. Inter-arm BP difference was defined as the absolute difference in BP in both arms. Quantitative CACS was measured by using coronary computed tomography angiography with the scoring system. A total of 261 patients were included in this study. Age (r=0.256, parm systolic BP (SBP; r=0.172, p=0.005), mean of left arm SBP (r=0.190, p=0.002), inter-arm SBP difference (r=0.152, p=0.014), and the FRS (r=0.278, parm SBP difference (≥6 mm Hg) was significantly associated with CACS ≥300 [odds ratio (OR) 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-4.22; p=0.022]. In multivariable analysis, the inter-arm SBP difference ≥6 mm Hg was also significantly associated with CACS ≥300 after adjusting for clinical risk factors (OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.06-5.19; p=0.036). An increased inter-arm SBP difference (≥6 mm Hg) is associated with coronary atherosclerotic disease burden using CACS, and provides additional information for predicting severe coronary calcification, compared to models based on traditional risk factors.

  5. The association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, with systemic inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Silverman, Michael G; Nasir, Khurram; Budoff, Matthew J; Blankstein, Ron; Szklo, Moyses; Katz, Ronit; Blumenthal, Roger S; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    We characterized the association of 3 metabolic conditions - obesity, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - with increased inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of 3976 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with adequate CT imaging to diagnose NAFLD. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), metabolic syndrome by AHA/NHLBI criteria, and NAFLD using non-contrast cardiac CT and a liver/spleen attenuation ratio (L/S) inflammation was defined as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ≥2 mg/L and subclinical atherosclerosis as coronary artery calcium (CAC) > 0. We studied the association of a stepwise increase in number of these metabolic conditions (0-3) with increased inflammation and CAC, stratifying results by gender and ethnicity. Mean age of participants was 63 (±10) years, 45% were male, 37% white, 10% Chinese, 30% African American, and 23% were Hispanic. Adjusting for obesity, metabolic syndrome and traditional risk factors, NAFLD was associated with a prevalence odds ratio for hsCRP ≥2 mg/L and CAC >0 of 1.47 (1.20-1.79) and 1.37 (1.11-1.68) respectively. There was a positive interaction between female gender and NAFLD in the association with hsCRP ≥2 mg/L (p = 0.006), with no interaction by race. With increasing number of metabolic conditions, there was a graded increase in prevalence odds ratios of hsCRP ≥2 mg/L and CAC >0. NAFLD is associated with increased inflammation and CAC independent of traditional risk factors, obesity and metabolic syndrome. There is a graded association between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD with inflammation and CAC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imbalances in Mobilization and Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Vascular Reparative Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshini Chakravarthy

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes, affecting 65% of patients after 10 years of the disease. Diabetic metabolic insult leads to chronic low-grade inflammation, retinal endothelial cell loss and inadequate vascular repair. This is partly due to bone marrow (BM pathology leading to increased activity of BM-derived pro-inflammatory monocytes and impaired function of BM-derived reparative circulating angiogenic cells (CACs. We propose that diabetes has a significant long-term effect on the nature and proportion of BM-derived cells that circulate in the blood, localize to the retina and home back to their BM niche. Using a streptozotocin mouse model of diabetic retinopathy with GFP BM-transplantation, we have demonstrated that BM-derived circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes are increased in diabetes while reparative CACs are trapped in the BM and spleen, with impaired release into circulation. Diabetes also alters activation of splenocytes and BM-derived dendritic cells in response to LPS stimulation. A majority of the BM-derived GFP cells that migrate to the retina express microglial markers, while others express endothelial, pericyte and Müller cell markers. Diabetes significantly increases infiltration of BM-derived microglia in an activated state, while reducing infiltration of BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells in the retina. Further, control CACs injected into the vitreous are very efficient at migrating back to their BM niche, whereas diabetic CACs have lost this ability, indicating that the in vivo homing efficiency of diabetic CACs is dramatically decreased. Moreover, diabetes causes a significant reduction in expression of specific integrins regulating CAC migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that BM pathology in diabetes could play a role in both increased pro-inflammatory state and inadequate vascular repair contributing to diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Synthesis of functional acetylene derivatives from calcium carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhewang; Yu, Dingyi; Sum, Yin Ngai; Zhang, Yugen

    2012-04-01

    AHA Erlebnis: CaC(2), used to produce acetylene until several decades ago, is re-emerging as a cheap, sustainable resource synthesized from coal and lignocellulosic biomass. We report efficient catalytic protocols for the synthesis of functional acetylene derivatives from CaC(2) through aldehyde, alkyne, and amine (AAA) as well as alkyne, haloalkane, and amine (AHA) couplings, and in addition demonstrate its use in click and Sonogashira chemistry, showing that calcium carbide is a sustainable and cost-efficient carbon source. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Association of systemic inflammation with epicardial fat and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, Sören; Klinghammer, Lutz; Steinhoff, Alina; Raaz-Schrauder, Dorette; Marwan, Mohamed; Achenbach, Stephan; Garlichs, Christoph D

    2015-05-01

    Increased epicardial fat volume (EFV) has been shown to be associated with coronary atherosclerosis. While it is postulated to be an independent risk factor, a possible mechanism is local or systemic inflammation. We analyzed the relationship between coronary atherosclerosis, quantified by coronary calcium in CT, epicardial fat volume and systemic inflammation. Using non-enhanced dual-source CT, we quantified epicardial fat volume (EFV) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in 391 patients who underwent coronary computed tomography for suspected coronary artery disease. In addition to traditional risk factors, serum markers of systemic inflammation were measured (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10,IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, hs-CRP, GM-CS, G-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1, Eotaxin and IP-10). In 94 patients follow-up data were obtained after 1.9 ± 0.5 years. The 391 patients had a mean age of 60 ± 10 years, and 69 % were males. Mean EFV was 116 ± 50 mL. Median CAC was 12 (IQR 0; 152). CAC and EFV showed a significant correlation (ρ = 0.37; P EFV and CAC were significantly correlated with the traditional risk factors like age, male gender, diabetes, smoking and hypertension. With regard to biomarkers, CAC was significantly associated (negatively) to G-CSF and IL-13. EFV (median binned) was significantly associated (positively) with IP-10 (P = 0.002) and MCP-1 (ρ = 0.037). In follow-up, EFV showed a mean annualized progression of 6 mL (IQR 3; 9) (P EFV (P EFV or CAC with systemic inflammation markers. Epicardial fat volume and the baseline extent as well as progression of coronary atherosclerosis-measured by the calcium score-are significantly correlated. While both baseline EFV and CAC displayed significant correlations with systemic inflammation markers, biomarkers were not predictive of the progression of CAC or EFV.

  9. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and subclinical cardiovascular disease in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulrik Madvig; Jensen, Tonny; Køber, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with increased mortality in diabetes. Since CAN often develops in parallel with diabetic nephropathy as a confounder, we aimed to investigate the isolated impact of CAN on cardiovascular disease in normoalbuminuric patients. Fifty......-six normoalbuminuric, type 1 diabetic patients were divided into 26 with (+) and 30 without (-) CAN according to tests of their autonomic nerve function. Coronary artery plaque burden and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were evaluated using computed tomography. Left ventricular function was evaluated using...... with increased CACS, subclinical left ventricular dysfunction, and increased pulse pressure. In conclusion, CAN in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients is associated with distinct signs of subclinical cardiovascular disease....

  10. Fenomena Kerak Dalam Desalinasi Dengan Multi Stage Flash Distillation (Msf)

    OpenAIRE

    Alimah, Siti

    2006-01-01

    SCALING PHENOMENA IN DESALINATION WITH MULTI STAGE FLASH DISTILLATION (MSF). Assessment of scaling phenomena in MSF desalination has been carried out. Scale is one of predominantly problem in multi stage flash (MSF) desalination installation. The main types of scale in MSF are carbonat calcium (CaC03), hydroxide magnesium (Mg(OH)2) dan sulphate calcium (CaS04). CaC03 dan Mg(OH)2 scales result from the thermal decomposition of bicarbonate ion, however sulphate calcium scale result from reactio...

  11. Calcium aluminate cement hydration in a high alkalinity environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, Á.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper forms part of a broader research project that aims primarily to devise new cementitious products via the alkali activation of silico-aluminous materials. This work addresses the possibility of using small percentages of calcium aluminate cement (CAC as a source of reactive aluminium. For this reason, a preliminary review was needed of the behaviour of CACs in highly alkaline media (2, 8 and 12M NaOH solutions. Two, 28- and 180-day mechanical strength was determined and the reaction products were characterized with XRD and FTIR. The water-hydrated CAC was used as the control.The results obtained showed that CAC hardening took place much more slowly in highly alkaline media than in water. Nonetheless, the 28-day compressive strength obtained, ≥80MPa. As main reaction products, to ambient temperature and from the two days of cured, cubic aluminate C3AH6, and AH3 polymorphs are formed, instead of the usual hexagonal aluminatos (CAH10 and C2AH8 that are formed in the normal hydrate with water.El presente trabajo forma parte de una amplia investigación cuyo objetivo principal es el de elaborar nuevos materiales con propiedades cementantes mediante la activación alcalina de materiales de naturaleza silito-aluminosa. En estos estudios se contempla la posibilidad de utilizar pequeños porcentajes de cemento de aluminato de calcio (CAC como fuente de aluminio reactivo. Por ello inicialmente se ha estudiado el comportamiento de los CAC en medios fuertemente alcalinos (disoluciones de NaOH 2M, 8M y 12M. Se determinaron las resistencias mecánicas a 2, 28 y 180 días y se realizó una caracterización de los productos de reacción formados por DRX, FTIR. Como sistema de referencia se consideró la hidratación del CAC con agua.Los resultados obtenidos muestran que en medios fuertemente alcalinos se retrasan los procesos de rápido endurecimiento de CAC con agua. No obstante a 28 días se obtienen valores de resistencia a compresión

  12. Associations between calcium-phosphate metabolism and coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Mette H; Gerke, Oke; Mickley, Hans

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High serum calcium-phosphate levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic kidney disease. Recent studies have demonstrated this relationship also in subjects with normal kidney function. Our aim was to examine whether......, were analysed for total calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). CAC was measured by a non-contrast cardiac CT scan and categorised into four groups: 0, 1-99, 100-399, ≥400 Agatston units. The association of calcium-phosphate metabolism with CAC was evaluated...

  13. Coronary artery calcium before and after hospitalization with pneumonia: The MESA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-Medina, Vicente F; Dwivedi, Girish; Taljaard, Monica; Petrcich, William; Lima, Joao A; Yende, Sachin; Kronmal, Richard A; Chirinos, Julio A

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological analyses demonstrate that pneumonia survivors have a higher risk of myocardial infarction than people with similar load of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) but without pneumonia. This may be due to a higher baseline burden of ASCVD in patients with pneumonia that is not captured by the accounting of known ASCVD risk factors in epidemiological analyses or to unfavorable accelerating effects of pneumonia on atherosclerosis. We analyzed data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We identified 54 participants that were hospitalized for pneumonia during study follow-up and that also had assessment of coronary artery calcium (CAC, an objective marker of coronary atherosclerotic burden) before and after this hospitalization. We matched them to 54 participants who were not hospitalized for pneumonia but that had CAC assessments at the same study visits as the pneumonia cases. We compared baseline CAC scores and their progression between groups. Baseline CAC scores were similar in both groups (median [IQR]; 6.3 [0-356.8] in pneumonia participants vs. 10.8 [0-178.3] in controls; p = 0.25). After a median of 4.8 years, the direction and magnitude of CAC score change, and the slope of CAC score progression between groups was also similar (median change [IQR], 21.8 [0 to 287.29] in participants with pneumonia versus 15.8 [0 to 140.94] in controls, p = 0.28; difference in slope, 7.7, 95% CI -9.0 to 24.6, p = 0.18). However, among participants with high baseline ASCVD risk (i.e. ACC/AHA 10-year risk estimate ≥7.5%), participants with pneumonia showed a larger increase in CAC scores (median change [IQR]; 159.10 [38.55-407.34] versus 48.72 [0.97-246.99] in controls; p = 0.02) and a trend towards a steeper slope of CAC score progression (difference in slope, 19.7, 95% CI -6.6 to 45.6, p = 0.07). Pneumonia may accelerate the progression of atherosclerosis in people with high baseline ASCVD risk.

