WorldWideScience

Sample records for cabs vehicle compartments

  1. Protection of the vehicle cab environment against bacteria, fungi and endotoxins in composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, O; Huyard, A; Rybacki, D; Do Quang, Z

    2012-06-01

    Microbial quality of air inside vehicle cabs is a major occupational health risk management issue in composting facilities. Large differences and discrepancies in protection factors between vehicles and between biological agents have been reported. This study aimed at estimating the mean protection efficiency of the vehicle cab environment against bioaerosols with higher precision. In-cab measurement results were also analysed to ascertain whether or not these protection systems reduce workers' exposure to tolerable levels. Five front-end loaders, one mobile mixer and two agricultural tractors pulling windrow turners were investigated. Four vehicles were fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system. The four others were only equipped with pleated paper filter without pressurisation. Bacteria, fungi and endotoxins were measured in 72 pairs of air samples, simultaneously collected inside the cab and on the outside of the cab with a CIP 10-M sampler. A front-end loader, purchased a few weeks previously, fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system, and with a clean cab, exhibited a mean protection efficiency of between 99.47% CI 95% [98.58-99.97%] and 99.91% [99.78-99.98%] depending on the biological agent. It is likely that the lower protection efficiency demonstrated in other vehicles was caused by penetration through the only moderately efficient filters, by the absence of pressurisation, by leakage in the filter-sealing system, and by re-suspension of particles which accumulated in dirty cabs. Mean protection efficiency in regards to bacteria and endotoxins ranged between 92.64% [81.87-97.89%] and 98.61% [97.41-99.38%], and between 92.68% [88.11-96.08%] and 98.43% [97.44-99.22%], respectively. The mean protection efficiency was the lowest when confronted with fungal spores, from 59.76% [4.19-90.75%] to 94.71% [91.07-97.37%]. The probability that in-cab exposure to fungi

  2. COMPARTMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Janos X; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Tsafou, Kalliopi;

    2014-01-01

    of the localization of a protein, it is thus necessary to consult multiple databases and prediction tools. To address this, we present the COMPARTMENTS resource, which integrates all sources listed above as well as the results of automatic text mining. The resource is automatically kept up to date...

  3. Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle for Testing the Crew Exploration Vehicle's Parachute Assembly System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubey, Daniel P.; Thiele, Sara R.; Gruseck, Madelyn L.; Evans, Carol T.

    2010-01-01

    Though getting astronauts safely into orbit and beyond has long been one of NASA?s chief goals, their safe return has always been equally as important. The Crew Exploration Vehicle?s (CEV) Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is designed to safely return astronauts to Earth on the next-generation manned spacecraft Orion. As one means for validating this system?s requirements and testing its functionality, a test article known as the Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PC-DTV) will carry a fully-loaded yet truncated CPAS Parachute Compartment (PC) in a series of drop tests. Two aerodynamic profiles for the PC-DTV currently exist, though both share the same interior structure, and both have an Orion-representative weight of 20,800 lbf. Two extraction methods have been developed as well. The first (Cradle Monorail System 2 - CMS2) uses a sliding rail technique to release the PC-DTV midair, and the second (Modified DTV Sled; MDS) features a much less constrained separation method though slightly more complex. The decision as to which aerodynamic profile and extraction method to use is still not finalized. Additional CFD and stress analysis must be undertaken in order to determine the more desirable options, though at present the "boat tail" profile and the CMS2 extraction method seem to be the favored options in their respective categories. Fabrication of the PC-DTV and the selected extraction sled is set to begin in early October 2010 with an anticipated first drop test in mid-March 2011.

  4. Detection and Elimination of a Potential Fire in Engine and Battery Compartments of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macam S. Dattathreya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy deterministic noncontroller type (FDNCT system and an FDNCT inference algorithm (FIA. The FDNCT uses fuzzy inputs and produces a deterministic non-fuzzy output. The FDNCT is an extension and alternative for the existing fuzzy singleton inference algorithm. The research described in this paper applies FDNCT to build an architecture for an intelligent system to detect and to eliminate potential fires in the engine and battery compartments of a hybrid electric vehicle. The fuzzy inputs consist of sensor data from the engine and battery compartments, namely, temperature, moisture, and voltage and current of the battery. The system synthesizes the data and detects potential fires, takes actions for eliminating the hazard, and notifies the passengers about the potential fire using an audible alarm. This paper also presents the computer simulation results of the comparison between the FIA and singleton inference algorithms for detecting potential fires and determining the actions for eliminating them.

  5. A report of dangerously high carbon monoxide levels within the passenger compartment of a snow-obstructed vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smithline Howard A

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to determine how quickly carbon monoxide would accumulate in the passenger compartment of a snow-obstructed vehicle. Methods A 1992 sedan was buried in snow to the level of the undercarriage, the ignition was then engaged and carbon monoxide levels recorded at 2.5-minute intervals. The primary outcome was the time at which a lethal carbon monoxide level was detected. Six trials were conducted: windows closed; windows open one inch; windows open 6 inches; windows closed and tailpipe swept clear of snow; windows closed and one cubic foot of snow removed around tailpipe; windows closed and tailpipe completely cleared of snow to ground level in a path 12 inches wide. Results Lethal levels of carbon monoxide occurred within 2.5 minutes in the vehicle when the windows were closed, within 5 minutes when the widows were opened one inch, and within 7.5 minutes when the widows were opened six inches. Dangerously high levels of carbon monoxide were detected within the vehicle when the tailpipe had been swept clear of snow and when a one cubic foot area had been cleared around the tailpipe. When the tailpipe was completely unobstructed the carbon monoxide level was zero. Conclusions Lethal levels of carbon monoxide occurred within minutes in this snow-obstructed vehicle.

  6. Active Noise Control of the Heavy Truck Interior Cab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to control the noise of the heavy truck interior cab effectively, the active noise control methods are employed. First, an interior noise field test for the heavy truck is performed, and frequencies of interior noise of this vehicle are analyzed. According to the spectrum analysis of acquired noise signal, it is found out that the main frequencies of interior noise are less than 800Hz. Then the least squares lattice (LSL) algorithm is used as signal processing algorithm of the controller and a closed-loop control DSP system, based on TMS 320VC5416, is developed. The residual signal at driver's ear is used as feedback signal. Lastly, the developed ANC system is loaded into the heavy truck cab, and controlling the noise at driver's ear for that truck at different driving speeds is attempted. The noise control test results indicate that the cab interior noise is reduced averagely by 0.9 dBA at different driving speeds.

  7. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  8. Analysis of fatalities in extended cab pickup trucks using an estimating equation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Agran, P; Winn, D

    2000-01-01

    We compared the fatality risk for occupants of rear passenger seats in extended cab and crew cab pickup trucks to the fatality risk for front seat occupants of the same vehicles using the (US) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 1982-1997. A 10-digit truncated vehicle identification number was used to classify the pickup trucks. The data were analyzed with an estimating equation for data having few observations per stratum. We identified 549 extended cab pickup trucks with one or more occupants of rear passenger seats and one or more occupant deaths. Occupants of rear passenger seats had a fatality risk 43% lower than front seat occupants (95% confidence interval 32% to 52%), controlling for age, sex, and restraint use. Occupants of rear seats of extended cabs in compact pickup trucks did not experience any higher fatality risk (relative to front-seat occupants of the same vehicles) than rear seat occupants of extended cabs in full-size pickup trucks and large 4-door crew cabs. PMID:11558103

  9. Optical design of airport control tower cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, P D; Budde, H W

    1980-02-15

    A study has been made of optical aspects of airport control towers as part of a planned general optimization of control towers by Transport Canada. Problems found were reflections, glare, visual obstructions, identification of distant objects, and excessive solar heat. The study makes recommendations on cab shape, tower height, glazing, shades, sunglasses, binoculars, and internal lighting. Proper choice of cab shape (e.g., 30 degrees window inclination and 12-28 sides) provided effective control of reflections. Some plastic shades werefound to increase the risk of eye damage. Two tower cabs incorporating the recommendations have been built and were found to be satisfactory. PMID:20216882

  10. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  11. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:27030091

  12. Hybrid modelling and damping collaborative optimisation of Five-suspensions for coupling driver-seat-cab system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Leilei; Zhou, Changcheng; Yu, Yuewei; Yang, Fuxing

    2016-05-01

    For the complex structure and vibration characteristics of coupling driver-seat-cab system of trucks, there is no damping optimisation theory for its suspensions at present, which seriously restricts the improvement of vehicle ride comfort. Thus, in this paper, the seat suspension was regarded as 'the fifth suspension' of cab, the 'Five-suspensions' for this system was proposed. Based on this, using the mechanism modelling method, a 4 degree-of-freedom coupling driver-seat-cab system model was presented; then, by the tested cab suspensions excitation and seat acceleration response, its parameters identification mathematical model was established. Based on this, taking optimal ride comfort as target, its damping collaborative optimisation mathematical model was built. Combining the tested signals and a simulation model with the mathematical models of parameters identification and damping collaborative optimisation, a complete flow of hybrid modelling and damping collaborative optimisation of Five-suspensions was presented. With a practical example of seat and cab system, the damping parameters were optimised and validated by simulation and bench test. The results show that the model and method proposed are correct and reliable, providing a valuable reference for the design of seat suspension and cab suspensions.

  13. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  14. Highly flexible protein-peptide docking using CABS-dock

    OpenAIRE

    Ciemny, Maciej Pawel; Kurcinski, Mateusz; Kozak, Konrad Jakub; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Protein-peptide molecular docking is a difficult modeling problem. It is even more challenging when significant conformational changes that may occur during the binding process need to be predicted. In this chapter, we demonstrate the capabilities and features of the CABS-dock server for flexible protein-peptide docking. CABS-dock allows highly efficient modeling of full peptide flexibility and significant flexibility of a protein receptor. During CABS-dock docking, the peptide folding and bi...

  15. 49 CFR 229.121 - Locomotive cab noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive cab noise. 229.121 Section 229.121... § 229.121 Locomotive cab noise. (a) Performance standards for locomotives. (1) When tested for static noise in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of this section, all locomotives of each design or model...

  16. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  17. Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; John, M.

    1999-05-03

    This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compress natural gas (CNG) Ford Crown Victoria sedans in a taxicab fleet. In the study, we assess the performance and reliability of the vehicles and the cost of operating the CNG vehicles compared to gasoline vehicles. The study results reveal that the CNG vehicles operated by this fleet offer both economic and environmental advantages. The total operating costs of the CNG vehicles were about 25% lower than those of the gasoline vehicles. The CNG vehicles performed as well as the gasoline vehicles, and were just as reliable. Barwood representatives and drivers have come to consider the CNG vehicles an asset to their business and to the air quality of the local community.

  18. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders

  19. California Basin Studies (CaBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The California Continental Borderland's present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 106 years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 106 years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation

  20. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hwan Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose.

  1. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Stephen P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  2. Cab-sharing : An Effective, Door-to-Door, On-Demand Transportation Service

    OpenAIRE

    Gidofalvi, Gyözö; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2007-01-01

    City transportation is an increasing problem. Public transportation is cost effective, but do not provide door-to-door transportation. This makes the far more expensive cabs attractive and scarce. This paper proposes a location–based Cab–Sharing Service (CSS), which reduces cab fare costs and effectively utilizes available cabs. The CSS accepts cab requests from mobile devices in the form of origin–destination pairs. Then it automatically groups closeby requests to minimize the cost, utilize ...

  3. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employee regularly assigned to occupy a power car cab and any floor-mounted seat in the cab shall be: (1... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car...

  4. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    irregular room model using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method has been presented. CABS has been simulated in the irregular room model. Measurements of CABS in a real irregular room have been performed. The performance of CABS was affected by the irregular shape of the room due to the corner...

  5. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural...

  6. 49 CFR 238.409 - Forward end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward end structures of power car cabs. 238.409... II Passenger Equipment § 238.409 Forward end structures of power car cabs. This section contains requirements for the forward end structure of the cab of a power car. (A conceptual implementation of this...

  7. MODEL RESEARCH OF THE ACIVE VIBROIZOLATION CABS MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MARGIELEWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out computer simulations of mechatronic model bridge crane, which is intended to theoretical evaluation of the possibility of eliminating the mechanical vibrations affecting the operator's cab driven machine. The model studies used fixed value control, the controlled variable is selected as the vertical displacement of the cab. Also included in the research model rheological model of the operator's body. We examined four overhead cranes with lifting capacity of 50T, which are classified in accordance with the directive of the European Union concerning the design of cranes, the four classes of cranes HC stiffness. The use of an active vibration isolation system in which distinguishes two negative feedback loops, very well eliminate mechanical vibration to the operator.

  8. CAB Abstracts: guia ràpida. Octubre 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. CRAI

    2012-01-01

    CAB Abstracts és una de les bases de dades més destacades en el camp de la biologia aplicada i altres matèries afins. Conté referències bibliogràfiques dels àmbits temàtics següents: agricultura, silvicultura, salut humana, nutrició humana, salut animal, gestió i conservació de recursos naturals, etc.

  9. CAB Abstracts: guia d'ús. Octubre 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. CRAI

    2012-01-01

    CAB Abstracts és una de les bases de dades més destacades en el camp de la biologia aplicada i altres matèries afins. Conté referències bibliogràfiques dels àmbits temàtics següents: agricultura, silvicultura, salut humana, nutrició humana, salut animal, gestió i conservació de recursos naturals, etc.

  10. Analysis of CAB/UTIL & IFE/PASS SEAT Switch%浅谈CAB/UTIL和IFE/PASS SEAT电门

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭佳

    2015-01-01

    B737NG飞机P5-13电源面板存在两种构型,“CAB/UTIL”和“IFE/PASS SEAT”属于新构型中的两个电门,本文在结合手册与实际现象的基础上,分析了这两个电门的功用,避免在将来的排故过程中走弯路。%There are two configurations of B737NG aircraft P5-13 power supply panel, the"CAB/UTIL" and"IFE/PASS SEAT"belong to the two switches in the new configuration, based on the combination of manual and actual phenomena, this paper analyzes the function of these switches, to avoid detours during troubleshooting in the future.

  11. Compartment syndrome without pain!

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, M J

    2012-02-03

    We report the case of a young male patient who underwent intra-medullary nailing for a closed, displaced mid-shaft fracture of tibia and fibula. He was commenced on patient controlled analgesia post-operatively. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome in the patient\\'s leg was delayed because he did not exhibit a pain response. This ultimately resulted in a below-knee amputation of the patient\\'s leg. We caution against the use of patient controlled analgesia in any traumatised limb distal to the hip or the shoulder.

  12. Modeling of compartment fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire accident in a containment is a serious threat to nuclear reactors. Fire can cause substantial loss to life and property. The risk posed by fire can also exceed the risk from internal events within a nuclear reactor. Numerous research efforts have been performed to understand and analyze the phenomenon of fire in nuclear reactor and its consequences. Modeling of fire is an important subject in the field of fire safety engineering. Two approaches which are commonly used in fire modeling are zonal modeling and field modeling. The objective of this work is to compare zonal and field modeling approach against a pool fired experiment performed in a well-confined compartment. Numerical simulations were performed against experiments, which were conducted within PRISME program under the framework of OECD. In these experiments, effects of ventilation flow rate on heat release rate in a confined and mechanically ventilated compartment is investigated. Time dependent changes in gas temperature and oxygen mass fraction were measured. The trends obtained by numerical simulation performed using zonal model and field model compares well with experiments. Further validation is needed before this code can be used for fire safety analyses. (author)

  13. Combination of 5α-reductase inhibitor with combined androgen blockade (CAB) as a novel cytoreductive regimen before prostate brachytherapy: Ultra-CAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Yusuke; Kosaka, Takeo; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Toshio; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Oya, Mototsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a first case of using a 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) and combined androgen blockade (CAB) as a cytoreductive regimen before prostate brachytherapy. Prostate volume reduction with CAB is limited to approximately 40% in most cases, making it difficult to meet anatomical constraints to perform these procedures in cases with large prostate volume. With the added administration of 5ARI, further volume reduction can be expected. Here, we describe this cytoreductive regimen used in a 63 year-old prostate cancer patient who became eligible to receive brachytherapy after dutasteride (0.5 mg daily) was added to CAB and prostate volume reduction of 57% was achieved. PMID:26069888

  14. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors. PMID:23600166

  15. Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; Loch, John L.; Slack, Marc G.

    1993-01-01

    Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

  16. Evaluation of a tractor cab using real-time aerosol counting instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ronald M; Heitbrink, William A; Reed, Laurence D

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol instrumentation was used to evaluate air infiltration into tractor cabs that are used to protect the agricultural worker during pesticide applications. Preliminary surveys were conducted on three different manufactured agriculture enclosures. The results of these preliminary surveys indicated that aerosols are entering the cab through leak sources or are being generated inside the cab. These results identified the need for in-depth field evaluations of tractor cabs to identify any leak sources. To evaluate the ability of tractor cabs to reduce operator air contaminant exposure, field evaluations were conducted on two tractor cabs. Specifically, we evaluated: 1) the particle size distribution and the effectiveness of the filter system; and 2) air infiltration into the cab. These evaluations were also conducted to demonstrate the ease and practicality of using optical particle counters to evaluate the ability of cabin filtration systems. Pesticide particle size distribution during an air blast spray operation was also evaluated during the study. The field tests were conducted on a John Deere 7000 series tractor cab (tractor manufacturer's cab) and a Nelson spraycab (retrofit cab). Both cabs were equipped with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter media which were assumed to be 99.97 percent efficient at removing the test aerosol, atmospheric condensation nuclei. Thus, the major source of aerosols inside the cab was assumed to be leakage around filters at the seals. Using a portable dust monitor (PDM), the ratio of the outside to inside aerosol measurements was used to calculate a cab protection factor. During the evaluations, one PDM was placed inside the tractor cab (near the tractor operator) and one PDM was placed outside (near the air intake) to count particles. During the evaluations, the instruments were switched to prevent instrument bias from affecting the findings. The ratio of the two measurements (i.e., protection factor = outside

  17. CAB Abstracts: guia ràpida [text]. Curs 2015-16

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. CRAI

    2016-01-01

    CAB Abstracts és una base de dades bibliogràfica compilada per CAB International (CABI). Conté informació dels àmbits temàtics següents: agricultura, silvicultura, salut humana, nutrició humana, salut animal, gestió i conservació de recursos naturals, etc.

  18. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    Early investigations on low frequency sound reproduction in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) have shown good results on simulations and measurements in real rooms. CABS takes the advantage of having a rectangular room with parallel walls. By using two low frequency l...

  19. Combination of 5α-reductase inhibitor with combined androgen blockade (CAB) as a novel cytoreductive regimen before prostate brachytherapy: Ultra-CAB

    OpenAIRE

    Muro, Yusuke; Kosaka, Takeo; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Toshio; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Oya, Mototsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a first case of using a 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) and combined androgen blockade (CAB) as a cytoreductive regimen before prostate brachytherapy. Prostate volume reduction with CAB is limited to approximately 40% in most cases, making it difficult to meet anatomical constraints to perform these procedures in cases with large prostate volume. With the added administration of 5ARI, further volume reduction can be expected. Here, we describe this cytoreductive regimen used in a 63 y...

  20. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  1. Low-temperature thermoelectric power of CaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of measurements of the thermoelectric power S of stoichiometric CaB6 and vacancy-doped Ca1-δB6 between 5 and 300 K. The thermopower for both materials is surprisingly large at room temperature. Across the whole temperature range covered, S is negative and the temperature dependence is most probably dictated by band-structure effects. The phenomenological interpretation of our data involves a calculation of S(T), using the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation and assuming a band of defect states in proximity to the lower edge of the conduction band. Good agreement with our data is found by considering acoustic phonon and ionized impurity scattering for the electrons in the conduction band, which is well separated from the valence band. (author)

  2. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni M. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  3. Compartments of the foot: topographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faymonville, C; Andermahr, J; Seidel, U; Müller, L P; Skouras, E; Eysel, P; Stein, G

    2012-12-01

    Recent publications have renewed the debate regarding the number of foot compartments. There is also no consensus regarding allocation of individual muscles and communication between compartments. The current study examines the anatomic topography of the foot compartments anew using 32 injections of epoxy-resin and subsequent sheet plastination in 12 cadaveric foot specimens. Six compartments were identified: dorsal, medial, lateral, superficial central, deep forefoot, and deep hindfoot compartments. Communication was evident between the deep hindfoot compartment and the superficial central and deep central forefoot compartments. In the hindfoot, the neurovascular bundles were located in separate tissue sheaths between the central hindfoot compartment and the medial compartment. In the forefoot, the medial and lateral bundles entered the deep central forefoot compartment. The deep central hindfoot compartment housed the quadratus plantae muscle, and after calcaneus fracture could develop an isolated compartment syndrome. PMID:22638720

  4. COMPARTMENT SYNDROME IN TRAUMA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Beck

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute limb compartment syndrome (LCS is a limb-threatening and occasionally life-threatening condition caused by bleeding or edema in a closed muscle compartment surrounded by fascia and bone, which leads to muscle and nerve ischemia. Well-known causative factors are acute trauma and reperfusion after treatment for acute arterial obstruction. Untreated compartment syndrome usually leads to muscle necrosis, limb amputation, and, if severe, in large compartments, renal failure and death. Alertness, clinical suspicion of the possibility of LCS, and occasionally intracompartmental pressure (ICP measurement are required to avoid a delay in diagnosis or missed diagnosis. Open fasciotomy, by incising both skin and fascia, is the most reliable method for adequate compartment decompression. The techniques of measuring ICP have advantages and disadvantages, whereas the pressure level that mandates fasciotomy is controversial. Increased awareness of the syndrome and the advent of measurements of ICP pressure have raised the possibility of early diagnosis and treatment. This presentation reports LCS, including etiology, diagnosis, ICP measurement, management, and outcome.

  5. Abscisic Acid Control of rbcS and cab Transcription in Tomato Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, D M; Bartley, G E; Scolnik, P A

    1991-05-01

    Leaves of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants grown in soil in which moisture was lowered from field capacity to levels approaching permanent wilting point show a 10-fold increase in abscisic acid (ABA) and a 60 to 70 percent decrease in rbcS and cab steady-state mRNA levels. As indicated by transcription run-on experiments, the effect occurs primarily at the transcriptional level. Similar water deficit had only a minor effect on ABA level and on rbcS and cab expression in leaves of sitiens, an ABA mutant of tomato. Expression of rbcL, the chloroplast gene coding for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, is not affected by water stress. Application of exogenous ABA results in decreased rbcS and cab expression in both wild-type and sitiens leaves. Analysis of the expression of individual members of the rbcS gene family indicates that under water-deficit conditions, expression derives primarily from only three of the five rbcS genes. Effects of dark adaptation and water deficit are additive for cab but not for rbcS expression. These results support the hypothesis that, at least under water-deficit conditions, ABA or a derivative thereof mediates a negative regulation of rbcS and cab transcription in tomato plants. PMID:16668167

  6. Compartment model DETRA for Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code DETRA is a generic tool for environmental transfer analyses of radioactive or stable substances. The code has been applied for various purposes, mainly problems related to the biospheric transfer of radionuclides both in safety analyses of disposal of nuclear wastes and in consideration of foodchain exposure pathways in the analyses of off-site consequences of reactor accidents. The first computer code version for Windows interface environment of the modernized DETRA compartment model is developed in the study. As the model needs quite a large number of input data for specifying a calculation case, different segments of the input file (nuclide chains, compartments, time grid, source term, initial values, applications for multi-sequence calculations, printout specifications) are presented in their own window displays. The basic character of the code allows the user to specify the compartment model structure suitable for each considered environmental transport problem individually. The transport of radionuclides can be considered in several cases: water courses and related food chains, soil surface layers, food chains and general food stuffs, body burden analyses, etc. The pre-fined and saved input files for different areas of environmental, transport problems are also available for the user. The starting point for the analysis can be deposition on ground, or source term of radionuclides from e.g. surface soil into a recipient can be considered by the code as well

  7. Numerical treatment of compartment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes and interactive program RADIO (Radioactive Decay Information Online) for studying the radioactive decay process, with applications to many ecological problems, but not necessarily involving radioactive processes. Starting with the compartment coefficients and initial values of the various compartments the problem is solved as a system of linear ordinary differential equations. The method of solution is the direct use of matrix exponentials or the backward differences method. A program INVERS is also available for the solution of the inverse problem, that is parameter estimation in a system of linear ordinary differential equations when the solution is available pointwise. The output can be printed on a line printer either from a result file or from the plot file, which of course also can be used to produce graphic output. The plot file is processed by the plotting program VISION or by the auxiliary printing program RADAR. Another file can be used for a later restart from the point of time where the previous computation was aborted or from an arbitrary point of time if the relevant starting information is available. This is useful in order to avoid the manual input of a compartment matrix if it is similar to one used before. When the program RADIO is run the user answers to the question asked by the program. The programs are written in Fortran 77 for the Digital Equipment VAX 11 with graphical presentation on a Tektronix 4010, and are available from the author. (Author)

  8. Compartment models in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper presents a brief review of the use of compartment models in radiation protection. These models are widely used for modelling the transport of radionuclides in plants, crops, man and animals. Special models are used for the human respiratory tract, gastro-intestinal tract and skeleton, and for particular radionuclides (e.g. transport of strontium, caesium and iodine in sheep and cattle) or groups of radionuclides (e.g. the actinides). Compartment models are also used for assessing the effects of intakes of radionuclides by man in the natural environment, in the workplace, as a result of medical treatment, or as a result of planned or accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are also used for modelling the transport of radionuclides in rivers, estuaries and enclosed seas. Examples of compartment models currently used for some of these applications are presented, and their limitations are discussed. The methods and assumptions used in solving the equations associated with these models are briefly discussed, with particular reference to the problem of assessing the effects of intakes of radionuclides by man

  9. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to...

  10. The ethanol response gene Cab45 can modulate the impairment elicited by ethanol and ultraviolet in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfeng Zhu; Quanli Wang; Wangru Xu; Sha Li

    2008-01-01

    High consumption of ethanolic beverages facilitates neurodegeneration,but the mechanism of this process still remained elusive.Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) is a technique for detection of rare transcripts.With SSH approach,we identified one ethanol response gene Cab45,which was down-regulated by ethanol with time-dependent manner in B104 cells.The full-length sequence of Cab45 gene was obtained by 5'-RACE (5'Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) for the first time in rat.Based on the sequence of deduced amino acid of rat Cab45,the alignment was conducted with its counterparts in different species and displayed a high conservation.Using different tissues in rat and cell lines,Cab45 was characterized by a ubiquitous expression and differentiation dependent down-regulation.Given that ethanol facilitates some cell differentiation,we hypothesize that Cab45 is involved in ethanol-mediated differentiation.With transient transfection,the function of Cab45 was investigated by up-regulation and down-regulation in PC12 cells.Ethanol treatment and UV exposure were conducted subsequently and cell proliferations were detected by MTT (Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium) approach.It revealed that the up-regulation of Cab45 modulated the impairment elicited by ethanol and UV in transfected cells.As a member of new calcium binding protein family,the exact role of Cab45 still remains unclear.

  11. Stochastic Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Coppo, Mario; Drocco, Maurizio; Grassi, Elena; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.28.6

    2010-01-01

    The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments (CWC) is a variant of the Calculus of Looping Sequences (CLS). While keeping the same expressiveness, CWC strongly simplifies the development of automatic tools for the analysis of biological systems. The main simplification consists in the removal of the sequencing operator, thus lightening the formal treatment of the patterns to be matched in a term (whose complexity in CLS is strongly affected by the variables matching in the sequences). We define a stochastic semantics for this new calculus. As an application we model the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic neutrophils and a mechanism of gene regulation in E.Coli.

  12. Organic nano-compartments as biomimetic reactors, and protocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain; Ziock, Hans-Joachim; DeClue, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, nanoscale self-assembled structures have attracted ever increasing attention because of their potential to act as molecular templates for the synthesis of novel materials, delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents, and compartments defined at the molecular level that provide...... environmental conditions conducive to specific chemical reactions. In this review, we will focus mostly on this latter application. Amphiphiles that self-assemble to yield nano-compartments such as micelles, reverse-micelles and liposomes, have been used to build nanoscale reactors that can effect chemical...... to therapeutic and diagnostic applications. We will report on advances in the design of these chemical self-assembled systems and the challenges that still lie ahead....

  13. The essential mycobacterial amidotransferase GatCAB is a modulator of specific translational fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hong-Wei; Zhu, Jun-Hao; Li, Hao; Cai, Rong-Jun; Ealand, Christopher; Wang, Xun; Chen, Yu-Xiang; Kayani, Masood Ur Rehman; Zhu, Ting F; Moradigaravand, Danesh; Huang, Hairong; Kana, Bavesh D; Javid, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Although regulation of translation fidelity is an essential process(1-7), diverse organisms and organelles have differing requirements of translational accuracy(8-15), and errors in gene translation serve an adaptive function under certain conditions(16-20). Therefore, optimal levels of fidelity may vary according to context. Most bacteria utilize a two-step pathway for the specific synthesis of aminoacylated glutamine and/or asparagine tRNAs, involving the glutamine amidotransferase GatCAB(21-25), but it had not been appreciated that GatCAB may play a role in modulating mistranslation rates. Here, by using a forward genetic screen, we show that the mycobacterial GatCAB enzyme complex mediates the translational fidelity of glutamine and asparagine codons. We identify mutations in gatA that cause partial loss of function in the holoenzyme, with a consequent increase in rates of mistranslation. By monitoring single-cell transcription dynamics, we demonstrate that reduced gatCAB expression leads to increased mistranslation rates, which result in enhanced rifampicin-specific phenotypic resistance. Consistent with this, strains with mutations in gatA from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis show increased mistranslation, with associated antibiotic tolerance, suggesting a role for mistranslation as an adaptive strategy in tuberculosis. Together, our findings demonstrate a potential role for the indirect tRNA aminoacylation pathway in regulating translational fidelity and adaptive mistranslation. PMID:27564922

  14. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward end structure of locomotives, including... SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.209 Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives. (a)(1) The skin covering the forward-facing end of...

  15. Hybrid Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Coppo, Mario; Drocco, Maurizio; Grassi, Elena; Sciacca, Eva; Spinella, Salvatore; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.40.8

    2010-01-01

    The modelling and analysis of biological systems has deep roots in Mathematics, specifically in the field of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Alternative approaches based on formal calculi, often derived from process algebras or term rewriting systems, provide a quite complementary way to analyze the behaviour of biological systems. These calculi allow to cope in a natural way with notions like compartments and membranes, which are not easy (sometimes impossible) to handle with purely numerical approaches, and are often based on stochastic simulation methods. Recently, it has also become evident that stochastic effects in regulatory networks play a crucial role in the analysis of such systems. Actually, in many situations it is necessary to use stochastic models. For example when the system to be described is based on the interaction of few molecules, when we are at the presence of a chemical instability, or when we want to simulate the functioning of a pool of entities whose compartmentalised structur...

  16. Anatomic Landmarks for the First Dorsal Compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Hazani, Ron; Engineer, Nitin J.; Cooney, Damon; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Knowledge of anatomic landmarks for the first dorsal compartment can assist clinicians with management of de Quervain's disease. The radial styloid, the scaphoid tubercle, and Lister's tubercle can be used as superficial landmarks for the first dorsal compartment. Methods: Thirty-two cadaveric wrists were dissected, and measurements were taken from the predetermined landmarks to the extensor retinaculum. The compartments were also inspected for variability of the abductor pollicis ...

  17. Bilateral medial foot compartment syndrome after an aerobics class: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Suet Kam; McAlister, Jeffrey; Oliver, Noah; Pontell, David

    2012-01-01

    The authors present an unusual case of bilateral medial foot compartment syndrome in a healthy woman after a low-intensity aerobics exercise class. The majority of compartment syndrome cases have occurred after trauma, such as combat crush injuries and motor vehicle accidents. We wish to call attention to a rare situation in which compartment syndrome occurs in a healthy young adult after low-intensity exercise and highlight the necessity of a high clinical suspicion and a low threshold for fasciotomies to prevent irreversible muscle damage as a result of extremely high pressures. There is a paucity of cases on the clinical management and follow-up of this rare occurrence of compartment syndrome. PMID:22621857

  18. Measurement of vehicle-load using capacitance and acceleration transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over-loading is a common problem in some developing countries. Currently, large and fixed measurement systems are used to measure the load of vehicles travelling on highways. This paper presents an on-vehicle measuring device, which is based on measurement of change in capacitance due to variation in distance between electrodes mounted on vehicles. The on-vehicle leaf springs are used as a key part of the weighing transducer. Acceleration transducers are used to measure the vehicle's forward and the vertical accelerations. A feature of this on-vehicle measuring device is that it can provide both static and dynamic load measurements. The drivers can check the load in the cab, and the highway inspectors can check the load at any time and any place through radio communication, thus identifying over-loaded vehicles

  19. Effects of combustible stacking in large compartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modelling of fire in case of various distributions of combustible materials in a large compartment. Large compartments often represent a challenge for structural fire safety, because of lack of prescriptive rules to follow and difficulties of taking into account the effect...

  20. Physiological and Genetic Description of Dissimilatory Perchlorate Reduction by the Novel Marine Bacterium Arcobacter sp. Strain CAB

    OpenAIRE

    Carlström, Charlotte I.; Wang, Ouwei; Melnyk, Ryan A.; Bauer, Stefan; Lee, Joyce; Engelbrektson, Anna; Coates, John D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacterium (DPRB), Arcobacter sp. strain CAB, was isolated from a marina in Berkeley, CA. Phylogenetically, this halophile was most closely related to Arcobacter defluvii strain SW30-2 and Arcobacter ellisii. With acetate as the electron donor, strain CAB completely reduced perchlorate (ClO4 −) or chlorate (ClO3 −) [collectively designated (per)chlorate] to innocuous chloride (Cl−), likely using the perchlorate reductase (Pcr) and chlorite di...

  1. The daily life of a medium-size Data Centre. The CAB astronomical data center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    The Centro de Astrobiología (CAB) Data Centre is the most important astronomical data centre managed by a Spanish institution. Among others, it contains the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the Calar Alto (CAHA) scientific archives. Nevertheless, our activities go well beyond data curation. Generation of high level data products (reduced datasets, catalogues,...), knowledge transfer to other Spanish data centres, development of tools to publish astronomical data in VO-compliant archives and services, development of data mining and analysis tools for an optimum scientific exploitation of our data collections and collaboration with scientific groups with research lines using CAB archive data are some of the topics that will be described in this presentation.

  2. Flexible protein-peptide docking using CABS-dock with knowledge about the binding site

    OpenAIRE

    Kurcinski, Mateusz; Ciemny, Maciej Pawel; Blaszczyk, Maciej; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts, structural prediction of protein-peptide complexes is still a very challenging task, mainly due to two reasons: high flexibility of the peptides and transient character of their interactions with proteins. Recently we have developed an automated web server CABS-dock (http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSdock), which conducts flexible protein-peptide docking without any knowledge about the binding site. Our method allows for full flexibility of the peptide, whereas t...

  3. Antistaphylococcal Activity of CB-181963 (CAB-175), an Experimental Parenteral Cephalosporin

    OpenAIRE

    Hoellman, Dianne B.; Pankuch, Glenn A.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    Among 265 methicillin-susceptible and -resistant staphylococci, CB-181963 (CAB-175) had a 50% minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 μg/ml and a 90% minimum inhibitory concentration of 4 μg/ml. All strains except two vancomycin-resistant S. aureus and 5 vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains were also susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin, and all were susceptible to linezolid, ranbezolid, tigecycline, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. Most methicillin-resistant strains were levofloxacin r...

  4. Vehicle for underground hard coal mining. Fahrzeug fuer den untertaegigen Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, W.; Kolk, T.

    1982-06-16

    The invention concerns a vehicle for underground hard coal mining, particularly for transport without rails, which is provided with a Diesel engine, for example and is made as a transport, tractor and/or carrier vehicle for working equipment. It consists in the main of a sub-frame carrying the required machine units and equipped with at least four wheels, on which a cab is set for the driver and other personnel.

  5. Compartment models of radioiodine in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential equations governing the flow of iodine through a three-compartment model of iodine metabolism in man have been solved and the solutions compared to those obtained from two-compartment models. The boundary conditions used were those appropriate for a single acute exposure to radioiodine. The urinary excretion equation derived from the solutions to the three-compartment model exhibits a minimum at four days after the exposure time. This minimum can be used to calculate a maximum value for thyroid burden using a single urinary excretion rate measurement, and in conjunction with this value, an optimum urinary sampling frequency for the different radioiodines can be calculated. (author)

  6. A Spatial Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Bioglio, Livio; Coppo, Mario; Damiani, Ferruccio; Sciacca, Eva; Spinella, Salvatore; Troina, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments (CWC) is a recently proposed modelling language for the representation and simulation of biological systems behaviour. Although CWC has no explicit structure modelling a spatial geometry, its compartment labelling feature can be exploited to model various examples of spatial interactions in a natural way. However, specifying large networks of compartments may require a long modelling phase. In this work we present a surface language for CWC that provides basic constructs for modelling spatial interactions. These constructs can be compiled away to obtain a standard CWC model, thus exploiting the existing CWC simulation tool. A case study concerning the modelling of Arbuscular Mychorrizal fungi growth is discussed.

  7. Compartment syndrome in a labrador retriever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compartment syndrome is an elevation of interstitial pressure in a closed osseofascial compartment that results in microvascular compromise. This report documents a clinical syndrome in the crus of a fourteen-month-old intact male Labrador Retriever which was consistent with trauma-induced compartment syndrome. A six month history of recurring trauma or complications resulted in the need for referral. Survey radiography and ultrasonography aided in the diagnosis, but the definitive answer was provided by femoral angiography. The patient was successfully treated and was discharged with normal limb function. One year later, there were no complications observed. Compartment syndrome is not uncommon in humans, and is routinely considered in certain blunt and most penetrating traumas. However, few reports of this complication in animals are found

  8. Cutaneous anthrax cases leading compartment syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Parlak; Ali Aydın; Mehmet Parlak

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Anthrax is a zoonotic disease with three clinical forms. Clinical forms are skin, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax is 95% of the cases. Cutaneous anthrax frequently defines itself. Clinical presentation of anthrax may be severe and complicated in some cases. There may seem complications like meningitis, septic shock and compartment syndrome. Compartment Syndrome is a rare complication of cutaneous anthrax ...

  9. An Airborne Parachute Compartment Test Bed for the Orion Parachute Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James W.; Romero, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    The test program developing parachutes for the Orion/MPCV includes drop tests with parachutes deployed from an Orion-like parachute compartment at a wide range of dynamic pressures. Aircraft and altitude constraints precluded the use of an Orion boilerplate capsule for several test points. Therefore, a dart-shaped test vehicle with a hi-fidelity mock-up of the Orion parachute compartment has been developed. The available aircraft options imposed constraints on the test vehicle development and concept of operations. Delivery of this test vehicle to the desired velocity, altitude, and orientation required for the test is a di cult problem involving multiple engineering disciplines. This paper describes the development of the test technique. The engineering challenges include extraction from an aircraft, reposition of the extraction parachute, and mid-air separation of two vehicles, neither of which has an active attitude control system. The desired separation behavior is achieved by precisely controlling the release point using on-board monitoring of the motion. The design of the test vehicle is also described. The trajectory simulations and other analyses used to develop this technique and predict the behavior of the test vehicle are reviewed in detail. The application of the technique on several successful drop tests is summarized.

