Sample records for cabinet safe system

  1. System for cooling a cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    of heat transfer fluid and connected between said one or more cold side heat exchangers and the cold side of the magnetic regenerator, wherein the cooling system is configured to provide a first flow cycle of said heat transfer fluid between the cold store reservoir, the magnetic regenerator and the hot...... side heat exchanger adapted to transfer thermal energy from the cold store reservoir to the hot side heat exchanger,; and at least a second flow cycle of said heat transfer fluid between the cold store reservoir and said one or more cold side heat exchangers adapted to transfer thermal energy from said......The present disclosure relates to a cooling system comprising an active magnetic regenerator having a cold side and a hot side, a hot side heat exchanger connected to the hot side of the magnetic regenerator, one or more cold side heat exchangers, and a cold store reservoir comprising a volume...

  2. 21 CFR 1020.40 - Cabinet x-ray systems. (United States)


    ... are all x-ray systems designed primarily for the inspection of carry-on baggage at airline, railroad... target and passing through the window of the x-ray tube. (11) Safety interlock means a device which is... body through any aperture shall not be possible. (4) Safety interlocks. (i) Each door of a cabinet x...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Rashidkhanov


    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of the study was to regulate the thermal regime and ensure the reliability of electronic equipmentMethods. In order to conduct experimental studies of the thermoelectric cooling system using heat pipes, a stand was assembled on which the developed and manufactured prototype was studied. The object of the experimental studies was a prototype cooling system, consisting of a thermoelectric battery made of conventional unified thermoelectric materials of ICE-71 type. The solution of the research problems carried out by the method of reduction to ordinary differential equations (Kantorovich method provides acceptable accuracy for such a class of problems.Results. A design of a telecommunication equipment cabinet with a thermal management system based on the use of heat pipes and thermoelectric cooling units is proposed. A mathematical model for the determination of the thermal field in the cabinet volume is considered; an experimental stand for the prototype study is described; the results of experimental studies for various power sources of heat release are presented.Conclusion. Experimental studies confirm the operability of the developed cooling system for cabinets with telecommunication equipment; this cooling method has advantages over conventional forced or natural cooling; the temperature in the block volume and the peak values of the heat sources are significantly reduced; at dissipation powers on one board within 50 W there is no need to use special means to remove heat from hot junctions of the thermoelectric battery.

  4. Recent advances of rearing cabinet instrumentation and control system for insect stock culture (United States)

    Hermawan, Wawan; Kasmara, Hikmat; Melanie, Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made


    Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is one of a serious pest of horticulture in Indonesia. Helicoverpa armigera Nuclear Polyhedrovirus (HaNPV) has attracted interest for many researchers as a pest control for larvae of this species. Currently, we investigating the agrochemical formulations of HaNPV by introducing nanotechnology. Thus it is required an acceptable efficiency of insect stock cultures equipped with advance instruments to resolve the difficulties on insect stock seasons dependency. In addition, it is important to improve the insect survival with the aid of artificial natural environment and gain high insect production. This paper reports the rearing cabinet used as preparation of stock culture includes air-conditioning system, lighting, i.e. day and night control, and the main principles on recent technical and procedural advances apparatus of the system. The rearing system was moveable, designed and build by allowing air-conditioned cabinet for rearing insects, air motion and distribution as well as temperature and humidity being precisely controlled. The air was heated, humidified, and dehumidified respectively using a heater and ultrasonic nebulizer as actuators. Temperature and humidity can be controlled at any desired levels from room temperature (20°C) to 40 ± 1°C and from 0 to 80% RH with an accuracy of ±3% R.H. It is concluded that the recent design has acceptable performance based on the defined requirement for insect rearing and storage.

  5. Reducing airborne pathogens, dust and Salmonella transmission in experimental hatching cabinets using an electrostatic space charge system. (United States)

    Mitchell, B W; Buhr, R J; Berrang, M E; Bailey, J S; Cox, N A


    Electrostatic charging of particles in enclosed spaces has been shown to be an effective means of reducing airborne dust. Dust generated during the hatching process has been strongly implicated in Salmonella transmission, which complicates the cleaning and disinfecting processes for hatchers. Following two preliminary trials in which dust reduction was measured, four trials were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an electrostatic space charge system (ESCS) on the levels of total aerobic bacteria (TPC), enterobacteriaceae (ENT), and Salmonella within an experimental hatching cabinet. The ESCS was placed in a hatching cabinet that was approximately 50% full of 18-d-old broiler hatching eggs. The ESCS operated continuously to generate a strong negative electrostatic charge throughout the cabinet through hatching, and dust was collected in grounded trays containing water and a degreaser. An adjacent hatching cabinet served as an untreated control. Air samples from hatchers were collected daily, and sample chicks from each hatcher were grown out to 7 d of age for cecal analysis in three of the trials. The ESCS significantly (P < 0.05) reduced TPC and ENT by 85 to 93%. Dust concentration was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) during the preliminary trials with an average reduction of 93.6%. The number of Salmonella per gram of cecal contents in birds grown to 7 d of age was significantly (P < 0.001) reduced by an average log10 3.4 cfu/g. This ionization technology is relatively inexpensive and could be used to reduce airborne bacteria and dust within the hatching cabinet.

  6. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per


    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  7. Terrorism and cabinet duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassebner, M.; Jong-A-Pin, R.; Mierau, J.O.


    Terrorism can strengthen or weaken electoral support for ruling governments. We show in a simple model of coalition formation that, regardless of the direction of a public opinion shock, the impact of terrorism on cabinet duration is ambiguous. However, in an analysis of a data set including 2,400

  8. From Safe Systems to Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, J.; Nøhr, C.


    for the third conference with the theme: The ability to design, implement and evaluate safe, useable and effective systems within complex health care organizations. The theme for this conference was "Designing and Implementing Health IT: from safe systems to patient safety". The contributions have reflected...... and implementation of safe systems and thus contribute to the agenda of patient safety? The contributions demonstrate how the health informatics community has contributed to the performance of significant research and to translating research findings to develop health care delivery and improve patient safety...

  9. Towards Safe Robotic Surgical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael


    A proof of safety is paramount for an autonomous robotic surgical system to ensure that it does not cause trauma to patients. However, a proof of safety is rarely constructed, as surgical systems are too complex to be dealt with by most formal verification methods. In this paper, we design...

  10. Cabinet of Curiosities: Venom Systems and Their Ecological Function in Mammals, with a Focus on Primates. (United States)

    Rode-Margono, Johanna E; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola


    Venom delivery systems (VDS) are common in the animal kingdom, but rare amongst mammals. New definitions of venom allow us to reconsider its diversity amongst mammals by reviewing the VDS of Chiroptera, Eulipotyphla, Monotremata, and Primates. All orders use modified anterior dentition as the venom delivery apparatus, except Monotremata, which possesses a crural system. The venom gland in most taxa is a modified submaxillary salivary gland. In Primates, the saliva is activated when combined with brachial gland exudate. In Monotremata, the crural spur contains the venom duct. Venom functions include feeding, intraspecific competition, anti-predator defense and parasite defense. Including mammals in discussion of venom evolution could prove vital in our understanding protein functioning in mammals and provide a new avenue for biomedical and therapeutic applications and drug discovery.

  11. Detecting Fan Faults in refrigerated Cabinets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Rasmussen, B.D.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh


    Fault detection in supermarket refrigeration systems is an important topic due to both economic and food safety reasons. If faults can be detected and diagnosed before the system drifts outside the specified operational envelope, service costs can be reduced and in extreme cases the costly...... faults in display cabinets under the wide operational conditions that display cabinets are exposed to. The approach described uses a non- linear parity equation comparing the heat transfer rates of the air and the refrigerant. The paper presents the detection method and discusses the application...

  12. The SafeCOP ECSEL Project: Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems Using Wireless Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Hansson, Hans


    communication, multiple stakeholders, dynamic system definitions (openness), and unpredictable operating environments. SafeCOP will provide an approach to the safety assurance of CO-CPS, enabling thus their certification and development. The project will define a runtime manager architecture for runtime......This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled "Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication" (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016 -- 2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...

  13. The safe road transport system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollpracht Hans-Joachim


    Full Text Available More than 1,24 million people die each year on the worlds roads and between 20 to 50 million suffer from nonfatal injuries. The UN Road Safety Collaboration Meetings under the leadership of WHO developed the Programme for the Decade of Actions for road safety taking nations into the responsibility of improving their accident figures by the five pillars of a national Road Safety Policy, safer Roads, safer Vehicles, safer Road Users and Post Crash Care. It is this Safe System Approach that takes into consideration the land use, infrastructure and transport planning, road user’s abilities and limitations and the close cooperation of all governmental and none governmental stakeholders involved.

  14. Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies - Part 5: Particular requirements for assemblies intended to be installed outdoors in public places - Cable distribution cabinets (CDCs) for power distribution in networks

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva


    Gives supplementary requirements for cable distribution cabinets (CDC), which are stationary, type-tested assemblies (TTA) for outdoor installation in places which are exposed to the public, but where only skilled persons have access to their use. They are safe for use in public three-phase systems

  15. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Robert A. [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beshay, Manal [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)


    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  16. Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Sljivo, Irfan


    communication, multiple stakeholders, dynamic system definitions (openness), and unpredictable operating environments. SafeCOP will provide an approach to the safety assurance of CO-CPS, enabling thus their certification and development. The project will define a runtime manager architecture for runtime......This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled ―Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication‖ (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016–2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...

  17. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel


    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  18. Effects of acoustic hood on noise, CFC-11, and particulate matter in a recycling system for waste refrigerator cabinet. (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Fang, Wenxiong; Yang, Yichen; Xu, Zhenming


    The mechanical-physical process was proven to be technologically feasible for waste refrigerator recycling and has been widely used in the typical e-waste recycling factories in China. In this study, effects of the acoustic hood on the reduction of noise level, CFC-11, and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in particulate matter (PM) were evaluated. For noise pollution, the noise level inside and outside the acoustic hood was 96.4 and 78.9 dB, respectively. Meanwhile, it had a significant effect on A-weighted sound level with a reduction from 98.3 to 63.6 dB. For CFC-11 exposure, abundant CFC-11 (255 mg/m(3)) was detected in the acoustic hood. However, the mean concentration of CFC-11 at the outline of polyurethane foam collection was obviously diminished to 14 mg/m(3), and no CFC-11 was monitored around the acoustic hood. The concentrations of PM and heavy metals in PM outside the acoustic hood were lower than those inside the acoustic hood due to the physical barriers of the acoustic hood. Based on the risk assessment, only adverse health effect caused by Pb might likely appear. All the results can provide the basic data for pollution control and risk assessment in waste refrigerator recycling system.

  19. Safe Neighborhood Computation for Hybrid System Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Deng


    Full Text Available For the design and implementation of engineering systems, performing model-based analysis can disclose potential safety issues at an early stage. The analysis of hybrid system models is in general difficult due to the intrinsic complexity of hybrid dynamics. In this paper, a simulation-based approach to formal verification of hybrid systems is presented.

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.308 - Obtaining filing cabinets. (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining filing cabinets. 101-26.308 Section 101-26.308 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND...

  1. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel Petri net based approach for safe and flexible control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration...

  2. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel approach for flexible and safe control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration science rovers,...

  3. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Surface Water Intakes (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of surface water intakes. These intake locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  4. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Drinking Water Well Sites (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of drinking water wells. These well locations are part of the safe drinking water information system (SDWIS)....

  5. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Sewer Treatment Plants (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of sewer treatment plants. These facility locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  6. State Children's Cabinets and Councils: 2008 Directory (United States)

    Gaines, Elizabeth; Ravindranath, Nalini; Folliard, June


    This paper serves as the introduction to the State Children's Cabinets and Councils Series, a set of reports intended to capture and organize the decisions and experiences of more than 20 children's cabinets and councils and present them against an emerging set of expectations about what the public and policy makers could and should expect from…

  7. Russia's science minister keeps cabinet post

    CERN Multimedia


    Mikhail Kirpichnikov, minister for science and technology has kept his post in the cabinet of the new prime minister Sergei Stepashin. Yevgeniy Adamov also remains as minister of atomic energy (2 paragraphs).

  8. Building services cabinets as teaching material in a degree in architecture (United States)

    Martín-Gómez, César; Zapata, Omayra; Zuazua, Amaia; Villanueva, Sonia; Olaizola, Paula


    The aim of this innovative educational project is to encourage students' interest in one of the most underrated fields of architecture: building services. With this material students interact with real elements and thereby understand the relationship between facilities and the building. A set of three small technical cabinets is planned. They allow for comfortable use and movement inside the building, need minimum maintenance and are easily stored. The result is an alternative concept of a mobile laboratory called a 'technical cabinet', made up of three mobile units for fire safety, electricity and the heating/cooling system. The design, content and learning systems of the cabinets confirmed the validity of the initial concept during the first year of use. A protocol has also been developed for each of the technical cabinets so that the teaching experience may be of use in other Schools of Architecture.

  9. Operationalizing safe operating space for regional social-ecological systems. (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sarwar; Dearing, John A; Eigenbrod, Felix; Johnson, Fiifi Amoako


    This study makes a first attempt to operationalize the safe operating space concept at a regional scale by considering the complex dynamics (e.g. non-linearity, feedbacks, and interactions) within a systems dynamic model (SD). We employ the model to explore eight 'what if' scenarios based on well-known challenges (e.g. climate change) and current policy debates (e.g. subsidy withdrawal). The findings show that the social-ecological system in the Bangladesh delta may move beyond a safe operating space when a withdrawal of a 50% subsidy for agriculture is combined with the effects of a 2°C temperature increase and sea level rise. Further reductions in upstream river discharge in the Ganges would push the system towards a dangerous zone once a 3.5°C temperature increase was reached. The social-ecological system in Bangladesh delta may be operated within a safe space by: 1) managing feedback (e.g. by reducing production costs) and the slow biophysical variables (e.g. temperature, rainfall) to increase the long-term resilience, 2) negotiating for transboundary water resources, and 3) revising global policies (e.g. withdrawal of subsidy) that negatively impact at regional scales. This study demonstrates how the concepts of tipping points, limits to adaptations, and boundaries for sustainable development may be defined in real world social-ecological systems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance simulation of refrigerated display cabinets operating with refrigerants R22 and R404A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Y.T. [Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Cropper, R. [Formerly School of Engineering, North East Wales Institute, Plas Coch Campus, Mold Road, Wrexham L11 2AW (United Kingdom)


    This paper describes the analysis and performance comparison of a display cabinet system using refrigerant R404A and its substitute refrigerant R22. The model of the display cabinet is developed at steady state and integrated from three main component sub-models, air-cooling finned-tube evaporator, air curtain and display cabinet body. The evaporator model is built up based on the distributed method, which can simulate the heat exchangers with different circuit structures. The frost effect on the performance of the evaporator is included in the model. The correlations for the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations of both air and refrigerant sides are purposely selected in the evaporator model. In addition, the evaporator model has been validated with experimental results at steady states from published literature. Several correlated functions from the detailed numerical solution are used for the model of the air curtain. Some simplifications are also utilized for the model of display cabinet body. The performance simulation and comparison of the display cabinet using refrigerants R404A and R22 are carried out at different indoor ambient conditions especially at varied ambient air humidity to mimic the actual indoor space conditions in super stores. Some significant results such as the comparison of cooling load requirement for different refrigerant display cases have been obtained from the simulation, which can significantly contribute to the optimal cabinet design and operating analysis. (author)

  11. From National Enclaves to Supporting Offices: an Analysis of the 1999 Reform of European Commissioners’ Cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renke Deckarm


    Full Text Available This article analyses the transformation of European commissioners’ private offices (cabinets from national enclaves to supporting offices. Structural changes were caused by a reform by then-Commission President Prodi in 1999. To analyse this reform, a typology based on management literature is developed. The reform is characterised as ‘big bang’: it was strategically planned by a leader, transformational and affected the entire cabinet system. The most important measures were that at least three nationalities and three Commission officials were required in cabinets. These and other measures anticipated changing demands towards cabinets caused by the 2004/7 enlargement and the Kinnock reforms. This article closes a gap in research on the Commission, in which cabinets are seldom analysed in their own right. It complements earlier evidence on change in cabinets by explaining why and how structural changes evoked a functional transformation. This contributes to the broader research agenda on change in the functioning of the Commission. Content analysis of primary sources (Prodi’s speeches and publications, expert interviews and a biographic database and recent academic publications contribute to the analysis.

  12. BROMETH: Methodology to design safe reconfigurable medical robotic systems. (United States)

    Ben Salem, Mohamed Oussama; Mosbahi, Olfa; Khalgui, Mohamed; Jlalia, Zied; Frey, Georg; Smida, Mahmoud


    This research paper deals with the development of a medical robotized control system for supracondylar humeral fracture treatment. Concurrent access to shared resources and applying reconfiguration scenarios can jeopardize the safety of the system. A new methodology is proposed in this paper, termed BROMETH, to guarantee the safety of such critical systems from their specification to their deployment, and passing through certification and implementation. The solution is applied to a real case study named Browser-based Reconfigurable Orthopedic Surgery (abbrev. BROS), a robotized platform dedicated to the treatment of supracondylar fractures, to illustrate the paper's contribution. This work starts from a medical issue, namely supracondylar humeral fracture treatment, to establish a new informatics solution, namely a new methodology to design safe reconfigurable medical robotic systems. The results of the experiments performed on real SCH fracture radiographies were quite satisfactory. Clinical experiments can then be performed after deploying the system on real hardware. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Progress in hardware development for the SAFE heatpipe reactor system (United States)

    Ring, P. J.; Sayre, E. D.; van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike


    Advanced Methods & Materials Company (AMM) previously fabricated the stainless steel modules for the SAFE 30 system. These earlier modules consisting of five fuel pins surrounding a heat pipe, were brazed together using a tricusp insert in the gaps between tubes to ensure maximum braze coverage. It was decided that if possible the next generations of modules, both stainless steel and refractory alloy, would be diffusion bonded together using a Hot Issostatic Pressing (HIP) process. This process was very successfully used in producing the bonded rhenium Nb-lZr fuel cladding and the heat exchanger for the SP-100 Nuclear Space System Ref. 1 & 2. In addition AMM have since refined the technology enabling them to produce very high temperature rocket thrust chambers. Despite this background the complex geometry required for the SAFE module was quite challenging. It was necessary to develop a method which could be applied for both stainless steel and refractory alloy systems. In addition the interstices between tubes had to be completely filled with the tricusp insert to avoid causing distortion of the tube shape during HIPing and provide thermal conductivity from the fuel tubes to the heat pipes. Nevertheless it was considered worth the effort since Hot Isostatic Pressing, if successful, will produce an assembly with the heat pipe completely embedded within the module such that the diffusion bonded assembly has the thermal conduction and strength equivalent to a solid structure. .

  14. 21 CFR 890.5250 - Moist steam cabinet. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moist steam cabinet. 890.5250 Section 890.5250...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5250 Moist steam cabinet. (a) Identification. A moist steam cabinet is a device intended for medical purposes that delivers...

  15. Modeling structural acoustic properties of loudspeaker cabinets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu

    In this dissertation, a theoretical/numerical methodology is presented for coarse and fast predictions of cabinet vibrations. The study is focused on vibrations of rib-stiffened panels by improving a smearing technique and employing it into finite element modeling. The computationally efficient s...

  16. Manufacture of oak furniture, cabinets, and panels (United States)

    Harold C. Moser


    Oak is uniquely favored for use in furniture, cabinets, and similar products. The supply is plentiful. Though drying presents some problems, once oak is properly dried it is a stable wood that machines very well, glues well, and accepts a variety of finishes well.

  17. Environmentally safe system for treatment of bio corrosion of ETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarovičová Katarína


    Full Text Available Effects of microorganisms on building facades are responsible for aesthetic, bio-geophysical and biogeochemical deterioration. The process of cleaning of contaminated facades involves the removal and eradication of micro flora on the surface of insulation using chemical products, killing cells and eliminating all living mass, including organic ingredients. The removal of bio corrosion coating from ETICS structure by means of chemical and preservative substances (biocides is currently the only effective and most used technology. Uncontrolled leaching of the used biocides is unacceptable. Meantime, new technology for environmentally safe maintenance of ETICS is needed. Scientists have been working on replacement the biocides currently used in facades treatment with eco-friendly biocides that have no negative effects on the environment or human beings. While the eco- treatment will be available, safe dewatering of chemicals being leached from the surface of the facade could be provided by e.g. special drain systems adjusted to the building type, use and age. The paper gives an overview of the problem in context of Slovakia and examples of leaching systems designed for new and renovated buildings.

  18. Quality Model of Foodstuff in a Refrigerated Display Cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus


    Commercial refrigerating systems need to be defrosted regularly to maintain a satisfactory performance. When defrosting the evaporator coil, the air temperature inside the display cabinet will increase, and float outside the normal temperature range for a period of time, the question is what...... happens to the food inside during this period, when we look at the quality factor? This paper discusses quality model of foodstuff, different scenarios of defrost scheme are simulated, questions such as how the defrost temperature and duration influence the food temperature, thus the food quality, as well...

  19. Safe Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salazar, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scheibel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Engels, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reiger, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Department of Energy’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program has funded Safe(r) Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems, led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate and analyze the impacts of active scanning in the operational environment of energy delivery systems. In collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory, active scans across three testbeds including 38 devices were performed. This report gives a summary of the initial literature survey performed on the SASEDS project as well as industry partner interview summaries and main findings from Phase 1 of the project. Additionally, the report goes into the details of scanning techniques, methodologies for testing, testbed descriptions, and scanning results, with appendices to elaborate on the specific scans that were performed. As a result of testing, a single device out of 38 exhibited problems when actively scanned, and a reboot was required to fix it. This single failure indicates that active scanning is not likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and resilience of energy delivery systems. We provide a path forward for future research that could enable wide adoption of active scanning and lead utilities to incorporate active scanning as part of their default network security plans to discover and rectify rogue devices, adversaries, and services that may be on the network. This increased network visibility will allow operational technology cybersecurity practitioners to improve their situational awareness of networks and their vulnerabilities.

  20. Eye-Safe Lidar System for Pesticide Spray Drift Measurement (United States)

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.


    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m. PMID:25658395

  1. Eye-safe lidar system for pesticide spray drift measurement. (United States)

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R


    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m.

  2. Three interactive scenes of The Crystal Cabinet


    Unander-Scharin, Åsa


    The interactive scenes of The Crystal Cabinet (2008) constitute the first part in my choreographic research project exploring volatile bodies and multistable corporealities. This performance took the form of a dream play opera in twelve scenes including texts and images from William Blake’s (1757-1827) illuminated books. To create his books Blake invented a printing-machine with which he could print his handwritten poems and images. We transformed this idea into an interactive stage area wher...

  3. Validation of cross-contamination control in biological safety cabinet for biotech/pharmaceutical manufacturing process. (United States)

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Tu, Jin-Xin; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben


    For class II, type A2 biological safety cabinets (BSC), NSF/ANSI Standard 49 should be conformed in cabinet airflow velocity derivation, particle contamination, and aerodynamic flow properties. However, there exists a potential problem. It has been built that the cabinet air flow stabilize is influenced by the quantity of downflow of air and the height above the cabinet exhaust opening. Three air downflow quantities were compared as an operating apparatus was placed from 20 to 40 cm above the bench of the cabinet. The results show that the BSC air downflow velocity is a function of increased sampling height, displaying that containment is improvingly permitted over product protection as the sampling height decreases. This study investigated the concentration gradient of particles at various heights and downflow air quantity from the bench of the BSC. Experiment results indicate that performance near the bench was better than in the rest of the BSC. In terms of height, the best cleanliness was measured at a height of 10 cm over the bench; it reduced actually with add in height. The empirical curves accommodate, founded on the concentration gradient of particle created was elaborated for evaluating the particle concentration at different heights and downflow air quantity from the source of the bench of the BSC. The particle image velocimetry system applied for BSC airflow research to fix amount of airflow patterns and air distribution measurement and results of measurements show how obstructions can greatly influence the airflow and contaminant transportation in a BSC.

  4. The Stillbirth Classification System for the Safe Passage Study. (United States)

    Boyd, Theonia K; Wright, Colleen A; Odendaal, Hein J; Elliott, Amy J; Sens, Mary Ann; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Roberts, Drucilla J; Kinney, Hannah C


    Objective Describe the classification system for assigning the cause of stillbirth in the Safe Passage Study, an international, multi-institutional, prospective analysis conducted by the NIAAA/NICHD-funded Prenatal Alcohol in SIDS and Stillbirth (PASS) Research Network. The study mission is to determine the role of prenatal alcohol and/or cigarette smoke exposure in adverse pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, in a high-risk cohort of 12,000 maternal/fetal dyads. Methods The PASS Network classification system is based upon 5 "sites of origin" for cause of stillbirth, further subdivided into mechanism subcategories; both are employed to assign an ultimate cause of death. Each PASS stillbirth was assigned a cause of death and status of sporadic versus recurrent. Adjudication involved review of maternal and obstetrical records; fetal autopsy and placental findings; and required complete consensus in each case. Two published classification systems, ie, INCODE and ReCoDe, were used for comparison. Results Causes of stillbirth classified were fetal (26%), placental (53%), external (5%), and undetermined (16%). Nine cases (47%) had placental causes of death due to maternal disorders that carry recurrence risks. There was full agreement for cause of death across the 3 classification systems in 26% of cases and partial agreement among them in 42% of cases. Conclusions The proposed PASS schema employs a user-friendly classification that provides comparable information to previously published systems. Advantages include its simplicity, mechanistic formulations, tight clinicopathologic integration, provision for an undetermined category, and its wide applicability to perinatal mortality review boards with access to information routinely collected during clinicopathologic evaluations.

  5. SafeNet: a methodology for integrating general-purpose unsafe devices in safe-robot rehabilitation systems. (United States)

    Vicentini, Federico; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Malosio, Matteo; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo


    Robot-assisted neurorehabilitation often involves networked systems of sensors ("sensory rooms") and powerful devices in physical interaction with weak users. Safety is unquestionably a primary concern. Some lightweight robot platforms and devices designed on purpose include safety properties using redundant sensors or intrinsic safety design (e.g. compliance and backdrivability, limited exchange of energy). Nonetheless, the entire "sensory room" shall be required to be fail-safe and safely monitored as a system at large. Yet, sensor capabilities and control algorithms used in functional therapies require, in general, frequent updates or re-configurations, making a safety-grade release of such devices hardly sustainable in cost-effectiveness and development time. As such, promising integrated platforms for human-in-the-loop therapies could not find clinical application and manufacturing support because of lacking in the maintenance of global fail-safe properties. Under the general context of cross-machinery safety standards, the paper presents a methodology called SafeNet for helping in extending the safety rate of Human Robot Interaction (HRI) systems using unsafe components, including sensors and controllers. SafeNet considers, in fact, the robotic system as a device at large and applies the principles of functional safety (as in ISO 13489-1) through a set of architectural procedures and implementation rules. The enabled capability of monitoring a network of unsafe devices through redundant computational nodes, allows the usage of any custom sensors and algorithms, usually planned and assembled at therapy planning-time rather than at platform design-time. A case study is presented with an actual implementation of the proposed methodology. A specific architectural solution is applied to an example of robot-assisted upper-limb rehabilitation with online motion tracking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system: a condition-based corrosion detection system for aging aircraft (United States)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Seifert, Greg; Paul, Clare A.


    The smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system is an advanced structural health monitoring effort to detect and characterize corrosion in hidden and inaccessible locations of aircraft structures. Hidden corrosion is the number one logistics problem for the U.S. Air Force, with an estimated maintenance cost of $700M per year in 1990 dollars. The SAFE system incorporates a solid-state electrochemical microsensor and smart sensor electronics in the body of a Hi-Lok aircraft fastener to process and autonomously report corrosion status to aircraft maintenance personnel. The long-term payoff for using SAFE technology will be in predictive maintenance for aging aircraft and rotorcraft systems, fugitive emissions applications such as control valves, chemical pipeline vessels, and industrial boilers. Predictive maintenance capability, service, and repair will replace the current practice of scheduled maintenance to substantially reduce operational costs. A summary of the SAFE concept, laboratory test results, and future field test plans is presented.

  7. 78 FR 76710 - Notice of Buy America Waiver for a Video Ready Access Device Cabinet (United States)


    ... cabinet needed for an AT&T utility relocation associated with the Charlotte Area Transit System's (CATS... Transit System's (CATS or City of Charlotte) LYNX Blue Line Extension (BLE) project, which is an FTA... manufactured goods used in the project are produced in the United States.'' 49 U.S.C. 5323(j)(1). A...

  8. The Proteus Cabinet, or "We Are Here but Not Here" (United States)

    Nield, Sophie


    In the early nineteenth century, there were three stage illusions in which a magician could cause a person to disappear. In one of these, the Proteus Cabinet, participants would enter a box, and simply vanish. As the designers of the Proteus Cabinet said of them, they were "Here, but not Here." My essay explores this concept in relation to…

  9. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone ETO...

  10. Sanitation safety planning as a tool for achieving safely managed sanitation systems and safe use of wastewater. (United States)

    Winkler, Mirko S; Jackson, Darryl; Sutherland, David; Lim, Jose Marie U; Srikantaiah, Vishwanath; Fuhrimann, Samuel; Medlicott, Kate


    Increasing water stress and growing urbanization force a greater number of people to use wastewater as an alternative water supply, especially for irrigation. Although wastewater irrigation in agriculture has a long history and substantial benefits, without adequate treatment and protective measures on farms and in markets, use of wastewater poses risks to human health and the environment. Against this background, the World Health Organization (WHO) published Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater in agriculture and aquaculture, in 2006. The Sanitation safety planning: manual for safe use and disposal of wastewater, greywater and excreta - a step-by-step risk-based management tool for sanitation systems - was published by WHO in 2016 to put these guidelines into practice. Sanitation safety planning (SSP) can be applied to all sanitation systems, to ensure the systems are managed to meet health objectives. This paper summarizes the pilot-testing of the SSP manual in India, Peru, Portugal, Philippines, Uganda and Viet Nam. Also reviewed are some of the key components of the manual and training, and an overview of SSP training and dissemination efforts and opportunities for implementation in the WHO South-East Asia Region. Lessons learnt during the piloting phase show how reducing health risks can be surprisingly easy, even in a low-income setting, especially when combining many smaller measures. The SSP approach can make an important contribution towards Sustainable Development Goal target 6.3, by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing the release of hazardous chemicals and materials, thereby halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally.

  11. Dissolution of FB-Line Cabinet Sweepings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, Mark L.


    Three FB-Line samples were received by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization and evaluation for suitability for HB-Line dissolution. These samples are part of a larger sampling/evaluation program in support of FB-Line deinventory efforts. The samples studied were identified as MC04-147- HBL, MC04-148-HBL, and FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N). The first sample, MC04-147-HBL, is a portion of FB-Line Packaging and Stabilization (P&S) materials. The second sample, MC04-148-HBL, is a sweeping from Cabinet 6-8, which is not representative of the mechanical line. The third sample, FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N), is an FB-Line North cabinet sweeping. The samples were described by FB-Line personnel as containing plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) which had not been high-fired. This description was generally confirmed by solids analysis and off gas measurements. All three samples were dissolved in 8 M HNO{sub 3}/0.1 M KF at 90-100 C leaving minor amounts of solid residue. During dissolution, sample MC04-147 did not generate hydrogen gas. Sample MC04-148 generated modest amounts of gas, which contained 4.0 to 4.7 volume percent (vol %) hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at a ratio of up to 8.4 x 10{sup -5} mol H{sub 2}/g sample. Sample FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N) was nearly completely soluble in 8 M HNO{sub 3}and produced a very small amount of gas. Apparently, the CaF{sub 2} in that sample dissolves and provides sufficient fluoride to support the dissolution of other components.

  12. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Automated Observation and Feedback System on Safe Sitting Postures (United States)

    Yu, Eunjeong; Moon, Kwangsu; Oah, Shezeen; Lee, Yohaeng


    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an automated observation and feedback system in improving safe sitting postures. Participants were four office workers. The dependent variables were the percentages of time participants spent in five safe body positions during experimental sessions. We used a multiple-baseline design counterbalanced across…

  13. 24 CFR 3280.204 - Kitchen cabinet protection. (United States)


    ... framing members and trim are exempted from this requirement. The cabinet area over the cooking range or cooktops shall be protected by a metal hood (26-gauge sheet metal, or .017 stainless steel, or .024...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinet (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinets that are...

  15. Laminar-flow Liquid-to-air Heat Exchangers - Energy-efficient Display Cabinet Applications


    Haglund Stignor, Caroline


    Provisions are stored and displayed in supermarkets and grocery stores, at a temperature lower than the ambient, in display cabinets, which are responsible for a significant amount of the energy use in this sector. During the 1990s, major changes in the regulations governing the use of synthetic refrigerants took place in Sweden. This resulted in many refrigeration systems being converted to systems with indirect cooling by means of a liquid secondary refrigerant. The cooling coil is an impor...

  16. [Microcontroller temperature regulator MPT110 for drying-sterilizing cabinets]. (United States)

    Kostin, N N; Gavrishchuk, V I; Zelepukin, S A; Shkulepa, V M; Zharov, E N


    The paper describes a MPT-110 temperature microcontroller developed by the closed joint-stock company "OPLEKS" (Orel, Russia) and the results of comparative tests performed in the @IIICC-80 drying sterilizing cabinet. The use of the MPT-110 controller is shown to improve the quality of control and to shorten the times that is taken for the cabinet to reach the preset temperature point.

  17. Spanish cabinet moves to liberalize abortion law. (United States)


    On July 7 (1995), the cabinet of Spain's socialist prime minister Felipe Gonzalez approved a measure to expand the country's abortion law by permitting a woman to obtain the procedure during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy in circumstances not currently allowed. Since 1985, abortion has been legal throughout pregnancy in the following situations: when a medical specialist not associated with the procedure determines that an abortion is necessary to "avert a serious risk to [a woman's] physical or mental health;" during the first 12 weeks if the pregnancy results from reported rape; and within the first 22 weeks when two physicians not associated with the abortion certify that the fetus would develop "severe physical or mental defects." The new legislation, which also requires women to receive nonbinding counseling, permits abortions when a health care professional determines that carrying to term will cause a woman severe anxiety for social or economic reasons. Before the measure can become law, it must be approved by the Spanish Parliament, which is expected to vote on the proposal in September. The Catalan nationalist grouping, which has been a key supporter of the socialist government, is among the forces opposing liberalization of the abortion statute. Partly due to the abortion controversy, the Catalan coalition is expected to vote on July 17 to decide whether to continue its backing. full text

  18. Laboratory biological safety cabinet (BSC) explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Dahhan, Wedad H.; Al-Zuhairi, Ali Jasim; Hussein, Falah H.; Rodda, Kabrena E.; Yousif, Emad


    Scientists at universities across Iraq are actively working to report actual incidents and accidents occurring in their laboratories in order to raise awareness and encourage openness, leading to widespread adoption of robust Chemical Safety and Security (CSS) practices. This manuscript is the first in a series of five case studies describing laboratory incidents and accidents in Iraqi university laboratories in order to share lessons learned and minimize the possibility of similar incidents in the future. In this study, we describe a serious event that resulted in a postgraduate student sustaining serious injuries when the biological safety cabinet (BSC) she was using exploded. Of particular note, the paper highlights how a combination of failures and deficiencies at many levels within an organization and its technical community (rather than a single piece of faulty equipment or the careless behavior of one person) can lead to a dangerous, potentially life-threatening incident. By openly sharing what happened along with the lessons learned from the accident, we hope to minimize the possibility of another researcher being injured in a similar incident in the future.

  19. On-line Monitoring Device for High-voltage Switch Cabinet Partial Discharge Based on Pulse Current Method (United States)

    Y Tao, S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Cai, H. W.; Li, P.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, T. C.; Li, J.; Wang, W. S.; Zhang, X. K.


    The pulse current method for partial discharge detection is generally applied in type testing and other off-line tests of electrical equipment at delivery. After intensive analysis of the present situation and existing problems of partial discharge detection in switch cabinets, this paper designed the circuit principle and signal extraction method for partial discharge on-line detection based on a high-voltage presence indicating systems (VPIS), established a high voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line detection circuit based on the pulse current method, developed background software integrated with real-time monitoring, judging and analyzing functions, carried out a real discharge simulation test on a real-type partial discharge defect simulation platform of a 10KV switch cabinet, and verified the sensitivity and validity of the high-voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line monitoring device based on the pulse current method. The study presented in this paper is of great significance for switch cabinet maintenance and theoretical study on pulse current method on-line detection, and has provided a good implementation method for partial discharge on-line monitoring devices for 10KV distribution network equipment.