  14. Amadurecimento de manga 'Ubá' com etileno e carbureto de cálcio na pós-colheita Ripening of 'Ubá' mango using ethylene and calcium carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangas 'Ubá' fisiologicamente maduras foram tratadas com etileno ou carbureto de cálcio (CaC2 visando à antecipação e à uniformização do amadurecimento. Frutos com massa média de 133,8±1,9g foram expostos às doses de 0, 20, 40, 80 e 160g de CaC2 m-3 de câmara ou 0, 50, 100, 200 e 400mL de etileno m-3 de câmara durante 24h, em câmaras a 18,1±0,7°C e 90±3% de UR. Após o tratamento, os frutos permaneceram sob as mesmas condições de temperatura e UR, e foram avaliados aos 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias de armazenamento. O etileno e o CaC2 acentuaram a perda de massa das mangas. Nos frutos tratados com CaC2, o pico climatérico respiratório ocorreu aos 3, 6, 9, 9 e 12 dias de armazenamento para as doses 160, 80, 40, 20 e 0g/m³, respectivamente. Nos frutos tratados com etileno, este pico foi registrado aos 3, 3, 6, 6 e 12 dias de armazenamento para as doses 400, 200, 100, 50 e 0mL m-3, respectivamente. Todas as doses de CaC2 e de etileno aceleraram a perda de firmeza, o aumento do teor de sólidos solúveis e de carotenóides, a redução da acidez e a mudança de cor da casca e da polpa dos frutos. Por outro lado, esses produtos também acentuaram a perda de eletrólitos celulares e de ácido ascórbico. Nos frutos tratados com etileno, a queda da firmeza foi mais brusca em relação aos tratados com CaC2. No entanto, o extravasamento de solutos foi maior para frutos tratados com CaC2. O aumento no teor de sólidos solúveis foi proporcional ao aumento das doses de CaC2 e de etileno. Doses de 20g de CaC2 e 50mL de etileno por m³ de câmara foram suficientes para antecipar e uniformizar o amadurecimento de manga 'Ubá'.Physiologically mature 'Ubá' mangoes were treated with ethylene or calcium carbide (CaC2 aiming to accelerate and standardize fruit ripening. Fruits with mean weight of 133.8±1.9g were treated with concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 80 and 160g CaC2 chamber m-3 and 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400mL of ethylene/chamber m³, in

  15. Resource management framework for QoS scheduling in IEEE 802.16 WiMAX networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    . A two-level hierarchical scheduler is developed for the DRA module, which can provide more organized service differentiation among different service classes, and a measurement-based connection admission control strategy is introduced for the CAC module. Through system-level simulation, it is shown...... an important role in QoS provisioning for different types of services. In this chapter, we propose a downlink resource management framework for QoS scheduling in OFDMA based WiMAX systems. Our framework consists of a dynamic resource allocation (DRA) module and a connection admission control (CAC) module...

  16. Downlink resource management for QoS scheduling in IEEE 802.16 WiMAX networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    -level hierarchical scheduler is developed for the DRA module, which can provide more organized service differentiation among different service classes, and a measurement-based connection admission control strategy is introduced for the CAC module. Through system-level simulation, it is shown that the proposed...... an important role in QoS provisioning for different types of services. In this paper, we propose a downlink resource management framework for QoS scheduling in OFDMA based WiMAX systems. Our framework consists of a dynamic resource allocation (DRA) module and a connection admission control (CAC) module. A two...

  17. Association between high-sensitive troponin I and coronary artery calcification in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik; Engborg, Jonathan; Grønhøj, Mette H.

    2016-01-01

    . METHODS: 1173 randomized, middle-aged subjects without known CVD underwent a non-contrast cardiac-CT scan for CAC determination. Hs-TnI was detected using ARCHITECT STAT High Sensitive Troponin-I immunoassay. Total 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk was estimated using HeartScore. The relationship......BACKGROUND: High-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) is an individual predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between hs-TnI and coronary artery calcification (CAC) as determined by computed tomography (CT) has not previously been investigated in a general population...

  18. STUDY OF TRANSMISSION LINES EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM OPERATIONON OF CONTINUOUS AUTOMATIC CAB SIGNALLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Hololobova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct an effect research of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (HVTL (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuits and continuous automatic cab signalling (CACS with a signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission lines and to propose possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS. Methodology. The measurements were performed both by means of car-laboratory and directly on rail lines. During the study the electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at the distance from it to the railway lines was measured, as well as the time dependence of CACS codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and its passing. Findings. The root causes analysis of CACS faults and failures was carried out. The effect of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuit and CACS with signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission line was investigated. Possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS were considered. Originality. The effect research of transmission lines (750 kV on the operation of the automatic cab signalling on spans Prishib-Burchatsk and Privolnoye-Yelizarovo, Pridneprovsk railway in places of oblique railroads crossing and transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz was conducted. Electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it to the railway line, as well as the time dependences of ALSN codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and as its passing were measured. It was found that CACS codes in track circuits under transmission lines are strongly distorted, as strength

  19. Informed Markets as Policy Instrument for Environmental Governance of Buffer Zones around Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    In the continuum between command & control (CaC) regulation on the one hand and economic policy instruments on the other, the institutional location of “ protected” areas is often perceived as solidly within the reign of CaC, as a means to safeguard a piece of the earth biosphere as “nature...... offering both nature protection and economic functions. The latter may be limited to local livelihood purposes, but may also involve integration into a larger regional, national or international economy. Based on inspiration from development and implementation of Natura 2000 areas and the evolution...

  20. Cimento aluminoso e seus efeitos em concretos refratários magnesianos espinelizados in situ Calcium aluminate cement and its effects on in-situ spinel containing magnesia refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H Milanez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de concretos refratários alumina-magnésia ligados por cimento aluminoso (CAC apresenta vantagens decorrentes da presença de espinélio e de CA6 (CaO.6Al2O3, ambas formadas in-situ e acompanhadas de expansão. Estas fases possuem alta resistência a escórias básicas e ao choque térmico, propriedades estas imprescindíveis para aplicação em panelas siderúrgicas. Estudos anteriores mostraram que o teor de CAC utilizado em concretos alumina-magnésia influencia a expansão do material, principalmente devido à formação de CA6. Este trabalho visa estudar a influência do teor de cimento no sistema magnésia-alumina, utilizando-se a mesma matriz de um concreto alumina-magnésia tradicional. Os resultados indicaram que o CAC influencia na estabilidade volumétrica do sistema MgO-espinélio: quanto menor o teor de CAC, menor a retração das amostras. Isso refletiu na sinterização dos concretos e, assim, nas propriedades mecânicas após queima em temperaturas elevadas.Calcium aluminate cement (CAC bonded alumina-magnesia refractory castables present great advantages for steel ladle applications as a result of in-situ expansive formation of spinel and CA<6, which leads to high basic slag and thermal shock resistance. The CAC content in those castables strongly influences its expansive behavior mainly due to CA6 formation. In the present work, the effects of the CAC content in magnesia-alumina castables were analyzed. The results showed that calcium aluminate cement affects the volumetric stability of MgO-spinel system: the lower the CAC content, the lower the shrinkage. These effects on the sintering and in the mechanical properties after sintering at high temperatures are also presented and discussed.

  1. Lifetime Marijuana Use and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Reto; Sidney, Stephen; Goff, David; Vittinghoff, Eric; Pletcher, Mark J; Allen, Norrina B; Reis, Jared P; Lewis, Cora E; Carr, Jeffrey; Rana, Jamal S

    2017-11-22

    Unlike tobacco, the effect of marijuana smoke on subclinical atherosclerosis, a surrogate measure for cardiovascular disease, is not known. This study aimed to determine the association between lifetime exposure to marijuana and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in mid-life. We used data from the US-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a cohort of black and white men and women aged 18-30 years at baseline in 1985-86, with up to 7 follow-up exams over 25 years. The number of CARDIA participants included in this study was 3,498. Cumulative years of exposure to marijuana (expressed in 'marijuana-years', with 1 marijuana-year equivalent to 365 days of use) using repeated assessments every 2-5 years, over 25 years. Abdominal artery calcium (AAC) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores measured by computed tomography at Year 25 exam. Among 3,117 participants with AAC and CAC measurements, 2,627 (84%) reported past marijuana use and 1,536 (49%) past daily tobacco smoking. Compared with tobacco smokers, of which 46% reported 10 or more pack-years of use, only 12% of marijuana users reported 5 or more marijuana-years of use and only 6% reported having used marijuana daily. We found a significant interaction between never- and ever- tobacco users on the association between cumulative marijuana use and AAC (p=0.05). Among those who never smoked tobacco, cumulative marijuana-years were not associated with AAC or CAC in models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, licit and illicit drug exposure and depression symptoms. However, among ever tobacco smokers, marijuana exposure was associated with AAC and CAC. At 5 marijuana-years of exposure, using AAC=0 and CAC=0 as a reference group, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.97 (95%CI:1.21-3.21,p=0.007) for AAC>0/CAC=0 and 1.83 (95%CI:1.02-3.31,p=0.04) for CAC>0, regardless of AAC. Tobacco smoking was strongly associated with both AAC and CAC. Marijuana use appears to be associated

  2. Mechanisms of metabolic dysfunction in cancer-associated cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, Michele; Wagner, Erwin F.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic dysfunction contributes to the clinical deterioration observed in advanced cancer patients and is characterized by weight loss, skeletal muscle wasting, and atrophy of the adipose tissue. This systemic syndrome, termed cancer-associated cachexia (CAC), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. While once attributed solely to decreased food intake, the present description of cancer cachexia is a disorder of multiorgan energy imbalance. Here we review the molecules and pathways responsible for metabolic dysfunction in CAC and the ideas that led to the current understanding. PMID:26944676

  3. Influence of coronary calcification on the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Pedersen, Kasper; Budoff, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    arteries and 1,120 versus 514 patients in low versus high CACS subgroups from 19 eligible studies were compared. The per-patient prevalence of coronary artery disease was 48% versus 68%, respectively. Subgroups were stratified by different CACS thresholds ranging from 100 to 400. Meta-analyses of per...... predictive value of 97.5 (95-99)% versus 91 (88-94)% and overall accuracy of 91% versus 89% with 95% confidence interval, respectively. The drop in specificity was significant (P = 0.035), while the sensitivity and overall accuracy were insignificantly changed (P > 0.05). Meta-analyses of independent...

  4. Calculation of the Aqueous Thermodynamic Properties of Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates and Precursors and the Estimation of High Temperature and Pressure Equation of State Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Schulte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The citric acid cycle (CAC is the central pathway of energy transfer for many organisms, and understanding the origin of this pathway may provide insight into the origins of metabolism. In order to assess the thermodynamics of this key pathway for microorganisms that inhabit a wide variety of environments, especially those found in high temperature environments, we have calculated the properties and parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state for the major components of the CAC. While a significant amount of data is not available for many of the constituents of this fundamental pathway, methods exist that allow estimation of these missing data.

  5. 75 FR 82575 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Personal Identity Verification of Contractor Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Personal Identity Verification of Contractor Personnel AGENCY: Department... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to provide additional regulatory coverage to reinforce the...) were in place and worked as intended. A ``CAC'' is the DoD term for a Personal Identity Verification...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_542414.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_542414.1 chr4 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR ANTI...GEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p1wcka_ chr4/NP_542414.1/NP_542414.1_holo_1651-1785.pdb swppa 1651S,1654D,1706T,1782E,1784E CAC 0 ...