  10. STUDY OF TRANSMISSION LINES EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM OPERATIONON OF CONTINUOUS AUTOMATIC CAB SIGNALLING

    OpenAIRE

    Hololobova, O.; Havryliuk, V.; Kovryhin, M.; Buriak, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To conduct an effect research of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (HVTL) (750 kV, 50 Hz) on the track circuits and continuous automatic cab signalling (CACS) with a signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission lines and to propose possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS. Methodology. The measurements were performed both by means of car-laboratory and directly on rail lines. During the study the elect...

  11. Easy synthesis of CaB2O4 via pyrolysis of calcium fructoborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cecilia Wagner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the thermal behavior of calcium fructoborate samples of composition Ca(C6H10O6BO2.3.5H 2O showed that CaB2O4 is generated as the final solid pyrolysis residue. On the basis of these observations a new, very easy, synthetic procedure for the preparation of high purity samples of this calcium borate is proposed. The material was characterized by X ray powder diffractometry and IR spectroscopy.

  12. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies. As...... distribution in the room at low frequencies by using multiple loudspeakers together with an optimal placement of the loudspeakers.  At low frequencies CABS will create a plane wave from the front wall loudspeakers which will be absorbed by additional loudspeakers at the rear wall giving an almost homogeneous...

  13. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model

  14. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

  15. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth. PMID:21452895

  16. Cutaneous anthrax cases leading compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Parlak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Anthrax is a zoonotic disease with three clinical forms. Clinical forms are skin, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax is 95% of the cases. Cutaneous anthrax frequently defines itself. Clinical presentation of anthrax may be severe and complicated in some cases. There may seem complications like meningitis, septic shock and compartment syndrome. Compartment Syndrome is a rare complication of cutaneous anthrax and it is life threatening. Physicians working in the endemic area should be aware of this form. In this study, three cases were shown which developed compartment syndrome following cutaneous anthrax. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 214-217

  17. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Compartment Pressure Comparisons During Ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs. William J.; Kirchner, Robert D.; McLachlan, Blair G.; Hand, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Stuart L.

    2011-01-01

    Predictions of internal compartment pressures are necessary in the design of interstage regions, systems tunnels, and protuberance covers of launch vehicles to assess potential burst and crush loading of the structure. History has proven that unexpected differential pressure loads can lead to catastrophic failure. Pressures measured in the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) compartment of Ares I-X during flight were compared to post-flight analytical predictions using the CHCHVENT chamber-to-chamber venting analysis computer program. The measured pressures were enveloped by the analytical predictions for most of the first minute of flight but were outside of the predictions thereafter. This paper summarizes the venting system for the USS, discusses the probable reasons for the discrepancies between the measured and predicted pressures, and provides recommendations for future flight vehicles.

  18. Space Shuttle crew compartment debris-contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Villarreal, Leopoldo J.

    1992-01-01

    Remedial actions undertaken to reduce debris during manned flights and ground turnaround operations at Kennedy Space Center and Palmdale are addressed. They include redesign of selected ground support equipment and Orbiter hardware to reduce particularization/debris generation; development of new detachable filters for air-cooled avionics boxes; application of tape-on screens to filter debris; and implementation of new Orbiter maintenance and turnaround procedures to clean filters and the crew compartment. Most of these steps were implemented before the return-to-flight of STS-26 in September 1988 which resulted in improved crew compartment habitability and less potential for equipment malfunction.

  19. Integración de la unidad de dirección para el iCab2

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Sánchez, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    El iCab (Intelligent Car Automobile) surge de un vehículo eléctrico de transporte al cual se le han realizado modificaciones hardware y software para el control automático de la plataforma (a través de un ordenador) o manual (por medio de un joystick y pedales). Las plataformas iCab integran un conjunto de elementos que les permiten interactuar y conocer el entorno. Estos sistemas que se le integran son: un láser, un sistema de visión estereoscópica y un sistema GPS con sensores i...

  20. Dikegulac-Sodium Effect on Micropropagation and Biochemical Parameters in the Cherry Rootstocks CAB-6P and Gisela 6

    OpenAIRE

    SARROPOULOU, VIRGINIA; DIMASSITHERIOU, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dikegulac-sodium (DS) alone and in combination with benzyladenine (BA) οn the morphogenetic and biochemical responses in the cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.) and Gisela 6 (Prunus cerasus x Prunus canescens) were investigated. In the CAB-6P rootstock, DS did not promote shoot proliferation whereas its application at 40, 120 and 150 μΜ suppressed shoot length. In the Gisela 6 rootstock, the number of shoots per explant and shoot proliferation rate were greater with 80...

  1. Electron dynamics in CaB6 induced by one- and two-color femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We simulate nonlinear electron dynamics in CaB6 crystal within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) under one-color femtosecond laser fields (400 nm, 800 nm) and two-color cases (400 nm+800 nm) with different relative phases of ϕ=0, ϕ=π/4, ϕ=π/2. The time-dependent Kohn–Sham equation (TDKS) is solved in real-time and real-space evolution scheme. We investigate the energy absorption and the electron excitation of CaB6 crystal in detail. Besides, the electron density distributions and occupations are shown after each external field ends. Computational results indicate that for one-color case, the excitation behaviors are distinct due to the different frequencies; for two-color laser, we adjust the phase and obtain the asymmetric field, which causes the change of the dynamics response comparing with the symmetric field. At the end of laser, the electron occupation is broadly distributed in the energy range of 2.4–42.4 eV, which means a high excitation rate in the narrow-gap semiconductor under intense laser field. The occurrence of the breakdown is also checked for each case in the Letter.

  2. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  3. What's new in acute compartment syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Edward J; Sanders, David W; Shuler, Michael S; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Cole, Ashley L; Alqahtani, Saad M; Schmidt, Andrew H

    2012-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) after trauma is often the result of increased size of the damaged tissues after acute crush injury or from reperfusion of ischemic areas. It usually is not solely caused by accumulation of free blood or fluid in the compartment, although that can contribute in some cases. There is no reliable and reproducible test that confirms the diagnosis of ACS. A missed diagnosis or failure to cut the fascia to release pressure within a few hours can result in severe intractable pain, paralysis, and sensory deficits. Reduced blood circulation leads to oxygen and nutrient deprivation, muscle necrosis, and permanent disability. Currently, the diagnosis of ACS is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated needle sticks over a short time frame to measure intracompartmental pressures. Missed compartment syndromes continue to be one of most common causes of malpractice lawsuits. Existing technology for continuous pressure measurements are insensitive, particularly in the deep tissues and compartments, and their use is restricted to highly trained personnel. Newer concepts of the pathophysiology accompanied by new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have recently been advanced. Among these are the concept of inflammatory mediators as markers and anti-inflammatories as medical adjunct therapy. New diagnostic modalities include near-infrared spectroscopy, ultrafiltration catheters, and radio-frequency identification implants. These all address current shortcomings in the diagnostic armamentarium that trauma surgeons can use. The strengths and weaknesses of these new concepts are discussed to allow the trauma surgeon to follow current evolution of the field. PMID:22913965

  4. embCAB sequence variation among ethambutol-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates without embB306 mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Plinke, C.; Cox, H. S.; Zarkua, N.; Karimovich, H. A.; Braker, K; Diel, R; Rusch-Gerdes, S.; Feuerriegel, S; Niemann, S.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms of resistance to ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain inadequately described. Although there is mounting evidence that mutations of codon 306 in embB play a key role, a significant number of phenotypically ethambutol-resistant strains do not carry mutations in this codon. Here, other mutations in the embCAB operon are suggested to be involved in resistance development.

  5. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CABS...

  6. 75 FR 1179 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards; Front End Strength of Cab Cars and Multiple-Unit Locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Transportation (Secretary) convened a meeting of representatives from all sectors of the rail industry with the... Issues Identified for Future Rulemaking C. RSAC Overview D. Establishment of the Passenger Safety Working.... Accident History D. FRA and Industry Standards for Front End Frame Structures of Cab Cars and...

  7. Physiological and genetic description of dissimilatory perchlorate reduction by the novel marine bacterium Arcobacter sp. strain CAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlström, Charlotte I; Wang, Ouwei; Melnyk, Ryan A; Bauer, Stefan; Lee, Joyce; Engelbrektson, Anna; Coates, John D

    2013-01-01

    A novel dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacterium (DPRB), Arcobacter sp. strain CAB, was isolated from a marina in Berkeley, CA. Phylogenetically, this halophile was most closely related to Arcobacter defluvii strain SW30-2 and Arcobacter ellisii. With acetate as the electron donor, strain CAB completely reduced perchlorate (ClO4(-)) or chlorate (ClO3(-)) [collectively designated (per)chlorate] to innocuous chloride (Cl(-)), likely using the perchlorate reductase (Pcr) and chlorite dismutase (Cld) enzymes. When grown with perchlorate, optimum growth was observed at 25 to 30°C, pH 7, and 3% NaCl. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) preparations were dominated by free-swimming straight rods with 1 to 2 polar flagella per cell. Strain CAB utilized a variety of organic acids, fructose, and hydrogen as electron donors coupled to (per)chlorate reduction. Further, under anoxic growth conditions strain CAB utilized the biogenic oxygen produced as a result of chlorite dismutation to oxidize catechol via the meta-cleavage pathway of aerobic catechol degradation and the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme. In addition to (per)chlorate, oxygen and nitrate were alternatively used as electron acceptors. The 3.48-Mb draft genome encoded a distinct perchlorate reduction island (PRI) containing several transposases. The genome lacks the pcrC gene, which was previously thought to be essential for (per)chlorate reduction, and appears to use an unrelated Arcobacter c-type cytochrome to perform the same function. IMPORTANCE The study of dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacteria (DPRB) has largely focused on freshwater, mesophilic, neutral-pH environments. This study identifies a novel marine DPRB in the genus Arcobacter that represents the first description of a DPRB associated with the Campylobacteraceae. Strain CAB is currently the only epsilonproteobacterial DPRB in pure culture. The genome of strain CAB lacks the pcrC gene found in all

  8. Low-temperature thermal conductivity of CaB6 and EuB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal conductivities of stoichiometric CaB6, vacancy-doped Ca1-δB6, and EuB6 have been measured between 6 and 300 K. All our data may be rather well described across the entire temperature regime covered on the basis of a Debye-type relaxation-time approximation and by assuming the concurring influence of various scattering channels on the mean free path of the phonons. An unusual and strong resonance in the scattering rate of the phonons of all investigated materials is attributed to a strong interaction between acoustic itinerant and localized modes, the latter arising from oscillations of the metal cations around their equilibrium position

  9. Intake fraction of primary pollutants: motor vehicle emissions in the South Coast Air Basin

    OpenAIRE

    J. D. Marshall; W. J. Riley; McKone, T.E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-01-01

    The intake fraction is defined for a specific species and emission source as the ratio of attributable population intake to total emissions. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) as a case study, we combine ambient monitoring data with time-activity patterns to estimate the population intake of carbon monoxide and benzene emitted from motor vehicles during 1996-1999. In addition to exposures to ambient concentrations, three microenvironments are considered in which the exposu...

  10. Challenges of establishing a Community Advisory Board (CAB in a low-income, low-resource setting: experiences from Bagamoyo, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubis Kafuruki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Community Advisory Boards are now seen as standard practice for clinical vaccine and drug trials worldwide. In the past, most Community Advisory Boards (CABs were established by activists and lobbyists to monitor HIV/AIDS vaccine and drug trials in developed countries. In Africa the first CAB was established in Uganda in 1990 in conjunction with an HIV vaccine project and has since been followed by others in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Kenya. In 2007, the Bagamoyo branch of the Ifakara Health Institute initiated the formation of a CAB. The aim was to properly educate and empower elected CAB members to become full partners in all research activities concerning the public within the Bagamoyo area. Methods and Results Beginning in 2007, staff visited each of the 24 villages within the study area to inform the communities about the proposed CAB and asked them to elect two individuals to represent their village on the CAB. The first attempt was hampered by community leaders selecting themselves, which led to inconsistent attendance, gender imbalance, and political infighting. New criteria for the selection of representatives were implemented to exclude governmental leaders, illiterate representatives and to promote a one-to-one gender balance. The newly appointed representatives underwent training and have participated in CAB meetings largely devoid of the negative issues previously encountered. Conclusion The successfully established CAB has led to improved relations with the community and facilitated the recruitment of study subjects. Our experiences show that, it is possible to establish a non-specific CAB in a low-income setting.

  11. Ergonomic Evaluation on Taxi Drivers Compartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimmy; SF; Chan; YW; Chui; Reggie; Kwan; K; K; Chau

    2002-01-01

    Driving involves long hours of physical work within c onfined compartment. Taxi drivers usually work with prolonged working hours, add itional stress may likely be induced on particular body limbs. Occupational heal th may occur and working efficiency may potentially be affected resulting fr om fatigues, pains or diseases. These problems, however, could be remedied if mo re attention is paid on seating design, the workplace and driving postures adopt ed. Ergonomics design can provide better understanding...

  12. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lemeng; Jongedijk, Esmer; Bouwmeester, Harro; Van Der Krol, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated local GDP availability for each compartment but resulted in different product levels. A GDP synthase from Picea abies (PaGDPS1) was shown to boost GDP production. PaGDPS1 was also targeted to plastids, cytosol or mitochondria and PaGDPS1 and GES were coexpressed in all possible combinations. Geraniol and geraniol-derived products were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively. GES product levels were highest for plastid-targeted GES, followed by mitochondrial- and then cytosolic-targeted GES. For each compartment local boosting of GDP biosynthesis increased GES product levels. GDP exchange between compartments is not equal: while no GDP is exchanged from the cytosol to the plastids, 100% of GDP in mitochondria can be exchanged to plastids, while only 7% of GDP from plastids is available for mitochondria. This suggests a direct exchange mechanism for GDP between plastids and mitochondria. Cytosolic PaGDPS1 competes with plastidial GES activity, suggesting an effective drain of isopentenyl diphosphate from the plastids to the cytosol. PMID:26356766

  13. [Arthritis of the Medial Knee Joint Compartment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziolis, G; Röhner, E

    2015-10-01

    23 % of all persons older than 65 years suffer from osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint, a very common situation in orthopaedic practice 1. As a result of the demographic trend the number of patients is expected to increase in the future. Based on specific joint biomechanics and kinematics the medial knee joint compartment is more frequently affected than the lateral. Only an understanding of the functional anatomy and underlying pathology allows a critical evaluation of different available conservative and operative treatment options. This article gives an overview of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of osteoarthritis of the medial knee joint. Frequently performed surgeries, e.g. high tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will be presented in a comparative manner. The actual scientific evidence will be given with the goal of an evidence based therapy that is adopted to stage and pathology of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint. PMID:26451864

  14. Computed tomography of the cervical compartments on the computer tomogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaunbauer, W.; Haertel, M.

    1984-02-01

    The computed tomographic anatomy of the cervical compartments, with emphasis on the fascial planes of the neck, is described. Typical disease processes within these fascial confined compartments have been documented.

  15. Forest Management Prescription : Compartment 9 : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Forest Management Prescription for Compartment 9 of Mingo NWR. It provides a description of the compartment, management objectives, proposed management...

  16. [The peculiar features of conducting comprehensive expertises of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V A; Gusarov, A A; Smirenin, S A

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with the problem of forensic medical diagnostics of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment during motor vehicle accidents. The authors place special emphasis on the fact of a significant increase in the number of road traffic accidents (RTA) with such consequences throughout the world. The modern automobile industry pays much attention to the enhancement of the car safety features by significantly improving the design of passenger compartments. It accounts for a change in the traditional character of the injuries to both the driver and the passengers resulting from motor vehicle accidents. This, in turn, creates difficulties for the forensic medical experts as regards personality identification of the subjects who happened to be inside the car at the moment of the collision especially in the case of unascertainable circumstances of the accident and/or the involvement of several victims. The authors describe peculiarities of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment during road traffic accidents including such that result from bringing the driver and the passengers closer to the construction elements of the car (stage I), their direct contact with these elements (stage II), and subsequent displacement (stage III). PMID:27500476

  17. Formation and Optical Properties of Ag Nanoparticles in CaB4O7–Ag2O and CaB4O7–Gd2O3–Ag2O Tetraborate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Adamiv

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of Ag nanoparticles (NPs in the near-surface layer of CaB4O7–Ag2O and CaB4O7 –Gd2O3–Ag2O glasses by annealing in vacuum or in air is reported. It is concluded that annealing in vacuum does not necessary require the presence of reducing ions. Intensive plasmon absorption bands peaked at 403, 406 and 413.3 nm were observed in the absorption spectra of glasses with Ag NPs. Average radius of nanoparticles was calculated from the plasmon band half width and falls within 1.3-3.3 nm. It is concluded that calculated from normalized transmission spectra and absorption spectra the non-linear refractive index n2 increases due to the plasmon resonance in Ag NPs.

  18. Formation and Optical Properties of Ag Nanoparticles in CaB4O7–Ag2O and CaB4O7–Gd2O3–Ag2O Tetraborate Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    V.T. Adamiv; Ya.V. Burak; R.V. Gamernyk; R.M. Dutka; I.M. Teslyuk

    2014-01-01

    Formation of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the near-surface layer of CaB4O7–Ag2O and CaB4O7 –Gd2O3–Ag2O glasses by annealing in vacuum or in air is reported. It is concluded that annealing in vacuum does not necessary require the presence of reducing ions. Intensive plasmon absorption bands peaked at 403, 406 and 413.3 nm were observed in the absorption spectra of glasses with Ag NPs. Average radius of nanoparticles was calculated from the plasmon band half width and falls within 1.3-3.3 nm. It i...

  19. Compartment syndrome can also be seen in the forearm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Broholm, Rikke; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome is a challenge for the clinician and symptomatic similar to neuropathies, tenosynovitis, stress fractures and referred pain from lumbar cervicalis. Thus, chronic compartment syndrome of the upper extremities is probably an underdiagnosed condition. In patients with st...... stress-induced pain in the upper limbs, chronic compartment syndrome should be considered - particularly in young patients with high physical activity. Despite limited literature, the effect of surgical treatment is promising.......Chronic compartment syndrome is a challenge for the clinician and symptomatic similar to neuropathies, tenosynovitis, stress fractures and referred pain from lumbar cervicalis. Thus, chronic compartment syndrome of the upper extremities is probably an underdiagnosed condition. In patients with...

  20. Multi-compartment linear noise approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to quantify the stochastic fluctuations present in biochemical and other systems is becoming increasing important. Analytical descriptions of these fluctuations are attractive, as stochastic simulations are computationally expensive. Building on previous work, a linear noise approximation is developed for biochemical models with many compartments, for example cells. The procedure is then implemented in the software package COPASI. This technique is illustrated with two simple examples and is then applied to a more realistic biochemical model. Expressions for the noise, given in the form of covariance matrices, are presented. (paper)

  1. Splines and compartment models an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Biebler, Karl-Ernst

    2013-01-01

    This book presents methods of mathematical modeling from two points of view. Splines provide a general approach while compartment models serve as examples for context related to modeling. The preconditions and characteristics of the developed mathematical models as well as the conditions surrounding data collection and model fit are taken into account. The substantial statements of this book are mathematically proven. The results are ready for application with examples and related program codes given. In this book, splines are algebraically developed such that the reader or user can easily u

  2. In vivo binding of hot pepper bZIP transcription factor CabZIP1 to the G-box region of pathogenesis-related protein 1 promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find that salicylic acid and ethephon treatment in hot pepper increases the expression of a putative basic/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene, CabZIP1. CabZIP1 mRNA is expressed ubiquitously in various organs. The green fluorescent protein-fused transcription factor, CabZIP1::GFP, can be specifically localized to the nucleus, an action that is consistent with the presence of a nuclear localization signal in its protein sequence. Transient overexpression of the CabZIP1 transcription factor results in an increase in PR-1 transcripts level in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that CabZIP1 binds to the G-box elements in native promoter of the hot pepper pathogenesis-related protein 1 (CaPR-1) gene in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that CabZIP1 plays a role as a transcriptional regulator of the CaPR-1 gene

  3. PENGARUH PENERAPAN PRINSIP GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP KINERJA KEUANGAN PERUSAHAAN PERUM PERUMNAS REGIONAL VII CAB. SULSEL I

    OpenAIRE

    MAULIDIAH. K, ANDI LINA

    2007-01-01

    (Andi Lina Maulidiah), Pengaruh Penerapan Prinsip Good Corporate Governance terhadap Kinerja Keuangan Kantor Perum Perumnas Regional VII Cab. Sulsel I (Pembimbing I : Dra. Hj. Nurlaeni, M.Si. Ak. Pembimbing II : Dra. Aini Indrijawati, M.Si, Ak) Keywords : good corporate governance, kinerja keuangan Good corporate governance (Corporate Governance) can be interpreted as a process and structure used by the organs of the company to enhance shareholder value and compa...

  4. "Dammed Taxi Cab"--How Silent Communication in Questionnaires Can Be Understood and Used to Give Voice to Children's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerby, E.; Kostenius, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dammed taxi cab"--a 12-year-old boy wrote these words in the margins of a questionnaire, and within this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of the use of questionnaires as a way to voice children's experiences. The overall aim of this paper is to enable understanding of and discuss the use of questionnaires as a way…

  5. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... connectivity, mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology...... and governing the flow of data among them. In pervasive computing, composing services is, however, not the whole story. To fully realize their potential, applications must also deal with challenges such as device heterogeneity, context awareness, openendedness, and resilience to dynamism in network...

  6. Optimization of a neutron transmission beamline applied to materials science for the CAB linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutrons and Reactors Laboratory (NYR) of CAB (Centro Atomico Bariloche) is equipped with a linear electron accelerator (LINAC - Linear particle accelerator). This LINAC is used as a neutron source from which two beams are extracted to perform neutron transmission and dispersion experiments. Through these experiments, structural and dynamic properties of materials can be studied. The neutron transmission experiments consist in a collimated neutron beam which interacts with a sample and a detector behind the sample. Important information about the microstructural characteristics of the material can be obtained from the comparison between neutron spectra before and after the interaction with the sample. In the NYR Laboratory, cylindrical samples of one inch of diameter have been traditionally studied. Nonetheless, there is a great motivation for doing systematic research on smaller and with different geometries samples; particularly sheets and samples for tensile tests. Hence, in the NYR Laboratory it has been considered the possibility of incorporating a neutron guide into the existent transmission line. According to all mentioned above, the main objective of this work consisted in the optimization of the flight transmission tube optics of neutrons. This optimization not only improved the existent line but also contributed to an election criterion for the neutron guide acquisition.

  7. In-cab technologies : an eco-system that can improve efficiency and save you money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, T. [Geotrac International Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Doherty, R. [Verigo Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Clarotta, C. [Intermec Technologies Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Lamb, J. [Vistavu Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada); Haber, T. [Telus Energy Sector Organization, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Various in-cab technologies were presented by representative from leading oil and gas communications technology experts. The presentation included details of new aircard data and cell phone data plans as well as data modem plans developed for truck fleets by Geotrac International Incorporated. Details of the company's new high speed cellular modems and messaging and mapping systems designed specifically for oil and gas fleets were also presented. The systems were capable of measuring fuel consumption and idling times as well as calculating savings for up to 50 trucks. Details of a driver fatigue and alertness study were presented by Verigo Incorporated, who have developed a system using electronic on-board recorders and wireless logs designed to provide on-line auditing and reports. The presentation provided details of amounts of time saved using the wireless logging and inspection tools. Details of field ticketing, preventative maintenance programs, and unit cost and asset management software tools developed by Vistavu Solutions were presented. New fleet mobility strategies developed by Intermec were also presented. The company specializes in the construction of rugged hand-held computers built to military specifications. It was concluded that use of the computers can provide significant cost savings for oil and gas companies. tabs., figs.

  8. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  9. Speciation of uranium in environmental relevant compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, the chemistry of uranium was focused on its mining and milling for production of high pure uranium compounds as initial matter of reactor fuel elements for energy production and breeding of plutonium for weapons production. In this sense, the recovery of uranium and plutonium from the used reactor fuel elements was also technical realized. The increasing input of uranium into bio-sphere by mining and milling and industrial processes like production of cement, fossil fuels, and fertilizers has led to the realization of the importance of uranium environmental chemistry. For a better assessment of radiotoxicity and transport along the food chain knowledge about the chemistry of uranium is needed in all involved compartments. Starting from uranium content in geo- and bio-systems, about the determination of chemical behavior - the speciation of uranium - is reported in selected environmental compartments like seepage waters coming from mine tailings, different kinds of bacteria living in uranium contaminated soils, and relevant forage plants growing on these soils. For uranium speciation determination direct non-invasive methods are used like various laser spectroscopic methods, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation source, The results obtained by spectroscopic methods showed that the speciation of uranium is dominated in surface waters by uranyl-carbonate complexes in opposite to the speciation in bacteria and plants. In these compartments the speciation is dominated by binding of uranium on carboxylic and phosphorous containing functional groups. It was shown, that in the investigated systems the speciation strongly depends on different physical chemical parameters like ionic strength, kind and amount of ligands, pH, Eh e.g. In experiments with living organisms it is necessary to characterize the state of the bio-system in dependence of the used parameters to compare the obtained results (ratio of dead or living cells of bacteria

  10. The upper hand on compartment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dolan, Roisin T

    2012-11-01

    Metacarpal fractures are common injuries, accounting for approximately 30% to 40% of all hand fractures and with a lifetime incidence of 2.5%. Traditionally regarded as an innocuous injury, metacarpal fractures tend to be associated with successful outcomes after closed reduction and immobilization. Hand compartment syndrome (HCS) is a rare clinical entity with potential devastating consequences in terms of loss of function and quality-of-life outcomes. We discuss the case of a 44-year-old woman presenting with multiple closed metacarpal fractures as a result of low-energy trauma, complicated by acute HCS. We review the presentation, clinical assessment, and optimal surgical management of acute HCS with reference to international literature.

  11. Posterior compartment syndrome associated with clopidogrel therapy following trivial trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, A‐M; Kearns, S. R.; Kelly, E P

    2006-01-01

    Haematomata caused by blunt trauma may potentially induce a compartment syndrome by raising intra‐compartmental pressure. We report a case of acute posterior compartment syndrome following minimal trauma to the leg of an elderly patient on the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel. This case highlights the high index of clinical suspicion required to detect compartment syndrome in those on long term antiplatelet therapy and prompt surgical decompression is recommended.

  12. Gap junctional communication compartments in the Drosophila wing disk.

    OpenAIRE

    Weir, M P; Lo, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    We have examined the gap junctional communication properties of cells in the wing imaginal disk of Drosophila, using intracellular injection of the fluorescent dye tracer Lucifer Yellow. The cell-to-cell passage of Lucifer Yellow is restricted at a boundary line that divides the wing disk into halves. We refer to each half as a "communication compartment" because there is a high level of gap junctional exchange within a compartment and much lower exchange between compartments. Comparison of t...

  13. Molecular Characterization of Plant Prevacuolar and Endosomal Compartments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Prevacuolar compartments (PVCs) and endosomal compartments are membrane-bound organelles mediating protein traffic to vacuoles in the secretory and endocytic pathways of plant cells. Over the years, great progress has been made towards our understanding in these two compartments in plant cells. In this review, we will summarize our contributions toward the identification and characterization of plant prevacuolar and endosomal compartments. Our studies will serve as important steps in future molecular characterization of PVC biogenesis and PVC-mediated protein trafficking in plant cells.

  14. Engrailed: a gene controlling compartment and segment formation in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Kornberg, T

    1981-01-01

    A total of 58 mutations at the engrailed locus were isolated. Analysis suggests that this genetic locus is necessary for survival but required only in the cells of the posterior compartments. Inactivation of the engrailed locus renders the animal incapable of maintaining the separation between the groups of cells that constitute either the compartments that subdivide each segment or the individual segments themselves.

  15. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  16. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 29.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 29.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  17. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 27.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 27.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  18. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613 Section 91.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane that conforms to an amended or supplemental...

  19. Mannitol extravasation during partial nephrectomy leading to forearm compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley A. Erickson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first known complication of forearm compartment syndrome after mannitol infusion during partial nephrectomy. We stress the importance of excellent intravenous catheter access and constant visual monitoring of the intravenous catheter site during and after mannitol infusion as ways to prevent this complication. Prompt recognition of compartment syndrome with appropriate intervention can prevent long-term sequelae.

  20. Development of a control system for automated cab roof deflectors for articulated trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Berkenbusch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of emissions from the global transport industry on the environment have become increasingly apparent, with significant emphasis placed on their reduction through various initiatives. In the UK, Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV’s) are used to transport 68 % of all goods. The majority of trucks are articulated (Truck and Trailer) – rather than rigid vehicles. Surveys show that within the UK in 2014, HGV’s travelled approximately 18,769 million kilometres (1). The CO2 emissions from...

  1. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

  2. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  3. Greening London's black cabs: a study of driver's preferences for fuel cell taxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Road transport accounts for about a quarter of all carbon emissions in the UK, highlighting the need for low carbon alternatives to current fuels and vehicles. Running on hydrogen and virtually emissions-free, fuel cell vehicles are considered to be one of the most promising ways of reducing transport-related emissions. Understanding the user benefits of fuel cell vehicles and the determinants of demand is essential for their successful penetration. This contingent valuation study investigates the preferences of London taxi drivers for driving emissions-free hydrogen fuel cell taxis, both in the short term as part of a pilot project, and in the longer term if production line fuel cell taxis become available. The results show that willingness to pay to participate in a pilot project seems to be driven mostly by drivers' expectation of personal financial gains. In contrast, however, environmental considerations are found to affect taxi drivers' longer-term vehicle purchasing decisions. The results also reveal that driving hydrogen-fuelled vehicles does not seem to raise safety concerns amongst taxi drivers

  4. Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

  5. Active low frequency sound field control in a listening room using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce the sound transmitted to neighbour rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    is possible at modal frequencies. For that reason the modal frequencies in the source room will also have big impact on the transmission to neighbour rooms. These low frequency resonance frequencies are very audible in the source room but also in neighbour rooms as a booming bass. CABS (Controlled...... Acoustic Bass System) is a time based room correction system for reproduced sound using loudspeakers. The system can remove room modes at low frequencies, by active cancelling the reflection from at the rear wall to a normal stereo setup. Measurements in a source room using CABS and in two neighbour rooms...

  6. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang

    2014-11-25

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  7. The significance of vehicle emissions standards for levels of exhaust pollution from light vehicles in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys-Tyler, G. A.; Legassick, W.; Bell, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    This paper addresses the research question "Are more stringent exhaust emissions standards, as applied to light vehicle type approval, resulting in reduced vehicle pollution in an urban area?" The exhaust emissions of a sample of over fifty thousand road vehicles operating in London were measured using roadside remote sensing absorption spectroscopy techniques (infrared and ultraviolet), combined with Automatic Number Plate Recognition for vehicle identification. Levels of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitric oxide (NO), and smoke (particulate) exhaust emissions are reported by vehicle class, fuel type, and Euro emissions standard. Emissions from petrol cars of each pollutant were all observed to display a statistically significant reduction with the introduction of each successive Euro emissions standard from Euro 1 onwards. However, Euro 2 diesel cars were observed to emit statistically higher rates of NO than either Euro 1 or Euro 3 standard diesel cars. The study also confirms the continuing 'dieselisation' of the UK passenger car fleet. Mean NO emissions from Euro 4 diesel cars were found to be 6 times higher than Euro 4 petrol cars, highlighting the need to develop a sound understanding of the current and future 'in-use' emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles, and their influence on local air quality. Smoke emissions from TXII London taxis (black cabs) were found to be statistically higher than either earlier TX1 or later TX4 model variants, with possible implications for local air quality policy interventions such as maximum age limits for taxis.

  8. Computed tomography of the cervical compartments on the computer tomogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed tomographic anatomy of the cervical compartsments, with emphasis on the facial planes of the neck, is described. Typical disease processes within these fascial confined compartments have been documented. (orig.)

  9. Condensation within small compartments during design basis accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, D.; Cavlina, N. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); ANTOLOVIc, A. [NPP Krsko, Engineering Department, Vrbina 12, 8270 Krsko (Slovenia)

    2010-07-01

    During design basis events (LOCA, MSLB) in containment exists possibility for additional condensation within compartments and enclosures with different electrical equipment that can result in submergence of its parts and possible malfunction. The condensation within limit switch compartments (valve actuators) and attached electrical conduits during limiting LOCA and MSLB accidents in containment was analyzed using Gothic computer code with the assumptions corresponding to the ones used to generate containment EQ profiles for thermalhydraulic EQ parameters. The outcome of the analysis is volume of the liquid within the compartment and corresponding liquid level before and after additions of bottom openings (T-drains) required to drain condensed liquid. Different compartment sizes were analyzed during different LOCA and MSLB scenarios. After addition of bottom openings maximum possible condensed liquid level can not cause actuator malfunction. (authors)

  10. [Compartment syndrome following laparoscopic procedures in the lithotomy position].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donckers, Janneke; de Kruif, Jan H; van der Stappen, William A H

    2010-01-01

    A laparoscopic tubectomy in the lithotomy position was performed on a healthy 31-year-old woman, as treatment following an extra-uterine pregnancy. The operation proceeded without complications and took 60 minutes. However, on the third day following surgery the woman was diagnosed with compartment syndrome, which was treated with three-compartment fasciotomy. Compartment syndrome is a rare but dangerous complication of an operation in the lithotomy position. Since pressure on leg compartments increases with time spent in the lithotomy position, regardless of the type of stirrups used, it is important to maintain the position only as long as is necessary for the procedure. The patient's legs should be taken out of the lithotomy position as soon as possible, and the position resumed if necessary at a later stage in the procedure. This can easily be achieved with pneumatic stirrups. PMID:20619013

  11. Forests and Forest Cover - Ozark National Forest Service Compartments (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Ozark - St. Francis National Forests stand inventory data for vegetation, maintained in polygon format. Compartment is defined as a division of forest for purposes...

  12. Fulminant crural compartment syndrome preceded by psychogenic polydipsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Anton; Ugleholdt, Randi; Rasmussen, Jeppe Vejlgaard

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral anterolateral crural compartment syndrome elicited by hyponatraemia and psychogenic polydipsia. The unusual constellation of clinical findings and diminished pain expression made initial diagnostic procedures challenging. The possible pathogenesis and treatment options...

  13. Two compartment water rod for boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, B.; Wolters, B.A.

    1993-07-27

    In a fuel bundle for boiling water nuclear reactor, said fuel bundle is described including a matrix of upstanding fuel rods for undergoing nuclear reaction and generating steam, a lower tie plate for supporting the matrix of fuel rods and admitting liquid water moderator to the fuel bundle from the lower portion of said fuel bundle, an upper tie plate for fastening to at least some of the fuel rods and permitting the outflow of liquid and vapor water moderator from the upper portion of said fuel bundle, a channel surrounding said upper and lower tie plates and said fuel rods therebetween for confining moderator flow between said tie plates and around said fuel rods, and a plurality of vertically spaced apart fuel rod spacers, each said spacer surrounding each said fuel rod at the particular elevation of said spacer for maintaining said fuel rods in side-by-side relation, and a water rod for installation to said fuel bundle for supplying liquid moderator to the upper two phase region of said fuel bundle, the improvement to said water rod comprising: said water rod having a first upper compartment, and a second lower compartment, said upper compartment isolated from said lower compartment; said first upper compartment defining an open, upwardly exposed end for receiving and maintaining water in said upper water rod compartment during the power generating operation of said fuel bundle will fill with liquid by gravity flow from above; means communicated to the bottom portion of said lower compartment for receiving water from said lower portion of said fuel bundle; and, means communicated to the upper portion of said lower compartment for discharging water to the interior of said fuel bundle below the upper most spacer of said fuel bundle whereby discharge to said fuel bundle occurs in said upper two phase region of said bundle.

  14. Compartment syndrome and popliteal vascular injury complicating unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Kort, Nanne Pieter; Van Raay, Jos J. J. A. M.; van Horn, Jim R.

    2007-01-01

    Popliteal vascular injury and the compartment syndrome of the leg are rare but important complications of knee arthroplasties. Early diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance in preventing the devastating complications of these conditions. To our knowledge, these complications have not been reported previously after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the literature. Low level of suspicion may delay the diagnosis, as popliteal vascular injury and compartment syndrome are not well ...

  15. Medial compartment disease in a young Large Munsterlander

    OpenAIRE

    Coppieters, Eva; Samoy, Yves; Pey, Pascaline; Waelbers, Tim; Van Ryssen, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Medial compartment disease (MCD) is a recently recognized elbow disorder in dogs and refers to extensive cartilage erosions of the medial compartment of the elbow joint. This report describes a case of MCD in a 10-month-old Large Munsterlander that was presented with right frontleg lameness. Based on signalement, history and radiographic examination, there was a strong suspicion of a fragmented coronoid process (FCP) of the right elbow. However, arthroscopic examination revealed extensive car...

  16. Two compartment water rod for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a fuel bundle for boiling water nuclear reactor, said fuel bundle is described including a matrix of upstanding fuel rods for undergoing nuclear reaction and generating steam, a lower tie plate for supporting the matrix of fuel rods and admitting liquid water moderator to the fuel bundle from the lower portion of said fuel bundle, an upper tie plate for fastening to at least some of the fuel rods and permitting the outflow of liquid and vapor water moderator from the upper portion of said fuel bundle, a channel surrounding said upper and lower tie plates and said fuel rods therebetween for confining moderator flow between said tie plates and around said fuel rods, and a plurality of vertically spaced apart fuel rod spacers, each said spacer surrounding each said fuel rod at the particular elevation of said spacer for maintaining said fuel rods in side-by-side relation, and a water rod for installation to said fuel bundle for supplying liquid moderator to the upper two phase region of said fuel bundle, the improvement to said water rod comprising: said water rod having a first upper compartment, and a second lower compartment, said upper compartment isolated from said lower compartment; said first upper compartment defining an open, upwardly exposed end for receiving and maintaining water in said upper water rod compartment during the power generating operation of said fuel bundle will fill with liquid by gravity flow from above; means communicated to the bottom portion of said lower compartment for receiving water from said lower portion of said fuel bundle; and, means communicated to the upper portion of said lower compartment for discharging water to the interior of said fuel bundle below the upper most spacer of said fuel bundle whereby discharge to said fuel bundle occurs in said upper two phase region of said bundle

  17. Microbial investigations of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Deep sedimentary rocks are now considered to contain a significant part of the total bacterial population, but are microbiologically unexplored. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned and sub-sampled on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible, the nine cores: two in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay, two in the Dogger, five in the Triassic compartments. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the five Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized bars chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the core by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analysed. The microbial exploration we started can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for six metabolic groups to try to find microbial cells still viable. This type of experiment is difficult because of the small proportion of cultivable species, especially in these extreme environmental samples. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. Here, the limits are the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. The five Triassic samples were partly crushed in powder and inoculated in the six culture media with four NaCl concentrations, because this type of rock is known as saline or hyper-saline, and incubated at three temperatures: 30 deg. C, 55 deg. C under agitation and 70 deg. C. First results will be presented. The direct extraction of DNA needs a complete method optimisation to adapt existent procedures (using commercial kit and classical

  18. PET neuroimaging studies of [(18)F]CABS13 in a double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steven H; Holland, Jason P; Stephenson, Nickeisha A; Kassenbrock, Alina; Rotstein, Benjamin H; Daignault, Cory P; Lewis, Rebecca; Collier, Lee; Hooker, Jacob M; Vasdev, Neil

    2015-04-15

    Fluorine-18 labeled 2-fluoro-8-hydroxyquinoline ([(18)F]CABS13) is a promising positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical based on a metal chelator developed to probe the "metal hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease". Herein, a practical radiosynthesis of [(18)F]CABS13 was achieved by radiofluorination followed by deprotection of an O-benzyloxymethyl group. Automated production and formulation of [(18)F]CABS13 resulted in 19 ± 5% uncorrected radiochemical yield, relative to starting [(18)F]fluoride, with ≥95% chemical and radiochemical purities, and high specific activity (>2.5 Ci/μmol) within 80 min. Temporal PET neuroimaging studies were carried out in female transgenic B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN 1dE9)85Dbo/J (APP/PS1) and age-matched wild-type (WT) B6C3F1/J control mice at 3, 7, and 10 months of age. [(18)F]CABS13 showed an overall higher uptake and retention of radioactivity in the central nervous system of APP/PS1 mice versus WT mice with increasing age. However, PET/magnetic resonance imaging in normal nonhuman primates revealed that the tracer had low uptake in the brain and rapid formation of a hydrophilic radiometabolite. Identification of more metabolically stable (18)F-hydroxyquinolines that can be readily accessed by the radiochemical strategy presented herein is underway. PMID:25776827

  19. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  20. Non-compartment model to compartment model pharmacokinetics transformation meta-analysis – a multivariate nonlinear mixed model

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background To fulfill the model based drug development, the very first step is usually a model establishment from published literatures. Pharmacokinetics model is the central piece of model based drug development. This paper proposed an important approach to transform published non-compartment model pharmacokinetics (PK) parameters into compartment model PK parameters. This meta-analysis was performed with a multivariate nonlinear mixed model. A conditional first-order linearization approach ...