  20. Influenza vaccination in systemic lupus erythematosus : Safe and protective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holvast, Bert; Huckriede, Anke; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Bijl, Marc

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) show decreased immune responsiveness and are vulnerable for infectious diseases, due to the underlying disease and the frequent use of immunosuppressive drugs. Influenza has a high incidence in the population and is associated with increased morbidity

  1. Designing safe road systems : A Human Factors perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Kuiken, M.


    Many books focus on individual differences and how those relate to traffic safety, such as accident proneness, gender differences, age, alcohol, and the effects of drugs. Others focus on the safety effects regarding the vehicle, such as airbags, anti-lock brakes, navigation systems, intelligent

  2. Cyberterrorism: is the U.S. healthcare system safe? (United States)

    Harries, David; Yellowlees, Peter M


    The Internet has brought with it many benefits; key among them has been its ability to allow the expansion of communication and transfer of all kinds of information throughout the U.S. healthcare system. As a consequence, healthcare has become increasingly dependent on the activities carried out in that environment. It is this very dependence that increases the likelihood of individuals or organizations conducting activities through the Internet that will cause physical and/or psychological harm. These activities have become known by the term "cyberterrorism." In the healthcare landscape this can appear in a variety of forms, such as bringing down a hospital computer system or publicly revealing private medical records. Whatever shape it takes, the general effects are the same: patient care is compromised, and trust in the health system is diminished. Fortunately no significant cyber attack has been successfully launched against a U.S. healthcare organization to date. However, there is evidence to suggest that cyber threats are increasing and that much of the U.S. healthcare system is ill equipped to deal with them. Securing cyberspace is not an easy proposition as the threats are constantly changing, and recognizing that cyberterrorism should be part of a broader information technology risk management strategy, there are several"best practices" that can be adopted by healthcare organizations to protect themselves against cyber attacks.

  3. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.


    The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays and the user`s prospective model of a system. The studies involve a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming and its use in expanding design choices from the operator`s perspective image. The contents of this paper focuses on the studies and how they are applicable to the safety of operating reactors.

  4. Fail-safe system for activity cooled supersonic and hypersonic aircraft. [using liquid hydrogen fuel (United States)

    Jones, R. A.; Braswell, D. O.; Richie, C. B.


    A fail-safe-system concept was studied as an alternative to a redundant active cooling system for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft which use the heat sink of liquid-hydrogen fuel for cooling the aircraft structure. This concept consists of an abort maneuver by the aircraft and a passive thermal protection system (TPS) for the aircraft skin. The abort manuever provides a low-heat-load descent from normal cruise speed to a lower speed at which cooling is unnecessary, and the passive TPS allows the aircraft skin to absorb the abort heat load without exceeding critical skin temperature. On the basis of results obtained, it appears that this fail-safe-system concept warrants further consideration, inasmuch as a fail-safe system could possibly replace a redundant active cooling system with no increase in weight and would offer other potential advantages.

  5. 75 FR 57393 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Antilock Brake Systems (United States)


    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). II. Abbreviations ABS Anti-lock Braking Systems CMV... for Safe Operation: Antilock Brake Systems AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs) that trailers with antilock brake systems...

  6. Implementation of Advanced Inventory Management Functionality in Automated Dispensing Cabinets. (United States)

    Findlay, Russell; Webb, Aaron; Lund, Jim


    Automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) are an integral component of distribution models in pharmacy departments across the country. There are significant challenges to optimizing ADC inventory management while minimizing use of labor and capital resources. The role of enhanced inventory control functionality is not fully defined. The aim of this project is to improve ADC inventory management by leveraging dynamic inventory standards and a low inventory alert platform. Two interventional groups and 1 historical control were included in the study. Each intervention group consisted of 6 ADCs that tested enhanced inventory management functionality. Interventions included dynamic inventory standards and a low inventory alert messaging system. Following separate implementation of each platform, dynamic inventory and low inventory alert systems were applied concurrently to all 12 ADCs. Outcome measures included number and duration of daily stockouts, ADC inventory turns, and number of phone calls related to stockouts received by pharmacy staff. Low inventory alerts reduced both the number and duration of stockouts. Dynamic inventory standards reduced the number of daily stockouts without changing the inventory turns and duration of stockouts. No change was observed in number of calls related to stockouts made to pharmacy staff. Low inventory alerts and dynamic inventory standards are feasible mechanisms to help optimize ADC inventory management while minimizing labor and capital resources.

  7. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Intakes, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  8. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Wells, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  9. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Springs, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  10. Door and cabinet recognition using convolutional neural nets and real-time method fusion for handle detection and grasping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurin, Adrian Llopart; Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel


    In this paper we present a new method that robustly identifies doors, cabinets and their respective handles, with special emphasis on extracting useful features from handles to be then manipulated. The novelty of this system relies on the combination of a Convolutional Neural Net (CNN), as a form...

  11. Design of an integrated information management system for safe management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; Hong, Suk Young; An, Kyoung Il [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)


    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Objectives can be summarized as: the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized. Public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information. Ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management). The system can compensate for the imperfections in safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control. Re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal.

  12. Development and design of an integrated information management system for safe management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; Hong, Suk Young; An, Kyoung Il [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Objectives can be summarized as; the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized. Public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information. Ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management). The system can compensate for the imperfections In safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control. Re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal.

  13. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM) (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra


    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  14. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 323 - Instructions for Preparation of System Notices (United States)


    ..., organizational identity, and address or routing symbol. For geographically or organizationally decentralized... immediate access and these responsible for safeguards (such as storage in safes, vaults, locked cabinets or rooms, use of guards, visitors registers, personnel screening, or computer “fail-safe” systems software...

  15. Engineering safe and secure cyber-physical systems the specification PEARL approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gumzej, Roman


    This book introduces the concept of holistic design and development of cyber physical systems to achieve their safe and secure operation. It shows that by following the standards for embedded system’s safety and using appropriate hardware and software components inherently safe system’s architectures can be devised and certified. While the standards already enable testing and certification of inherently safe and sound hardware, this is still not the case with software. The book demonstrates that Specification PEARL(SPEARL) addresses this issue and proposes appropriate solutions from the viewpoints of software engineering as well as concrete program components. By doing so it reduces the complexity of cyber physical systems design in an innovative way. Three ultimate goals are being followed in the course of defining this new PEARL standard, namely: 1. simplicity over complexity, 2. inherent real-time ability, and 3. conformity to safety integrity and security capability levels.

  16. Study on the Reduction of Acetic Acid from Cabinets for Microfilms


    佐野, 千絵; 古田嶋, 智子; 井上, さやか; 津田, 徹英; 呂, 俊民


    Concentration of acetic acid in cabinets, film storage and adjacent room were measured. Two cabinets were filled with acetic acid generated from aged microfilms. Absorbents were placed in one of the cabinets to remove acetic acid. It was confirmed thatconcentration of acetic acid decreased one week after setting the absorbents. Concentration in the other cabinet in which acetic-acid-absorbents were not placed remained high. From this result, it may be said that the absorbents were effective i...

  17. The wood household furniture and kitchen cabinet industries: a contrast in fortune (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner


    In 1977, the value of wood household furniture shipments from domestic manufacturers exceeded kitchen cabinet shipments by 170 percent; conversely, in 2006 shipments of cabinets exceeded shipments of furniture by 78 percent. The most apparent reason for the decrease in domestic furniture shipments is the increase in furniture imports, whereas cabinet demand has...

  18. Evaluation of a cabinet dryer developed for cassava chips | Taiwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating the performance of a prototype sawdust-‐ fueled and fan-‐forced convection cabinet dryer developed for cassava chips. The specific objectives were to develop regression equations to relate drying (or elapsed) time and moisture content for sun drying and drying of fresh peeled cassava chips ...

  19. Advanced microsystems for automotive applications 2013 smart systems for safe and green vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Gereon


    The road vehicle of the future will embrace innovations from three major automotive technology fields: driver assistance systems, vehicle networking and alternative propulsion. Smart systems such as adaptive ICT components and MEMS devices, novel network architectures, integrated sensor systems, intelligent interfaces and functional materials form the basis of these features and permit their successful and synergetic integration. They increasingly appear to be the key enabling technologies for safe and green road mobility. For more than fifteen years the International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) has been successful in detecting novel trends and in discussing the technological implications from early on. The topic of the AMAA 2013 will be “Smart Systems for Safe and Green Vehicles”. This book contains peer-reviewed papers written by leading engineers and researchers which all address the ongoing research and novel developments in the field.

  20. Safe sex (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  1. SUNRAYCE 1993: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems (United States)

    Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring SUNRAYCE 93 to advance tile technology and use of photovoltaics and electric vehicles. Participants will use cars powered by photovoltaic modules and lead-acid storage batteries. This brochure, prepared for students and faculty participating in this race, outlines the health hazards presented by these electrical systems and gives guidance on strategies for their safe usage. At the outset, it should be noted that working with photovoltaic systems and batteries requires electric vehicle drivers and technicians to have 'hands-on' contact with the car on a daily basis. It is important that no one work near a photovoltaic energy system or battery, either in a vehicle or on the bench, unless they familiarize themselves with the components in use and know and observe safe work practices including the safety precautions described in the manuals provided by the various equipment vendors and this document.

  2. Structural Design of Systems with Safe Behavior under Single and Multiple Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Staroswiecki, Marcel


    Handling of multiple simultaneous faults is a complex issue in fault-tolerant control. The design task is particularly made difficult by to the numerous different cases that need be analyzed. Aiming at safe fault-handling, this paper shows how structural analysis can be applied to find...... to structural analysis to disclose which faults could be isolated from a structural point of view using active fault isolation. Results from application on a marine control system illustrate the concepts....

  3. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.


    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  4. Measurement of the transient shielding effectiveness of shielding cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herlemann


    Full Text Available Recently, new definitions of shielding effectiveness (SE for high-frequency and transient electromagnetic fields were introduced by Klinkenbusch (2005. Analytical results were shown for closed as well as for non closed cylindrical shields. In the present work, the shielding performance of different shielding cabinets is investigated by means of numerical simulations and measurements inside a fully anechoic chamber and a GTEM-cell. For the GTEM-cell-measurements, a downscaled model of the shielding cabinet is used. For the simulations, the numerical tools CONCEPT II and COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS were available. The numerical results agree well with the measurements. They can be used to interpret the behaviour of the shielding effectiveness of enclosures as function of frequency. From the measurement of the electric and magnetic fields with and without the enclosure in place, the electric and magnetic shielding effectiveness as well as the transient shielding effectiveness of the enclosure are calculated. The transient SE of four different shielding cabinets is determined and discussed.

  5. Effects of outside air temperature on the preparation of antineoplastic drug solutions in biological safety cabinets. (United States)

    Umemura, Masayuki; Itoh, Akio; Ando, Yuichi; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Wakiya, Yoshifumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka


    In Japan, biological safety cabinets are commonly used by medical staff to prepare antineoplastic agents. At the Division of Chemotherapy for Outpatients, Nagoya University Hospital, a class II B2 biological safety cabinet is used. The temperature inside this biological safety cabinet decreases in winter. In this study, we investigated the effect of low outside air temperature on the biological safety cabinet temperature, time required to admix antineoplastic agents, and accuracy of epirubicin weight measurement. Studies were conducted from 1 January to 31 March 2008 (winter). The outside air temperature near the biological safety cabinet intake nozzle was compared with the biological safety cabinet temperature. The correlation between the outside air temperature and the biological safety cabinet temperature, time for cyclophosphamide and gemcitabine solubilization, and accuracy of epirubicin weight measurement were investigated at low and high biological safety cabinet temperatures. The biological safety cabinet temperature correlated with the outside air temperature of 5-20℃ (p < 0.0001). Compared to cyclophosphamide and gemcitabine solubilization in the biological safety cabinet at 25℃, solubilization at 10℃ was significantly delayed (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Measurement of epirubicin weight by using a syringe lacked accuracy because of epirubicin's high viscosity at low temperatures (p < 0.01). These results suggest that the biological safety cabinet temperature decreases when cool winter air is drawn into the biological safety cabinet, affecting the solubilization of antineoplastic agents. We suggest that a decrease in biological safety cabinet temperature may increase the time required to admix antineoplastic agents, thereby increasing the time for which outpatients must wait for chemotherapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.


    Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aircraft System Operations What is the problem? Many beneficial civilian applications of UAS have been proposed, from goods delivery and infrastructure surveillance, to search and rescue, and agricultural monitoring. Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations, regardless of the type of UAS. A UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace may be needed, perhaps leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today, whether the vehicles are driven by humans or are automated. What system technologies is NASA exploring? Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management for crewed aircraft, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that could develop airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. While incorporating lessons learned from the today's well-established air traffic management system, which was a response that grew out of a mid-air collision over the Grand Canyon in the early days of commercial aviation, the UTM system would enable safe and efficient low-altitude airspace operations by providing services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning and re-routing, separation management, sequencing and spacing, and contingency management. One of the attributes of the UTM system is that it would not require human operators to monitor every vehicle continuously. The system could provide to human managers the data to make strategic decisions related to initiation, continuation, and termination of airspace operations. This approach would ensure that only authenticated UAS could operate

  7. Eye Safe, Visible Wavelength Lidar Systems: Design and Operational Advances, Results and Potential (United States)

    Spinhirne, James; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Berkoff, Timothy; Campbell, James


    In the early nineties the first of the eye safe visible wavelength lidar systems known now as Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) became operational. The important advance of the design was a system that, unlike most existing lidar, operated at eye safe energy densities and could thus operate unattended for full time monitoring. Since that time there have been many dozens of these systems produced and applied for full time profiling of atmospheric cloud and aerosol structure. There is currently an observational network of MPL sites to support global climate research. In thc course of application of these instruments there have been significant improvements in the, design and performance of the systems. In the last half decade particularly there has been significant application and technical development of MPL systems. In this paper we review progress. The current MPL systems in use are all single wavelength systems designed for cloud and aerosol applications. For the cloud and aerosol applications, both lidar depolarization and multi wavelength measurements have significant applications. These can be accomplished with the MPL, approach. The main current challenge for the lidar network activity are in the area of the reliability, repeatability and efficiency of data processing. The network makes use of internet data downloads and automated processing. The heights of all cloud and aerosol layers are needed. The recent emphasis has been in operationally deriving aerosol extinction cross section. Future emphasis will include adding cirrus optical parameters. For operational effectiveness, improvements to simplify routine data signal calibration are being researched. Overall the MPL systems have proven very effective. A large data base of results from globally distributed sites can be easily accessed through the internet. Applications have included atmospheric model development. Validation of current global satellite observations of aerosol and clouds, including now orbital lidar

  8. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace (United States)

    Rios, Joseph


    Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS flight operations. Given this, and understanding that the FAA faces a mandate to modernize the present air traffic management system through computer automation and significantly reduce the number of air traffic controllers by FY 2020, the FAA maintains that a comprehensive, yet fully automated UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace is needed. The concept of UTM is to begin by leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today. Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management (ATM), NASA is working with industry to develop prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that would evolve airspace integration procedures for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude flight operations that autonomously manage UAS operating in an approved low-altitude airspace environment. UTM is a cloud-based system that will autonomously manage all traffic at low altitudes to include UASs being operated beyond visual line of sight of an operator. UTM would thus enable safe and efficient flight operations by providing fully integrated traffic management services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning re-routing, separation management, sequencing spacing, and contingency management. UTM removes the need for human operators to continuously monitor aircraft operating in approved areas. NASA envisions concepts for two types of UTM systems. The first would be a small portable system, which could be moved between geographical areas in support of operations such as precision agriculture and public safety. The second would be a Persistent system, which would support low-altitude operations in an approved area by providing continuous automated

  9. The Importance of State and Context in Safe Interoperable Medical Systems. (United States)

    Weininger, Sandy; Jaffe, Michael B; Robkin, Michael; Rausch, Tracy; Arney, David; Goldman, Julian M


    This paper describes why "device state" and "patient context" information are necessary components of device models for safe interoperability. This paper includes a discussion of the importance of describing the roles of devices with respect to interactions (including human user workflows involving devices, and device to device communication) within a system, particularly those intended for use at the point-of-care, and how this role information is communicated. In addition, it describes the importance of clinical scenarios in creating device models for interoperable devices.

  10. Effect of Safe Failures on the Reliability of Safety Instrumented Systems


    Kvam, Eva


    Safety instrumented systems (SISs) are of prime importance to the process industry to avoid catastrophic consequences or even loss of human life. The dangerous situations that any equipment may face should be analysed in order to quantify the associated risk and to choose a design of the SIS that reduces the risk to a tolerable level. The safe failure fraction (SFF) is a parameter defined in the standards IEC 61508 and IEC 61511, and is used to determine the need for additional channels that ...

  11. Sound Radiation from a Loudspeaker Cabinet using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    Ideally, the walls of a loudspeaker cabinet are rigid. However, in reality, the cabinet is excited by the vibration of the loudspeaker units and by the acoustic pressure inside the cabinet. The radiation of sound caused by such vibration can influence the overall performance of the loudspeaker...... had been reported, based on subjective testing. This study aims to detect the reported problem. The radiation from the cabinet is calculated using the Boundary Element Method. The analysis examines both the frequency domain and the time domain characteristics (in other words, the steady state response...... and the impulse response) of the loudspeaker and the cabinet. A significant influence of the cabinet has been detected, which becomes especially apparent in the time domain, during the sound decay process....

  12. The Need to Apply Medical Device Informatics in Developing Standards for Safe Interoperable Medical Systems. (United States)

    Weininger, Sandy; Jaffe, Michael B; Goldman, Julian M


    Medical device and health information technology systems are increasingly interdependent with users demanding increased interoperability. Related safety standards must be developed taking into account these systems' perspective. In this article, we describe the current development of medical device standards and the need for these standards to address medical device informatics. Medical device information should be gathered from a broad range of clinical scenarios to lay the foundation for safe medical device interoperability. Five clinical examples show how medical device informatics principles, if applied in the development of medical device standards, could help facilitate the development of safe interoperable medical device systems. These examples illustrate the clinical implications of the failure to capture important signals and device attributes. We provide recommendations relating to the coordination between historically separate standards development groups, some of which focus on safety and effectiveness and others focus on health informatics. We identify the need for a shared understanding among stakeholders and describe organizational structures to promote cooperation such that device-to-device interactions and related safety information are considered during standards development.

  13. Imaging Flash Lidar for Safe Landing on Solar System Bodies and Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Vincent E.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Carrion, William A; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Noe, Anna M.


    NASA has been pursuing flash lidar technology for autonomous, safe landing on solar system bodies and for automated rendezvous and docking. During the final stages of the landing from about 1 kilometer to 500 meters above the ground, the flash lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes. The onboard flight computer can then use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe location. As an automated rendezvous and docking sensor, the flash lidar can provide relative range, velocity, and bearing from an approaching spacecraft to another spacecraft or a space station. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and demonstrated a flash lidar sensor system capable of generating 16,000 pixels range images with 7 centimeters precision, at 20 Hertz frame rate, from a maximum slant range of 1800 m from the target area. This paper describes the lidar instrument and presents the results of recent flight tests onboard a rocket-propelled free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus) built by NASA Johnson Space Center. The flights were conducted at a simulated lunar terrain site, consisting of realistic hazard features and designated landing areas, built at NASA Kennedy Space Center specifically for this demonstration test. This paper also provides an overview of the plan for continued advancement of the flash lidar technology aimed at enhancing its performance to meet both landing and automated rendezvous and docking applications.

  14. Clinical evaluation of semiautonomous smart wheelchair architecture (Drive-Safe System) with visually impaired individuals. (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod; Simpson, Richard C; LoPresti, Edmund F; Schmeler, Mark


    Nonambulatory, visually impaired individuals mostly rely on caregivers for their day-to-day mobility needs. The Drive-Safe System (DSS) is a modular, semiautonomous smart wheelchair system aimed at providing independent mobility to people with visual and mobility impairments. In this project, clinical evaluation of the DSS was performed in a controlled laboratory setting with individuals who have visual impairment but no mobility impairment. Their performance using DSS was compared with their performance using a standard cane for navigation assistance. Participants rated their subjective appraisal of the DSS by using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index inventory. DSS significantly reduced the number and severity of collisions compared with using a cane alone and without increasing the time required to complete the task. Users rated DSS favorably; they experienced less physical demand when using the DSS, but did not feel any difference in perceived effort, mental demand, and level of frustration when using the DSS alone or along with a cane in comparison with using a cane alone. These findings suggest that the DSS can be a safe, reliable, and easy-to-learn and operate independent mobility solution for visually impaired wheelchair users.

  15. Study of the impact of a telematics system on safe and fuel-efficient driving in trucks. (United States)


    A telematics system has been successfully demonstrated to be useful for improving motor carrier efficiency. In this : particular field study, the research team demonstrated that telematics can be used to monitor and improve safe : driving behavior as...

  16. A Compact Safe Cold-Start (CS2) System for Scramjets using Dilute Triethylaluminum Fuel Mixtures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the cold-start requirements of scramjet engines by developing a safe, energy-dense, and low volume hydrocarbon fuel conditioning system based...

  17. Supplemental report of the Attorney General to the Safe Growth Cabinet Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurz, R.T.


    In February of 1986, the Department of Energy (DOE) will present to Congress a proposal to construct a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility (MRS) in Tennessee. This report is a listing of the comments received regarding the MRS plan.

  18. Report of the Attorney General to the Safe Growth Cabinet Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, W.J.


    On January 7, 1983, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), 42 U.S.C. {section} 10101 et seq. As part of the Act, the Congress of the United States authorized construction of a permanent deep geologic repository in an effort to solve the nation's problem with disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Congress also directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the need for and feasibility of constructing a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Also in late April of 1985, the State of Tennessee was informed that three potential sites for the MRS had been selected in Tennessee. The locations included the site of the abandoned Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project, a site on DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation, and the site of the abandoned Hartsville nuclear power plant. This report covers the legal aspects of the potential project completed during the period September 1, 1985--November 30, 1985.

  19. Report of the Attorney General to the Safe Growth Cabinet Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, W.J.


    On January 7, 1983, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), 42 U.S.C. {section} 10101 et seq. As part of the Act, the Congress of the United States authorized construction of a permanent deep geologic repository in an effort to solve the nation`s problem with disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Congress also directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the need for and feasibility of constructing a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Also in late April of 1985, the State of Tennessee was informed that three potential sites for the MRS had been selected in Tennessee. The locations included the site of the abandoned Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project, a site on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation, and the site of the abandoned Hartsville nuclear power plant. This report covers the legal aspects of the potential project completed during the period September 1, 1985--November 30, 1985.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez JERETINA


    Full Text Available In the year 2006 we started with the development of computerized system for monitoring the veterinarian treatments to support safe food production in cattle sector. Veterinary database and web application which will be used by PC or handhelds were created. Additionally the code listing of diseases was built up with technical support of Veterinary Faculty. The idea was that all treatments should be registered into database, connected to the database of Animal Identification and Registration Service (SIR. Slaughterhouses which are connected to SIR regularly check the identity of incoming animals. According to our project they are warned if the withdrawal period is not respected or health status is not suitable. The response time of slaughterhouses, dairy or other official authorities will be reduced in these cases. The suggested model upgrades the system of traceability and helps the veterinarians at their professional work, too. All the data will be accessible to breeders and other agricultural services.

  1. Improving energy decisions towards better scientific policy advice for a safe and secure future energy system

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Kaiser, M; Schreurs, Miranda; Weber, Christoph; Ziesemer, Thomas


    Managing a successful transition of the current energy supply system to less carbon emitting options, ensuring a safe and secure supply during the whole process and in the long term, is one of the largest challenges of our time. Various approaches and first implementations show that it is not only technological issue, but also a matter of societal acceptance and acceptability, considering basic ethic values of the society. The main foci of the book are, thus, to develop an understanding about the specific challenges of the scientific policy advice in the area, to explore typical current approaches for the analysis of future energy systems and to develop criteria for the quality assessment and guidelines for the improvement of such studies. The book provides assistance to the interpretation of existing studies and guidelines for setting up and carrying out new analyses as well as for communicating and applying the results. Thereby, it aims to support the involved actors such as the respective scientific expert...

  2. Study on the Performance of a Proposed Fire Safe Elevator System used for Evacuation in Supertall Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Na


    Full Text Available Long evacuation time is a key fire safety concern when a supertall building is on fire. The elevator system can be an effective alternative. The performance of a design of fire safe elevator system combining the refuge place with fire safe elevator is studied. An example building based on this proposed design is considered. Smoke spread to the system is studied by the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS. Different arrangements of smoke extraction with pressurization systems are evaluated by analysing the smoke dispersion and pressure distributions in this fire safe elevator system. Numerical results were compared with that by theoretical equations. The results show that a smoke extraction system with a four-floor approach pressurization system can be an efficient method for smoke control in elevator system for supertall buildings.

  3. Automated Driving System Architecture to Ensure Safe Delegation of Driving Authority (United States)

    YUN, Sunkil; NISHIMURA, Hidekazu


    In this paper, the architecture of an automated driving system (ADS) is proposed to ensure safe delegation of driving authority between the ADS and a driver. Limitations of the ADS functions may activate delegation of driving authority to a driver. However, it leads to severe consequences in emergency situations where a driver may be drowsy or distracted. To address these issues, first, the concept model for the ADS in the situation for delegation of driving authority is described taking the driver's behaviour and state into account. Second, the behaviour / state of a driver and functional flow / state of ADS and the interactions between them are modelled to understand the context where the ADS requests to delegate the driving authority to a driver. Finally, the proposed architecture of the ADS is verified under the simulations based on the emergency braking scenarios. In the verification process using simulation, we have derived the necessary condition for safe delegation of driving authority is that the ADS should assist s driver even after delegating driving authority to a driver who has not enough capability to regain control of the driving task.

  4. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen selenide in vented storage cabinets (United States)

    Fthenakis, V. M.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Sproull, R. D.


    Highly toxic hydrogen selenide and hydrogen sulfide gases are used in the production of copper-indium-diselenide photovoltaic cells by reactive sputtering. In the event of an accident, these gases may be released to the atmosphere and pose hazards to public and occupational safety and health. This paper outlines an approach for designing systems for the control of these releases given the uncertainty in release conditions and lack of data on the chemical systems involved. Accidental releases of these gases in storage cabinets can be controlled by either a venturi and packed-bed scrubber and carbon adsorption bed, or containment scrubbing equipment followed by carbon adsorption. These systems can effectively reduce toxic gas emissions to levels needed to protect public health. The costs of these controls (˜0.012/Wp) are samll in comparison with current (˜6/Wp) and projected (˜I/Wp) production costs.

  5. Scalable and fail-safe deployment of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system Rucio

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario; The ATLAS collaboration; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Beermann, Thomas Alfons; Serfon, Cedric; Garonne, Vincent


    This contribution details the deployment of Rucio, the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system. The main complication is that Rucio interacts with a wide variety of external services, and connects globally distributed data centres under different technological and administrative control, at an unprecedented data volume. It is therefore not possibly to create a duplicate instance of Rucio for testing or integration. Every software upgrade or configuration change is thus potentially disruptive and requires fail-safe software and automatic error recovery. Rucio uses a three-layer scaling and mitigation strategy based on quasi-realtime monitoring. This strategy mainly employs independent stateless services, automatic failover, and service migration. The technologies used for deployment and mitigation include OpenStack, Puppet, Graphite, HAProxy, Apache, and nginx. In this contribution, the reasons and design decisions for the deployment, the actual implementation, and an evaluation of all involved services and c...

  6. Scalable and fail-safe deployment of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system Rucio

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario; The ATLAS collaboration; Beermann, Thomas Alfons; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Garonne, Vincent; Serfon, Cedric


    This contribution details the deployment of Rucio, the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system. The main complication is that Rucio interacts with a wide variety of external services, and connects globally distributed data centres under different technological and administrative control, at an unprecedented data volume. It is therefore not possibly to create a duplicate instance of Rucio for testing or integration. Every software upgrade or configuration change is thus potentially disruptive and requires fail-safe software and automatic error recovery. Rucio uses a three-layer scaling and mitigation strategy based on quasi-realtime monitoring. This strategy mainly employs independent stateless services, automatic failover, and service migration. The technologies used for deployment and mitigation include OpenStack, Puppet, Graphite, HAProxy and Apache. In this contribution, the interplay between these component, their deployment, software mitigation, and the monitoring strategy are discussed.

  7. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry. (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo


    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions.

  8. Self-sustained cabinet based on fuel cell technology and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rafael Augusto de Oliveira; Valentim, Rafael Bertier; Glir, Joao Raphael Zanlorensi; Stall, Alexandre; Sommer, Elise Meister; Sanches, Luciana Schimidilin; Dias, Fernando Gallego; Korndorfer, Heitor Medeiros de Albuquerque; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email:; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahasse, Florida (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Center for Advanced Power Systems


    Along the past few years, there has been intensive research on clean and renewable energy production. Two main reasons have been pointed out: pollution caused by oil based fuels consumption and their availability diminution, which increases their production costs. Fuel Cells have shown to be a clean and renewable energy source, which reveals them as a promising solution, although their technology needs further development. Fuel Cells produce electricity, water and heat consuming hydrogen and oxygen, this provided pure or from a natural air source. Present research has combined different equipment to compose a self-sustaining fuel cells technology based cabinet for energy production, which is a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFC). This system contains: fuel cells stack, electrolyzer, photovoltaic panel, batteries, current inverter and a charge controller. Photovoltaic panel charges the batteries, while charge controller controls the batteries loading. Batteries are connected to an inverter which converts direct current into alternating current. Inverter is connected to an electrolyzer (Hogen GC 600) which splits the water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen molecules. Produced hydrogen supplies the fuel cell stack and the oxygen is released directly to the atmosphere. Fuel cell stacks power production is transformed into mechanical energy by a fan. Electrical power generated by Ballard stack is 5.124 W, with a voltage of 36.6 V and current of 0.14 A. The system proved to have a great efficiency and to be capable to assemble two renewable energy sources (solar and fuel cell technology) in a self-sustainable cabinet. It has also been shown that equipment such as Electrolyzer, Fuel Cell Stack and Photovoltaic panel can be fit together in the order to produce energy. Therefore, research on Fuel Cells Regenerative System reveals great importance for developing a new, clean, renewable and regenerative energy production system. (author)

  9. Patterns of post-cabinet careers: When one door closes another door opens?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dörrenbächer, N.


    This article tackles the question to what extent former cabinet members go through the so-called revolving door by starting a second career in the private sector, and what factors make them likely to do so. After a cabinet position, career advancement in the political and public sector is difficult.

  10. Environmental Protection: Observations on Elevating the Environmental Protection Agency to Cabinet Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephenson, John


    ... major industrial power without a Cabinet-level environmental organization. The additional visibility and prestige that comes with Cabinet status would send the symbolic, but important, message to other federal departments and foreign nations that the United States is fully committed to solving the most serious and complex domestic and global environmental problems.

  11. Real-Time Perceptual Simulation of Moving Sources: Application to the Leslie Cabinet and 3D Sound Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Voinier


    Full Text Available Perception of moving sound sources obeys different brain processes from those mediating the localization of static sound events. In view of these specificities, a preprocessing model was designed, based on the main perceptual cues involved in the auditory perception of moving sound sources, such as the intensity, timbre, reverberation, and frequency shift processes. This model is the first step toward a more general moving sound source system, including a system of spatialization. Two applications of this model are presented: the simulation of a system involving rotating sources, the Leslie Cabinet and a 3D sound immersion installation based on the sonification of cosmic particles, the Cosmophone.

  12. Real-Time Perceptual Simulation of Moving Sources: Application to the Leslie Cabinet and 3D Sound Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronland-Martinet R


    Full Text Available Perception of moving sound sources obeys different brain processes from those mediating the localization of static sound events. In view of these specificities, a preprocessing model was designed, based on the main perceptual cues involved in the auditory perception of moving sound sources, such as the intensity, timbre, reverberation, and frequency shift processes. This model is the first step toward a more general moving sound source system, including a system of spatialization. Two applications of this model are presented: the simulation of a system involving rotating sources, the Leslie Cabinet and a 3D sound immersion installation based on the sonification of cosmic particles, the Cosmophone.

  13. Algorithm & SoC design for automotive vision systems for smart safe driving system

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Hyunchul


    An emerging trend in the automobile industry is its convergence with information technology (IT). Indeed, it has been estimated that almost 90% of new automobile technologies involve IT in some form. Smart driving technologies that improve safety as well as green fuel technologies are quite representative of the convergence between IT and automobiles. The smart driving technologies include three key elements: sensing of driving environments, detection of objects and potential hazards, and the generation of driving control signals including warning signals. Although radar-based systems are primarily used for sensing the driving environments, the camera has gained importance in advanced driver assistance systems(ADAS). This book covers system-on-a-chip (SoC) designs—including both algorithms and hardware—related with image sensing and object detection by using the camera for smart driving systems. It introduces a variety of algorithms such as lens correction, super resolution, image enhancement, and object ...

  14. Fail-Safe System against Potential Tumorigenicity after Transplantation of iPSC Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Itakura


    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are promising in regenerative medicine. However, the risks of teratoma formation and the overgrowth of the transplanted cells continue to be major hurdles that must be overcome. Here, we examined the efficacy of the inducible caspase-9 (iCaspase9 gene as a fail-safe against undesired tumorigenic transformation of iPSC-derived somatic cells. We used a lentiviral vector to transduce iCaspase9 into two iPSC lines and assessed its efficacy in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the iCaspase9 system induced apoptosis in approximately 95% of both iPSCs and iPSC-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (iPSC-NS/PCs. To determine in vivo function, we transplanted iPSC-NS/PCs into the injured spinal cord of NOD/SCID mice. All transplanted cells whose mass effect was hindering motor function recovery were ablated upon transduction of iCaspase9. Our results suggest that the iCaspase9 system may serve as an important countermeasure against post-transplantation adverse events in stem cell transplant therapies.

  15. Ajna: negotiating forms in the making of a musical cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernaeus, Ylva; Vallgårda, Anna


    creators as well as on observations of Ajna performing in different contexts. From the perspective of interaction design, we first analyse the process of its making through the negotiations between physical form, temporal from, and the interactive gestalts. Lastly, we place these negotiations in a larger......Ajna is a musical cabinet made from a rich composition of acoustic materials and designed to perform digitally composed music. In this paper, we aim to unpack the design as well as key aspects of the design process that lead up to this unique artwork. We base our analysis on interviews with its two...... picture of bricolage as a design approach. Based on this we then discuss the qualities of bricolage in interaction design....

  16. Encouraging resilience within SMEs: the Cabinet Office's proposed approach. (United States)

    Sterling, Stuart


    This paper introduces the Cabinet Office's Civil Contingencies Secretariat (CCS). It explains how the National Risk Assessment, produced within the CCS, is created and used. As part of the recent Strategic Defence and Security Review, the Government made a commitment to improve the business continuity of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).This paper describes the CCS's approach to achieving this, and explains why the resilience of SMEs is important to both local communities, at a time of disruption or crisis, and the essential services sectors, such as energy, food and transport. It provides an outline of a strategic approach that will seek to simplify business continuity by making it accessible, achievable and affordable, and, in partnership with the organisations that SMEs turn to for advice, promotes the benefits of business continuity and encourages its use.

  17. Detailed CFD Modelling of Open Refrigerated Display Cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dinis Gaspar


    Full Text Available A comprehensive and detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFDs modelling of air flow and heat transfer in an open refrigerated display cabinet (ORDC is performed in this study. The physical-mathematical model considers the flow through the internal ducts, across fans and evaporator, and includes the thermal response of food products. The air humidity effect and thermal radiation heat transfer between surfaces are taken into account. Experimental tests were performed to characterize the phenomena near physical extremities and to validate the numerical predictions of air temperature, relative humidity, and velocity. Numerical and experimental results comparison reveals the predictive capabilities of the computational model for the optimized conception and development of this type of equipments. Numerical predictions are used to propose geometrical and functional parametric studies that improve thermal performance of the ORDC and consequently food safety.

  18. Assessing the management system to demonstrate the safe of transport of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Natanael C.; Mattar, Patricia M.; Pontes, Andre T., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)


    Radioactive materials are used for medical purposes, to avoid greenhouse gas effect in energy production plants, food and other products sterilization, research and sophisticated measurement technologies. Transport of radioactive material involves a range of actors each one having specific responsibilities for safety. Through Management System, consignors and carriers fulfil objective evidences that safety requirements are met in practice, while compliance assurance programs allow regulatory bodies and/or competent authorities to demonstrate to society that public, workers and environment are protected. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), safety has to be achieved and maintained through an effective management system. This system should integrate all elements of management so that requirements for safety are established and applied consistently with other requirements, including those related to human performance, quality and security, and that safety is not compromised by other requirements or demands. Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), the Brazilian Regulatory Body for the safe transport of radioactive materials, adopt international standards to establish safety requirements deemed relevant for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property, and to provide for the application of these standards. Seeking for continuous improvement, the adherence of the practices adopted by CNEN's Transport Safety Unit (TSU) against the recommendations from the IAEA was assessed. This assessment led to the elaboration of proposals for improvement as well as the identification of good practices. The methodology used to perform this assessment was the SARIS methodology, developed by the IAEA. This paper will describe the most relevant findings of this study. (author)

  19. Safe society safe mobility

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtmann, B


    Full Text Available are visible obstacles to achieving sustainable growth potential in tourism, particularly in the approach to hosting the 2010 FIFA World Cup (Tourism Business Council of South Africa, 2007). 1.3 The impact of corruption on road and transport safety... Corruption further increases risk of unsafety on both our roads and transport systems. On a grand scale, money intended for maintenance of roads or service provision and the upgrading or provision of facilities is diverted for private gain. On an immediate...