  7. History and Atopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    co-workers, in their study, obtained evidence for genetic linkage of allergic conjunctivitis with chromosomes 5,16 and 17 [26]. In our study, majority of the patients with features of CAC who had a personal history of atopy had allergic rhinitis; this simply reinforces previous documentation that allergic eye disease and allergic.

  8. 'Dance Your Sorrow Away!': Spirituality, Community and Wellbeing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, I unpack the concept of 'dancing away sorrow', one of the distinctive rituals that members of CAC Dublin have brought with them from Nigeria. I explore members' beliefs about wellbeing and its links with spirituality and community, and examine how music and dance help to facilitate connections with God and ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-0555 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-0555 ref|NP_470082.1| internalin like protein (LPXTG) [Listeria innocu...a Clip11262] emb|CAC95971.1| internalin like protein (LPXTG) [Listeria innocua] NP_470082.1 2.0 29% ...

  10. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by Palmyra palm fruit seed carbon (PPFSC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC) was investigated. The metal adsorption capacity has been studied as a function of contact time, pH and carbon dosage. The adsorption yields increased with the increasing of ...

  11. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 distribution among lipoproteins differs in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, Jennifer L; Wang, Hong; Kinney, Gregory L; Snell-Bergeon, Janet; Hokanson, John E; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    LpPLA2 mass and activity have been variably related to cardiovascular disease risk, and the distribution of LpPLA2 in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), wherein cardiovascular disease risk is high despite normal or higher levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, is unknown. To determine whether there are differences in the distribution of LpPLA2 mass and activity across lipoproteins and their association with coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with T1D. Men with T1D (n = 19) not on statins, with and without CAC progression, and men without diabetes matched for HDL cholesterol (n = 25) had lipoproteins separated by fast protein liquid chromatography. Both LpPLA2 mass and activity were found within low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL pools with more LpPLA2 mass being associated with HDL (54% vs 44%; P-value lipoprotein subfractions was observed between all groups, and there was no relationship between LpPLA2 activity or mass and its distribution and CAC score progression in healthy or T1D men. LpPLA2 is found in both LDL and HDL and is distributed differently in men with T1D without any relationship to CAC score progression. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Novel Call Admission Control Policy Using Mobility Prediction and Throttle Mechanism for Supporting QoS in Wireless Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Feng Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision of call admission becomes an important work owing to the scarce wireless spectrum for wireless cellular networks. If there exists adequate information for call admission control (CAC schemes, the terms of quality of service (QoS, such as call dropping probability (CDP, call blocking probability (CBP, and system utilization, will be kept in a certain acceptable level. Therefore, a prediction system which can predict most information, such as system utilization and CDP, in advance with a novel data mining technique and a distributed CAC scheme is presented in this paper. Based on the prediction results and the bandwidth consumption of adjacent cells, the proposed CAC scheme is able to decide to admit a new call. The throttle flag that can indicate the usage of current cell is proposed to prevent the newly admitted call request from being blocked in adjacent cells if handoff is needed. The simulation results show that the proposed CAC scheme can maintain the CDP below a predefined threshold, and the CBP is also lower than the cluster prediction and traditional guard channel policies.

  13. 75 FR 39499 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... software uses Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)/Common Access Card (CAC) authentication to lock out... document. The general policy for comments and other submissions from members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  14. 75 FR 22570 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ...). Safeguards: Login to systems and network requires use of the DoD Common Access Card (CAC). Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) network login may be required to allow for documents to be digitally signed and encrypted... comments and other submissions from members of the public is to make these submissions available for public...

  15. Evaluating Seismic Activity in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Asmara; in 1921, Massawa was completely des- troyed (10, 11) and the people of Eritrea remember these years as 11 011 } R:a c)>ac)> ; in 1960, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 hit a few kilometers west of Sheshamane near the dormant volcano. Chabbi; in 1961, the seismic activity was centered in Wollo where Majete ...

  16. Multimodal Rhetorics in the Disciplines: Available Means of Persuasion in an Undergraduate Architecture Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent initiatives in WAC/WID and CxC/CAC programs have emphasized the need to support multimodal composing in writing studies and in other academic disciplines. This ethnographic case study examines the academic multimodal composing practices of undergraduate students in the visually-based discipline of architecture. The results of this study…

  17. The proper use of coronary calcium score and coronary computed tomography angiography for screening asymptomatic patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Shee Yen; Chang, Po-Yen; Lao, Wilson T; Lin, Ying Chin; Chung, Yi-Han; Chan, Wing P

    2017-12-15

    Early detection and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) can reduce incidences of acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we determined the proper use of contributing risk factors and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) when screening asymptomatic patients with coronary arterial stenoses using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We reviewed 934 consecutive patients who received CACS and CCTA between December 2013 and November 2016. At least one cardiovascular disease risk factor was present in each of the 509 asymptomatic participants. Patients were grouped based on CACS into "zero," "minimal" (0  400). Males over 45 years old with diabetes mellitus and hypertension had a higher risk of significant coronary stenosis. In multivariate analysis, age, sex, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus remained significant predictors of stenosis. A CACS of zero occurred in 227 patients (44.6%). There were no significant differences between the "zero" and "minimal" groups (p = 0.421), but the "mild," "moderate," and "excessive" groups showed correlations with significant coronary stenosis. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were associated with higher risk of significant coronary stenosis. Asymptomatic patients with CACSs of zero do not require CCTA, and thereby avoid unnecessary radiation exposure.

  18. Enhanced cell mitochondrial activity using electrospun nanofibers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, V

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available technology and surgical applications. Proc Instn Mech Eng Part H - J Eng Med. 1998; 212: 101-111. 16. Barbanti, S.H.; Zavaglia, C.A.C. & Duek, E.A.R. Polímeros bioreabsorvíveis na engenharia de tecidos. Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia. 2005; 15: 13-21. 17...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-0334 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-0334 ref|NP_394579.1| cationic amino acid transporter [Thermoplasma ac...idophilum DSM 1728] emb|CAC12247.1| probable cationic amino acid transporter [Thermoplasma acidophilum] NP_394579.1 0.34 26% ...

  20. 911-IJBCS-Article-Mrs Ozioma Adaunwo Ekpete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Batch adsorption experiments were performed to study the removal kinetics of phenol from aqueous solution using activated carbon derived from fluted pumpkin stem waste (FAC) and a commercial activated carbon (CAC). Optimum removal of 98.50% and 98.40% phenol was achieved at the equilibrium time of 60 mins for ...

  1. 76 FR 57653 - Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption From the Requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... rapidly digested in simulated mammalian gastric fluid containing pepsin at a pH of 1.2 at 37 C. The... no sequence similarity to known allergens, was readily degraded by pepsin, and was not glycosylated... Pharmacology. 15(1): 3-9. 7. CAC. 2003. Alinorm 03/34: Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme. Codex...

  2. Carboplatin loaded polymethylmethacrylate nano-particles in an adjunctive role in retinoblastoma: An animal trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, Debraj; Kalita, Dhrubajyoti; Jain, Viral; Sarin, Rajiv; Maru, Girish B.; Bellare, Jayesh R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to compare the intra-vitreal concentrations of carboplatin, post peri-ocular injections of commercially available carboplatin (CAC) and a novel carboplatin loaded polymethylmethacrylate nanoparticulate carboplatin (NPC), in either eye, as a model system for treatment of advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma (RB). Design: Experimental, comparative, animal study. Materials and Methods: Polymethylmethacrylate nanoparticles were prepared by free radical emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate in aqueous solution of carboplatin in the presence of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and thermal initiator ammonium persulfate. 21 Sprague-Dawley rats, aged between 6 weeks and 3 months were enrolled. The right eye of each rat was injected peri-ocularly with CAC formulation (1 ml of 10 mg/ml) and the left eye with NPC (1 ml of 10 mg/ml), post-anesthesia, by an ophthalmologist trained in ocular oncology. Three rats each were euthanized on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 42, post-injection and both eyes were carefully enucleated. Intra-vitreal concentrations of CAC and NPC were determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Analysis of data was done with paired t-test. Results: The intra-vitreal concentration of carboplatin with NPC was ~3-4 times higher than with CAC in all animals, on all the days (P carboplatin in the vitreous. Peri-ocular injection of NPC could thus have an adjuvant efficacy in the treatment for advanced clinical RB, specifically those with vitreous seeds. PMID:24881606

  3. Improving home management plan of care compliance rates through an electronic asthma action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Ronen; Schrager, Sheree M; Keefer, Matthew; Marshall, Lori; Wu, Susan

    2013-08-01

    In 2007, the Joint Commission mandated reporting of three children's asthma care (CAC) measures for hospitalized patients with asthma. The third children's asthma care measure (CAC-3) focuses on hospital discharge with a comprehensive home management plan of care (HMPC) based on the clinical severity. To improve CAC-3 compliance and identify what interventions would have the most impact. This was a retrospective observational study, conducted at the Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) between October 2008 and January 2012. A total of 470 patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of asthma were included. Four Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles testing separate interventions were used throughout the study period: clinical care coordinators (CCCs), red clipboard for paper HMPC, electronic HMPC, and hard-stop HMPC. Chi-square and binomial tests compared CHLA's CAC-3 compliance rates within intervention windows as well as to the national average. Between October 2008 and May 2009, CHLA had a compliance rate of 39%, well below the national average (p = .001). Involvement of CCCs increased the overall compliance to 74% (χ(2)(1) = 11.59, p HMPC in October 2010 led to the largest increase in overall compliance (93%) when compared to the previous intervention window (χ(2)(1) = 4.38, p HMPC improved rates well above the national average. This provides a framework for other institutions that may or may not utilize an electronic medical record.

  4. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is in contrast to high-sensitive C-reactive-protein associated with coronary artery calcifications in healthy middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between two markers of low-grade inflammation; soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score detected by cardiac ...

  5. Paraoxonase-1 Is Not Associated with Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the PREDICT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Mackness

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine any association between serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity, protein and coding region genetic polymorphisms and coronary artery calcification (CACS and to determine factors which modulate serum PON1 in type 2 diabetes (T2DM.

  6. ORF Alignment: NC_002771 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002771 gi|15828690 >1wqgA 1 184 6 187 4e-39 ... ref|NP_326050.1| RIBOSOME RECYCLING... FACTOR (RIBOSOME RELEASING FACTOR) [Mycoplasma ... pulmonis UAB CTIP] emb|CAC13392.1| RIBOSOME RECYCLING

  7. The origin, development and a brief appraisal of the doctrine of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-12

    Mar 12, 2013 ... Conference on the Origin of. Christ Apostolic Church in. Nigeria and Ghana organised ... The origin, development and a brief appraisal of the doctrine of the baptism in the Holy Spirit in Christ ..... place in a believer's life, whilst the data under Section B point out the evidence, according to CAC ministers, that ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2694 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2694 ref|NP_436982.1| putative cellulose synthase protein [Sinorhizobi...um meliloti 1021] emb|CAC48842.1| putative cellulose synthase protein [Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021] NP_436982.1 5.4 25% ...

  9. Sustained Delivery of Bioactive GDNF from Collagen and Alginate-Based Cell-Encapsulating Gel Promoted Photoreceptor Survival in an Inherited Retinal Degeneration Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca S Y Wong

    Full Text Available Encapsulated-cell therapy (ECT is an attractive approach for continuously delivering freshly synthesized therapeutics to treat sight-threatening posterior eye diseases, circumventing repeated invasive intravitreal injections and improving local drug availability clinically. Composite collagen-alginate (CAC scaffold contains an interpenetrating network that integrates the physical and biological merits of its constituents, including biocompatibility, mild gelling properties and availability. However, CAC ECT properties and performance in the eye are not well-understood. Previously, we reported a cultured 3D CAC system that supported the growth of GDNF-secreting HEK293 cells with sustainable GDNF delivery. Here, the system was further developed into an intravitreally injectable gel with 1x104 or 2x105 cells encapsulated in 2mg/ml type I collagen and 1% alginate. Gels with lower alginate concentration yielded higher initial cell viability but faster spheroid formation while increasing initial cell density encouraged cell growth. Continuous GDNF delivery was detected in culture and in healthy rat eyes for at least 14 days. The gels were well-tolerated with no host tissue attachment and contained living cell colonies. Most importantly, gel-implanted in dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons rat eyes for 28 days retained photoreceptors while those containing higher initial cell number yielded better photoreceptor survival. CAC ECT gels offers flexible system design and is a potential treatment option for posterior eye diseases.