  1. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  2. Robotic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  3. Optical engine initiation: multiple compartment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Modern day propulsion systems are used in aerospace applications for different purposes. The aerospace industry typically requires propulsion systems to operate in a rocket mode in order to drive large boost vehicles. The defense industry generally requires propulsion systems to operate in an air-breathing mode in order to drive missiles. A mixed system could use an air-breathing first stage and a rocket-mode upper stage for space access. Thus, propulsion systems can be used for high mass payloads and where the payload is dominated by the fuel/oxidizer mass being used by the propulsion system. The pulse detonation wave engine (PDWE) uses an alternative type of detonation cycle to achieve the same propulsion results. The primary component of the PDWE is the combustion chamber (or detonation tube). The PDWE represents an attractive propulsion source since its engine cycle is thermodynamically closest to that of a constant volume reaction. This characteristic leads to the inference that a maximum of the potential energy of the PDWE is put into thrust and not into flow work. Consequently, the volume must be increased. The technical community has increasingly adopted the alternative choice of increasing total volume by designing the engine to include a set of banks of smaller combustion chambers. This technique increases the complexity of the ignition subsystem because the inter-chamber timing must be considered. Current approaches to igniting the PDWE have involved separate shock or blast wave initiators and chemical additives designed to enhance detonatibility. An optical ignition subsystem generates a series of optical pulses, where the optical pulses ignite the fuel/oxidizer mixture such that the chambers detonate in a desired order. The detonation system also has an optical transport subsystem for transporting the optical pulses from the optical ignition subsystem to the chambers. The use of optical ignition and transport provides a non-toxic, small, lightweight

  4. Ultrafine and respirable particle exposure during vehicle fire suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Douglas E; Fent, Kenneth W

    2015-10-01

    Vehicle fires are a common occurrence, yet few studies have reported exposures associated with burning vehicles. This article presents an assessment of firefighters' potential for ultrafine and respirable particle exposure during vehicle fire suppression training. Fires were initiated within the engine compartment and passenger cabins of three salvaged vehicles, with subsequent water suppression by fire crews. Firefighter exposures were monitored with an array of direct reading particle and air quality instruments. A flexible metallic duct and blower drew contaminants to the instrument array, positioned at a safe distance from the burning vehicles, with the duct inlet positioned at the nozzle operator's shoulder. The instruments measured the particle number, active surface area, respirable particle mass, photoelectric response, aerodynamic particle size distributions, and air quality parameters. Although vehicle fires were suppressed quickly (cabin fires averaged 2.04 × 10(5) particles per cm(3), 2.7 mg m(-3) respirable particle mass, 320 μm(2) cm(-3) active particle surface area, and 34 (arbitrary units) in photoelectric response. Passenger cabin fires were a greater potential source of exposure than engine compartment fires. The wind direction and the relative position of the fire crew to the stationary burning vehicle played a primary role in fire crews' potential for exposure. We recommend that firefighters wear self-contained breathing apparatus during all phases of the vehicle fire response to significantly reduce their potential for particulate, vapor, and gaseous exposures. PMID:26308547

  5. Effect of arthritis in other compartment after unicompartmental arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi, Ali; Lu, Bo; Plate, Johannes F; Lang, Jason E; Poehling, Gary G; Jinnah, Riyaz H

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of robotic-assisted (MAKO Surgical Corp.) unicondylar replacement in the treatment for knee osteoarthritis after the initial surgical insult is worn off to evaluate the impact of residual patellofemoral and lateral osteoarthritis on the outcome of medial unicompartmental knee replacement. One hundred and thirty-four patients who underwent uncomplicated 144 robotic-assisted medial unicondylar replacements for knee arthritis were identified and studied. Original radiographs were used to classify severity of patellofemoral and lateral compartmental osteoarthritis in these patients. Severity of patellofemoral and lateral compartmental osteoarthritis was analyzed against Oxford and Knee Society scores and amount of ipsilateral residual knee symptoms at 6 months postoperative period. Preoperative Oxford and Knee Society scores, other comorbidities and long-term disability were studied as confounding variables. We found significant improvement in symptoms and scores in spite of other compartment diseases. Poorer outcome was seen in association with comorbidities and long-term disability but not when radiographic signs of arthritis in the other compartments were present. Six patients required revision of which three had (lateral facet) patellofemoral disease in the original X-rays. In conclusion, there is a higher amount of postoperative retained symptoms, but similar outcome when there is radiographic disease in the other compartments. However, when symptoms are severe enough to necessitate revision, this is due to the lateral facet of patellofemoral compartment and not lateral compartment disease. PMID:23771595

  6. Pepper CabZIP63 acts as a positive regulator during Ralstonia solanacearum or high temperature-high humidity challenge in a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Zhiqin; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Lin, Wei; Wang, Rongzhang; Yu, Huanxin; Mou, Shaoliang; Hussain, Ansar; Cheng, Wei; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-04-01

    CaWRKY40 is known to act as a positive regulator in the response of pepper (Capsicum annuum) to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI) or high temperature-high humidity (HTHH), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Herein, we report that CabZIP63, a pepper bZIP family member, participates in this process by regulating the expression of CaWRKY40. CabZIP63 was found to localize in the nuclei, be up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, bind to promoters of both CabZIP63(pCabZIP63) and CaWRKY40(pCaWRKY40), and activate pCabZIP63- and pCaWRKY40-driven β-glucuronidase expression in a C- or G-box-dependent manner. Silencing of CabZIP63 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in pepper plants significantly attenuated their resistance to RSI and tolerance to HTHH, accompanied by down-regulation of immunity- or thermotolerance-associated CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1, and CaHSP24. Hypersensitive response-mediated cell death and expression of the tested immunity- and thermotolerance-associated marker genes were induced by transient overexpression (TOE) of CabZIP63, but decreased by that of CabZIP63-SRDX. Additionally, binding of CabZIP63 to pCaWRKY40 was up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, and the transcript level of CaWRKY40 and binding of CaWRKY40 to the promoters of CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1 and CaHSP24 were up-regulated by TOE of CabZIP63. On the other hand, CabZIP63 was also up-regulated transcriptionally by TOE of CaWRKY40. The data suggest collectively that CabZIP63 directly or indirectly regulates the expression of CaWRKY40 at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, forming a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40 during pepper's response to RSI or HTHH. Altogether, our data will help to elucidate the underlying mechanism of crosstalk between pepper's response to RSI and HTHH. PMID:26936828

  7. Automotive Vehicle Including a Security Arrangement Provided with an Inflatable Protective Bag

    OpenAIRE

    Chevroulet, Tristan; Béroud, Jean-Claude

    1996-01-01

    The invention concerns an automotive vehicle. This vehicle comprises a dashboard , steering control handles distanced from the dashboard, the dashboard comprising a compartment closed by a flap and in which is arranged a protective bag of supple material at least partially gas-tight, the bag being coupled to a gas source and one or more accelerometers for automatically releasing the gas source in response to abnormal behaviour of the vehicle, in that the bag spreads out, in the inflated state...

  8. Alpha contamination levels in SMF south cell and compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the detailed contamination survey performed in the Shielded Materials Facility (SMF) South Cell and the four compartments used during the CsCl activities. Smears were obtained at each operating station in South Cell and analyzed at the 325 Building. The smear results indicate that the highest contamination levels are in Compartment 1 and South Cell proper, with significantly lower contamination levels measured in the other three compartments. Although some of the smears indicated the presence of alpha contamination, it will be shown that the source of the alpha contamination was cross-contamination during processing in the 325 Building hot cells and that the SMF is free of alpha contamination. The alpha-free status of South Cell is consistent with process knowledge of previous South Cell activities

  9. Psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artmann, A; Henninger, W

    2001-12-01

    Documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. To provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (Ara ararauna, Ara chloroptera, Ara macao, and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). Skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the CT scans. New morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some compartments were discovered. The paranasal sinuses of these macaws consist of two unpaired rostral compartments, followed caudally by eight paired compartments. Histologic examinations revealed that the walls of the paranasal sinuses consist of flat or cubic monolayer epithelium with underlying connective tissue. The described method of CT examination of these macaws, especially the positioning, scan orientation and parameters, and documentation of the normal paranasal sinus, provides a basis for future clinical use of CT. PMID:12785700

  10. Imperfect pitchfork bifurcation in asymmetric two-compartment granular gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yin; Li Yin-Chang; Liu Rui; Cui Fei-Fei; Pierre Evesque; Hou Mei-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The clustering behavior of a mono-disperse granular gas is experimentally studied in an asymmetric two-compartment setup.Unlike the random clustering in either compartment in the case of symmetric configuration when lowering the shaking strength to below a critical value,the directed clustering is observed,which corresponds to an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation.Numerical solutions of the flux equation using a modified simple flux function show qualitative agreements with the experimental results.The potential application of this asymmetric structure is discussed.

  11. Prediction of smoke properties and obscuration in compartment fires

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, J. B. M.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the simulation and experimental investigation of a heptane pool fire, burning within a small compartment, in which interaction between a number of key physical processes is amplified. In particular, the configuration emphasises the coupling of buoyancy induced ventilation, smoke production and radiation heat transfer to the liquid fuel surface, from the luminous flame zone, from the smoke fil...

  12. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  13. Rare times rare: The hyponatremia, rhabdomyolysis, anterior compartment syndrome sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Ina; Gelber, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Lesson Primary polydipsia occurs in up to 25% of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia), related to the disease, its treatment or both. Urine output fails to match intake >10 L/day and water intoxication may develop. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of hyponatremia, and an acute anterior compartment syndrome of the leg, an emergency, may be very rarely associated.

  14. Well-leg compartment syndrome after gynecological laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard-Kjer, Diana H; Boesgaard-Kjer, Daniel; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    positioning of the legs during operation (lithotomy and Lloyd-Davies positions), a prolonged operation, external compression and vascular insults, both pre- and intra-operatively. To prevent well-leg compartment syndrome it is important to improve knowledge of the condition among surgeons and nursing staff...

  15. Talofibular compartment of the ankle joint after recent ankle sprain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of predicting the condition of the anterior talofibular ligament from the shape of the lateral compartment of the ankle joint was investigated in patients with recent ankle sprain. The diagnostic value of the method was found to be restricted. (Auth.)

  16. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of conveyances or compartments. 123.24 Section 123.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances...

  17. Compartment syndrome and popliteal vascular injury complicating unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Nanne Pieter; Van Raay, Jos J. J. A. M.; van Horn, Jim R.

    2007-01-01

    Popliteal vascular injury and the compartment syndrome of the leg are rare but important complications of knee arthroplasties. Early diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance in preventing the devastating complications of these conditions. To our knowledge, these complications have not bee

  18. Engaging the lysosomal compartment to combat B cell malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronbaek, K.; Jaattela, M.

    2009-01-01

    generation of therapeutic anti-CD20 mAbs. In this issue of the JCI, Ivanov and colleagues identify the lysosomal compartment as a target for type II mAbs (see the related article beginning on page 2143). These data encourage the further clinical development of type II mAbs as well as other lysosome...

  19. Compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eZechmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression and important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state of plants through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g. glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol. Thus this review will reveal the compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

  20. "Compartment"-syndrom på underben, atypisk traumemekanisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael H; Nielsen, Henrik Toft; Wester, Jens Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (CS) is a limb threatening condition which warrants emergency treatment. We describe a case of a 37-year-old man with acute CS developed without major trauma. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment by decompressive fasciotomy is of vital importance in order to preserve li...

  1. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  2. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  3. Gluteal compartment syndrome after prostatectomy caused by incorrect positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Jens; Ladurner, R; Ozimek, A; Vogel, T; Hallfeldt, K K; Mussack, T

    2006-04-28

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is an uncommon and rare disease. Most reasonable causes for the development of this disease are trauma, drug induced coma, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, sickle cell associated muscle infarction, incorrect positioning during surgical procedures and prolonged pressure in patients with altered consciousness levels. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, especially in postoperative patient where sedation or peridural anaesthesia can confound the neurological examination. Early signs include gluteal tenderness, decrease in vibratory sensation during clinical examination and increasing CK in laboratory findings. We present a case of a 52 year-old patient, who developed gluteal compartment syndrome after radical prostatectomy in lithotomic position. After operation, diuresis decreased [pain in the gluteal region and both thighs. His thighs and the gluteal region were swollen. Passive stretch of the thighs caused enormous pain. The compartment pressure was 92 mmHg. Therefore, emergency fasciotomy was performed successfully. The gluteal compartment syndrome was most likely caused by elevated pressure on the gluteal muscle during operation. We suggest heightened awareness of positioning the patient on the operating table is important especially in obese patients with lengthy operating procedures. PMID:16720283

  4. Structural,Electronic Properties and Chemical Bonding of Borate Li4CaB2O6 under High Pressure:an Ab Initio Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; TANG Jin; CHENG Xin-Lu

    2008-01-01

    We calculate structural,electromc properties and chemical bonding of borate Li4CaB2O6 under high pressure by means of the local density-functional pseudopotential approach.The equilibrium lattice constants,density of states,Mulliken population,bond lengths,bond angles as well as the pressure dependence of the band gap are presented.Analysis of the simulated high pressure band structure suggests that borate Li4CaB2O6 can be used as the semi-conductor optical material.Based on the Mulliken population analysis,it is found that the electron transfer of the Li atom is very different from that of other atoms in the studied range of high pressures.The charge populations of the Li atom decrease with the pressure up to 60GPa,then increase with the pressure.

  5. Ergonomics Study on Tractor Cab Based on Manikin%基于人体模型的拖拉机驾驶室人机工程学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海莎; 章倩; 朱思洪

    2012-01-01

    基于样机“黄海金马1024”型拖拉机驾驶室的数据,在Pro/E中建立了优化设计后的拖拉机驾驶室三维模型。利用CATIA软件中的HumanBuilder模块,编写了符合我国人体测量数据的中国人群文件程序,建立了我国拖拉机驾驶员的人体模型。在CATIA软件平台下,利用人体模型对拖拉机驾驶室人机工程学设计进行了研究,可为今后人机工程学在拖拉机驾驶室设计领域的应用研究提供参考依据。%Based on manikin according to the data of the "Huanghai Jinma 1204" type tractor cab, the paper built 3D model of the improved tractor cab in Pro/E, established Chinese population document program, and built Chinese tractor drivers' manikin with the tool "Human Builder" in CATIA. This paper mainly studies the tractor cab design based on ergonomics in CATIA with the created Chinese tractor driver manikin,and which can provide a reference for the further study in this area.

  6. Effect of hydrogen combustion in the primary pump compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen combustion in a nuclear power plant may threaten the integrity of some important systems and components. In this paper, the effect of hydrogen combustion in the primary pump compartment is analyzed by different initial hydrogen concentration and igniter locations using Computational Fluid Dynamics method. The results show that the combustion is confined to a limited area without pump damage at about 6.6% hydrogen volume fraction. Once igniting the hydrogen, the combustion affects the whole compartment at the 12% hydrogen volume fraction. The stress caused by the great temperature gradient or high temperature may damage the primary pump. Igniters at the lower location accelerate the combustion process and cause a threat to the pump integrity. (authors)

  7. Tracer Dispersion in a Multi-compartment Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Skvortsov, A; Gamble, G; Roberts, M; Ilaya, O; Pitaliadda, D

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study of the tracer dispersion in a complex structure is presented. A point source of tracer (dyed salt) was placed inside a multi-compartment structure embedded in water tank. This experimental setting corresponds to a hazardous tracer release inside the engineering structure (building, ship, aircarft etc). A system of conductivity sensors was deployed to monitor the propagation of a tracer plume in the structure, including tracer trapping inside some compartments and its release to the outside environment through the external openings. The experimental data is processed by employing the ideas of scaling and self-similarity of underlying transport processes. The established and validated scaling laws provide a rigorous way to up-scale the results of laboratory modeling to real operational scenarios and can be used as an important step in the development of risk-assessment models for the first responders to hazardous releases. Keywords: hazardous plume, tracer dispersion, diffusion and advecti...

  8. Magma chambers: Formation, local stresses, excess pressures, and compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2012-09-01

    An existing magma chamber is normally a necessary condition for the generation of a large volcanic edifice. Most magma chambers form through repeated magma injections, commonly sills, and gradually expand and change their shapes. Highly irregular magma-chamber shapes are thermo-mechanically unstable; common long-term equilibrium shapes are comparatively smooth and approximate those of ellipsoids of revolution. Some chambers, particularly small and sill-like, may be totally molten. Most chambers, however, are only partially molten, the main part of the chamber being crystal mush, a porous material. During an eruption, magma is drawn from the crystal mush towards a molten zone beneath the lower end of the feeder dyke. Magma transport to the feeder dyke, however, depends on the chamber's internal structure; in particular on whether the chamber contains pressure compartments that are, to a degree, isolated from other compartments. It is only during large drops in the hydraulic potential beneath the feeder dyke that other compartments become likely to supply magma to the erupting compartment, thereby contributing to its excess pressure (the pressure needed to rupture a magma chamber) and the duration of the eruption. Simple analytical models suggest that during a typical eruption, the excess-pressure in the chamber decreases exponentially. This result applies to a magma chamber that (a) is homogeneous and totally fluid (contains no compartments), (b) is not subject to significant replenishment (inflow of new magma into the chamber) during the eruption, and (c) contains magma where exsolution of gas has no significant effect on the excess pressure. For a chamber consisting of pressure compartments, the exponential excess-pressure decline applies primarily to a single erupting compartment. When more than one compartment contributes magma to the eruption, the excess pressure may decline much more slowly and irregularly. Excess pressure is normally similar to the in

  9. Cosmeceutical vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Consumers will pay a premium for high-performance skin and hair care products. The demand exists, and in return for the high cost, consumers expect the product to perform as claimed and to meet aesthetic standards beyond many products found in the mass market. To be successful in this highly competitive market, products must function as claimed or consumers will not repurchase. Effective contemporary high-end products must be properly formulated in nonirritating vehicles that consumers will perceive as elegant. PMID:19695476

  10. Two-compartment model of radioimmunotherapy delivered through cerebrospinal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ping [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY (United States); Smith-Jones, Peter; Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Zanzonico, Pat; Humm, John [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using {sup 131}I-3F8 injected into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was a safe modality for the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases (JCO, 25:5465, 2007). A single-compartment pharmacokinetic model described previously (JNM 50:1324, 2009) showed good fitting to the CSF radioactivity data obtained from patients. We now describe a two-compartment model to account for the ventricular reservoir of {sup 131}I-3F8 and to identify limiting factors that may impact therapeutic ratio. Each parameter was examined for its effects on (1) the area under the radioactivity concentration curve of the bound antibody (AUC[C{sub IAR}]), (2) that of the unbound antibody AUC[C{sub IA}], and (3) their therapeutic ratio (AUC[C{sub IAR}]/AUC[C{sub IA}]). Data fitting showed that CSF kBq/ml data fitted well using the two-compartment model (R = 0.95 {+-} 0.03). Correlations were substantially better when compared to the one-compartment model (R = 0.92 {+-} 0.11 versus 0.77 {+-} 0.21, p = 0.005). In addition, we made the following new predictions: (1) Increasing immunoreactivity of {sup 131}I-3F8 from 10% to 90% increased both (AUC[C{sub IAR}]) and therapeutic ratio (AUC[C{sub IAR}]/AUC[C{sub IA}]) by 7.4 fold, (2) When extrapolated to the clinical setting, the model predicted that if {sup 131}I-3F8 could be split into 4 doses of 1.4 mg each and given at {>=}24 hours apart, an antibody affinity of K{sub D} of 4 x 10{sup -9} at 50% immunoreactivity were adequate in order to deliver {>=}100 Gy to tumor cells while keeping normal CSF exposure to <10 Gy. This model predicted that immunoreactivity, affinity and optimal scheduling of antibody injections were crucial in improving therapeutic index. (orig.)

  11. Three STS 26 astronauts training in the Crew Compartment trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Three astronauts named in January 1987 as part of a five-member crew for NASA's first flight since the Challenger accident are shown in a photo session of July 1986. Left to right are Astronauts John M. (Mike) Lounge, Richard O. Covey and David C. Hilmers. Lounge and Hilmers will serve as Mission specialists for the STS 26 flight and Covey will serve as pilot. The three are on the middeck of JSC's one-G Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  12. Dynamic Characterization of Materials from a Refrigerator Compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Ilka, Bringhenti; Martinez, Jesus Alberto Ortiz; Lenzi, Arcanjo; Pellegrini, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic properties of materials are important parameters for numerical vibro-acoustics analysis of a household refrigerator. The compartment of a household refrigerator is typically composed by three types of materials: hot rolled steel, polyurethane rigid foam (PUR) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS). In this work, the mechanical properties (dynamical Young‟s modulus and loss factor) of these materials were determinate in order to comprehend its frequency-dependent behavior to use them p...

  13. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  14. Congenital absence of superficial posterior compartment calf muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Tibrewal, Saket; Alyas, Faisal; Vemulapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Although various congenital abnormalities have been described, congenital absence of calf musculature is extremely rare, with only one report on its complete absence. We are the first to describe a case of congenital absence of muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the calf presenting in a toddler. The child presented with a history of a painless limp, however no significant difference was found in functional gait analysis. We suggest that such cases should be monitored and pare...

  15. Ecological Modelling with the Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo, de, P.J.; Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments is a framework based on stochastic multiset rewriting in a compartmentalised setting originally developed for the modelling and analysis of biological interactions. In this paper, we propose to use this calculus for the description of ecological systems and we provide the modelling guidelines to encode within the calculus some of the main interactions leading ecosystems evolution. As a case study, we model the distribution of height of Croton wagneri, a sh...

  16. Cortical alveoli of Paramecium: a vast submembranous calcium storage compartment

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The plasma membrane of Paramecium is underlain by a continuous layer of membrane vesicles known as cortical alveoli, whose function was unknown but whose organization had suggested some resemblance with muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. The occurrence of antimonate precipitates within the alveoli first indicated to us that they may indeed correspond to a vast calcium storage site. To analyze the possible involvement of this compartment in calcium sequestration more directly, we have developed a ...

  17. Opioid overdose with gluteal compartment syndrome and acute peripheral neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Adrish, Muhammad; Duncalf, Richard; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda; Venkatram, Sindhaghatta

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Gluteal compartment syndrome • acute peripheral nauropathy Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Management of emergency care Background: Heroin addiction is common, with an estimated 3.7 million Americans reporting to have used it at some point in their lives. Complications of opiate overdose include infection, rhabdomyolysis, respiratory depression and central or peripheral nervous system neurological ...

  18. Behaviour of a concrete structure in a real compartment fire

    OpenAIRE

    Gillie, M.; Stratford, T.; Chen, J.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In July 2006, a full-scale compartment fire was set in an existing block of flats in Dalmarnock, Glasgow, Scotland. Prior to ignition, the structure was instrumented with deflection gauges, thermocouples and strain gauges. The growth of the fire was also carefully monitored. The resulting data provided a unique record of the behaviour of a concrete structure in fire through a heating-cooling cycle. The results show significant variation in structural temperatures within a relatively small com...

  19. Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denae Wagner

    Full Text Available For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9% when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%. When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%. The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%. This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population.

  20. SACHET, Dynamic Fission Products Inventory in PWR Multiple Compartment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: SACHET evaluates the dynamic fission product inventories in the multiple compartment system of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. 2 - Method of solution: SACHET utilizes a matrix of fission product core inventory which is previously calculated by the ORIGEN code. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Liquid wastes such as chemical waste and detergent waste are not included

  1. Engineered protein nano-compartments for targeted enzyme localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Choudhary

    Full Text Available Compartmentalized co-localization of enzymes and their substrates represents an attractive approach for multi-enzymatic synthesis in engineered cells and biocatalysis. Sequestration of enzymes and substrates would greatly increase reaction efficiency while also protecting engineered host cells from potentially toxic reaction intermediates. Several bacteria form protein-based polyhedral microcompartments which sequester functionally related enzymes and regulate their access to substrates and other small metabolites. Such bacterial microcompartments may be engineered into protein-based nano-bioreactors, provided that they can be assembled in a non-native host cell, and that heterologous enzymes and substrates can be targeted into the engineered compartments. Here, we report that recombinant expression of Salmonella enterica ethanolamine utilization (eut bacterial microcompartment shell proteins in E. coli results in the formation of polyhedral protein shells. Purified recombinant shells are morphologically similar to the native Eut microcompartments purified from S. enterica. Surprisingly, recombinant expression of only one of the shell proteins (EutS is sufficient and necessary for creating properly delimited compartments. Co-expression with EutS also facilitates the encapsulation of EGFP fused with a putative Eut shell-targeting signal sequence. We also demonstrate the functional localization of a heterologous enzyme (β-galactosidase targeted to the recombinant shells. Together our results provide proof-of-concept for the engineering of protein nano-compartments for biosynthesis and biocatalysis.

  2. Lemniscal and extralemniscal compartments in the VPM of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haidarliu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM of the rat contains at least two major vibrissa-representing compartments: the dorsomedial (VPMdm, which belongs to the lemniscal afferent pathway, and the ventrolateral (VPMvl, which belongs to the extralemniscal afferent pathway. Although input-output projections and functional characteristics that distinguish these two compartments were recently clarified, a comprehensive structural analysis of these compartments and the border between them was lacking. This paper addresses structural and functional relationships between the VPMdm and VPMvl. We found that the size of the VPM is almost constant across individual rats. Next, we computed a canonical map of the VPM in the oblique plane, where structural borders are best visualized. Using the canonical map, and sequential slices cut in oblique and coronal planes, we determined the border between the VPMdm and VPMvl in the standard coronal plane, and verified it with in-vivo extracellular recordings. The position of the border between these two vibrissal sub-nuclei changes along the rostrocaudal extent within the VPM due to the relative sizes of these sub-nuclei at any point. The border between the VPMdm and VPMvl, which was revealed by this technique, can now be included in atlases of the rat brain and should facilitate experimental correlation of tactile functions with thalamic regions.

  3. Bioavailability of cyanide in the different environmental compartments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Vascular plants possess an enzyme system that detoxifies cyanide by converting it to the amino acid asparagine. Hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz×Salix alba L.) were exposed to cyanide to determine whether willows can transport and metabolize this compound. Pre-rooted trees were grown in different environmental compartmentsspiked or irrigated with potassium cyanide at24.0 ±0.5℃. Cyanide in compartments, in air and in tissues of plants was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Results from this study indicated that large amounts of applied cyanide was removed from the systems during the presence of willows. Growing compartments of plants have a strong influence on the removal rates of cyanide. Little or no initial cyanide was detected in plant materials. Volatilization of cyanide was not occurring. Mass balance studies showed that applied cyanide was significantly metabolized during transport through willows cuttings. However, there was a clear difference between the metabolism rates of cyanide by willows exposed to different environmental compartments. The highest cyanide metabolism rate was found at the treatment with transport and metabolism of cyanide in plants is likely and phytoremediation of cyanide is a feasible option for cleaning soils and water contaminated with cyanide.

  4. Compartments in a marine food web associated with phylogeny, body mass, and habitat structure

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Enrico L.; Eva M. Albert; Fortuna, Miguel A.; Bascompte, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    A long-standing question in community ecology is whether food webs are organized in compartments, where species within the same compartment interact frequently among themselves, but show fewer interactions with species from other compartments. Finding evidence for this community organization is important since compartmentalization may strongly affect food web robustness to perturbation. However, few studies have found unequivocal evidence of compartments, and none has quantifie...

  5. Pneumococcal sepsis presenting as acute compartment syndrome of the lower limbs: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Doddi Sudeendra; Singhal Tarun; Sinha Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency requiring immediate fasciotomy. Spontaneous onset of acute compartment syndrome of the lower limbs is rare. We present a very rare case of pneumococcal sepsis leading to spontaneous acute compartment syndrome. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian man presented as an emergency with spontaneous onset of pain in both legs and signs of compartment syndrome. This was confirmed on fasciotomy. Blood culture grew Streptococ...

  6. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. 105.25-7 Section 105.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  7. Pneumococcal sepsis presenting as acute compartment syndrome of the lower limbs: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddi Sudeendra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency requiring immediate fasciotomy. Spontaneous onset of acute compartment syndrome of the lower limbs is rare. We present a very rare case of pneumococcal sepsis leading to spontaneous acute compartment syndrome. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian man presented as an emergency with spontaneous onset of pain in both legs and signs of compartment syndrome. This was confirmed on fasciotomy. Blood culture grew Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusion Sepsis should be strongly suspected in bilateral acute compartment syndrome of spontaneous onset.

  8. Permeability of iodide in multilamellar liposomes modeled by two compartments and a reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, S E

    1977-07-14

    A previously published rate law for the diffusion of iodide from multilamellar egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes (Schullery, S.E. (1975) Chem. Phys. Lipids 14, 49-58) is fitted to the relatively simple mathematical model of two compartments in series with a reservoir. All of the inner liposome compartments are assumed to behave as effectively one compartment in series with the liposome's outermost compartment. Based on this model, reasonable values are calculated for the fraction of the total solution trapped by liposomes which is in the outermost liposome compartment, 17%, and the permeability coefficient of iodide against isotonic, mixed iodide-chloride solution, 2-10(-9) cm/s. PMID:884087

  9. compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Uli; Oswald, Sascha; Thullner, Martin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    A conceptual computer model has been constructed to simulate the compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands. The model accounts for flow and transport in the variably saturated porous medium as well as biogeochemical change reactions. The most concentrated contaminants such as BTEX, MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons and dissolved as well as mineral phase electron acceptors are considered. Also of major interest are reduced species with high oxygen demand such as ammonium. The influence of marsh plants on microbial activity, gas transport, water balance and contaminant fate in general is matter of current investigation. The constructed wetlands consist of a coarse sand or fine gravel porous medium. Marsh plants were introduced after installation, however, a number of control basins are operated unplanted. Water levels and through flow rates are adjusted to optimize the remediation efficiency. The system is likely to be neither reaction nor mixing limited, thus both, values of dispersivity and degradation kinetics may be crucial for remediation efficiency. Biogeochemical modelling is able to delineate in detail (i) the zonation of processes, (ii) temporal variation (breakthrough curves) and (iii) mass balance information. The contributions of biodegradation and volatilisation and the influence of plants (compartment transfer) can generally best be evaluated by the component's mass balance. More efficient mixing is expected in the wetlands with open water body which leads to both, more biodegradation and volatilisation. An important task is to quantify the role of plants and root systems for contaminant attenuation in constructed wetlands. The long term goal of investigation is to allow for predictions for the design of large scale compartment transfer wetlands that may be applied to remediate the site as a whole.

  10. Two-compartment environmental transport model for tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological doses to the public result from both natural and man-made radioactivity. By far, the greatest part of radiation received by the population comes from natural sources. In addition to this natural or background radiation there are the man-made radiological doses due to the radionuclides released from nuclear facilities. The release of any potential radioactive pollutant to the environment during routine operation of a Nuclear Power Plant should be the subject of appropriate controls and assessments. CANDU reactors are both moderated and cooled by heavy water (D2O). Tritium is produced in CANDU reactors by neutron reactions with deuterium, boron, and lithium and by ternary fission. Very small amounts of tritiated heavy water DTO may escape from moderator and heat transport systems of CANDU reactors during maintenance and normal operation. DTO is rapidly transferred from air to human body by inhalation and through the skin. Special dryers were designed and used to remove moisture from different ventilation systems of the reactor building in order to maintain the tritium doses well below the limits established by the national authorities. The purpose of the present paper is to present a two-compartment model to estimate the equilibrium distribution of tritiated water between air and soil media, that would result from gaseous tritium emission from Cernavoda NPP. Using the principle of mass conservation, the model provides an algorithm for predicting equilibrium specific activities of tritiated water in the soil and air compartments. The following results are given: Landscape proprieties for the Cernavoda NPP environment; Annual gaseous tritium activity releases at Cernavoda NPP; Tritium turnover rates for the air and soil compartments; Tritium concentrations and inventories and a comparison between estimated and measured tritium levels in air and soil, respectively. (authors)

  11. Fire analysis for compartment of ITER tritium SDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the fire accident analysis for the compartment where the ITER tritium storage and delivery system (hereafter SDS) glove boxes are installed is to estimate the integrity of the glove box. Fires in grouped electrical cable trays pose distinct fire hazards within the compartment where the SDS glove boxes are installed. The nuclear industry has defined two general types of electrical cables, referred to as IEEE 383 qualified and unqualified. According to NUREG/CR 4679 and DOT TSC UMAT 83 4 1, a damage threshold temperature of 370 .deg. C and a critical heat flux of 10 kW/m2 have been selected for IEEE 383 qualified cable. A damage threshold temperature of 218 .deg. C and a critical heat flux of 5 kW/m2 have been selected for IEEE 383 unqualified cable. Cable tray fires can occur from various sources. The scenarios of concern include a fire within a cable tray and as exposure fire. However, fire within the compartment where the SDS glove boxes are installed could be happened due to over currents. Therefore, it is common practice to consider only self ignited cable fires to occur in power cable trays since they carry enough electrical energy for ignition. In general, electrical cables typically do not carry enough electrical energy for self ignition. According to NUREG/CR 5384, it was concluded that electrical cables which passed the IEEE 383 74 flame test were less likely to propagate electrically initiated fires. However, the scenario in this fire accident analysis assumed that the IEEE 383 qualified cable is burned completely

  12. Renal compartment segmentation in DCE-MRI images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Le Minh, Hung; Tim Cheng, Kwang-Ting; Sung, Kyung Hyun; Liu, Wenyu

    2016-08-01

    Renal compartment segmentation from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) images is an important task for functional kidney evaluation. Despite advancement in segmentation methods, most of them focus on segmenting an entire kidney on CT images, there still lacks effective and automatic solutions for accurate segmentation of internal renal structures (i.e. cortex, medulla and renal pelvis) from DCE-MRI images. In this paper, we introduce a method for renal compartment segmentation which can robustly achieve high segmentation accuracy for a wide range of DCE-MRI data, and meanwhile requires little manual operations and parameter settings. The proposed method consists of five main steps. First, we pre-process the image time series to reduce the motion artifacts caused by the movement of the patients during the scans and enhance the kidney regions. Second, the kidney is segmented as a whole based on the concept of Maximally Stable Temporal Volume (MSTV). The proposed MSTV detects anatomical structures that are homogeneous in the spatial domain and stable in terms of temporal dynamics. MSTV-based kidney segmentation is robust to noises and does not require a training phase. It can well adapt to kidney shape variations caused by renal dysfunction. Third, voxels in the segmented kidney are described by principal components (PCs) to remove temporal redundancy and noises. And then k-means clustering of PCs is applied to separate voxels into multiple clusters. Fourth, the clusters are automatically labeled as cortex, medulla and pelvis based on voxels' geometric locations and intensity distribution. Finally, an iterative refinement method is introduced to further remove noises in each segmented compartment. Experiments on 14 real clinical kidney datasets and 12 synthetic dataset demonstrate that results produced by our method match very well with those segmented manually and the performance of our method is superior to the other five existing methods. PMID:27236222

  13. Molecular targeting of intracellular compartments specifically in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Hetal; Gibo, Denise M; Debinski, Waldemar

    2010-05-01

    We have implemented a strategy in which a genetically engineered, single-chain protein specifically recognizes cancer cells and is trafficked to a targeted subcellular compartment, such as the nucleus. The recombinant protein termed IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS has a triple functional property: (1) it binds a cancer-associated receptor, interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13Rα2), using modified IL-13 ligand, IL-13.E13K; (2) it exports its C-terminal portion out of the endosomal compartment using Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE) translocation domain (D2); and (3) it travels to and accumulates in the nucleus guided by the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Here, we have demonstrated that this protein is transported into the brain tumor cells' nucleus, using 3 different methods of protein conjugation to dyes for the purpose of direct visualization of the protein's intracellular trafficking. IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS, and not the controls such as IL-13.E13K-D2, IL-13.E13K-NLS, or IL-13.E13K, accumulated in nuclei very efficiently, which increased with the time the cells were exposed to the protein. Also, IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS did not exhibit nuclear transport in cells with low expression levels of IL-13Rα2. Thus, it is possible to recognize cancer cells through their specific receptors and deliver a conjugated protein that travels specifically to the nucleus. Hence, our molecular targeting strategy succeeded in generating a single-chain proteinaceous agent capable of delivering drugs/labels needed to be localized to the cells' nuclei or potentially any other subcellular compartment, for their optimal efficacy or ability to exert their specific action. PMID:20740056

  14. Evaluation of thermal conditions inside a vehicle cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orzechowski Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several important factors influencing road accidents. Temperature inside the vehicle is ranked third after alcohol and seat belts. For this reason, maintaining thermal comfort in the passenger compartment is essential. Thermal comfort is provided by the air conditioning system, which consumes much energy. In the case of electrically powered vehicles, this results in a shorter range. Optimization of such systems is therefore required. This paper proposes a set of equations describing the thermal conditions inside the vehicle, which are the result of appropriate energy balances for air, interior elements, and glass. Variable transmission conditions are included for transparent materials exposed to short and long wave radiation. The study focused on unsteady air-conditioning of the vehicle interior. The measurement data was compared with the results obtained through numerical solutions of the proposed set of equations.

  15. Evaluation of thermal conditions inside a vehicle cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Tadeusz; Skrobacki, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    There are several important factors influencing road accidents. Temperature inside the vehicle is ranked third after alcohol and seat belts. For this reason, maintaining thermal comfort in the passenger compartment is essential. Thermal comfort is provided by the air conditioning system, which consumes much energy. In the case of electrically powered vehicles, this results in a shorter range. Optimization of such systems is therefore required. This paper proposes a set of equations describing the thermal conditions inside the vehicle, which are the result of appropriate energy balances for air, interior elements, and glass. Variable transmission conditions are included for transparent materials exposed to short and long wave radiation. The study focused on unsteady air-conditioning of the vehicle interior. The measurement data was compared with the results obtained through numerical solutions of the proposed set of equations.