  20. Static analysis of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations based on finite element method (United States)

    Yin, Qiang; Chen, Tian-jin; Li, Wei-yang; Xiong, Ze-cheng; Ma, Rui


    In order to obtain the deformation map and equivalent stress distribution of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations, the quality distribution of structure and electrical are described, the tensile bond strengths of the rings are checked, and the finite element model of cabinet is set up by ANSYS. The transport conditions of the hoisting state and fork loading state are analyzed. The deformation map and equivalent stress distribution are obtained. The attentive problems are put forward. It is a reference for analysis method and the obtained results for the transport of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations.

  1. Kentucky Transportation Cabinet : annual assessment of customer needs and satisfaction : mail survey report (United States)


    The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, both through its own quality initiative and a statewide 'Empower Kentucky' campaign, has a commitment to achieve new levels of quality in the development, construction and maintenance of highways. In order to gage...

  2. The Railway Transport Cabinet of the Kyiv Commercial Institute: educational activities and library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasievа Z.


    Full Text Available In the article the history of foundation and activities of the Railway Transport Cabinet of the Kyiv Commercial Institute are recreated and an attempt is made to trace the way of its library book fonds which "has been lost" during the institute numerous transformations.The Railway Transport Cabinet was established as a supportive educational subdivision of the Merchandising Museum of the Kyiv Commercial Institute. Its purpose was to gather materials on railway science from the improved models of railway transport to the rich collection of specialized literature in foreign languages. In this regard a library was organized in a cabinet; it consisted of professional books and documents covering the railway science, railroads organization and operation, various manuals, diagrams etc. The novelty of the publication lies in the disclosure of the history of the Kyiv Commercial Institute Railway Transport Cabinet library, which has not yet been an object of a special book science research.

  3. Development of Safe Taiwan Information System (SATIS for Typhoon Early Warning in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ray Su


    Full Text Available Due to the particular geographical location and geological condition, Taiwan is constantly attacked by typhoons, flood, landslides, debris flows, and earthquakes. Those natural hazards had caused huge loss of lives and properties. To reduce the damages and losses caused by the natural hazards, an integrated and complete decision support system for decision makers is necessary. In this study, Safe Taiwan information system (SATIS, which includes two subsystems, response operation subsystem for staff members and decision support subsystem for commanders, is developed for preparedness and response of typhoon hazards. It is based on the Web- GIS framework that the disaster information can be distributed via internet technology. When typhoon is approaching, response operation subsystem is used by National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR staffs to integrate real-time monitoring information, hazard models and graphical user interfaces to analyze and manage the disaster information such as the current position and possible path of typhoon, the spatial distribution of rainfalls, and potential areas of flooding, landslides and debris flows. The input data of this subsystem includes the basic maps, the real-time information of typhoon and rainfall issued by the Central Weather Bureau, the real-time water information from the Water Resources Agency, and the hazard maps indicating areas of potential landslide, debris flow and flooding made by NCDR herself to estimate endangered areas under the current typhoon. There are four main modules integrated into the subsystem including the rainfall monitoring and forecasting, the estimation of potential inundation areas, the estimation of potential landslide and debris flows, and the management of disaster information. The results of hazard risk analysis which include potential rainfall distribution, inundation and landslide risk areas, early warning messages, and total suggestion over the

  4. Taking Stock: Marie Nimier’s Textual Cabinet of Curiosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Angelo


    Full Text Available In many life-writing projects, the seemingly innocuous description of heteroclite objects and how those objects are stored and recalled in fact plays an important role in demonstrating their importance to the process of memory work. At once the lingering traces of one’s past and also an aggregation of stories evoked by an examination of them, these curios focus attention on the relationship between the individual and the storage of memories. This article will focus on certain collectibles, collections and collectors that appear throughout the fictional, autobiographical and autofictional world that Marie Nimier has scripted to date. This textual cabinet of curiosities and the act of collecting more generally serve as a trope to connect memory with materiality, despite the numerous narrative voices that Nimier assumes—voices that move from a first-person “Marie Nimier” to an unnamed, although clearly identifiable first-person and even float between genders. Despite this nominal and narrational fluidity, objects function to guarantee recognition, both for the reader, and, especially, for the author herself. What is at stake in this intertextual assemblage of objects is not only the roles that they play in allowing the narrator to revisit past traumas and loss, but also in connecting the author’s presence to other, more fictionalized voices that above all signify the primacy of life-writing in her corpus.

  5. Safe and Private Data Sharing with Turtle: Friends Team-Up and Beat the System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, B.C.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.


    In this paper we describe Turtle, a peer-to-peer architecture for safe sharing of sensitive data. The truly revolutionary aspect of Turtle rests in its novel way of dealing with trust issues: while existing peer-to-peer architectures with similar aims attempt to build trust relationships on top of

  6. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.; Cavolowsky, John


    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  7. New frontiers for health information systems using Epi Info in developing countries: structured application framework for Epi Info (SAFE). (United States)

    Ma, J; Otten, M; Kamadjeu, R; Mir, R; Rosencrans, L; McLaughlin, S; Yoon, S


    For more than two decades, Epi Info software has been used to meet the data management, analysis, and mapping needs of public health professionals in more than 181 countries and 13 languages. Until now, most Epi Info systems have been relatively simple, mainly because of a lack of detailed and structured guidance for developing complex systems. We created the structured application framework for Epi Info (SAFE), which is a set of guidelines that allows developers to create both simple and complex information systems using accepted good programming practices. This has resulted in application code blocks that are re-useable and easy to maintain, modify, and enhance. The flexibility of SAFE allows various aggregate and case-based application modules to be rapidly created, combined, and updated to create health information systems or sub-systems enabling continuous, incremental enhancement as national and local capacity increases. SAFE and Epi Info are both cost-free and have low system requirements--characteristics that render this framework and software beneficial for developing countries.

  8. SAFE Newsletter



    The Center of Excellence SAFE – “Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe” – is a cooperation of the Center for Financial Studies and Goethe University Frankfurt. It is funded by the LOEWE initiative of the State of Hessen (Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz). SAFE brings together more than 40 professors and just as many junior researchers who are all dedicated to conducting research in support of a sustainable financial architecture. The Center has...

  9. Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT and E) Considerations for Safe and Reliable Human Rated Spacecraft Systems (United States)

    Miller, James; Leggett, Jay; Kramer-White, Julie


    A team directed by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) collected methodologies for how best to develop safe and reliable human rated systems and how to identify the drivers that provide the basis for assessing safety and reliability. The team also identified techniques, methodologies, and best practices to assure that NASA can develop safe and reliable human rated systems. The results are drawn from a wide variety of resources, from experts involved with the space program since its inception to the best-practices espoused in contemporary engineering doctrine. This report focuses on safety and reliability considerations and does not duplicate or update any existing references. Neither does it intend to replace existing standards and policy.

  10. Voter comparator switch provides fail safe data communications system - A concept (United States)

    Koczela, L. J.; Wilgus, D. S.


    System indicates status of computers and controls operational modes. Two matrices are used - one relating to permissible system states, the other relating to requested system states. Concept is useful to designers of digital data transmission systems and time shared computer systems.

  11. Single Party Cabinets and Presidential Democracies: insights from the Argentinean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo CAMERLO


    Full Text Available The study of presidential cabinets has mainly focused on coalitional formations, distinguishing individual ministers in terms of their party affiliation particularly at cabinet instauration and termination. This article moves the focus to single-party cabinets to study minister appointment in situations where the legislative support is less relevant. A model of analysis that observes extra-partisan affiliations, individual technical skills and personal liaison with the president is proposed and exploratory applied to the Argentinean case. The results suggest that well positioned presidents tend to apply closer strategies of portfolio distribution, with levels of institutionalization that depends on the president’s party organization and the president’s style of leadership.

  12. Safe sex. (United States)

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K


    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths.

  13. Human-rating Automated and Robotic Systems - (How HAL Can Work Safely with Astronauts) (United States)

    Baroff, Lynn; Dischinger, Charlie; Fitts, David


    Long duration human space missions, as planned in the Vision for Space Exploration, will not be possible without applying unprecedented levels of automation to support the human endeavors. The automated and robotic systems must carry the load of routine housekeeping for the new generation of explorers, as well as assist their exploration science and engineering work with new precision. Fortunately, the state of automated and robotic systems is sophisticated and sturdy enough to do this work - but the systems themselves have never been human-rated as all other NASA physical systems used in human space flight have. Our intent in this paper is to provide perspective on requirements and architecture for the interfaces and interactions between human beings and the astonishing array of automated systems; and the approach we believe necessary to create human-rated systems and implement them in the space program. We will explain our proposed standard structure for automation and robotic systems, and the process by which we will develop and implement that standard as an addition to NASA s Human Rating requirements. Our work here is based on real experience with both human system and robotic system designs; for surface operations as well as for in-flight monitoring and control; and on the necessities we have discovered for human-systems integration in NASA's Constellation program. We hope this will be an invitation to dialog and to consideration of a new issue facing new generations of explorers and their outfitters.

  14. What Food is to be Kept Safe and for Whom? Food-Safety Governance in an Unsafe Food System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha McMahon


    Full Text Available This paper argues that discussion of new food-safety governance should be framed by the realization that the dominant food system within which food-safety governance is designed to makes food safe is itself a structural and systemic sources of food un-safety, poor health and a future of food insecurity for many. For some, an appropriate policy response lies in addressing the connections between the food system and diseases such as heart disease, obesity and diabetes. For others it means subsuming food-safety governance within food security governance. For yet others, safe food implies food sovereignty governance and the primacy of a climate change resilient food system. Conventional approaches to food-safety governance are typically framed within a liability model of responsibility that has limited usefulness for addressing institutional, structural or systemic sources of harm such as those critics increasingly attribute to the dominant food system and which are not amenable to remedy by food-safety governance as it is widely understood. One cannot identify critical hazard points where risk is to be managed. These are food-system safety challenges. Because food-safety governance is so deeply political there needs to be greater attention to issues of governance rather than the more usual focus on the technologies of food-safety. Feminist political theorists have much to contribute to re-thinking food-safety governance in the context of diversity and the complexities of power. One could usefully start with the simple questions, “what food is to be kept-safe, for whom and who is the subject of food-safety governance in a post-Westphalian political economic order?” These questions can help unpack both the narrow parochialism and the misleading universalism of food-safety talk. This paper answers that neither the citizens of a particular state (or network of states nor the falsely universalizing identity of ‘the consumer’ are adequate answers

  15. From vanitas to veneration: the embellishments in the anatomical cabinet of Frederik Ruysch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Roemer, G.M.


    The elaborate way in which the Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731) decorated and presented his anatomical cabinet has raised questions as to whether we should view him as a scientist or rather as an artist. The concept of the collection as ‘baroque monument’ or as merely ‘bizarre’ fails to

  16. The Black Box of the Nice Treaty Negotiations: The influence of the Dutch cabinet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Luitwieler (Sander)


    textabstractThis study applies a relational influence approach to analyse the European Union (EU) Nice Treaty negotiation process (2000) and explain its outcome, focusing on the influence of the Dutch cabinet in the context of the other participating actors (14 member states, the European

  17. Children: Oklahoma's Investment in Tomorrow '96. Preliminary Report: Agency Budget by Cabinet. (United States)

    Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, Oklahoma City.

    This report presents preliminary Oklahoma state agency budget summaries for all programs serving children in the Departments of Administration, Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Human Resources, Safety and Security, Tourism and Recreation, and Veterans Affairs. The budget figures are organized by cabinet and…

  18. Towards the Model-Driven Engineering of Secure yet Safe Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Apvrille


    Full Text Available We introduce SysML-Sec, a SysML-based Model-Driven Engineering environment aimed at fostering the collaboration between system designers and security experts at all methodological stages of the development of an embedded system. A central issue in the design of an embedded system is the definition of the hardware/software partitioning of the architecture of the system, which should take place as early as possible. SysML-Sec aims to extend the relevance of this analysis through the integration of security requirements and threats. In particular, we propose an agile methodology whose aim is to assess early on the impact of the security requirements and of the security mechanisms designed to satisfy them over the safety of the system. Security concerns are captured in a component-centric manner through existing SysML diagrams with only minimal extensions. After the requirements captured are derived into security and cryptographic mechanisms, security properties can be formally verified over this design. To perform the latter, model transformation techniques are implemented in the SysML-Sec toolchain in order to derive a ProVerif specification from the SysML models. An automotive firmware flashing procedure serves as a guiding example throughout our presentation.

  19. A Comparison of the Effects of Feedback and Prompts on Safe Sitting Posture: Utilizing an Automated Observation and Feedback System (United States)

    Moon, Kwangsu; Oah, Shezeen


    This study used an ABCB within-subjects design to examine the relative effects of feedback and prompts on safe sitting posture. Participants were three office workers. The dependent variables were the percentages of time the participants spent in four safe individual body positions and in the safe overall sitting posture. After baseline (A),…

  20. The Model-Driven openETCS Paradigm for Secure, Safe and Certifiable Train Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peleska, Jan; Feuser, Johannes; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth


    A novel approach to managing development, verification, and validation artifacts for the European Train Control System as open, publicly available items is analyzed and discussed with respect to its implications on system safety, security, and certifiability. After introducing this so-called model......-driven openETCS approach, a threat analysis is performed, identifying both safety and security hazards that may be common to all model-based development paradigms for safety-critical railway control systems, or specific to the openETCS approach. In the subsequent sections state-of-the-art methods suitable...... to counter these threats are reviewed, and novel promising research results are described. These research results comprise domain-specific modeling, model-based code generation in combination with automated object code verification and explicit utilization of virtual machines to ensure containment...

  1. Engineering a safe landing: engaging medical practitioners in a systems approach to patient safety. (United States)

    Brand, C; Ibrahim, J; Bain, C; Jones, C; King, B


    Several event studies, including the Australian Safety and Quality in Healthcare Study, emphasize gaps in safety for hospitalized patients. It is now recognized that system-based factors contribute significantly to risk of adverse events and this has led to a shift in focus of patient safety from the autonomous responsibility of medical clinicians to a systems-based approach. The aim of this study was to determine medical practitioner awareness of, level of engagement in and barriers to engagement in a systems approach to patient safety and quality. Information from acute and subacute care medical practitioners at a metropolitan public hospital was collected within an anonymous structured electronic survey, a discussion group and key informant interviews. There were 73 survey respondents (response rate 7.6%). Fifty-one (69.9%) were unaware of the Institute of Medicine report 'To Err is human'. Thirty-six (49.3%) were unaware of the Australian Quality in Healthcare Study and 12 (16.4%) had read the article. There was a positive relation identified between awareness and seniority. There was a low level of participation in systems-focused quality and safety activities and limited understanding of the role of systems in medical error causation. There was uncertainty about the changing role of medical practitioners in patient safety and perceived lack of skills to effectively engage with hospital management about safety and quality issues. Several factors are limiting engagement of medical practitioners in a systems approach to patient safety. Increased educational support is needed and may be best focused within clinical effectiveness activities pertinent to practitioner interest and expertise.

  2. Targeting the oxidative stress response system of fungi with safe, redox-potent chemosensitizing agents (United States)

    One mode of action of the antimycotics amphotericin B (AMB) or itraconazole (ITZ) against filamentous fungi involves cellular oxidative stress response. Aspergillus fumigatus sakA', a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene deletion mutant in the antioxidation system, was more sensitive to AMB ...

  3. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace (United States)

    Homola, Jeffrey; Owens, Brandon


    This is a presentation for a Cisco Internet of Things (IoT) Systems Engineering Virtual Training (SEVT) event. The presentation provides an overview of the UTM concept, architecture, flight test events, and lessons learned. Networking hardware used in support of flight tests is also described.

  4. "Obama system:" a new easy, safe, and economical technique for laparoscopic single-port surgery. (United States)

    Soma, T; Sugano, M; Ito, T; Kiguchi, G; Tanaka, T; Hattori, Y


    Various approaches to laparoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) have been developed to reduce pain and other complications, promote recovery, and improve cosmetic outcomes, particularly relative to conventional open or laparoscopic surgery. Three-port procedures for LESS have been reported to be superior to single-port access, but they usually require expensive, technically sophisticated instruments. To avoid these problems, we have developed a modified procedure for performing LESS with a single port, referred to as the "Obama system." From January 2009 through December 2010, we performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in 61 patients. Conventional LC with three ports was performed in 39 patients, LESS with a SILS Port was performed in 4 patients, and modified LESS was performed using the Obama system in 18 patients. The operative results were compared. LC was successfully completed in all 61 patients, with no postoperative complications. The mean operating time was 102.3 min (C-reactive protein [CRP] ≤ 2) and 160.1 min (CRP > 2) in the 39 patients who underwent conventional LC, 108.3 min (CRP ≤ 2) in the 4 patients who underwent LESS with a SILS Port, and 116.5 min (CRP ≤ 2) and 186.5 min (CRP > 2) in the 18 patients who underwent LESS using the Obama system. No morbidity or mortality was associated with any technique. The Obama system is easier to use and more efficient and reliable than any other technique currently available for LESS. This system is expected to greatly contribute to the further development and wider acceptance of LESS. © 2011 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. The Plus Oultra writing cabinet of Charles V: Expression of the sacred imperialism of the Austrias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Jordano


    Full Text Available The “Plus Oultra” writing cabinet of Charles V on display at the Victoria and Albert Museum of London is an 'intarsia' piece made by Italian craftsmen ca. 1532. This article examines the iconographic programme of the cabinet as an expression of the universal Christian empire of Charles V and the sacred imperialism of the Spanish Austrias. This programme is revealed in three scenes depicting the story of Gideon that decorate the outside of the cabinet fall front: the revelation of the angel to Gideon and the woollen fleece in allusion to the Order of the Golden Fleece of which Charles V was the grand master, the selection of the three hundred men, and the battle against the Midianites. These scenes are complemented by medallion heads of Roman emperors to portray Charles V as legitimate successor to the Ancient Roman Empire. The inside of the fall front is emblazoned with the emblems of Charles V: the Pillars of Hercules, the ‘Plus Ultra’ motto, Saint Andrew’s crosses and laurel motifs, while the allegorical figures of Temperance and Justice adorning the sides of the cabinet symbolise the virtues of a good governor. The fall front opens to reveal a set of drawers and doors decorated with one of the earliest examples of the 'vanitas': objects alluding to the fleeting nature of life and the pursuit of wisdom. From a stylistic standpoint, the scenes and decorative motifs of the cabinet suggest that it may have been made in the workshop of the Dominican friar Damiano da Bergamo which Charles V visited in 1529.

  6. Safe and Ecological Refluxing with a Closed-Loop Air Cooling System. (United States)

    Böhmdorfer, Stefan; Eilenberger, Gottfried; Zweckmair, Thomas; Sumerskii, Ivan; Potthast, Antje; Rosenau, Thomas


    Off-the-shelf computer cooling hardware was used to construct a closed-loop air cooling system (CLACS) that is distinguished by scalability, low energy, and no tap water consumption. Constructed to be generally used with laboratory condensers, the system was tested with several common low and high boiling solvents and showed a condensation performance equivalent to conventional tap water cooling. Reaction yields were therefore unaffected. Also, long-lasting Soxhlet extractions showed no performance loss relative to conventional cooling. Optionally, the device can be assembled from low-voltage components and be powered from a battery, rendering it independent of the main power. Both investment and running costs are minimal, allowing a lab-wide adoption and elimination of the two major drawbacks of commonly employed tap water cooling: waste of drinking water and the risk of flooding. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Methods of the estimation of reliability of the software of failure-safe systems avioniks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. А. Зеленков


    Full Text Available The paper deals with providing software reliability control for up to date on-board fault-tolerable computer-assisted management systems, created on the base of integral modular aircraft electronics technology, during operational period. The authors describe the method of software failures probability evaluation and serial calculating algorithm, based determining the margins of software failures number, according to operational control data

  8. Towards optimization-safe systems: analyzing the impact of undefined behavior


    Wang, Xi; Zeldovich, Nickolai; Kaashoek, M. Frans; Solar-Lezama, Armando


    This paper studies an emerging class of software bugs called optimization-unstable code: code that is unexpectedly discarded by compiler optimizations due to undefined behavior in the program. Unstable code is present in many systems, including the Linux kernel and the Postgres database. The consequences of unstable code range from incorrect functionality to missing security checks. To reason about unstable code, this paper proposes a novel model, which views unstable code in terms of opt...

  9. Cross-Linked and Biodegradable Polymeric System as a Safe Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent. (United States)

    Luo, Qiang; Xiao, Xueyang; Dai, Xinghang; Duan, Zhenyu; Pan, Dayi; Zhu, Hongyan; Li, Xue; Sun, Ling; Luo, Kui; Gong, Qiyong


    Owing to the low efficacy of clinically used small-molecule gadolinium (Gd)-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents, we designed and explored biodegradable macromolecular conjugates as MRI contrast agents. The linear polymeric structure and core-cross-linked formulation possessed different characteristics and features, so we prepared and comparatively studied the two kinds of Gd-based N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) polymeric systems (the core-cross-linked pHPMA-DOTA-Gd and the linear one) using the clinical agent diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid-Gd(III) (DTPA-Gd) as a control. This study was aimed to find the optimal polymeric formulation as a biocompatible and efficient MRI contrast agent. The high molecular weight (MW, 181 kDa) and core-cross-linked copolymer was obtained via the cross-linked block linear copolymer and could be degraded to low-MW segments (29 kDa) in the presence of glutathione (GSH) and cleaned from the body. Both core-cross-linked and linear pHPMA-DOTA-Gd copolymers displayed 2-3-fold increased relaxivity (r1 value) than that of DTPA-Gd. Animal studies demonstrated that two kinds of macromolecular systems led to much longer blood circulation time, higher tumor accumulation, and much higher signal intensity compared with the linear and clinical ones. Finally, in vivo and in vitro toxicity studies indicated that the two macromolecular agents had great biocompatibility. Therefore, we performed preliminary but important studies on the Gd-based HPMA polymeric systems as biocompatible and efficient MRI contrast agents and found that the biodegradable core-cross-linked pHPMA-DOTA-Gd copolymer might have greater benefits for the foreground.

  10. Project 5S: A Safe Stepping Stone into the Solar System (United States)

    Brophy, John; Culick, Fred; Dimotakis, Paul; Friedman, Louis


    The human exploration program, at least in NASA, has been directed to move beyond the Moon and travel on a flexible path into the solar system. Reaching a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) is a major human space flight goal but such missions have tight times and life-support requirements that require huge steps from current capabilities. An objective between the Moon and a NEA is needed. Example interim objectives are the Lagrangian points in either the Sun-Earth or Earth-Moon (EM) system. The nearest of these points beyond the Moon is E-M L2. The Lagrangian points are empty (as far as we know). As objectives for human flight,it has been argued that they suffer from a lack of public interest and of meaningful objectives for astronaut operations. To provide a physical target, a robotic spacecraft could retrieve a small NEA and bring it to a Lagrangian or other nearer-Earth point to be accessed and utilized for human-mission objectives. This paper reports on the results of a recently completed study of an asteroid retrieval mission sponsored by the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at the California Institute of Technology. The study included an evaluation of potential targets, mission objectives, mission and system design, and potential capture mechanisms. The study concluded that, while challenging, there are no fundamental show stoppers and that such a mission would be possible with technology expected to be available in this decade. The final destination selected (for safety and mission operations) was high lunar orbit. Two options for target selection are considered: (i) retrieving a small (7 meter) NEA with a mass of order 500,000 kg, and (ii) taking a similar size boulder of a large known carbonaceous NEA. Several areas of technology and program requirements were identified, but the most important conclusion was that this approach enables meeting a goal of humans going to a NEA by the mid-2020s. The advantages and benefits for human exploration are considerable

  11. Targeting the oxidative stress response system of fungi with safe, redox-potent chemosensitizing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong H. eKim


    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidation system is a target in the antifungal action of amphotericin B (AMB and itraconazole (ITZ, in filamentous fungi. The sakAΔ mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK gene deletion mutant in the antioxidation system, was found to be more sensitive to AMB or ITZ than other A. fumigatus strains, a wild type and a mpkCΔ mutant (MAPK gene deletion mutant in polyalcohol sugar utilization system. The sakAΔ mutant showed no growth at 0.5 μg mL-1 of ITZ or reduced growth at 1.0 to 2.0 μg mL-1 of AMB, while the other strains exhibited robust growth. Complete fungal kill (≥ 99.9% by ITZ or AMB was achieved by much lower dosages for the sakAΔ mutant than for the other strains. SakA and MpkC appear to have overlapping roles in marshalling the oxidative stress response under treatment by an organic peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH, or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The SakA signalling pathway was found to be responsible for fungal tolerance to AMB or ITZ toxicity. It appears msnA, an Aspergillus ortholog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 (encoding a stress-responsive C2H2-type zinc-finger regulator and sakA and/or mpkC (upstream MAPKs are in the same stress response network under t-BuOOH-, H2O2- or AMB-triggered toxicity. Of note is that ITZ-sensitive yeast pathogens (Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans were also sensitive to t-BuOOH, showing a connection between ITZ toxicity and oxidative stress response. This was shown by enhanced antifungal activity of AMB or ITZ when co-applied with redox-potent natural compounds, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, thymol or salicylaldehyde, as chemosensitizing agents. Hence, redox compounds, which target the antioxidation system in fungi, possess a potent chemosensitizing capacity to enhance efficacy of conventional drugs inducing oxidative stress. Such chemosensitization can reduce costs and alleviate negative side effects associated with current

  12. Smart system for safe and optimal soil investigation in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alqadad


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the challenges and difficulties experienced during soil investigation in urban areas using drilling machines and soil sampling. The focus is on the consequences of a lack of data on the subsoil profile and presence of utilities, which could cause major accidents with severe economic and social losses, resulting in constriction activities being delayed and urban services being disrupted. This paper describes certain accidents related to soil investigation in Qatar and their consequences, as well as the lessons learned from these accidents. In order to meet the challenges of soil investigation in urban areas, this paper presents a solution based on smart technology, which includes: (i a geotechnical information system with update data concerning the soil profile, soil surface, utilities locations, and water table level; (ii tools for data management, analysis, and visualization; and (iii a user interface that allows authorities, companies, and citizens to access authorized data via a graphic interface, update data, and send messages and alerts in the case of any incident occurring. Finally, the paper presents a promising perspective for the development of smart drilling devices, which record data related to the functioning of a drilling machine and transmit data to the smart soil investigation system.

  13. Controlled release for crop and wood protection: Recent progress toward sustainable and safe nanostructured biocidal systems. (United States)

    Mattos, Bruno D; Tardy, Blaise L; Magalhães, Washington L E; Rojas, Orlando J


    We review biocide delivery systems (BDS), which are designed to deter or control harmful organisms that damage agricultural crops, forests and forest products. This is a timely topic, given the growing socio-economical concerns that have motivated major developments in sustainable BDS. Associated designs aim at improving or replacing traditional systems, which often consist of biocides with extreme behavior as far as their solubility in water. This includes those that compromise or pollute soil and water (highly soluble or volatile biocides) or those that present low bioavailability (poorly soluble biocides). Major breakthroughs are sought to mitigate or eliminate consequential environmental and health impacts in agriculture and silviculture. Here, we consider the most important BDS vehicles or carriers, their synthesis, the environmental impact of their constituents and interactions with the active components together with the factors that affect their rates of release such as environmental factors and interaction of BDS with the crops or forest products. We put in perspective the state-of-the-art nanostructured carriers for controlled release, which need to address many of the challenges that exist in the application of BDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human papillomavirus (HPV: systemic treatment with Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin safely and effectively clears virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polansky H


    Full Text Available Hanan Polansky, Edan Itzkovitz, Adrian Javaherian The Center for the Biology of Chronic Disease, Valley Cottage, NY, USA Purpose: This paper reports the results of a clinical study that tested the effect of systemic treatment with the botanical product Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin on the clearance rate (also called time to clearance of the human papillomavirus (HPV. The study compared the clearance rate in treated and untreated individuals suffering from a symptomatic HPV infection. The data on the untreated individuals were obtained by reverse engineering of the Kaplan–Meier figures in five published papers. Materials and methods: The study included 59 treated participants. All participants were suffering from a symptomatic HPV infection prior to the commencement of treatment. The treatment was one to four capsules of Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin per day. The duration of treatment was 2–12 months. The study included five groups of external controls with diverse characteristics. Results: The mean time to clearance in Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin-treated individuals was 5.1 months or 151.5 days (95% CI: 4.2–5.9 months or 95% CI: 125.7–177.3 days, respectively. The median time to clearance was 3.5 months. The mean time to clearance in the five untreated groups ranged from 6.9 to 20.0 months (P<0.0001 for the difference between treatment group and each untreated group. Also, 100% of the participants in the treatment group were HPV free at the end of 12 months vs 53%, 52%, 65%, 20%, and 77% in the untreated control groups. The treated participants reported no adverse experiences. Conclusion: This clinical study has two major contributions. First, it showed that systemic treatment with the natural Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin decreased the time to HPV clearance, increased the percentage of HPV-free individuals, and caused no adverse experiences in individuals suffering from a symptomatic HPV infection. Since there are no other systemic treatments for symptomatic

  15. Development of a safe ground to space laser propagation system for the optical communications telescope laboratory (United States)

    Wu, Janet P.


    Furthering pursuits in high bandwidth communications to future NASA deep space and neat-Earth probes, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is building the Optical communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) atop Table Mountain in Southern California. This R&D optical antenna will be used to develop optical communication strategies for future optical ground stations. Initial experiments to be conducted include propagating high-powered, Q-switched laser beams to retro-reflecting satellites. Yet laser beam propagation from the ground to space is under the cognizance of various government agencies, namely: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (ISHA) that is responsible for protecting workforce personnel; the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) responsible for protecting pilots and aircraft; and the Laser Clearinghouse of Space Command responsible for protecting space assets. To ensure that laser beam propagation from the OCTL and future autonomously operated ground stations comply with the guidelines of these organizations, JPL is developing a multi-tiered safety system that will meet the coordination, monitoring, and reporting functions required by the agencies. At Tier 0, laser operators will meet OSHA safety standards for protection and access to the high power lasers area will be restricted and interlocked. Tier 1, the area defined from the telescope dome out to a range of 3.4-km, will utilize long wave infrared camera sensors to alert operators of at risk aircraft in the FAA controlled airspace. Tier 2, defined to extend from 3.4-km out to the aircraft service ceiling in FAA airspace, will detect at risk aircraft by radar. Lastly, beam propagation into space, defined as Tier 3, will require coordination with the Laser Clearinghouse. A detailed description of the four tiers is presented along with the design of the integrated monitoring and beam transmission control system.

  16. Most common road safety engineering deficiencies in South Eastern Europe as a part of safe system approach (United States)

    Jovanov, D.; Vollpracht, H. J.; Beles, H.; Popa, V.; Tolea, B. A.


    Most common road safety engineering deficiencies identified by the authors in South Eastern Europe, including Romania, have been collected together and presented in this paper as a part of road safety unbreakably connected to the safe system approach (driver-vehicle-road). In different South Eastern Europe countries Road Safety Audit (RSA), Road Safety Inspection (RSI), as well as Black Spot Management (BSM) was introduced and practical implementation experience enabled the authors to analyze the road safety problems. Typical road safety engineering deficiencies have been presented in 8 different subsections, based on PIARC (World Road Association) RSA approach. This paper presents collected common road safety problems with relevant illustrations (real pictures) with associated accident risks.

  17. Strategy for monitoring and ensuring safe operation of Russian gas transportation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudin Sergey


    Full Text Available The authors examined the legislative framework of the Russian Federation operating in the field of industrial safety, and described how to obtain a license to operate hazardous production facilities. The paper demonstrates that the importance should be given to the quality and completeness of the background information, as well as the choice of inspection strategy in evaluating the technical condition of the line section of main gas pipelines. As a part of a package of measures to ensure industrial safety and technical reliability of existing gas pipelines it is proposed to carry out conditioning of their line sections. The paper describes general requirements for pipeline inspection, which include: detection efficiency of dangerous damages and major leaks, maximum accuracy of detection of the defect location, continuity of monitoring throughout the entire range of operation modes of the pipeline, cost recovery at the stages of development and operation of control systems, forecasting the state of the pipeline and the effects of accidents. In practice, these parameters have the prevailing significance.

  18. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  19. Administer and collect medical questionnaires with Google documents: a simple, safe, and free system. (United States)

    Rayhan, Rakib U; Zheng, Yin; Uddin, Ebsan; Timbol, Christian; Adewuyi, Oluwatoyin; Baraniuk, James N


    Questionnaires are an invaluable resource for clinical trials. They serve to estimate disease burden and clinical parameters associated with a particular study. However, current researchers are tackling budget constraints, loss of funding opportunities, and rise of research associated fees. We aimed at exploring alternative avenues taking advantage of the free Google docs software for questionnaire administration. This presents an opportunity to reduce costs while simultaneously increasing efficiency and data fidelity. Google documents were used as a platform to create online questionnaires that were automatically hosted via a unique URL. Password protected access to the URL link and a unique study ID gave patients around the clock access from anywhere in the world. Unique study ID ensured confidentially of all self-reported data. Patient responses were secured using a "Cloud" database where the data was automatically sorted, scaled and scored by custom Excel formulas. Researchers downloaded real-time questionnaire responses in multiple formats (e.g. excel) which was then analyzed with a statistical software of choice. This simple workflow provided instant questionnaire scores that eliminated the use for paper-based responses and subsequent manual entry of data. Ease of access to online questionnaires provided convenience to patients leading to better response rates and increase in data fidelity. The system also allowed for real time monitoring of patient's progress on completing questionnaires. Online questionnaires had 100% completion rate compared to paper-based questionnaires. Google docs can serve as an efficient and free platform to administer questionnaires to a clinical population without sacrificing quality, security, and fidelity of data.

  20. Administer and collect medical questionnaires with Google documents: a simple, safe, and free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakib Uddin RAYHAN


    Full Text Available Aim: Questionnaires are an invaluable resource for clinical trials. They serve to estimate disease burden and clinical parameters associated with a particular study. However, current researchers are tackling budget constraints, loss of funding opportunities, and rise of research associated fees. We aimed at exploring alternative avenues taking advantage of the free Google docs software for questionnaire administration. This presents an opportunity to reduce costs while simultaneously increasing efficiency and data fidelity. Material and Methods: Google documents were used as a platform to create online questionnaires that were automatically hosted via a unique URL. Password protected access to the URL link and a unique study ID gave patients around the clock access from anywhere in the world. Unique study ID ensured confidentially of all self-reported data. Patient responses were secured using a “Cloud” database where the data was automatically sorted, scaled and scored by custom Excel formulas. Researchers downloaded real-time questionnaire responses in multiple formats (e.g. excel which was then analyzed with a statistical software of choice. Results: This simple workflow provided instant questionnaire scores that eliminated the use for paper-based responses and subsequent manual entry of data. Ease of access to online questionnaires provided convenience to patients leading to better response rates and increase in data fidelity. The system also allowed for real time monitoring of patient’s progress on completing questionnaires. Online questionnaires had 100% completion rate compared to paper-based questionnaires. Conclusions: Google docs can serve as an efficient and free platform to administer questionnaires to a clinical population without sacrificing quality, security, and fidelity of data.

  1. SONARC: A Sea Ice Monitoring and Forecasting System to Support Safe Operations and Navigation in Arctic Seas (United States)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Babiker, M.; Sandven, S.; Muckenhuber, S.; Korosov, A.; Bobylev, L.; Vesman, A.; Mushta, A.; Demchev, D.; Volkov, V.; Smirnov, K.; Hamre, T.


    Sea ice monitoring and forecasting systems are important tools for minimizing accident risk and environmental impacts of Arctic maritime operations. Satellite data such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR), combined with atmosphere-ice-ocean forecasting models, navigation models and automatic identification system (AIS) transponder data from ships are essential components of such systems. Here we present first results from the SONARC project (project term: 2015-2017), an international multidisciplinary effort to develop novel and complementary ice monitoring and forecasting systems for vessels and offshore platforms in the Arctic. Automated classification methods (Zakhvatkina et al., 2012) are applied to Sentinel-1 dual-polarization SAR images from the Barents and Kara Sea region to identify ice types (e.g. multi-year ice, level first-year ice, deformed first-year ice, new/young ice, open water) and ridges. Short-term (1-3 days) ice drift forecasts are computed from SAR images using feature tracking and pattern tracking methods (Berg & Eriksson, 2014). Ice classification and drift forecast products are combined with ship positions based on AIS data from a selected period of 3-4 weeks to determine optimal vessel speed and routing in ice. Results illustrate the potential of high-resolution SAR data for near-real-time monitoring and forecasting of Arctic ice conditions. Over the next 3 years, SONARC findings will contribute new knowledge about sea ice in the Arctic while promoting safe and cost-effective shipping, domain awareness, resource management, and environmental protection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Poskočilová


    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the representation of women in executive positions in presidential systems, specifically in a presidential cabinet of Peru, where the representation of women was progressively growing from 11 per cent in 2001 to 50 per cent in 2014. The main purpose of the article is an exploration of the impact that other components of power, like the President and the Parliament, and gender stereoptypes can have on the appointment of women. In the conclusion, the paper reveals the impact of the legislative gender quota and related higher representation of women in parliament on the number of female ministers.