  10. Assessment of the genetic diversity of Kenyan coconut germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marker CAC23 had the highest PIC and revealed highest gene diversity values in this study. Analysis of the molecular variation indicated that within individual variation was 98% while among materials, variation was low at 2% suggesting that molecular variation was not defined by region of production. Cluster analysis was ...

  11. Food safety and quality management in Kenya: An overview of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most Kenyan standards are adopted from international ones, such as International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). In the food supply chain, farmers have to apply Good Agricultural Practices, sellers of commodities/raw materials at local or international level have to apply ...

  12. Influence of artificial mountain climate on development of pneumoconiosis and content of catecholamines in adrenals of white rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridneva, N.V.

    1984-04-01

    The influence of mountain climate (moderate hypobaric hypoxia, negative aeroionization and ultraviolet radiation) on development of pneumoconiosis and content of catecholamines in adrenals of white rats is studied. One month after inducing pneumoconiosis by intratracheal exposure of group of white rats to dust, half the experimental animals were treated in an altitude chamber and exposed to aeroionization by AF-3-1 and to medical quartz lamps. Effect of hypobaric treatment on hydroxyproline and dust in lungs is shown in a table comparing treated and untreated subjects. Both hydroxyproline and dust were reduced in lungs of animals given curative therapy. A month after exposure to dust, amount of epinephrine and morepinephrine in adrenals increased. A figure shows dynamics of content of catecholamines (CAC) in glands of animals exposed to dust and treated with artifical mountain climate. Results document phasal changes in content of CAC. Hypoxia increases CAC to stimulate arteriovascular system subjected to reduced atmospheric pressure. Under conditions of artifical mountain climate, development of sclerosis slows and dust excretion is activated. One may propose antisclerotic effect of UVL and aeroionization predominates over prosclerotic action of hypoxia. Combined factors of mountain climate retard fibrosis, expedite excretion of dust, and facilitate normalization of functional activity of CAC. Therefore, their use is recommended in treatment of pneumoconiosis. 26 references.

  13. Observed Dependence of Colloid Detachment on the Concentration of Initially Attached Colloids and Collector Surface Heterogeneity in Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Jin, Yan; Huang, Yuanfang; Li, Baoguo; Shen, Chongyang

    2017-03-07

    Sand column experiments were conducted to examine the effects of the concentration of attached colloids (CAC) on their subsequent detachment upon decreasing solution ionic strength (IS). Different pore volumes of latex microparticle suspensions were injected into the columns to allow different amounts of colloids to attach at ISs of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.2 M. Then, deionized water was introduced to release the attached colloids. Results show that the fraction of attachments that were reversible to reduction of IS (FRA) increased with increasing CAC at a given IS if the sand was extensively treated using acids to reduce surface charge heterogeneity. This indicates that colloids were preferentially immobilized in sites favoring irreversible attachment and then gradually occupied reversible sites. In contrast, the FRA decreased with increasing CAC at 0.001 M in sand without the acid treatment, illustrating the opposite attachment sequence. Scanning electron microscope examinations reveal that the concave regions favored irreversible colloid attachment. Reversible attachment is likely due to immobilization on flat surfaces with charge heterogeneities, retention in stagnation point regions via secondary minimum association, ripening in the acid-treated sand, and capture of colloids by protruding asperities with charge heterogeneity in the untreated sand. At ISs of 0.01 and 0.2 M, the FRA was essentially independent of CAC in the untreated sand because the colloids were randomly attached on the sand surfaces over time.

  14. Classification of visualization exudates fundus images results using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kernel function settings; linear, polynomial, quadratic and RBF have an effect on the classification results. For SVM1, the best parameter in classifying pixels is linear kernel function. The visualization results using CAC and radar chart are classified using ts accuracy. It has proven to discriminated exudates and non ...

  15. A prospective clinical trial comparing preformed metal crowns and cast restorations for defective first permanent molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagdwon, A M; Fayle, S A; Pollard, M A

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated two methods for the restoration of permanent molars affected by amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) or severe enamel defects. A prospective clinical trial was carried out on 17 subjects affected by AI or severe enamel defects of first permanent molars. A split mouth design was used so that each right or left permanent molar in both jaws was restored using either a preformed metal crown (SSC) or a cast adhesive coping (CAC). Subjects were followed for up to 24 months and assessed for longevity and quality of the restorations. Sequential analysis was used to compare longevity. Records for 42 restorations (19 SSC; 23 CAC) were kept. The split mouth design was possible on 24 occasions (right versus left=14; maxilla versus mandible=10). Three restorations, one SSC (at 6 months) and two CAC (at 2 and 19 months) failed and required replacement. There was no significant statistical difference between the two types of restorations. While there was no difference between the two restorations for quality and longevity, the SSC was considerably cheaper to use and needed only one visit, but more tooth tissue was lost in preparation and fitting. The CAC was significantly more expensive but left nearly all of the tooth crown intact. The choice of which restoration to use is indicated by the immediate and long-term needs of each individual patient.

  16. Production of white colonies on CHROMagar Candida BD by species in the C. glabrata clade, and other species with overlapping phenotypic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromogenic agars are important diagnostic media used in the clinical mycology laboratory. Candida spp. that produced white colonies on CHROMagar Candida (Becton Dickinson) (CAC) were found during a study designed to detect and identify C. bracarensis, a newly-described species in the C. glabrata c...

  17. Information sources for decision making by senior managers in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on information sources used for decision making by managers in the National Sport Commission (NSC) and Corporate Affair Commission (CAC) Abuja, Nigeria. Information is widely believed as the raw materials upon which decisions are made. It is also a critical resource that affects individual as well as ...

  18. Serum uric acid: a marker of metabolic syndrome and subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyun; Bian, Luqin; Choi, Yoonho

    2012-08-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) is a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis. We assessed the relationship between SUA and subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean men (n = 3010). Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and ultrasonographic measurements of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), respectively, are markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs) of CAC score and cIMT across SUA levels were 1.101 (P = .046) and 1.266 (P = .002), respectively, after adjustment for several variables. The independent association between CAC and cIMT was observed (OR = 1.231, P uric acid was independently associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) with an OR of 1.415 (P Metabolic syndrome was only independently associated with cIMT, with an OR of 2.103 (P = .003). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was positively correlated with SUA (r = .125, P uric acid level is independently associated with CAC, cIMT, and MetS in Korean men.

  19. Critical aggregation concentrations of gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, C A; Wistrom, A O

    1998-12-09

    Bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides (LPS), cell wall components of gram negative bacteria, are involved in septic shock. While the carbohydrate structure of LPS have been studied in the past, little is known about the macromolecular structure and formation of LPS fragments in blood. It is believed that amphiphilic molecules such as LPS occur as monomers and aggregate into macromolecular structures above a critical micelle or critical aggregate concentration, CAC. The CAC of Lipid A, a LPS precursor, and several LPS serotypes of varying molecular weight and different polysaccharide chain lengths were established by static light scattering and by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy by incorporation of the fluorescent probe, NPN, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine. The CAC for short polysaccharide chain mutant LPS S.minnesota Re 595 (MW 2,500) and Lipid A from S.minnesota Re 595 (MW 2000) were 4 microM and 5 microM respectively. The CAC of LPS from heterogeneous long O-antigen polysaccharide chain bacterial serotypes: S.minnesota wildtype were 11 micrograms LPS/ml, S.typhimurium 14 micrograms LPS/ml and E.coli 0111:B4 22 micrograms LPS/ml, respectively. The results obtained suggests that critical aggregate concentration and solubility of LPS is a function of polysaccharide chain length.

  20. Environmental Baseline Survey for Three Sites at TRW Capistrano Test Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    hydrazine within the last ten years that did not result in soil or groundwater contamination (Asher, 1999). With its role as a research and development...GARCIA TRUCKING 1516 CALLE VALLE SAN CLEMENTE CA RCRIS/SQG, FINDS 92672 S102793593 CAC000738216 ANNA MCNIELL 201 CALLE DEL JUEGO SAN CLEMENTE CA

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_004431 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /polyketide ... synthase [Yersinia pestis KIM] emb|CAC90726.1| ... yersiniabactin biosynthet...is] ... ref|NP_405471.1| yersiniabactin biosynthetic protein ... [Yersinia pestis CO92] gb|A...bable polyketide synthase - Yersinia ... pestis pir||AB0233 yersiniabacti

  2. Effect of chronic kidney disease on macrophage cholesterol efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sabine M; Wultsch, Anna; Hollaus, Marianne; Ammann, Markus; Pemberger, Elisabeth; Liebscher, Felix; Lambers, Brigitte; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Schmidt, Alice; Springer, Alexander; Becker, Julia; Aufricht, Christoph; Handisurya, Ammon; Kapeller, Stefan; Röhrl, Clemens; Stangl, Herbert; Strobl, Witta

    2015-09-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk to develop atherosclerosis. The capacity of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) or serum to accept cholesterol from macrophages and the capacity of macrophages to export excess cholesterol are critical for the atheroprotective role of reverse cholesterol transport. HDL cholesterol acceptor capacity was reported to be decreased in middle aged hemodialysis patients, but the role of confounding factors remains unclear. We measured the cholesterol acceptor capacity (CAC) of HDL or serum in 12 pediatric and 17 young adult patients with CKD stages 3-5, 14 young adult hemodialysis patients and 15 adult renal transplant recipients without associated diseases and matched controls using THP-1 macrophages. Moreover we studied the cholesterol export capacity (CEC) of patients' monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) to control serum or HDL. In adults with CKD stages 3-5 serum CAC was slightly increased, whereas CEC of HMDMs was unaltered in both, adult and pediatric patients. In hemodialysis patients, however, serum CAC was markedly reduced to 85±11% of control (pcholesterol export from macrophages. Hemodialysis patients might benefit from therapies aiming to restore serum CAC by increasing apolipoprotein A-I. The enhanced export of cholesterol by HMDMs from dialysis patients may represent an adaptive response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Silent Ischemic Heart Disease and Pericardial Fat Volume in HIV-Infected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Ulrik S; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Wiinberg, Niels

    2013-01-01

    to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic ischemic heart disease (IHD) in HIV patients by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and to determine the value of coronary artery calcium score (CACS), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and pericardial fat volume as screening tools for detection...

  4. The Contribution of Children's Advocacy Centers to Felony Prosecutions of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron; Rubin, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe trends of felony sexual abuse prosecutions between 1992 and 2002 for two districts of a large urban city that differed primarily in their use of children's advocacy centers (CACs) for sexual abuse evaluations in children. Methods: Aggregate data for two districts of a large urban city were provided from 1992 to 2002 from the…

  5. Which Sexual Abuse Victims Receive a Forensic Medical Examination?: The Impact of Children's Advocacy Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.; Simone, Monique; Kolko, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the impact of Children's Advocacy Centers (CAC) and other factors, such as the child's age, alleged penetration, and injury on the use of forensic medical examinations as part of the response to reported child sexual abuse. Methods: This analysis is part of a quasi-experimental study, the Multi-Site Evaluation of…

  6. Quantifying interactions between accommodation and vergence in a binocularly normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Laura E; Seidel, Dirk; Day, Mhairi; Gray, Lyle S

    2014-12-01

    Stimulation of the accommodation system results in a response in the vergence system via accommodative vergence cross-link interactions, and stimulation of the vergence system results in an accommodation response via vergence accommodation cross-link interactions. Cross-link interactions are necessary in order to ensure simultaneous responses in the accommodation and vergence systems. The crosslink interactions are represented most comprehensively by the response AC/A (accommodative vergence) and CA/C (vergence accommodation) ratios, although the stimulus AC/A ratio is measured clinically, and the stimulus CA/C ratio is seldom measured in clinical practice. The present study aims to quantify both stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios in a binocularly normal population, and determine the relationship between them. 25 Subjects (mean ± SD age 21.0 ± 1.9 years) were recruited from the university population. A significant linear relationship was found between the stimulus and response ratios, for both AC/A (r² = 0.96, p vergence responses when viewing the Gaussian blurred target. This study has shown that more work is needed to refine the methodology of CA/C ratio measurement.