  16. Foot posture in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feller Julian A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot posture has long been considered to contribute to the development of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions as it may alter the mechanical alignment and dynamic function of the lower limb. This study compared foot posture in people with and without medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA using a range of clinical foot measures. The reliability of the foot measures was also assessed. Methods The foot posture of 32 patients with clinically and radiographically-confirmed OA predominantly in the medial compartment of the knee and 28 asymptomatic age-matched healthy controls was investigated using the foot posture index (FPI, vertical navicular height and drop, and the arch index. Independent t tests and effect size (Cohen's d were used to investigate the differences between the groups in the foot posture measurements. Results Significant differences were found between the control and the knee OA groups in relation to the FPI (1.35 ± 1.43 vs. 2.46 ± 2.18, p = 0.02; d = 0.61, medium effect size, navicular drop (0.02 ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 ± 0.01, p = 0.01; d = 1.02, large effect size and the arch index (0.22 ± 0.04 vs. 0.26 ± 0.04, p = 0.04; d = 1.02, large effect size. No significant difference was found for vertical navicular height (0.24 ± 0.03 vs. 0.23 ± 0.03, p = 0.54; d = 0.04, negligible effect size. Conclusion People with medial compartment knee OA exhibit a more pronated foot type compared to controls. It is therefore recommended that the assessment of patients with knee OA in clinical practice should include simple foot measures, and that the potential influence of foot structure and function on the efficacy of foot orthoses in the management of medial compartment knee OA be further investigated.

  17. Simulation of a compartment fire using a zone model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhong; GUO Zaifu; JI Jingwei; FAN Weicheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the zone modeling analysis of a single compartment flashover fire. Two criteria are applied in the model to judge the onset of ignition for different combustibles. By calculating the total received energy through radiation or the surface temperature of the combustible, the fire growth can be quantitatively determined. The improved zone fire model shows the influence of different combustibles upon the fire growth. This model is better than the traditional zone model because the common criteria of flashover, i.e. an upper layer temperature of 600℃ and the heat radiation intensity received by the floor of 20 kW/m2, have not been applied in it.

  18. Distribution of perfluorinated compounds in blood compartments during prenatal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Flemming; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a class of persistent environmental toxicants widely used in industrial and consumer products due to their unique chemical and physical properties. Knowledge on the health effects in humans is sparse and have most often been studied only for PFOS and PFOA, but...... use of other PFCs are emerging, not at least after restriction of PFOS in the Stockholm Convention. Knowledge of prenatal exposure, and distribution between blood compartments for a wider range of PFCs in humans is therefore needed. We present prenatal exposure data for 19 perfluorinated organic...

  19. Internalized compartments encapsulated nanogels for targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Ranson, Davis; Ye, Yanqi; Weng, Yuyan; Gu, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The resulting nanogels loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) displayed enhanced internalization efficiency to the source cells through a specific homotypic affinity in vitro. However, when treated with the non-source cells, the EM-NGs exhibited insignificant difference in therapeutic efficiency compared to a bare HA nanogel with DOX. This study illustrates the potential of utilizing an internalized compartments encapsulated formulation for targeted cancer therapy, and offers guidelines for developing a natural particulate-inspired drug delivery system.Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The

  20. Common complication of crush injury, but a rare compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Nissar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome (CS is a common complication of crush injury but it is rare to find bilateral gluteal compartment syndrome (BGCS. Only six cases of BGCS have been reported in the literature. This syndrome has been reported after crush injury, drug overdose, surgical positioning, and vascular surgery. Apart from CS, crush injury is associated with multi-system adverse effects and these patients are at high risk for renal failure and sepsis. CS patients may present with dehydration; coagulation disorders; elevated creatine phosphokinase and myoglobin levels; hyperkalemia and hypocalcaemia, which may cause life-threatening arrhythmias and therefore need urgent and aggressive therapy. The early goal in these patients is prevention of acute renal failure with aggressive fluid therapy, alkalinization of urine, and forced diuresis. Early treatment of hyperkalemia, antibiotic therapy, immunoprophylaxis, and wound care will minimize the risk of arrhythmias and sepsis. CS must be considered when any patient is diagnosed with crush injury syndrome. CS is defined as elevation of interstitial/intracompartmental pressure, leading to microvascular and myoneural dysfunction and secondary hypoxia; it may cause functional loss or even death if not detected early and treated properly. The increase in pressure in one or all compartments of the gluteal region causes CS with devastating effects on muscle and neurovascular bundles. CS is traditionally diagnosed on the basis of five ′p′s: pain, pallor, paraesthesia, pulselessness and paralysis. Diagnosis of gluteal CS is difficult as the peripheral pulses are preserved and the condition is usually only diagnosed when neurological abnormality is noticed. Diagnosis of CS can be made by direct measurement of the compartment pressure and magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography. Gluteal CS is managed by fasciotomy and debridement of necrosed tissue, with secondary closure of fascia. A high index of

  1. Taurine inhibits ischemia/reperfusion-induced compartment syndrome in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-xian WANG; Yan LI; Li-ke ZHANG; Jing ZHAO; Yong-zheng PANG; Chao-shu TANG; Jing ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of taurine on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced compartment syndrome in rabbit hind limbs.Methods: Rabbits underwent femoral artery occ lusion after ligation of branches from terminal aorta to femoral artery.After a 7-h ischemia, reperfusion was established with the use of heparinized by iv infusion 10 min before shunt placement.During reperfusion, anterior compartment pressure (ACP) was monitored continuously in the left lower extremity.Gastrocnemius muscle triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) level, taurine content and myeloperoxidase activity were assayed.Oxidative stress was induced in the in vitro gastrocnemius muscle slices by free radical generating systems (FRGS),and the malondialdehyde content was measured in presence or absence of taurine.Results: After 7 h of ischemia, none of the parameters that we measured were different from those before ischemia, except that TTC reduction decreased by 80%.In the control group, after 2 h of reperfusion, ACP increased 4.5-fold, and gastrocnemius muscle taurine content was reduced by 33%.In taurine-treated animals, at 2 h reperfusion, the mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were increased, by 6% and 10%.ACP decreased by 39%, muscle edema decreased by 16%, TTC reduction increased by 150%, and lactate dehydrogenase decreased by 36% compared to control group.Plasma and muscle taurine content increased by 70% and 88%, respectively.In the taurine-treated group, at 2 h reperfusion, plasma malondialdehyde and conjugated diene content were decreased by 38% and 23%,respectively, and muscle malondialdehyde and conjugated diene content decreased by 22% and 30%, respectively compared to the control group.At 2 h reperfusion,myeloperoxidase activity was increased 3.5-fold in control animals.In the in vitro study, taurine decreased malondialdehyde content in muscle slices incubated with hypochlorous acid in a dose-dependent manner, but there was no change when incubated with hydrogen peroxide and

  2. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  3. Thermal Management Concepts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Based on Thermochemical Heat Storages

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri, Mounir; Schier, Michael; Linder, Marc; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the heating and cooling requirement of the passenger compartment and powertrain components such as the fuel cell, battery, electric motor and power electronics, the fuel cell electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity compared to the conventional cars with internal combustion engines. The use of different systems for the cooling and heating of the different components results in increased weight and higher costs. Additionally, the required energy for the the...

  4. In-vivo identification of direct electron transfer from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to electrodes via outer-membrane OmcA-MtrCAB protein complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Akihiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nakamura, Ryuhei, E-mail: nakamura@light.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kazuhito, E-mail: hashimoto@light.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); ERATO/JST, HASHIMOTO Light Energy Conversion Project (Japan)

    2011-06-30

    Graphical abstract: . Display Omitted Highlights: > Monolayer biofilm of Shewanella cells was prepared on an ITO electrode. > Extracellular electron transfer (EET) process was examined with series of mutants. > Direct ET was confirmed with outer-membrane-bound OmcA-MtrCAB complex. > The EET process was not prominently influenced by capsular polysaccharide. - Abstract: The direct electron-transfer (DET) property of Shewanella bacteria has not been resolved in detail due to the complexity of in vivo electrochemistry in whole-cell systems. Here, we report the in vivo assignment of the redox signal indicative of the DET property in biofilms of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a series of mutants and a chemical marking technique. The CV measurements of monolayer biofilms formed by deletion mutants of c-type cytochromes ({Delta}mtrA, {Delta}mtrB, {Delta}mtrC/{Delta}omcA, and {Delta}cymA), and pilin ({Delta}pilD), capsular polysaccharide ({Delta}SO3177) and menaquinone ({Delta}menD) biosynthetic proteins demonstrated that the electrochemical redox signal with a midpoint potential at 50 mV (vs. SHE) was due to an outer-membrane-bound OmcA-MtrCAB protein complex of decaheme cytochromes, and did not involve either inner-membrane-bound CymA protein or secreted menaquinone. Using the specific binding affinity of nitric monoxide for the heme groups of c-type cytochromes, we further confirmed this conclusion. The heterogeneous standard rate constant for the DET process was estimated to be 300 {+-} 10 s{sup -1}, which was two orders of magnitude higher than that previously reported for the electron shuttling process via riboflavin. Experiments using a mutant unable to produce capsular polysaccharide ({Delta}SO3177) revealed that the DET property of the OmcA-MtrCAB complex was not influenced by insulating and hydrophilic extracellular polysaccharide. Accordingly, under physiological conditions, S. oneidensis MR-1 utilizes a high density of outer

  5. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Sound reproduction is often taking place in small and medium sized rectangular rooms. As rectangular rooms have 3 pairs of parallel walls the reflections at especially low frequencies will cause up to 30 dB spatial variations of the sound pressure level in the room. This will take place not only at...... resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...

  6. Identifiability Results for Several Classes of Linear Compartment Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth; Eisenberg, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be estimated, uniquely or otherwise, from given input-output data. If some subset of the parameters of a model cannot be determined given input-output data, then we say the model is unidentifiable. In this work, we study linear compartment models, which are a class of biological models commonly used in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and ecology. In past work, we used commutative algebra and graph theory to identify a class of linear compartment models that we call identifiable cycle models, which are unidentifiable but have the simplest possible identifiable functions (so-called monomial cycles). Here we show how to modify identifiable cycle models by adding inputs, adding outputs, or removing leaks, in such a way that we obtain an identifiable model. We also prove a constructive result on how to combine identifiable models, each corresponding to strongly connected graphs, into a larger identifiable model. We apply these theoretical results to several real-world biological models from physiology, cell biology, and ecology. PMID:26337290

  7. Internalized compartments encapsulated nanogels for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Ranson, Davis; Ye, Yanqi; Weng, Yuyan; Gu, Zhen

    2016-04-28

    Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The resulting nanogels loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) displayed enhanced internalization efficiency to the source cells through a specific homotypic affinity in vitro. However, when treated with the non-source cells, the EM-NGs exhibited insignificant difference in therapeutic efficiency compared to a bare HA nanogel with DOX. This study illustrates the potential of utilizing an internalized compartments encapsulated formulation for targeted cancer therapy, and offers guidelines for developing a natural particulate-inspired drug delivery system. PMID:27074960

  8. Equilibrium panel surface temperatures in the SNAP-2 instrument compartment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresho, P.M.

    1962-09-14

    By equating net radiation to space to I/sup 2/R heating in the SNAP-2 instrument compartments, and neglecting internal radiation between compartments, the panel surface equilibrium temperatures were computed for hot and cold temperature extremes. These extremes are defined by: (1) cold - pre-start phase in the shade, (2) hot - full power phase facing the sun. The results of the heat balances for hottest and coldest cases are presented graphically. These figures relate the equilibrium surface temperatures to the I/sup 2/R heat load dissipated by the panel surface for hot and cold orbits before and after startup. Included as parameters are effective panel area (dependent on Agena-interface design details) and the ..cap alpha../epsilon ratio for the surface coating. If ..cap alpha../epsilon = .3/.9 and A = 1 ft/sup 2/, the extremes of temperatures suffered are from -191/sup 0/F to +212/sup 0/F. This study shows that the normal R/C surface coating (..cap alpha../epsilon = .3/.9) is acceptable regarding allowable maximum surface temperatures, if the effective panel area is not less than 1 ft/sup 2/. It also indicates that further work is warranted regarding internal radiative distribution of heat in order to limit the lowest temperatures to -65/sup 0/F.

  9. Improved hydrogen combustion model for multi-compartment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogino, Masao; Hashimoto, Takashi [Systems Safety Department, Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-11-01

    NUPEC has been improving a hydrogen combustion model in MELCOR code for severe accident analysis. In the proposed combustion model, the flame velocity in a node was predicted using six different flame front shapes of fireball, prism, bubble, spherical jet, plane jet, and parallelepiped. A verification study of the proposed model was carried out using the NUPEC large-scale combustion test results following the previous work in which the GRS/Battelle multi-compartment combustion test results had been used. The selected test cases for the study were the premixed test and the scenario-oriented test which simulated the severe accident sequences of an actual plant. The improved MELCOR code replaced by the proposed model could predict sufficiently both results of the premixed test and the scenario-oriented test of NUPEC large-scale test. The improved MELCOR code was confirmed to simulate the combustion behavior in the multi-compartment containment vessel during a severe accident with acceptable degree of accuracy. Application of the new model to the LWR severe accident analysis will be continued. (author)

  10. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. ► Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. ► Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  11. Nuclear RNAs confined to a reticular compartment between chromosome territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RNA polymerase II transcripts are confined to nuclear compartments. A detailed analysis of the nuclear topology of RNA from individual genes was performed for transcripts from the marker gene coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, expressed at a high level from the HTLV-1 LTR promoter. The construct was transfected into A293 cells where the RNA was organized as an extensive reticular network. We also studied the RNA distribution from combinations of neighboring HIV and bacterial resistance genes that co-integrated within the genome of COS-7 cells-revealing spherical or track-like accumulations of RNA that were extensively branched. There were many nuclei with distinct but overlapping RNA accumulations. Since the coding genes localized at the overlapping points, the RNAs are synthesized at a common region and diverge. The correlation between the frequency of the separation of the transcripts and the physical distance of the respective genes suggests a subcompartmentalization in the microenvironment of genes on the basis of geometric parameters. Thus, the more distant the genes are on the same chromosome, the more likely they are confined to separated subcompartments of an extensive reticular system. Co-delineation of the RNA transcripts with Cajal bodies and chromosome territories indicated the organization of nuclear RNA transcripts in a reticular interchromosome domain compartment

  12. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy); Tessa, Alessandra [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy); Tonin, Paola [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy); Carrozzo, Rosalba [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Hospital-Molecular Medicine Unit, Roma (Italy); Mole, Sara E. [MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, Molecular Medicines Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health and Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London (United Kingdom); Santorelli, Filippo M. [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy); Simonati, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.simonati@univr.it [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  13. Delayed Presentation of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome: The Argument for Fasciotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient in his fifties presented to his local hospital with numbness and weakness of the right leg which left him unable to mobilise. He reported injecting heroin the previous morning. Following an initial diagnosis of acute limb ischaemia the patient was transferred to a tertiary centre where Computed Tomography Angiography was reported as normal. Detailed neurological examination revealed weakness in hip flexion and extension (1/5 on the Medical Research Council scale with complete paralysis of muscle groups distal to this. Sensation to pinprick and light touch was globally reduced. Blood tests revealed acute kidney injury with raised creatinine kinase and the patient was treated for rhabdomyolysis. Orthopaedic referral was made the following day and a diagnosis of gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS was made. Emergency fasciotomy was performed 56 hours after the onset of symptoms. There was immediate neurological improvement following decompression and the patient was rehabilitated with complete nerve recovery and function at eight-week follow-up. This is the first documented case of full functional recovery following a delayed presentation of GCS with sciatic nerve palsy. We discuss the arguments for and against fasciotomy in cases of compartment syndrome with significant delay in presentation or diagnosis.

  14. Improved hydrogen combustion model for multi-compartment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUPEC has been improving a hydrogen combustion model in MELCOR code for severe accident analysis. In the proposed combustion model, the flame velocity in a node was predicted using six different flame front shapes of fireball, prism, bubble, spherical jet, plane jet, and parallelepiped. A verification study of the proposed model was carried out using the NUPEC large-scale combustion test results following the previous work in which the GRS/Battelle multi-compartment combustion test results had been used. The selected test cases for the study were the premixed test and the scenario-oriented test which simulated the severe accident sequences of an actual plant. The improved MELCOR code replaced by the proposed model could predict sufficiently both results of the premixed test and the scenario-oriented test of NUPEC large-scale test. The improved MELCOR code was confirmed to simulate the combustion behavior in the multi-compartment containment vessel during a severe accident with acceptable degree of accuracy. Application of the new model to the LWR severe accident analysis will be continued. (author)

  15. Optimizacion de una linea de espectrometria neutronica de transmision aplicada a ciencia de materiales para el acelerador lineal del CAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutrons and Reactors Laboratory (NYR) of CAB (Centro Atomico Bariloche) is equipped with a linear electron accelerator (LINAC) Linear particle accelerator). This LINAC is used as a neutron source from which two beams are extracted to perform neutron transmission and dispersion experiments. Through these experiments, structural and dynamic properties of materials can be studied. The neutron transmission experiments consist in a collimated neutron beam which interacts with a sample and a detector behind the sample. Important information about the microstructural characteristics of the material can be obtained from the comparison between neutron spectra before and after the interaction with the sample. This experimental technique has been extensively used to determine cross sections, lattice parameters of a crystalline solid, vibration frequencies of atoms or the strain field of a material. In the NYR Laboratory, cylindrical samples of one inch of diameter have been traditionally studied. Nonetheless, there is a great motivation for doing systematic research on smaller and with different geometries samples; particularly sheets and samples for tensile tests. In such cases, a reduction of the spot size of the beam and an increase of its intensity would have a direct impact on minimizing measurement times. Hence, in the NYR Laboratory it has been considered the possibility of incorporating a neutron guide into the existent transmission line. According to all mentioned above, the main objective of this work consisted in the optimization of the flight transmission tube optics of neutrons. This optimization not only improved the existent line but also contributed to an election criterion for the neutron guide acquisition. The optimization was directed towards maximize the neutron flux on samples of mentioned geometries and to form the divergence of the incident beam upon them. It was then necessary to study the instrument neutron optics, i.e. the characteristics of the

  16. Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) is used in conjunction with University of California Irvine - California Institute of Technology (UCI-CIT) atmospheric chemistry and transport model to assess the impact of deploying plug-in electric vehicles and integrating wind energy into the electricity grid on urban air quality. STREET is used to generate emissions profiles associated with transportation and power generation sectors for different future cases. These profiles are then used as inputs to UCI-CIT to assess the impact of each case on urban air quality. The results show an overall improvement in 8-h averaged ozone and 24-h averaged particulate matter concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) with localized increases in some cases. The most significant reductions occur northeast of the region where baseline concentrations are highest (up to 6 ppb decrease in 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 μg/m3 decrease in 24-h-averaged PM2.5). The results also indicate that, without integration of wind energy into the electricity grid, the temporal vehicle charging profile has very little to no effect on urban air quality. With the addition of wind energy to the grid mix, improvement in air quality is observed while charging at off-peak hours compared to the business as usual scenario.

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure refinement, and nonlinear-optical properties of CaB3O5(OH): Comparative crystal chemistry of calcium triborates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium triborate CaB3O5(OH) obtained by hydrothermal synthesis in the Ca(OH)2–H3BO3–Na2CO3–KCl system is studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The parameters of the orthorhombic unit cell are as follows: a = 13.490(1), b = 6.9576(3), and c = 4.3930(2) Å; V = 412.32(3) Å3 and space group Pna21. The structure is refined in the anisotropic approximation of the atomic displacement parameters to R = 4.28% using 972 vertical bar F vertical bar > 4σ(F). It is confirmed that the crystal structure of Ca triborate CaB3O5(OH) is identical to that described earlier. The hydrogen atom is localized. An SHG signal stronger than that of the quartz standard is registered. The phase transition of calcium triborate into calciborite is found on heating. The comparative crystal-chemical analysis of a series of borates with the general chemical formula 2CaO · 3B2O3 · nH2O (n = 0–13) with the constant CaO: B2O3= 2: 3 ratio and variable content of water is performed

  18. Role of Psoas Compartment Block in Lower Back Pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the clinical and cost effectiveness of Psoas compartment block (PCB) and lumbar epidural over a period of one month in patients suffering from low back pain and radiclupathy. Methods: This study was conducted at Railway Hospital Rawalpindi over a period of one year from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients of either sex between 30 to 80 years of age, full filling the study diagnostic criteria were selected by non probability purposive sampling. Patients were divided into two treatment groups. One received epidural analgesia and other received psoas compartment block. Relevant history was recorded on proforma. Pre and post treatment pain scores were recorded using VAS and Pakistan Coin Scale (PCS) at day 1, week 1, and at the end of 1 month. In group 1 PCB was administered and in group 2 lumbar epidural was given under strict aseptic measures. In each group dose of depomedrol with lignocaine was injected according to patient's weight. Data Analysis and Result: At baseline, average VAS for group-I was 7.209 (SD=0.640) while in group-II it was 7.310 (SD=0.680). Both the groups had similar VAS at baseline with insignificant difference (p=0.438). At day 1, average VAS was significantly lower (p<0.001) in group-I as compared to group-II i.e. 2.030+-0.491 vs. 3.357+-1.008. After one week, average VAS for group-I was 2.851(SD=0.609) while in group-II it was 3.810 (SD=1.087). Group-II had significantly higher VAS as compared to group-I (p<0.001). After one month, average VAS for group-I was 3.060 (SD=0.625) while in group-II it was 4.333 (SD=1.004). VAS of group-II was significantly higher as compared to group-I(p<0.001). Conclusion: Patients who were given Psoas compartment block were more satisfied as compared to epidural. Their VAS was significantly lower, at day one, but after one week and at the end of one month VAS/PCS was still lower in group I and it was significant. So PCB is easy to apply and it is cost effective as compare to lumbar

  19. Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

    2003-01-01

    Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the

  20. Multi-compartment iodine calculations with FIPLOC/IMPAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-compartment containment code FIPLOC for the simulation of severe accidents in LWR plants was extended by the integration of the iodine model IMPAIR-3. The iodine model which originally was only drafted for chains of compartments was changed for arbitrary compartment configurations and tightly coupled to the thermal hydraulic part. A main progress with the coupled version FIPLOC-3.0 is the sophisticated modelling of the aerosol iodine behaviour. In a PWR accident the mass of iodine is mainly released in form of CsI aerosol from the primary circuit. In IMPAIR-3 the aerosol behaviour of the species CsI, AgI and IO3- is modelled in a very simplified way causing large uncertainties in the calculated distributions. The behaviour of these three aerosol species is treated by the aerosol model MAEROS/MGA. Agglomeration, particle growth by condensation and all deposition processes are calculated. The solubility effect for the hygroscopic species CsI and IO3- are comprehended. Furthermore the impact of the iodine decay heat on the thermal hydraulic behaviour is considered. In order to test the code development a preliminary FIPLOC-3.0 calculation was done simulating a German PWR containment for the core melt scenario ND* according to the German risk study phase B. IN the calculation a contact of the core melt with the sump water was assumed and the containment vent line was opened after 70 hours. The result show that the different iodine species are distributed inhomogeneously within the containment. The CsI-aerosol concentrations differ by two orders of magnitude and the I2-concentration even by three orders of magnitude. Most of the iodine is assumed to be released as CsI aerosol out of the primary circuit. Since it fastly deposits its contribution to the release into the environment is minor. CsI is however dissolved in the sump, where mainly the gaseous I2 is created which can react in the containment atmosphere to IO3-. (author) 11 figs., 3 tabs., 12 refs

  1. 76 FR 26949 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... installing an overhead flight attendant rest (OFAR) compartment creates a smaller compartment volume within... event rendering both routes inoperative. The main entry route meeting the appropriate requirements may... size of the compartment (compartment interior volume). This special condition has been revised...

  2. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Foot due to Infection After Local Hydrocortisone Injection: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sampat Dumbre; Patil, Vaishali Dumbre; Abane, Sachin; Luthra, Rohit; Ranaware, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    High-energy trauma associated with calcaneal fracture or Lisfranc fracture dislocation and midfoot crushing injuries are known causes of compartment syndrome in the foot. Suppurative infection in the deep osseofascial compartments can also cause compartment syndrome. We describe the case of a 29-year-old female who had developed a suppurative local infection that resulted in acute compartment syndrome after receiving a local hydrocortisone injection for plantar fasciitis. We diagnosed the compartment syndrome, and fasciotomy was promptly undertaken. After more than 2 years of follow-up, she had a satisfactory functional outcome without substantial morbidity. To our knowledge, no other report in the English-language studies has described compartment syndrome due to abscess formation after a local injection of hydrocortisone. The aim of our report was to highlight this rare, but serious, complication of a routine outpatient clinical procedure. PMID:24838218

  3. COMPBRN III: a computer code for modeling compartment fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code COMPBRN III deterministically models the behavior of compartment fires. This code is an improvement of the original COMPBRN codes. It employs a different air entrainment model and numerical scheme to estimate properties of the ceiling hot gas layer model. Moreover, COMPBRN III incorporates a number of improvements in shape factor calculations and error checking, which distinguish it from the COMPBRN II code. This report presents the ceiling hot gas layer model employed by COMPBRN III as well as several other modifications. Information necessary to run COMPBRN III, including descriptions of required input and resulting output, are also presented. Simulation of experiments and a sample problem are included to demonstrate the usage of the code. 37 figs., 46 refs

  4. A kinetic compartment model for evaluating salivary gland scintigraphies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The semi-quantitative analysis of salivary gland scintigraphy with (99m) Tc-pertechnetate has been used to evaluate salivary gland function. However, no objective parameters distinguishing abnormal from normal functions have been established thus far. We propose using a simple kinetic...... model applied to the four major salivary glands. This kinetic model is based on a two-compartment model and the assumption of first-order kinetics to characterize normal salivary gland function and other selected parameters to evaluate the normal function of salivary glands. METHODS: Thirty patients...... referred for (99m) Tc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy were studied. Dynamic imaging of the head in a fixed anterior projection was performed after an intravenous bolus injection of 150 MBq (99m) Tc-pertechnetate using a gamma scintillation camera. After 30 min, lemon juice was orally administered...

  5. Modelling Of Carbon Monoxide Generation In A Compartment During Fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary cause of death in building fires is smoke inhalation with the majority of deaths from carbon monoxide poisoning. A new methodology for predicting species levels at the exit plane of an enclosure was developed. The proposed methodology correlated the species yields based on the combustion within the compartment as a function of the global equivalence ratio. The present study introduce a combustion model of propane and determine each parameter used in the model as a function of equivalence ratio. The species assumed to be generated in the model were CO2 , CO, O2 , H2O, H2 and unburned fuel. The model agrees with the previous experimental results for other studies (Gottuk et al., 1992 and Beyler, 1986).

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Unbounded Cellular Compartments: Synaptic Clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ken H; Stawski, Philipp S; Draycott, Austin S; Udeshi, Namrata D; Lehrman, Emily K; Wilton, Daniel K; Svinkina, Tanya; Deerinck, Thomas J; Ellisman, Mark H; Stevens, Beth; Carr, Steven A; Ting, Alice Y

    2016-08-25

    Cellular compartments that cannot be biochemically isolated are challenging to characterize. Here we demonstrate the proteomic characterization of the synaptic clefts that exist at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Normal brain function relies on the careful balance of these opposing neural connections, and understanding how this balance is achieved relies on knowledge of their protein compositions. Using a spatially restricted enzymatic tagging strategy, we mapped the proteomes of two of the most common excitatory and inhibitory synaptic clefts in living neurons. These proteomes reveal dozens of synaptic candidates and assign numerous known synaptic proteins to a specific cleft type. The molecular differentiation of each cleft allowed us to identify Mdga2 as a potential specificity factor influencing Neuroligin-2's recruitment of presynaptic neurotransmitters at inhibitory synapses. PMID:27565350

  7. Characterisation of open-door electrical cabinet fires in compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heat release rate of electrical cabinet fire source in a vitiated atmosphere. • Experimental database for proper validation the combustible modelling, taking into account the oxygen depletion in an enclosure. • New model for complex fire source. - Abstract: The study of electrical fires is a major concern for fire safety in the industry and more particularly for fire safety in nuclear facilities. To investigate this topic, IRSN conducted a large number of real-scale experiments involving open-door electrical cabinets burning firstly under a calorimetric hood and then inside a mechanically-ventilated compartment. The main challenges are to determine accurately the heat release rate of such a complex fire source in a vitiated atmosphere and to provide an experimental database for validating properly the combustible modelling, taking into account the oxygen depletion in an enclosure. After providing a detailed description of the fire scenarios and of the experimental apparatus, this paper focuses on the characteristic stages of the cabinet fire development, essentially based on the heat release rate time evolution of the fire. The effects of the confinement, of the outlet branch location, of the ventilation management and of the fire barrier on the fire source were then investigated. The reproducibility of electrical cabinet fires is also studied. A new model for complex fire source (applied in this study for open-door electrical cabinet fires) was then developed. This model was introduced in the zone code SYLVIA and the major features of the compartment fire experiments, such as characteristic heat release rate with effect of oxygen depletion and over-pressure peak were then calculated with a rather good agreement for this complex fire source (i.e. electrical cabinet)

  8. On the morphogenesis of glial compartments in the sensory organs of Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Oikonomou, Grigorios; Shaham, Shai

    2012-01-01

    Glial cells surround neuronal endings and isolate them within specialized compartments. This architecture is found at synapses in the central nervous system, as well as at receptive endings of sensory neurons. Recent studies are beginning to uncover the contributions of glial compartments to the functions of the ensheathed neurons. However, the cellular and molecular processes that guide compartment morphogenesis remain unknown. The main sensory organ of Caenorhabditis elegans, the amphid, pr...

  9. Design and Test of a Blast Shield for Boeing 737 Overhead Compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Xinglai Dang; Philemon C. Chan

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a composite blast shield for hardening an overhead bin compartment of a commercial aircraft. If a small amount of explosive escapes detection and is brought onboard and stowed in an overhead bin compartment of a passenger aircraft, the current bins provide no protection against a blast inside the compartment. A blast from the overhead bin will certainly damage the fuselage and likely lead to catastrophic inflight structural failure. The feasibil...

  10. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis, appendices B1 - B4. [hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Documentation is presented for a program which separately computes fuel and energy consumption for the two modes of operation of a hybrid electric vehicle. The distribution of daily travel is specified as input data as well as the weights which the component driving cycles are given in each of the composite cycles. The possibility of weight reduction through the substitution of various materials is considered as well as the market potential for hybrid vehicles. Data relating to battery compartment weight distribution and vehicle handling analysis is tabulated.

  11. The diagnostic value of MRI scans for the diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. A prospective descriptive study to determine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an aid in diagnosing (chronic) exertional compartment syndrome.Design and patients. MRI was performed in 21 patients (41 anterior compartments) with chronic compartment syndrome at rest and following physical exercise. Median (T2-weighted) signal intensity on the MRI scan was determined in the anterior and the (superficial) posterior compartment of the lower leg before and after exercise. Postexercise increases in the signal intensity in these two compartments were compared. After fasciotomy, a second MRI scan was performed in 13 patients (25 anterior compartments) on the basis of the same protocol. MR studies were performed in 12 normal controls (24 anterior muscle compartments) on the basis of the same protocol.Results. T2-weighted signal intensity increased by 27.5% (range 13.6-38.6%) following exercise in the anterior compartment of patients with a chronic compartment syndrome. In the posterior compartment this increase amounted to 4.25% (range 0-10.2%). Following fasciotomy, the increase in the anterior compartment was 4.1% (range 1.0-5.2%), while the increase in the posterior compartment amounted to 5.6% (range 0-11.0%), In normal controls, the increase in the anterior compartment was 7.6% (range 0-9.1%), while in the posterior compartment it was 4.0% (range 0-7.2%).Conclusions. In patients with a chronic compartment syndrome, the affected (anterior) compartment shows a statistically significant increase in (T2-weighted) signal intensity during exercise compared with both the (superficial) posterior compartment and the anterior compartment of normal controls. This effect disappeared after fasciotomy. In view of the substantial increase in T2-weighted signal intensity, MRI can be used in diagnosing chronic compartment syndrome. (orig.)

  12. Multi-compartment iodine calculations with FIPLOC/IMPAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewig, F.; Allelein, H.J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Schwarz, S.; Weber, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The multi-compartment containment code FIPLOC for the simulation of severe accidents in LWR plants was extended by the integration of the iodine model IMPAIR-3. The iodine model was changed for arbitrary compartment configurations and tightly coupled to the thermal hydraulic part. A main progress with the coupled version FIPLOC-3.0 is the sophisticated modelling of the aerosol iodine behaviour. In a PWR accident the mass of iodine is mainly released in form of CsI aerosol from the primary circuit. In IMPAIR-3 the aerosol behaviour of the species CsI, AgI and IO{sub 3}{sup -} is modelled in a very simplified way causing large uncertainties in the calculated distributions. The behaviour of these three aerosol species is treated by the aerosol model MAEROS/MGA. Agglomeration, particle growth by condensation and all deposition processes are calculated. The solubility effect for the hygroscopic species CsI and IO{sub 3}{sup -} are comprehended. Furthermore the impact of the iodine decay heat on the thermal hydraulic behaviour is considered. In order to test the code development a preliminary FIPLOC-3.0 calculation was done simulating a German PWR containment for the core melt scenario ND* according to the German risk study phase B. IN the calculation a contact of the core melt with the sump water was assumed and the containment vent line was opened after 70 hours. The result show that the different iodine species are distributed inhomogeneously within the containment. The CsI-aerosol concentrations differ by two orders of magnitude and the I{sub 2}-concentration even by three orders of magnitude. Most of the iodine is assumed to be released as CsI aerosol out of the primary circuit. Since it fastly deposits its contribution to the release into the environment is minor. CsI is however dissolved in the sump, where mainly the gaseous I{sub 2} is created which can react in the containment atmosphere to IO{sub 3}{sup -}. (author) 11 figs., 3 tabs., 12 refs.

  13. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative fuels Advanced gas and diesel vehicles Explaining EVs and PHEVs Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles GHG emissions ... gas emissions Routes to a lower GHG transportation future What if: Ideas for reducing transportation GHG We' ...

  14. Physical mechanisms shaping the Drosophila dorsoventral compartment boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aliee, Maryam; Röper, Jens-Christian; Landsberg, Katharina; Pentzold, Constanze; Widmann, Thomas; Jülicher, Frank; Dahmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    morphology of compartment boundaries during tissue growth. Our experiments using the developing Drosophila wing reveal that the roughness of the dorsoventral compartment boundary is dynamic and that it decreases during development. By measuring tissue relaxation in response to laser ablation of cell bonds at...

  15. 46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed...

  16. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...

  17. Acute compartment syndrome after open forearm fracture – scale of the problem and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsaftawy Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute compartment syndrome is caused due to a sudden increase in the tissue pressure in a given fascial compartment. Missed and undiagnosed or not treated in time can lead to irreversible damage to limb muscles and nerves due to ischemia mechanism. This paper presents a case of a patient with an open forearm fracture treated conservatively in plaster.

  18. AERODYNAMIC IMPROVEMENT OF KhADI 33 RACING CAR RADIATOR COMPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Avershyn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic characteristics of radiator compartment of KhADI 33 racing car on the basis of the decision of the interfaced problem of internal and external aerodynamics are numerically investigated. The rational variant of radiator compartment which is characterized by high throughput and low level of non-uniformity of speed field at the input is offered.

  19. Partitions, Compartments and Portals: Cave Development in internally impounded karst masses.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2005-01-01

    Dykes and other vertical bodies can act as aquicludes within bodies of karst rock. These partitions separate isolated bodies of solublerock called compartments. Speleogenetically each compartment will behave as a small impounded-karst until the partition becomesbreached. Breaches through partitions, portals, allow water, air and biota including humans to pass between sections of caves thatwere originally isolated.

  20. Partitions, Compartments and Portals: Cave Development in internally impounded karst masses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Dykes and other vertical bodies can act as aquicludes within bodies of karst rock. These partitions separate isolated bodies of solublerock called compartments. Speleogenetically each compartment will behave as a small impounded-karst until the partition becomesbreached. Breaches through partitions, portals, allow water, air and biota including humans to pass between sections of caves thatwere originally isolated.

  1. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... affecting § 18.4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling... Provisions § 18.4 Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. (a)(1)...

  2. Validation of a multiple compartment model for the transport of cesium through animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general multiple compartment model, which describes the transport of trace elements through animals is presented. This model considers a system of K interconnected compartments of volume Vi, i = 1,2,....,K, each containing, at a given time t, Ni molecules of a trace substance. (5 figs.)

  3. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a.... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck or forward passenger seat with headset or...

  4. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection, an.... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or...

  5. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with...

  6. CAB models for water: A new evaluation of the thermal neutron scattering laws for light and heavy water in ENDF-6 format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a new evaluation of the thermal scattering laws for light and heavy water. • This evaluation is based on molecular and experimental data, with no free parameters. • Calculations with these libraries compare well with experimental values. • Libraries result in an improvement over existing ENDF scattering law files. - Abstract: In this work we present the CAB models for water: a set of new models for the evaluation of the thermal neutron scattering laws for light and heavy water in ENDF-6 format, using the LEAPR module of NJOY. These models are based on experimental structure data and frequency spectra computed from molecular dynamics simulations. The calculations show a significant improvement over ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/B-VII when compared with measurements of differential and integral scattering data

  7. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  8. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  9. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  10. Residual radiation effect in the murine hematopoietic stem cell compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cells surviving radiation injury may carry defects which contribute to long-term effects. The ratio of 125-iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) uptake into spleens of lethally irradiated recipient mice between day 3 and day 5 after cell transfusion revealed reduced proliferative ability (PF) of spleen seeding cells in parallel with reduced CFU-S content of donors throughout the study period of one year after 5 Gy gamma irradiation. Additional data aided in evaluating possible mechanisms of PF reduction. Within the range of the graft sizes used, PF was independent of the numbers of cells or CFU-S transfused. Radiation-induced increase in loss of label between days 3 and 5 and prolonged doubling time of proliferating cells indicated enhancement of cell maturation and increase in mitotic cycle time. Increased IUdR uptake per transfused CFUsub(S) suggested extra divisions of transit cells due to insufficiency in the stem cell compartment. It is concluded that persisting defects in surviving stem cells interfere in a complex way with cell proliferation in the hemopoietic system. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of tritium using two-compartment environmental transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The models used to assess chronic atmospheric releases of radioactivity generate deterministic dose estimates by using standard assumptions about exposure conditions and environmental transport mechanisms. The most significant radionuclide released in gaseous effluences of Cernavoda NPP is tritium, mostly as tritiated water, which represents about 50% of the total radioactivity release in gaseous effluents. The chemical and physical properties of HTO include its complete miscibility in water. Other important properties of tritium like diffusion coefficient and vapor pressure are similar to water properties. No preferential uptake of tritiated water biota or other component of environment was observed. The tritiated water has an uniform distribution among the aqueous phases of all interacting compartments. These properties imply that the state and transport tendencies of HTO are best predicted by modeling it as having infinite affinity for the water phase and negligible affinity for other phases (organic phase of biota or mineral phase of soil). The purpose of the present paper is to present a two-component model to estimate the equilibrium distribution of tritiated water between air and soil media, that would result from gaseous tritium emissions from Cernavoda NPP. Using the principle of mass conservation the model provides an algorithm for predicting equilibrium specific activities of tritiated water in the soil and air components. (authors)

  12. Electrical Dissipative Structures in Membrane-Coupled Compartment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudel, U.; Feistel, R.; Ebeling, W.