  3. Keeping health facilities safe: one way of strengthening the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health systems. (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Schouten, Erik J; Chimbwandira, Frank; Van Damme, Wim; El-Sadr, Wafaa M


    The debate on the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health system strengthening in the last few years has intensified as experts seek to tease out common ground and find solutions and synergies to bridge the divide. Unfortunately, the debate continues to be largely academic and devoid of specificity, resulting in the issues being irrelevant to health care workers on the ground. Taking the theme 'What would entice HIV- and tuberculosis (TB)-programme managers to sit around the table on a Monday morning with health system experts', this viewpoint focuses on infection control and health facility safety as an important and highly relevant practical topic for both disease-specific programmes and health system strengthening. Our attentions, and the examples and lessons we draw on, are largely aimed at sub-Saharan Africa where the great burden of TB and HIV ⁄ AIDS resides, although the principles we outline would apply to other parts of the world as well. Health care infections, caused for example by poor hand hygiene, inadequate testing of donated blood, unsafe disposal of needles and syringes, poorly sterilized medical and surgical equipment and lack of adequate airborne infection control procedures, are responsible for a considerable burden of illness amongst patients and health care personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. Effective infection control in a district hospital requires that all the components of a health system function well: governance and stewardship, financing,infrastructure, procurement and supply chain management, human resources, health information systems, service delivery and finally supervision. We argue in this article that proper attention to infection control and an emphasis on safe health facilities is a concrete first step towards strengthening the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health systems where it really matters – for patients who are sick and for the health care workforce who provide

  4. Study of structure of marine specialist activity in an ergative system on monitoring and managing automatic control parameters of safe navigation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholichev S. N.


    Full Text Available The study of structures' common features and dynamics of the technical object tuning circuit performing automatic adjustment of safe navigation options has been conducted for the first time in the theory of ergative systems. The research of the structure and process of ergative system functioning including an automatic control system with the option of safe navigation conditions has been fulfilled. The function of signals' selection performing optimal control law reconfiguration of the mentioned system has been given, and some sequence of marine specialist activities allowing solve the problem of navigation safety has been composed. The ergative system retargeted by the ship specialist has a two-tier hierarchy. The first level is an automatic control of the safe navigation parameter, and the second is the level of reconfiguration where the ship specialist changes the parameters of regulation act. The two-level hierarchical representation of the ergative navigation security settings management system makes it possible to introduce the concept of reconfiguration of regulation level as ship specialist activity which is to reduce the uncertainty in the environment in the operation of this layer. Such a reduction can be achieved as a result of exposure to the upper level associated with ideas of the ship specialist on the regulation of safe navigation parameters of the vessel on the lower level – the level of direct control automatic safe navigation option. As a result of studying the activities of the ship specialist in the ergative system on monitoring and managing automatic control parameters of safe navigation process it has been found that the main task of the ship specialist in the operation within the ergative system ensuring the navigation safety is to monitor the input and output of the automatic control system, decisions on the choice of reconfiguration laws regulating signal on the basis of information about deviations and the

  5. 78 FR 14288 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    ... cabinets in a locked building with controlled access entry requirements. System software uses Primary Key...; Defense Finance and Accounting Services officials; members of Congress, attorneys; and other interested...

  6. Vibroacoustic Analysis of a Refrigerator Freezer Cabinet Coupled with an Air Duct


    Onur Çelikkan; Haluk Erol


    In this study, the vibration and acoustic interactions between the structure and the cavity inside the freezer cabinet were investigated. Thus, a set of numerical and experimental analyses were performed. In the numerical analysis, the acoustic characteristics of the freezer cavity were solved, and the mixed finite element method was then implemented to analyse the coupled behaviour of the cavity with the air duct using the Acoustic Fluid-Structure Interaction (AFSI) technique. In the experim...

  7. The activity of the Cabinet of Ukrainian Art History of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Sichka


    As a result of this research it was recognized that Cabinet besides collecting the materials was study and developed issues of the history of Ukrainian art «from ancient times to the present», including Shevchenko as an artist, history of architecture and music. Moreover, members of Cabinet prepared materials for encyclopedias, and dictionaries of Ukrainian art History, involved in the museum activity in Kyiv and Moscow, popularized Ukrainian art.

  8. Cabinet Appointment in Uruguay: Legislative Strategy, hierarchy of portfolio and party affiliation of ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation and change of presidential cabinets in Uruguay during the period 1985-2010. In the first section we present the institutional and political features of the process of appointment and resignation of the ministers. The second section describes the cabinets formed in this period and shows that presidents have exchanged seats in cabinet by legislative support. The third section analyzes the political attributes of the ministers appointed (party affiliation, previous experience and the type of linkage that they keep with the president. The fourth analyze the relationship between the time survival of the individuals in office, the political responsibility in front of congress and the existence of a legislative majority that support the president. The last section describes the Uruguayan pattern of ministerial designation based in (i the establishment of an order of importance of portfolios, (ii the nomination of individuals with party affiliation (weather insider or adherent politicians and (iii the influence of the legislative support in defining the ministerial team.

  9. Improving the Sun Drying of Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with Photo-Selective Dryer Cabinet Materials. (United States)

    Milczarek, Rebecca R; Avena-Mascareno, Roberto; Alonzo, Jérôme; Fichot, Mélissa I


    Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole. These materials do not significantly affect the measured quality metrics during the first day of sun drying. However, when drying is taken to completion, some minor but significant quality differences are observed. Infrared-blocking material produces dried apricot with lower red color, compared to clear, opaque black, and ultraviolet-blocking materials. Clear material produced dried apricot with significantly lower antioxidant activity, compared to black and infrared-blocking materials. Using appropriate photo-selective drying cabinet materials can reduce the required sun drying time for apricots by 1 to 2 d, compared with fully shaded drying. Ultraviolet-blocking material is recommended to maximize drying rate and minimize quality degradation. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Computation of sound radiation by a driver in a cabinet using a substitute source approach. (United States)

    Lindberg, Anders; Pavić, Goran


    Sound radiation by a driver set in a rigid closed cabinet is modeled analytically using the principle of wave superposition. The driver-cabinet assembly is replaced by an array of volumeless substitute sources-monopoles-confined within its surface. The role of substitute sources is to reproduce the sound field exterior to the surface as close to the original field as possible. The frequency dependent positions and strengths of substitute monopoles are optimized by an iterative search procedure aimed at matching the prescribed surface boundary conditions of the original source. The time-consuming optimization of monopole positions is carried out at narrowband center frequencies reducing the computational cost without significant loss of accuracy. The consistency of computed results is verified by checking the power output through the cabinet surface. Modeling is done for anechoic and semi-anechoic conditions. The model has been validated experimentally in a semi-anechoic room with satisfactory results using a mid-range driver set in a closed-box baffle.

  11. Safe implementation of automatic microprocessor systems of level crossing on the example of the SPA-4 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław KORNASZEWSKI


    Full Text Available Fulfilling high requirements of safety and reliability is an importantquestion in devices of railway traffic control. Increased safety in computer systems is reached in the simplest way through redundancy of hardware and software, but also with other methods. A microprocessor system of automatic SPA-4 level crossing, manufactured by Bombardier Transportation Katowice (Poland, is a benchmark in the paper.

  12. Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth System (United States)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim; Donges, Jonathan; Molkenthin, Nora


    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as defined by the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "guardrails", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space for humanity", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: Which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this work, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization such as of indicators of human well-being for achieving certain sustainable development goals, a sustainable and resilient management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmas, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and larger flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmas drawing on conceptual models from climate science, ecology, coevolutionary Earth System modeling

  13. Test duration for growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency in beef cattle using the GrowSafe System. (United States)

    Wang, Z; Nkrumah, J D; Li, C; Basarab, J A; Goonewardene, L A; Okine, E K; Crews, D H; Moore, S S


    This study was conducted to determine the optimum test duration and the effect of missing data on accuracy of measuring feed efficiency and its 4 related traits ADG, DMI, feed conversion ratio, and residual feed intake in beef cattle using data from 456 steers with 5,397 weekly averaged feed intakes and BW repeated measurements taken over 91 d. Data were collected using the GrowSafe System at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station. The changes and relative changes in phenotypic residual variances and correlations (Pearson and Spearman) among data from shortened test durations (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, or 84 d) and a 91-d test were used to determine the optimum test duration for the 4 traits. The traits were fitted to a mixed model with repeated measures using SAS. Test durations for ADG, DMI, feed conversion ratio, and residual feed intake could be shortened to 63, 35, 42, and 63 d, respectively, without significantly reducing the accuracy of the tests when BW was measured weekly. The accuracy of the test was not compromised when up to 30% of the records were randomly removed after the first 35 d on test. These results have valuable and practical implications for performance and feed efficiency testing in beef cattle.

  14. Lidocaine controls pain and allows safe wound bed preparation and debridement of digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: a retrospective study. (United States)

    Braschi, Francesca; Bartoli, Francesca; Bruni, Cosimo; Fiori, Ginevra; Fantauzzo, Claudia; Paganelli, Lucia; De Paulis, Amato; Rasero, Laura; Matucci-Cerinic, M


    In Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), digital ulcers (DU) are painful, difficult to heal, and frequently infected. To reduce the risk of bacterial infection and to prevent chronicity, it is essential to carefully remove necrotic tissue from DU, with maximum patient comfort. Debridement, although very efficacious, is invasive and causes local pain: lidocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used as to fight pain during debridement procedures. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine 4 % in pain control during debridement procedure of DU in SSc. One hundred eight DU characterized by pain Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) >3/10 before starting the procedure were treated with lidocaine 4 % (lidocaine cloridrate 200 mg in 5 ml of injecting solution). Pain was measured with NRS (0-10) before starting debridement, after 15 min of lidocaine application and at the end of the procedure. In DU, in respect to baseline (mean NRS 6.74 ± 2.96), pain after application of lidocaine 4 % for 15 min was significantly lower (mean NRS 2.83 ± 2.73) (p lidocaine were observed. In SSc, topical application of lidocaine 4 % significantly reduces pain, allowing a safe debridement procedure, thus improving the management of DU.

  15. Wavelength Stabilized High Brightness Direct Diode Pumps for Solid State LIDAR Systems at Eye-Safe Wavelengths Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is a high power, high efficiency, high reliability compact eye-safe LIDAR source. The diode pump source is an electrically series-connected array of single...

  16. Improving adherence to safe prescription guidelines for Dapsone: harnessing an enhanced electronic medical records system and a team approach. (United States)

    Neoh, Ching Yin; Tian, Elizabeth A L; Choi, Cindy; Leong, Hui Hui; Tan, Audrey W H; Chan, Roy K W


    Dapsone is a commonly prescribed medication in dermatological practice. Its use is associated with a broad spectrum of adverse effects. Careful selection and monitoring of patients on dapsone are paramount in the prevention and early recognition of adverse effects. We designed a risk-management program for dapsone at National Skin Centre, Singapore, enhancing an existing electronic medical records system and harnessing a team approach involving the nurses. This includes the performance of key laboratory tests before and after starting dapsone, ensuring adequate counseling before starting dapsone and screening for adverse effects using a questionnaire every visit. This system of dapsone prescription efficiently improved the adherence to safe prescription and monitoring guidelines. Average adherence rates for key safety parameters improved from 61.4% pre-implementation to 95.3% at six months and were sustained at 12 months at 91.3%. Percentage of follow-up cases in which all three key monitoring parameters were fulfilled increased from 9.5% to 79.6% (p=0.0001) after 12months. The percentage of new patients in which all four key monitoring parameters were met increased from 50% to 80%. It was not statistically significant possibly because of small patient numbers. This project has also translated into enhanced patient safety with dapsone dosages adjusted in 17 patients who experienced mild adverse effects. No severe adverse effects to dapsone were observed in the 12-month period. This example of risk management for dapsone may serve as a model for institutions looking at harnessing information technology and a team approach for safer prescription of high-alert medications. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations based on the user`s perspective of the system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.


    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user`s perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user`s ``model of the world,`` in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more.

  18. Histamine and mast cell activator compound 48/80 are safe but inefficient systemic adjuvants for gilthead seabream vaccination. (United States)

    Gómez González, N E; Cabas, I; Montero, J; García Alcázar, A; Mulero, V; García Ayala, A


    Histamine has a key role in the regulation of inflammatory and innate immune responses in vertebrates. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), a marine hermaphrodite teleost of great commercial value, was the first fish species shown to possess histamine-containing mast cells (MCs) at mucosal tissues. MCs are highly abundant in the peritoneal exudate of gilthead seabream and compound 48/80 (Co 48/80), often used to promote MC activation and histamine release, is able to promote histamine release from gilthead seabream MCs in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of histamine and Co 48/80 on the immune responses of gilthead seabream. For this purpose, histamine and Co 48/80 were intraperitoneally injected alone or combined with 109 heat-killed Vibrio anguillarum cells and their effects on head kidney and peritoneal exudate were analyzed. The results indicated that although histamine and Co 48/80 were both able to alter the percentage of peritoneal exudate and head kidney immune cell types, only Co 48/80 increased reactive oxygen species production by peritoneal leukocytes. In addition, histamine, but not Co 48/80, was able to slightly impair the humoral adaptive immune response, i.e. production of specific IgM to V. anguillarum. Notably, both histamine and Co 48/80 reduced the expression of the gene encoding histamine receptor H2 in peritoneal exudate leukocytes. These results show for the first time in fish that although systemic administration of histamine and Co 48/80 is safe, neither compound can be regarded as an efficient adjuvant for gilthead seabream vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Density, distribution, and genetic structure of grizzly bears in the Cabinet-Yaak Ecosystem (United States)

    Macleod, Amy C.; Boyd, Kristina L; Boulanger, John; Royle, J. Andrew; Kasworm, Wayne F.; Paetkau, David; Proctor, Michael F; Annis, Kim; Graves, Tabitha A.


    The conservation status of the 2 threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations in the Cabinet-Yaak Ecosystem (CYE) of northern Montana and Idaho had remained unchanged since designation in 1975; however, the current demographic status of these populations was uncertain. No rigorous data on population density and distribution or analysis of recent population genetic structure were available to measure the effectiveness of conservation efforts. We used genetic detection data from hair corral, bear rub, and opportunistic sampling in traditional and spatial capture–recapture models to generate estimates of abundance and density of grizzly bears in the CYE. We calculated mean bear residency on our sampling grid from telemetry data using Huggins and Pledger models to estimate the average number of bears present and to correct our superpopulation estimates for lack of geographic closure. Estimated grizzly bear abundance (all sex and age classes) in the CYE in 2012 was 48–50 bears, approximately half the population recovery goal. Grizzly bear density in the CYE (4.3–4.5 grizzly bears/1,000 km2) was among the lowest of interior North American populations. The sizes of the Cabinet (n = 22–24) and Yaak (n = 18–22) populations were similar. Spatial models produced similar estimates of abundance and density with comparable precision without requiring radio-telemetry data to address assumptions of geographic closure. The 2 populations in the CYE were demographically and reproductively isolated from each other and the Cabinet population was highly inbred. With parentage analysis, we documented natural migrants to the Cabinet and Yaak populations by bears born to parents in the Selkirk and Northern Continental Divide populations. These events supported data from other sources suggesting that the expansion of neighboring populations may eventually help sustain the CYE populations. However, the small size, isolation, and inbreeding documented by this study

  20. Original computer aided support system for safe and accurate implant placement—Collaboration with an university originated venture company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Sohmura


    Two clinical cases with implant placement on the three lower molars by flap operation using bone supported surgical guide and flapless operation with teeth supported surgical guide and immediate loading with provisional prostheses prepared beforehand are introduced. The present simulation and drilling support using the surgical guide may help to perform safe and accurate implant surgery.

  1. Microelectromechanical safe arm device (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM


    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Lutsevich


    Full Text Available The safe use of drugs during pregnancy is essential to optimize the health of both pregnant woman and her future child. At the same time obstetrician-gynecologists often face the lack of evidence-based information on the use of drugs and leave the issue to the woman herself — whether the treatment benefit to the mother outweighs risks to the unborn child — relying on the limited amount of scientific data. Preconception discussion of actual risks and safe treatment reduces patient fears and maximizes the emphasis on the therapy safety. At the same time, the lack of adequate information on safety for the majority of drugs used by pregnant women combined with the need to make appropriate treatment decisions and communicate drug risk information to a potentially vulnerable population is the most challenging and critical issue of pregnant women's health.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available After the fall of communism in the late ’80 in Central and Eastern Europe, due to the appearance of several political parties in each state, there was the need to form coalitions in order to provide support for the governments. This paper aims to identify the institutional features that influence the coalition formation process using the rational choice institutionalism approach. In this case, the political parties, who seek to optimize their benefits in the government formation process, are constrained by the institutional environment. The institutional environment comprises the rules that determine how the governments are formed. Particularly, this paper aim is to identify how the cabinet operating rules affect the outcomes of the coalition formation process. In order to do so, I will develop a quantitative analysis of 110 cabinets in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria formed after the first free elections subsequent to the communist fall until the beginning of 2010. These countries represent the post-communist states that joined the European Union, finalizing the democratization process at least from a formal point a view. This cross-country comparison tries to explain how some institutional features influence the formation of coalitions in new democracies. This research is valuable due to the lack of this type of comparative studies on Central and Eastern European states.

  4. CFD Parametric Studies for Global Performance Improvement of Open Refrigerated Display Cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dinis Gaspar


    Full Text Available A detailed CFD modelling of an open refrigerated display cabinet has been formulated in a previous study. Some modifications are introduced in order to perform parametric studies dealing with low-cost geometrical and functional characteristics for improvement of the global performance and energy efficiency. The parametric studies are devoted to the analysis of the thermal response and behaviour inside the food conservation space influenced by (1 air flow rate through the evaporator heat exchanger; (2 air curtain behaviour; (3 hole dimensions and distribution of the back panel; (4 discharge and return grilles angles; and (5 flow deflectors inside the internal duct. The analysis of the numerical predictions from the parametric studies allows the development of an optimized model for the conception of an open refrigerated display cabinet with a more adequate configuration. The numerical predictions of the optimized model show lower product temperature and reduced electrical energy consumption, allowing the improvement of the food safety and the energy rationalization of the refrigeration equipment.

  5. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre (United States)


    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  6. Vibroacoustic Analysis of a Refrigerator Freezer Cabinet Coupled with an Air Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Çelikkan


    Full Text Available In this study, the vibration and acoustic interactions between the structure and the cavity inside the freezer cabinet were investigated. Thus, a set of numerical and experimental analyses were performed. In the numerical analysis, the acoustic characteristics of the freezer cavity were solved, and the mixed finite element method was then implemented to analyse the coupled behaviour of the cavity with the air duct using the Acoustic Fluid-Structure Interaction (AFSI technique. In the experimental analyses, an acoustic modal analysis of the freezer cavity and a structural modal analysis of the air duct were performed for the validation process. A good agreement was obtained among the results. Thus, the accuracy of the numerical model was confirmed. The validated models were used for optimizing the design. To solve the noise generation mechanism inside the freezer cabinet, the noise primarily generated by the freezer fan unit was measured under normal working conditions of the refrigerator, and the resonance frequencies were obtained. This information was compared with the normal modes of the air duct, and the overlapping frequencies were identified. To reduce the interaction between the source and the structure, a few design modifications were applied to the air duct. Thus, the structural-borne noise radiating from the air duct into the freezer cavity was reduced.

  7. Numerical and experimental investigations on the use of mist flow process in refrigerated display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moureh, J.; Letang, G.; Palvadeau, B. [UMR Genie Industriel Alimentaire Cemagref-ENSIA-INAPG-INRA, Cemagref Antony Refrigerating Process Engineering Unit, Parc de Tourvoie, BP 44, 92163 Antony cedex (France); Boisson, H. [IMFT Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Av. du Professeur Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France)


    This study concerns the use of mist flow whereby fine water droplets are injected into the air curtain to improve the performance of Refrigerated Display Cabinets (RDCs). The deposition and evaporation of droplets on the surface of products partially compensate the radiative heat gained by the products by removing from it the amount of latent heat of the evaporated droplets. The experiments were carried out on an actual display cabinet. Numerical modelling was performed using Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. In two-phase flow, an Euler-Lagrange approach was adopted to predict the transport of droplets by the air curtain and their spatial distribution on the product surface of the RDC. An original numerical procedure was built in the CFD model in order to compute the deposited droplets while taking into account the evaporative flux of droplets on the product surface. The two-phase flow model was used to analyse the performance of the mist cooling process in terms of surface temperature decrease and the homogeneity of droplet deposition on the product surface of the RDC as a function of inlet droplet injection configurations. (author)

  8. Effective, Safe, and Inexpensive Microscale Ultrasonic Setup for Teaching and Research Labs (United States)

    Montaña, Angel M.; Grima, Pedro M.


    Ultrasound has been used as a source of energy in chemical reactions to increase both reaction rate and product yield. Ultrasonic horns can be used for this purpose on the laboratory scale. A homemade, safe, effective, and inexpensive reactor for ultrasonic horns with applications in microscale experiments in teaching and research laboratories is presented here. The vessel has two side necks for the insertion of either a flexible temperature probe, an inert-gas line adapter, or a septum to take samples from the reaction mixture. The reactor design allows work with small volumes (2-3 mL) optimal for microscale reactions. The tip of the sonication probe easily reaches the bottom of the vessel, producing vigorous agitation throughout the reaction medium. The design also facilitates temperature modulation with an external cooling bath, allowing reactions at low temperatures. This homemade reactor vessel for ultrasonic horns has only one-sixth the cost of the standard commercial reactors. The microscale sonication setup is safer than larger units because of its robust single-piece construction and easy placement in a protection shield cabinet, and the reduced hazards inherent in running reactions on a small scale. An experimental procedure is included to illustrate the applicability of the system.

  9. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management (SAFIR) (United States)

    Cary, L.; Kloppmann, W.; Battilani, A.; Bertaki, M.; Blagojevic, S.; Chartzoulakis, K.; Dalsgaard, A.; Forslund, A.; Jovanovic, Z.; Kasapakis, I.


    The safe use of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation needs to address the risks for humans (workers, exposed via contact with irrigation water, soil, crops and food, consumers, exposed via ingestion of fresh and processed food), for animals (via ingestion of crops an soil), for the crops and agricultural productivity (via salinity and trace element uptake), for soil (via accumulation or release of pollutants) as well as for surface, groundwaters and the associated ecosystems (via runoff and infiltration, Kass et al., 2005, Bouwer, 2000). A work package in the EU FP5 project SAFIR is dedicated to study the impact of wastewater irrigation on the soil-water-plant-product system. Its monitoring program comprises pathogens and inorganic pollutants, including both geogenic and potentially anthropogenic trace elements in the aim to better understand soil-irrigation water interactions. The SAFIR field study sites are found in China, Italy, Crete, and Serbia. A performance evaluation of SAFIR-specific treatment technology through the monitoring of waste water and irrigation water quality was made through waste water chemical and microbiological qualities, which were investigated upstream and downstream of the SAFIR specific treatment three times per season. Irrigation water transits through the uppermost soil decimetres to the crop roots. The latter will become, in the course of the irrigation season, the major sink of percolating water, together with evaporation. The water saving irrigation techniques used in SAFIR are surface and subsurface drip irrigation. The investigation of the solid soil phase concentrates on the root zone as main transit and storage compartment for pollutants and, eventually, pathogens. The initial soil quality was assessed through a sampling campaign before the onset of the first year irrigation; the soil quality has been monitored throughout three years under cultivation of tomatoes or potatoes. The plot layout for each of the study sites

  10. Insite or Outside the Law: Examining the Place of Safe Injection Sites within the Canadian Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Macdonald


    Full Text Available In response to the mounting number of HIV/AIDS and overdose deaths directly attributable to intravenous drug use during the 1980 and 1990’s, governments across the world began considering alternatives to traditional prohibitionist drug policies. These alternatives, generally described as harm reduction strategies involving needle exchange programs and safe injection sites, rapidly gained acceptance across Europe. By contrast, they encountered significant opposition in North America. This thesis summarily traces the history of Canadian drug law, describing the development and impact of the harm reduction movement in Canada and the establishment of the first and only safe injection site (SIS in North America (Insite. Employing a repressive formalist analysis of the application of federal drug laws, I then examine the role of the current Conservative government in contesting harm reduction strategies and refusing full legalization of Insite. I illustrate that through the strategic manipulation and discriminatory enforcement of drug laws and political gamesmanship relating to the criteria grounding Insite’s exemption from current drug laws, the government has failed to fulfill a set of fundamental social values with respect to Insite’s users and members of the downtown eastside of Vancouver. Interviews with injection drug users, workers at Insite and residents of the local community provide empirical support for the beneficial effects of safe injection sites, and expose the politics of the struggle for Insite’s continued existence. I also show how the Conservative anti-drug ideologues have led a resistance against classifying drug addiction as a health-related rather than criminal problem, despite significant scientific evidence to the contrary, and how this resistance has resulted in the further marginalization of injection drug users.


    Craxí, Lucia; Maresi, Emiliano; Franco, Vito


    This paper outlines the history of the Cabinet of Pathological Anathomy at the University of Palermo, describes rapidly its current status and analyzes the composition of its displays in 1859. It aims to highlight the analogies with other collections of a similar kind and to pinpoint potential actions to endorse and develop this important scientific asset.

  12. Touching Anatomy. : On the Handling of Anatomical Preparations in the Anatomical Cabinets of Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff, Rina


    This paper argues that the anatomical Cabinets of Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch must be understood as an early modern workshop in which preparations were continuously handled. It is claimed that preparations actively appealed to anatomists and visitors to handle, re-dissect, touch, and even kiss

  13. Hardwood lumber widths and grades used by the furniture and cabinet industries: Results of a 14-mill survey (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; John Brown; Neal Bennett; Everette Rast


    Data on red oak lumber width, length, and grade were collected at 14 furniture and cabinet industry rough mills to identify relationships among these lumber attributes and the degree to which they differ from mill to mill. Also, this information is needed to formulate valid lumber size distributions that will improve the quality of theresults obtained in mill and...

  14. Solar thermal drying of apricots: Effect of spectrally-selective cabinet materials on drying rate and quality metrics (abstract) (United States)

    Solar thermal (ST) drying is currently not in widespread commercial use due to concerns about slow drying rates and poor product quality. ST dryer cabinets could be constructed from spectrally-selective materials (materials which transmit only certain sunlight wavelength bands), but these types of ...

  15. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara David R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. Results To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen

  16. Air flow optimization for energy efficient blower of biosafety cabinet class II A2 (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. D.; Mohtar, M. Z.; Alias, A. A.; Wong, L. K.; Yunos, Y. S.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Zulkharnain, A.; Tan, C. S.; Thayan, R.


    An energy efficient Biosafety Cabinet (BSC) has become a big challenge for manufacturers to develop BSC with the highest level of protection. The objective of research is to increase air flow velocity discharge from centrifugal blower. An aerodynamic duct shape inspired by the shape of Peregrine Falcon’s wing during diving flight is added to the end of the centrifugal blower. Investigation of air movement is determined by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results showed that air velocity can be increased by double compared to typical manufactured BSC and no air recirculation. As conclusion, a novel design of aerodynamic duct shape successfully developed and proved that air velocity can be increase naturally with same impeller speed. It can contribute in increasing energy efficiency of the centrifugal blower. It is vital to BSC manufacturer and can be apply to Heating, Air Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) industries.

  17. United Kingdom security policy during the Blair Cabinet (1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Elena Brânda


    Full Text Available The United Kingdom’s security policy between 1997-2007, the time when Tony Blair���s Labour dominated the Cabinet, cannot be easily distinguished from the foreign policy. The two are strategically combined and are the responsibility of so many institutions that one finds it difficult to assess them. However, as the period is dominated by the 9/11 attacks and the military interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq, the British defense policy is unitarily centered on the threat of terrorism and weapons of mass destruction. Despite the many holders of decision-making power, it appears that the instruments to be used in achieving a state of comfort on a security level are mainly documents that are to become the basis of further action.

  18. Meeting Summary of Kitchen Cabinet on Financial Due Diligence to Reduce Proliferation Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carr, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory convened the Kitchen Cabinet (KC) to facilitate a candid discussion about the role of financial institutions (FIs) in antiproliferation efforts to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by identifying suspicious business transactions and exports when making lending or insurance decisions. The meeting brought together a group of export control specialists, largely representatives from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Participating Governments (PGs) and finance experts representing banks and insurance companies. By assembling a KC of experts, the group could understand what suspicious transactions look like from each other’s perspectives and better inform each of their operations. The goal was to develop red flags FIs could use to identify suspicious proliferation-related transactions and to help governments gain a clearer picture of proliferation using financial information.

  19. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management, EU Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Dalsgaard, Anders


    a multi-disciplinary team, with food safety and quality experts, engineers, agronomists and economists from17 research institutes and private companies in Europe, Israel and China working together. The project assesses potential risks to farmers. Coupled with farm management and economic models, a new......: the safety and quality of food products, and the increasing competition for clean freshwater. SAFIR is funded for the period 2005-2009 under the Food Quality and Safety thematic area of the EU 6th Framework Research Programme. The challenge for the next years will be to produce safe and high quality foods...... while at the same time reducing the use of natural resources and the impact on aquatic ecosystems that are frequently already polluted. These problems are linked, since most of our vegetables are produced using irrigation water from the same ecosystems. To ensure food safety and quality, the innovative...

  20. Efficacy of Two Cleaning Solutions for the Decontamination of 10 Antineoplastic Agents in the Biosafety Cabinets of a Hospital Pharmacy. (United States)

    Anastasi, Marco; Rudaz, Serge; Queruau Lamerie, Thomas; Odou, Pascal; Bonnabry, Pascal; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine


    This study aimed to evaluate two cleaning solutions for the chemical decontamination of antineoplastic agents on the surfaces of two biosafety cabinets routinely used for chemotherapy preparation in a hospital pharmacy. For almost 1 year (49 weeks), two different solutions were used for the weekly cleaning of two biosafety cabinets in a hospital pharmacy's centralized cytotoxic preparation unit. The solutions evaluated were a commercial solution of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water (70:30, vol:vol), and a detergent solution constituted by 10(-2)M of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with 20% IPA. Seven areas in each biosafety cabinet were wiped 14 times throughout the year, before and after the weekly cleaning process, according to a validated procedure. Samples were analyzed using a validated method of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The decontamination efficacy of these two solutions was tested for 10 antineoplastic agents: cytarabine, gemcitabine, methotrexate, etoposide phosphate, irinotecan, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and vincristine. Overall decontamination efficacies observed were 82±6% and 49±11% for SDS solution and IPA, respectively. Higher contamination levels were distributed on areas frequently touched by the pharmacy technicians-such as sleeves and airlock handles-than on scale plates, gravimetric control hardware, and work benches. Detected contaminations of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, gemcitabine, and cytarabine were higher than those of the others agents. SDS solution was almost 20% more efficient than IPA on eight of the antineoplastic agents. Both cleaning solutions were able to reduce contamination levels in the biosafety cabinets. The efficacy of the solution containing an anionic detergent agent (SDS) was shown to be generally higher than that of IPA and, after the SDS cleaning procedure, biosafety cabinets demonstrated acceptable contamination levels. © The Author 2015

  1. Protection and control of modeled local power systems and simulation of safe power feeding systems; Proteccion y control local de sistemas electricos de potencia modelado y simulacion de sistemas de alimentacion segura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothschild, Marcelo A. [SADE SKANSKA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail:


    This document presents a guideline for modeling and simulation of safe feeding systems. Examples of systems currently in operation are presented for which, based on attended project by simulation, it has been possible to introduce substantial improvements in relation to the reliability and security of those installations.

  2. No moving parts safe & arm apparatus and method with monitoring and built-in-test for optical firing of explosive systems (United States)

    Hendrix, J.L.


    A laser initiated ordnance controller apparatus which provides a safe and arm scheme with no moving parts. The safe & arm apparatus provides isolation of firing energy to explosive devices using a combination of polarization isolation and control through acousto-optical deviation of laser energy pulses. The apparatus provides constant monitoring of the systems status and performs 100% built-in-test at any time prior to ordnance ignition without the risk of premature ignition or detonation. The apparatus has a computer controller, a solid state laser, an acousto-optic deflector and RF drive circuitry, built-in-test optics and electronics, and system monitoring capabilities. The optical system is completed from the laser beam power source to the pyrotechnic ordnance through fiber optic cabling, optical splitters and optical connectors. During operation of the apparatus, a command is provided by the computer controller and, simultaneous with laser flashlamp fire, the safe & arm device is opened for approximately 200 microseconds which allows the laser pulse to transmit through the device. The arm signal also energizes the laser power supply and activates the acousto-optical deflector. When the correct fire format command is received, the acousto-optic deflector moves to the selected event channel, and the channel is verified to ensure the system is pointing to the correct position. Laser energy is transmitted through the fiber where an ignitor or detonator designed to be sensitive to optical pulses is fired at the end of the fiber channel. Simultaneous event channels may also be utilized by optically splitting a single event channel. The built-in-test may be performed anytime prior to ordnance ignition. 6 figures.

  3. Quantifying the influence of safe road systems and legal licensing age on road mortality among young adolescents: steps towards system thinking. (United States)

    Twisk, Divera; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Bos, Niels; Shope, Jean T; Kok, Gerjo


    Based on existing literature, a system thinking approach was used to set up a conceptual model on the interrelationships among the components influencing adolescent road mortality, distinguishing between components at the individual level and at the system level. At the individual level the role of risk behaviour (sometimes deliberate and sometimes from inexperience or other non-deliberate causes) in adolescent road mortality is well documented. However, little is known about the extent to which the 'road system' itself may also have an impact on younger adolescents' road mortality. This, by providing a safe or unsafe road environment for all road users (System-induced exposure) and by allowing access to high-risk vehicles at a young or older age through the legal licensing age. This study seeks to explore these relationships by analysing the extent to which the road mortality of 10 to 17 year olds in various jurisdictions can be predicted from the System-induced Exposure (SiE) in a jurisdiction and from its legal licensing age to drive motor vehicles. SiE was operationalized as the number of road fatalities per 10(5) inhabitants/all ages together, but excluding the 10 to 17 year olds. Data on road fatalities during the years 2001 through 2008 were obtained from the OECD International Road Traffic Accident Database (IRTAD) and from the USA NHTSA's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database for 29 early and 10 late licensing jurisdictions. Linear mixed models were fitted with annual 'Adolescent road mortality per capita' for 2001 through 2008 as the dependent variable, and time-dependent 'SiE' and time-independent 'Licensing system' as predictor variables. To control for different levels of motorisation, the time-dependent variable 'Annual per capita vehicle distance travelled' was used as a covariate. Licensing system of a jurisdiction was entered as a categorical predictor variable with late licensing countries as a baseline group. The study found support

  4. Perspectives of Safe Work Practices: Improving Personal Electrical Safety of Low-Voltage Systems from Electrical Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mobarak,


    Full Text Available A person’s understanding of a safety hazard has a dramatic effect on his or her behavior. An in-depth understanding of a hazard usually results in a healthy respect for what can happen. People who know the most about a specific hazard tend to rely more heavily on procedures and plans to guide their actions. Personal protective equipment selection and use are influenced by increased understanding of a hazard. Training and training programs are influenced by the depth of knowledge held by all members of the line organization. Recent work has focused attention on the thermal effects of arc flashes. However, when electrical energy is converted into thermal energy in an arcing fault, still another energy conversion is taking place. Applications are on record that suggest that a considerable amount of force is created during an arcing fault. Concrete block walls can be destroyed by the increased pressure that is created during an arcing fault. This study is present about preventing injuries to people. We will study about injuries and then develop some understanding about electrical hazards. Also, we will present about safe work practices, responsible, and then about what makes us act as we do.

  5. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system......This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... and for the treatment of covered bonds in capital regulation....

  6. Safely towards self-driving vehicles : new opportunities new risks and new challenges during the automation of the traffic system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, C.N. van & Duivenvoorden, C.W.A.E.


    There are more and more systems on the market to support the driver in his vehicle. Step by step the automation of our vehicles increases, the traffic system is in a transition towards self-driving vehicles. The automation offers opportunities to make our traffic safer, cleaner and more efficient.

  7. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin


    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  8. A Mobile Information System Based on Crowd-Sensed and Official Crime Data for Finding Safe Routes: A Case Study of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Mata


    Full Text Available Mobile information systems agendas are increasingly becoming an essential part of human life and they play an important role in several daily activities. These have been developed for different contexts such as public facilities in smart cities, health care, traffic congestions, e-commerce, financial security, user-generated content, and crowdsourcing. In GIScience, problems related to routing systems have been deeply explored by using several techniques, but they are not focused on security or crime rates. In this paper, an approach to provide estimations defined by crime rates for generating safe routes in mobile devices is proposed. It consists of integrating crowd-sensed and official crime data with a mobile application. Thus, data are semantically processed by an ontology and classified by the Bayes algorithm. A geospatial repository was used to store tweets related to crime events of Mexico City and official reports that were geocoded for obtaining safe routes. A forecast related to crime events that can occur in a certain place with the collected information was performed. The novelty is a hybrid approach based on semantic processing to retrieve relevant data from unstructured data sources and a classifier algorithm to collect relevant crime data from official government reports with a mobile application.