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242807 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242807 J090060H17 At5g37500.1 68418.m04516 guard cell outward rectifying K+ chann...el (GORK) identical to guard cell outward rectifying K+ channel [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|11414742|emb|CAC17

  8. The human β-globin gene promoter; nuclear protein factors and erythroid specific induction of transcription.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Boer (Ernie); M. Antoniou (Michael); V. Mignotte; L. Wall (Lee); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractWe have shown that the promoter of the human beta-globin gene contains three regions in addition to the known CAC, CAAT and TATA box regions that are important for the induction of transcription in erythroid cells. By using DNaseI footprinting and gel mobility shift assays we were able

  9. The influence of subclinical cardiovascular disease and related risk factors on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus: The DHS-Mind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Hayasaka, Satoru; Carr, J Jeffrey; Freedman, Barry I; Nyenhuis, David L; Williamson, Jeff D; Bowden, Donald W

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that measures of coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) collected at baseline from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) would explain associations between cognition and diabetes collected at follow-up approximately 7 years later. The DHS is a sibling study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (~80%). Associations between baseline CAC and cognitive performance were tested using generalized estimating equations and mixed effects models to adjust for familial relationships. Diabetes status was associated (p<0.05) with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory, processing speed, and semantic fluency adjusting for age, sex, education, and hypertension status. As hypothesized, including CAC in the statistical model attenuated this association. Additionally, CAC and fasting glucose predicted performance in tasks not associated with diabetes status in this study (Stroop Task, Phonemic Fluency). These results confirm work attributing the heterogeneity of cognitive outcomes in type 2 diabetes to subclinical risk factors that combine to affect different aspects of brain function. Importantly, these results imply that risk factor intervention should begin before comorbidities, particularly CVD, become clinically apparent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term prognostic performance of low-dose coronary computed tomography angiography with prospective electrocardiogram triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerc, Olivier F.; Kaufmann, Basil P.; Possner, Mathias; Liga, Riccardo; Vontobel, Jan; Mikulicic, Fran; Graeni, Christoph; Benz, Dominik C.; Fuchs, Tobias A.; Stehli, Julia; Pazhenkottil, Aju P.; Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Buechel, Ronny R. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    To assess long-term prognosis after low-dose 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using prospective electrocardiogram-triggering. We included 434 consecutive patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease referred for low-dose CCTA. Patients were classified as normal, with non-obstructive or obstructive lesions, or previously revascularized. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was assessed in 223 patients. Follow-up was obtained regarding major adverse cardiac events (MACE): cardiac death, myocardial infarction and elective revascularization. We performed Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regressions. Mean effective radiation dose was 1.7 ± 0.6 mSv. At baseline, 38% of patients had normal arteries, 21% non-obstructive lesions, 32% obstructive stenosis and 8% were revascularized. Twenty-nine patients (7%) were lost to follow-up. After a median follow-up of 6.1 ± 0.6 years, MACE occurred in 0% of patients with normal arteries, 6% with non-obstructive lesions, 30% with obstructive stenosis and 39% of those revascularized. MACE occurrence increased with increasing CACS (P < 0.001), but 4% of patients with CACS = 0 experienced MACE. Multivariate Cox regression identified obstructive stenosis, lesion burden in CCTA and CACS as independent MACE predictors (P ≤ 0.001). Low-dose CCTA with prospective electrocardiogram-triggering has an excellent long-term prognostic performance with a warranty period >6 years for patients with normal coronary arteries. (orig.)

  11. Uncontrolled hypertension is associated with coronary artery calcification and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Pareek, Manan; Gerke, O

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 1:2 matched case-control study in order to evaluate whether the prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or strain was higher in patients with uncontrolled hypertension than in subjects from the general population...

  12. Acute effect of citrate bath on postdialysis alkalaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia De Sequera Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Dialysis with citrate provides better control of postdialysis acid-base balance, decreases/avoids postdialysis alkalaemia, and lowers the increase in Cac and Cai. This finding is of special interest in patients with predisposing factors for arrhythmia and patients with respiratory failure, carbon dioxide retention, calcifications and advanced liver disease.

  13. Error-correcting Code Performance in a Modeled ECM Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    LOCATIC ’ 1 . 7 ’af I C y c r44rr 4~ ~ 14~ FLC’A) G IS J CAC LLT’:’ IF Jt--I;A FF!’UT rL’ Jl 1 1 (J*4*.5 / it~ r~ L s *~~~~ GC~ t3 CPEO f 44~ JSIO 2~E 1

  14. Command-And-Control or Taxation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Christina; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    an ineffective command-and-control (CAC) tool, whereas Denmark has chosen the effective tool of taxation. One main explanation for this variation in policy choice is the variation in institutional setups, namely the corporatist route in Denmark versus the pluralistic route in California....

  15. Analysing Instrument Mixes in Quality Assurance: The Czech and Slovak Accreditation Commissions in the Era of Mass Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Utilising insights from policy instrument theory, the article analyses the design, functioning and effects of the tools used by the Czech Accreditation Commission (CAC) and the Slovak Accreditation Commission (SAC) in the 2000s. Aside from programme accreditation, the other tools analysed are: institutional approval, institutional evaluations,…

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_055059.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055059.2 chr5 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR ANTI...GEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p1wcka_ chr5/NP_055059.2/NP_055059.2_holo_1071-1206.pdb swppa 1074E,1128V,1202M CAC 0 ...

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_036389.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_036389.2 chr7 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR ANTI...GEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p1wcka_ chr7/NP_036389.2/NP_036389.2_holo_62-197.pdb swppa 62L,117I,193S,195L CAC 0 ...

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_001020539.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001020539.2 chr6 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR A...NTIGEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p1wcka_ chr6/NP_001020539.2/NP_001020539.2_holo_39-197.pdb swppa 104E,193A,195L CAC 0 ...

  19. Association of obstructive sleep apnoea with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Gerhard; Wessendorf, Thomas E; Erdmann, Timo; Moebus, Susanne; Dragano, Nico; Lehmann, Nils; Stang, Andreas; Roggenbuck, Ulla; Bauer, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Teschler, Helmut; Möhlenkamp, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis. This study aimed i) to assess the prevalence of OSA in the general population and ii) to analyse the association of this disorder with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. In a cross-sectional analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study a subgroup of 1604 subjects (791 men, age 50-80 years) underwent OSA screening. Furthermore, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured. OSA was defined as apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥ 15/h. OSA was observed in 29.1% of men and 15.6% of women. In a multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for risk factors AHI was associated with CAC in men aged ≤65 years (estimated log-transformed increase of CAC = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.001-0.50, p = 0.051) and in women of any age (estimated log-transformed increase = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.04-0.41, p = 0.02). Doubling of the AHI was associated with a 19% increase of CAC in men aged ≤65 years and with a 17% increase in women of any age. In the general population aged ≥50 years OSA is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men aged ≤65 years and in women of any age, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal association between toenail selenium levels and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis: the CARDIA trace element study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Pengcheng; Liu, Kiang; Morris, J Steven; Daviglus, Martha L; He, Ka

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the longitudinal association between toenail selenium levels and sub-clinical atherosclerosis over an 18-year period. Methods Toenail selenium concentrations were examined among 3112 Americans age 20–32 years in 1987 and measured by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Subclinical atherosclerosis, including common, bulb and internal carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), was measured in 2005 and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in 2000 and 2005. General linear regression was developed examining the relation between toenail selenium levels and CIMTs, and logistic regression for repeated outcomes was employed estimating the risk of having CAC>0. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, no associations were observed between toenail selenium levels and CIMTs as well as CAC score. Comparing participants in the highest with the lowest quintile of selenium, the CIMT was 0.005mm (SE=0.008mm, Ptrend=0.39), 0.018mm (SE=0.019mm, Ptrend=0.49), and 0.017mm (SE=0.014mm, Ptrend=0.21) thicker measured in common, bulb and internal carotid, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of having CAC>0 was 0.95 (95%CI: 0.67–1.35; Ptrend=0.999). Conclusions No associations were observed between toenail selenium and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis among American young adults. This study does not support an atherosclerotic mechanism of selenium for risk reduction of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20138620

  1. Photocatalytic NO{sub x} abatement by calcium aluminate cements modified with TiO{sub 2}: Improved NO{sub 2} conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Nicolás, M. [MIMED Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Balbuena, J.; Cruz-Yusta, M.; Sánchez, L. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, School of Sciences, University of Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Navarro-Blasco, I.; Fernández, J.M. [MIMED Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Alvarez, J.I., E-mail: jalvarez@unav.es [MIMED Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} was studied in two types of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) under two different curing regimes. The effect of the TiO{sub 2} addition on the setting time, consistency and mechanical properties of the CACs was evaluated. The abatement of gaseous pollutants (NO{sub x}) under UV irradiation was also assessed. These cementitious matrices were found to successfully retain NO{sub 2}: more abundant presence of aluminates in white cement (w-CAC, iron-lean) helped to better adsorb NO{sub 2}, thus improving the conversion performance of the catalyst resulting in a larger NO{sub x} removal under UV irradiation. As evidenced by XRD, SEM, EDAX and zeta potential analyses, the presence of ferrite in dark cement (d-CAC, iron-reach) induced a certain chemical interaction with TiO{sub 2}. The experimental findings suggest the formation of new iron titanate phases, namely pseudobrookite. The reduced band-gap energy of these compounds compared with that of TiO{sub 2} accounts for the photocatalytic activity of these samples.

  2. Baseball Caps and Beards: The Perception of US Special Forces by Conventional Forces and Its Impact on Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-20

    Delta Force operators rescued prisoners from Carel Modelo Prison at the Comandancia. Army Rangers jumped into and secured both Torrijos-Tocumen...operations.”91 The Combined Arms Center (CAC), along with the Special Operations Center of Excellence (SOCoE), could increase the level of information

  3. Can total cardiac calcium predict the coronary calcium score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Gregg S; Crudu, Vitalie; Parameswaran-Chandrika, Anoop; Romero-Corral, Abel; Purushottam, Bhaskar; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2011-01-21

    Mitral annular calcification (MAC) shares the same risk factors as atherosclerosis and is associated with coronary artery disease as well as cardiovascular events. However, sensitivity and positive predictive value are low. We hypothesized that a global echocardiographic calcium score would better predict coronary atherosclerotic burden, as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (CAC), than MAC alone. An echocardiographic score was devised to measure global cardiac calcification in a semi-quantitative manner; this included calcification in the aortic valve and root, the mitral valve and annulus, and the sub-mitral apparatus. This score, and a simplified version, were compared with a similar calcification score by CT scan, as well as the CAC. There was a good correlation between the two global calcification scores; the echocardiographic score also correlated with CAC. Using CAC >400 as a measure of severe coronary atherosclerosis, an echocardiographic score ≥5 had a positive predictive value of 60%. Importantly, the simplified score performed equally well (≥3 had a positive predictive value of 62%). Global cardiac calcification, assessed by CT scan or echocardiography, correlates with the extent of coronary calcium. A semi-quantitative calcium score can be easily applied during routine echocardiographic interpretation and can alert the reader to the possibility of severe coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mutation analysis of the negative regulator cyclin G2 in gastric cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Approval for the study was received from the Ethics Committee of China Medical University. Recombinant ... Primers were the following: 50-TGT TGC CAT CAA TGA CCC CTT-. 30 (sense) and 50-CTC CAC GAC GTA CTC AGC G-30 (antisense) for GAPDH; 50-TGC CTA GCC ...