    Reaction-diffusion systems with charged particles are studied. Conditions for the arising of electrical dissipative structures in a compartment system consisting of two boxes separated by a membrane are derived. The appearance of a polar dissipative structure is proved for a simple capacitor model in combination with a simple second order chemical kinetics which leads to an analytically solvable problem. Electrical dissipative structures can in principle be considered as non equilibrium electrical batteries. The theoretical efficiency of such batteries is estimated.Translated AbstractElektrische Dissipative Strukturen in Membrangekoppelten SystemenEs werden Reaktions-Diffusionssysteme mit geladenen Teilchen studiert. Bedingungen für die Entstehung elektrischer dissipativer Strukturen in einem Kompartment-System, bestehend aus zwei durch eine Membran getrennten Zellen werden abgeleitet. Die Entstehung einer polaren dissipativen Struktur wird für ein einfaches Kondensatorenmodell in Kombination mit einer einfachen chemischen Kinetik, das analytische Lösbarkeit gestattet, nachgewiesen. Elektrische dissipative Strukturen können im Prinzip als elektrische Batterien fern von Gleichgewicht betrachtet werden. Der theoretische Wirkungsgrad einer solchen Batterie wird berechnet.

  13. A reduced model of pulsatile flow in an arterial compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we propose a reduced model of the input-output behaviour of an arterial compartment, including the short systolic phase where wave phenomena are predominant. The objective is to provide basis for model-based signal processing methods for the estimation from non-invasive measurements and the interpretation of the characteristics of these waves. Due to phenomena such that peaking and steepening, the considered pressure pulse waves behave more like solitons generated by a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) model than like linear waves. So we start with a quasi-1D Navier-Stokes equation taking into account radial acceleration of the wall: the radial acceleration term being supposed small, a 2scale singular perturbation technique is used to separate the fast wave propagation phenomena taking place in a boundary layer in time and space described by a KdV equation from the slow phenomena represented by a parabolic equation leading to two-elements windkessel models. Some particular solutions of the KdV equation, the 2 and 3-soliton solutions, seems to be good candidates to match the observed pressure pulse waves. Some very promising preliminary comparisons of numerical results obtained along this line with real pressure data are shown

  14. An iatrogenic popliteal pseudoaneurysm masked under compartment syndrome of leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Coveney, Andrew; Ahmed, Abubakr; Fulton, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    This case describes a 60-year-old gentleman who presented with a pulsating mass behind his knee. Before this, he had a fasciotomy for suspected compartment syndrome of leg following knee arthroscopy, but this failed to resolve his leg symptoms. He was hemodynamically stable on presentation. His left calf was swollen with a circumference of 3 cm greater than right. There was a large pulsating mass palpable in his left popliteal fossa. Distal neurovascular status of the leg was intact. He had a normal cardiovascular, respiratory, abdominal and neurological examination. Ultrasound showed a cystic mass in the popliteal fossa suggestive of aneurysm. CT angiogram demonstrated a 6 × 5 × 4 cm pseudoaneurysm compressing and displacing the left popliteal artery with satisfactory three-vessel run-off. An emergency repair was performed. An arteriotomy was identified at the proximal end of pseudoaneurysm and it was closed with a patch of small saphenous vein. It led to a good clinical outcome. PMID:25362730

  15. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  16. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  17. Current concepts in the pathophysiology, evaluation, and diagnosis of compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, A. R.; Mubarak, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews present knowledge of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of acute compartment syndromes. Recent results using compression of legs in normal volunteers provide objective data concerning local pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction in the anterior compartment. Results with this model indicate that a progression of neuromuscular deficits occurs when IMP increases to within 35 to 40 mm Hg of diastolic blood pressure. These findings provide useful information on the diagnosis and compression thresholds for acute compartment syndromes. Time factors are also important, however, and usually are incompletely known in most cases of acute compartment syndrome. Although the slit catheter is a very good technique for monitoring IMP during rest, these catheters and their associated extracorporeal transducer systems are not ideal. Recently developed miniature transducer-tipped catheters and, perhaps, future development of noninvasive techniques may provide accurate recordings of IMP in patients with acute compartment syndromes.

  18. Acute lower limb compartment syndrome after Cesarean section: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sütterlin Marc

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb is a rare but severe intra- and post-partum complication. Prompt diagnosis is essential to avoid permanent functional restriction or even the loss of the affected limb. Clinical signs and symptoms might be nonspecific, especially in the early stages; therefore, knowledge of predisposing risk factors can be helpful. Case presentation We present the case of a 32-year-old Caucasian woman with acute post-partum compartment syndrome. Conclusion Acute compartment syndrome is an important differential diagnosis for the sudden onset of intra- or post-partum lower-limb pain. Predisposing factors for the manifestation of acute compartment syndrome in an obstetric environment are augmented intra-partum blood loss, prolonged hypotensive episodes and the use of oxytocin to support or induce labor because of its vasoconstrictive properties. Treatment is prompt surgical decompression by performing fasciotomy in any affected muscular compartments.

  19. Acute Traumatic Compartment Syndrome in Pediatric Foot: A Systematic Review and Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Kelly; Nguyen, Hienvu; Russell, Lindsay; Lee, Daniel K

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg and foot is a not widely reported, but serious, potential complication that can develop after fractures, crush injuries, or high-velocity trauma of the lower extremity. Early recognition and treatment are critical in preventing morbidity and permanent complications. Although compartment syndrome of the lower leg and foot has been well-studied and documented in adults, its occurrence in the pediatric population is rare. We performed a systematic review of the published data and present the case of the youngest patient with isolated ACS of the foot. A high index of suspicion is warranted in pediatric patients with a traumatic injury to the lower extremity for compartment syndrome. Inconclusive radiographic findings owing to skeletal immaturity and the inability to verbalize symptoms place young children at high risk of undiagnosed compartment syndrome. Clinicians should have a very low threshold for fasciotomy to prevent long-term sequelae associated with undiagnosed compartment syndrome. PMID:27067201

  20. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  1. Children in pickup trucks. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Pickup trucks have become increasingly popular in the United States. A recent study found that in crashes involving fatalities, cargo area passengers were 3 times more likely to die than were occupants in the cab. Compared with restrained cab occupants, the risk of death for those in the cargo area was 8 times higher. Furthermore, the increased use of extended-cab pickup trucks and air bag-equipped front passenger compartments creates concerns about the safe transport of children. The most effective preventive strategies are the legislative prohibition of travel in the cargo area and requirements for age-appropriate restraint use and seat selection in the cab. Parents should select vehicles that are appropriate for the safe transportation needs of the family. Physicians have an important role in counseling families and advocating public policy measures to reduce the number of deaths and injuries to occupants of pickup trucks. PMID:11015537

  2. Tracer kinetics: Modelling by partial differential equations of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical models in tracer kinetics are usually based on ordinary differential equations which correspond to a system of kinetically homogeneous compartments (standard compartments). A generalization is possible by the admission of inhomogeneities in the behaviour of the elements belonging to a compartment. The important special case of the age-dependence of elimination rates is treated in its deterministic version. It leads to partial different equations (i.e., systems with distributed coefficients) with the 'age' or the 'residence time' of an element of the compartment as a variable additional to 'time'. The basic equations for one generalized compartment and for systems of such compartments are given together with their general solutions. (orig.)

  3. Pitfalls in compartment modelling of transport processes. The influence of model structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compartment models are generally used in radioecological modelling because they have a realistic chance to cope with complex biogeochemical processes. Often these compartment models include a description of transport processes in aquatic system. This study shows that care must be taken when selecting the number of compartments for the spatial representation of such aquatic systems, to get a correct representation of solute transport. A field tracer experiment was performed in an artificial dam at Ekeby wetland in Sweden. Tritium was used as tracer and injected as a pulse. The experimental residence time distribution (RTD) was evaluated with an analytical solution based on compartment models with only one mass transfer rate between compartments known as 'tank-in-series' model. The analytical solution applies for an initial mass release in the first tank in the series. To explore the impact of model structure, a variable number of compartments was used and compared with the observations. When four compartments were used in the model, the simulated RTD could fit the measured data relatively well. The RTD simulated by the model with one compartment deviates significantly more from the observations. With a continuous injection the RTDs simulated by one and four compartments will be the same after a long time. Analysis was made by superposing the RTDs with a time shift to simulate a continuous injection. The results show that after a time scale of about 10 days the RTDs obtained by one and four compartments reach equilibrium. The difference between the two RTDs is initially significant. Further analyses show that the times reaching equilibrium increase with an increase of RTDs. Since RTD for certain radionuclide in ecosystems can be in an order of several hundred years or even longer, care should be taken when one selects the model structure to describe the transport process. (author)

  4. VEHICLE FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Lindberg, J.F.

    1962-01-30

    A reeling device is designed for an electrical cable supplying power to the slave slde of a remote control manipulator mounted on a movable vehicle. As the vehicle carries the slave side about in a closed room, the device reels the cable in and out to maintain a variable length of the cable between the vehicle and a cable inlet in the wall of the room. The device also handles a fixed length of cable between the slave side and the vehicle, in spite of angular movement of the slave side with respect to the vehicle. (AEC)

  5. A review on idling reduction strategies to improve fuel economy and reduce exhaust emissions of transport vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Introduce various idling reduction technologies for transport vehicles. • Exhibit their energy use, advantages, disadvantages to understand their capability. • Conduct critical review to improve fuel economy and exhaust emissions. • Suggest better technology according to their performance ability. - Abstract: To achieve reductions in vehicle idling, strategies and actions must be taken to minimize the time spent by drivers idling their engines. A number of benefits can be obtained in limiting the idling time. These benefits include savings in fuel use and maintenance costs, vehicle life extension, and reduction in exhaust emissions. The main objective of idling reduction (IR) devices is to reduce the amount of energy wasted by idling trucks, rail locomotives, and automobiles. During idling, gasoline vehicles emit a minimum amount of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and negligible particulate matter (PM). However, generally a large amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) are produced from these vehicles. Gasoline vehicles consume far more fuel at an hourly rate than their diesel counterparts during idling. Higher NOx and comparatively larger PM are produced by diesel vehicles than gasoline vehicles on the average during idling. Auxiliary power unit (APU), direct-fired heaters, fuel cells, thermal storage system, truck stop electrification, battery-based systems, engine idle management (shutdown) systems, electrical (shore power) solutions, cab comfort system, and hybridization are some of the available IR technologies whose performances for reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been compared. This paper analyzes the availability and capability of most efficient technologies to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from diesel and gasoline vehicles by comparing the findings of previous studies. The analysis reveals that among all the options direct fired heaters, APUs and electrified parking spaces exhibit better

  6. Pre test parametric studies on single compartment vented enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishing a proper design fire scenario is a challenging task and essential component for conducting fire safety design of buildings. A design fire scenario is a qualitative description of a fire with time identifying key events that characterize the fire (ignition, growth, flashover, fully-developed, and decay stages of fire). Proper fire safety design requires the appropriate selection of design fires against which the performance of the building is evaluated. The selection of the design fires directly impacts all aspects of fire safety performance, including the structural fire resistance, compartmentation against fire spread, egress systems, manual or automatic detection systems, suppression systems, and smoke control. The parameters affecting design fires include, the type, amount and arrangement of combustible materials, the ventilation conditions (air supply conditions, door/window open), and size of the compartment of fire origin. A design fire is a quantitative description of the characteristics of a fire, such as heat release rate (HRR), size of fire and its rate of spread, yield of products of combustion, and hot gas temperatures. Design fires are based on fire scenarios that replicate real fires. Six Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations were conducted in order to investigate the effect of fire load on fire dynamics in a) iso corner fire configuration b) IIT Delhi single compartment of a size of 5.0 m long, 5.0 m wide and 5.0 m high with doorway opening of 1m x 3m with centre fire of size 0.5 m x 0.5m. These types of simulation are carried out for deciding about the instrumentation scheme, safety aspect, and optimization of proposed experiments for National Fire Test Facility as pretest calculations. The simulations results are summarized in various identified applied parameter which are useful in terms of understanding the complex fire dynamics, validating the numerical tolls against experiments and using them (in form of values

  7. Rallian "equivalent" cylinders reconsidered: comparisons with literal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, M D

    2005-06-01

    In Rall's "equivalent" cylinder morphological-to-electrical transformation, neuronal arborizations are reduced to single unbranched core-conductors. The conventional assumption that such an "equivalent" reconstructs the electrical properties of the fibers it represents was tested directly; electrical properties and responses of "equivalent" cylinders were compared with those of their literal branch constituents for fibers with a single symmetrical bifurcation. The numerical solution methods were validated independently by their accurate reconstruction of the responses of an analog circuit configured with compartmental architecture to solve the cable equation for passive fibers with a symmetrical bifurcation. In passive fibers, "equivalent" cylinders misestimated the spatial distribution of voltage amplitudes and steady-state input resistance, partly due to the lack of axial current bifurcation. In active fibers with a single propagating action potential, the spatial distributions of point-to-point conduction velocity values (measured in meters/second) for a literal branch point differed significantly from those of their "equivalent" cylinders. "Equivalent" cylinders also underestimated the diameter-dependent delay in propagation through the branch point and branches, due to the larger "equivalent" diameter. Corrections to the "equivalent" cylinder did not reconcile differences between "equivalent" and literal models. However, "equivalent" and literal branch fibers had the same (a) steady-state resistance "looking into" an isolated symmetrical branch point and (b) geometry-independent point-to-point propagation velocity when measured in space constants per millisecond except within +/-1 space constant from the geometrical inhomogeneity. In summary, Rall's "equivalent" cylinders did not accurately reconstruct all passive or active electrophysiological properties and responses of their literal compartments. For the modeling of individual neurons, the requirement of

  8. Neuroelectrophysiological mechanism of disabling brain injury resulting from exposure of rat to blast in a tightly closed compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie GAO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the dynamic changes in disabling brain injury in a closed compartment, and its underlying neuroelectrophysiological mechanism after exposure of rats to blast. Methods Sixty-eight SD rats were randomly divided into control group, OTB group ( blast in an open space, and ECB group (blast in a tightly closed compartment. ECB and OTB groups were exposed to blast in a closed chamber simulating the cabin of an armored vehicle and OT (outside of the cabin with 600-mg detonator electric blasting and 21.5-cm away from the detonating point. The changes of disabled ischemic area of the brain and evoked potential before and 1, 3, 5, 8, 12, 24h and 72h after the blast injury were observed. Results The incapability score of ECB and OTB rats reached the same level (25%. With 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, it was found that the infarct area in OTB group appeared 5h after explosion, reaching the climax at 12h, and disappearing at 72h. In the ECB group, the area of infarct appeared 3h after injury, and still existed till 72h after injury. In ECB group, the N1 latency of sensory evoked potential (SEP and motor evoked potential (MEP was longer than that of control group 5 and 8 hours after explosion respectively, and the changes in sensation appeared earlier than those of motor function. Conclusions The blast wave in EC shows a characteristic of a complex blast wave, and its damage to the brain can be more severe, which is caused more by ECB than by OTB. The size of infarct area and latency of evoked potential might contribute to the brain incapability. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.08.13

  9. Sub compartment pressurization analysis for auxiliary building of APR1400DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Oh; Lee, Hee Do [Atomic Creative Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally, the sub compartment of PWR means a fully or partially enclosed volume that could house high-energy piping systems or restrict the flow of fluid in the event of a postulated pipe rupture. To meet the requirements of General Design Criteria (GDC) 4 and 50, Standard Review Plan (SRP) 6.2.1.2 states that the sub compartments shall be designed with sufficient margin to prevent the fracture of structure due to pressure differential across the walls of the sub- compartment and specifies the criteria related to the design and functional sub compartment nodalization schemes, vent flow path and vent flow behavior. Therefore the sub compartments structures within the containment and auxiliary building are designed to withstand the transient differential pressures loads, jet impingement forces, and pipe whip forces occurring due to a postulated pipe break. In this paper, the analyses of pressure transients after a postulated pipe rupture in sub compartments of APR1400DC auxiliary building is performed and the calculated peak differential pressures during the piping break transients for each sub compartment are less than structural design differential pressures.

  10. Functional difference between the proximal and distal compartments of the semitendinosus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Koji; Otsuki, Satoru; Hisa, Takushi; Nagaoka, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The tendinous inscription divides the semitendinosus muscle into the proximal and distal compartments. It was hypothesized that there are functional differences between those compartments. [Subjects and Methods] Seven adult males performed knee flexion and hip extension in the prone position. An ultrasound device measured the decrease in the length of muscle fibers in the two compartments during these movements. The knee and hip joint angles were concurrently measured using a video camera. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between the decrease in muscle fiber length in each compartment and joint angle. [Results] During knee flexion, decreased muscle fiber length was significantly correlated with increased knee flexion angle. During hip extension, there were no significant correlations for either compartment. Only the decrease in muscle fiber length in the distal compartment during hip extension tended to be negative; the other decreases in muscle fiber length tended to be positive. [Conclusion] Correlations did not reveal any functional differences. However, only the distal compartment elongated during hip extension. This result might show a functional difference and could be applied in clinical contexts during hip extension. PMID:27313362

  11. The Vehicle Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschel, Jonas

    Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

  12. Motorcycle racer with unilateral forearm flexor and extensor chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkes, Michiel B; Teijink, Joep A; Scheltinga, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a case of a 26-year-old man, a motorcycle racer, who presented with progressive pain, weakness and swelling of his right forearm and loss of power in his index finger, experienced during motor racing. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of both flexor and extensor compartments of his forearm was diagnosed by dynamic intracompartmental muscle pressure measurements. After fasciotomies, all symptoms were resolved and the patient was able to improve on his preinjury racing skills, without any limitations. A literature review and a surgical 'how-to' for correct release of the extensor and deep flexor compartments of the forearm are provided. PMID:27080851

  13. Tracer kinetics: Modelling by partial differential equations of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general theory of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates is illustrated by examples. Mathematically, it turns out that models consisting of partial differential equations include ordinary, delayed and integro-differential equations, a general fact which is treated here in the context of linear tracer kinetics. The examples include standard compartments as a degenerate case, systems of standard compartments (compartment blocks), models resulting in special residence time distributions, models with pipes, and systems with heterogeneous particles. (orig./BBR)

  14. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  15. Design and demonstration of a pumpless 14 compartment microphysiological system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paula G; Shuler, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    . We demonstrate that five different cell lines survived with high viability (above 85%) for 7 days. We compared the individual observed flow rates to the compartments to the desired or estimated flow rates. This work demonstrates the feasibility of constructing, operating and maintaining a simple, gravity-driven, multi-organ microphysiological system with the capability of measuring cellular functions such as CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 activities, albumin release, urea, maintenance of tight junctions, and presence of surfactant for a sustained period. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2213-2227. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27070809

  16. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle control

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Morató, Jordi; Gomáriz Castro, Spartacus; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the system control design stages for an autonomous underwater vehicle are presented. The vehicle must be able to sail on sea surface, following a path without losing its route and once a position is reached, a dive following a perpendicular path to the surface is carried out. A two level system control are proposed. The primary level will control the navigation of the vehicle where a linear controllers are proposed. Whereas in secondary level guidance system, collision system, s...

  17. Semisolid ophthalmic vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaccini, B; Alderigi, C

    1989-09-01

    The present review is concerned with some essential formulative and therapeutic aspects of semisolid ophthalmic vehicles. The history and the most recent developments of the traditional lipophilic vehicles (ointments) are first outlined. The hydrophilic vehicles (hydrogels) based on synthetic polymers (polyacrylates, PEG, PVA, Pluronics, etc.), semisynthetic polymers (cellulose derivatives) and natural polymers (hyaluronic and polygalacturonic acid, alginates, etc.) are then examined. Some recent formulations of particular type are finally described. PMID:2699716

  18. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  19. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Keshri, Ritesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  20. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  1. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    and chest injury measures recorded on driver and front-seat test dummies. NHTSA later added side crash tests and rollover ratings to the U.S. NCAP. Consumer crash testing spread worldwide in the 1990s. In 1995, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began using frontal offset crash tests to rate and compare frontal crashworthiness and later added side and rear crash assessments. Shortly after, Europe launched EuroNCAP to assesses new car performance including front, side, and front-end pedestrian tests. The influence of these consumer-oriented crash test programs on vehicle designs has been major. From the beginning, U.S. NCAP results prompted manufacturers to improve seat belt performance. Frontal offset tests from IIHS and EuroNCAP resulted in greatly improved front-end crumple zones and occupant compartments. Side impact tests have similarly resulted in improved side structures and accelerated the introduction of side impact airbags, especially those designed to protect occupant's heads. Vehicle safety designs, initially driven by regulations and later by consumer demand because of crash testing, have proven to be very successful public health measures. Since they were first introduced in the late 1960s, vehicle safety designs have saved hundreds of thousands of lives and prevented countless injuries worldwide. The designs that improved vehicle crashworthiness have been particularly effective. Some newer crash avoidance designs also have the potential to be effective-e.g., electronic stability control is already saving many lives in single-vehicle crashes. However, determining the actual effectiveness of these new technologies is a slow process and needs real-world crash experience because there are no assessment equivalent of crash tests for crash avoidance designs. PMID:19333823

  2. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  3. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Emergency... device. The routes must be designed to minimize the possibility of blockage which might result from fire... the airplane's main power system or compartment main lighting system should fail,...

  4. Chronic Renal Failure in a Patient Due to Gluteal Compartment Syndrome After a Nephrectomy Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan ULUTAŞ, , ,

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare reason of rhabdomyolysis resulting from atraumatic origin, and leading to renal failure. Beside to other atraumatic causes like drug abuse, alcohol intoxication, and antihyperlipidemic medications prolonged operation duration in a fixed position is an important cause of this syndrome. Male sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity are risk factors for gluteal compartment syndrome associated kidney failure. We report a 56 year old obese patient with a medical history of diabetes mellitus, and hypertension who undergo a nephrectomy operation resulting with gluteal compartment syndrome, and chronic kidney disease. We also highlight the importance of preventive cares and early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to avoid further morbidity.

  5. Development of air coolers for compartments located within the containment of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, D. E.; Matsyuk, V. P.; Nikanorov, O. L.; Panov, Yu. K.; Shepelev, S. F.

    2008-05-01

    The results of design studies and experimental investigations performed in the course of developing a unified set of air coolers for facilities for technological ventilation of compartments of a leaktight containment of an NPP are presented.

  6. Chemoattractant-Regulated Mobilization of a Novel Intracellular Compartment in Human Neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borregaard, N.; Miller, L. J.; Springer, T. A.

    1987-09-01

    A novel mobilizable intracellular compartment was identified in human neutrophils by latent alkaline phosphatase activity. This compartment is mobilized to the plasma membrane much more readily than any identified granule subset and has kinetics of up-regulation in the membrane similar to those reported for a variety of receptor proteins. Triton X-100 permeabilization of both intact human neutrophils and subcellular fractions obtained by density-gradient centrifugation revelaed that 70 percent of the alkaline phosphatase is located in an intracellular compartment distinct from primary, secondary, and gelatinase granules and from the plasma membrane. This compartment fully translocates to the plasma membrane after stimulation with nanomolar concentrations of the chemotactic peptide N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine.

  7. Continuous regional arterial infusion and laparotomic decompression for severe acute pancreatitis with abdominal compartment syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of abdominal decompression plus continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) via a drug delivery system (DDS) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).

  8. Acute Compartment Syndrome After Gastrocnemius Rupture (Tennis Leg) in a Nonathlete Without Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Jun, Huang; Muliang, Ding; Deye, Song; Jiangdong, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a serious emergency that warrants urgent decompression, and tennis leg (i.e., rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius) is a known clinical condition that is usually treated symptomatically, with good results overall. In rare cases, acute compartment syndrome is associated with tennis leg after severe direct muscle trauma or severe exercise in athletes or physically active individuals. We present an unusual case of acute compartment syndrome secondary to tennis leg after the patient, a nonathlete, had disembarked from a truck without any trauma. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for atraumatic compartment syndrome, and timely surgical fasciotomy must be undertaken to avoid complications resulting from delayed diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25435006

  9. Synchronous compartment temperature control and apparatus for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Stephen J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    A refrigerator appliance configuration, and associated methods of operation, for an appliance with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The controller, by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system, depending on the appliance configuration, controls the cooling rate in one or both compartments to synchronize, alternating cycles of cooling the compartments to their set point temperatures.

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL AND METHYLMERCURY IN DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEM COMPARTMENTS IN THE EVERGLADES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg) species distribution patterns among ecosystem compartments in the Everglades were analyzed at the landscape level in order to explore the implications of Hg distribution for Hg bioaccumulation, and to investigate major biogeochemical processes that are pertinent to t...

  11. Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, the interval between the cessation of exercise and the recovery of the pre-exercise resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

  12. Modification of an amplification reaction in recursively dynamic compartments driven by stirring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Tetsuo; Tanahashi, Genya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2013-12-17

    In living systems, biochemical reactions are confined to cellular or subcellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane and the organelles within a cell. These biological compartments are usually subjected to recursive changes, such as combinations of growth, fusion, and division, to constitute repeating cell cycles. In such recursively dynamic compartments, the encapsulated biochemical reaction may exhibit dynamics that differ from those of the static compartment (i.e., test tubes) used in conventional biochemistry experiments. To test this hypothesis in a simplified model, we mechanically stirred femtoliter-sized water-in-oil emulsion droplets so that individual droplets were subjected to repeated coalescence and breakage. We show that recursive dynamics appeared in the emulsion, which were measured by the exponential propagation of a water-soluble dye. The rate of the propagation, μ, was controlled by modulating the pulse-width of stirring in an electromagnetic stirrer. Within this system, we studied the dynamics of an RNA-amplification reaction in recursively increasing reaction compartments at various values of μ. We showed that there was an optimal value of μ that maximized RNA amplification. This effect was explained by the balance between the opposing effects of supply of substrate and the dilution of amplified RNA both resulting from coalescence. Moreover, when we mixed two RNA species with different kinetic properties, we found a preferential amplification for one of the species only in the recursively dynamic emulsion. This effect was partly explained by a separation effect which preferentially amplifies the number of compartments for the molecular specie that can better follow the breakage dynamics of the compartments. The present work demonstrated how the recursive dynamics of compartments modifies the internal biochemical reaction. PMID:24219119

  13. A surgical approach to the lateral compartment of the equine guttural pouch in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Juan A.; Stephen, Jennifer; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Lepage, Olivier M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)......The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)...

  14. The subcutaneous fat compartments in relation to aesthetically important facial folds and rhytides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierloff, M; Stöhring, C; Buder, T; Wiltfang, J

    2012-10-01

    The ideal treatment of the nasolabial fold, the tear trough, the labiomandibular fold and the mentolabial sulcus is still discussed controversially. The detailed topographical anatomy of the fat compartments may clarify the anatomy of facial folds and may offer valuable information for choosing the adequate treatment modality. Nine non-fixed cadaver heads in the age range between 72 and 89 years (five female and four male) were investigated. Computed tomographic scans were performed after injection of a radiographic contrast medium directly into the fat compartments surrounding prominent facial folds. The data were analysed after multiplanar image reconstruction. The fat compartments surrounding the facial folds could be defined in each subject. Different arrangement patterns of the fat compartments around the facial rhytides were found. The nasolabial fold, the tear trough and the labiomandibular fold represent an anatomical border between adjacent fat compartments. By contrast, the glabellar fold and the labiomental sulcus have no direct relation to the boundaries of facial fat. Deep fat, underlying a facial rhytide, was identified underneath the nasolabial crease and the labiomental sulcus. In conclusion, an improvement by a compartment-specific volume augmentation of the nasolabial fold, the tear trough and the labiomandibular fold is limited by existing boundaries that extend into the skin. In the area of the nasolabial fold and the mentolabial sulcus, deep fat exists which can be used for augmentation and subsequent elevation of the folds. The treatment of the tear trough deformity appears anatomically the most challenging area since the superficial and deep fat compartments are separated by an osseo-cutaneous barrier, the orbicularis retaining ligament. In severe cases, a surgical treatment should be considered. By contrast, the glabellar fold shows the most simple anatomical architecture. The fold lies above one subcutaneous fat compartment that can be used

  15. Arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target to a unique subcellular compartment that may function in unconventional secretion in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Christian Peter; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mouille, Grégory; Burow, Meike; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    We report that fluorescently tagged arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target not only the Golgi apparatus but also uncharacterized smaller compartments when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Approximately 80% of AtGALT31A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 31 (At1g32930)] was found in the small compartments, of which, 45 and 40% of AtGALT29A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 29 (At1g08280)] and AtGlcAT14A [Arabidopsis thaliana glucur...

  16. Acute Exertional Rhabdomyolysis and Triceps Compartment Syndrome During a High School Football Camp

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, John Y.; Laidler, Matthew; Fiala, Steven C.; Hedberg, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acute exertional rhabdomyolysis has been infrequently reported among adolescents. In August 2010, several high school football players from one team developed rhabdomyolysis and triceps compartment syndrome following an upper arm exercise held in a non-air-conditioned wrestling room. Purpose: To confirm the diagnoses, characterize the spectrum of illnesses, and determine the factors contributing to rhabdomyolysis and triceps compartment syndromes. Study Design: Descriptive epidemi...

  17. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome in an elderly male: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Leg pain is a common presentation to the outpatient department. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome is a rare cause of bilateral calf pain. Although this condition has been well documented in young athletes, it has rarely been reported in the elderly. We present the case of a 68-year-old male bodybuilder with bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome, describe the presentation and evaluation of the condition, and provide a review of the literature herewith.

  18. Development of a compartment model based on CFD simulations for description of mixing in bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crine, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and modeling the complex interactions between biological reaction and hydrodynamics are a key problem when dealing with bioprocesses. It is fundamental to be able to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. CFD can provide detailed modeling about hydrodynamics and mixing. However, it is computationally intensive, especially when reactions are taken into account. Another way to predict hydrodynamics is the use of "Compartment" or "Multi-zone" models which are much less demanding in computation time than CFD. However, compartments and fluxes between them are often defined by considering global quantities not representative of the flow. To overcome the limitations of these two methods, a solution is to combine compartment modeling and CFD simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a methodology in order to propose a compartment model based on CFD simulations of a bioreactor. The flow rate between two compartments can be easily computed from the velocity fields obtained by CFD. The difficulty lies in the definition of the zones in such a way they can be considered as perfectly mixed. The creation of the model compartments from CFD cells can be achieved manually or automatically. The manual zoning consists in aggregating CFD cells according to the user's wish. The automatic zoning defines compartments as regions within which the value of one or several properties are uniform with respect to a given tolerance. Both manual and automatic zoning methods have been developed and compared by simulating the mixing of an inert scalar. For the automatic zoning, several algorithms and different flow properties have been tested as criteria for the compartment creation.

  19. The role of thermal radiation on the initiation of flashover in a compartment fire

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, W.W.; Chow, W. K.

    2004-01-01

    Importance of thermal radiation for transition to flashover in a compartment fire will be demonstrated. A one zone model is developed with the objective of capturing the key mechanisms responsible for the initiation of flashover, i.e. physics of flashover. Thermal radiation is shown to be a key point and the inclusion of a three-dimensional radiation model is essential in the development of an accurate understanding of flashover. The heat transfer from the bounding wall of the compartment, th...

  20. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, M. A.; Chaney, L.; Rugh, J. P.

    2015-04-30

    Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation. An advanced thermal test manikin was used to assess a zonal approach to climate control. In addition, vehicle thermal analysis was used to support testing by exploring thermal load reduction strategies, evaluating occupant thermal comfort, and calculating EV range impacts. Through stationary cooling tests and vehicle simulations, a zonal cooling configuration demonstrated range improvement of 6%-15%, depending on the drive cycle. A combined cooling configuration that incorporated thermal load reduction and zonal cooling strategies showed up to 33% improvement in EV range.

  1. Développement de liants basé sur CAB pour le moulage par injection de poudre (PIM) et le micro moulage l'injection de poudre (µ-PIM) de Zircon et Invar poudres

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Garcia, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This PhD Thesis studied the use of binders based on cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) andpoly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in different type of materials, including a ceramic, the zirconiumsilicate, and a metallic alloy, the Invar 36. These materials share their low dimensionalstability with temperature with low coefficients of thermal expansion.The scope of this work is the study and comprehension of the behaviour of the mentionedbinder systems when they are employed in different PIM processes and ...

  2. 基于俯仰角加速度的驾驶室悬置系统修改%Modification of Cab Suspension System Based on Pitch Angular Acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军峰; 贺岩松; 杨海威; 黄勇

    2012-01-01

    A multi-body dynamics model based on flexible suspension cab was built. The excitation and validation signals were acquired through road-test. The accuracy of the model was investigated in three ways by degree of freedom, acceleration RMS and system mode shapes. Taking weighted pitch angular acceleration RMS as the evaluation target,the orthogonal test for matching parameters of the cab suspension was conducted in the frequency domain,the driver's seat weighted pitch angular acceleration RMS is reduced by 9% on average at various speeds, the weighted vertical acceleration RMS is reduced by 14% on average and reduction of the dynamic deflection of cab suspension is as 18%. Finally,the cab suspension springs were redesigned according to the calculation results.%采用柔性化的驾驶室建立驾驶室悬置系统的多体动力学模型,通过道路试验测得仿真模型的激励和验证信号,从自由度、加速度均方根值和系统模态等三个方面验证了模型的正确性.以俯仰角加权加速度均方根值为优化目标,在频域内对驾驶室悬置参数进行了正交试验匹配,使得不同车速下座椅处的俯仰角加权加速度均方根值平均降低14%,垂向加权加速度均方根值平均降低9%,驾驶室悬置动扰度平均降低18%.最后重新设计了驾驶室前后悬置弹簧.

  3. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jeff L.; Morey, A. Michael; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg-Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models.

  4. Hadron calorimeter performance with a PbWO4 EM compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CMS detector[1] at the LHC has chosen PbWO4 in order to achieve the superior photon energy resolution which is crucial in searching for the 2 photon decay of low mass Higgs bosons. The hadronic compartment is thought to be Cu absorber, since one is immersed in a 4 T magnetic field, read out by scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength shifter (WLS) fibers. The combined performance of this calorimeter is of interest in the study of jets and missing transverse energy (neutrino, SUSY signatures). For this reason, a test was made of the electromagnetic (EM) compartment combined with a reasonable approximation to the baseline HCAL ''barrel'' calorimeter. Data was taken in the H4 CERN beamline. The EM compartment was a 7 x 7 square array of PbWO4 crystals, which for the purposes of this study are considered as a single readout in depth (or ''compartment'') [2]. The HCAL module consisted of large scintillator plates with 24 individual longitudinal readout channels. The EM compartment was followed by 10 Cu plates each 3 cm thick, followed by 9 Cu plates each 6 cm thick. This set of absorber plates represented the HCAL compartments inside the coil. The coil itself [1] was approximated as Al and Fe plates, of a total thickness of about 1.4 absorption lengths. The coil mockup was sampled and then followed by 4 plates of 8 cm thick Cu, each with an individual readout which represented a test of the ''Tailcatcher'' concept

  5. Creatine-creatine phosphate shuttle modeled as two-compartment system at different levels of creatine kinase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey

    1994-01-01

    In order to characterize ADP-ATP and creatine-creatine phosphate (Cr-CrP) shuttles a minimal mathematical model with two compartments and cyclic turnover of matter was designed. The 'mitochondrial' compartment contained 'ATP-synthase' and 'mitochondrial ereatine kinase' (mitCK). The 'cytoplasmic......' compartment consisted of 'ATPase', 'cytoplasmic creatine kinase' (cytCK) and an 'ADP-binding structure'. The exchange of metabolites between these compartments was limited. Different levels of cytCK and mitCK expression as welt as different exchange rate constants between the compartments were assigned to...

  6. Focuss algorithm application in kinetic compartment modeling for PET tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular imaging is in the process of becoming. Its application mostly depends on the molecular discovery process of imaging probes and drugs, from the mouse to the patient, from research to clinical practice. Positron emission tomography (PET) can non-invasively monitor . pharmacokinetic and functional processes of drugs in intact organisms at tracer concentrations by kinetic modeling. It has been known that for all biological systems, linear or nonlinear, if the system is injected by a tracer in a steady state, the distribution of the tracer follows the kinetics of a linear compartmental system, which has sums of exponential solutions. Based on the general compartmental description of the tracer's fate in vivo, we presented a novel kinetic modeling approach for the quantification of in vivo tracer studies with dynamic positron emission tomography (PET), which can determine a parsimonious model consisting with the measured data. This kinetic modeling technique allows for estimation of parametric images from a voxel based analysis and requires no a priori decision about the tracer's fate in vivo, instead determining the most appropriate model from the information contained within the kinetic data. Choosing a set of exponential functions, convolved with the plasma input function, as basis functions, the time activity curve of a region or a pixel can be written as a linear combination of the basis functions with corresponding coefficients. The number of non-zero coefficients returned corresponds to the model order which is related to the number of tissue compartments. The system macro parameters are simply determined using the focal underdetermined system solver (FOCUSS) algorithm. The FOCUSS algorithm is a nonparametric algorithm for finding localized energy solutions from limited data and is a recursive linear estimation procedure. FOCUSS algorithm usually converges very fast, so demands a few iterations. The effectiveness is verified by simulation and clinical

  7. Search for and characterization of microorganisms in deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 50 years, the scientific community has shown a growing interest for deep geological compartments. However, these ecosystems remain largely unknown due to their inaccessibility. The aim of the present thesis was double; the first aim was to characterize, from a microbiological perspective, four terrestrial Triassic sedimentary formations located between 1700 and 2000 m depth in the Parisian Basin and collected by the ANDRA during a deep drilling campaign in 2008, and the second aim was to study the combined effects of temperature, pressure and salinity on the metabolic activity of anaerobic prokaryotes in order to predict their reaction to geological burial. Incubations in a large variety of media were carried out in order to stimulate the growth of the main trophic types found in such environments such as methanogens, fermenters and bacteria reducing sulphur compounds, however, no viable and cultivable microorganisms could be isolated. In parallel, a molecular approach was used to i) compare the efficacy of several DNA extractions methods and ii) analyse the bacterial diversity, using DGGE (Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning, present in rock inner cores conserved either at atmospheric pressure or under pressure, in their initial states and following incubations in various media. The genetic exploration of these samples revealed a very low biomass and a poor diversity composed mainly of aerobic and mesophilic members of the Bacteria domain, a priori unadapted to such a deep, hot, saline and anoxic environment. This unexpected microbial community also found in many subsurface ecosystems as well as in extreme ecosystems could have partially originated from a paleo-recharge of the Trias aquifer with cold waters coming from the melting of ice formed during the last Pleistocene glaciation. The second objective was to study the combined effects of temperature (40, 55 and 70 C), pressure (1, 90 and 180 bars) and salinity (13, 50, 110, 180

  8. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  9. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Yingqi, Liu; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development of elect...

  10. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  11. Passive secondary magnetic damping for superconducting Maglev vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze a passive magnetic damping scheme for the secondary suspension of a superconducting Maglev vehicle. The unsprung levitation or linear synchronous motor magnets are coupled electromagnetically to short-circuited aluminum damper coils mounted on the underside of the sprung mass. Relative motion between the magnets and the passenger compartment causes a time-dependent flux linkage which induces dissipative currents in the coils. Analysis for the typical Canadian Maglev vehicle design shows that a damping factor of 1 sec/sup -1/ can be obtained with a total coil mass of approximately 100 kg, for a secondary/primary suspension stiffness ratio of 0.2. This scheme appears to offer a design alternative to conventional frictional or hydraulic dampers

  12. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  13. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  14. Smart Vehicle Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.Kamble

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is amazing to know how simple ideas can give a whole new dimension to the tracking and navigation industry and smart vehicle tracking system is used for tracking the vehicles. You can optimize driver routes, save petrol or gas and time, reduce theft and control the vehicle functions. Many a times it is not required to track your vehicle or target globally. In majority of cases tracking is more restricted to local purposes only, such as tracking movement of vehicle within city, tracking the raw materials within industrial estate or to know the present position of your daughter or son within city. But unfortunately in the pursuit of making things complex this simple idea is forgotten. This simple yet powerful idea forms the basis of this revolutionary project. All this coupled with a very low cost, a robust design and tremendous market potential makes this model even more attractive.