  9. Implementation of a Safe Patient Handling Program in a Multihospital Health System From Inception to Sustainability: Successes Over 8 Years and Ongoing Challenges. (United States)

    Olinski, Christine; Norton, Christine E


    Musculoskeletal injuries, especially back injuries, are among the most frequent injuries sustained by direct caregivers who lift, transfer, and reposition patients. These injuries can be debilitating and, for some caregivers, career ending. In the first year following implementation of the safe patient handling program in a multihospital health care system, an 82% reduction in Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) recordable patient handling injuries was realized, a 94% decrease in days away from work, an 85% reduction in restricted duty days, and an 82% reduction in incurred workers' compensation costs. These reductions have been sustained for an 8-year period since the program's implementation in 2008. The primary focus of the program's first year was training and education. Compliance and retraining efforts began in the second year, followed by a gradual transition to the present emphasis on sustainability. This article describes the development and implementation of a safe patient handling program in a multihospital health system and the impact on caregiver injuries over 8 years. Also presented are key strategies that were used to achieve sustainability.

  10. The impact of electric mobility in allowing a safe increase of the penetration of wind power in the Iberian system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecas Lopes, Joao A. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Power Systems Unit; Porto Univ. (Portugal). Faculty of Engineering; Rosa, Mauro; Almeida, Pedro [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Power Systems Unit


    The adequate use of EV in the Iberian system could allow the integration of more renewable power sources, like wind generation, while maintaining the operational risk indices within adequate values. For this purpose monitoring systems and smart charging strategies should be standardized and economic incentives should be created in order to foster the participation of EV owners in helping system operation by providing reserve services. If EV can be considered as secondary reserve providers, one can also integrate further wind generation without requiring an increase of conventional generation reserves. (orig.)

  11. Study of the impact of a telematics system on safe and fuel-efficient driving in trucks : [technology brief]. (United States)


    Transportation and logistics companies increasingly : rely on modern technologies and in-vehicle tools : (also known as telematics systems) to optimize their : truck fleet operations. Telematics is technology that : combines telecommunications (i.e.,...

  12. A Compact Safe Cold-Start (CS2) System for Scramjets using Dilute Triethylaluminum Fuel Mixtures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal leverages a highly successful Phase 1 feasibility effort to further develop a system that satisfies the cold-start requirements of scramjet engines....

  13. Importance of information about distribution for assuring secured and safe food! : What is food traceability system? Considering from an approach of Mr. Kazuo Sawauchi, Manager, Advanced Automation Company, Yamatake Corporation (United States)

    Morita, Utako

    Importance of information about distribution for assuring secured and safe food! : What is food traceability system? Considering from an approach of Mr. Kazuo Sawauchi, Manager, Advanced Automation Company, Yamatake Corporation

  14. Example of teaching practice for the comedy the Cabinet Minister's Wife by Branislav Nušić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Nevena B.


    Full Text Available Awareness of the need for innovation and enrichment curriculum with comedies by Branislav Nušić inspired us to offer a creative methodological model processing for comedy Gospođa ministarka (The Cabinet Minister's Wife, in order to point out the possibility of it's involvement in the educational process and the positive effects that such action had. The reason for selecting just this comedy lies in the fact that, despite the fact that it's title well understood, it's ideological layer, referring to criticism of the government and power, can positively influence the development of student's personality traits. Our proposal is to analyze comedy Gospođa ministarka (The Cabinet Minister's Wife in the sixth grade, however, such an approach does not cease the possibility of interpretation of a play in teaching practices, but use the offered model as the starting point of any new readings and interpretation in the educational practice.

  15. Energy efficiency categories for refrigerated display cabinets in food retailer shops; Effizienzklassen fuer Kuehlmoebel im Detailhandel. Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelich, A.


    Up to now, in the European Union, an efficiency declaration is compulsory for household refrigerators but not for refrigerated display cabinets (RDC). This study deals with the possibilities for an improvement of the efficiency of such cabinets for the Swiss market. There are different voluntary actions in Europe aiming to improve the efficiency of RDCs. First of all, the Netherlands started end of the 90ties to pay subsidies to promote efficient cabinets. The procedures for the measurement and the classification where developed by TNO, the Dutch Testing and Research Organisation. The European Association of Air Handling and Refrigerating Equipment Manufacturers, Eurovent/Cecomaf, is building up a database with the efficiency data of all RDCs. It uses the procedures developed by TNO. According to the schedule for the test and certification procedure the database will be complete in 2009 only. By October 2004 Australia and New Zealand have introduced a new law, which sets strict standards for the installation of new RDCs. The procedures applied are similar to those of TNO and Eurovent. The European Standard for the declaration of RDCs is the EN 441, developed in 1995. A new Standard, the prEN 23953, has been worked out. It is for final vote now and will come into force in 2005. The basics content of EN 441 was kept, but new procedures like the one applicable to the testing of cabinets with remote condensing units where integrated. For Switzerland, it is suggested to develop a strategy for improving the efficiency of RDCs. The best way would be the introduction of an efficiency label. For this goal, the help of the 'key players' in Europe would be necessary. If this does not work out, it should be considered to adapt the measures or programs which were introduced in the Netherlands or in Australia and New Zealand. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the Solitaire system in a canine arterial thromboembolic occlusion model: is it safe for the endothelium? (United States)

    Park, Soonchan; Hwang, Seon Moon; Song, Joon Seon; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Deok Hee


    The Solitaire system has recently been increasingly used for acute stroke treatment in which the endothelial safety immediately after its use has not been evaluated. This study was performed to evaluate the endothelial status when using a Solitaire system in a canine arterial occlusion model. Thromboembolic occlusion of both internal maxillary arteries was achieved in five mongrel dogs. In each animal, the Solitaire system (ev3, Irvine, CA, USA) was used for primary thrombectomy on the right side and for temporary stenting on the left side. Efficacy was assessed by comparing the recanalization rates, and safety was assessed using angiographic and microscopic assessments. Endothelial injuries were evaluated with light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Successful revascularizations were observed following primary thrombectomy in all five animals (100%) and after temporary stenting in two (40%). There was no incidence of vasospasm or vessel perforation in either group. Distal migration of the clot occurred in two animals that underwent primary thrombectomy. Endothelial injury was seen after primary thrombectomy in two animals (40%) and after temporary stenting in one (20%). The lesions presented as defects of the internal elastic lamina on LM and denudation of the wavy endothelial surface on SEM. During mechanical thrombectomy, the Solitaire system can cause endothelial injury both in primary thrombectomy and temporary stenting. Primary thrombectomy is likely to have a higher recanalization rate with increased endothelial injury.

  17. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.


    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  18. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1988 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.


    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1988. Estimated kokanee abundance in early September was 10.2 million fish. This estimate is 70% higher than 1987 and 140% higher than the populations's low point in 1986. Increased population size over the past two years is the result of two consecutive strong year classes produced from high recruitment of hatchery and wild fry. High recruitment of wild fry in 1988 resulted from good parental escapement (strong year class) in 1987 and relatively high fry survival. Hatchery fry made up 51% of total fry recruitment (73% of total fry biomass), which is the largest contribution since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. High hatchery fry abundance resulted from a large release (13 million fry) from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery and excellent fry survival (29%) during their first summer in Lake Pend Oreille. Improved fry release strategies enhanced survival, which doubled from 1987 to 1988 and was ten times higher than survival in 1986. Our research goal is to maintain 30% survival so we are very optimistic, but need to replicate additional years to address annual variability. 27 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Numerical Simulation on the Food Package Temperature in Refrigerated Display Cabinet Influenced by Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhijuan


    Full Text Available In order to study the relation between the food package temperature and ambient environment, the food package temperature is investigated by numerical simulation under the different conditions, such as evaporator outlet velocities, ambient temperatures, and relative humidity. In the present computation, the influence of mass transfer and radiation is considered. The computational results show that the front and top food package temperature rises to 0.1 ~ 1.2°C due to the effect of light. At the investigated range of this paper, the food package temperature decreases when the air curtain velocity increases, but the food package temperature also increases with increase of ambient temperature and humidity. At the same time, the food package temperature decreases 0.2 ~ 1.1°C when air curtain outlet velocity increased by 0.15 m/s. The food package temperature rises about 0.6°C when ambient temperature increases by 2°C. The food package temperature rises about 0.9°C when ambient humidity increases by 20%. Therefore, the study can provide the reference for the design of refrigerated display cabinet.

  20. Evaluation of a storage cabinet for heat-sensitive endoscopes in a clinical setting. (United States)

    Grandval, P; Hautefeuille, G; Marchetti, B; Pineau, L; Laugier, R


    In most countries, endoscopes must be disinfected or fully reprocessed before the beginning of each session, even if they were cleaned and disinfected after their last use. Several storage cabinets for heat-sensitive endoscopes (SCHE) are commercially available. They are designed to maintain the microbiological quality of reprocessed endoscopes for a predefined period of time validated by the SCHE manufacturer. Use of an SCHE increases the acceptable storage time before it is necessary to re-disinfect the endoscope. To evaluate the efficacy of an SCHE (DSC8000, Soluscope, SAS Marseilles, France) in a clinical setting. The microbiological quality of endoscopes was assessed after 72 h of storage in an SCHE (Group I), and compared with the microbiological quality of endoscopes stored for 72 h in a clean, dry, dedicated cupboard without morning disinfection (Group II) and the microbiological quality of endoscopes stored for 72 h in a clean, dry, dedicated cupboard with morning disinfection (Group III). Forty-one endoscopes in each group were sampled for microbiological quality. Endoscope contamination levels were analysed according to guidelines published by the National Technical Committee on Nosocomial Infection in 2007. Use of an SCHE helps to maintain the microbiological quality of endoscopes, provided that staff members are well trained and all practices are framed by a proven quality assurance process. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Eighteenth Century Technological Efficiency: The Reuse of Brazilian Sugar Chest Wood in Portuguese Cabinet Manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL


    Full Text Available We studied decorative Portuguese furniture from the 18th century Clerigos Church in Porto, to identify the woods used, to analyze their possible origin and understand the criteria for wood choice, according to sample location. We identified wood from Acacia sp., Castanea sativa, Couratari sp. and Dalbergia nigra. D. nigra, Acacia sp. and Couratari sp. may have arrived from Brazil, according to their natural distribution and the Portuguese colonial routes; C. sativa was abundant in the North Region of Portugal. In the 18th century, golden metal brass over black furniture was in fashion in Portuguese ecclesiastical cabinet making. Due to its dark colour, Dalbergia nigra was a desirable wood for the exposed structures of ecclesiastical furniture, such as top drawers and top tables. Couratari is a pale wood. Therefore, it was used in the inner structure of the drawers and legs. Acacia wood was also used in internal parts due to its durability. C. sativa was local and extensive; its wood was used in the inner structures, where it could not be seen. Marks were found in the Couratari wood, which indicated that the timber from chest boards employed to carry sugar from Brazil to Portugal was reused. The high silica content of Couratari wood makes it ideal for building sugar chests.

  2. A Safe, Self-Calibrating, Wireless System for Measuring Volume of Any Fuel at Non-Horizontal Orientation (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.


    A system for wirelessly measuring the volume of fluid in tanks at non-horizontal orientation is predicated upon two technologies developed at Langley Research Center. The first is a magnetic field response recorder that powers and interrogates magnetic field response sensors [ Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System, (LAR-16908), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 28]. Magnetic field response sensors are a class of sensors that are powered via oscillating magnetic fields and when electrically active respond with their own magnetic fields whose attributes are dependent upon the magnitude of the physical quantity being measured. The response recorder facilitates the use of the second technology, which is a magnetic field response fluid-level sensor ["Wireless Fluid- Level Sensors for Harsh Environments," (LAR-17155), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 4 (April 2009), page 30]. The method for powering and interrogating the sensors allows them to be completely encased in materials (Fig. 1) that are chemically resilient to the fluid being measured, thereby facilitating measurement of substances (e.g., acids, petroleum, cryogenic, caustic, and the like) that would normally destroy electronic circuitry. When the sensors are encapsulated, no fluid (or fluid vapor) is exposed to any electrical component of the measurement system. There is no direct electrical line from the vehicle or plant power into a fuel container. The means of interrogating and powering the sensors can be completely physically and electrically isolated from the fuel and vapors by placing the sensor on the other side of an electrically non-conductive bulkhead (Fig. 2). These features prevent the interrogation system and its electrical components from becoming an ignition source.

  3. Prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation: novel and safe strategy based on the modulation of the antioxidant system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón eRodrigo


    Full Text Available Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia following cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The pathogenesis of postoperative AF is multifactorial. Oxidative stress, caused by the unavoidable ischemia-reperfusion event occurring in this setting, is a major contributory factor. ROS-derived effects could result in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation or DNA oxidation of cardiac tissue, thus leading to functional and structural myocardial remodeling. The vulnerability of myocardial tissue to the oxidative challenge is also dependent on the activity of the antioxidant system. High ROS levels, overwhelming this system, should result in deleterious cellular effects, such as the induction of necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy. Nevertheless, tissue exposure to low to moderate ROS levels could trigger a survival response with a trend to reinforce the antioxidant defense system. Administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, known to involve a moderate ROS production, is consistent with a diminished vulnerability to the development of postoperative AF. Accordingly, supplementation of n-3 PUFA successfully reduced the incidence of postoperative AF after coronary bypass grafting. This response is due to an up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, as shown in experimental models. In turn, non-enzymatic antioxidant reinforcement through vitamin C administration prior to cardiac surgery has also reduced the postoperative AF incidence. Therefore, it should be expected that a mixed therapy result in an improvement of the cardioprotective effect by modulating both components of the antioxidant system. We present available evidence supporting the view of an effective prevention of postoperative AF including a 2-step therapeutic strategy: n-3 PUFA followed by vitamin C supplementation to patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The present study should encourage the design of clinical

  4. Adaptive Biomedical Innovation: Evolving Our Global System to Sustainably and Safely Bring New Medicines to Patients in Need. (United States)

    Hirsch, G; Trusheim, M; Cobbs, E; Bala, M; Garner, S; Hartman, D; Isaacs, K; Lumpkin, M; Lim, R; Oye, K; Pezalla, E; Saltonstall, P; Selker, H


    The current system of biomedical innovation is unable to keep pace with scientific advancements. We propose to address this gap by reengineering innovation processes to accelerate reliable delivery of products that address unmet medical needs. Adaptive biomedical innovation (ABI) provides an integrative, strategic approach for process innovation. Although the term "ABI" is new, it encompasses fragmented "tools" that have been developed across the global pharmaceutical industry, and could accelerate the evolution of the system through more coordinated application. ABI involves bringing stakeholders together to set shared objectives, foster trust, structure decision-making, and manage expectations through rapid-cycle feedback loops that maximize product knowledge and reduce uncertainty in a continuous, adaptive, and sustainable learning healthcare system. Adaptive decision-making, a core element of ABI, provides a framework for structuring decision-making designed to manage two types of uncertainty - the maturity of scientific and clinical knowledge, and the behaviors of other critical stakeholders. © 2016 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  5. An art report to analyze internal and external research status for the establishment of the safe supply system of the foods for military meal service using ionization energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jang Ho; Jo, Cheol Hun; Kim, Dong Ho; Lee, You Seok


    Since the risk of food-borne pathogenic diseases such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella always remains in the military meal service system, it is necessary to develop the method to eliminate this problem. According to the preference survey of military meals, it is shown that soldiers preferred the improvement in quality such as tastes and variety to the increase in quantity. For this reason, the supply of diverse foods, improvement of cooking methods, and the complement of meal service facilities are required. The developed countries such as the United States maintain the facilities to control the environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, and oxygen and they develop and use the rapid methods to test the storage times of each category of foods based on the theoretical studies of food storage/preservation/processing and their experimental data. Due to the ordinary sanitation methods are gradually limited all over the world, as new technology for prevention of food-borne diseases and establishment to manufacture wholesome food, a radiation technology is very effective to ensure safe food and preservation/distribution, improve the safety of processed food and its manufacturing processes. And, the military meal service including combat rations furnishes viability, energy, ability for duty, and mental rest to soldiers. Furthermore, it ensures combat capabilities, enhances mobility power of troops, improves combat efficiency, and establishes the military supply system. It is necessary to study irradiation technique in order to establish the safe food supply system for military meal service and eliminate contamination such as food-borne disease for combat crews as an essential element in military power.

  6. A New Environmentally Safe Formulation and of Low Cost for Prolonged Release System of Atrazine and Diuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracy karla da Rocha Cortes


    Full Text Available Diuron and atrazine were incorporated in new formulations developed with the purpose to improve herbicides action through release systems, as well as to reduce the environmental toxicity. A low cost formulation (ALG/ESC was obtained by combining sodium alginate (ALG with fish scales of the Piau fish (ESC from the Leporinus elongatus species. From the crosslinking of ALG/ESC with CaCl2, the formulation ALG/ESC-CaCl2 was obtained. For ALG/ESC-CaCl2, the results are successful, showing a prolonged release of 3.5 and 4.5 days for atrazine and diuron, respectively. Based on parameters of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, it appears that the release systems of diuron and atrazine from ALG/ESC-CaCl2 are by diffusion processes due to anomalous transport, which did not follow Fick’s laws of diffusion. DOI:

  7. Pediatric Patient with Incidental Os Odontoideum Safely Treated with Posterior Fixation Using Rod-Hook System and Preoperative Planning Using 3D Printer: A Case Report. (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi


    Os odontoideum is often found incidentally. Surgical treatment is recommended for patients with atlantoaxial instability or neurologic deficits. Although various techniques have been used for C1-C2 fusion in adults, the use of these procedures in children is not widely accepted. We present a 12-year-old boy with incidental os odontoideum and obvious C1-C2 instability, in which bony union was achieved safely and successfully by posterior fixation using a rod-hook system and perioperative planning using a three-dimensional printer. At the 2-year follow-up, bone formation around the gap of the dens, which has been generally considered as pseudoarthrosis, was obtained after union of the posterior element of C1-C2. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — General description of the system (United States)

    Mansani, L.; Bruzzone, M.; Frambati, S.; Reale, M.


    In the framework of research on generation-IV reactors, it is very important to have infrastructures specifically dedicated to the study of fundamental parameters in dynamics and kinetics of future fast-neutron reactors. Among various options pursued by international groups, Italy focused on lead-cooled reactors, which guarantee minimal neutron slowdown and capture and efficient cooling. In this paper it is described the design of a the low-power prototype generator, LEADS, that could be used within research facilities such as the National Laboratory of Legnaro of the INFN. The LEADS has a high safety standard in order to be used as a training facility, but it has also a good flexibility so as to allow a wide range of measurements and experiments. A high safety standard is achieved by limiting the reactor power to less than few hundred kW and the neutron multiplication factor k eff to less than 0.95 (a limiting value for spent fuel pool), by using a pure-uranium fuel (no plutonium) and by using solid lead as a diffuser. The proposed core is therefore intrinsically subcritical and has to be driven by an external neutron source generated by a proton beam impinging in a target. Preliminary simulations, performed with the MCNPX code indicated, for a 0.75mA continuous proton beam current at 70MeV proton energy, a reactor power of about 190kW when using a beryllium converter. The enriched-uranium fuel elements are immersed in a solid-lead matrix and contained within a steel vessel. The system is cooled by helium gas, which is transparent to neutrons and does not undergo activation. The gas is pumped by a compressor through specific holes at the entrance of the active volume with a temperature which varies according to the operating conditions and a pressure of about 1.1MPa. The hot gas coming out of the vessel is cooled by an external helium-water heat exchanger. The beryllium converter is cooled by its dedicated helium gas cooling system. After shutdown, the decay is

  9. Voluntary certification systems in the EU wine sector: How to recognise quality and be safe from confusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandi Silvia


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant growth in voluntary certification schemes field in wine sector, by following a general trend that has characterised agricultural products and foodstuffs. The voluntary certification system is aimed at adding value to products, while differentiating it on the related market. The paper presents the preliminary results of a work-in-progress research on the voluntary certification schemes in the Italian wine sector. Through a case-study analysis, the paper is aimed at highlighting the emerging implementation issues. The scope of the case-studies is limited to three voluntary certification schemes, which underlie similarities with the organic wine farming and operate at business-to-consumer level. The paper is divided in three parts. Part I will examine the relevant legal framework on wine quality standards, by framing the legislation in mandatory, regulatory and voluntary. Part II will consider three case-studies of voluntary certification schemes that are implemented in the Italian wine sector. Part III will analyse the emerging issues that arise from the analysis of the case-studies. In conclusion, the paper highlights the key challenge, which concerns finding a trade-off between consumer protection and the promotion of free trade in an openly competitive market.

  10. In vitro tuberization of Chlorophytum Borivilianum Sant & Fern (Safed musli) as influenced by sucrose, CCC and culture systems. (United States)

    Farshad Ashraf, Mehdi; Abd Aziz, Maheran; Abdul Kadir, Mihdzar; Stanslas, Johnson; Farokhian, Elmira


    This study focuses on the establishment of in vitro tuberization of Chlorophytum borivilianum using solid and liquid culture systems. A high in vitro tuberization rate on solid and stationary liquid Murashige and Skoog media was observed in the presence of 60 g l⁻¹ sucrose with 950, 1,265 and 1,580 µM 2-chloroethyl-trimethylammonium chloride (CCC). Application of a higher sucrose concentration of 90 g l⁻¹ showed a negative interaction with CCC on in vitro tuber number and days to in vitro tuber induction. For economic feasibility, 950 µM CCC with 60 g l⁻¹ sucrose was chosen as the best combination for in vitro tuberization in both solid and stationary liquid media. For optimization of in vitro tuber production,a comparison between solid, stationary liquid and shake liquid culture was carried out. Liquid culture with shaking at 80 r.p.m. resulted in a >2.5-fold increase in in vitro tuber production compared with solid culture.

  11. On the Prototyping of an ICT-Enhanced Toilet System for Assisting Older Persons Living Independently and Safely at Home. (United States)

    Panek, Paul; Fazekas, Gabor; Lüftenegger, Theresa; Mayer, Peter; Pilissy, Tamas; Raffaelli, Matteo; Rist, Atilla; Rosenthal, Ramona; Savanovic, Arso; Sobjak, Anna; Sonntag, Franziska; Toth, Andras; Unger, Birgit


    Standard toilets often do not meet the needs of a significant number of older persons and persons with disabilities. The EU funded iToilet project aims at design and development of a new type of ICT enhanced modular toilet system which shall be able to support autonomy, dignity and safety of older persons living at home. Methodologically the project started with gathering user requirements by means of questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussion involving a total of 74 persons, thereof 41 subjects with movement disorders (primary users), 21 caregivers (secondary users) and 12 healthcare managers (tertiary users). Most important wishes were bilateral removable handrails, height and tilt adjustment, emergency detection, simplicity. In parallel to the ongoing technical development participatory design activities have been carried out at user test sites in order to continuously involve users into the design process and to allow quick feedback with regards to early prototype parts. The project currently is working on the finalization of the first prototype ready to enter the lab trial stage in spring 2017. The experiences will be used for redesigning a prototype 2 which is planned to be tested in real life settings early 2018.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Nechaev


    Full Text Available Given paper, states the ensuring of the interpretation of the basic radiation protection principles, relative to the works at the Object Shelter (OS. Analysis of the factors of radiation situation at the OS is figured out. Functioning at the present time individual dose monitoring (IDM system at the OS is describe. The system is based on the methods of biophysical monitoring. A series of the results, obtained during internal exposure individual dose monitoring of the personnel is presented. It is mentioned, that implementation of the internal exposure dose biophysical monitoring system (during the works on transformation of the OS into ecologically safe system allows:  provide adequate level of the IDM of the internal exposure dose (the level is corresponds to the present day requirements of the radiation protection; develop the recommendations on selection of individual means of protection of respiratory tract; ensure determination of the parameters of radioactive air contamination in the work areas; and, provide the optimal planning of dose load to the personnel.

  13. How safe are recently FDA-approved antimicrobials? A review of the FDA adverse event reporting system database. (United States)

    Khadem, Tina M; van Manen, Robbert P; Brown, Jack


    To review quantitatively and qualitatively the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) database to provide clinicians with a general understanding of the comparative occurrence of clinically meaningful adverse events associated with 15 antimicrobial new molecular entities approved by the FDA since 2006: anidulafungin, darunavir, maraviroc, raltegravir, doripenem, telavancin, ceftaroline, boceprevir, telaprevir, fidaxomicin, bedaquiline, dolutegravir, simeprevir, sofosbuvir, and dalbavancin. Retrospective analysis. FDA AERS database. Empirica Signal software was used to query the AERS database from November 1968 to December 2012. Using disproportionality analyses, we calculated a relative reporting ratio (RRR) estimate for reports of antimicrobial adverse events. The RRR estimate compares the occurrence of a specific adverse event with an index drug of interest to the occurrence of the same adverse event with similar agents or with all other FDA-approved prescription drugs. Common industry practice considers an RRR meaningful if the 5th percentile of the distribution is at least 2 (RRR05 of 2.0 or higher). Antimicrobials were compared with agents within their respective antimicrobial therapeutic class as well as with all agents in the AERS database. Seventeen adverse signals with an RRR05 of 2.0 or higher were identified from the database for six agents. Ten of the 17 signals were not included in the most up-to-date manufacturers' package inserts for four of the six agents: doripenem-associated hepatic dysfunction (RRR05 3.7) and hyperchloremia (RRR05 2.6); boceprevir-associated weight loss (RRR05 2.2); darunavir-associated premature labor (RRR05 3.1), sudden infant death syndrome (RRR05 2.9), ventricular hypertrophy (RRR05 2.7), acute coronary syndrome (RRR05 2.4), and congenital anomaly in offspring (RRR05 2.4); and raltegravir-associated congenital heart valve disorders (RRR05 2.5) and SIDS (RRR05 2.3). Clinically meaningful

  14. Safe Streets in Tacoma. (United States)

    Nebgen, Mary


    In Tacoma, Washington, the Safe Street Campaign united the schools, government agencies, labor groups, community and religious organizations, businesses, youth, and substance abuse agencies in responding to gangs and drugs. (MLF)

  15. Karate: Keep It Safe. (United States)

    Jordan, David


    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  16. Safe Sleep for Babies (United States)

    ... serve mothers and babies to deliver culturally appropriate messaging about safe sleep for babies. Monitoring and evaluating ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  17. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni


    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  18. Radiation protection and health of personnel of contracting enterprises participating in works for transformation of the object "shelter" of SSE Chornobyl NPP into an ecologically safe system. (United States)

    Sushko, V A; Bazyka, D A; Likhtarev, I A; Lyashenko, L A; Berkovskiy, V B; Loganovskiy, K N; Nechaev, S U; Shvayko, L I; Sarkisova, E A; Kolosynska, O O; Drozdova, V D; Bonchuck, Y V; Arjasov, P B; Nezgovorova, G A; Tatarenko, O M


    Transformation of the object "Shelter" (OS) of SSE Chornobyl NPP into an ecologically safe system is one of the most important state programs in Ukraine. Both medical and dosimetric measures on healthcare of personnel participating in these works ranks the main place among most actual problems of contemporary clinical radiobiology, radiation hygiene, and radiation protection. The study objective was to work out and implement the medical and biophysical checking of the health status and workability both with radiation protection of personnel executing works on transformation of OS into an ecologically safe system. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The interdependent complex program of medical and biophysical (for internal and external irradiation) control of personnel executing the production tasks under conditions of ionizing radiation impact and open sources of ionizing radiation. Realization of medical examination envisages the estimation of the status of haemopoietic, immune, endocrine, respiratory systems, organ of vision, nervous system, psychics status and psychophysiological adaptation, ear, both with circulatory, digestive, urogenital, and bone-muscular system. There were 19434 cases of medical control of personnel in total. Results of the input medical control testify to the following: 4698 (48.90%) were admitted to work, 4909 (51.10%) were rejected. Individual annual effective doses of irradiation in the major part of cases did not exceed 12 mSv. There were 1845 cases of 239+240Pu content in excrements exceeding the level of 1.5 mBq/sample at a current biophysical control. Individual doses of internal irradiation at that did not exceed 1 mSv. The program of medical and biophysical service for reconstruction works on the OS proved its necessity and efficiency as its results showed that under the unique radiation-hygienical conditions not engineering challenges and technical problems but issues of how to save the health and workability of people and prevent the

  19. Facilitators and Barriers to Safe Medication Administration to Hospital Inpatients: A Mixed Methods Study of Nurses' Medication Administration Processes and Systems (the MAPS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsey McLeod

    Full Text Available Research has documented the problem of medication administration errors and their causes. However, little is known about how nurses administer medications safely or how existing systems facilitate or hinder medication administration; this represents a missed opportunity for implementation of practical, effective, and low-cost strategies to increase safety.To identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration focused on three inter-related areas: nurse practices and workarounds, workflow, and interruptions and distractions.We used a mixed-methods ethnographic approach involving observational fieldwork, field notes, participant narratives, photographs, and spaghetti diagrams to identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration in three inpatient wards, each from a different English NHS trust. We supplemented this with quantitative data on interruptions and distractions among other established medication safety measures.Overall, 43 nurses on 56 drug rounds were observed. We identified a median of 5.5 interruptions and 9.6 distractions per hour. We identified three interlinked themes that facilitated successful medication administration in some situations but which also acted as barriers in others: (1 system configurations and features, (2 behaviour types among nurses, and (3 patient interactions. Some system configurations and features acted as a physical constraint for parts of the drug round, however some system effects were partly dependent on nurses' inherent behaviour; we grouped these behaviours into 'task focused', and 'patient-interaction focused'. The former contributed to a more streamlined workflow with fewer interruptions while the latter seemed to empower patients to act as a defence barrier against medication errors by being: (1 an active resource of information, (2 a passive information resource, and/or (3 a 'double-checker'.We have identified practical

  20. Vitamins, Are They Safe?


    Hadi Hamishehkar; Farhad Ranjdoost; Parina Asgharian; Ata Mahmoodpoor; Sarvin Sanaie


    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MED...

  1. Effects of open-air temperature on air temperature inside biological safety cabinet. (United States)

    Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeno, Katsuro; Yamamura, Keiko; Osada, Takashi; Soda, Midori; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ando, Yuichi; Wakiya, Yoshifumi


    In Japan, biological safety cabinets (BSCs) are normally used by medical staff while handling antineoplastic agents. We have also set up a class II B2 BSC at the Division of Chemotherapy for Outpatients. The air temperature inside this BSC, however, decreases in winter. We assumed that this decrease is caused by the intake of open-air. Therefore, we investigated the effects of low open-air temperature on the BSC temperature and the time of admixtures of antineoplastic agents. The studies were conducted from January 1 to March 31, 2008. The outdoor air temperature was measured in the shade near the intake nozzle of the BSC and was compared with the BSC temperature. The correlation between the outdoor air temperature and the BSC temperature, the dissolution time of cyclophosphamide (CPA) and gemcitabine (GEM), and accurate weight measurement of epirubicin (EPI) solution were investigated for low and normal BSC temperatures. The BSC temperature was correlated with the open-air temperature for open-air temperatures of 5-20°C (p < 0.0001). The dissolution of CPA and GEM at these temperatures was significantly delayed as compared to that at 25°C (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The weight measurement of EPI solution using a syringe method lacks accuracy because of its high coefficient of viscosity at low temperatures (p < 0.01). These results suggest that the BSC temperature decreases below room temperature in winter when air is drawn from outdoors. We showed that the BSC temperature affects the dissolution rate of antineoplastic agents. Further, we suggested that the BSC temperature drop might delay the affair of the admixtures of antineoplastic agents and increase the waiting time of outpatients for chemotherapy.

  2. Validation of peracetic acid as a sporicide for sterilization of working surfaces in biological safety cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina B.R. Sella


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to validate the use of peracetic acid as sporicide agent to decontaminate the workingsurface of a laminar flow biological safety cabinet (BSC, as an alternative to glutaraldehyde, including the selection ofthe disinfecting agent, the method of application, and the contact time.Materials and methods: The test organism was the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372, which isa surrogate for an important infectious agent. Spore cultures were prepared from B. atrophaeus and used them to testthe sporicidal efficacy of peracetic acid on a BSC stainless steel surface. The performance of the sterilant was assessedby determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and by microbial challenge in conditions that mimicked surfacecontamination. It was used 2.0% glutaraldehyde solution as the control.Results: The range of MICs was 0.6-1.1% for the control and 0.003-0.006% for the 0.2% peracetic acid solution. The 0.2%peracetic acid was an effective sterilant against B. atrophaeus spores (6-7 log spores, under defined conditions of useafter 40 min contact time, which was double that recommended on the product label.Conclusion: It was conclude that while the results of official methods can help to evaluate how products will perform,they are not usually reproducible in real-life user conditions and environments. Validation tests must be carried out toensure the efficacy and safety of surface decontamination procedures. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(3: 93-99Key words: Peracetic acid, sporicidal activity, sterility, Bacillus atrophaeus spores, glutaraldehyde

  3. Effects of a direct refill program for automated dispensing cabinets on medication-refill errors. (United States)

    Helmons, Pieter J; Dalton, Ashley J; Daniels, Charles E


    The effects of a direct refill program for automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) on medication-refill errors were studied. This study was conducted in designated acute care areas of a 386-bed academic medical center. A wholesaler-to-ADC direct refill program, consisting of prepackaged delivery of medications and bar-code-assisted ADC refilling, was implemented in the inpatient pharmacy of the medical center in September 2009. Medication-refill errors in 26 ADCs from the general medicine units, the infant special care unit, the surgical and burn intensive care units, and intermediate units were assessed before and after the implementation of this program. Medication-refill errors were defined as an ADC pocket containing the wrong drug, wrong strength, or wrong dosage form. ADC refill errors decreased by 77%, from 62 errors per 6829 refilled pockets (0.91%) to 8 errors per 3855 refilled pockets (0.21%) (p error type detected before the intervention was the incorrect medication (wrong drug, wrong strength, or wrong dosage form) in the ADC pocket. Of the 54 incorrect medications found before the intervention, 38 (70%) were loaded in a multiple-drug drawer. After the implementation of the new refill process, 3 of the 5 incorrect medications were loaded in a multiple-drug drawer. There were 3 instances of expired medications before and only 1 expired medication after implementation of the program. A redesign of the ADC refill process using a wholesaler-to-ADC direct refill program that included delivery of prepackaged medication and bar-code-assisted refill significantly decreased the occurrence of ADC refill errors.

  4. Fentanyl Iontophoretic Transdermal System (IONSYS(®)) can be Safely used in the Hospital Environment with X-Rays, Computerized Tomography and Radiofrequency Identification Devices. (United States)

    Lemke, John; Sardariani, Edmond; Phipps, Joseph Bradley; Patel, Niki; Itri, Loretta M; Caravelli, James; Viscusi, Eugene R


    Fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (fentanyl ITS, IONSYS(®)) is a patient-controlled analgesia system used for the management of acute postoperative pain, designed to be utilized in a hospital setting. The objective of the two studies was to determine if fentanyl ITS could be safely used with X-rays, computerized tomography (CT) scans and radiofrequency identification (RFID) devices. The ITS system has two components: controller and drug unit; the studies utilized ITS systems without fentanyl, referred to as the ITS Placebo system. The first study evaluated the effect of X-radiation on the operation of an ITS Placebo system. Five ITS Placebo systems were exposed to X-rays (20 and 200 mSv total radiation dose-the 200 mSv radiation dose represents a tenfold higher exposure than in clinical practice) while operating in the Ready Mode and five were exposed while operating in the Dose Mode. The second study evaluated the effect of RFID (worst-case scenario of direct contact with an RFID transmitter) on the operation of an ITS Placebo system. During these tests, observations of the user interface and measurements of output voltage confirmed proper function throughout all operational modes (Ready Mode, Dose Mode, End-of-Use Mode, and End-of-Life Mode). The ITS Placebo system met all specifications and no functional anomalies were observed during and following X-ray exposure at two radiation dose levels or exposure at six different combinations of RFID frequencies and field strengths. The performance of the ITS system was unaffected by X-ray exposure levels well beyond those associated with diagnostic X-rays and CT scans, and by exposure to radiofrequency field strengths typically generated by RFID devices. These results provide added confidence to clinicians that the fentanyl ITS system does not need to be removed during diagnostic X-rays and CT scans and can also be utilized in close proximity to RFID devices. The studies and writing of this manuscript were

  5. Development of a safe ultraviolet camera system to enhance awareness by showing effects of UV radiation and UV protection of the skin (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Wedzinga, Rosaline; van Montfrans, Bibi; Stok, Mirte; Klaessens, John; van der Veen, Albert


    The significant increase of skin cancer occurring in the western world is attributed to longer sun expose during leisure time. For prevention, people should become aware of the risks of UV light exposure by showing skin damage and the protective effect of sunscreen with an UV camera. An UV awareness imaging system optimized for 365 nm (UV-A) was develop using consumer components being interactive, safe and mobile. A Sony NEX5t camera was adapted to full spectral range. In addition, UV transparent lenses and filters were selected based on spectral characteristics measured (Schott S8612 and Hoya U-340 filters) to obtain the highest contrast for e.g. melanin spots and wrinkles on the skin. For uniform UV illumination, 2 facial tanner units were adapted with UV 365 nm black light fluorescent tubes. Safety of the UV illumination was determined relative to the sun and with absolute irradiance measurements at the working distance. A maximum exposure time over 15 minutes was calculate according the international safety standards. The UV camera was successfully demonstrated during the Dutch National Skin Cancer day and was well received by dermatologists and participating public. Especially, the 'black paint' effect putting sun screen on the face was dramatic and contributed to the awareness of regions on the face what are likely to be missed applying sunscreen. The UV imaging system shows to be promising for diagnostics and clinical studies in dermatology and potentially in other areas (dentistry and ophthalmology)

  6. A Carboniferous Cabinet of Wonders: an example of how the collaboration of art and Earth Sciences can inspire conservation (United States)

    Grey, Melissa; Rogers, Janine


    The Joggins Fossil Cliffs (Nova Scotia, Canada) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site representing the Late Carboniferous time period (ca. 310-325 mya). The site was formative for Charles Lyell in constructing his geological principles. It is still the best place in the world to view fossils from the Carboniferous 'Coal Age', a time when much of the coal that we use today was formed. The Joggins Fossil Institute is a not-for-profit, charitable organization that co-manages the site with the Province of Nova Scotia. Its mission is to conduct research and educate the public about Earth Sciences through interpretation (e.g., exhibits and tours of the site) and a fossil collection. Fossils are the only direct evidence of how biodiversity has changed over deep time; they are the texts and artifacts that we 'read' in order to understand the development of the earth and that can help humans decipher the deeper histories that produced us. At the Joggins Fossil Institute we primarily present the scientific history of the Carboniferous Period through the use of fossils, but we are also interested in the cultural history of coal production and usage, which is an essential part of the region's economic history. However, this industry has also contributed to climate change and the emergence of a new geological age called the Anthropocene. We encourage our visitors to connect palaeontology and coal energy consumption, and ask them to consider how different values (economic and scientific) are attributed to both coal and fossils; such questions lead directly to discussions about conservation issues. The Joggins Fossil Institute has partnered with the Faculty of Arts at nearby Mount Allison University to create an exhibit that will interrogate these questions. The medium of display that we have chosen is the "cabinet of wonders" or "cabinet of curiosity," which has a rich tradition in western cultures going back to the Renaissance. A venerable intersection of art and science, the cabinet

  7. Minimum Infectious Dose Determination of the Arkansas Delmarva Poultry Industry Infectious Bronchitis Virus Vaccine Delivered by Hatchery Spray Cabinet. (United States)

    Leyson, Christina M; Hilt, Deborah A; Jordan, Brian J; Jackwood, Mark W


    The Arkansas Delmarva Poultry Industry (ArkDPI) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine is effective when administered by eye drop, where the vaccine virus is able to infect and replicate well in birds and is able to induce protection against homologous challenge. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the ArkDPI vaccine is ineffective when applied by hatchery spray cabinet using the same manufacturer-recommended dose per bird. For this study, we aimed to determine the minimum infectious dose for the spray-administered ArkDPI vaccine, which we designate as the dose that achieves the same level of infection and replication as the eye drop-administered ArkDPI vaccine. To this end, we used increasing doses of commercial ArkDPI vaccine to vaccinate 100 commercial broiler chicks at day of hatch, using a commercial hatchery spray cabinet. The choanal cleft of each bird was swabbed at 7 and 10 days postvaccination, and real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR was performed. We observed that the level of infection and replication with spray vaccination matches with that of eye drop vaccination when chicks received 100 times the standard dose for the commercial ArkDPI vaccine. We further examined the S1 spike gene sequence from a subset of reisolated ArkDPI vaccine virus samples and observed that certain nucleotide changes arise in vaccine viruses reisolated from chicks, as previously reported. This suggests that the ArkDPI vaccine has a certain virus subpopulation that, while successful at infecting and replicating in chicks, represents only a minor virus subpopulation in the original vaccine. Thus, the minimum infectious dose for the ArkDPI vaccine using a hatchery spray cabinet appears to be dependent on the amount of this minor subpopulation reaching the chicks.