  5. Carrier ethernet network control plane based on the Next Generation Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong; Wang, Yanmeng; Berger, Michael Stubert

    2008-01-01

    architecture. The approaches to QoS mapping, label distribution and connection and admission control (CAC) are specified here. At last, a simple T-MPLS based Carrier Ethernet network model with three kinds of users (VoIP, VoD and HTTP) and a RACE based control module is simulated in OPNET. The model is aiming...

  6. Systematic Triple-Mutant Analysis Uncovers Functional Connectivity between Pathways Involved in Chromosome Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Haber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic interactions reveal the functional relationships between pairs of genes. In this study, we describe a method for the systematic generation and quantitation of triple mutants, termed triple-mutant analysis (TMA. We have used this approach to interrogate partially redundant pairs of genes in S. cerevisiae, including ASF1 and CAC1, two histone chaperones. After subjecting asf1Δ cac1Δ to TMA, we found that the Swi/Snf Rdh54 protein compensates for the absence of Asf1 and Cac1. Rdh54 more strongly associates with the chromatin apparatus and the pericentromeric region in the double mutant. Moreover, Asf1 is responsible for the synthetic lethality observed in cac1Δ strains lacking the HIRA-like proteins. A similar TMA was carried out after deleting both CLB5 and CLB6, cyclins that regulate DNA replication, revealing a strong functional connection to chromosome segregation. This approach can reveal functional redundancies that cannot be uncovered through traditional double-mutant analyses.

  7. Is the coronary artery calcium score associated with acute coronary events in breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Catharina T G; van den Bogaard, Veerle A B; Greuter, Marcel J W; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Schuit, Ewoud; Langendijk, Johannes A; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Crijns, Anne P G; Maduro, John H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to test whether pre-treatment coronary artery calcium (CAC) was associated with the cumulative incidence of acute coronary events (ACE) among breast cancer (BC) patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT). MATERIAL AND METHODS:

  8. Superconducting Calcium-Intercalated Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinokura, Satoru; Sugawara, Katsuaki; Takayama, Akari; Takahashi, Takashi; Hasegawa, Shuji

    2016-02-23

    We report the direct evidence for superconductivity in Ca-intercalated bilayer graphene C6CaC6, which is regarded as the thinnest limit of Ca-intercalated graphite. We performed the electrical transport measurements with the in situ 4-point-probe method in ultrahigh vacuum under zero- or nonzero-magnetic field for pristine bilayer graphene, Li-intercalated bilayer graphene (C6LiC6) and C6CaC6 fabricated on SiC substrate. We observed that the zero-resistance state occurs in C6CaC6 with the onset temperature (T(c)(onset)) of 4 K, while the T(c)(onset) is gradually decreased upon applying the magnetic field. This directly proves the superconductivity origin of the zero resistance in C6CaC6. On the other hand, both pristine bilayer graphene and C6LiC6 exhibit nonsuperconducting behavior, suggesting the importance of intercalated atoms and its species to drive the superconductivity.

  9. MDCT assessment of CAD in type-2 diabetic subjects with diabetic neuropathy: the role of Charcot neuro-arthropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, Riccardo; Savino, Giancarlo; Merlino, Biagio; Pirro, Federica; Rutigliano, Claudia; Santangelo, Carolina; Minoiu, Aurelian Costin; Natale, Luigi; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' University Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences - Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Pitocco, Dario [Catholic University of Rome, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Rome (Italy); Di Stasio, Enrico [Catholic University of Rome, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' University Hospital, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rome (Italy); Trani, Carlo [Catholic University of Rome, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine - Institute of Cardiology, Rome (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    To compare the CACS and CAD severity assessed by MDCT in neuropathic type-2 diabetic patients with and without Charcot-neuroarthropathy (CN). Thirty-four CN asymptomatic-patients and 36 asymptomatic-patients with diabetic-neuropathy (DN) without CN underwent MDCT to assess CACS and severity of CAD. Patients were classified as positive for significant CAD in presence of at least one stenosis >50 % on MDCT-coronary-angiography (MDCT-CA). Groups were matched for age, sex and traditional CAD risk-factors. The coronary-angiography (CA) was performed in all patients with at least a significant stenosis detected by MDCT-CA, both as reference and eventually as treatment. CN patients showed higher rates of significant CAD in comparison with DN subjects [p < 0.001], while non-significant differences were observed in CACS (p = 0.980). No significant differences were also observed in CACS distribution in all subjects for stenosis ≥/<50 % (p = 0.814), as well as in both groups (p = 0.661 and 0.559, respectively). The MDCT-CA showed an overall diagnostic-accuracy for significant CAD of 87 %. These preliminary data suggest that CN-patients have a higher prevalence of severe CAD in comparison with DN-patients, while coronary plaques do not exhibit an increased amount of calcium. MDCT may be helpful to assess the CV risk in such asymptomatic type-2-diabetic patients with autonomic-neuropathy. (orig.)

  10. National Dam Inspection Program. Laurel Hill Lake Dam (NDI I.D. Number PA-267, Penn.DER Number 56-66) Ohio River Basin. Laurel Hill Creek, Somerset County, Pennsylvania Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    DECOIC ,.~~~~wG NO. R(*r00 OrPflT 00At PLATE NO. 2 I. ____ -- VA r- ’WEVAT ft .. t -3 -0 L1C PAGE-~ I.. St,’ "&S.A.’cAC -lCRTI -R" Uu"i Yft’lol TO , DG- 7

  11. Web Applications and Thin Clients in the Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    25 3. Low Spec PC Solution .......................................................................26 4. Tubby Clients...Screen Shot ....................................................72 Figure 28. WITS Q1 Modifiable Search Screen Shot...Mobile Phone Service API Application Programming Interfaces ASP Active Server Pages CAC Common Access Card C-Cubed Computer Center Corporation

  12. Circulating uncarboxylated matrix gla protein is associated with vitamin K nutritional status, but not coronary artery calcium, in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Vermeer, Cees; Magdeleyns, Elke J P; Crosier, Michael D; Gundberg, Caren M; Ordovas, José M; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Booth, Sarah L

    2011-08-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a calcification inhibitor in vascular tissue that must be carboxylated by vitamin K to function. Evidence suggests circulating uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) is elevated in persons with disease characterized by vascular calcification. The primary purpose of this study was to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between plasma ucMGP, vitamin K status, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in older adults without coronary heart disease. Genetic determinants of ucMGP were also explored. Cross-sectional associations among baseline plasma ucMGP, vitamin K status biomarkers [plasma phylloquinone, uncarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II), serum uncarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC)], CAC, and plausible genetic polymorphisms were examined in 438 community-dwelling adults (60-80 y, 59% women). The effect of phylloquinone supplementation (500 μg/d) for 3 y on plasma ucMGP was determined among 374 participants. At baseline, plasma phylloquinone was lower and %ucOC and PIVKA-II were greater across higher plasma ucMGP quartiles (all P supplemented group, the 3-y change in ucMGP was not associated with the 3-y change in CAC [unstandard β (SE) = -0.02 (0.02); P = 0.44]. Plasma ucMGP was associated with vitamin K status biomarkers and was reduced following phylloquinone supplementation, suggesting it may be a useful marker of vitamin K status in vascular tissue. Plasma ucMGP did not reflect CAC in healthy older adults.

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_003047 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003047 gi|15966993 >1ls1A 1 295 1 298 2e-77 ... emb|CAC47819.1| PROBABLE SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE...E ... SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE PROTEIN (FIFTY-FOUR HOMOLOG) ... [Sinorhizobium meliloti 102

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_002771 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002771 gi|15828813 >1ls1A 1 295 1 298 9e-74 ... ref|NP_326173.1| SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE... PROTEIN (FIFTY-FOUR HOMOLOG) ... [Mycoplasma pulmonis UAB CTIP] emb|CAC13515.1| SIGNAL ... RECOGNITION PARTI...CLE PROTEIN (FIFTY-FOUR HOMOLOG) ... [Mycoplasma pulmonis] pir||F90554 hypot

  15. EST Table: FS737070 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS737070 E_FL_bmmt_07M09_R_0 10/09/28 64 %/181 aa gb|ADE18707.1| ATP synthase F0 su...10/09/10 42 %/183 aa gi|15282339|emb|CAC51703.1| ATPase subunit 6 [Tribolium castaneum] BB992428 bmmt ...

  16. Closed Cycle Solar Refrigeration with the Calcium Chloride System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A closed cycle solid absorption intermittent refrigerator, using CaC12 absorbent and NH3 refrigerant, was constructed and tested to obtain the instantaneous and cumulative available overall COP. The combined collector/absorber/generator unit had double glazing of 1.14 m2 exposed areas. The system was fitted with a ...

  17. Coronary artery calcification and ECG pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy or strain identify different healthy individuals at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Søren Zöga; Gerke, Oke; Olsen, Michael Hecht

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:: To improve risk stratification for development of ischaemic heart disease, several markers have been proposed. Both the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and ECG pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy/strain have been shown to provide independent prognostic information. I...... with nonhypertensive individuals (21 vs. 14%, P ...

  18. Markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with incident cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and progression of coronary calcification in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Tine Willum

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction and their associations with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause mortality and progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and microalbuminuria but without known coronary...

  19. Combined therapy with lanthanum carbonate and calcium carbonate for hyperphosphatemia decreases serum FGF-23 level independently of calcium and PTH (COLC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Negi, Shigeo

    2012-03-01

    Increased blood levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) are associated with increased mortality. We evaluated the effect of combined therapy with lanthanum carbonate (LaC), a new phosphate binder and calcium carbonate (CaC) on serum levels of phosphate and FGF-23. This was a single-arm, open-label, multicenter study. Hemodialysis patients with a serum phosphate level >6.0 mg/dL despite CaC therapy were also given LaC for 16 weeks at a dose up to 2250 mg/day. CaC was given at a fixed dose throughout the 16-week period. Of 42 patients enrolled, 36 completed the 16-week study. The serum phosphate level showed a significant decrease from 6.9 ± 1.4 mg/dL at week 0 to 5.5 + 1.2 mg/dL at week 16 (-20.0%, P calcium and the serum parathyroid hormone level showed no significant changes. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.442, P = 0.007) was demonstrated between the percent reduction of serum FGF-23 and that of serum phosphate. Both serum phosphate and FGF-23 levels were significantly decreased by treatment with LaC plus CaC.

  20. Admission Control for Multiservices Traffic in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks by Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Shyr Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CAC (Call Admission Control plays a significant role in providing QoS (Quality of Service in mobile wireless networks. In addition to much research that focuses on modified Mobile IP to get better efficient handover performance, CAC should be introduced to Mobile IP-based network to guarantee the QoS for users. In this paper, we propose a CAC scheme which incorporates multiple traffic types and adjusts the admission threshold dynamically using fuzzy control logic to achieve better usage of resources. The method can provide QoS in Mobile IPv6 networks with few modifications on MAP (Mobility Anchor Point functionality and slight change in BU (Binding Update message formats. According to the simulation results, the proposed scheme presents good performance of voice and video traffic at the expenses of poor performance on data traffic. It is evident that these CAC schemes can reduce the probability of the handoff dropping and the cell overload and limit the probability of the new call blocking.