  15. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  16. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  17. The Application of Compulational Fluid Dynamics to Design of Vehicle Cooling Wind Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Xiao-ping; HUANG Xiao-hui

    2009-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation model for the airflow and heat transfer in an armored vehicle cooling wind tunnel is established. A practical method to determine computation region outside power train compartment, produce grid and ensure grid quality is put forward. A commercial software FLUENT can be used to obtain solutions numerically in 3-D space. Precision of CFD calculation results is verified. The CFD model is used in designing a vehicle cooling wind tunnel, and air flow resistance of fan blast baffle is calculated. The calculated results show feasibility of the CFD model and the method.

  18. Determination of Selected Crash Parameters in Head-on Vehicle Collision with Rollover

    OpenAIRE

    Coufal, Tomáš; Semela, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents complete results of the head-on small overlap crash test of vehicle with driver moving at a speed of approximately 12 m/s against stationary vehicle with post-crash rollover. When a crash does not involve the main crush-zone structures, the occupant compartment is not well protected. The emphasis in the paper was put on determination and presentation of crash parameters for the application in traffic accident analyses and for simulation with the help of software for acciden...

  19. A Novel Two Domain-Fusion Protein in Cyanobacteria with Similarity to the CAB/ELIP/HLIP Superfamily: Evolutionary Implications and Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Kilian; Anne Soisig Steunou; Arthur R.Grossman; Devaki Bhaya

    2008-01-01

    Vascular plants contain abundant, light-harvesting complexes in the thylakoid membrane that are non-covalently associated with chlorophylls and carotenoids. These light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding (LHC) proteins are members of an extended CAB/ELIP/HLIP superfamily of distantly related polypeptides, which have between one and four transmembrane helices (TMH). This superfamily includes the single TMH, high-light-inducible proteins (Hlips), found in cyanobacteria that are induced by various stress conditions, including high light, and are considered ancestral to the LHC proteins. The roles of, and evolutionary relationships between, these superfamily members are of particular interest,since they function in both light harvesting and photoprotection and may have evolved through tandem gene duplication and fusion events. We have investigated the Hlips (hli gene family) in the thermophilic unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus OS-B'. The five hli genes present on the genome of Synechococcus OS-B' are relatively similar, but transcript analyses indicate that there are different patterns of transcript accumulation when the cells are exposed to various growth conditions, suggesting that different Hlips may have specific functions. Hlip5 has an additional TMH at the N-terminus as a result of a novel fusion event. This additional TMH is very similar to a conserved hypothetical, single membrane-spanning polypeptide present in most cyanobacteria. The evolutionary significance of these results is discussed.

  20. Thermoluminescence studies of manganese doped calcium tetraborate (CaB4O7:Mn) nanocrystal synthesized by co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese (Mn) doped bone-equivalent calcium tetraborate (CaB4O7) nanocrystals were synthesized using co-precipitation and thermal treatment techniques. The synthesized nanophosphors are found to possess the monoclinic structure and have the particle size about 9 nm. They showed good luminescence quantum efficiency and enough potential for radiation dose measurement in medical and industrial purposes. The variation of dopant concentrations was investigated from 0.1 to 2 mol% and it was found that the optimal concentration of 1.4 mol% Mn has the highest sensitivity among other concentrations. The results revealed that Mn enhance the thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity about 80 times higher than the un-doped samples at 1 kGy and the TL response over a wide range of doses from 0.05 Gy to 2.0 kGy increased linearly with increasing the absorbed dose. - Highlights: • The TL characterization of calcium tetraborate nanoparticles was reported for the first time. • The addition of manganese to host lattice can enhance the TL efficiency well. • The interesting feature of this study is a linearity of nanophosphor for wide range of doses. • The nanophosphor showed simple glow curve, good reproducibility and high sensitivity

  1. Compartment syndrome in a patient treated with perineural liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberón, José Raul; Sisco-Wise, Leslie E; Dunbar, Ross M

    2016-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a condition that may result in sensorimotor deficits and loss of function of the affected limb as a result of ischemic injury. It is considered a surgical emergency and prompt diagnosis and treatment results in more favorable outcomes. The use of regional anesthesia is controversial in patients at risk for compartment syndrome due to concern of its potential to mask symptoms of the condition. A 44-year-old African American male presented to surgery for open reduction and internal fixation of a comminuted distal radius fracture. As part of an off-label, investigator-initiated, and institutional review board-approved study, he received a perineural injection of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) around the median, ulnar, and radial nerves at the level of the proximal forearm. The following morning, his initial complaints of numbness and incisional pain progressively evolved into worsening numbness, diffuse discomfort, and pain with passive movement. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made and he underwent an emergency fasciotomy. The diagnosis of compartment syndrome requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment. This patient's changing pattern of symptoms-rather than his pain complaints alone-resulted in the diagnosis of compartment syndrome treated with emergent fasciotomy in spite of finger numbness that was initially attributed to the liposomal bupivacaine. While the use of liposomal bupivacaine did not preclude the diagnosis of compartment syndrome in our patient, it should be used with caution in patients at risk for compartment syndrome until additional data, particularly regarding block characteristics, are available. PMID:27185666

  2. Arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target to a unique subcellular compartment that may function in unconventional secretion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Christian Peter; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mouille, Grégory; Burow, Meike; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-11-01

    We report that fluorescently tagged arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target not only the Golgi apparatus but also uncharacterized smaller compartments when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Approximately 80% of AtGALT31A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 31 (At1g32930)] was found in the small compartments, of which, 45 and 40% of AtGALT29A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 29 (At1g08280)] and AtGlcAT14A [Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase from family 14 (At5g39990)] colocalized with AtGALT31A, respectively; in contrast, N-glycosylation enzymes rarely colocalized (3-18%), implicating a role of the small compartments in a part of arabinogalactan (O-glycan) biosynthesis rather than N-glycan processing. The dual localization of AtGALT31A was also observed for fluorescently tagged AtGALT31A stably expressed in an Arabidopsis atgalt31a mutant background. Further, site-directed mutagenesis of a phosphorylation site of AtGALT29A (Y144) increased the frequency of the protein being targeted to the AtGALT31A-localized small compartments, suggesting a role of Y144 in subcellular targeting. The AtGALT31A localized to the small compartments were colocalized with neither SYP61 (syntaxin of plants 61), a marker for trans-Golgi network (TGN), nor FM4-64-stained endosomes. However, 41% colocalized with EXO70E2 (Arabidopsis thaliana exocyst protein Exo70 homolog 2), a marker for exocyst-positive organelles, and least affected by Brefeldin A and Wortmannin. Taken together, AtGALT31A localized to small compartments that are distinct from the Golgi apparatus, the SYP61-localized TGN, FM4-64-stained endosomes and Wortmannin-vacuolated prevacuolar compartments, but may be part of an unconventional protein secretory pathway represented by EXO70E2 in plants. PMID:25074762

  3. Postsynaptic density protein 95 in the striosome and matrix compartments of the human neostriatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma eMorigaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The human neostriatum consists of two functional subdivisions referred to as the striosome (patch and matrix compartments. The striosome-matrix dopamine systems play a central role in cortico-thalamo-basal ganglia circuits, and their involvement is thought to underlie the genesis of multiple movement and behavioral disorders, and of drug addiction. Human neuropathology also has shown that striosomes and matrix have differential vulnerability patterns in several striatal neurodegenerative diseases. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, also known as DLG4, is a major scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic densities of dendritic spines. PSD-95 is now known to negatively regulate not only N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate signaling, but also dopamine D1 signals at sites of postsynaptic transmission. Accordingly, a neuroprotective role for PSD-95 against dopamine D1 receptor (D1R-mediated neurotoxicity in striatal neurodegeneration also has been suggested. Here, we used a highly sensitive immunohistochemistry technique to show that in the human neostriatum, PSD-95 is differentially concentrated in the striosome and matrix compartments, with a higher density of PSD-95 labeling in the matrix compartment than in the striosomes. This compartment-specific distribution of PSD-95 was strikingly complementary to that of D1R. In addition to the possible involvement of PSD-95-mediated synaptic function in compartment-specific dopamine signals, we suggest that the striosomes might be more susceptible to D1R-mediated neurotoxicity than the matrix compartment. This notion may provide new insight into the compartment-specific vulnerability of MSNs in striatal neurodegeneration.

  4. Methane emissions from vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, E K; Jensen, T E; Wallington, T J

    2004-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted by vehicles. We report results of a laboratory study of methane emissions using a standard driving cycle for 30 different cars and trucks (1995-1999 model years) from four different manufacturers. We recommend the use of an average emission factor for the U.S. on-road vehicle fleet of (g of CH/g of CO2) = (15 +/- 4) x 10(-5) and estimate that the global vehicle fleet emits 0.45 +/- 0.12 Tg of CH4 yr(-1) (0.34 +/- 0.09 Tg of C yr(-1)), which represents effects of vehicle aging, cold start, and hot running emissions. The contribution of CH4 emissions from vehicles to radiative forcing of climate change is 0.3-0.4% of that of CO2 emissions from vehicles. The environmental impact of CH4 emissions from vehicles is negligible and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. PMID:15112800

  5. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Van der Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic information system may comprise a plurality of these traffic information units. The invention further comprises a vehicle management system (C) for a target vehicle (70B, 70E) that is capable of receiv...

  6. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Wang, Mingbo [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); She, Zhending [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shi, Shengjun, E-mail: shengjunshi@yahoo.com [The Burns Department of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280 (China); Tan, Rongwei, E-mail: tanrw@landobiom.com [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  7. Quantitative muscle hardness as a noninvasive means for detecting patients at risk of compartment syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project was to study the efficacy of quantitative muscle hardness (QH) curve analysis for noninvasive measurement of muscle compartment interstitial pressure (IMP), and to eliminate the need for a comparison normal QH measurement to determine a pathologic reading. Elevation of IMP may lead to limb compartment syndrome, which may result in irreversible dysfunction, chronic pain and contracture. Two studies were performed by two separate independent examiners on male volunteers, where IMP measurements and QH curves were obtained. QH curves were divided into three parts comparing the third part to the second part using the coefficient of determination (R2). In 205 limb compartments, there were 1432 comparison readings of the IMP versus R2. Using receiver operator characteristic curve analysis for all data from both studies, an R2 cutoff of 0.974 best corresponded to a pathologic IMP of 50 mmHg. For both sets of data and for each compartment tested, the mean IMP values were statistically different (t-test: P < 0.0001) for the group with R2 values less than 0.974 compared to the group of R2 values greater than or equal to 0.974. In addition, a pressure prediction model was formulated with a strong overall correlation coefficient of 0.78. The data of this study support that QH analysis is potentially useful for the monitoring of IMP elevation in compartment syndrome

  8. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation

  9. ICM: an Integrated Compartment Method for numerically solving partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1981-05-01

    An integrated compartment method (ICM) is proposed to construct a set of algebraic equations from a system of partial differential equations. The ICM combines the utility of integral formulation of finite element approach, the simplicity of interpolation of finite difference approximation, and the flexibility of compartment analyses. The integral formulation eases the treatment of boundary conditions, in particular, the Neumann-type boundary conditions. The simplicity of interpolation provides great economy in computation. The flexibility of discretization with irregular compartments of various shapes and sizes offers advantages in resolving complex boundaries enclosing compound regions of interest. The basic procedures of ICM are first to discretize the region of interest into compartments, then to apply three integral theorems of vectors to transform the volume integral to the surface integral, and finally to use interpolation to relate the interfacial values in terms of compartment values to close the system. The Navier-Stokes equations are used as an example of how to derive the corresponding ICM alogrithm for a given set of partial differential equations. Because of the structure of the algorithm, the basic computer program remains the same for cases in one-, two-, or three-dimensional problems.

  10. ICM: an Integrated Compartment Method for numerically solving partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated compartment method (ICM) is proposed to construct a set of algebraic equations from a system of partial differential equations. The ICM combines the utility of integral formulation of finite element approach, the simplicity of interpolation of finite difference approximation, and the flexibility of compartment analyses. The integral formulation eases the treatment of boundary conditions, in particular, the Neumann-type boundary conditions. The simplicity of interpolation provides great economy in computation. The flexibility of discretization with irregular compartments of various shapes and sizes offers advantages in resolving complex boundaries enclosing compound regions of interest. The basic procedures of ICM are first to discretize the region of interest into compartments, then to apply three integral theorems of vectors to transform the volume integral to the surface integral, and finally to use interpolation to relate the interfacial values in terms of compartment values to close the system. The Navier-Stokes equations are used as an example of how to derive the corresponding ICM alogrithm for a given set of partial differential equations. Because of the structure of the algorithm, the basic computer program remains the same for cases in one-, two-, or three-dimensional problems

  11. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  12. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  13. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  14. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  15. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  16. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  17. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  18. Electric drive, motor vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, A.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the diverse mineral oil crises and the always increasing gasoline prices, more and more attention is paid to the electric car. The development of power economy necessitates more and more using mineral oil more economically and to replace it by other vehicles of energy wherever possible. This is especially true of highway traffic where the Federal Republic is 100% dependent on mineral oil imports. Prototypes of test vehicles of the different firms are presented.

  19. Low Floor Americans with Disabilities Compliant Alternate Fuel Vehicle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bartel

    2004-11-26

    This project developed a low emission, cost effective, fuel efficient, medium-duty community/transit shuttle bus that meets American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and meets National Energy Policy Act requirements (uses alternative fuel). The Low Profile chassis, which is the basis of this vehicle is configured to be fuel neutral to accommodate various alternative fuels. Demonstration of the vehicle in Yellowstone Park in summer (wheeled operation) and winter (track operation) demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility for this vehicle to provide year around operation throughout the Parks system as well as normal transit operation. The unique configuration of the chassis which provides ADA access with a simple ramp and a flat floor throughout the passenger compartment, provides maximum access for all passengers as well as maximum flexibility to configure the vehicle for each application. Because this product is derived from an existing medium duty truck chassis, the completed bus is 40-50% less expensive than existing low floor transit buses, with the reliability and durability of OEM a medium duty truck.

  20. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  1. Basic aspects of the concept of reactor compartment (including damaged compartments) management during utilization of nuclear powered submarines -- High priority R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale decommissioning of Russian nuclear-powered submarines (NPS) and their utilization prospects gave rise to numerous complicated scientific and technical, as well as economic, problems. Problems of handling of radioactive equipment from the reactor compartments (RC) are among the vital ones, arousing a growing concern with the public. Without solution of the problems the processes of NPS utilization can not be considered completed. It involves potential hazard, for the environment both from NPS being paid up (temporal on-float storage) with unloaded spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and RC, cut from submarine hull, containing highly radioactive equipment and materials but no SNF. Diverse variations of the concept of reactor compartment handling of NPS subject to, utilization are possible, but, in principle, there are essentially two variants: (1) RC utilization directly in the course of NPS utilization, envisaging removal of radioactive equipment from the reactor compartment and its cutting; (2) RC utilization after preliminary long-term storage of radioactive equipment of nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) in the standard sites within RC, when radioactivity of SGF equipment and materials as a result of natural decay of radionuclides is reduced to the values permitting RC cutting without employment of special means. When analyzing this or that variant of the concept, various factors are to be allowed for. First and foremost, the technology of RC handling is to provide: (1) minimum amount of radioactive wastes; (2) minimum radiation burden to the environment and personnel; (3) minimum material and financial expenditures; and (4) maximum radiation and ecological safety. RDIPE in cooperation with the leading enterprises of RF Minatom, Goskomoboronprom and Ministry of Defense has developed a concept of handling radioactive equipment in NPS reactor compartments, and its principle concepts are presented here

  2. Acute compartment syndrome of hand resulting from radiographic contrast iohexol extravasation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolar Vishwanath Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous (IV administration of iodinated contrast agents (ICAs is frequently employed for image enhancement while performing radiographic studies such as computed tomography and angiography. Complications related to IV administration of ICAs such as immediate hypersensitivity reactions and nephrotoxicity are well-known. However, severe skin and soft tissue injuries and acute compartment syndrome resulting from contrast extravasation are rare. This is especially so with small volume extravasation of a low osmolar, nonionic ICA such as iohexol. Here, we report a 63-year-old woman who developed acute compartment syndrome of left hand following iohexol extravasation and had swelling, blistering, cutaneous and soft tissue necrosis. She underwent fasciotomy for acute compartment syndrome of hand and later surgical debridement of necrotic skin and soft tissues was carried out. Clinical pharmacology of ICAs, extravasation injuries following their IV administration, their management and measures to reduce them are discussed in brief.

  3. Application of four-compartment model analysis to hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Evaluating liver function of obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four-compartment linear model consisting of excreted bile, cardiac blood pool, liver parenchyma and intrahepatic bile was studied using Tc-99m PMT in order to determine the sensitivity and clinical significance of model parameters in patients with obstructive jaundice. The time-radioactivity curves of cardiac blood pool, liver and excreted bile showed a reasonable curve fitting with the calculated values derived from the four-compartment model (R2>0.98). The following values were significantly correlated (p1 with Alb and HPT; K2 with T-Bil; MRT with Alb, T-Bil, and T-cho; and K1EF with Alb, T-Bil, TBA, and CHE. The four-compartment model, including excreted bile as a factor, provided highly sensitive PMT kinetic analysis with each parameter correlating with laboratory data. This methods proved to be useful in the evaluation of liver function in patients with obstructive jaundice. (author)

  4. A vacuole-like compartment concentrates a disordered calcium phase in a key coccolithophorid alga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviben, Sanja; Gal, Assaf; Hood, Matthew A.; Bertinetti, Luca; Politi, Yael; Bennet, Mathieu; Krishnamoorthy, Praveen; Schertel, Andreas; Wirth, Richard; Sorrentino, Andrea; Pereiro, Eva; Faivre, Damien; Scheffel, André

    2016-01-01

    Coccoliths are calcitic particles produced inside the cells of unicellular marine algae known as coccolithophores. They are abundant components of sea-floor carbonates, and the stoichiometry of calcium to other elements in fossil coccoliths is widely used to infer past environmental conditions. Here we study cryo-preserved cells of the dominant coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi using state-of-the-art nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy. We identify a compartment, distinct from the coccolith-producing compartment, filled with high concentrations of a disordered form of calcium. Co-localized with calcium are high concentrations of phosphorus and minor concentrations of other cations. The amounts of calcium stored in this reservoir seem to be dynamic and at a certain stage the compartment is in direct contact with the coccolith-producing vesicle, suggesting an active role in coccolith formation. Our findings provide insights into calcium accumulation in this important calcifying organism. PMID:27075521

  5. Fire testing and study of liquid pool fire in multiple compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many experimental/numerical studies on single compartment or single room fires have been reported in the literature but few studies are available for multiple compartments. There is a need for fire studies in multiple compartments as it may help in predicting fire impacts in build up environments which has compartmentalization. In the present work few fire experiments were conducted in a real life two-storey compartmentalized concrete building. We have used two liquid fuels to generate two different types of pool fires, Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) and n-heptane. The work was focused on the thermal hydraulic aspects like heat distribution to the corresponding walls, temperature near walls, vertical distribution of temperature close to fire and comparison of heat-flux and temperature at specified locations in interconnected rooms. The reported study elucidates the impact of ventilation on various thermal and hydraulic aspects of fire. (author)

  6. Development of a dynamic compartment model for the prediction of tritium behavior around NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI has developed a new model to find the relationship between the tritium release rate and tritium concentration in the environment. The model was based upon a dynamic compartment model. In this paper three kinds of global tritium cycling model were compared to estimate the natural background concentration of tritium in Korea. The dry and wet deposition rates were calculated using a computer program called DEPOS to derive a source term. The mechanisms considered for the transfer of tritium between the compartments were evaporation, groundwater flow, infiltration, runoff, and hydrodynamic dispersion. Also, transfer coefficients between the compartments were obtained using realistic geographical data. In order to illustrate the model various release scenarios were developed, and the change of tritium concentration in groundwater and surface water around the nuclear power plants was estimated. (author)

  7. Source term survey for the source compartment of a ray instrument plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2011, an investigation of source term was performed for the radioactive source compartment of a ray instrument plant, being set to be decommissioned. The results showed that gamma radiation air absorbed dose rate and surface contamination monitoring values were relatively high in the wall and ceiling near the cobalt source of calibration chamber 1 and the values were at the normal background level in the other area of the compartment. The water in the well was not contaminated by radiation materials. 5 radioactive sources in the source compartment were detected with the total activity of 2.54×1011 Bq. Among which 3 radioactive sources were reported for the first time with a activity level of 2.99×109 Bq and then the potential radiation accident can be avoided because of the survey. (authors)

  8. Scenarios Approach to the Electromagnetic Exposure: The Case Study of a Train Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies identified the train compartment as the place where people can experience the highest exposure levels (still below the international guideline limits to electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency range. Here a possible scenario of a train compartment has been reproduced and characterized, both numerically and experimentally. A good agreement between the simulated electric field distributions and measurements has been found. Results indicate that the higher values of exposure in specific positions inside the train compartment depend on the number of active cell phones, the bad coverage condition, the cell orientation, and the presence of metallic walls. This study shows that the proposed approach, based on the scenarios characterization, may efficiently support the assessment of the individual electromagnetic exposure.

  9. Gluteal compartment syndrome due to prolonged immobilization after alcohol intoxication: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Shinichi; Miura, Naoyuki; Fukushima, Tomokazu; Seki, Tomoko; Sugimoto, Katuhiko; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2011-07-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition that mostly result from atraumatic causes such as prolonged immobilization due to drug abuse or alcoholic intoxication and incorrect positioning during surgical procedures rather than traumatic causes. Early diagnosis is difficult and sometimes delayed or overlooked because of poor physical signs resulting from altered mental status and inappropriate diagnosis by clinicians. It has been reported that more than half of the cases of gluteal compartment syndrome are associated with crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy. Early diagnosis and immediate fasciotomy are necessary to improve the functional prognosis. Here, we report the case of a patient with gluteal compartment syndrome caused by prolonged immobilization after acute alcoholic intoxication. After disease onset, the patient developed complications of crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy, but immediate fasciotomy improved his condition. PMID:21769768

  10. The pattern of the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones in motor vehicle driving simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Politański

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper reports the results of the determinations of UMTS EMF distributions in the driver's cab of motor vehicle simulators. The results will serve as the basis for future research on the influence of EMF emitted by mobile phones on driver physiology. Materials and Methods: Two motor vehicle driving simulators were monitored, while an EMF source was placed at the driver's head or on the dashboard of the motor vehicle driving simulator. For every applied configuration, the maximal electric field strength was measured, as were the values at 16 points corresponding to chosen locations on a driver's or passenger's body. Results: When the power was set for the maximum (49 mW, a value of 27 V/m was measured in the vicinity of the driver's head when the phone was close to the head. With the same power, when the phone was placed on the dashboard, the measured maximum was 15.2 V/m in the vicinity of the driver's foot. Similar results were obtained for the passenger. Significant perturbations in EMF distribution and an increase in electric field strength values in the motor vehicle driving simulator were also observed in comparison to free space measurements, and the electric field strength was up to 3 times higher inside the simulator. Conclusions: This study can act as the basis of future studies concerning the influence of the EMF emitted by mobile phones on the physiology of the driver. Additionally, the authors postulate that it is advisable to keep mobile phones at a distance from the head, i.e. use, whenever possible, hands-free kits to reduce EMF exposure, both for drivers and passengers.

  11. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Serum and Several Different Fat Compartments in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chemicals that store in lipid-rich compartments have the potential for long-term disruption of metabolic and endocrine processes. Given the evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs also alter systemic metabolic, endocrine, and immune system functions, it follows that elevated chemical concentrations in intra-abdominal fat may alter function, through local chemical signaling, of visceral organs. Despite this potential, there has been little study defining POP concentrations in live human intra-abdominal fat. It is at present uncertain whether POPs distribute equally to all fat compartments, including fat in serum. Methods. Seven human subjects scheduled for elective surgery for benign lesions or cancer provided consent for removal of samples of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat and/or cancerous tissue. These samples were analyzed for 22 chlorinated pesticides and 10 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners by GC/ECD plus GC/MS. Results. In only two subjects were the patterns and relative concentrations of PCBs and pesticides about the same in all fat compartments. In the other subjects, there were major differences in levels in subcutaneous as compared to other compartments, but with some higher and some lower. While the pattern of PCBs in the various compartments matched that of the pesticides in some, it was opposite in others. Interpretation. These results demonstrate a complicated distribution of PCB congeners and pesticides in various lipid compartments. The difference may reflect various Kows, different rates of metabolism, and/or different lengths of exposure. But the results suggest that contaminant levels in serum or even subcutaneous fat do not necessarily indicate concentrations and patterns in other kinds of adipose tissue.

  12. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremyslov, Valera V.; Cole, Rex A.; Fowler, John E.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI), cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors) and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6–1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development. PMID:26426395

  13. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera V Peremyslov

    Full Text Available Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI, cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6-1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development.

  14. Open abdomen procedure in managing abdominal compartment syndrome in a child with severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome with increased abdominal pressure resulted in multi-organ dysfunctions can be lethal in children. The open abdomen procedure intentionally leaves the abdominal cavity open in patients with severe abdominal sepsis and abdominal compartment syndrome by temporarily relieving the abdominal pressure. We reported our experience of open abdomen procedure in successfully treating a 4-year old boy with abdominal compartment syndrome caused by severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation.

  15. Human Cytomegalovirus UL44 Concentrates at the Periphery of Replication Compartments, the Site of Viral DNA Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Strang, Blair L.; Boulant, Steeve; Chang, Lynne; Knipe, David M.; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Coen, Donald M

    2012-01-01

    The formation of replication compartments, the subnuclear structures in which the viral DNA genome is replicated, is a hallmark of herpesvirus infections. The localization of proteins and viral DNA within human cytomegalovirus replication compartments is not well characterized. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated the accumulation of the viral DNA polymerase subunit UL44 at the periphery of replication compartments and the presence of different populations of UL44 in infected cells. In co...

  16. Opposing Activities of LIT-1/NLK and DAF-6/Patched-Related Direct Sensory Compartment Morphogenesis in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorios Oikonomou; Perens, Elliot A.; Yun Lu; Shigeki Watanabe; Erik M. Jorgensen; Shai Shaham

    2011-01-01

    Glial cells surround neuronal endings to create enclosed compartments required for neuronal function. This architecture is seen at excitatory synapses and at sensory neuron receptive endings. Despite the prevalence and importance of these compartments, how they form is not known. We used the main sensory organ of C. elegans, the amphid, to investigate this issue. daf-6/Patched-related is a glia-expressed gene previously implicated in amphid sensory compartment morphogenesis. By comparing time...

  17. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to central compartment (level 6) lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhterov, Ilya; Rowe, Meghan E; Khorsandi, Azita S; Urken, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    Alterations to drainage pathways in the head and neck as a result of surgical manipulation are not well understood. We present two unusual cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the level 6 nodal compartment following extensive treatment. Both oral squamous cell carcinoma cases exhibited metastases to the central neck compartment following extensive surgery and radiation. Each patient had prior history of multifocal oral cavity disease and recurrent neck metastases requiring salvage lymphadenectomy. Surgical interventions may alter the usual lymphatic drainage patterns. In cases of extensive treatment, all levels of the neck should be monitored for lymph node recurrence. Laryngoscope, 126:1803-1805, 2016. PMID:26490846

  18. Arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target to a unique subcellular compartment that may function in unconventional secretion in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian Peter; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mouille, Grégory;

    2014-01-01

    We report that fluorescently tagged arabinogalactan glycosyltransferases target not only the Golgi apparatus but also uncharacterized smaller compartments when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Approximately 80% of AtGALT31A [Arabidopsis thaliana galactosyltransferase from family 31......-glycosylation enzymes rarely colocalized (3-18%), implicating a role of the small compartments in a part of arabinogalactan (O-glycan) biosynthesis rather than N-glycan processing. The dual localization of AtGALT31A was also observed for fluorescently tagged AtGALT31A stably expressed in an Arabidopsis atgalt31a mutant...

  19. Combustion of lean hydrogen-air mixtures in the connected compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of combustion experiments with premixed lean hydrogen-air mixtures was conducted in a vessel consisting of two compartments connected by a diameter-variable vent. Effects of various parameters (hydrogen concentration, vent diameter and initial pressure) on mechanical loads of the combustion processes including mainly the peak pressures and the rates of pressure rise were investigated. Relation of flow and combustion was approached. Ignition-combustion processes were discussed, and the combustion types were classified into three patterns according to the pressure-time histories and the flow characteristics in main combustion compartment

  20. Bilateral accessory flexor digitorum muscle in the posterior compartment of the leg

    OpenAIRE

    Singh R; Shamal SN

    2010-01-01

    Deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg constitute of the flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum and tibialis posterior. During the routine dissection of a 53-year-old male cadaver of Indian origin, an accessory muscle was observed in the posterior compartment of the both the legs, deep to the soleus muscle. The muscle originated as a slender tendon from the medial border of the tibia, led to a small belly of the muscle fibers arranged bipinnately and converged into another sle...

  1. Cost analysis of adult parenteral nutrition systems: three-compartment bag versus customized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berlana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenteral nutrition (PN is a costly technology used widely to provide nutrition to patients who have an inaccessible or non-functioning intestine. Two all-in-one systems currently being used are customized formulations and three-compartment bags. Objective: To provide a systematic cost comparison of the two all-in-one PN systems: individualized (made from nutrient solutions versus commercialized (made from three-compartment bag, both prepared in hospital pharmacies. Setting: This study was conducted in three public Spanish hospitals. Method: We conducted a cost-minimization study to analyze prospectively the total cost of PN bags, accounting for all of the processes involved in preparing and delivering PN bags (cost of manpower, nutrition solutions, medical supplies and quality controls in three different healthcare settings. To compare therapeutic alternatives of equivalent nutritional value, the study was performed for the most frequently employed formulation and similar to commercial preparations. A univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of different rates of use of three-compartment PN bag. Results: 157 routine acts of PN bag preparation (65 customized and 92 three-compartment were observed and timed over 9 days. Total costs of the 157 PN bags were included in the study. Mean costs of customized bags were higher than three-compartment bags, 51.16 ± 5.63 € versus 39.69 ± 3.00 € respectively (p < 0.01. Manpower costs were responsible for the majority of the differences found (70%. The time to complete an adult bag for the hospital compounded system was a mean of 25.9 minutes longer than the three-compartment system. In scenarios using a three-compartment system for 30%, 70% and 90% of PN provision, a cost savings of 4.3%, 10.1% and 12.9% respectively could be achieved. Greatest rates of changing from customized bags (70% and 90%, in a hospital with 1,800 PN bags/year, might reduce the annual

  2. A solution method for compartment models of the environment using the numerical inversion of Laplace transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that advantage can be taken of the structure of compartment models of the environment to develop an appropriate Laplace transform solution method. Such models can often be divided into a number of sub-models, and providing the number of compartments in each sub-model does not exceed about 10, the computational time required is not excessive. Larger models can often be reduced to systems of this size by taking account of those parts of the environment where local equilibrium is rapidly attained. For many situations, particularly where decay chains of radionuclides are considered, this method can actually show significant time savings over time-stepping solutions. (author)

  3. Interwoven Four-Compartment Capillary Membrane Technology for Three-Dimensional Perfusion with Decentralized Mass Exchange to Scale Up Embryonic Stem Cell Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Jörg C.; Lübberstedt, Marc; Edsbagge, Josefina; Ring, Alexander; Hout, Mariah; Baun, Matt; Rossberg, Ingrid; Knöspel, Fanny; Peters, Grant; Eckert, Klaus; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Björquist, Petter; Stachelscheid, Harald; Urbaniak, Thomas; Schatten, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We describe hollow fiber-based three-dimensional (3D) dynamic perfusion bioreactor technology for embryonic stem cells (ESC) which is scalable for laboratory and potentially clinical translation applications. We added 2 more compartments to the typical 2-compartment devices, namely an additional media capillary compartment for countercurrent ‘arteriovenous’ flow and an oxygenation capillary compartment. Each capillary membrane compartment can be perfused independently. Interweaving the 3 capi...

  4. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  5. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Selivanov; V. Filenko; А. Bazhynov; E. Budianskaya

    2009-01-01

    The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  6. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  7. Tretinoin-based formulations - influence of concentration and vehicles on skin penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileia Bagatin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tretinoin is used in the management of acne and it is part of a gold standard treatment for photoaging. It has also been reported as an agent for superficial chemical peeling in highly concentrated formulations with few considerations about skin penetration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of drug concentration and vehicles currently used on skin penetration of tretinoin. In vitro permeation tests were carried out using Franz diffusion cells fitted with porcine ear skin and 10% aqueous methanol in the receptor compartment. Formulations studied, cream or hydroalcoholic dispersion, containing 0.25%, 1% and 5% of tretinoin were placed in the donor compartment for six hours. Tretinoin concentration in skin layers was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The largest amount of tretinoin from both vehicles was detected in stratum corneum with significant differences among the three concentrations. The hydroalcoholic dispersion was the best vehicle. Significant amounts of tretinoin were found even in deep layers of epidermis. The formulation with 0.25% tretinoin showed better results when considered the amount of tretinoin on skin in terms of percentage. Finally, skin penetration of tretinoin was influenced by vehicle and concentration of this drug used in formulation.

  8. 空间与身份--论美籍韩裔作家佩蒂·金的《“可靠的”的士》%Space and Identity:On A Cab Called Reliable by Korean-American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪雪花

    2015-01-01

    In Korean -American writer Patti Kim’s novel A Cab Called Reliable,the heroine,who is from a Korean immigrant family,narrates a tongue -tied story of identity dilemma confronted by new -generation Korean immigrants.The novel highlights the heroine’s perception of space and paradox in identity.After wit-nessing her mother leaving home,the heroine begins to pursue her self -identity through the seeking of the re-liable cab.This paper analyses Patti Kim’s A Cab Called Reliable by integrating space theory with identity theory and then probes into the connection between space and identity.%美籍韩裔作家佩蒂·金的小说《“可靠的”的士》中以移民美国的一个韩国家庭的故事展现了新一代美籍韩裔所面临的身份的尴尬处境。这部作品的主要特征在于主人公对空间的感知与矛盾的身份。作品讲述的是主人公在亲眼目睹了母亲出走后,借由对“可靠的”的士的寻找而开始的对自我身份的探求的心路历程。将空间理论和身份认同理论结合起来解读美籍韩裔作品《“可靠的”的士》,可以较好地探讨空间与身份的关系。

  9. Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Thomas, C.E.; Baum, G.N.; Lomas, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximately 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.

  10. Remote vehicle survey tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Remote Vehicle Survey Tool (RVS7) is a color graphical display tool for viewing remotely acquired scientific data. The RVST displays the data in the form of a color two-dimensional world model map. The world model map allows movement of the remote vehicle to be tracked by the operator and the data from sensors to be graphically depicted in the interface. Linear and logarithmic meters, dual channel oscilloscopes, and directional compasses are used to display sensor information. The RVST is user-configurable by the use of ASCII text files. The operator can configure the RVST to work with any remote data acquisition system and teleoperated or autonomous vehicle. The modular design of the RVST and its ability to be quickly configured for varying system requirements make the RVST ideal for remote scientific data display in all environmental restoration and waste management programs

  11. Theoretical Evaluation of the Sediment/Water Exchange Description in Generic Compartment Models (SimpleBox)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Fauser, P.; Carlsen, L.;

    It is shown how diffusion and deposition of solids drive the flux of substance between the water column and the sediment. The generic compartment models (Mackay type) use a one box model for the sediment in order to keep the calculations simple. However, when diffusion needs to be included in the...

  12. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and Intra-abdominal Ischemia in Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.; Buddingh, K. T.; Bosma, B; Nieuwenhuijs, V B; Hofker, H.S.; Zijlstra, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Severe acute pancreatitis may be complicated by intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), and intestinal ischemia. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, treatment, and outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and ACS

  13. The epidermis comprises autonomous compartments maintained by distinct stem cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Page, Mahalia E; Lombard, Patrick; Ng, Felicia;

    2013-01-01

    populations. In contrast, upon wounding, stem cell progeny from multiple compartments acquire lineage plasticity and make permanent contributions to regenerating tissue. We further show that oncogene activation in Lrig1(+ve) cells drives hyperplasia but requires auxiliary stimuli for tumor formation...

  14. Similar relative mutation rates in the three genetic compartments of Mesostigma and Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jimeng; Smith, David Roy; Borza, Tudor; Lee, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Levels of nucleotide substitution at silent sites in organelle versus nuclear DNAs have been used to estimate relative mutation rates among these compartments and explain lineage-specific features of genome evolution. Synonymous substitution divergence values in animals suggest that the rate of mutation in the mitochondrial DNA is 10-50 times higher than that of the nuclear DNA, whereas overall data for most seed plants support relative mutation rates in mitochondrial, plastid, and nuclear DNAs of 1:3:10. Little is known about relative mutation rates in green algae, as substitution rate data is limited to only the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas. Here, we measure silent-site substitution rates in the plastid DNA of Chlamydomonas and the three genetic compartments of the streptophyte green alga Mesostigma. In contrast to the situation in animals and land plants, our results support similar relative mutation rates among the three genetic compartments of both Chlamydomonas and Mesostigma. These data are discussed in relation to published intra-species genetic diversity data for the three genetic compartments of Chlamydomonas and are ultimately used to address contemporary hypotheses on the organelle genome evolution. To guide future work, we describe evolutionary divergence data of all publically available Mesostigma viride strains and identify, for the first time, three distinct lineages of Mesostigma. PMID:21621456

  15. Does evaluation of the ligamentous compartment enhance diagnostic utility of sacroiliac joint MRI in axial spondyloarthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P; Chan, Stanley M;

    2015-01-01

    compartment alone. METHODS: Two independent cohorts of 69 and 88 consecutive back pain patients ≤50 years were referred for suspected SpA (cohort A) or acute anterior uveitis plus back pain (cohort B). Patients were classified according to rheumatologist expert opinion based on clinical, radiographic and...

  16. MEASUREMENT OF TISSUE PRESSURE, AN AID TO PREDICT COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: OUR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Compartment syndrome ( CS is one of the dreaded complications of fractures. The incidence of CS is more with fractures of tibia and both bones of leg. If not diagnosed early, and treated promptly it may result in much morbidi ty and loss of the limb in extreme cases. So the measurement of tissue pressure in the affected compartment periodically will alert us to the possibility of development of CS. MATERIALS & METHODS : This study was conducted in the Emergency ward , Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Gandhi General Hospital , Secunderabad, during the period June 2007 to June 2009. A total of 46 patients were included in the study. The tissue pressures were measured by using an ingenious method, the instrument can be made from commonly available material in the hospital, there by obviating the need for costly equipment . CONCLUSIONS : Measurement of tissue pressure in the affected and normal compartments of the leg in cases of fractures of the leg give us an idea about the impending Compartment Syndrome. The early initiation of appropriate treatment will prevent serious consequences. The measurement of tissue pressure can be done by using a simple instrument .