  8. Safe Surgery Trainer (United States)


    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period July 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 Submitted: 15 Aug 2015...DATE 15 AUG 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2015 to 31-07-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is subject to the restriction

  9. A safe and efficient hepatocyte-selective carrier system based on myristoylated preS1/21-47 domain of hepatitis B virus (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Chen, Tijia; Wang, Xinyi; Fu, Yao; Jin, Yun; Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong


    A safe and efficient liver targeted PEGylated liposome (PEG-Lip) based on N-terminal myristoylated preS1/21-47 (preS1/21-47myr) of hepatitis B virus was successfully developed. The study aimed to elucidate the cellular uptake mechanism of preS1/21-47myr modified PEG-Lip (preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip) in hepatogenic cells and the distribution behavior of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip in Vr:CD1 (ICR) mice. The cellular uptake results showed that preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip was effectively taken up by hepatogenic cells (including primary hepatocytes and liver tumor cells) through a receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway compared with non-hepatogenic cells. After systemic administration to H22 hepatoma-bearing mice, preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip showed significant liver-specific delivery and an increase in the distribution of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip in hepatic tumor. Furthermore, the antitumor effect of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) was remarkably stronger than that of PTX injection and PTX loaded liposomes (including common liposomes and PEG-Lip). In safety evaluation, no acute systemic toxicity and immunotoxicity were observed after intravenous injection of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip. No liver toxicity was observed despite the dramatic increase of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip in liver. Taken together, preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip represents a promising carrier system for targeted liver disease therapy and imaging.

  10. Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs


    process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model......We give a general technique for safe distribution of a declarative (global) process as a network of (local) synchronously communicating declarative processes. Both the global and local processes are given as Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs. DCR Graphs is a recently introduced declarative....... The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe.We prove that for any vector...

  11. Safe Halloween Thrills. (United States)

    Kuersten, Joan


    Two PTAs sponsored events that capitalized on Halloween themes, engaged their communities in fall celebrations, and were safe, wholesome, and fun. With help from local volunteers, one school turned its gymnasium into a 19th-century British town with a fall/Halloween theme. Another PTA hosted a carnival, Spooktacular, that involved community…

  12. Safe Motherhood in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    very important that midwives be available for the well being of these women. However, mere presence of ... nurse-midwives in working towards safe motherhood in Malawi and some recommendations in an attempt ... hospitals, the working conditions worsen for the remaining nurs- es and as a result they are also tempted to ...

  13. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  14. The safe spinal anaesthetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and complications. To perform a safe procedure, the anaesthetist must have adequate knowledge of the indications and contra-indications, and of the relevant anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of spinal anaesthesia. The patient must be assessed before administration of the spinal anaesthetic and the theatre must be.

  15. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1989 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher, Brian


    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1989. Estimated kokanee abundance in late August was 7.71 million fish. Decreased population size is the result of lower hatchery and wild fry recruitment and low age 1+ survival. Lower recruitment of wild fry in 1989 resulted from a smaller parental escapement in 1988 and lower wild fry survival. Six fry release strategies were evaluated in 1989. Two groups were released in Clark Fork River to help improve a spawning run to Cabinet Gorge Hatchery. Survival from the mid-summer release, which was barged down Clark Fork River to avoid low flow problems, was not significantly different from the early release. The final assessment of these release strategies will be evaluated when adults return to Cabinet gorge Hatchery in 1992 and 1993. Fry released to support the Sullivan Springs Creek spawning run also survived will in 1989. Two open-water releases were made during early and mid-summer. 30 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Household water treatment and safe storage-effectiveness and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, Stefanie M L; Pelgrim-Adams, Alida; Szántó, Gabor L.; van Halem, D.


    Household Water Treatment and safe Storage (HWTS) systems aim to provide safe drinking water in an affordable manner to users where safe piped water supply is either not feasible or not reliable. In this study the effectiveness, economic parameters and costs of three selected HWTS systems were

  17. Immunotherapy Shown Safe in Type 1 Diabetes Clinical Trial (United States)

    ... Immunotherapy Shown Safe in Type 1 Diabetes Clinical Trial Next step is to see if it works ... Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A small clinical trial showed an immune system therapy was safe for ...

  18. Safety of Hydrogen Systems Installed in Outdoor Enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Hydrogen Safety Panel brings a broad cross-section of expertise from the industrial, government, and academic sectors to help advise the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office through its work in hydrogen safety, codes, and standards. The Panel’s initiatives in reviewing safety plans, conducting safety evaluations, identifying safety-related technical data gaps, and supporting safety knowledge tools and databases cover the gamut from research and development to demonstration and deployment. The Panel’s recent work has focused on the safe deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in support of DOE efforts to accelerate fuel cell commercialization in early market applications: vehicle refueling, material handling equipment, backup power for warehouses and telecommunication sites, and portable power devices. This paper resulted from observations and considerations stemming from the Panel’s work on early market applications. This paper focuses on hydrogen system components that are installed in outdoor enclosures. These enclosures might alternatively be called “cabinets,” but for simplicity, they are all referred to as “enclosures” in this paper. These enclosures can provide a space where a flammable mixture of hydrogen and air might accumulate, creating the potential for a fire or explosion should an ignition occur. If the enclosure is large enough for a person to enter, and ventilation is inadequate, the hydrogen concentration could be high enough to asphyxiate a person who entered the space. Manufacturers, users, and government authorities rely on requirements described in codes to guide safe design and installation of such systems. Except for small enclosures used for hydrogen gas cylinders (gas cabinets), fuel cell power systems, and the enclosures that most people would describe as buildings, there are no hydrogen safety requirements for these enclosures, leaving gaps that must be addressed. This paper proposes that

  19. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia


    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  20. Controlling immune rejection is a fail-safe system against potential tumorigenicity after human iPSC-derived neural stem cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Itakura

    Full Text Available Our previous work reported functional recovery after transplantation of mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (hiPSC-NS/PCs into rodent models of spinal cord injury (SCI. Although hiPSC-NS/PCs proved useful for the treatment of SCI, the tumorigenicity of the transplanted cells must be resolved before they can be used in clinical applications. The current study sought to determine the feasibility of ablation of the tumors formed after hiPSC-NS/PC transplantation through immunoregulation. Tumorigenic hiPSC-NS/PCs were transplanted into the intact spinal cords of immunocompetent BALB/cA mice with or without immunosuppressant treatment. In vivo bioluminescence imaging was used to evaluate the chronological survival and growth of the transplanted cells. The graft survival rate was 0% in the group without immunosuppressants versus 100% in the group with immunosuppressants. Most of the mice that received immunosuppressants exhibited hind-limb paralysis owing to tumor growth at 3 months after iPSC-NS/PC transplantation. Histological analysis showed that the tumors shared certain characteristics with low-grade gliomas rather than with teratomas. After confirming the progression of the tumors in immunosuppressed mice, the immunosuppressant agents were discontinued, resulting in the complete rejection of iPSC-NS/PC-derived masses within 42 days after drug cessation. In accordance with the tumor rejection, hind-limb motor function was recovered in all of the mice. Moreover, infiltration of microglia and lymphocytes was observed during the course of tumor rejection, along with apoptosis of iPSC-NS/PC-generated cells. Thus, immune rejection can be used as a fail-safe system against potential tumorigenicity after transplantation of iPSC-NS/PCs to treat SCI.

  1. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  2. Safe venting of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.


    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Introducing new technology safely. (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver T; Velazquez, Adriana; Banken, Reiner; Mathew, Joseph L; Ikonen, Tuija S; Taylor, Kevin; Painter, Frank; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Poon, Albert; Ruelas, Enrique


    This report considers the introduction of new technology and the implications for patient safety. A distinction is made between 'conceptually' new and 'contextually' new technology. The life cycle of technology from development to routine use is discussed and the key role for regulation, health technology assessment, clinical engineering and surveillance in this life cycle considered. The limitations of each of these disciplines are also discussed. Special consideration is given to the needs of developing countries. Case study examples of particular challenges in the safe introduction of technology are presented.

  4. Bake-Out Mobile Controls for Large Vacuum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, S; Gomes, P; Pereira, H; Kopylov, L; Merker, S; Mikheev, M


    Large vacuum systems at CERN (Large Hadron Collider - LHC, Low Energy Ion Rings - LEIR...) require bake-out to achieve ultra-high vacuum specifications. The bake-out cycle is used to decrease the outgassing rate of the vacuum vessel and to activate the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) thin film. Bake-out control is a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) regulation with complex recipes, interlocks and troubleshooting management and remote control. It is based on mobile Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) cabinets, fieldbus network and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) application. The CERN vacuum installations include more than 7 km of baked vessels; using mobile cabinets reduces considerably the cost of the control system. The cabinets are installed close to the vacuum vessels during the time of the bake-out cycle. Mobile cabinets can be used in any of the CERN vacuum facilities. Remote control is provided through a fieldbus network and a SCADA application

  5. Safe Cycling Network : developing a system for assessing the safety of cycling infrastructure. Report on behalf of the Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. Dijkstra, A. & Petegem, J.W.H. van


    ANWB has initiated a project to improve the safety of the cycling infrastructure in the Netherlands — and, in the longer term, also in other countries: the Safe Cycling Network project. This project was inspired in part by the international European Road Assessment Programme (EuroRAP/iRAP). The

  6. Curiosity's Autonomous Surface Safing Behavior Design (United States)

    Neilson, Tracy A.; Manning, Robert M.


    The safing routines on all robotic deep-space vehicles are designed to put the vehicle in a power and thermally safe configuration, enabling communication with the mission operators on Earth. Achieving this goal is made a little more difficult on Curiosity because the power requirements for the core avionics and the telecommunication equipment exceed the capability of the single power source, the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. This drove the system design to create an operational mode, called "sleep mode", where the vehicle turns off most of the loads in order to charge the two Li-ion batteries. The system must keep the vehicle safe from over-heat and under-heat conditions, battery cell failures, under-voltage conditions, and clock failures, both while the computer is running and while the system is sleeping. The other goal of a safing routine is to communicate. On most spacecraft, this simply involves turning on the receiver and transmitter continuously. For Curiosity, Earth is above the horizon only a part of the day for direct communication to the Earth, and the orbiter overpass opportunities only occur a few times a day. The design must robustly place the Rover in a communicable condition at the correct time. This paper discusses Curiosity's autonomous safing behavior and describes how the vehicle remains power and thermally safe while sleeping, as well as a description of how the Rover communicates with the orbiters and Earth at specific times.

  7. Is Daycare Tonsillectomy Safe? (United States)

    Wong, Hui Tong; Sien Hui, Tan; Chong, Aun Wee


    Tonsillectomy is one of the most common procedures performed by Ear, Nose, and Throat surgeon. Usually, the procedure is carried out as an inpatient surgery. With the increasing need to reduce healthcare costs, spare precious hospital beds, and shorten elective surgery lists, there is currently a trend towards performing tonsillectomy on a daycare basis. A prospective review of all tonsillectomies performed at the University Malaya Medical Center was undertaken for the year 2013. Demographic details, qualifying indications, and complication rates were evaluated. There was no incidence of primary hemorrhage among the 96 tonsillectomies performed. There was no significant correlation in terms of secondary hemorrhage between inpatient and day-case tonsillectomy (P=0.54). Only two patients required revision surgery to stop post-tonsillectomy bleeding. None of the patients required blood transfusion, and there were no mortalities. Daycare tonsillectomy is safe as long as the patient is carefully selected. Both medical and social aspects should be taken into consideration. A post-operative observation period of at least 6 to 8 hours is important. The surgeon should personally review the patient post-operatively and decides if he or she should be hospitalized for observation, or safe for discharge.

  8. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar


    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  9. Savoirs mondains, savoirs savants : les femmes et leurs cabinets de curiosités au siècle des Lumières

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Gargam


    Full Text Available Dans la France des Lumières, la culture de la curiosité est un phénomène de mode mais surtout un jeu social et intellectuel. La présente étude entend retracer l’histoire d’une trentaine de cabinets féminins de curiosité tenus à cette époque. Des femmes fortunées de l’aristocratie et de la bourgeoisie parisienne et provinciale ont alors constitué sous l’emprise de leur libido sciendi des cabinets d’alchimie, de minéralogie, de physique‑chimie, d’histoire naturelle et d’anatomie naturelle et artificielle. Ces cabinets obéissent à une typologie particulière. Il en existe deux catégories : les cabinets d’amateurs, constitués pour la parade et le spectacle des visiteurs et fonctionnant comme de véritables écoles de plaisirs intellectuels et éducatifs ; les cabinets à finalité scientifique et didactique, formés par des savantes expérimentées qui se livrent dans leurs laboratoires à des recherches personnelles et expérimentales au nom des progrès de la science médicale et de l’instruction publique. La réflexion porte aussi sur le fonctionnement de ces cabinets privés de curiosité, particulièrement sur leur mode de constitution, leur décor intérieur ainsi que sur le contenu des collections qui nécessitaient certaines techniques d’organisation, d’acquisition et de conservation communes à celles de leurs homologues masculins.During the Enlightenment in France, curiosity culture constituted both a fashion and an intellectual and social game.  This article explores thirty cabinets of  curiosities run by women during this period. Wealthy women from the Parisiain and provincial aristocracy and middle classes organized cabinets in alchemy, mineralogy, physics and chemistry, natural history and biology studies. These cabinets can be divided into two distinct categories. The first represented amateur interests; they were developed for show and served as schools for intellectual and

  10. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1987 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.


    Estimated kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka abundance in Lake Pend Oreille was 6.01 million during late summer 1987. This estimate is 40% higher than the 1986 estimate and is the second largest population estimate since 1977. Higher abundance is predominantly a result of enhanced fry survival and recruitment. Hatchery-reared fry contribution was 22% of total fry recruitment in 1987, compared to 8% in 1986, and resulted from a fivefold increase in survival. Much of this improvement can be attributed to the large (52 mm) fry produced at Cabinet Gorge Hatchery in 1987 and represents the first measurable contribution of the new hatchery to the kokanee rehabilitation program. Survival of hatchery-reared fry released into Clark Fork River was nearly one-half that of fry released into Sullivan Springs due to poor flow conditions and potentially high predation during migration from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery to Lake Pend Oreille. Wild fry survival was enhanced by early availability of forage (cladocern zooplankton) during fry emergence in late spring. Cladoceran production began three weeks earlier in 1987 than 1986, which resulted from reduced Mysis abundance and earlier thermal stratification of Lake Pend Oreille, which helped segregate cladocerans from mysid predation. Kokanee dry otolith coding was evaluated to provide a reliable long-term mark. Analysis of daily growth increments on otoliths was used successfully in 1987 to differentiate fry from various release sites. The technique will be refined during 1988 to include coding fry otoliths with water temperature fluctuations during hatchery residence. 23 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart (United States)

    ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and ... from other foods. Cook —Cook to the right temperature. Chill —Refrigerate food promptly. Cook all food to ...

  12. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen (United States)

    ... Term Complications of Diabetes How to Safely Give Acetaminophen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Acetaminophen ... without getting a doctor's OK first. What Is Acetaminophen Also Called? Acetaminophen is the generic name of ...

  13. Working safely with electronics racks

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head


    Think of CERN and you’ll probably think of particle accelerators and detectors. These are the tools of the trade in particle physics, but behind them are the racks of electronics that include power supplies, control systems and data acquisition networks.   Inside an electronics rack: danger could be lurking if the rack is not powered off. In routine operation, these are no more harmful than the home entertainment system in your living room. But unscrew the cover and it’s a different matter. Even after following appropriate training, and with formal authorisation from your group leader or equivalent to carry out electrical work or any work in the vicinity of electrical hazards, and even with extensive experience of carrying out such operations, it’s important to incorporate safe working practices into your routine. At CERN, before the racks of electronics reach their operational configurations for the accelerators and detectors, they play a vital role in test set-ups ...

  14. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle


    is given in the appendices. The project is planned to take three years from the start. There are 28 tasks and the total volume is 18 personyears, or 6.3 MFIM. A scientific approach will be used in performing the tasks and some of them may be subjects for post graduate studies. A close co-operation between......A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...... are described. The areas of safety that are presented are collisions, groundings, cargo shifting and ship fire. The areas of lack of knowledge are identified and the tasks within each subproject suggested. The proposal for the main project is presented in the summary. Background material of the state-of-the art...

  15. Women in executive positions. The influence of institutional factors and gender stereotypes on women’s representation in the Peruvian presidential cabinet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Poskočilová


    Full Text Available El presente artículo de reflexión trata de la represen- tación de las mujeres en el poder ejecutivo en los sistemas presidenciales, especialmente en el gabinete presidencial del Perú donde el número de las mujeres entre 2001 y 2014 aumentó del 11 a 50 %. El objetivo de este trabajo es el de examinar el impacto que otros elementos del poder, como el presidente o el parlamento, y los estereotipos de género, que posiblemente tienen sobre el nombramien- to de las mujeres. El análisis de datos se concentra en la ideología política del presidente, si es de izquierda o de derecha, y el número de las mujeres en el parlamento. En conclusión se revela el impacto de las cuotas de género para las elecciones legislativas y el número creciente de las mujeres en parlamento como los factores más influyentes sobre la representación de las mujeres en el gabinete. AbstractThis research paper deals with the representation of women in executive positions in presidential systems, specifically in a presidential cabinet of Peru, where the representation of women was progressively growing from 11 per cent in 2001 to 50 per cent in 2014. The main purpose of the article is an exploration of the impact that other components of power, like the President and the Parliament, and gender stereoptypes can have on the appointment of women. In the conclusion, the paper re- veals the impact of the legislative gender quota and relat- ed higher representation of women in parliament on the number of female ministers. 

  16. ABCD of Safe Dental Practice


    Babu, K Sunil; Reddy B, V Thimma; Reddy, C Pujita; Lalita, Sree


    ABSTRACT Dental practice is the integral component of the oral health. Though the dental practice is in close relation with that of the medical practice, it has its own distinctiveness in relation to safe practice. The safe dental practice should not only assure good oral and general health but also improve social interaction by enhancing physical appearance, esthetics, etc. For the safe dental practice, dentists must excel in patient care and standard of treatment. The interlocking missions ...

  17. Safe Zones: Creating LGBT Safe Space Ally Programs (United States)

    Poynter, Kerry John; Tubbs, Nancy Jean


    This article discusses model LGBT Safe Space Ally programs. These programs, often called "Safe Zones," include self selected students, faculty, and employees who publicly show support by displaying stickers, signs, and other identifiable items. Issues covered in the article include history, development, training, membership, assessment, and…

  18. A Safe Ride to School; A Safe Ride Home. (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Text and illustrations are used to teach safe school bus riding practices. The guide begins with instructions to parents or guardians to set a good example of safe behavior, and to help children learn safety rules and be on time. Instructions to children concern obeying the bus driver, boarding the bus, riding the bus, crossing the road, and using…

  19. Hatchery Spray Cabinet Administration Does Not Damage Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Vaccine Based on Analysis by Electron Microscopy and Virus Titration. (United States)

    Roh, Ha-Jung; Jordan, Brian J; Hilt, Deborah A; Ard, Mary B; Jackwood, Mark W


    studies in our laboratory showed that the Arkansas-Delmarva Poultry Industry (Ark-DPI) vaccine given to 1-day-old chickens by hatchery spray cabinet replicated poorly and failed to adequately protect broilers against homologous virus challenge, whereas the same vaccine given by eye-drop did replicate and the birds were protected following homologous virus challenge. To determine if mechanical damage following spray application plays a role in failure of the Ark-DPI vaccine, we examined the morphology of three Ark-DPI vaccines from different manufacturers using an electron microscope and included a Massachusetts (Mass) vaccine as control. One of the Ark-DPI vaccines (vaccine A) and the Mass vaccine had significantly (P hatchery spray cabinet, suggesting that some other factor is contributing to the failure of that vaccine when given by that method.

  20. An artificial neural network to safely reduce the number of ambulance ECGs transmitted for physician assessment in a system with prehospital detection of ST elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forberg Jakob L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-hospital electrocardiogram (ECG transmission to an expert for interpretation and triage reduces time to acute percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI. In order to detect all STEMI patients, the ECG should be transmitted in all cases of suspected acute cardiac ischemia. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN to safely reduce the number of ECGs transmitted by identifying patients without STEMI and patients not needing acute PCI. Methods Five hundred and sixty ambulance ECGs transmitted to the coronary care unit (CCU in routine care were prospectively collected. The ECG interpretation by the ANN was compared with the diagnosis (STEMI or not and the need for an acute PCI (or not as determined from the Swedish coronary angiography and angioplasty register. The CCU physician's real time ECG interpretation (STEMI or not and triage decision (acute PCI or not were registered for comparison. Results The ANN sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for STEMI was 95%, 68%, 18% and 99%, respectively, and for a need of acute PCI it was 97%, 68%, 17% and 100%. The area under the ANN's receiver operating characteristics curve for STEMI detection was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.96 and for predicting the need of acute PCI 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.97. If ECGs where the ANN did not identify a STEMI or a need of acute PCI were theoretically to be withheld from transmission, the number of ECGs sent to the CCU could have been reduced by 64% without missing any case with STEMI or a need of immediate PCI. Conclusions Our ANN had an excellent ability to predict STEMI and the need of acute PCI in ambulance ECGs, and has a potential to safely reduce the number of ECG transmitted to the CCU by almost two thirds.

  1. Staying safe at home (United States)

    ... both smoke and CO. Make sure that your home heating system and all your appliances are all working correctly. DO NOT leave a ... Never reach into water to get a fallen appliance unless it is unplugged.

  2. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.


    Estimated kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) abundance in Lake Pend Oreille was 4.3 million during September 1986. This estimate was similar to 1985 and indicates continued suppression of the kokanee population since initial decline in the late 1960s. Atypically high survival of wild fry resulted in similar fry recruitment in 1986 as 1985, whereas hatchery-reared fry contributed only 8% to total fry recruitment as a result of low post-release survival (3%). Fry released into the Clark Fork River from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery had very low survival during emigration to Lake Pend Oreille, resulting from poor flow conditions and potentially high predation. Fry survival during emigration was twice as high during nighttime flows of 16,000 cfs than 7,800 cfs. Emigration also was faster during higher flows. Several marks were tested to differentially mark fry release groups to help determine impacts of flow and other factors on fry survival. Survival of fry marked with tetracycline and fluorescent dye was high (>99%) during the 10-week study. In contrast, survival of fry marked with fluorescent grit marks ranged from 5 to 93%, depending on application pressure and distance from the fry. Retention was high (>96%) for tetracycline and grit marks during the study, whereas dye marks were discernible (100%) for only one week. 23 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Shock Safe Nepal: team one

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, A.J.; Düzgün, B.C.; Spelt, C.J.; De Stoppelaar, A.O.; Van Wijnbergen, E.C.M.


    As a response to the 2015 Nepal earthquakes Shock Safe Nepal was founded to function as platform intended to contribute to the development of knowledge on earthquake safe housing. The project started on initiative of the Consul General of Nepal to The Netherlands Cas de Stoppelaar and the faculty of

  4. Basics for Handling Food Safely (United States)

    ... Basics for Handling Food Safely Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential to prevent foodborne illness. You can’t see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food preparation, follow the four Fight BAC! ® guidelines to ...

  5. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative ( has been set up during the last year to focus...... on the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia. This initiative aims to provide guidance on markers of quality anesthesia care. The introduction and implementation of national regulations of 'who, where, when and how' are required and will result in an improved perioperative outcome in vulnerable children....... The improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps...

  6. SAFE Testing Nuclear Rockets Economically (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.


    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi


    Full Text Available Background: Safe community as a system starts at village level, sub health centers, health center to the emergency services in hospitals. This effort is to encourage people to motivate and raise awareness of the potential. This research aims to develop a model of community-based safe community in an effort to emergency care system in the village of alert starting from system input, process and output. Methods: The study design is explanative, with qualitative data. This research was conducted in the Province of West Java and Yogyakarta Special Region. Results: The results in terms of system inputs that safe community concept has not been much to formulate. Some claim a disaster mapping, taking into account the estimated number of victims, and needs help cure and health care in safe community based. Coordination of the main tasks and functions of each. Policy department already has a foundation of legitimacy according to laws, government regulations, medium-term development plan for the area and the Regent's decision letter, the local governor and even districts. Budget still relies on budget allocations, budget and block grand. Overview of the system process of the mdependence of the community there has been no system to start, but the potential is quite high, with the correct organizational, professional and can be better ensure the implementation of sustainable community based disaster management. Some of the inhibiting factor is the mobilization of community resources are lacking, limited human resources, budgeting, and coordination among sectors less traffic, less socialization and data collection, communications need to be increased, volunteers erratic, and less care. Development of community-based safe community model that is holistic, with the ability to empower local communities. This model includes the initiation efforts, partnerships, mobilization, advocacy resources, to accommodate the cultural, behavioral and regulatory assistance

  8. Choosing Safe Baby Gear (United States)

    ... 13 ride in the front seat. The LATCH system is available on cars made after Sept. 1, 2002. For older-model ... which lets you snap in your rear-facing car seat.Choose a durable stroller to ... arms, and legs. Check the brakes to make sure it doesn’t roll away ...

  9. FieldSAFE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mikkel Fly; Christiansen, Peter; Laursen, Morten Stigaard


    In this paper, we present a novel multi-modal dataset for obstacle detection in agriculture. The dataset comprises approximately 2 hours of raw sensor data from a tractor-mounted sensor system in a grass mowing scenario in Denmark, October 2016. Sensing modalities include stereo camera, thermal c...

  10. Household water treatment systems: A solution to the production of safe drinking water by the low-income communities of Southern Africa (United States)

    Mwabi, J. K.; Adeyemo, F. E.; Mahlangu, T. O.; Mamba, B. B.; Brouckaert, B. M.; Swartz, C. D.; Offringa, G.; Mpenyana-Monyatsi, L.; Momba, M. N. B.

    One of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals is to reduce to half by 2015 the number of people, worldwide, who lack access to safe water. Due to the numerous deaths and illnesses caused by waterborne pathogens, various household water treatment devices and safe storage technologies have been developed to treat and manage water at the household level. The new approaches that are continually being examined need to be durable, lower in overall cost and more effective in the removal of the contaminants. In this study, an extensive literature survey was conducted to regroup various household treatment devices that are suitable for the inexpensive treatment of water on a household basis. The survey has resulted in the selection of four household treatment devices: the biosand filter (BSF), bucket filter (BF), ceramic candle filter (CCF) and the silver-impregnated porous pot filter (SIPP). The first three filters were manufactured in a Tshwane University of Technology workshop, using modified designs reported in literature. The SIPP filter is a product of the Tshwane University of Technology. The performance of the four filters was evaluated in terms of flow rate, physicochemical contaminant (turbidity, fluorides, phosphates, chlorophyll a, magnesium, calcium and nitrates) and microbial contaminant ( Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae) removals. The flow rates obtained during the study period were within the recommended limits (171 l/h, 167 l/h, 6.4 l/h and 3.5 l/h for the BSF, BF, CCF and SIPP, respectively). Using standard methods, the results of the preliminary laboratory and field studies with spiked and environmental water samples indicated that all filters decreased the concentrations of contaminants in test water sources. The most efficiently removed chemical contaminant in spiked water was fluoride (99.9%) and the poorest removal efficiency was noted for magnesium (26-56%). A higher performance in chemical

  11. End-to-End demonstrator of the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) 30: Power conversion and ion engine operation (United States)

    Hrbud, Ivana; van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Goodfellow, Keith


    The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series addresses Phase 1 Space Fission Systems issues in particular non-nuclear testing and system integration issues leading to the testing and non-nuclear demonstration of a 400-kW fully integrated flight unit. The first part of the SAFE 30 test series demonstrated operation of the simulated nuclear core and heat pipe system. Experimental data acquired in a number of different test scenarios will validate existing computational models, demonstrated system flexibility (fast start-ups, multiple start-ups/shut downs), simulate predictable failure modes and operating environments. The objective of the second part is to demonstrate an integrated propulsion system consisting of a core, conversion system and a thruster where the system converts thermal heat into jet power. This end-to-end system demonstration sets a precedent for ground testing of nuclear electric propulsion systems. The paper describes the SAFE 30 end-to-end system demonstration and its subsystems. .

  12. Safe LPV Controller Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K


    Before switching to a new controller it is crucial to assure that the new closed loop will be stable. In this paper it is demonstrated how stability can be checked with limited measurement data available from the current closed loop. The paper extends an existing method to linear parameter varying...... plants and controllers. Rather than relying on frequency domain methods as done in the LTI case, it is shown how to use standard LPV system identification methods. It is furthermore shown how to include model uncertainty to robustify the results. By appropriate filtering, it is only necessary to evaluate...

  13. Safe LPV Controller Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K


    Before switching to a new controller it is crucial to assure that the new closed loop will be stable. In this paper it is demonstrated how stability can be checked with limited measurement data available from the current closed loop. The paper extends an existing method to linear parameter varying...... plants and controllers. Rather than relying on frequency domain methods as done in the LTI case, it is shown how to use standard LPV system identification methods. By identifying a filtered closed-loop operator rather than directly identifying the plant, more reliable results are obtained....

  14. Quality Model of Foodstuff in the Control of Refrigerated Display Cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus


    as what is the optimal defrost scheme from food quality point of view are answered. This will serve as a prerequisite of designing of optimal control scheme for the commercial refrigeration system, aiming at optimizing a weighed cost function of both food quality and overall energy consumption of system....... happens to the food inside during this period, when we look at the quality factor? This paper discusses quality model of foodstuff, different scenarios of defrost scheme are simulated, questions such as how the defrost temperature and duration influence the food temperature, thus the food quality, as well...

  15. 78 FR 53002 - Notice of Proposed Buy America Waiver for a Video Ready Access Device Cabinet (United States)


    ... request for comment. SUMMARY: The Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) requested a waiver of the Federal... CATS LYNX Blue Line Extension (BLE) project, which is an FTA-funded project. With certain exceptions... out its program for a project unless ``the steel, iron, and manufactured goods used in the project are...

  16. Inactivated Eyedrop Influenza Vaccine Adjuvanted with Poly(I:C Is Safe and Effective for Inducing Protective Systemic and Mucosal Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Do Kim

    Full Text Available The eye route has been evaluated as an efficient vaccine delivery routes. However, in order to induce sufficient antibody production with inactivated vaccine, testing of the safety and efficacy of the use of inactivated antigen plus adjuvant is needed. Here, we assessed various types of adjuvants in eyedrop as an anti-influenza serum and mucosal Ab production-enhancer in BALB/c mice. Among the adjuvants, poly (I:C showed as much enhancement in antigen-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibody production as cholera toxin (CT after vaccinations with trivalent hemagglutinin-subunits or split H1N1 vaccine antigen in mice. Vaccination with split H1N1 eyedrop vaccine antigen plus poly(I:C showed a similar or slightly lower efficacy in inducing antibody production than intranasal vaccination; the eyedrop vaccine-induced immunity was enough to protect mice from lethal homologous influenza A/California/04/09 (H1N1 virus challenge. Additionally, ocular inoculation with poly(I:C plus vaccine antigen generated no signs of inflammation within 24 hours: no increases in the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines nor in the infiltration of mononuclear cells to administration sites. In contrast, CT administration induced increased expression of IL-6 cytokine mRNA and mononuclear cell infiltration in the conjunctiva within 24 hours of vaccination. Moreover, inoculated visualizing materials by eyedrop did not contaminate the surface of the olfactory bulb in mice; meanwhile, intranasally administered materials defiled the surface of the brain. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the use of eyedrop inactivated influenza vaccine plus poly(I:C is a safe and effective mucosal vaccine strategy for inducing protective anti-influenza immunity.

  17. Utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement de santé (United States)

    Brisseau, Lionel; Bussières, Jean-François; Lebel, Denis; Atkinson, Suzanne; Robinette, Louise; Fortin, Sylvie; Lemay, Michel


    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Il existe peu de données sur les conséquences de l’utilisation des cabinets automatisés décentralisés (CAD) en établissements de santé. Méthode : Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive de la conformité des pratiques par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées dans le cadre de l’implantation de CAD. L’objectif principal de l’étude est d’évaluer la conformité globale et celle de chaque processus du circuit du médicament. L’étude se déroule au sein du Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine, un établissement mère–enfant de 500 lits. À partir des lignes directrices portant sur l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD de l’Institute for Safe Medication Practice (aux États-Unis) (2008) et de son outil d’autoévaluation (2009), nous avons évalué la conformité de la pratique à 30 jours et à 120 jours après l’implantation. Résultats : Nous avons procédé de novembre 2009 à avril 2010 à l’implantation de sept stations de CAD au sein du CHU Sainte-Justine. Le profil de conformité est passé de 66 % à 74 % de janvier à avril 2010. Pour chaque processus relatif à l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD, nous présentons une brève description des critères ainsi que les éléments de non-conformité liés à la technologie ou aux aspects organisationnels. Pour chaque élément de non-conformité, nous avons déterminé les actions requises auprès du fabricant afin de modifier l’équipement (c. à .d. aspects technologiques) et auprès de l’établissement afin de modifier les modalités d’utilisation (aspects organisationnels) en précisant le ou les processus impliqués. Conclusion : Cette étude décrit la conformité des pratiques au CHU Sainte-Justine par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées par l’Institute for Safe Medication Practices. L’utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement peut

  18. ABCD of Safe Dental Practice. (United States)

    Babu, K Sunil; Reddy B, V Thimma; Reddy, C Pujita; Lalita, Sree


    Dental practice is the integral component of the oral health. Though the dental practice is in close relation with that of the medical practice, it has its own distinctiveness in relation to safe practice. The safe dental practice should not only assure good oral and general health but also improve social interaction by enhancing physical appearance, esthetics, etc. For the safe dental practice, dentists must excel in patient care and standard of treatment. The interlocking missions of education, research, and patient care are the cornerstones for the safe and healthy dental practice. This paper is designed to bridge the gap between the educational preparation of the dentist and the reality of the working world in a simple way.