  1. Models for Call Acceptance Based on Handoff Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attahiru Sule Alfa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Call admission control (CAC is important for cellular wireless networks to provide quality-of-service (QoS requirements to users. Static and adaptive CAC schemes, respectively, make unrealistic assumptions about the distributions of the handoff call arrival process and the number of users in a cell. Handoff arrivals are usually assumed to follow Poisson process in static CAC schemes for Poisson new call arrivals and exponentially distributed call holding and cell residence times. We use a simple proof to show that this assumption of Poisson handoff arrival process is not justified for a two-cell wireless network. In general, we find that the handoff process can be captured by a two-dimensional Markov chain. We propose a novel adaptive CAC scheme for the two-cell system which accepts a new call if it can guarantee, with a certain probability, that a user's call will be maintained irrespective of its (his/her movement in the system. Then, we extend this adaptive scheme for multiple-cell network. We develop another variant of this adaptive scheme which we call fractional adaptive scheme. Both the adaptive and fractional adaptive schemes are found to outperform the guard channel scheme in controlling the handoff failure probability in a cellular wireless network.

  2. Effect of Mandarin Orange Yogurt on Allergic Conjunctivitis Induced by Conjunctival Allergen Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuko; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Sakane, Yuri; Takezawa, Yuki; Kamao, Tomoyuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Yasunaga, Sho; Sugahara, Takuya

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of mandarin orange yogurt containing nobiletin and β-lactoglobulin on the allergic conjunctivitis induced by a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC). Experiment 1 was performed on 26 asymptomatic patients (age, 25.3 ± 5.3 years) with proven seasonal allergic conjunctivitis due to cedar pollen. We compared the degree of conjunctivitis induced by CAC before and after ingesting mandarin orange yogurt for 2 weeks. Experiment 2 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed on 31 patients (age, 32.5 ± 12.2 years). A diet containing mandarin orange yogurt was compared to a diet containing yogurt lacking the mandarin orange on the conjunctivitis induced by CAC. The temperature of the inferior bulbar conjunctiva was measured before and 20 minutes after the CAC with an ocular surface thermographer (OST). The degree of conjunctival injection and chemosis was graded by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The changes in the symptoms were evaluated by a questionnaire. In experiment 1, the scores of redness (3.07 ± 3.03 vs. 1.05 ± 1.70), chemosis (2.84 ± 2.27 vs. 0.81 ± 1.11), itching (4.34 ± 3.05 vs. 1.39 ± 2.12), and temperature (0.73 ± 0.42°C vs. 0.45 ± 0.43°C) were significantly lower (P conjunctivitis.

  3. Screening for Ischemic Heart Disease with Cardiac CT: Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Budoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality in the US and worldwide, and no widespread screening for this number one killer has been implemented. Traditional risk factor assessment does not fully account for the coronary risk and underestimates the prediction of risk even in patients with established risk factors for atherosclerosis. Coronary artery calcium (CAC represents calcified atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries. It has been shown to be the strongest predictor of adverse future cardiovascular events and provides incremental information to the traditional risk factors. CAC consistently outperforms traditional risk factors, including models such as Framingham risk to predict future CV events. It has been incorporated into both the European and American guidelines for risk assessment. CAC is the most robust test today to reclassify individuals based on traditional risk factor assessment and provides the opportunity to better strategize the treatments for these subjects (converting patients from intermediate to high or low risk. CAC progression has also been identified as a risk for future cardiovascular events, with markedly increased events occurring in those patients exhibiting increases in calcifications over time. The exact intervals for rescanning is still being evaluated.

  4. Accuracy and Radiation Dose Reduction Using Low-Voltage Computed Tomography Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring With Tin Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesche, Christian; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Albrecht, Moritz Moritz H.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Duguay, Taylor M.; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Bayer, Richard R.; Canstein, Christian; Schmidt, Bernhard; Allmendinger, Thomas; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Morris, Pamela B.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Hoffmann, Ellen; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This study prospectively investigated the accuracy and radiation dose reduction of CT coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) using a 100 kVp acquisition protocol with tin filtration (Sn100 kVp) compared with the standard 120 kVp acquisition protocol; 70 patients (59% men, 62.1 10.7 years) who

  5. Correlates and Impact of Coronary Artery Calcifications in Women Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Drug-Eluting Stents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giustino, Gennaro; Mastoris, Ioannis; Baber, Usman

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical correlates and prognostic impact of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents (DES). BACKGROUND: The clinical correlates and the prognostic significance of C...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_079148.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_079148.1 chr5 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR ANTI...GEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p1wcka_ chr5/NP_079148.1/NP_079148.1_holo_343-489.pdb swppa 400N,401L,402C,478L,485E CAC 0 ...

  7. Digital map databases in support of avionic display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Michael E.; Lohrenz, Maura C.; Rosche, Henry, III; Wischow, Perry B.

    1991-08-01

    The emergence of computerized mission planning systems (MPS) and airborne digital moving map systems (DMS) has necessitated the development of a global database of raster aeronautical chart data specifically designed for input to these systems. The Naval Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research Laboratory''s (NOARL) Map Data Formatting Facility (MDFF) is presently dedicated to supporting these avionic display systems with the development of the Compressed Aeronautical Chart (CAC) database on Compact Disk Read Only Memory (CDROM) optical discs. The MDFF is also developing a series of aircraft-specific Write-Once Read Many (WORM) optical discs. NOARL has initiated a comprehensive research program aimed at improving the pilots'' moving map displays current research efforts include the development of an alternate image compression technique and generation of a standard set of color palettes. The CAC database will provide digital aeronautical chart data in six different scales. CAC is derived from the Defense Mapping Agency''s (DMA) Equal Arc-second (ARC) Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG) a series of scanned aeronautical charts. NOARL processes ADRG to tailor the chart image resolution to that of the DMS display while reducing storage requirements through image compression techniques. CAC is being distributed by DMA as a library of CDROMs.

  8. Intestinal helminth infection drives carcinogenesis in colitis-associated colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pastille

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, strongly associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer development. Parasitic infections caused by helminths have been shown to modulate the host's immune response by releasing immunomodulatory molecules and inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs. This immunosuppressive state provoked in the host has been considered as a novel and promising approach to treat IBD patients and alleviate acute intestinal inflammation. On the contrary, specific parasite infections are well known to be directly linked to carcinogenesis. Whether a helminth infection interferes with the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC is not yet known. In the present study, we demonstrate that the treatment of mice with the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus at the onset of tumor progression in a mouse model of CAC does not alter tumor growth and distribution. In contrast, H. polygyrus infection in the early inflammatory phase of CAC strengthens the inflammatory response and significantly boosts tumor development. Here, H. polygyrus infection was accompanied by long-lasting alterations in the colonic immune cell compartment, with reduced frequencies of colonic CD8+ effector T cells. Moreover, H. polygyrus infection in the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS mediated colitis significantly exacerbates intestinal inflammation by amplifying the release of colonic IL-6 and CXCL1. Thus, our findings indicate that the therapeutic application of helminths during CAC might have tumor-promoting effects and therefore should be well-considered.

  9. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Combination with Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for the Preoperative Cardiac Evaluation of Liver Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Moon Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation is the best treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, liver cirrhosis, fulminant liver failure, and end-stage liver diseases. Even though advances in surgical techniques and perioperative care have improved postoperative outcomes, perioperative cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality following liver transplantation. Ischemic coronary artery disease (CAD and cardiomyopathy are the most common cardiovascular diseases and could be negative predictors of postoperative outcomes in liver transplant recipients. Therefore, comprehensive cardiovascular evaluations are required to assess perioperative risks and prevent concomitant cardiovascular complications that would preclude good outcomes in liver transplant recipients. The two major types of cardiac computed tomography are the coronary artery calcium score (CACS and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA. CCTA in combination with the CACS is a validated noninvasive alternative to coronary angiography for diagnosing and grading the severity of CAD. A CACS > 400 is associated with significant CAD and a known important predictor of posttransplant cardiovascular complications in liver transplant recipients. In this review article, we discuss the usefulness, advantages, and disadvantages of CCTA combined with CACS as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for preoperative cardiac evaluation and for maximizing the perioperative outcomes of liver transplant recipients.

  10. 'Dance Your Sorrow Away!': Spirituality, Community and Wellbeing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-16

    Dec 16, 2016 ... 'Dance Your Sorrow Away!': Spirituality, Community and Wellbeing in. Christ Apostolic Church, Dublin1. Rebecca Uberoi. School of Music,. University College Dublin, Ireland .... Members of CAC Dublin believe that the spiritual and physical worlds can affect each other; the physical body can be affected by ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2378 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2378 ref|NP_325931.1| MULTIPLE SUGAR ABC TRANSPORTER PERMEASE PROTEIN ...[Mycoplasma pulmonis UAB CTIP] emb|CAC13273.1| MULTIPLE SUGAR ABC TRANSPORTER PERMEASE PROTEIN [Mycoplasma pulmonis] NP_325931.1 0.090 22% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1338 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1338 ref|NP_384323.1| PUTATIVE TRANSPORT PROTEIN [Sinorhizobium melilo...ti 1021] emb|CAC41604.1| PUTATIVE TRANSPORT PROTEIN [Sinorhizobium meliloti] NP_384323.1 1e-51 39% ...

  13. A Study of Information Systems Programs Accredited by ABET in Relation to IS 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, David; Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Shrestha, Dina

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between ABET CAC standards for undergraduate programs of information systems and IS 2010 curriculum specifications. We have reviewed current institution described course work that identifies course structures from accredited IS programs. The accredited programs all matched the expectations expressed in ABET…

  14. The Influence of Concentration and Temperature on the Formation of ¿-Oryzanol + ß-Sitosterol Tubules in Edible Oil Organogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.; Venema, P.; Bot, A.; Flöter, E.; Linden, van der E.

    2011-01-01

    The gelation process of mixtures of ¿-oryzanol and sitosterol structurants in sunflower oil was studied using light scattering, rheology, and micro-scanning calorimetry (Micro-DSC). The relation between temperature and the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of tubule formation of ¿-oryzanol

  15. Surviving the War--And the Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Surviving the War: A College Counselor's Journal" by Philip Clinton. He argues that Clinton's engrossing account of the 1990-91 school year at Cairo American College (CAC) gives individuals wonderful insights into the unusual challenges occasionally encountered by an international…

  16. DE FLUORIDATION OF ETHIOPIAN RIFT VALLEY REGION WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Still significant flux remains to be recovered. The cause for the fouling may be dissolved minerals, such as CaC03, and humic material found in ground water. Thus, the cause of the fouling of the membrane and cleaning procedures need further study. Time. F - concentration (porn). Retention. (hour). Concentrate. Permeate.

  17. Clinical significance of mesenteric arterial collateral circulation in patients with celiac artery compression syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Petersen, Andre S.; Kolkman, Jeroen; Gerrits, Dick G; van der Palen, Job; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Geelkerken, Robert H

    OBJECTIVE: Although extensive collateral arterial circulation will prevent ischemia in most patients with stenosis of a single mesenteric artery, mesenteric ischemia may occur in these patients, for example, in patients with celiac artery compression syndrome (CACS). Variation in the extent of

  18. Clinical significance of mesenteric arterial collateral circulation in patients with celiac artery compression syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Petersen, Andre S.; Kolkman, Jeroen J.; Gerrits, Dick G.; van der Palen, Job; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Geelkerken, Robert H.