  17. Dopamine dynamics and cocaine sensitivity differ between striosome and matrix compartments of the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Armando G; Davis, Margaret I; Lovinger, David M; Mateo, Yolanda

    2016-09-01

    The striatum is typically classified according to its major output pathways, which consist of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons. The striatum is also divided into striosome and matrix compartments, based on the differential expression of a number of proteins, including the mu opioid receptor, dopamine transporter (DAT), and Nr4a1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1). Numerous functional differences between the striosome and matrix compartments are implicated in dopamine-related neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease and addiction. Using Nr4a1-eGFP mice, we provide evidence that electrically evoked dopamine release differs between the striosome and matrix compartments in a regionally-distinct manner. We further demonstrate that this difference is not due to differences in inhibition of dopamine release by dopamine autoreceptors or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, cocaine enhanced extracellular dopamine in striosomes to a greater degree than in the matrix and concomitantly inhibited dopamine uptake in the matrix to a greater degree than in striosomes. Importantly, these compartment differences in cocaine sensitivity were limited to the dorsal striatum. These findings demonstrate a level of exquisite microanatomical regulation of dopamine by the DAT in striosomes relative to the matrix. PMID:27036891

  18. K400 special crane for building reactor compartments at commercial NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of new travelling bride crane with 400t load capacity designed to build reactor compartments at NPPs with WWER-1000 reactors and its mounting technology are considered. Advantages of this new crane as compared to the K2x100(190) crane are pointed out and estimated economical effect concerning its application is given

  19. Fascia iliaca compartment blockade for acute pain control in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai B; Kristensen, Billy B; Bundgaard, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    Hip fracture patients are in severe pain upon arrival at the emergency department. Pain treatment is traditionally based on systemic opioids. No study has examined the effect of fascia iliaca compartment blockade (FICB) in acute hip fracture pain management within a double-blind, randomized setup....

  20. Simulation model of multi-compartment distribution in the catering supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.R.; Weert, van A.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient distribution system of high performance is needed to anticipate market developments in the catering supply chain (CSC) in the Netherlands. A simulation model was developed to analyse a multi-compartment distribution system which should satisfy customer demands for shorter lead times, in

  1. 76 FR 13620 - Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Compartment Seating and Restraints to Proposed Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Compartment Seating and Restraints to Proposed Test Standard Authority: 29 U.S.C. 669. AGENCY: NIOSH, Centers... existing, redesigned, and/or new seating to validate the test methods proposed. It is anticipated testing... analysis. Prospective industry partners will provide the following test assets: Seating, seat...

  2. 75 FR 6092 - Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo Compartment Lavatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... Groves, FAA, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification... that each cargo compartment must meet one of the Class requirements of Sec. 25.857; and the flight.... Two types of shut-off systems meet this requirement: A manual system, with an airplane flight...

  3. Cause and Consequence of Tethering a SubTAD to Different Nuclear Compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijchers, Patrick J; Krijger, Peter H L; Geeven, Geert; Zhu, Yun; Denker, Annette; Verstegen, Marjon J A M; Valdes-Quezada, Christian; Vermeulen, Carlo; Janssen, Mark; Teunissen, Hans; Anink-Groenen, Lisette C M; Verschure, Pernette J; de Laat, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Detailed genomic contact maps have revealed that chromosomes are structurally organized in megabase-sized topologically associated domains (TADs) that encompass smaller subTADs. These domains segregate in the nuclear space to form active and inactive nuclear compartments, but cause and consequence o

  4. New quantitative approaches reveal the spatial preference of nuclear compartments in mammalian fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David J; Russell, Richard A; Batty, Elizabeth; Jensen, Kirsten; Stephens, David A; Adams, Niall M; Freemont, Paul S

    2015-03-01

    The nuclei of higher eukaryotic cells display compartmentalization and certain nuclear compartments have been shown to follow a degree of spatial organization. To date, the study of nuclear organization has often involved simple quantitative procedures that struggle with both the irregularity of the nuclear boundary and the problem of handling replicate images. Such studies typically focus on inter-object distance, rather than spatial location within the nucleus. The concern of this paper is the spatial preference of nuclear compartments, for which we have developed statistical tools to quantitatively study and explore nuclear organization. These tools combine replicate images to generate 'aggregate maps' which represent the spatial preferences of nuclear compartments. We present two examples of different compartments in mammalian fibroblasts (WI-38 and MRC-5) that demonstrate new knowledge of spatial preference within the cell nucleus. Specifically, the spatial preference of RNA polymerase II is preserved across normal and immortalized cells, whereas PML nuclear bodies exhibit a change in spatial preference from avoiding the centre in normal cells to exhibiting a preference for the centre in immortalized cells. In addition, we show that SC35 splicing speckles are excluded from the nuclear boundary and localize throughout the nucleoplasm and in the interchromatin space in non-transformed WI-38 cells. This new methodology is thus able to reveal the effect of large-scale perturbation on spatial architecture and preferences that would not be obvious from single cell imaging. PMID:25631564

  5. Dopamine modulated ionic permeability in mesoporous silica sphere based biomimetic compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Xiaohai; He, Dinggeng; He, Leiliang; Li, Li; Liu, Yu; Liu, Jianbo; Wang, Kemin

    2016-06-01

    The building of artificial systems with similar structure and function as cellular compartments will expand our understanding of compartmentalization related biological process and facilitate the construction of biomimetic highly functional structures. Herein, surface phenylboronic acid functionalized mesoporous silica sphere was developed as a biomimetic dopamine gated compartment, in which the ionic permeability can be well modulated through the dopamine-binding induced charge reversal. As the phenylboronic acid is negatively charged, the negatively charged 1, 3, 6, 8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid (TPSA) was hindered from permeation into the biomimetic compartment. However, the presence of dopamine and its binding with phenylboronic acid reversed the gatekeeper shell from negative to positive charged and gated the permeation of TPSA into the interior. The dopamine gated permeation phenomenon resembles that in biological system, and thus the phenylboronic acid functionalized mesoporous silica sphere was taken as a simple model for dopamine gated ion channel decorated biological compartment. It will also contribute to the development of artificial cell and responsive nanoreactor. PMID:26962763

  6. Phosphorous recovery from sewage sludge ash suspended in water in a two-compartment electrodialytic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is indispensable for all forms of life on Earth and as P is a finite resource, it is highly important to increase recovery of P from secondary resources. This investigation is focused on P recovery from sewage sludge ash (SSA) by a two-compartment electrodialytic separation (EDS) t...

  7. [A case of acute renal failure following compartment syndrome after the surgery for femoral neck fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Kenichiro; Uzawa, Masashi; Ide, Yasuo; Harada, Masaki; Sanbe, Norie; Sugano, Takayuki; Satoh, Yasuo; Tagami, Megumi

    2013-02-01

    Compartment syndrome is known to develop after a prolonged surgery in the lithotomy position. We experienced acute renal failure following compartment syndrome after the surgery in hemilithotomy position. A 62-year-old man underwent a left hip fixation for femoral neck fracture. The surgical leg was placed into traction in a foot piece and the intact leg was placed in the hemilithotomy position. Because of the difficulty in repositioning and the trouble with fluoroscope, the surgery took over 5 hours. He suffered acute pain, swelling and spasm in his intact leg placed into hemilithotomy after the surgery. Creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine markedly increased and myoglobinuria was recognized. We diagnosed an acute renal failure following compartment syndrome and treated him in the ICU on close monitoring. In spite of the treatment with massive transfusion and diuretics, he needed hemodialysis twice and then his renal function improved. Prevention is most essential for compartment syndrome after a prolonged surgery in the lithotomy position. Risk factors should be recognized before surgery and appropriate action should be taken such as using Allen stirrups and avoiding hypotension, hypovolemia and the prolonged lithotomy position with exaggerated elevation of legs. PMID:23479927

  8. Meeting the EU recycling targets by introducing a 2-compartment bin to households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Scheutz, Charlotte; Møller, Jacob

    A Danish municipality has introduced a 2-compartment bin in the waste collection scheme, this bin should increase recycling of dry household recyclables. An excessive waste sorting campaign was conducted and the efficiency of the bin assessed. The waste sorting campaign yielded a full waste...... targets can be fulfilled, there is still room for improvement (increase source separation), especially for hard plastic and metals....

  9. 77 FR 19148 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... to protect occupants of the overhead crew rest compartment from head injury. The use of evacuation..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background documents or... evacuation by encroaching into aisles in a way that is not easily reversible, for example) or cause injury...

  10. 75 FR 75 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... to protect occupants of the OCR compartment from head injury. Use of evacuation routes must not be... cause injury to those occupants during opening or while opened. 2. There must be at least two emergency... predicated on specific head location, there must be a placard identifying that head position. 9. In lieu...

  11. 75 FR 81 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Flightcrew Rest Compartment Occupiable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... occupants of the OFCR compartment from head injury. Use of evacuation routes must not be dependent on any... occupants on the main deck (slowing evacuation by encroaching into aisles, for example) or cause injury to... special conditions is predicated on specific head location, there must be a placard identifying that...

  12. Treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome in severe acute pancreatitis patients with traditional Chinese medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Min-Jie; Zhang, Guo-Lei; Yuan, Wen-Bin; Ni, Jun; Huang, Li-Feng

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese traditional medicines Da Cheng Qi Decoction (Timely-Purging and Yin-Preserving Decoction) and Glauber’s salt combined with conservative measures on abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients.

  13. 依据历史轨迹构建城市出租车移动概率模型%The moving probability model of urban cabs based on history trajectory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马武彬; 刘明星; 黄宏斌; 邓苏

    2014-01-01

    The model of urban cabs moving is one of the key issues for model building.The model needs reflecting moving state information of cabs.More importantly,users can quickly query the moving cabs.Under the condition of real time information of cabs which is hard to obtain,we should model the moving points and forecast the state information according to the moving history.A method which applies Hidden Markov theory to model of the moving trajectory is proposed.Through an analysis of real trajectory data of San Francisco,the caps moving model which is used to query the caps by users was constructed.Experiment with real datasets shows that the method proposed can simulate the moving state of caps.Users can also quickly obtain the useful location information from the model.%针对无法在线实时获取移动出租车实时状态信息的条件下,根据对历史轨迹信息的处理分析,提出将隐马尔科夫理论应用到城市出租车移动轨迹模型中,通过实际数据的分析建立出租车运动模型,通过对模型的计算来预测节点的位置分布概率,并在此模型上针对不同的用户需求进行查询处理,为用户提供搭车路线决策支持。通过利用真实数据集的实验证明,模型能够较好的模拟出出租车节点的运动状态,用户也能够从模型中获取较高精度的位置状态信息。

  14. Comportamiento asertivo y adaptación social : adaptación de una escala de comportamiento asertivo (CABS) para escolares de enseñanza primaria (6-12 años)

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, V. de la; Hernández Granda, Eva; Rodríguez Díaz, Francisco Javier

    2003-01-01

    Este trabajo es un estudio de la Escala de Comportamiento Asertivo (CABS) en una muestra de alumnos de Enseñanza Primaria de la Comunidad Autónoma del Principado de Asturias ( 2º Curso: N=119 y 4º y 6º: N=260). El objetivo es lograr una escala breve para discriminar el estilo asertivo frente a los no asertivos en las edades iniciales de escolarización. Para ello hemos eliminado los ítems redundantes (que producían una matriz de covarianzas con determinante 0) y, posteriormente, se ha evaluado...

  15. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  16. Algorithms for vehicle navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Storandt, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, navigation systems are integral parts of most cars. They allow the user to drive to a preselected destination on the shortest or quickest path by giving turn-by-turn directions. To fulfil this task the navigation system must be aware of the current position of the vehicle at any time, and has to compute the optimal route to the destination on that basis. Both of these subproblems have to be solved frequently, because the navigation system must react immediately if the vehicle leaves...

  17. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  18. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles: review and recent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Thompson, Gregory J; Wayne, W Scott; Gautam, Mridul; Lyons, Donald W; Hawelti, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    Heavy-duty diesel vehicle idling consumes fuel and reduces atmospheric quality, but its restriction cannot simply be proscribed, because cab heat or air-conditioning provides essential driver comfort. A comprehensive tailpipe emissions database to describe idling impacts is not yet available. This paper presents a substantial data set that incorporates results from the West Virginia University transient engine test cell, the E-55/59 Study and the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study. It covered 75 heavy-duty diesel engines and trucks, which were divided into two groups: vehicles with mechanical fuel injection (MFI) and vehicles with electronic fuel injection (EFI). Idle emissions of CO, hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and carbon dioxide (CO2) have been reported. Idle CO2 emissions allowed the projection of fuel consumption during idling. Test-to-test variations were observed for repeat idle tests on the same vehicle because of measurement variation, accessory loads, and ambient conditions. Vehicles fitted with EFI, on average, emitted approximately 20 g/hr of CO, 6 g/hr of HC, 86 g/hr of NOx, 1 g/hr of PM, and 4636 g/hr of CO2 during idle. MFI equipped vehicles emitted approximately 35 g/hr of CO, 23 g/hr of HC, 48 g/hr of NOx, 4 g/hr of PM, and 4484 g/hr of CO2, on average, during idle. Vehicles with EFI emitted less idle CO, HC, and PM, which could be attributed to the efficient combustion and superior fuel atomization in EFI systems. Idle NOx, however, increased with EFI, which corresponds with the advancing of timing to improve idle combustion. Fuel injection management did not have any effect on CO2 and, hence, fuel consumption. Use of air conditioning without increasing engine speed increased idle CO2, NOx, PM, HC, and fuel consumption by 25% on average. When the engine speed was elevated from 600 to 1100 revolutions per minute, CO2 and NOx emissions and fuel consumption increased by >150%, whereas PM and HC emissions increased

  19. The cooperative electrochemical oxidation of chlorophenols in anode-cathode compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hui [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: wangjl@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2008-06-15

    By using a self-made carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene (C/PTFE) O{sub 2}-fed as the cathode and Ti/IrO{sub 2}/RuO{sub 2} as the anode, the degradation of three organic compounds (phenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol) was investigated in the diaphragm (with terylene as diaphragm material) electrolysis device by electrochemical oxidation process. The result indicated that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was 8.3 mg/L, and hydroxyl radical (HO{center_dot}) was determined in the cathodic compartment by electron spin resonance spectrum (ESR). The removal efficiency for organic compounds reached about 90% after 120 min, conforming to the sequence of phenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. And the dechlorination degree of 4-chlorophenol exceeded 90% after 80 min. For H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, HO{center_dot} existed in the catholyte and reduction dechlorination at the cathode, the mineralization of organics in the cathodic compartment was better than that in the anodic compartment. The degradation of organics was supposed to be cooperative oxidation by direct or indirect electrochemical oxidation at the anode and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, HO{center_dot} produced by oxygen reduction at the cathode. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) allowed identifying phenol as the dechlorination product of 4-chlorophenol in the cathodic compartment, and hydroquinone, 4-chlorocatechol, benzoquinone, maleic, fumaric, oxalic, and formic acids as the main oxidation intermediates in the cathodic and anodic compartments. A reaction scheme involving all these intermediates was proposed.

  20. Multivariate profiling of neurodegeneration-associated changes in a subcellular compartment of neurons via image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Saravana K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysfunction in the endolysosome, a late endosomal to lysosomal degradative intracellular compartment, is an early hallmark of some neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease. However, the subtle morphological changes in compartments of affected neurons are difficult to quantify quickly and reliably, making this phenotype inaccessible as either an early diagnostic marker, or as a read-out for drug screening. Methods We present a method for automatic detection of fluorescently labeled endolysosomes in degenerative neurons in situ. The Drosophila blue cheese (bchs mutant was taken as a genetic neurodegenerative model for direct in situ visualization and quantification of endolysosomal compartments in affected neurons. Endolysosomal compartments were first detected automatically from 2-D image sections using a combination of point-wise multi-scale correlation and normalized correlation operations. This detection algorithm performed well at recognizing fluorescent endolysosomes, unlike conventional convolution methods, which are confounded by variable intensity levels and background noise. Morphological feature differences between endolysosomes from wild type vs. degenerative neurons were then quantified by multivariate profiling and support vector machine (SVM classification based on compartment density, size and contrast distribution. Finally, we ranked these distributions according to their profiling accuracy, based on the backward elimination method. Results This analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the neurodegenerative phenotype and the wild type up to a 99.9% confidence interval. Differences between the wild type and phenotypes resulting from overexpression of the Bchs protein are detectable by contrast variations, whereas both size and contrast variations distinguish the wild type from either of the loss of function alleles bchs1 or bchs58. In contrast, the density measurement

  1. Evaluation of the neuromuscular compartments in the peroneus longus muscle through electrical stimulation and accelerometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Mendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscles are innervated exclusively by a nerve branch and possess definite actions. However, mammalian skeletal muscles, such as the trapezius, the medial gastrocnemius, and the peroneus longus, are compartmentalized. In the peroneus longus muscle, multiple motor points, which innervate individual neuromuscular compartments (NMC, the superior (S-NMC, anteroinferior (AI-NMC, and posteroinferior (PI-NMC, have been described. The contribution of each neuromuscular compartment to the final action of the muscle is fundamental for the rehabilitation of patients afflicted by neurological and muscle dysfunctions. Interventions are often based on electrical principles that take advantage of the physiological characteristics of muscles and nerves to generate therapeutic effects. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of stimulating the different neuromuscular compartments (NMCs of the peroneus longus muscle on the motor threshold (MT and acceleration of the foot. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study comprising 37 subjects. The three NMCs of the peroneus longus muscle were stimulated, and the acceleration of the foot and the motor threshold of each NMC were evaluated. A repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections of two intra-subjects factors was performed. RESULTS: The stimulation of the different NMCs did not result in any differences in MT (F=2.635, P=0.079. There were significant differences between the axes of acceleration caused by the stimulation of the different NMCs (F=56,233; P=0.000. The stimulation of the posteroinferior compartment resulted in the greatest acceleration in the X-axis (mean 0.614; standard deviation 0.253. CONCLUSIONS: The posteroinferior compartment primarily contributes to the eversion movement of the foot. NMCs have specific functional roles that contribute to the actions of the muscles to which they belong.

  2. Manometric Comparison of Anorectal Function after Posterior Vaginal Compartment Repair with and without Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although repair augmented with mesh has been proved its priority in anatomical and functional recovery after anterior compartment reconstruction, the data about posterior compartment are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare bowel functional outcome of posterior vaginal compartment repair with and without mesh in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Methods: This was a prospective, double-blind, clinical pilot study of 22 postmenopausal women with symptomatic POP (overall POP-quantification [POP-Q] Stage III-IV who underwent total pelvic floor reconstruction. Patients were grouped according to the use of mesh for posterior vaginal compartment repair: A mesh group and a nonmesh group. POP-Q stage, the pelvic floor impact questionnaire short form-7 (PFIQ-7 and anorectal manometry were evaluated before and 3 months after surgery. Anatomical success was defined as POP-Q Stage II or less. A t-test was used to compare preoperative with postoperative data in the two groups. Results: Totally, 17 (71% were available for the follow-up. POP-Q measurements improved significantly compared to baseline (P 0.05. Compared with baseline, the nonmesh group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in anal residual pressure, a significant increase in the anorectal pressure difference during bowel movement, and a reduced rate of dyssynergia defecation pattern (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Provided there is sufficient support for the anterior wall and apex of vagina with mesh, posterior compartment repair without mesh may be as effective as repair with mesh for anatomical recovery while providing better anorectal motor function.

  3. Design and Test of a Blast Shield for Boeing 737 Overhead Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinglai Dang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a composite blast shield for hardening an overhead bin compartment of a commercial aircraft. If a small amount of explosive escapes detection and is brought onboard and stowed in an overhead bin compartment of a passenger aircraft, the current bins provide no protection against a blast inside the compartment. A blast from the overhead bin will certainly damage the fuselage and likely lead to catastrophic inflight structural failure. The feasibility of using an inner blast shield to harden the overhead bin compartment of a Boeing 737 aircraft to protect the fuselage skin in such a threat scenario has been demonstrated using field tests. The blast shield was constructed with composite material based on the unibody concept. The design was carried out using LS-DYNA finite element model simulations. Material panels were first designed to pass the FAA shock holing and fire tests. The finite element model included the full coupling of the overhead bin with the fuselage structure accounting for all the different structural connections. A large number of iterative simulations were carried out to optimize the fiber stacking sequence and shield thickness to minimize weight and achieve the design criterion. Three designs, the basic, thick, and thin shields, were field-tested using a frontal fuselage section of the Boeing 737–100 aircraft. The basic and thick shields protected the integrity of the fuselage skin with no skin crack. This work provides very encouraging results and useful data for optimization implementation of the blast shield design for hardening overhead compartments against the threat of small explosives.

  4. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  5. Rab15 Effector Protein: A Novel Protein for Receptor Recycling from the Endocytic Recycling CompartmentD⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Strick, David J.; Elferink, Lisa A

    2005-01-01

    Sorting endosomes and the endocytic recycling compartment are critical intracellular stores for the rapid recycling of internalized membrane receptors to the cell surface in multiple cell types. However, the molecular mechanisms distinguishing fast receptor recycling from sorting endosomes and slow receptor recycling from the endocytic recycling compartment remain poorly understood. We previously reported that Rab15 differentially regulates transferrin receptor trafficking through sorting end...

  6. 78 FR 25846 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A340-600 Series Airplanes; Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background... certification basis requirements. One particular area of concern is the smaller compartment volume created in... the crew rest compartment rendering both routes inoperative. (b) Compliance to the requirements...

  7. Solid rocket motor integration on the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Stephen E.

    1993-06-01

    The structural design, development, and verification testing required to integrate solid rocket motors (SRM) on the Atlas IIAS launch vehicle is described. It is concluded that the next generation Atlas Centaur based on four strap-on Castor IVA SRMs and capable of lifting 7700 pounds to geosynchronous orbit has undergone a rigorous development program. A new system intended to mount and jettison the SRMs from the core vehicle is characterized by robustness and ease of installation. To insulate the aft end of the vehicle against increased SRM-induced heat fluxes and to seal against ingress of potentially hazardous base gases extensive measures were undertaken. They include nonporous engine boots and a thrust section compartment passive pressurization system.

  8. Green vehicle : slippery turn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the many challenges facing the development and commercialization of environmentally friendly vehicles in Canada from scooters, to bicycles to motorcycles, as experienced by Zapworld, a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of electric bicycles and power-assist kits. There are many environmental advantages to small electric vehicles, however, the distribution network for this new product is virtually non-existent. Zap-Quebec, a subsidiary of Zapworld, has made efforts to bring notoriety to the product by targeting aging cycle enthusiasts and promoting the electric bicycle as viable transportation means for short commutes, for camping, to get around factories, and for security guards. Since September 2000 independent dealers in Montreal have participated in a pilot project in which more than 15,000 electric bikes have been made available for rent as a pleasure vehicle for tourists. No accidents have ever been reported and the feedback has been positive. It was emphasized that legislators must understand the value behind small electric vehicles and draft legislation accordingly. tabs., figs

  9. ITS / Commercial Vehicle Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Pratyush

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) utilize information, communication, sensor, and control technologies to achieve improved levels of performance. The U.S. DOT has developed a National ITS Program Plan that includes seven major elements. One of them addresses the ITS technologies which uniquely support Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO).

  10. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple. The...

  11. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  12. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  13. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions. The...

  14. Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

  15. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...

  16. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  17. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  18. Lower extremity compartment syndrome in the setting of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis, phlegmasia cerulea dolens and factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Wahid; Hickey, Ben; Wilson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome requires urgent fasciotomies to prevent irreversible muscle damage. We present a case of massive iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT) presenting as acute compartment syndrome. A healthy 21-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of worsening left leg pain with swelling and bluish discolouration. Clinical diagnosis of compartment syndrome secondary to phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) was made and he underwent emergency fasciotomies. Postoperative venous duplex confirmed a massive iliofemoral DVT and intravenous heparin was started. Following skin grafting, the patient made a good recovery. Massive iliofemoral DVT is an uncommon cause of compartment syndrome and has been reported in lower limbs, secondary to PCD. Failure to treat early carries a high degree of morbidity, with amputation rates up to 50% and mortality rates between 25% and 40%. It is important to recognise compartment syndrome as an acute presentation of PCD. Urgent fasciotomies can prevent limb amputation and mortality. PMID:27113791

  19. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  20. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  1. Green Vehicle Guide Data Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. The downloadable data are available in...

  2. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  3. The ultrasound guided psoas-compartment-block: fundamentals and technique for a new regional anaesthetic procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound (US) has proven to be an useful adjunct during the performance of peripheral nerve blocks. This study is the first dealing with the application of US guidance for the psoas-compartment-block which is used to achieve lumbar plexus blockades. A pilot study was carried out to establish the US anatomy of the lumbar paravertebral region and its blood vessels. Moreover, suitable transducers and US frequencies were assessed. The feasibility of US imaging of the psoas-compartment was studied on healthy volunteers (N=21) of varying body types (normal weight: N= 13; overweight: N=5; obese: N=3) in a first volunteer study. Additionally, the skin-plexus distances were measured. A second volunteer study (N=21) was carried out to investigate the US anatomy of the paravertebral blood vessels by means of power Doppler sonography. The technique of an US guided approach to the psoas-compartment was tested on embalmed cadavers (N=10) at the levels L2/L3, L3/L4 and L4/L5. Accuracy and safety of this technique were verified by means of computed tomography (CT). Two coordinates (A and B) were established to assess the position of the needle tips by means of US and CT. In 112/126 investigations the psoas-compartment, except the lumbar plexus, could be delineated clearly. In 14/126 investigations a visualization of the psoas-compartment was unfeasible. The mean skin-plexus distances were 5,8±1,3 cm at L2/L3, 6±1,4 cm at L3/L4 and 6,1±1,3 cm at L4/L5. Spearman's coefficient showed a correlation of 0,87 (P<0,001) between body mass index (BMI) and skin-plexus distance. A linear regression analysis revealed the relationship between BMI and skin-plexus distances. In 126 US examinations of the paravertebral blood vessels the lumbar arteries (N=21), their ventral (N=57) and dorsal branches (N=34) and the ascending lumbar veins (N=52) could be depicted most frequently. In some cases the ascending lumbar veins showed diameters above 1 cm and a close proximity to the psoas-compartment

  4. Electric Vehicle Simulation and Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Li

    2010-01-01

    Range anxiety is a chief concern for all electric vehicles (EVs). Range anxiety summarizes the fear of being stranded in an electric vehicle due to insufficient battery. Therefore, we need a way to simulate and animate use and charging of battery for electric vehicles to assure users of the range of EVs. The application we designed can provide simulation and animation of EVs energy use and charging based on the physical characteristics of specific vehicles, terrain information, and driving ro...

  5. Prototype design for autonomous vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Lehander, Jacob; Persson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanical design of a prototype vehicle developed for a company located in California. The project was based on an earlier vehicle located at KTH, Transport Labs, and investigated if the existing concept for the vehicle would work as a concept for an autonomous prototype, with focus on component layout and increased forces. The design of the vehicle is based on a concept with a carbon fiber bottom plate, two separate suspension modules with electric hub motors and s...

  6. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    G. Adinarayana; Ch. Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more...

  7. A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

  8. SU-C-BRE-03: Dual Compartment Mathematical Modeling of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, V; Nguyen, D; Kupelian, P; Kaprealian, T; Selch, M; Low, D; Pajonk, F; Sheng, K [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the aggressive recurrence and radioresistence of GBM with a dual compartment tumor survival mathematical model based on intrinsic tumor heterogeneity, cancer stem cells (CSC) and differentiated cancer cells (DCC). Methods: The repopulation and differentiation responses to radiotherapy of a solid tumor were simulated using an Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE). To obtain the tumor radiobiological parameters, we assumed that a tumor consists of two subpopulations, each with its distinctive linear quadratic parameters. The dual compartment cell survival model was constructed as SF(D)=F × exp(-α{sub 1} D-β{sub 1}D{sup 2}) + (1-F) × exp(-α{sub 2}D-β{sub 2}D{sup 2}) for a single fraction of treatment, with F as the fraction of CSC, and α and β describing the radiological properties of each population. Robust least square fitting was performed on clonogenic survival data from one GBM (U373MG) and one NSCLC (H460) cell line. The fit parameters were then used in the ODE model to predict treatment outcome of various treatment schemes. Results: The fit parameters from GBM cell survival data were (F, α{sub 1}, β{sub 1}, α{sub 2}, β{sub 2})=(0.0396, 0.0801, 0.0006, 0.1363, 0.0279), exhibiting two populations with distinctive radiological properties, CSC more radioresistant than DCC. The GBM cell line exhibited significantly poorer tumor control than its single compartment model prediction and NSCLC, which responded well to hypofrationation. The increased radioresistance was due to rapid regrowth of the DCC compartment triggered by its depletion while maintaining a viable CSC population. The rapid regrowth can be reduced by treating dose fractions ≤ 2 Gy with a prolonged treatment period. Conclusion: The interaction between a radioresistant CSC compartment and DCC compartment can explain the poor clinical outcome of GBM after radiotherapy despite dose escalation and hypofractionation attempts. Lower dose fractions result in better treatment

  9. SU-C-BRE-03: Dual Compartment Mathematical Modeling of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To explore the aggressive recurrence and radioresistence of GBM with a dual compartment tumor survival mathematical model based on intrinsic tumor heterogeneity, cancer stem cells (CSC) and differentiated cancer cells (DCC). Methods: The repopulation and differentiation responses to radiotherapy of a solid tumor were simulated using an Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE). To obtain the tumor radiobiological parameters, we assumed that a tumor consists of two subpopulations, each with its distinctive linear quadratic parameters. The dual compartment cell survival model was constructed as SF(D)=F × exp(-α1 D-β1D2) + (1-F) × exp(-α2D-β2D2) for a single fraction of treatment, with F as the fraction of CSC, and α and β describing the radiological properties of each population. Robust least square fitting was performed on clonogenic survival data from one GBM (U373MG) and one NSCLC (H460) cell line. The fit parameters were then used in the ODE model to predict treatment outcome of various treatment schemes. Results: The fit parameters from GBM cell survival data were (F, α1, β1, α2, β2)=(0.0396, 0.0801, 0.0006, 0.1363, 0.0279), exhibiting two populations with distinctive radiological properties, CSC more radioresistant than DCC. The GBM cell line exhibited significantly poorer tumor control than its single compartment model prediction and NSCLC, which responded well to hypofrationation. The increased radioresistance was due to rapid regrowth of the DCC compartment triggered by its depletion while maintaining a viable CSC population. The rapid regrowth can be reduced by treating dose fractions ≤ 2 Gy with a prolonged treatment period. Conclusion: The interaction between a radioresistant CSC compartment and DCC compartment can explain the poor clinical outcome of GBM after radiotherapy despite dose escalation and hypofractionation attempts. Lower dose fractions result in better treatment outcome but still eventually recurs. Dose escalation beyond

  10. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  11. Membrane contact sites between pathogen-containing compartments and host organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoux, Maud; Hayward, Richard D

    2016-08-01

    Intracellular pathogens survive and replicate within specialised membrane-bound compartments that can be considered as pseudo-organelles. Using the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia as an illustrative example, we consider the modes of lipid transport between pathogen-containing compartments and host organelles, including the formation of static membrane contact sites. We discuss how lipid scavenging can be mediated via the reprogramming of cellular transporters at these interfaces and describe recent data suggesting that pathogen effectors modulate the formation of specific membrane contacts. Further study of these emerging mechanisms is likely to yield new insights into the cell biology of lipid transport and organelle communication, which highlights potential new targets and strategies for future therapeutics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. PMID:26825687

  12. Modelling Spatial Interactions in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis using the Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagno, Cristina; Damiani, Ferruccio; Drocco, Maurizio; Sciacca, Eva; Spinella, Salvatore; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.67.3

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is the most wide-spread plant-fungus symbiosis on earth. Investigating this kind of symbiosis is considered one of the most promising ways to develop methods to nurture plants in more natural manners, avoiding the complex chemical productions used nowadays to produce artificial fertilizers. In previous work we used the Calculus of Wrapped Compartments (CWC) to investigate different phases of the AM symbiosis. In this paper, we continue this line of research by modelling the colonisation of the plant root cells by the fungal hyphae spreading in the soil. This study requires the description of some spatial interaction. Although CWC has no explicit feature modelling a spatial geometry, the compartment labelling feature can be effectively exploited to define a discrete surface topology outlining the relevant sectors which determine the spatial properties of the system under consideration. Different situations and interesting spatial properties can be modelled and analysed in such a ligh...

  13. D-lactate is a valid biomarker of intestinal ischemia induced by abdominal compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Casper; Kirkegård, Jakob; Erlandsen, Erland J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) often leads to abdominal compartment syndrome, which is followed by intestinal ischemia and associated with a high mortality. The diagnosis of abdominal compartment syndrome is difficult, and no valid biochemical markers are available. We conducted an...... group) without IAH. Blood samples were taken from the portal and jugular veins at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after insufflation of carbon dioxide, and concentrations of D-lactate and L-lactate in the two groups were compared using an unpaired t-test. RESULTS: The concentrations of D-lactate were......, respectively). Examination of the intestines revealed both macroscopic and microscopic signs of ischemia in all but one animal in the intervention group and only in one sham-pig. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that D-lactate could be a useful biochemical marker of intestinal ischemia induced by IAH....

  14. Controlled Fabrication of High-Yield CdS Nanostructures by Compartment Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Green

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High-yield, high-purity CdS nanostructures were synthesized in a turf-like configuration using an improved vapor-liquid-solid method. To increase the yield, a compartment arrangement was employed. The specific kind of nanostructure fabricated was found to be directly dependent on the temperature in the compartment. Along with the high-yield growth of CdS nanorods, nanowires, and nanobelts, intertwined structures were also observed, and the electron field emission property of the intertwined structures was investigated and compared with that of other type of nanostructures. Photoluminescence measurements at 10 K showed a peak emission from the CdS nanostructures at 485 nm.

  15. Classification of brain compartments and head injury lesions by neural networks applied to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic, neural network-based approach was applied to segment normal brain compartments and lesions on MR images. Two supervised networks, backpropagation (BPN) and counterpropagation, and two unsupervised networks, Kohonen learning vector quantizer and analog adaptive resonance theory, were trained on registered T2-weighted and proton density images. The classes of interest were background, gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, macrocystic encephalomalacia, gliosis, and 'unknown'. A comprehensive feature vector was chosen to discriminate these classes. The BPN combined with feature conditioning, multiple discriminant analysis followed by Hotelling transform, produced the most accurate and consistent classification results. Classifications of normal brain compartments were generally in agreement with expert interpretation of the images. Macrocystic encephalomalacia and gliosis were recognized and, except around the periphery, classified in agreement with the clinician's report used to train the neural network. (orig.)

  16. Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

  17. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory electronic vehicle identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-digit electronic identification system is described. Digits may be decimal (1000 combinations) or hexidecimal (8192 combinations). Battery-powered transponders are interrogated with a lower-power (1 W) radio signal. Line-of-sight interrogations up to 33 m (100 ft) are possible. Successful interrogations up to 7 m (20 ft) are possible for concealed transponders (that is, in the engine compartment). Vehicles moving at high rates of speed can be interrogated. This system provides data in a computer-compatible RS232 format. The system can be used for other applications with little or no modification. A similar system is in present use for identification and temperature monitoring of livestock. No unforeseen problems exist for expanding the coding scheme to identify larger numbers of objects

  18. Dynamics of HIV-Containing Compartments in Macrophages Reveal Sequestration of Virions and Transient Surface Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudin, Raphaël; Berre, Stefano; Cunha de Alencar, Bruna; Decalf, Jérémie; Schindler, Michael; Gobert, François-Xavier; Jouve, Mabel; Benaroch, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    During HIV pathogenesis, infected macrophages behave as “viral reservoirs” that accumulate and retain virions within dedicated internal Virus-Containing Compartments (VCCs). The nature of VCCs remains ill characterized and controversial. Using wild-type HIV-1 and a replication-competent HIV-1 carrying GFP internal to the Gag precursor, we analyzed the biogenesis and evolution of VCCs in primary human macrophages. VCCs appear roughly 14 hours after viral protein synthesis is detected, initiall...

  19. Distinct Tlr4-expressing cell compartments control neutrophilic and eosinophilic airway inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    McAlees, Jaclyn W.; Whitehead, Gregory S.; Harley, Isaac T. W.; Cappelletti, Monica; Rewerts, Cheryl L.; Holdcroft, A. Maria; Divanovic, Senad; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Finkelman, Fred D.; Karp, Christopher L.; Cook, Donald N.

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic, inflammatory lung disease. Some forms of allergic asthma are characterized by Th2-driven eosinophilia while others are distinguished by Th17-driven neutrophilia. Stimulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on hematopoietic and airway epithelial cells (AECs) contributes to the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and allergens, but the specific contribution of TLR4 in these cell compartments to airway inflammatory responses remains poorly understood. W...

  20. Three-dimensional printing-based electro-millifluidic devices for fabricating multi-compartment particles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiu Lan; Liu, Zhou; Shum, Ho Cheung

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of stereolithographic 3D printing to fabricate millifluidic devices, which are used to engineer particles with multiple compartments. As the 3D design is directly transferred to the actual prototype, this method accommodates 3D millimeter-scaled features that are difficult to achieve by either lithographic-based microfabrication or traditional macrofabrication techniques. We exploit this approach to produce millifluidic networks to deliver multiple fluidic...

  1. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and Necrotizing Pancreatitis Following Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Scambia, J; Gandillon, C; Aversano, F; Batista, R

    2016-09-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a common procedure in the treatment of renal calculi. There have been major complications reported with ESWL such as acute pancreatitis, bower perforation, venous thrombosis, and biliary obstruction. There are few reports in the literature of necrotizing pancreatitis secondary to ESWL. We have a case report of a 29-year-old female that developed an abdominal compartment syndrome with an acute necrotizing pancreatitis hours after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. PMID:27462545

  2. Development of compartment for studies on the growth of protein crystals in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, T.; Tsukamoto, K.; Yoshizaki, I.; Fukuyama, S.; Miura, H.; Shimaoka, T.; Maki, T.; Oshi, K.; Kimura, Y.

    2016-03-01

    To clarify the growth mechanism of a protein crystal, it is essential to measure its growth rate with respect to the supersaturation. We developed a compartment (growth cell) for measuring the growth rate (microgravity environment, thereby advancing our understanding of the mechanism of protein crystal growth from solution. The technique used to develop the growth cell is useful not only for space experiments but also for kinetic studies of materials with very slow growth and dissolution rates (<10-3 nm s-1).

  3. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Serum and Several Different Fat Compartments in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    George W. Yu; John Laseter; Charles Mylander

    2011-01-01

    Background. Chemicals that store in lipid-rich compartments have the potential for long-term disruption of metabolic and endocrine processes. Given the evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) also alter systemic metabolic, endocrine, and immune system functions, it follows that elevated chemical concentrations in intra-abdominal fat may alter function, through local chemical signaling, of visceral organs. Despite this potential, there has been little study defining POP concentratio...

  4. Accurate Monte Carlo modelling of the back compartments of SPECT cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, new single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction techniques rely on accurate Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to optimize reconstructed images. However, existing MC scintillation camera models which usually include an accurate description of the collimator and crystal, lack correct implementation of the gamma camera's back compartments. In the case of dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA), where backscattered photons from the highest energy isotope are detected in the imaging energy window of the second isotope, this approximation may induce simulation errors. Here, we investigate the influence of backscatter compartment modelling on the simulation accuracy of high-energy isotopes. Three models of a scintillation camera were simulated: a simple model (SM), composed only of a collimator and a NaI(Tl) crystal; an intermediate model (IM), adding a simplified description of the backscatter compartments to the previous model and a complete model (CM), accurately simulating the materials and geometries of the camera. The camera models were evaluated with point sources (67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 123I, 131I and 18F) in air without a collimator, in air with a collimator and in water with a collimator. In the latter case, sensitivities and point-spread functions (PSFs) simulated in the photopeak window with the IM and CM are close to the measured values (error below 10.5%). In the backscatter energy window, however, the IM and CM overestimate the FWHM of the detected PSF by 52% and 23%, respectively, while the SM underestimates it by 34%. The backscatter peak fluence is also overestimated by 20% and 10% with the IM and CM, respectively, whereas it is underestimated by 60% with the SM. The results show that an accurate description of the backscatter compartments is required for SPECT simulations of high-energy isotopes (above 300 keV) when the backscatter energy window is of interest.