  19. Safe transport of cyanamide. (United States)

    Wehrstedt, Klaus-Dieter; Wildner, Werner; Güthner, Thomas; Holzrichter, Klaus; Mertschenk, Bernd; Ulrich, Armin


    For many years cyanamide (CAS no. 420-04-2) was not commercially available due to its unstable nature. Since about 1965 the former "Süddeutsche Kalkstickstoffwerke AG" (current name: AlzChem Trostberg GmbH) developed a special stabilizing system. It was to be investigated to which Class (e.g. "Corrosive Substances", Class 8) or Division (e.g. "Self-reactive Substances", Division 4.1) of the International Regulations for the Transport of Dangerous Goods cyanamide (pure or as a 50% solution in water) should be assigned and based on this which maximum quantities are allowed to transport e.g. in tanks. Cyanamide is used for the synthesis of pharmaceutical and agrochemical actives, biocides, dyestuffs and fine chemicals. During the last years cyanamide was tested at BAM and AQura. The results and an appraisal are presented in this paper. Thus, cyanamide should be classified according to the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods in Class 8, UN number 2922 (50% solution in water) and UN number 2923 (pure substance) respectively, packaging group III, danger labels 8+6.1. Cyanamide, 50% solution in water, can be transported in portable tanks under specific conditions.

  20. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  1. (Ingezonden en geaccepteerd) Effect of switching off unidirectional downflow systems of operating theaters during prolonged inactivity on the period before the operating theater can safely be used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traversari, A.A.L.; Bottenheft, C.; Heumen, S.P.M. van; Goedhart, C.A.; Vos, M.C.


    Background: Switching off air handling systems in operating theaters during periods of prolonged inactivity (eg, nights, weekends) can produce a substantial reduction of energy expenditure. However, little evidence is available regarding the effect of switching off the air handling system during

  2. Effect of switching off unidirectional downflow systems of operating theaters during prolonged inactivity on the period before the operating theater can safely be used. (United States)

    Traversari, A A L; Bottenheft, C; van Heumen, S P M; Goedhart, C A; Vos, M C


    Switching off air handling systems in operating theaters during periods of prolonged inactivity (eg, nights, weekends) can produce a substantial reduction of energy expenditure. However, little evidence is available regarding the effect of switching off the air handling system during periods of prolonged inactivity on the air quality in operating theaters during operational periods. The aim of this study is to determine the amount of time needed after restarting the ventilation system to return to a stable situation, with air quality at least equal to the situation before switching off the system. Measurements were performed in 3 operating theaters, all of them equipped with a unidirectional downflow (UDF) system. Measurements (particle counts of emitted particles with a particle size ≥0.5 µm) were taken during the start-up of the ventilation system to determine when prespecified degrees of protection were achieved. Temperature readings were taken to determine when a stable temperature difference between the periphery and the protected area was reached, signifying achievement of a stable condition. After starting up the system, the protected area achieved the required degrees of protection within 20 minutes (95% upper confidence limit). A stable temperature difference was achieved within 23 minutes (95% upper confidence limit). Both findings lie well within the period of 25 minutes normally required for preparations before the start of surgical procedures. Switching off the ventilation system during prolonged inactivity (during the night and weekend) has no negative effect on the air quality in UDF operating theaters during normal operational hours. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Agriculture in Transformation. Concepts for agriculture production systems that are socially fair environmentally safe: Proceedings of the PSC Summer Schools 2014 and 2016


    Paschke, Melanie


    Future demand in agricultural output is supposed to match the needs of 9 billion people with less input of resources. Can we transform our agricultural practices and move behind existing paradigms to develop innovative and sustainable agriculture production systems? A transformation of the regime is needed: a change in the socio-economic system through new narratives and diversification. Not driven by monopolising technologies but supported by innovation, knowledge and careful evaluation of s...

  4. Development of a Prototype Web GIS-Based Disaster Management System for Safe Operation of the Next Generation Bimodal Tram, South Korea—Focused Flooding and Snowfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Seok Jang


    Full Text Available The Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI has developed a bimodal tram and advanced bus rapid transit (BRT system which is an optimized public transit system created by mixing the railway’s punctual operation and the bus’ easy and convenient access. The bimodal tram system provides mass-transportation service with an eco-friendly and human-centered approach. Natural disasters have been increasing worldwide in recent years, including floods, snow, and typhoons disasters. Flooding is the most frequent natural disaster in many countries and is increasingly a concern with climate change; it seriously affects people’s lives and productivity, causing considerable economic loss and significant damage. Enhanced conventional disaster management systems are needed to support comprehensive actions to secure safety and convenience. The objective of this study is to develop a prototype version of a Web GIS-based bimodal tram disaster management system (BTDMS using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM 5.0 to enhance on-time operation and safety of the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS was tested at the bimodal tram test railroad by simulating probable maximum flood (PMF and snow melting for forecasting flooding and snow covered roads. This result could provide the basis for plans to protect against flooding disasters and snow covered roads in operating the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS will be used to assess and predict weather impacts on roadway conditions and operations and thus has the potential to influence economic growth. The methodology presented in this paper makes it possible to manage impacts of flooding and snowfall on urban transportation and enhance operation of the bimodal tram system. Such a methodology based on modeling could be created for most metropolitan areas in Korea and in many other countries.

  5. Peacekeeper ICBM PBPS (Stage IV) Safing and Demilitarization Project (United States)

    Douglass, James L.


    Topics covered include: Overview of White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and Capabilities. History of the Peacekeeper Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Program. Introduction to Safing & Demilitarization Project. Requirements for Safing Project. Approach Constellation Program. Need for Qualified Flight Hardware to Support Constellation. Ability to Use Peacekeeper Hardware to Support Constellation. Additional Uses for the Peacekeeper Post-Boost Propulsion System (PBPS) Hardware.

  6. AS-IS (ACTIVE SAFING AND ISOLATION SYSTEM): A Satellite-Based Remote Continuing Authorization Concept with Application to Control of Naval Strategic Nuclear Missiles and Tactical Weapons (United States)


    weapons stored in a shielded enviromene . 6 To deal with this situation, and to complicate code-breaking activities, a moving decryption key is is that once the emergency action message is received, the responsibility for launch is in the hands of the 0 persons in the submarine or the silo...contrast, a PALs system has work arounds that have been learned over long periods of time, in case of failure. It was added that AS-IS takes away some of

  7. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android


    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira; Anderson F. P. dos Santos; Ricardo Choren


    The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating ...

  8. The Risk-Informed Materials Management (RIMM) Tool System for Determining Safe-Levels of Contaminated Materials Managed on the Land (United States)

    EPA’s Risk-Informed Materials Management (RIMM) tool system is a modeling approach that helps risk assessors evaluate the safety of managing raw, reused, or waste material streams via a variety of common scenarios (e.g., application to farms, use as a component in road cons...

  9. Fuel cells and battery storgae systems: Future technologies for a safe and environmentally responsive energy supply. Brennstoffzellen und Batteriespeicher: Zukunftstechnologien fuer eine sichere und umweltgerechte Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drenckhahn, W.; Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.M.


    In the light of measures to be adopted for a reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions, a special emphasis needs to be placed on the application of regenerative energies juxtaposed to the enhancement of the efficiencies of fossil-fuelled power stations and further extension of nuclear energy applications. In industrialized countries with compound power networks, the feeding of regenerative energies means direct savings in fossil fuels and a reduction of CO[sub 2] production if the local power grid is capable of absorbing that power supply which fluctuates across time. Once this absorption capacity has been exhausted, we will be faced with the problem of intermediate storage of electric power. As a rule, island-type systems cannot dispense with a storage system at all and regenerative energy technologies like photovoltaics will not be applied unless suitable power storage systems are available. The author discusses the state of development of electrochemical energy converters and storage systems and their future application options. (orig.)

  10. What is safe and clean water in rural Bolivian communities? A preliminary investigation of heavy metal contamination in rural community water systems in the Bolivian Altiplano (United States)

    Borella, M.; Guido, Z.; Borella, P.; Ketron, T.


    A proliferation of potable water systems utilizing groundwater is currently underway in the Lake Titicaca region of the Bolivian Altiplano. With the aid of national and international organizations, rural communities are developing groundwater sources because the region’s surface water is highly contaminated with waterborne pathogens—the primary factor contributing to high child mortality rates in developing nations. According to UNICEF, 86 percent of Bolivian families have access to “improved” water systems, which predominantly take the form of deep groundwater wells or contained natural springs. While the water systems have worked well to reduce pathogens in drinking water systems that cause illnesses such as dysentery, the water is rarely tested for heavy metal contamination, such as arsenic and lead. While bacteria analysis is essential, it is not the only component of healthy drinking water. Testing for heavy metals is especially important in the Bolivian Altiplano because abundant volcanic deposits and massive sulfide deposits suggest that in some areas it is likely that the water contains elevated concentrations of heavy metals. In this study, Terra Resource Development International, A California-based 502(c)3 nonprofit organization, partnered with Stanford University, the Technical University of Bolivia, and the Bolivian Geologic and Mining Survey to collect water samples in 36 rural community situated in four watersheds feeding into Lake Titicaca. Water was collected from shallow, hand dug wells, deep groundwater wells, springs, and small rivers in the Tiwanku, Laja, Batallas, Achacachi watersheds and were analyzed for inorganic contaminants. Samples were analyzed at Stanford’s Environmental Measurements Facility using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectrometer for major ions and heavy metals. Results will help determine which, if any, community water systems are at risk of heavy metal contamination, where more comprehensive sampling is

  11. Facilitating safe care: a qualitative study of Iranian nurse leaders. (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Bondas, Terese; Salsali, Mahvash; Jasper, Melanie; Turunen, Hannele


    Aim  The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how nurse leaders facilitate safe care from the perspectives of both nurses and nurse leaders. Background  The health-care system's success in improving patient safety pivots on nursing leadership. However, there is a lack of knowledge in the international literature about how nurse leaders facilitate provision of safe care and reaching the goal of a safe health-care system. Method  A qualitative design using a content analysis approach was applied for data gathering and analysis. In this study, 20 nurses (16 nurses and four head nurses) working in a referral teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran, were recruited through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews and 10 hours of structured observations were conducted to collect data. Results  The data analysis resulted in three main themes: 'providing environmental prerequisites for safe nursing practice', 'uniting and integrating health-care providers', and 'creating an atmosphere of safe care'. Conclusion  The results indicate that to facilitate providing safe care, nurse leaders should improve nurses' working conditions, develop the nurses' practical competencies, assign duties to nurses according to their skills and capabilities, administer appropriate supervision, improve health-care providers' professional relationships and encourage their collaboration, empower nurses and reward their safe practice. Implications for nursing management  Approaching the challenge of patient safety requires the health-care system to combine its efforts and strategies with nursing leadership in its vital role of facilitating safe care and improving patient safety. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. How Safe Are Kid-Safe Search Engines? (United States)

    Masterson-Krum, Hope


    Examines search tools available to elementary and secondary school students, both human-compiled and crawler-based, to help direct them to age-appropriate Web sites; analyzes the procedures of search engines labeled family-friendly or kid safe that use filters; and tests the effectiveness of these services to students in school libraries. (LRW)

  13. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314 Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCGREW, D.L.


    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate.

  14. Safe Cytotoxic Drug Preparation Using Closed-system Transfer Device: Technical and Practical Evaluation of a New Device (Vialshield/Texium) Comparatively to a Reference One (Phaseal). (United States)

    Garrigue, Philippe; Montana, Marc; Ventre, Christophe; Savry, Amandine; Gauthier-Villano, Laurence; Pisano, Pascale; Pourroy, Bertrand


    Closed-system transfer devices enhance the drug handlers' protection against hazardous drugs exposure by prohibiting the escape of liquid or vapor from the system. PhaSeal (Becton Dickinson), a reference closed-system transfer device, includes a vial protector with an expansion chamber, and an injector with an enclosed needle. VialShield (CareFusion) is another more recent closed-system transfer device including an expansion-chamber and a non-return valve, designed to be used in association with Texium (CareFusion), a closed, needle-free male luer with its preassembled syringe. Evaluation of VialShield/Texium was done comparatively to a classic spike device (Spike Swan, Codan) and PhaSeal. Evaluation methods consisted in practical evaluation by pharmacy technicians (evaluation of ease to use by nine operators in practical conditions during a complete week of production), microbiological safety performance (by Media Fill Test), and leakage assessment (fluorescein, titanium tetrachloride smoke, and radioactive tracer). Results showed that 100% of those operators evaluated would be ready to use VialShield/Texium for daily use, whereas only 75% of them would be ready to use PhaSeal. The use of PhaSeal and VialShield/Texium increased the duration of preparations compared to Spike Swan. No microbiological growth was observed with any of the three devices. A leakage of smoke was observed only with Spike Swan. Fluorescein leakage assessment confirmed that PhaSeal is a performing closed system with a dry connection. Spike Swan showed fluorescein leaks. Fluorescein drops were visible on the connection sites of the VialShield/Texium. Nevertheless, no fluorescein was found on compress after connections swapping. Transfer performance, assessed using technetium-99m, was 98.1 ± 1.4%, 97.9 ± 1.1% and 97.0 ± 1.3% and dead volume of the devices, were 1.0 ± 0.8%, 1.7 ± 0.6%, and 3.0 ± 1.1% for Spike Swan, PhaSeal, and VialShield/Texium, respectively. VialShield/Texium appeared

  15. Economic and safe operation of isolated systems with significant contribution from renewable energy sources; Operacao economica e segura de sistemas isolados com grande penetracao de energias renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, M.A. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal); Vlachos, A; Androutsos, A. [NTUA, Atenas (Greece); Bakirtzis, T. [AUTH, Salonica (Greece); Gigantidou, A. [DEI, Heraklio (Greece). E-mail:;;;


    Medium and large size isolated systems with a significant contribution from renewable energy sources, specifically eolic energy, are not conveniently operated at the present, neither by the conventional ways of unit commitment/load dispatcher nor by the simplified procedures used in the small isolated power networks. This paper presents a new approaching, in the CARE framework which is financially supported by the European Union through the EEN-JOULE assistance program. The principal idea is to perform unit commitment on-line in the same dispatching cycle, by using the load forecasting and the more recent wind power. The process includes dynamic safety fast evaluation and a module for helping the decision making.

  16. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco


    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  17. Staying Safe on the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  18. Baby Sling: Is It Safe? (United States)

    ... safe. In: Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. 6th ed. New York, N.Y.: Bantam Books; 2014. Goldenberg RL, et al. Low birth weight in the United States. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;85:584S. Jana ...

  19. Safely coupling livestock and crop production systems: how rapidly do antibiotic resistance genes dissipate in soil following a commercial application of swine or dairy manure? (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Scott, Andrew; Sabourin, Lyne; Topp, Edward


    Animal manures recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated the fate in soil of selected genes associated with antibiotic resistance or genetic mobility in field plots cropped to vegetables and managed according to normal farming practice. Referenced to unmanured soil, fertilization with swine or dairy manure increased the relative abundance of the gene targets sul1, erm(B), str(B), int1, and IncW repA. Following manure application in the spring of 2012, gene copy number decayed exponentially, reaching background levels by the fall of 2012. In contrast, gene copy number following manure application in the fall of 2012 or spring of 2013 increased significantly in the weeks following application and then declined. In both cases, the relative abundance of gene copy numbers had not returned to background levels by the fall of 2013. Overall, these results suggest that under conditions characteristic of agriculture in a humid continental climate, a 1-year period following a commercial application of raw manure is sufficient to ensure that an additional soil burden of antibiotic resistance genes approaches background. The relative abundance of several gene targets exceeded background during the growing season following a spring application or an application done the previous fall. Results from the present study reinforce the advisability of treating manure prior to use in crop production systems.

  20. ESO2 Optimization of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Madsen, Henrik; Heerup, Christian

    Supermarket refrigeration systems consists of a number of display cases, cooling cabinets and cold rooms connected to a central compressor pack. This configuration saves energy compared to placing a compressor at each cooling site. The classical control setup of a supermarket refrigeration system...

  1. Safe adoptive transfer of virus-specific T-cell immunity for the treatment of systemic adenovirus infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (United States)

    Feuchtinger, Tobias; Matthes-Martin, Susanne; Richard, Celine; Lion, Thomas; Fuhrer, Monika; Hamprecht, Klaus; Handgretinger, Rupert; Peters, Christina; Schuster, Friedhelm R; Beck, Robert; Schumm, Michael; Lotfi, Ramin; Jahn, Gerhard; Lang, Peter


    During periods of immunosuppression, such as postallogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), patients are at significant risk for severe viral infections. Human adenovirus (HAdV) infection is a serious complication post-SCT, especially in children. Virus-specific T cells are essential for the clearance of HAdV, as antiviral chemotherapy has revealed limited success. We present feasibility data for a new treatment option using virus-specific donor T cells for adoptive transfer of immunity to patients with HAdV-infection/reactivation. Virus-specific donor T cells were isolated and infused into nine children with systemic HAdV infection after SCT. Isolation was based on gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion after short in vitro stimulation with viral antigen, resulting in a combination of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. 1.2-50 x 10(3)/kg T cells were infused for adoptive transfer. Isolated cells showed high specificity and markedly reduced alloreactivity in vitro. Adoptive transfer of HAdV-specific immunity was successful in five of six evaluable patients, documented by a dose-independent and sustained in vivo expansion of HAdV-specific T cells, associated with a durable clearance/decrease of viral copies. T-cell infusion was well tolerated in all nine patients, except one case with graft-versus-host disease II of the skin. In conclusion, induction of a specific T-cell response through adoptive transfer was feasible and effective. When performed early in the course of infection, adoptive T-cell transfer may protect from HAdV-related complications.

  2. Remote wireless control of building management systems automation.


    Gylling, Marcus


    The controlling unit in building management system automation is a PLC. Every device in an installation is connected to the PLC. When a user wants to interact with a system an operator terminal, which is attached to a cabinet where the PLC is installed, is used. With this solution the user needs to be in front of the cabinet to interact with the system. Alarms do not get the user’s attention until the user checks the operator terminal. Using a solution where the communication with the PLC is ...

  3. From the “sovereign constituent” to the “political conciliation on the bases of the reforms”: The Liberal Party in Pernambuco and the Paraná cabinet of 1853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Cavani Rosas


    Full Text Available After the Praieira Rebellion, the liberals of Pernambuco had to face the challenge of reorganizing their party. The task to define the opposition parties strategies of action led them to an intense and warm debate in the press, where two subjects dominated the political quarrels: the fight to convoke a constituent assembly and the electoral abstention. The change of the opposition parties on this subject just happened after the electoral reform made by the cabinet of conciliation (1853-1856 in 1855. The analysis of the resistance and the “praieiros” support to the policies of this cabinet are the main objective of the present work.

  4. Inflation from Asymptotically Safe Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund; Sannino, Francesco; Svendsen, Ole


    We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, differently from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because of the exi......We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, differently from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because...... for inflation. In the minimal coupling case the theory requires large non-perturbative quantum corrections to the quantum potential for the theory to agree with data, while in the non- minimal coupling case the perturbative regime in the couplings of the theory is preferred. Requiring the theory to reproduce...

  5. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová


    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  6. Emergency Response Virtual Environment for Safe Schools (United States)

    Wasfy, Ayman; Walker, Teresa


    An intelligent emergency response virtual environment (ERVE) that provides emergency first responders, response planners, and managers with situational awareness as well as training and support for safe schools is presented. ERVE incorporates an intelligent agent facility for guiding and assisting the user in the context of the emergency response operations. Response information folders capture key information about the school. The system enables interactive 3D visualization of schools and academic campuses, including the terrain and the buildings' exteriors and interiors in an easy to use Web..based interface. ERVE incorporates live camera and sensors feeds and can be integrated with other simulations such as chemical plume simulation. The system is integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) to enable situational awareness of emergency events and assessment of their effect on schools in a geographic area. ERVE can also be integrated with emergency text messaging notification systems. Using ERVE, it is now possible to address safe schools' emergency management needs with a scaleable, seamlessly integrated and fully interactive intelligent and visually compelling solution.

  7. 46 CFR 169.734 - Fire extinguishing system controls. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 169.734 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.734 Fire extinguishing system controls. Each control cabinet or space containing valves or manifolds for the various fire extinguishing...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-17 - Fire extinguishing system controls. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 78.47-17 Section 78... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-17 Fire extinguishing system controls. (a) The control cabinets or spaces containing valves or manifolds for the various fire extinguishing systems shall...

  9. Creating a Safe, High-Quality Healthcare System for All: Meeting the Needs of Limited English Proficient Populations; Comment on “Patient Safety and Healthcare Quality: The Case for Language Access”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Betancourt


    Full Text Available The article by Cheri Wilson, “Patient Safety and Healthcare Quality: The Case for Language Access”, highlights 
the challenges of providing Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS to patients with 
Limited English Proficiency (LEP. As the US pursues high-value, high-performance healthcare, our ability 
to meet the needs of our most vulnerable will determine whether we succeed or fail in the long run. With the 
implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA, this is more important than ever before, as it is estimated 
that the newly insured are more likely to be minority and less likely to speak English than their currently 
insured counterparts. As such, we must create a safe, high-quality healthcare system for all, especially in this 
time of incredible healthcare transformation and unprecedented diversity. Improving Patient Safety Systems for 
Patients With Limited English Proficiency: A Guide for Hospitals provides a blueprint for achieving this goal, 
and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH is taking action.

  10. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...... explain the mechanics of the regulatory requirements and develop a model in which derivatives dealers, who have a derivatives exposure with sovereigns, need CDS for capital relief. End users without exposure to the sovereigns sell the CDS and require a positive premium equivalent to the capital...

  11. Flywheel Rotor Safe-Life Technology (United States)

    Ratner, J. K. H.; Chang, J. B.; Christopher, D. A.; McLallin, Kerry L. (Technical Monitor)


    Since the 1960s, research has been conducted into the use of flywheels as energy storage systems. The-proposed applications include energy storage for hybrid and electric automobiles, attitude control and energy storage for satellites, and uninterruptible power supplies for hospitals and computer centers. For many years, however, the use of flywheels for space applications was restricted by the total weight of a system employing a metal rotor. With recent technological advances in the manufacturing of composite materials, however, lightweight composite rotors have begun to be proposed for such applications. Flywheels with composite rotors provide much higher power and energy storage capabilities than conventional chemical batteries. However, the failure of a high speed flywheel rotor could be a catastrophic event. For this reason, flywheel rotors are classified by the NASA Fracture Control Requirements Standard as fracture critical parts. Currently, there is no industry standard to certify a composite rotor for safe and reliable operation forth( required lifetime of the flywheel. Technical problems hindering the development of this standard include composite manufacturing inconsistencies, insufficient nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting defects and/or impact damage, lack of standard material test methods for characterizing composite rotor design allowables, and no unified proof (over-spin) test for flight rotors. As part of a flywheel rotor safe-life certification pro-ram funded b the government, a review of the state of the art in composite rotors is in progress. The goal of the review is to provide a clear picture of composite flywheel rotor technologies. The literature review has concentrated on the following topics concerning composites and composite rotors: durability (fatigue) and damage tolerance (safe-life) analysis/test methods, in-service NDE and health monitoring techniques, spin test methods/ procedures, and containment options

  12. Keeping you safe by making machine tools safe

    CERN Document Server


    CERN’s third safety objective for 2012 concerns the safety of equipment - and machine tools in particular.   There are three prerequisites for ensuring that a machine tool can be used safely: ·      the machine tool must comply with Directive 2009/104/EC, ·      the layout of the workshop must be compliant, and ·      everyone who uses the machine tool must be trained. Provided these conditions are met, the workshop head can grant authorisation to use the machine tool. To fulfil this objective, an inventory of the machine tools must be drawn up and the people responsible for them identified. The HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service produces compliance reports for the machine tools. In order to meet the third objective set by the Director-General, the section has doubled its capacity to carry out inspections: ...

  13. The Study of the History of Religions in the Communist Academy: from the Cabinet Religious Ideology to Anti-Religious Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metel Ol'ga


    Full Text Available The author considers the history of the study of religions at Communist Academy from the point of view of evolution of its basic institutions. Using archival documents and published materials, the author identifies three phases in the institutional design of religious studies at this institution. The first phase (1926–1928s was connected with the activities of M. A. Reisner and suggested the creation of the Cabinet (Commission of religious ideology with a very broad research program. However, the result of its activity was only the creation of the library, focused on religion. In the second stage (1928–1930, instead of the Cabinet was formed the Commission on the history of religions that expanded a lot of work in several main directions: research, organization of educational activities and popularization of the obtained results. The results of Commission's work were not as impressive as the original plans proposed: in 1928– 1930s the members of the Commission dealt mainly with the study of the religiosity’s degree of the Moscow workers. The third stage of the institutionalized religious studies in the Communist Academy (1931–1936 was associated with the activities of the anti-religious section of the Institute of philosophy, which members worked on the development of Marxist-Leninist doctrine about religion. Large-scale section’s plans have not been fully implemented as well. Despite the fact that in 1936 the Communist Academy was eliminated, she contributed to the development of Soviet religious studies, affecting the development of individual research schemes and approaches.

  14. Workers on transformation of the shelter object of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant into an ecologically-safe system show qEEG abnormalities and cognitive dysfunctions: A follow-up study. (United States)

    Loganovsky, Konstantyn; Perchuk, Iryna; Marazziti, Donatella


    The present study aimed at assessing bioelectric activity and cognitive functions in the workers on the conversion project of the "Shelter" object (SO) of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant into an environmentally safe system. A total of 196 men were included and examined before (t0) and after (t1) working on the SO in the period 2004-2008. They underwent a qEEG and a battery of neuropsychological and psychiatric assessments. At t1, the organized type of qEEG shifted towards the disorganized one. An increase of spectral δ-power in the left frontotemporal area, of θ- and α-power in the left temporal area, with redistribution of α-activity to the front and reduction of dominant frequency in the left temporal area, were registered. Further, neurocognitive tests revealed the presence of mild cognitive disorders at t1. Interestingly, those subjects previously exposed to radiation with no consequences, were more resistant to these detrimental effects. Taken together, the disturbances observed may be considered as cognitive symptoms of a chronic fatigue syndrome resulting from the exposure to ionizing radiation. Simple and non-invasive assessments, such as those performed by us, may be helpful to detect early brain changes caused by the presence of radiological risk factors.

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 97.37-13 Section 97... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-13 Fire extinguishing system controls. (a) The control cabinets or spaces containing valves or manifolds for the various fire...

  16. 46 CFR 196.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 196.37-13 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-13 Fire extinguishing system controls. (a) The control cabinets or spaces containing valves or manifolds for the various fire...

  17. 46 CFR 108.631 - Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. 108.631... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.631 Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. (a) Each cabinet or space that contains a valve, control, or manifold of a fixed fire...

  18. Safe spaces for youth "At Risk"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Wistoft, Karen

    for learning, democratic participation and citizenship education through farming and gardening. Keywords: Food Systems, Transformative Learning, Youth Empowerment Stream: Food Policies, Politics and Cultures Presentation Type: Paper Presentation in a Themed Session in English Paper: A paper has not yet been......The paper will discuss how farm based empowerment programs directed at youth "at risk" through the construction of "safe spaces" around farming, cooking and different workshops, and with a critical approach to the food system can provide a framework for transformative learning. Data in the research...... as different motivations, strategies and outcomes from participation in the program activities that can be identified in two main trajectories: network building and job training and emerging activist identities engaging youth in food justice issues and movement building in local communities. The research shows...

  19. Towards Safe Navigation by Formalizing Navigation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Kreutzmann


    Full Text Available One crucial aspect of safe navigation is to obey all navigation regulations applicable, in particular the collision regulations issued by the International Maritime Organization (IMO Colregs. Therefore, decision support systems for navigation need to respect Colregs and this feature should be verifiably correct. We tackle compliancy of navigation regulations from a perspective of software verification. One common approach is to use formal logic, but it requires to bridge a wide gap between navigation concepts and simple logic. We introduce a novel domain specification language based on a spatio-temporal logic that allows us to overcome this gap. We are able to capture complex navigation concepts in an easily comprehensible representation that can direcly be utilized by various bridge systems and that allows for software verification.

  20. The Difference Safe Spaces Make

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendric Coleman


    Full Text Available In the last decade, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT students have become very visible at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs, but this visibility is not reflected in some colleges’ student programs and activities. Only a few notable HBCUs, such as Howard University and Spelman College, have made a concerted effort. Acknowledging that the LGBT community is significant and exists, and fostering such support, comes up against a steep wall of religious tradition and doctrines, and conservative administrations. It is imperative that HBCUs address LGBT issues and create and support a safe space for students to articulate their identity. Meanwhile, many LGBT students on these campuses find voice and understanding in Black scholars and writers such as Audre Lorde’s Zami: A New Spelling of My Name and Charles Michael Smith’s Fighting Words: Personal Essays by Black Gay Men.

  1. Is herniography useful and safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hureibi, K.A., E-mail: [Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton TA1 5DA (United Kingdom); McLatchie, Gregor R., E-mail: [University Hospital of Hartlepool, Holdforth Road, Hartlepool TS24 9AH (United Kingdom); Kidambi, Ananta V., E-mail: [University Hospital of Hartlepool, Holdforth Road, Hartlepool TS24 9AH (United Kingdom)


    117 consecutive herniograms were reviewed for patients who had symptoms suggestive of hernia but with no evidence or inconclusive findings on physical examination. The traditional approach has been to explore patients with suspected occult hernias. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of herniography in minimizing needless groin exploration and to evaluate its safety. Thirty-three herniograms were positive and showed unilateral and bilateral inguinal hernias. There were no false positive examinations and two false negative examinations. No complications were present. Patients with positive herniograms were explored, and operative findings correlated well with herniographic findings. Twenty-four patients were referred to other specialities. Follow-up in clinic and telephone interviews showed symptomatic improvement in the majority of patients. Herniography is useful in evaluating obscure groin pain and occult hernias. It is a safe procedure and more cost effective than a negative exploration or diagnostic laparoscopy.

  2. Safe motherhood: the FIGO initiative. (United States)

    Benagiano, G; Thomas, B


    Over the last twenty years the international community-realizing that the tragedy of women dying during pregnancy and in childbirth could no longer be tolerated-launched a series of initiatives aimed at making safe motherhood a cornerstone of health services in all countries. Making pregnancy and delivery safe events is particularly complex, as it involves infrastructural and logistic, as well as technical, issues. Women die because they have no access to skilled personnel during pregnancy and at the time of delivery and because--if an emergency situation arises--they cannot reach a facility where emergency obstetric services are available. FIGO, the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology-as the only global organization representing the Obstetricians of the world-decided some time ago that it could not limit its activities to proposing technical guidelines and debating scientific issues. It had to move into the field and, through its affiliated societies, help change the ability of the multitude of women in the developing world to obtain skilled attendance at birth. In 1997, plans were made to launch activities in five areas where maternal mortality was particularly high: Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador), Ethiopia, Mozambique, Pakistan, and Uganda. Five member societies from the developed world (the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada, the Italian Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of the United Kingdom; and the Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology) agreed to provide support to their counterparts in these five selected areas. The project is now in its final stage. Results are, by and large, positive, demonstrating that, by motivating health professionals in the field and for a relatively modest financial outlay, more efficient use of existing services could be made in a sustainable

  3. SU-E-J-73: Extension of a Clinical OIS/EMR/R&V System to Deliver Safe and Efficient Adaptive Plan-Of-The-Day Treatments Using a Fully Customizable Plan-Library-Based Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhiat, A. [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Elekta, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Kanis, A.P.; Penninkhof, J.J.; Sodjo, S.; O’Neill, T.; Quint, S.; Doorn, X. van; Schillemans, W.; Heijmen, B.; Hoogeman, M. [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Linton, N.; Coleman, A. [Elekta, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)


    Purpose: To extend a clinical Record and Verify (R&V) system to enable a safe and fast workflow for Plan-of-the-Day (PotD) adaptive treatments based on patient-specific plan libraries. Methods: Plan libraries for PotD adaptive treatments contain for each patient several pre-treatment generated treatment plans. They may be generated for various patient anatomies or CTV-PTV margins. For each fraction, a Cone Beam CT scan is acquired to support the selection of the plan that best fits the patient’s anatomy-of-the-day. To date, there are no commercial R&V systems that support PotD delivery strategies. Consequently, the clinical workflow requires many manual interventions. Moreover, multiple scheduled plans have a high risk of excessive dose delivery. In this work we extended a commercial R&V system (MOSAIQ) to support PotD workflows using IQ-scripting. The PotD workflow was designed after extensive risk analysis of the manual procedure, and all identified risks were incorporated as logical checks. Results: All manual PotD activities were automated. The workflow first identifies if the patient is scheduled for PotD, then performs safety checks, and continues to treatment plan selection only if no issues were found. The user selects the plan to deliver from a list of candidate plans. After plan selection, the workflow makes the treatment fields of the selected plan available for delivery by adding them to the treatment calendar. Finally, control is returned to the R&V system to commence treatment. Additional logic was added to incorporate off-line changes such as updating the plan library. After extensive testing including treatment fraction interrupts and plan-library updates during the treatment course, the workflow is running successfully in a clinical pilot, in which 35 patients have been treated since October 2014. Conclusion: We have extended a commercial R&V system for improved safety and efficiency in library-based adaptive strategies enabling a wide

  4. Recommended Practices for the Safe Design and Operation of Flywheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Donald Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Flywheel energy storage systems are in use globally in increasing numbers . No codes pertaining specifically to flywheel energy storage exist. A number of industrial incidents have occurred. This protocol recommends a technical basis for safe flywheel de sign and operation for consideration by flywheel developers, users of flywheel systems and standards setting organizations.

  5. How did aviation become so safe, and beyond?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, J.A.A.M.


    Aviation has been recognized as one of the ultimate safe socio-technical systems. This contribution discusses the conditions and context that moulded the system safety to its present level by applying integral safety, a sectoral approach and safety as a strategic value. At present the aviation

  6. What is a safe lift? (United States)

    Espinoza, Kathy


    In a perfect world, a "safe" lift would be 51 pounds if the object is within 7 inches from the front of the body, if it is at waist height, if it is directly in front of the person, if there is a handle on the object, and if the load inside the box/bucket doesn't shift once lifted. If the load to be lifted does not meet all of these criteria, then it is an unsafe lift, and modifications must be made. Modifications would include lightening the load, getting help, or using a mechanical lifting device. There is always a way to turn an unsafe lift into a safer lift. An excellent resource for anyone interested in eliminating some of the hazards associated with lifting is the "Easy Ergonomics" publication from Cal/OSHA. This booklet offers practical advice on how to improve the workplace using engineering and administrative controls, problem-solving strategies and solutions, and a vast amount of ergonomics information and resources. "Easy Ergonomics" can be obtained by calling Cal/OSHA's education and training unit in Sacramento at 800-963-9424. A free copy can be obtained via

  7. Safe disposal of prescribed medicines. (United States)

    Bergen, Phillip J; Hussainy, Safeera Y; George, Johnson; Kong, David Cm; Kirkpatrick, Carl Mj


    The National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines Program provides a free and safe method for the disposal of unwanted and expired medicines. This stops drugs being dumped in landfill and waterways. An audit showed that over 600 tonnes of medicines are returned through the program. A substantial proportion of these medicines were still within their expiry dates. Salbutamol, insulin and frusemide are the most commonly discarded medicines. More than $2 million of public money is wasted each year. Hoarding and non-adherence to treatment contribute to waste. Health professionals may be able to help minimise waste by informing patients about the importance of completing prescribed courses of treatment, and discouraging them from hoarding medicines after reaching the safety net threshold on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Prescribe no more than the required quantity of medicines. When starting a new therapy, prescribe a minimal quantity in case the drug is unsuitable for the patient. Advise patients to return all unwanted medicines to a pharmacy for disposal.

  8. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links (United States)

    Wilson, Keith E.


    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  9. Safe drinking water and waterborne outbreaks. (United States)

    Moreira, N A; Bondelind, M


    The present work compiles a review on drinking waterborne outbreaks, with the perspective of production and distribution of microbiologically safe water, during 2000-2014. The outbreaks are categorised in raw water contamination, treatment deficiencies and distribution network failure. The main causes for contamination were: for groundwater, intrusion of animal faeces or wastewater due to heavy rain; in surface water, discharge of wastewater into the water source and increased turbidity and colour; at treatment plants, malfunctioning of the disinfection equipment; and for distribution systems, cross-connections, pipe breaks and wastewater intrusion into the network. Pathogens causing the largest number of affected consumers were Cryptosporidium, norovirus, Giardia, Campylobacter, and rotavirus. The largest number of different pathogens was found for the treatment works and the distribution network. The largest number of affected consumers with gastrointestinal illness was for contamination events from a surface water source, while the largest number of individual events occurred for the distribution network.

  10. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira


    Full Text Available The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating the vulnerability, the safety aspect defined by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - ABNT norm NBR ISO/IEC 27002 which will be violated, which lines of code generate the vulnerability and what should be done to avoid it, and the threat agent used by each of them. This classification allows the identification of possible points of vulnerability, allowing the developer to correct the identified gaps.

  11. 46 CFR 131.825 - Controls of fire-extinguishing system. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controls of fire-extinguishing system. 131.825 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.825 Controls of fire-extinguishing system. Each control cabinet or space containing a valve or manifold for a fire extinguishing system must...