    Objective: Although extensive collateral arterial circulation will prevent ischemia in most patients with stenosis of a single mesenteric artery, mesenteric ischemia may occur in these patients, for example, in patients with celiac artery compression syndrome (CACS). Variation in the extent of

  19. Propofol Compared to Isoflurane Inhibits Mitochondrial Metabolism in Immature Swine Cerebral Cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Atkinson, D. B.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Kayser, Ernst-Bernhard; Morgan, Phil G.; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-08

    Anesthetics used in infants and children are implicated in development of neurocognitive disorders. Although propofol induces neuroapoptosis in developing brain, the underlying mechanisms require elucidation and may have an energetic basis. We studied substrate utilization in an immature swine model anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane for 4 hours. Piglets were infused with 13-Carbon labeled glucose and leucine in the common carotid artery in order to assess citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolism in the parietal cortex. The anesthetics produced similar systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen saturation by near-infrared-spectroscopy. Compared to isoflurane, propofol depleted ATP and glycogen stores. Propofol also decreased pools of the CAC intermediates, citrate and α-ketoglutarate, while markedly increasing succinate along with decreasing mitochondrial complex II activity. Propofol also inhibited acetyl-CoA entry into the CAC through pyruvate dehydrogenase, while promoting glycolytic flux with marked accumulation of lactate. Although oxygen supply appeared similar between the anesthetic groups, propofol yielded a metabolic phenotype which resembled a hypoxic state. Propofol impairs substrate flux through the CAC in the immature cerebral cortex. These impairments occurred without systemic metabolic perturbations which typically accompany propofol infusion syndrome. These metabolic abnormalities may play a role in neurotoxity observed with propofol in the vulnerable immature brain.

  20. Technical feasibility and validation of a coronary artery calcium scoring system using CT coronary angiography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavitt, Christopher W. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Cardiology, London (United Kingdom); Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Harron, Katie [Institute of Child Health, UCL, Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, London (United Kingdom); Lindsay, Alistair C.; Ray, Robin [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Cardiology, London (United Kingdom); Zielke, Sayeh; Rubens, Michael B. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Gordon, Daniel [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Padley, Simon P. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Nicol, Edward D. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Cardiology, London (United Kingdom); Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    We validate a novel CT coronary angiography (CCTA) coronary calcium scoring system. Calcium was quantified on CCTA images using a new patient-specific attenuation threshold: mean + 2SD of intra-coronary contrast density (HU). Using 335 patient data sets a conversion factor (CF) for predicting CACS from CCTA scores (CCTAS) was derived and validated in a separate cohort (n = 168). Bland-Altman analysis and weighted kappa for MESA centiles and Agatston risk groupings were calculated. Multivariable linear regression yielded a CF: CACS = (1.185 x CCTAS) + (0.002 x CCTAS x attenuation threshold). When applied to CCTA data sets there was excellent correlation (r = 0.95; p < 0.0001) and agreement (mean difference -10.4 [95 % limits of agreement -258.9 to 238.1]) with traditional calcium scores. Agreement was better for calcium scores below 500; however, MESA percentile agreement was better for high risk patients. Risk stratification was excellent (Agatston groups k = 0.88 and MESA centiles k = 0.91). Eliminating the dedicated CACS scan decreased patient radiation exposure by approximately one-third. CCTA calcium scores can accurately predict CACS using a simple, individualized, semiautomated approach reducing acquisition time and radiation exposure when evaluating patients for CAD. This method is not affected by the ROI location, imaging protocol, or tube voltage strengthening its clinical applicability. (orig.)

  1. Effects of elevated CO2 on fish behaviour undiminished by transgenerational acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Megan J.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Welsh, Justin Q.; McCormick, Mark I.; Munday, Philip L.

    2014-12-01

    Behaviour and sensory performance of marine fishes are impaired at CO2 levels projected to occur in the ocean in the next 50-100 years, and there is limited potential for within-generation acclimation to elevated CO2 (refs , ). However, whether fish behaviour can acclimate or adapt to elevated CO2 over multiple generations remains unanswered. We tested for transgenerational acclimation of reef fish olfactory preferences and behavioural lateralization at moderate (656 μatm) and high (912 μatm) end-of-century CO2 projections. Juvenile spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, from control parents (446 μatm) exhibited an innate avoidance to chemical alarm cue (CAC) when reared in control conditions. In contrast, juveniles lost their innate avoidance of CAC and even became strongly attracted to CAC when reared at elevated CO2 levels. Juveniles from parents maintained at mid-CO2 and high-CO2 levels also lost their innate avoidance of CAC when reared in elevated CO2, demonstrating no capacity for transgenerational acclimation of olfactory responses. Behavioural lateralization was also disrupted for juveniles reared under elevated CO2, regardless of parental conditioning. Our results show minimal potential for transgenerational acclimation in this fish, suggesting that genetic adaptation will be necessary to overcome the effects of ocean acidification on behaviour.

  2. A severe case of median arcuate ligament syndrome with successful angioplasty and stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongsakul, Keerati; Rookkapan, Sorracha; Sungsiri, Jitpreedee; Tubtawee, Teeravut

    2012-01-01

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MAL) or celiac axis compression syndrome (CACS) is a rare etiology of chronic abdominal pain. Traditional treatment of this syndrome is surgery. We report a case of median arcuate ligament syndrome with a severe compression of the celiac trunk, which was successfully treated by angioplasty with stenting.

  3. A Severe Case of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome with Successful Angioplasty and Stenting

    OpenAIRE

    Keerati Hongsakul; Sorracha Rookkapan; Jitpreedee Sungsiri; Teeravut Tubtawee

    2012-01-01

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MAL) or celiac axis compression syndrome (CACS) is a rare etiology of chronic abdominal pain. Traditional treatment of this syndrome is surgery. We report a case of median arcuate ligament syndrome with a severe compression of the celiac trunk, which was successfully treated by angioplasty with stenting.

  4. A Severe Case of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome with Successful Angioplasty and Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerati Hongsakul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MAL or celiac axis compression syndrome (CACS is a rare etiology of chronic abdominal pain. Traditional treatment of this syndrome is surgery. We report a case of median arcuate ligament syndrome with a severe compression of the celiac trunk, which was successfully treated by angioplasty with stenting.

  5. The effect of salinity on water use efficiency ofBalanites aegyptiaca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The effects of salinity stress on photosynthesis, transpiration and water use efficiency of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. (Balanitaceae) were measured in potted plants in a greenhouse. Photosynthetic rates were determined on plants watered with NaCl and CaC12 (1:2) solutions of O, 12, 24, 36, 60 and.

  6. Physicochemical and powder properties of alpha- and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cob alpha-celluloses (CAC) was extracted from maize cobs by defibering, delignification and bleaching; then subjected to acid hydrolysis to obtain Cob- microcrystalline-cellulose (CMCC). Their physicochemical properties were evaluated and compared with those of Avicel®, a commercial variety of microcrystalline ...

  7. The prospective association of Chlamydia pneumoniae and four otherpathogens with development of coronary artery calcium: TheMulti-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Laek (Babray); M. Szklo (Moyses); R.L. McClelland (Robyn); J. Ding (Jinhui); M.Y. Tsai (Michael); D.A. Bluemke (David); R.P. Tracy (Russell); K. Matsushita (Kunihiro)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Previous basic and cross-sectional studies obtained conflicting results regarding the association of pathogens with coronary artery calcium (CAC). The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate this association in a population-based cohort. Methods: We examined 5744

  8. 75 FR 6005 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ..., and Common Access Card (CAC) governing access to data. Retention and disposal: Records are destroyed... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Air Force is proposing to add a...

  9. 738 ЧФЦКЛГ ЙЛДХСРЛЛ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-09-14

    Sep 14, 2015 ... At increasing concentration of the inhibitors, there was no significant difference (p 0.05) in cellulase activities; although the effect of each inhibitor on the enzymatic activity was significantly different (p 0.05). Benzoic acid gave the highest inhibition of the cellulase activities in K. gibsonii CAC1 by 30% at.

  10. Association between circulating vitamin K1 and coronary calcium progression in community-dwelling adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    While animal studies found vitamin K treatment reduced vascular calcification, human data are limited. Using a case-cohort design, we determined the association between vitamin K status and coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Serum phylloquinone (v...

  11. Increasing Cultural Awareness through a Cultural Awareness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Beate; Hernandez, David; Collins, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Racial tension motivates strife and violence in the metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, area. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a collaborative partnership, the Cultural Awareness Consortium (CAC), in making a positive impact on the attitudes of a group of diverse high school students regarding multicultural relations.…

  12. Time Delay Measurements of Key Generation Process on Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    delve into the meat of the thesis, describing a java program written to test DOD CAC cards that have ECC algorithms implemented. Test data will be...contractors (Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12). Washington, DC: George W. Bush . Effective identity and access management in a mobile

  13. Prognostic Value of Gai′s Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR. However, Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR <0.80. Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization.

  14. Increased detectability of somatic changes in the DNA from human tumours after probing with "synthetic" and "genome-derived" hypervariable multilocus probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagoda, P J; Seitz, G; Epplen, J T

    1989-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting with two minisatellite (33.15, M13) and two simple repeat probes [(GACA)4, (CAC)5/(GTG)s] was performed to screen for somatic changes in the DNA from various solid human tumours in comparison with constitutional DNA from the same patient. Loss of bands or changes in band intens...

  15. Automatic determination of cardiovascular risk by CT attenuation correction maps in Rb-82 PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Išgum, Ivana; de Vos, Bob D; Wolterink, Jelmer M; Dey, Damini; Berman, Daniel S; Rubeaux, Mathieu; Leiner, Tim; Slomka, Piotr J

    2017-04-04

    We investigated fully automatic coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk categorization from CT attenuation correction (CTAC) acquired at rest and stress during cardiac PET/CT and compared it with manual annotations in CTAC and with dedicated calcium scoring CT (CSCT). We included 133 consecutive patients undergoing myocardial perfusion 82Rb PET/CT with the acquisition of low-dose CTAC at rest and stress. Additionally, a dedicated CSCT was performed for all patients. Manual CAC annotations in CTAC and CSCT provided the reference standard. In CTAC, CAC was scored automatically using a previously developed machine learning algorithm. Patients were assigned to a CVD risk category based on their Agatston score (0, 1-10, 11-100, 101-400, >400). Agreement in CVD risk categorization between manual and automatic scoring in CTAC at rest and stress resulted in Cohen's linearly weighted κ of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. The agreement between CSCT and CTAC at rest resulted in κ of 0.82 and 0.74, using manual and automatic scoring, respectively. For CTAC at stress, these were 0.79 and 0.70, respectively. Automatic CAC scoring from CTAC PET/CT may allow routine CVD risk assessment from the CTAC component of PET/CT without any additional radiation dose or scan time.

  16. The Efficacy of the Internet-Based Blackboard Platform in Developmental Writing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shudooh, Yusuf M.

    2016-01-01

    The application of computer-assisted platforms in writing classes is a relatively new paradigm in education. The adoption of computers-assisted writing classes is gaining ground in many western and non western universities. Numerous issues can be addressed when conducting computer-assisted classes (CAC). However, a few studies conducted to assess…

  17. Factor VII-activating protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Ramshanker; Gram, Jørgen B; Sand, Niels Peter R

    2017-01-01

    : Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) may regulate development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated sex differences in FSAP measures and examined the association between FSAP and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in a middle-aged population. Participants were randomly selected citizens...

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_002771 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002771 gi|15829145 >1ls1A 2 294 68 362 2e-58 ... ref|NP_326505.1| CELL DIVISION PR...OTEIN FTSY [Mycoplasma pulmonis UAB CTIP] ... emb|CAC13847.1| CELL DIVISION PROTEIN FTSY [Mycoplasma ... ... pulmonis] pir||B90596 cell division protein ftsy ... [imported] - Mycoplasma pulmonis (str

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_003047 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003047 gi|15967089 >1jsxA 1 190 1 195 3e-31 ... emb|CAC47915.1| PROBABLE GLUCOSE INHIBITED DIVISIO...N PROTEIN B [Sinorhizobium ... meliloti] ref|NP_387442.1| PROBABLE GLUCOSE INHIBITED ... DIVISIO...e gidB (Glucose ... inhibited division protein B) ... Length = 195 ...

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_003047 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003047 gi|15965804 >1rq2B 20 306 32 319 2e-84 ... emb|CAC46630.1| CELL DIVISION PR...OTEIN FTSZ [Sinorhizobium meliloti] ... ref|NP_386157.1| CELL DIVISION PROTEIN FTSZ ... [Sinor...hizobium meliloti 1021] sp|P45484|FTSZ2_RHIME Cell ... division protein ftsZ homolog 2 ... Leng