  5. Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder–associated biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    te Vruchte, Danielle; Speak, Anneliese O; Wallom, Kerri L.; Al Eisa, Nada; Smith, David A.; Hendriksz, Christian J.; Simmons, Louise; Lachmann, Robin H.; Cousins, Alison; Hartung, Ralf; Mengel, Eugen; Runz, Heiko; Beck, Michael; Amraoui, Yasmina; Imrie, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal bioma...

  6. A comparative investigation of 18F kinetics in receptors: a compartment model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Some authors reported that 18F kinetics might be useful for evaluation of neuro receptors. We hypothesized that 18F kinetics may show some information about neuronal damage, and each rate constant might have statistically significant correlation with WO function. The purpose of this study was to investigate 99mTc MIBI kinetics through a compartment model analysis. Each rate constant from compartment analysis was compared with WO, T1/2, and (H/M) ratio in early and delayed phase. Different animal model were studied. After an injection the dynamic planar imaging was performed on a dual-headed digital gamma camera system for 30 minutes. An ROI was drawn manually to assess the global kinetics of 18F. By using the time-activity curve (TAC) of ROI as a response tissue function and the TAC of Aorta as an input function, we analysed 18F pharmacokinetics through a 2-compartment model. We defined k1 as influx rate constant, k2 as out flux rate constant and k3 as specific uptake rate constant. And we calculated k1/k2 as distribution volume (Vd), k1k3/k2 as specific uptake (SU), and k1k3/(k2+k3) as clearance. For non-competitive affinity studies of PET two modelling parameters distribution volume (DV) and Bmax / Kd are also calculated. Results: Statistically significant correlations were seen between k2 and T1/2 (P18F at the injection had relation to the uptake of it at 30 minutes and 2 hours after the injection. Furthermore, some indexes had statistically significant correlation with DV and Bmax. These compartment model approaches may be useful to estimate the other related studies

  7. Nanostructured multilayer compartments : towards multifunctionality and ??????cell-like?????? hierarchical complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrí guez-cabello, José Carlos; Castro, E.(LabCAF. Dpto. Física de Partículas, Univ. de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Spain); Rodr Guez-cabello, Jos Carlos; Costa, Rui R.; Mano, J. F.; Arias, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    In living organisms, there are phenomena that require the presence of specific biomolecules with distinct function and in variable concentra- tions at a given time, such as the healing and regeneration of tissue and organ lesions. In this work, we propose the use of a compartment- ed drug delivery device for the multiple release of bioactive agents. It consists of nanostructured microcapsules confined within a millimetric container that can be easily handled, mimicking the c...

  8. Proximal tibial osteotomies for the medial compartment arthrosis of the knee: a historical journey

    OpenAIRE

    Esenkaya, I.; Unay, K.; Akan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Several proximal tibial osteotomy techniques for the medial compartment arthrosis of the knee are described and traced in their development. These techniques are of the closed wedge, dome and open wedge types. We detail the differences in planning and surgery as well the need for different fixation devices. This historical and technical description will benefit those surgeons wishing to undertake the procedure as an alternative to joint replacement strategies.

  9. Abdominal compartment syndrome in trauma patients: New insights for predicting outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Aisha W.; Marie L Crandall; Nicolson, Norman G.; Smith-Singares, Eduardo; Merlotti, Gary J.; Jalundhwala, Yash; Issa, Nabil M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality among trauma patients. Several clinical and laboratory findings have been suggested as markers for ACS, and these may point to different types of ACS and complications. Aims: This study aims to identify the strength of association of clinical and laboratory variables with specific adverse outcomes in trauma patients with ACS. Settings and Design: A 5-year retrospective chart review was conducted at t...

  10. Tuneable resolution as a systems biology approach for multi-scale, multi-compartment computational models

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschner, Denise E.; Hunt, C. Anthony; Marino, Simeone; Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad; Linderman, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of multi-scale mathematical and computational models to study complex biological processes is becoming increasingly productive. Multi-scale models span a range of spatial and/or temporal scales and can encompass multi-compartment (e.g., multi-organ) models. Modeling advances are enabling virtual experiments to explore and answer questions that are problematic to address in the wet-lab. Wet-lab experimental technologies now allow scientists to observe, measure, record, and analyze expe...

  11. Noninvasive Monitoring of Elevated Intramuscular Pressure in a Model Compartment Syndrome via Quantitative Fascial Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, John E.; Lynch, John K; Cole, Steven L.; Carter, Jonathan A.; Hargens, Alan R

    2009-01-01

    Compartment syndromes, caused by elevated intramuscular pressure (IMP) and resulting from trauma or chronic overuse, frequently require invasive IMP monitoring for accurate diagnosis. Our objective is to test a non-invasive ultrasound technique for estimating IMP based on fascial displacement waveforms from arterial blood pressure pulses. In this study, IMP was increased in the legs of 23 healthy adult subjects up to 80 mmHg using two blood pressure cuffs covering the region from the knee to ...

  12. Impairment of Lymph Drainage in Subfascial Compartment of Forearm in Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, A.W.B.; MELLOR, R.H.; Cook, G.J.; Svensson, W E; Peters, A M; Levick, J. R.; Mortimer, P S

    2003-01-01

    Background: In arm lymphedema secondary to axillary surgery and radiotherapy (breast cancer-related lymphedema), the swelling is largely epifascial and lymph flow per unit epifascial volume is impaired. The subfascial muscle compartment is not measurably swollen despite the iatrogenic damage to its axillary drainage pathway, but this could be due to its low compliance. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that subfascial lymph drainage too is impaired.

  13. Strategies for modulating the inflammatory response after decompression from abdominal compartment syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Shinil K; Jimenez Fernando; Letourneau Phillip A; Walker Peter A; Moore-Olufemi Stacey D; Stewart Randolph H; Laine Glen A; Cox Charles S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Management of the open abdomen is an increasingly common part of surgical practice. The purpose of this review is to examine the scientific background for the use of temporary abdominal closure (TAC) in the open abdomen as a way to modulate the local and systemic inflammatory response, with an emphasis on decompression after abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Methods A review of the relevant English language literature was conducted. Priority was placed on articles publ...

  14. Three-gas mixture plume inducing mixing and stratification in a multi-compartment containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladino, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.paladino@psi.c [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Zboray, Robert; Benz, Pascal; Andreani, Michele [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    A project named SETH (SESAR Thermal Hydraulics (SESAR: Senior Group of Experts on Nuclear Safety Research)) has been performed under the auspices of 15 OECD countries, with the aim of creating an experimental database suitable to assess the 3D code capabilities in analyzing physical key phenomena relevant for LWR safety analysis. This paper presents the results of OECD/SETH Project Test 25 performed in the PANDA facility (located at PSI in Switzerland). Test 25 consists of two phases for duration of approximately 2 h for each phase. During Phase 1 a steam-helium mixture (helium is used to simulate hydrogen) is released in a containment compartment initially filled with only air. This phase simulates the hydrogen released in a postulated accident due to the fuel cladding metal-water (MW) reaction. During Phase 2 only steam is released in the containment and the scenario that occurs after the MW reaction is exhausted is addressed. Temperature and gas concentration measurements obtained at several locations in the containment compartments allow the recognition of the complex stratification pattern evolution during the test period. The analysis of Test 25 carried out with the GOTHIC code is also presented in this paper. The analysis shows that the prediction of three-gas (hydrogen, steam, and air) stratification pattern in a multi-compartment geometry for scenarios characterized by the evolution of the density difference between and inside compartments and in particular of the hydrogen accumulation in a dead-end volume is a challenging task also for a code having 3D capabilities.

  15. A compartment model for 90Sr contamination in a wetland at the Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes originating from Canada's nuclear research and development program have been managed at the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) since 1946. In 1953 an area called Waste Management Area 'B' (WMA B) was developed to contain low and intermediate level solid waste (LLW and ILW respectively). Initially, all of the wastes were buried in unlined sand trenches or in asphalt lined trenches. These early trenches have been releasing strontium-90 (90Sr) to groundwater since 1954, resulting in an underground contaminant plume. A treatment system was constructed in 1994 and as a result the plume is being intercepted and treated for removal of 90SR. Prior to the establishment of the treatment system the plume extended south and discharged into a watercourse called 'Spring B', then into a wetland area called 'West Swamp'. Routine monitoring of Spring B and the West Swamp outflows for 90Sr has been conducted since the 1960s. A compartment model of the West Swamp was developed and validated against monitoring data for Spring B. The purpose of developing the model was to determine if a standard compartment model could describe 90Sr dynamics in a wetland to support environmental decision making. The model employed mass balance calculations to describe the movement/distribution of 90Sr between the primary system compartments: water/peat, sediment, vegetation and litter. This paper describes how the compartment model was developed and validated. The model can be used as a tool to evaluate remediation alternatives and to provide input to CRL site decommissioning plans. (author)

  16. To the problem of reactor compartment seismic isolation at NPPs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the results of studies realized in Japan within the frameworks of the program dealing with design of seismic isolation for NPP reactor compartments is given. The construction variants and main characterisitics of elastic supporting elements for the seismic isolation system are considered. The particular attention, which was paid to estimation of the reliability of the damper construction variants in the process of design, is emphasized

  17. Integrating forest-level and compartment-level indices of species diversity with numerical forest planning.

    OpenAIRE

    Pukkala, Timo; Kangas, Jyrki; KniivilÀ, Matleena; Tiainen, Anne-Mari

    1997-01-01

    The study proposes a technique which enables the computation of user-defined indices for species diversity. These indices are derived from characteristics, called diversity indicators, of inventory plots, stand compartments, and the whole forest holding. The study discusses the modifications required to be made to typical forest planning systems due to this kind of biodiversity computation. A case study illustrating the use of the indices and a modified forest planning system is provided. In ...

  18. Compartment modelling study of stable iodine prophylaxis in relation to the daily iodine supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compartment modelling is presented to predict the protective effectiveness of stable iodine intake for the reduction of radiation damage of the thyroid resulting from accidental radioiodine incorporation. The protective effectivness of stable iodine prophylaxis is investigated relative to the daily iodine supply. In this model analysis 5 equations can be given in analytical form, thus a 5-dimensional system should be integrated numerically. The radiation burden is expressed by the residence times of sup(131)I in thyroid gland. (R.P.)

  19. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  20. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  1. Towards urban driverless vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Benenson, Rodrigo; Petti, Stéphane; Fraichard, Thierry; Parent, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of autonomous navigation of a car-like robot evolving in an urban environment. Such an environment exhibits an heterogeneous geometry and is cluttered with moving obstacles. Furthermore, in this context, motion safety is a critical issue. The proposed approach to the problem lies in the design of perception and planning modules that consider explicitely the dynamic nature of the vehicle and the environment while enforcing the safety constraint. The main contrib...

  2. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  3. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  4. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  5. Organic Pollutant Penetration through Fruit Polyester Skin: A Modified Three-compartment Diffusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yungui; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Baoliang

    2016-03-01

    The surface of plants is covered by a continuous but heterogeneous cuticular membrane (CM). Serving as the first protective barrier, the uptake and transport behavior of organic pollutants at this interface continue to engage the research efforts of environmental chemist. To date, the contributions of cuticular components as a defense against the organic pollutants penetration remain unresolved. In this study, the unsteady-state penetration characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) through isolated fruit CM was investigated. PHE penetration was differentiated by three cuticular compartments: epicuticular waxes (EW), cuticle proper (CP) and cuticular layer (CL). The driving force for PHE penetration was ascribed to the sharp concentration gradient built up endogenously by cuticular compartments with different lipophilic affinities. A modified penetration model was established and verified in terms of its general suitability for the hydrophobic chemicals and CMs of various plant species (apple, tomato and potato). The new three-compartment model demonstrates much higher accuracy in characterizing the uptake and transport behavior of semivolatile chemicals with fewer limitations in terms of environmental conditions and complexity (e.g., coexisting contaminants and temperature). This model could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding on the role of polymeric lipids in the organic pollutant sorption and transport into plants.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in anatomical sanctuary sites: the fetal compartment (placenta and amniotic fluid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Laura J; Taylor, Stephen; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H

    2011-01-01

    HIV resides within anatomical 'sanctuary sites' where local drug exposure and viral dynamics may differ significantly from the systemic compartment. Widespread implementation of antiretroviral therapy has seen a significant decline in the incidence of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. In addition to suppression of maternal plasma/genital viral loads, antiretroviral agents that cross the placenta and achieve adequate concentrations in the fetal compartment may exert a greater prophylactic effect. Penetration of antiretrovirals in the fetal compartment is expressed by accumulation ratios derived from the measurement of drug concentrations in paired maternal plasma and umbilical cord samples. The nucleoside analogues and nevirapine accumulate extensively in cord blood and in the surrounding amniotic fluid, whereas the protease inhibitors (PIs) exhibit low-to-moderate placental accumulation. Early data suggest that high placental/neonatal concentrations are achieved with raltegravir, but to a lesser extent with etravirine and maraviroc (rank order of accumulation: raltegravir/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [tenofovir > zidovudine/lamivudine/emtricitabine/stavudine/abacavir] > non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [nevirapine > etravirine] > PI > maraviroc/enfuvirtide). More comprehensive in vivo pharmacokinetic data are required to justify the potential use of these agents as safe and effective options during pregnancy. PMID:22155898

  7. Perkinsus marinus superoxide dismutase 2 (PmSOD2) localizes to single-membrane subcellular compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa), a protozoan parasite of oysters, is considered one of the earliest diverging groups of the lineage leading to dinoflagellates. Perkinsus trophozoites are phagocytosed by oyster hemocytes, where they are likely exposed to reactive oxygen species. As part of its reactive oxygen detoxifying pathway, P. marinus possesses two iron-cofactored SOD (PmSOD1 and PmSOD2). Immunoflourescence analysis of P. marinus trophozoites and gene complementation in yeast revealed that PmSOD1 is targeted to the mitochondria. Surprisingly, although PmSOD2 is characterized by a bipartite N-terminus extension typical of plastid targeting, in preliminary immunofluorescence studies it was visualized as punctuate regions in the cytoplasm that could not be assigned to any organelle. Here, we used immunogold electron microscopy to examine the subcellular localization PmSOD2 in P. marinus trophozoites. Gold grains were mostly associated with single-membrane vesicle-like structures, and eventually, localized to electron-dense, apparently amorphous material present in the lumen of a larger, unique compartment. The images suggested that PmSOD2 is targeted to small vesicles that fuse and/or discharge their content into a larger compartment, possibly the large vacuole typical of the mature trophozoites. In light of the in silico targeting prediction, the association of PmSOD2 with single-membrane compartments raises interesting questions regarding its organellar targeting, and the nature of a putative relic plastid in Perkinsus species

  8. Differentiation of the lateral compartment of the cochlea requires a temporally restricted FGF20 signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Huh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of age-related hearing loss is caused by loss or damage to outer hair cells in the organ of Corti. The organ of Corti is the mechanosensory transducing apparatus in the inner ear and is composed of inner hair cells, outer hair cells, and highly specialized supporting cells. The mechanisms that regulate differentiation of inner and outer hair cells are not known. Here we report that fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20 is required for differentiation of cells in the lateral cochlear compartment (outer hair and supporting cells within the organ of Corti during a specific developmental time. In the absence of FGF20, mice are deaf and lateral compartment cells remain undifferentiated, postmitotic, and unresponsive to Notch-dependent lateral inhibition. These studies identify developmentally distinct medial (inner hair and supporting cells and lateral compartments in the developing organ of Corti. The viability and hearing loss in Fgf20 knockout mice suggest that FGF20 may also be a deafness-associated gene in humans.

  9. A NEW CURVE FOR TEMPERATURE-TIME RELATIONSHIP IN COMPARTMENT FIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Blagojević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An idealized temperature curve of compartment fire has three, distinct phases: growth phase, steady-burning (or fully developed phase, and decay phase. Standard temperature-time curves are not suitable for describing the fire phenomena because it does not take into account fire load nor ventilation conditions, and fire according to these curves never decays. The temperature curve of compartment fire, especially the growth phase, may be treated like pulse phenomena. This means that it is possible to approximate the fire development with some suitable function that satisfactory describes the pulse phenomena. The shape of the time-temperature curve for fire with flashover has characteristic peak before the decay phase, or slow decreases before the decay phase - in absence of flashover. In this paper we propose the definition of the time-temperature curve by means of a unique function in which the quantities of fuel and ventilation conditions are defined with parameters. This function is very convenient for approximation of the development of compartment fire with flashover, for smouldering combustion which has fire curve without characteristic peak, this function can be used only for approximation of growth period of fire.

  10. The study of solid circulation rate in a compartmented fluidized bed gasifier (CFBG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, S. K.; Pok, Y. W.; Law, M. C.; Lee, V. C. C.

    2016-06-01

    Biomass waste has been abundantly available in Malaysia since the booming of palm oil industry. In order to tackle this issue, gasification is seen a promising technology to convert waste into energy. In view of the heat requirement for endothermic gasification reaction as well as the complex design and operation of multiple fluidized beds, compartmented fluidized bed gasifier (CFBG) with the combustor and the gasifier as separate compartments is proposed. As such, solid circulation rate (SCR) is one of the essential parameters for steady gasification and combustion to be realized in their respective compartments. Experimental and numerical studies (CFD) on the effect of static bed height, main bed aeration, riser aeration and v-valve aeration on SCR have been conducted in a cold- flow CFBG model with only river sand as the fluidizing medium. At lower operating range, the numerical simulations under-predict the SCR as compared to that of the experimental results. Also, it predicts slightly different trends over the range. On the other hand, at higher operating range, the numerical simulations are able to capture those trends as observed in the experimental results at the lower operating range. Overall, the numerical results compare reasonably well with that of the experimental works.

  11. The ultrasound guided psoas-compartment-block fundamentals and technique for a new regional anaesthetic procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchmair, L P M

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has proven to be an useful adjunct during the performance of peripheral nerve blocks. This study is the first dealing with the application of US guidance for the psoas-compartment-block which is used to achieve lumbar plexus blockades. A pilot study was carried out to establish the US anatomy of the lumbar paravertebral region and its blood vessels. Moreover, suitable transducers and US frequencies were assessed. The feasibility of US imaging of the psoas-compartment was studied on healthy volunteers (N=21) of varying body types (normal weight: N= 13; overweight: N=5; obese: N=3) in a first volunteer study. Additionally, the skin-plexus distances were measured. A second volunteer study (N=21) was carried out to investigate the US anatomy of the paravertebral blood vessels by means of power Doppler sonography. The technique of an US guided approach to the psoas-compartment was tested on embalmed cadavers (N=10) at the levels L2/L3, L3/L4 and L4/L5. Accuracy and safety of this technique were ver...

  12. Compartment model DETRA for Windows; Kompartmenttimalli DETRA Windows-kaeyttoeympaeristoeae varten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suolanen, V.; Ilvonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-03-01

    The computer code DETRA is a generic tool for environmental transfer analyses of radioactive or stable substances. The code has been applied for various purposes, mainly problems related to the biospheric transfer of radionuclides both in safety analyses of disposal of nuclear wastes and in consideration of foodchain exposure pathways in the analyses of off-site consequences of reactor accidents. The first computer code version for Windows interface environment of the modernized DETRA compartment model is developed in the study. As the model needs quite a large number of input data for specifying a calculation case, different segments of the input file (nuclide chains, compartments, time grid, source term, initial values, applications for multi-sequence calculations, printout specifications) are presented in their own window displays. The basic character of the code allows the user to specify the compartment model structure suitable for each considered environmental transport problem individually. The transport of radionuclides can be considered in several cases: water courses and related food chains, soil surface layers, food chains and general food stuffs, body burden analyses, etc. The pre-fined and saved input files for different areas of environmental, transport problems are also available for the user. The starting point for the analysis can be deposition on ground, or source term of radionuclides from e.g. surface soil into a recipient can be considered by the code as well.

  13. APPL endosomes are not obligatory endocytic intermediates but act as stable cargo-sorting compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaidzidis, Inna; Miaczynska, Marta; Brewińska-Olchowik, Marta; Hupalowska, Anna; Ferguson, Charles; Parton, Robert G.; Kalaidzidis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis allows cargo to enter a series of specialized endosomal compartments, beginning with early endosomes harboring Rab5 and its effector EEA1. There are, however, additional structures labeled by the Rab5 effector APPL1 whose role in endocytic transport remains unclear. It has been proposed that APPL1 vesicles are transport intermediates that convert into EEA1 endosomes. Here, we tested this model by analyzing the ultrastructural morphology, kinetics of cargo transport, and stability of the APPL1 compartment over time. We found that APPL1 resides on a tubulo-vesicular compartment that is capable of sorting cargo for recycling or degradation and that displays long lifetimes, all features typical of early endosomes. Fitting mathematical models to experimental data rules out maturation of APPL1 vesicles into EEA1 endosomes as a primary mechanism for cargo transport. Our data suggest instead that APPL1 endosomes represent a distinct population of Rab5-positive sorting endosomes, thus providing important insights into the compartmental organization of the early endocytic pathway. PMID:26459602

  14. Telomere-surrounding regions are transcription-permissive 3D nuclear compartments in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positioning of genes relative to nuclear heterochromatic compartments is thought to help regulate their transcriptional activity. Given that human subtelomeric regions are rich in highly expressed genes, we asked whether human telomeres are related to transcription-permissive nuclear compartments. To address this question, we investigated in the nuclei of normal human lymphocytes the spatial relations of two constitutively expressed genes (ACTB and RARA) and three nuclear transcripts (ACTB, IL2RA and TCRB) to telomeres and centromeres, as a function of gene activity and transcription levels. We observed that genes and gene transcripts locate close to telomere clusters and away from chromocenters upon activation of transcription. These findings, together with the observation that SC35 domains, which are enriched in pre-mRNA processing factors, are in close proximity to telomeres, indicate that telomere-neighboring regions are permissive to gene expression in human cells. Therefore, the associations of telomeres observed in the interphase nucleus might contribute, as opposed to chromocenters, for the establishment of transcription-permissive 3D nuclear compartments

  15. TLR2 ligands induce NF-κB activation from endosomal compartments of human monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim J Brandt

    Full Text Available Localization of Toll-like receptors (TLR in subcellular organelles is a major strategy to regulate innate immune responses. While TLR4, a cell-surface receptor, signals from both the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments, less is known about the functional role of endosomal trafficking upon TLR2 signaling. Here we show that the bacterial TLR2 ligands Pam3CSK4 and LTA activate NF-κB-dependent signaling from endosomal compartments in human monocytes and in a NF-κB sensitive reporter cell line, despite the expression of TLR2 at the cell surface. Further analyses indicate that TLR2-induced NF-κB activation is controlled by a clathrin/dynamin-dependent endocytosis mechanism, in which CD14 serves as an important upstream regulator. These findings establish that internalization of cell-surface TLR2 into endosomal compartments is required for NF-κB activation. These observations further demonstrate the need of endocytosis in the activation and regulation of TLR2-dependent signaling pathways.

  16. Application of four-compartment model analysis to hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Evaluating liver function of obstructive jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Tadashi [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-11-01

    A four-compartment linear model consisting of excreted bile, cardiac blood pool, liver parenchyma and intrahepatic bile was studied using Tc-99m PMT in order to determine the sensitivity and clinical significance of model parameters in patients with obstructive jaundice. The time-radioactivity curves of cardiac blood pool, liver and excreted bile showed a reasonable curve fitting with the calculated values derived from the four-compartment model (R{sup 2}>0.98). The following values were significantly correlated (p<005): K{sub 1} with Alb and HPT; K{sub 2} with T-Bil; MRT with Alb, T-Bil, and T-cho; and K{sub 1}EF with Alb, T-Bil, TBA, and CHE. The four-compartment model, including excreted bile as a factor, provided highly sensitive PMT kinetic analysis with each parameter correlating with laboratory data. This methods proved to be useful in the evaluation of liver function in patients with obstructive jaundice. (author)

  17. Distribution of total and methylmercury in different ecosystem compartments in the Everglades: Implications for mercury bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed Hg species distribution patterns among ecosystem compartments in the Everglades at the landscape level in order to explore the implications of Hg distribution for Hg bioaccumulation and to investigate major biogeochemical processes that are pertinent to the observed Hg distribution patterns. At an Everglade-wide scale, THg concentrations were significantly increased in the following order: periphyton < flocculent material (floc) < soil, while relatively high MeHg concentrations were observed in floc and periphyton. Differences in the methylation potential, THg concentration, and MeHg retention capacity could explain the relatively high MeHg concentrations in floc and periphyton. The MeHg/THg ratio was higher for water than for soil, floc, or periphyton probably due to high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations present in the Everglades. Mosquitofish THg positively correlated with periphyton MeHg and DOC-normalized water MeHg. The relative THg and MeHg distribution patterns among ecosystem compartments favor Hg bioaccumulation in the Everglades. - Mercury bioaccumulation in Florida Everglades is related to the distribution patterns of mercury species among ecosystem compartments

  18. Distribution of total and methylmercury in different ecosystem compartments in the Everglades: Implications for mercury bioaccumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guangliang [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Cai Yong [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)], E-mail: cai@fiu.edu; Philippi, Thomas [Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Kalla, Peter; Scheidt, Daniel [US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4, Science and Ecosystem Support Division, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Richards, Jennifer [Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Scinto, Leonard [Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Appleby, Charlie [US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4, Science and Ecosystem Support Division, Athens, GA 30605 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    We analyzed Hg species distribution patterns among ecosystem compartments in the Everglades at the landscape level in order to explore the implications of Hg distribution for Hg bioaccumulation and to investigate major biogeochemical processes that are pertinent to the observed Hg distribution patterns. At an Everglade-wide scale, THg concentrations were significantly increased in the following order: periphyton < flocculent material (floc) < soil, while relatively high MeHg concentrations were observed in floc and periphyton. Differences in the methylation potential, THg concentration, and MeHg retention capacity could explain the relatively high MeHg concentrations in floc and periphyton. The MeHg/THg ratio was higher for water than for soil, floc, or periphyton probably due to high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations present in the Everglades. Mosquitofish THg positively correlated with periphyton MeHg and DOC-normalized water MeHg. The relative THg and MeHg distribution patterns among ecosystem compartments favor Hg bioaccumulation in the Everglades. - Mercury bioaccumulation in Florida Everglades is related to the distribution patterns of mercury species among ecosystem compartments.

  19. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate differentially modulates oxidative stress in PC12 cell compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tea polyphenols have been reported to be potent antioxidants and beneficial in oxidative stress related diseases. Prooxidant effects of tea polyphenols have also been reported in cell culture systems. In the present study, we have studied oxidative stress in the subcellular compartments of PC12 cells after treatment with different concentrations of the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). We have demonstrated that EGCG has differentially affected the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) metabolism and cytochrome P450 2E1 activity in the different subcellular compartments in PC12 cells. Our results have shown that although the cell survival was not inhibited by EGCG, there was, however, an increased DNA breakdown and activation of apoptotic markers, caspase 3 and poly- (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) at higher concentrations of EGCG treatment. Our results suggest that the differential effects of EGCG might be related to the alterations in oxidative stress, GSH pools and CYP2E1 activity in different cellular compartments. These results may have implications in determining the chemopreventive therapeutic use of tea polyphenols in vivo

  20. A linear compartment model analysis on the liver scintigraphy with 99mTc-GSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) is a newly developed receptor-binding agent, specific for the asialoglycoprotein receptor, which resides exclusively on the plasma membrane of mammalian hepatocytes. Liver scintigraphy using 99mTc-GSA was performed on 40 patients with liver diseases. Dynamic data were obtained by a gamma camera during 20 minutes after intravenous injection of 3 mg (185 MBq) of 99mTc-GSA. Rate constant P(2)* (1/min) of 99mTc-GSA transferred from hepatic blood to receptor was determined, assuming linear compartment model. P(2)*·Km that was given by the product of P(2)* and Michaelis constant Km was significantly correlated with the maximum removal rate by the nonlinear compartment model taken into account of the Michaelis-Menten type (r2=0.972, n=40). P(2)*·Km by graphical method was also well correlated with P(2) (r2=0.988, n=40). It was concluded that the linear compartment model was applicable to liver scintigraphy with 99mTc-GSA, moreover, the graphical method could easily evaluate the maximum removal rate. (author)

  1. Total hysterectomy and anterior vaginal wall suspension for concurrent uterine and bladder prolapses: Long-term anatomical results of additional vault and/or posterior compartment prolapse repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Lee

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: At long-term follow-up, nearly one in five apical recurrences in these two surgical groups was observed with stable results in the anterior compartment. The posterior compartment required the least surgical intervention.

  2. Bilateral three-compartment wrist arthrography in patients with unilateral wrist pain: findings and implications for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral three-compartment wrist arthrography was performed in 30 patients with unilateral post-traumatic wrist pain to assess the incidence of bilateral findings. The mean age of patients was 30 (range 18-55) years. Thirty-three percent of patients were normal bilaterally, 30% had unilateral communication in the symptomatic wrist, 30% had communications in both the symptomatic and asymptomatic wrists and 7% had communication in the asymptomatic wrist only. Unilateral three-compartment wrist arthrography is not recommended in the assessment of unilateral post-traumatic wrist pain; no advantage of three-compartment injection over radiocarpal injection alone was shown. (orig.)

  3. [Infection of a total knee prosthesis revealed by an abscess of the posterior leg compartment. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranthon, L D; Baaklini, M; Grimberg, J; Vandenbussche, E; Augereau, B

    2001-04-01

    We report a case of infection of a non-cemented total knee prosthesis that led to abscess formation in the posterior compartment of the leg. This case illustrates the deleterious effect of screws used to fix the non-cemented articular surface of the tibia. Infection, like osteolysis due to polyethylene granuloma, can develop along the screw tract and reach the posterior compartment, especially when the screw protrudes through the posterior cortical of the tibia. Diffusion of an intra-articular event into the posterior compartment should be suspected in patients with a total knee prosthesis who experience calf pain. PMID:11319432

  4. Water renewal in Montevideo's bay: a two compartments model for tritium kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During field work about dynamics and renewal of water in Montevideo's Bay, 100 Ci of tritiated water were evenly distributed in the north-east region of the bay, by a continuous injection of a solution, during 5 hours, from a 200 litres tank, using a peristaltic pump. The whole bay was divided in 20 concentration cells, taking into account available bathymetric charts and corrections from field data obtained in situ. Tritium concentrations (activities per unit volume) and other relevant parameters (temperature, electrical conductivity, etc.) were measured in vertical profiles during three weeks, in the mid-point of each cell, first twice a day and the on a daily basis. Remnant total tritium activity was estimated from cells volumes and midpoint cells activity concentrations. Consistency checks were done. A one compartment model was used to estimate a global renewal time of circa 29 hours. However, the details of the measured tritium kinetics, a careful consideration of bathymetric data, water movements in a tidal environment (measured with drogues, fluorescent tracers and current meters), as well as the results of computer fluid dynamics modelling (in depth averaged) suggests that the bay can be meaningfully divided in two main compartments: a North-East and a South-West compartment. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to describe the construction of a two compartments model for water renewal in Montevideo's Bay, (2) to apply experimental data of tritium kinetics to estimate the parameters of the model, and (3) to discuss the validity of the model and its practical applicability. The meaning of the renewal time of each compartment and its relation with the measured tritium kinetics in each cell is discussed. The perturbations in water circulation and renewal produced by civil works already done or the perturbations that could be expected due to civil works to be done, in relation with Montevideo's harbour, is discussed. The tracer model, jointly with other

  5. Water renewal in Montevideo's bay: a two compartments model for tritium kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto, E-mail: rsuarez@ucu.edu.uy [Universidad Catolica del Uruguay (UCU), Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2013-07-01

    During field work about dynamics and renewal of water in Montevideo's Bay, 100 Ci of tritiated water were evenly distributed in the north-east region of the bay, by a continuous injection of a solution, during 5 hours, from a 200 litres tank, using a peristaltic pump. The whole bay was divided in 20 concentration cells, taking into account available bathymetric charts and corrections from field data obtained in situ. Tritium concentrations (activities per unit volume) and other relevant parameters (temperature, electrical conductivity, etc.) were measured in vertical profiles during three weeks, in the mid-point of each cell, first twice a day and the on a daily basis. Remnant total tritium activity was estimated from cells volumes and midpoint cells activity concentrations. Consistency checks were done. A one compartment model was used to estimate a global renewal time of circa 29 hours. However, the details of the measured tritium kinetics, a careful consideration of bathymetric data, water movements in a tidal environment (measured with drogues, fluorescent tracers and current meters), as well as the results of computer fluid dynamics modelling (in depth averaged) suggests that the bay can be meaningfully divided in two main compartments: a North-East and a South-West compartment. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to describe the construction of a two compartments model for water renewal in Montevideo's Bay, (2) to apply experimental data of tritium kinetics to estimate the parameters of the model, and (3) to discuss the validity of the model and its practical applicability. The meaning of the renewal time of each compartment and its relation with the measured tritium kinetics in each cell is discussed. The perturbations in water circulation and renewal produced by civil works already done or the perturbations that could be expected due to civil works to be done, in relation with Montevideo's harbour, is discussed. The tracer model

  6. pH dependence of the interaction between immunogenic peptides and MHC class II molecules. Evidence for an acidic intracellular compartment being the organelle of interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, S; Buus, Anette Stryhn; Petersen, B L; Buus, S

    1992-01-01

    most notably in the endosome-lysosome compartment in which Ag processing is thought to occur. Thus, Ag processing and interaction with MHC class II molecules can potentially happen in the very same compartment. This yet undefined acidic compartment would have to contain proteolytic enzymes and MHC...

  7. Spectral analysis methods for vehicle interior vibro-acoustics identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Fouladi, Mohammad; Nor, Mohd. Jailani Mohd.; Ariffin, Ahmad Kamal

    2009-02-01

    Noise has various effects on comfort, performance and health of human. Sound are analysed by human brain based on the frequencies and amplitudes. In a dynamic system, transmission of sound and vibrations depend on frequency and direction of the input motion and characteristics of the output. It is imperative that automotive manufacturers invest a lot of effort and money to improve and enhance the vibro-acoustics performance of their products. The enhancement effort may be very difficult and time-consuming if one relies only on 'trial and error' method without prior knowledge about the sources itself. Complex noise inside a vehicle cabin originated from various sources and travel through many pathways. First stage of sound quality refinement is to find the source. It is vital for automotive engineers to identify the dominant noise sources such as engine noise, exhaust noise and noise due to vibration transmission inside of vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to find the vibro-acoustical sources of noise in a passenger vehicle compartment. The implementation of spectral analysis method is much faster than the 'trial and error' methods in which, parts should be separated to measure the transfer functions. Also by using spectral analysis method, signals can be recorded in real operational conditions which conduce to more consistent results. A multi-channel analyser is utilised to measure and record the vibro-acoustical signals. Computational algorithms are also employed to identify contribution of various sources towards the measured interior signal. These achievements can be utilised to detect, control and optimise interior noise performance of road transport vehicles.

  8. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  9. Dexamethasone as An Additive to Bupivacaine in Fascia Lliaca Compartment Block: A Prospective, Randomized and Double Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar N, Suresh; N, Kiran; M, Ravi; Sebastian, Don; Gowda RM, Punith

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with fracture femur experience severe pain on movement during positioning for spinal anaesthesia. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) has been used effectively for providing analgesia during positioning of the patient for spinal anaesthesia.

  10. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of Ignalina NPP compartments response to group distribution header rupture using RALOC4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accident Localisation System of Ignalina NPP is a containment of pressure suppression type designed to protect the environment from the dangerous impact of the radiation. In this paper the analysis of guillotine Group Distribution Header break in the Lower Water Piping compartment of ALS of Ignalina NPP is presented. The purpose of this analysis is to perform the long-term thermal-hydraulic analysis of compartments response to Group Distribution Header rupture and to verify if design pressure values in the compartments are not exceeded. The operation of CTCS, sprays, drainages and the make-up of hot condensate chamber are considered in the model. According to the calculation results all the pressures in ALS compartments are below the maximum allowed design values. (authors)

  11. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and  uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to...

  12. Vehicle WiFi

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol Contreras, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    El projecte presenta el disseny d'un vehicle a motor elèctric construït sobre el sistema microcontrolador LPC1769 amb comunicacions sense fils via xarxes WiFi i detecció d'obstacles per sonar. El proyecto presenta el diseño de un vehículo a motor eléctrico construido sobre el sistema microcontrolador LPC1769 con comunicaciones inalámbricas vía redes WiFi y detección de obstáculos para sonar.

  13. Sensors in Unmanned Robotic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rohini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned tracked vehicles are developed for deployment in dangerous zones that are notsafe for human existence. These vehicles are to be fitted with various sensors for safe manoeuvre.Wide range of sensors for vehicle control, vision, and navigation are employed. The main purposeof the sensors is to infer the intended parameter precisely for further utilisation. Software isinseparable part of the sensors and plays major role in scaling, noise reduction, and fusion.Sensor fusion is normally adapted to enhance the decision-making. Vehicle location  andorientation can be sensed through global positioning system, accelerometer, gyroscope, andcompass. The unmanned vehicle can be navigated with the help of CCD camera, radar, lidar,ultrasonic sensor, piezoelectric sensor, microphone, etc.  Proximity sensors like capacitive andRF proximity detectors can detect obstacles in close vicinity.  This paper presents an overviewof sensors normally deployed in unmanned tracked vehicles.

  14. Vehicle Classification by Lane Allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Gaikwad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Classification of vehicles from video is used for analysis of traffic, self-driving systems or security systems. This analysis is based on shape, size, velocity and track of vehicles. These features characterize vehicle in background subtraction and feature extraction methods. Extraction is done by active contours and morphological operations. Extracted vehicles are classified by applying various classification techniques. The combination of features and classification techniques varies with the application. Proposed system, Uses combination of K Nearest Neighbor (KNN and Decision Tree techniques to overcome constraints. These constraints are instances of an object, overlapping of objects, and scaling factor. KNN is utilized to classify vehicle by size and lane. Decision tree manipulates the combination of these two features to classify accurately which results increased performance. This system classifies objects into three classes. These classes are four wheeler, bikers and heavy duty vehicle extracted from video.

  15. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  16. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo César. Rosa; Kennedy Martinez de Oliveira; Jorge Alfredo Léo; Bruno Adriano Borges Elias; Paulo Ricardo dos Santos; Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha de Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This an...

  17. Simplified model of the safety relief valves in the steam generator compartment of NPP Kozloduy Units 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety relief valves in the Steam Generator Compartment (SGC) ensure the protection against overpressurization of the Steam Generator Sealed Compartments in the 1-4 units of Kozloduy NPP. The specifics of the valve construction makes difficult the use of the currently existing codes. A simplified operational model of the relief valves is worked out. The results of the performance of this model for analysis of SGC parameters using CONTAIN 1.1 code are presented. (author)

  18. Analyzing the influence exerted by individual components of wetness losses on the efficiency of steam turbine stage and compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, G. A.; Gribin, V. G.; Avetisyan, A. R.; Lisyanskii, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The influence exerted by dispersed moisture on the economic efficiency of steam turbine stages and compartments operating in the wet steam region is analyzed. A procedure for generalizing experimental data is proposed that was used for analyzing the previously published results of experiments on determining the influence of different loss components on the efficiency of steam turbine stages and compartments. The influence of coarsely dispersed moisture on the turbine efficiency indicators is shown.

  19. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-07

    Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

  20. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. Whe...