  12. Capturing Essential Information to Achieve Safe Interoperability. (United States)

    Weininger, Sandy; Jaffe, Michael B; Rausch, Tracy; Goldman, Julian M


    In this article, we describe the role of "clinical scenario" information to assure the safety of interoperable systems, as well as the system's ability to deliver the requisite clinical functionality to improve clinical care. Described are methods and rationale for capturing the clinical needs, workflow, hazards, and device interactions in the clinical environment. Key user (clinician and clinical engineer) needs and system requirements can be derived from this information, therefore, improving the communication from clinicians to medical device and information technology system developers. This methodology is intended to assist the health care community, including researchers, standards developers, regulators, and manufacturers, by providing clinical definition to support requirements in the systems engineering process, particularly those focusing on development of Integrated Clinical Environments described in standard ASTM F2761. Our focus is on identifying and documenting relevant interactions and medical device capabilities within the system using a documentation tool called medical device interface data sheets and mitigating hazardous situations related to workflow, product usability, data integration, and the lack of effective medical device-health information technology system integration to achieve safe interoperability. Portions of the analysis of a clinical scenario for a "patient-controlled analgesia safety interlock" are provided to illustrate the method. Collecting better clinical adverse event information and proposed solutions can help identify opportunities to improve current device capabilities and interoperability and support a learning health system to improve health care delivery. Developing and analyzing clinical scenarios are the first steps in creating solutions to address vexing patient safety problems and enable clinical innovation. A Web-based research tool for implementing a means of acquiring and managing this information, the Clinical

  13. A comunidade segura Safe community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus C. S Harada


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a efetividade de programas de prevenção de injúrias intencionais e não intencionais, em crianças e adolescentes, embasados nos princípios da comunidade segura. FONTES DE DADOS: Pesquisa eletrônica nas bases de dados MEDLINE e LILACS, correspondendo ao período de 2000 a 2005. Para prevenção de injúrias não intencionais, usaram-se os descritores: injury and prevention and community or population and intervention; para prevenção de injúrias intencionais, violence and prevention and community or population and intervention; foi tomada como limite a faixa etária de 0 a 18 anos. Critérios de inclusão: artigos originais, que estudaram a efetividade de intervenções utilizando mais de uma estratégia e abrangendo toda uma comunidade ou grupo, abordando injúrias intencionais e não intencionais, publicados em português, inglês ou espanhol. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram obtidos 152 estudos como resultado. Considerando os critérios de inclusão, foram encontrados cinco artigos sobre prevenção de injúrias não intencionais, um sobre prevenção de injúrias intencionais e um artigo que aborda as duas questões. As pesquisas analisadas evidenciam benefícios para crianças e adolescentes, em diferentes proporções. CONCLUSÕES: Os programas que trabalham com o conceito de comunidade segura ainda são em número restrito. As investigações analisadas neste estudo apresentam resultados positivos. É preciso aumentar esforços para o desenvolvimento dessa base de evidência, respeitando as características locais, desenvolvendo indicadores de avaliação que permitam melhor comparação entre diferentes trabalhos.ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE:To analyze the effectiveness of prevention programs for intentional and unintentional injuries, based on safe community principles, in children and adolescents. SOURCES OF DATA: An electronic search was performed in the MEDLINE and LILACS database, corresponding to the period from 2000 to

  14. Midwifery education for safe motherhood. (United States)

    O'Heir, J M


    To determine the useability (relevance, clarity and quality of content), applicability (ease of use) and accessibility (structure and form) of a series of new safe motherhood midwifery education modules. Questionnaire survey and focus group discussions, preceded by a two week clinical skills course and an eight day orientation to using the modules. Nursing and midwifery education institutions, regional training centres, acute-care hospital facilities and community settings in Ethiopia, Fiji, Lesotho, Mozambique and Nepal. Thirty-six teachers, 82 midwives, nurse-midwives and auxiliary nurse-midwives from practice settings, and 60 post basic midwifery students. Overall it was found that the introductory information and the technical content of the modules were easy to understand and use as were the instructions for both teachers and students. The presentation of the material was orderly and easy to follow; the language was comprehensible; and the illustrations were appropriate, clear and facilitated teaching. The teachers found that they were able to use most of the teaching/learning methods, teach most of the skills in the modules, and use the guidelines for assessing competence. The main difficulties encountered included adherence to the recommended time frame for some of the classroom sessions; the limited availability of clinical cases for teaching the specific skills in the modules and time limitations in the clinical area for practising the skills; and the provision of transport for community visits, data to complete community profiles, and time to complete other planned community activities. The students identified the need for a set of learning materials which they could take with them for future reference, and both teachers and students expressed concern about resources to support, and legislation to cover, the application of the skills taught/learned. The modules have the potential to strengthen and support the education of midwives in developing countries

  15. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge. (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A


    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. 75 FR 20580 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records (United States)


    ...).'' * * * * * RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Delete entry and replace with ``Records are destroyed 3 years after separation of..., or locked cabinets during non duty hours. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are destroyed 3 years after... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD...

  17. 77 FR 71183 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    ....'' Categories of records in the system: Delete entry and replace with ``Name, Social Security Number (SSN) and... reprimands; court-martial orders; letters of indebtedness, or control roster correspondence and drug/ alcohol... and replace with ``Maintained in secured file binders/ cabinets and electronic storage media...

  18. New technology for low-grade hardwood utilization: System 6 (United States)

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Charles J. Gatchell


    System 6 is a technology for converting low-grade hardwood to high-valued end products such as furniture and kitchen cabinets. Among its concepts are: (1) a new, nonlumber product called standard-size blanks; (2) highly automated methods of converting the logs to blanks; (3) total processing of every board that contains a minimum-size cutting; and (4) minimized machine...

  19. How safe are Indian laboratories?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    - ence in passing to microbial life on e x- tra - solar planets and on Mars, in our solar system. At present, we are not in a position to say anything with certainty about life on other planets in the solar system as argued by Hoyle and Wic k...

  20. Secure, safe, and sensitive solutions. (United States)

    Hughan, Tina


    Tabloid sensationalism aside, the increase in attacks on health service workers has led to many hospitals and healthcare facilities re-assessing their security systems. Here, Tina Hughan, head of marketing for specialist in door opening systems, Assa Abloy, gives her view on how security providers can help healthcare estates and facilities teams to cope with this disturbing trend.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Potočnik


    Full Text Available Background. Haemovigilance is a system consisting of the detection, collecting and analysis of information regarding unwanted and unexpected effects of blood transfusion that make it possible to take action in order to improve blood trasfusion safety. In a broader sense, it is defined as a set of surveillance procedures covering the whole transfusion chain from the collection of blood to the follow-up of recipients. In some European countries a haemovigilance system based on legislation was introduced during the last ten years, European Haemovigilance Network was organised and some results from the existing surveillance systems were reported. The paper presents haemovigilance activities in Slovenia.Conclusions. In Slovenia, many elements of haemovigilance are already included in the blood transfusion chain, but no unique system of data collection exists. We expect a new legislation on blood transfusion to help us with introducing a data collection system, analysis and activities in order to further improve blood transfusion safety.

  2. Estimated Maximal Safe Dosages of Tumescent Lidocaine (United States)

    Jeske, Daniel R.


    BACKGROUND: Tumescent lidocaine anesthesia consists of subcutaneous injection of relatively large volumes (up to 4 L or more) of dilute lidocaine (≤1 g/L) and epinephrine (≤1 mg/L). Although tumescent lidocaine anesthesia is used for an increasing variety of surgical procedures, the maximum safe dosage is unknown. Our primary aim in this study was to measure serum lidocaine concentrations after subcutaneous administration of tumescent lidocaine with and without liposuction. Our hypotheses were that even with large doses (i.e., >30 mg/kg), serum lidocaine concentrations would be below levels associated with mild toxicity and that the concentration-time profile would be lower after liposuction than without liposuction. METHODS: Volunteers participated in 1 to 2 infiltration studies without liposuction and then one study with tumescent liposuction totally by local anesthesia. Serum lidocaine concentrations were measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 24 hours after each tumescent lidocaine infiltration. Area under the curve (AUC∞) of the serum lidocaine concentration-time profiles and peak serum lidocaine concentrations (Cmax) were determined with and without liposuction. For any given milligram per kilogram dosage, the probability that Cmax >6 μg/mL, the threshold for mild lidocaine toxicity was estimated using tolerance interval analysis. RESULTS: In 41 tumescent infiltration procedures among 14 volunteer subjects, tumescent lidocaine dosages ranged from 19.2 to 52 mg/kg. Measured serum lidocaine concentrations were all lidocaine toxicity without liposuction at a dose of 28 mg/kg and with liposuction at a dose of 45 mg/kg was ≤1 per 2000. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary estimates for maximum safe dosages of tumescent lidocaine are 28 mg/kg without liposuction and 45 mg/kg with liposuction. As a result of delayed systemic absorption, these dosages yield serum lidocaine concentrations below levels associated with mild toxicity and are a nonsignificant

  3. Safe Care to Knee Injuries in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Águila Tejeda


    Full Text Available Background: the guarantee of sporting success lies in the appropriate functioning of the musculoskeletal system, given that its vulnerability hinders the performance of each athlete. Being timely is critical to provide safe care to the affections of knee; late diagnosis in this system may lead to the development of complications and hinder sport practice. Objective: to characterize knee injuries in athletes of the sport system in the province of Cienfuegos.Methods: an observational, quantitative and qualitative, longitudinal and retrospective study was conducted. It included 104 athletes who attended the Traumatology Consultation from 2009 to 2011, presenting different types of knee injuries in various stages of training. Variables such as age, sex, sport, site of injury, stage of training, kilocalories consumed, type of training, quality of equipment and diagnosis were analyzed. The procedure used consists of a comprehensive review of case notes and medical records of all patients that attended consultation during the period analyzed, from which the necessary data was collected. Interviews with coaches and technical staff were carried out as well. Results: knee injuries occur in all ages of athletes, with a slight predominance of males. Highest frequencies are those of the ligament and meniscus, with the highest incidence in athletics, volleyball and judo. Conservative treatment predominated.Conclusions: knee injuries require a timely treatment in order to achieve athlete's success and safety.

  4. Design of combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon


    )] This paper addresses an experimentally and theoretically investigation of three different marketed combi systems. Two different combi systems, based on the above mentioned system design, with units where the auxiliary energy supply system is built into the same cabinet as the hot-water tank and one combi...... with constant daily hot water consumption, consumption patterns and space heating demand for all days, and the results are used to validate TrnSys models. Based on simulation models of the combi systems, the thermal behavior is simulated and the thermal performance and the solar fraction of the systems...... simulation models where a number of different design-, control- and consumption parameters are varied....



    Marjeta Potočnik


    Background. Haemovigilance is a system consisting of the detection, collecting and analysis of information regarding unwanted and unexpected effects of blood transfusion that make it possible to take action in order to improve blood trasfusion safety. In a broader sense, it is defined as a set of surveillance procedures covering the whole transfusion chain from the collection of blood to the follow-up of recipients. In some European countries a haemovigilance system based on legislation was i...

  6. Planetary boundaries: exploring the safe operating space for humanity (United States)

    Johan Rockström; Will Steffen; Kevin Noone; Asa Persson; F. Stuart Chapin; Eric Lambin; Timothy M. Lenton; Marten Scheffer; Carl Folke; Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Björn Nykvist; Cynthia A. de Wit; Terry Hughes; Sander van der Leeuw; Henning Rodhe; Sverker Sörlin; Peter K. Snyder; Robert Costanza; Uno Svedin; Malin Falkenmark; Louise Karlberg; Robert W. Corell; Victoria J. Fabry; James Hansen; Brian Walker; Diana Liverman; Katherine Richardson; Paul Crutzen; Jonathan. Foley


    Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due...

  7. Intra-node Memory Safe GPU Co-Scheduling


    Reano, Carlos; Silla, Federico; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S.; Varghese, Blesson


    GPUs in High-Performance Computing systems remain under-utilised due to the unavailability of schedulers that can safely schedule multiple applications to share the same GPU. The research reported in this paper is motivated to improve the utilisation of GPUs by proposing a framework, we refer to as schedGPU, to facilitate intra-node GPU co-scheduling such that a GPU can be safely shared among multiple applications by taking memory constraints into account. Two approaches, namely a client-serv...

  8. How Can I Lose Weight Safely? (United States)

    ... Abuse Love and Romance Understanding Other People How Can I Lose Weight Safely? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Can I Lose Weight Safely? Print A A A ... to talk to a doctor or dietitian, who can compare your weight with healthy norms to help ...

  9. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning (United States)

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer


    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  10. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing. (United States)

    Gunter, Glenda A.


    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  11. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate (United States)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.


    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  12. Improved water does not mean safe water (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.


    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  13. The World Health Organization's safe abortion guidance document. (United States)

    Van Look, Paul F A; Cottingham, Jane


    We discuss the history of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) development of guidelines for governments on providing safe abortion services, which WHO published as Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems in 2003 and updated in 2012. We show how the recognition of the devastating impact of unsafe abortion on women's health and survival, the impetus of the International Conference on Population and Development and its five-year follow-up, and WHO's progressive leadership at the end of the century enabled the organization to elaborate guidance on providing safe abortion services. Guideline formulation involved extensive review of published evidence, an international technical expert meeting to review the draft document, and a protracted in-house review by senior WHO management.

  14. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten


    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan......Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems...

  15. Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution (United States)


    for 5 years, working on nonferrous welding and AM and has an M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. I n...joint implants . The naval community has successfully used AM technol- ogy in its facilities since the early 1990s. Polymer AM systems have become

  16. Safe Autonomous Flight Environment (SAFE50) for the Notional Last 50 ft of Operation of 55 lb Class of UAS (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kopardekar, Parimal; Ippolito, Corey; Melton, John E.; Stepanyan, Vahram; Sankararaman, Shankar; Nikaido, Ben


    The most difficult phase of small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) deployment is autonomous operations below the notional 50 ft in urban landscapes. Understanding the feasibility of safely flying sUAS autonomously below 50 ft is a game changer for many civilian applications. This paper outlines three areas of research currently underway which address key challenges for flight in the urban landscape. These are: (1) Off-line and On-board wind estimation and accommodation; (2) Real-time trajectory planning via characterization of obstacles using a LIDAR; (3) On-board information fusion for real-time decision-making and safe trajectory generation.

  17. Capacity building in safe nanotechnologies (United States)

    Keller, Markus; Gommel, Udo


    In all places where engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) are produced, used or handled, adequate workplace safety precautions should be implemented due to the protection of workers and the surrounding environment. Any possible accidental release of ENPs should be evaluated. Thereby detected potential risks have to be eliminated as far as possible. An implemented reasonable safety culture in each ENP-related company will help to meet this challenge. Different infrastructures and workplace design can help to reduce the risk of an accidentally contact of the workers with ENPs: Transferable examples will be shown from the semiconductor and life-science Industry. These systems like clean rooms, glove boxes, fume cupboards, filter and suction systems and other restricted area barrier access systems (RABS) are mainly being developed to protect sensitive products, but they can also be used to protect working personnel. Clean environments regarding airborne particulate contaminations can be classified according to ISO 14644-1. A short insight into this ISO-classification will be given. But overall, a simple and reasonable workplace and workflow organization will reduce the risk of an accidental release of ENPs largely. This may lead to a therefore necessary adaption of existing workflow patterns. The workers have to get aware about the potential risks! This can be done with appropriate education materials, leaflets, posters and brochures. These are some of the later outcomes from the NanoDevice dissemination and handbook work package.

  18. Wind pressure testing of tornado safe room components made from wood (United States)

    Robert Falk; Deepak Shrestha


    To evaluate the ability of a wood tornado safe room to resist wind pressures produced by a tornado, two safe room com-ponents were tested for wind pressure strength. A tornado safe room ceiling panel and door were static-pressure-tested according to ASTM E 330 using a vacuum test system. Re-sults indicate that the panels had load capacities from 2.4 to 3.5 times that...

  19. Conceptual design of inherently safe integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. I.; Chang, M. H.; Lee, D. J. and others


    The design concept of a 300 MWt inherently safe integral reactor(ISIR) for the propulsion of extra large and superhigh speed container ship was developed in this report. The scope and contents of this report are as follows : 1. The state of the art of the technology for ship-mounted reactor 2. Design requirements for ISIR 3. Fuel and core design 4. Conceptual design of fluid system 5. Conceptual design of reactor vessel assembly and primary components 6. Performance analyses and safety analyses. Installation of two ISIRs with total thermal power of 600MWt and efficiency of 21% is capable of generating shaft power of 126,000kW which is sufficient to power a container ship of 8,000TEU with 30knot cruise speed. Larger and speedier ship can be considered by installing 4 ISIRs. Even though the ISIR was developed for ship propulsion, it can be used also for a multi-purpose nuclear power plant for electricity generation, local heating, or seawater desalination by mounting on a movable floating barge. (author)

  20. Distributed Programming via Safe Closure Passing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Haller


    Full Text Available Programming systems incorporating aspects of functional programming, e.g., higher-order functions, are becoming increasingly popular for large-scale distributed programming. New frameworks such as Apache Spark leverage functional techniques to provide high-level, declarative APIs for in-memory data analytics, often outperforming traditional "big data" frameworks like Hadoop MapReduce. However, widely-used programming models remain rather ad-hoc; aspects such as implementation trade-offs, static typing, and semantics are not yet well-understood. We present a new asynchronous programming model that has at its core several principles facilitating functional processing of distributed data. The emphasis of our model is on simplicity, performance, and expressiveness. The primary means of communication is by passing functions (closures to distributed, immutable data. To ensure safe and efficient distribution of closures, our model leverages both syntactic and type-based restrictions. We report on a prototype implementation in Scala. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results evaluating the performance impact of a static, type-based optimization of serialization.

  1. Topological characterization of safe coordinated vehicle motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper characterizes the homotopy properties and the global topology of the space of positions of vehicles which are constrained to travel without intersecting on a network of paths. The space is determined by the number of vehicles and the network. Paths in the space correspond to simultaneous non-intersecting motions of all vehicles. The authors therefore focus on computing the homotopy type of the space, and show how to do so in the general case. Understanding the homotopy type of the space is the central issue in controlling the vehicles, as it gives a complete description of the distinct ways that vehicles may move safely on the network. The authors exhibit graphs, products of graphs, and amalgamations of products of graphs that are homotopy equivalent to the full configuration space, and are far simpler than might be expected. The results indicate how a control system for such a network of vehicles (such as a fleet of automatically guided vehicles guided by wires buried in a factory floor) may be implemented.

  2. Safe Human-Robot Cooperation in an Industrial Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pedrocchi


    Full Text Available The standard EN ISO10218 is fostering the implementation of hybrid production systems, i.e., production systems characterized by a close relationship among human operators and robots in cooperative tasks. Human-robot hybrid systems could have a big economic benefit in small and medium sized production, even if this new paradigm introduces mandatory, challenging safety aspects. Among various requirements for collaborative workspaces, safety-assurance involves two different application layers; the algorithms enabling safe space-sharing between humans and robots and the enabling technologies allowing acquisition data from sensor fusion and environmental data analysing. This paper addresses both the problems: a collision avoidance strategy allowing on-line re-planning of robot motion and a safe network of unsafe devices as a suggested infrastructure for functional safety achievement.

  3. Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe? (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... I be concerned about unsafe practices, or the tattoo ink itself? Both. While you can get serious ...

  4. How to Safely Use Nail Care Products (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How to Safely Use Nail Care Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... more than 10 minutes per hand, per session. How to Report Problems with Nail Care Products If you ...

  5. When Is an Opioid Safe to Take? (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_166872.html When Is an Opioid Safe to Take? Doctors say it can treat ... Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA): Why was I prescribed opioids? Did the doctor assume opioids are the strongest ...

  6. AFSC/REFM: Groundfish SAFE Economic Report (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Groundfish SAFE Economic Report, published annually as a supplement to the Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Reports for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  7. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....

  8. Aspirin during Pregnancy: Is It Safe? (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take aspirin during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M. ... 2015 Original article: ...

  9. Pregnancy and Fish: What's Safe to Eat? (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week If you're unsure about whether it's safe to eat seafood during your pregnancy, ... 2016 Original article: ...

  10. Pregnancy Constipation: Are Stool Softeners Safe? (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take stool softeners to treat pregnancy constipation? Answers from Yvonne ... 2017 Original article: ...

  11. Le comportement des audités: quel effet sur la qualité de service rendu par les cabinets d’audit au Cameroun ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léopold Djoutsa Wamba


    Full Text Available La présente étude a pour ambition de vérifier s’il existe un lien empirique entre le comportement des audités et la qualité de l’audit au Cameroun. Nous avons à cet effet appréhendé la qualité de l’audit via les qualités de l’auditeur (sa compétence et son indépendance. En s’appuyant sur les analyses de classification et économétriques par la méthode de régression logistique sur des données recueillies par questionnaire auprès de 40 cabinets d’audits présents au Cameroun, les résultats montrent d’une part que la qualité de l’audit est plutôt altérée dans notre contexte. D’autre part, cette étude relève que la probabilité d’avoir un audit de qualité est d’autant plus grande lorsque les honoraires sont négociés à la hausse permanemment et, d’autant plus faible, si l’audité est absent lors du déroulement de la mission, ou s’il accuse des retards dans le paiement des honoraires ou encore, lorsqu’il n’a pas fourni à temps tous les documents nécessaires pour mener à bien la mission.

  12. Managing Cassini Safe Mode Attitude at Saturn (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.


    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. In the event safe mode interrupts normal orbital operations, Cassini has flight software fault protection algorithms to detect, isolate, and recover to a thermally safe and commandable attitude and then wait for further instructions from the ground. But the Saturn environment is complex, and safety hazards change depending on where Cassini is in its orbital trajectory around Saturn. Selecting an appropriate safe mode attitude that insures safe operation in the Saturn environment, including keeping the star tracker field of view clear of bright bodies, while maintaining a quiescent, commandable attitude, is a significant challenge. This paper discusses the Cassini safe table management strategy and the key criteria that must be considered, especially during low altitude flybys of Titan, in deciding what spacecraft attitude should be used in the event of safe mode.

  13. Iranian nurses perspectives on assessment of safe care: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Rashvand, Farnoosh; Salsali, Mahvash; Ebadi, Abbas; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jordan, Sue; Griffiths, Pauline


    To explore the perspectives and experiences of nurse instructors and clinical nurses regarding the assessment of safe nursing care and its components in clinical practice. Safe nursing care is a key aspect of risk management in the healthcare system. The assessment of safe nursing care and identification of its components are primary steps to establish patient safety and risk management and enhance the quality of care in clinical practice. This was an interview study, with qualitative content analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 nurse instructors and clinical nurses including nurse managers chosen by purposive sampling based on theoretical saturation. Data collection and analysis were carried out simultaneously until data saturation was reached. Data analysis led to the extraction of four main themes: holistic assessment of safe nursing care; team working and assessment of safe nursing care; ethical issues; and challenges of safe nursing care assessment. Identifying these four components in the assessment of safe nursing care offers a contribution to the understanding of the elements of safe care assessment and the potential for improved patient safety. Safe care management requires the accurate and reliable assessment of safe nursing care and the need for strategies for reporting actual or potential unsafe care and errors to ensure patient safety. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 78 FR 14088 - Creation of a New System of Records Notice: Telework Application and Agreement Records (United States)


    ... of any defects or viruses. For additional information about EPA's public docket visit the EPA Docket.... Retrievability: Primarily by the applicant's name. Safeguards: Computer records are maintained in a secure, password protected computer system. Paper records are maintained in lockable file cabinets. All records...

  15. The Emerging Roles of Coaches in the Malaysian Dual Training System (United States)

    Othman, Ahmad; Abdullah, Nor Hazana; Sulaiman, Mohamad; Shamsuddin, Alina


    This paper discusses the new task of industry personnel as coaches in the National Dual Training System (NDTS), a newly introduced training initiative for producing k-workers in Malaysia. The decision to introduce this initiative was made by the Malaysian Cabinet on the 19th May 2004 with the hope that it will resolve the issue of skilled workers…

  16. 76 FR 70512 - Privacy Act of 1974: New System of Records (United States)


    ... expanding the categories of individuals covered by the system of records to include individuals covered by... to a rescission of coverage or medical judgment. Third, the routine uses have been expanded to... will be stored in a locked file cabinet within OPM and/or any contractors. Any electronic records will...

  17. Safe haven laws as crime control theater. (United States)

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K; Griffin, Timothy


    This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of crime control theater, a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially socially constructed "solutions" to socially constructed crime "problems." The analysis will apply the principles of crime control theater to safe haven laws. Specifically, the term crime control theater applies to laws that are reactionary responses to perceived criminal threats and are often widely supported as a way to address the crime in question. Such laws are attractive because they appeal to mythic narratives (i.e., saving an innocent child from a predator); however they are likely ineffective due to the complexity of the crime. These laws can have deleterious effects when policymakers make false claims of success and stunt public discourse (e.g., drawing attention away from more frequent and preventable crimes). This analysis applies these criteria to safe haven laws to determine whether such laws can be classified as crime control theater. Many qualities inherent to crime control theater are present in safe haven laws. For example, the laws are highly publicized, their intentions lack moral ambiguity, rare cases of success legitimize law enforcement and other agencies, and they appeal to the public sense of responsibility in preventing crime. Yet the goal of saving infant lives may be unattainable. These qualities make the effectiveness of the laws questionable and suggest they may be counterproductive. This analysis determined that safe haven laws are socially constructed solutions to the socially constructed problem of child abandonment. Safe haven laws are appropriately classified as crime control theater. It is imperative that further research be conducted to examine the effectiveness and collateral effects of safe haven laws

  18. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok


    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  19. Characteristics of Young Children Exposed to Violence: The Safe Start Demonstration Project (United States)

    Kaufman, Joy S.; Ortega, Sandra; Schewe, Paul A.; Kracke, Kristen


    The Safe Start demonstration projects, funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) under the first phase of the Safe Start initiative, are primarily designed to influence change at the systems or macrolevels to reduce the incidence of and impact of exposure to violence for children aged birth to 6 years; direct…

  20. 78 FR 73206 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (United States)


    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On November 23, 2013 the... requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs...-142-F. The action concerns the public water system the defendant, Bryan Pownall (``Defendant'') uses...

  1. 78 FR 61867 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (United States)


    ... Safe Drinking Water Act On September 26, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent... pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 300g-3,300i of the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA'') for violations at five public... operation of the PMU to ensure proper operation of the drinking water systems on the Reservation. The...

  2. Towards an ethics safe harbor for global biomedical research


    Dove, Edward S; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Zawati, Ma'n H


    Although increasingly global, data-driven genomics and other ?omics?-focused research hold great promise for health discoveries, current research ethics review systems around the world challenge potential improvements in human health from such research. To overcome this challenge, we propose a ?Safe Harbor Framework for International Ethics Equivalency? that facilitates the harmonization of ethics review of specific types of data-driven international research projects while respecting globall...

  3. Monitoring moving queries inside a safe region. (United States)

    Al-Khalidi, Haidar; Taniar, David; Betts, John; Alamri, Sultan


    With mobile moving range queries, there is a need to recalculate the relevant surrounding objects of interest whenever the query moves. Therefore, monitoring the moving query is very costly. The safe region is one method that has been proposed to minimise the communication and computation cost of continuously monitoring a moving range query. Inside the safe region the set of objects of interest to the query do not change; thus there is no need to update the query while it is inside its safe region. However, when the query leaves its safe region the mobile device has to reevaluate the query, necessitating communication with the server. Knowing when and where the mobile device will leave a safe region is widely known as a difficult problem. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method to monitor the position of the query over time using a linear function based on the direction of the query obtained by periodic monitoring of its position. Periodic monitoring ensures that the query is aware of its location all the time. This method reduces the costs associated with communications in client-server architecture. Computational results show that our method is successful in handling moving query patterns.

  4. Teaching safe sex practices to psychiatric patients. (United States)

    Sladyk, K


    An occupational therapist presented her 45-minute program called AIDS Education and Safe Sex 5 times to female mental patients in the locked ward of Cedarcrest Regional Hospital in Newington, Connecticut, to inform them about safe-sex practices and AIDS. She first administered a pretest then spoke briefly about AIDS and safe-sex practices. The lecture emphasized various important points such as no cure for AIDS exist, casual contact (e.g., kiss on the cheek, handshake) cannot transmit HIV, and effectiveness of using latex condoms. The occupational therapist spent much of her time addressing myths about AIDS and what safe-sex practices are. The patients discussed sexual abuse and dishonest partners. She administered a posttest which was the same as the pretest. Some sessions attracted more people than did other sessions. Test scores increased for every patient and for every session. They ranged from a 5% (68-73%) increase for the 3rd session to a 24% (67-91%) increase for the last session. She was not able to determine, however, whether the increased knowledge would translate into positive behavioral changes. Patients' psychiatric symptoms may have interfered with learning resulting in less than ideal improvements in knowledge. These symptoms were hypomanic behavior, restlessness, and distractibility. Perhaps other sessions with experiential techniques (e.g., putting condoms on dummies) would increase their understanding. This program helps fill the information gap not provided by the mass media which avoid mentioning safe-sex practices.

  5. Fault Diagnosis of Power Systems Using Intelligent Systems (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Oliver, Walter E. , Jr.


    The power system operator's need for a reliable power delivery system calls for a real-time or near-real-time Al-based fault diagnosis tool. Such a tool will allow NASA ground controllers to re-establish a normal or near-normal degraded operating state of the EPS (a DC power system) for Space Station Alpha by isolating the faulted branches and loads of the system. And after isolation, re-energizing those branches and loads that have been found not to have any faults in them. A proposed solution involves using the Fault Diagnosis Intelligent System (FDIS) to perform near-real time fault diagnosis of Alpha's EPS by downloading power transient telemetry at fault-time from onboard data loggers. The FDIS uses an ANN clustering algorithm augmented with a wavelet transform feature extractor. This combination enables this system to perform pattern recognition of the power transient signatures to diagnose the fault type and its location down to the orbital replaceable unit. FDIS has been tested using a simulation of the LeRC Testbed Space Station Freedom configuration including the topology from the DDCU's to the electrical loads attached to the TPDU's. FDIS will work in conjunction with the Power Management Load Scheduler to determine what the state of the system was at the time of the fault condition. This information is used to activate the appropriate diagnostic section, and to refine if necessary the solution obtained. In the latter case, if the FDIS reports back that it is equally likely that the faulty device as 'start tracker #1' and 'time generation unit,' then based on a priori knowledge of the system's state, the refined solution would be 'star tracker #1' located in cabinet ITAS2. It is concluded from the present studies that artificial intelligence diagnostic abilities are improved with the addition of the wavelet transform, and that when such a system such as FDIS is coupled to the Power Management Load Scheduler, a faulty device can be located and isolated

  6. A Safe teaching protocol of LRP (laparoscopic radical prostatectomy). (United States)

    Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Pazeto, Cristiano Linck; Neves-Neto, Oseas Castro; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Zampolli, Hamilton de Campos


    The LRP has a steep learning curve to obtain proficiency during which patient safety may be compromised. We present an adapted modular training system which purpose to optimize the learning curve and perform a safe surgery. A retrospective analysis of the LRP safe learning protocol applied during a fellowship program over eight years (2008-2015). The surgery was divided in 12 steps and 5 levels of difficulty. A maximum time interval was stipulated in 240 minutes. After an adaptation, the fellows had 120 minutes to perform all the corresponding modules to its accumulated skill. The participants gradually and safely pass through the steps and difficulty levels. Surgeries performed by fellows were analyzed as a single group and compared to a prior series performed by tutor. In eight years, 250 LRP were performed (25 per apprentice) during fellowship program and 150 procedures after completion. The baseline characteristics were comparable. Most cases operated were of intermediate risk. Mean operative time was longer in the fellow group when compared to the tutor (150 min). Mean estimated blood loss were similar among the groups. Functional and oncological outcomes were better in the Tutor´s group. No conversion to open surgery was performed. The LRP safe learning protocol proved to be an effective method to optimize the learning curve and perform safe surgery. However, the tutor's functional and oncological results were better, showing that this is a procedure with a steep learning curve and proficiency demands more than 25 cases. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  7. 7th February 2011 - Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning M. Russell MSP signing the guest book with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Adviser J. Ellis

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    01-17:Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning M. Russell MSP signing the guest book with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Adviser J. Ellis 18-22: Teachers and Pupils signing the guest book 23-27: visiting the CERN control centre with P. Collier 28-32: visiting the LHCb underground area 33-74: visitng the ATLAS underground area Other members of the delegation: Chief Scientific Adviser to the Scottish Government and Chair in Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of Aberdeen A. Glover; Assistant Private Secretary M. Gallagher; Associate Director Institute for Gravitational Research, University of Glasgow J.Hough.

  8. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.


    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  9. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R


    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  10. Spousal Abuse in Nicholas Spark's Safe Haven


    Sudargo, Laura M; Riyanto, Theophilus J


    Kevin Tierney is the male main character in Safe Haven who does spousal abuse toward his wife, Erin. The analysis is on what spousal abusive behavior is and what the effects of the spousal abuse are in Nicholas Spark's Safe Haven. The concept of spousal abuse proposed by Tina de Benedictis, Ph. D. is applied to reveal the spousal abuse done by Kevin and its effects on his spouse, Erin. In this research, I discover that Kevin does spousal abuse toward Erin that categorized into seven which are...

  11. Landscape planning for a safe city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ishikawa


    Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.

  12. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility. (United States)

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne


    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

  14. Safe purging of natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, T.K. (Arco Oil and Gas Co. (US)); Euchner, J.A. (Nynex Corp. (US))


    When a newly constructed natural gas pipeline is put into service, it can be safely purged of air by injection of a slug of inert gas, such as N/sub 2/. The method of sizing the required slug is based on a model of dispersion in turbulent flow in conjunction with flammability limits.

  15. Bike Maintenance Makes for a Safe Ride. (United States)

    PTA Today, 1994


    Parents and children need to learn about bicycle maintenance and safety to keep bicycles fit and safe. The article presents a checklist of important bicycle equipment safety items and makes suggestions about how parents and children can learn more about bicycle safety and maintenance. (SM)

  16. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe (United States)

    ... water also comes from municipal sources—in other words, the tap. Municipal water is usually treated before it is bottled. Examples ... regulations put in place and enforced by FDA. Water must be sampled, analyzed, and found to be safe and sanitary. These regulations also ...

  17. Safe laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed by trainees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Peter Koch; Schultz, Martin; Harvald, Thomas


    Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is safe, but there have been hesitations to implement the technique in all departments. One of the reasons for this may be suboptimal learning possibilities since supervised trainees have not been allowed to do the operations to an adequate extent...

  18. Staying Healthy and Safe at Work (United States)

    ... don't have to get up in the middle of the night to go to the bathroom. Eat healthy foods , especially foods that are rich in iron and protein. Relax and avoid stressful situations when possible. How can you keep a safe work environment? It's important that the environment around you is ...

  19. Have Diabetes? Get Tips for Safe Travels (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails Have Diabetes? Get Tips for Safe Travels Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  20. A Practical Seedless Infrared Safe Cone Algorithm


    Salam, Gavin P.


    This writeup highlights the infrared unsafety of the "midpoint" cone jet-algorithm and provides a brief overview of why this is a serious issue. It then shows how one can build a safe (seedless) cone algorithm and discusses the potential impact on measurements.

  1. Have a Safe and Healthy Fall

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Fall is a great time to try new and healthy activities with your parents! Have a food tasting or a leaf raking contest! Whatever your plans, make sure to have fun and be safe!  Created: 10/14/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 10/14/2010.

  2. Safe and Healthy Travel to China

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Dr. Phyllis Kozarsky, CDC Travel Medicine expert, discusses what travelers should do to ensure a safe and healthy trip to China.  Created: 10/9/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 10/9/2008.

  3. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  4. How safe are South African schools?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    South African Journal of Education. Copyright © 2005 EASA. Vol 25(1) 5–10 ... reports have indicated that children's rights are neither promoted nor protected in certain schools. The purpose in this study was to determine ... determine the right of learners to a safe school environment and the obligations of educators and ...

  5. Is Your Child's School Really Safe? (United States)

    Monk, James


    Presents a brief quiz for parents to see if their child's school building is taking basic steps to ensure a safe learning environment (e.g., Is the building locked? Are strict guidelines in place when students participate in field trips? Is adult supervision always maintained on playgrounds?). Suggested action plans are included. A sidebar offers…

  6. SaRDIn - A Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, A.; Gnesi, S.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth


    Current computer-based interlocking systems most often have a centralized design, with all logic residing in a single computer. Centralized interlockings are complex to design. Following the general trend in Cyber-Physical Systems, the SaRDIn (Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlockings) concept...... promises a radically simpler solution. The novelty of the SaRDIn concept is a fine-grained distribution of the logic over all processors deployed at the sensors and actuators along the track layout, i.e. within the track circuits, point machines, signals, etc. The advantages and drawbacks...

  7. Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Strategic Research Action Plan 2016-2019 (United States)

    EPA's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources (SSWR) research program is using an integrated systems approach to develop scientific and technological solutions to protect human health, and to protect and restore watersheds and aquatic ecosystems.

  8. New Developments in FPGA Devices: SEUs and Fail-Safe Strategies from the NASA Goddard Perspective (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth; Pellish, Jonathan


    It has been shown that, when exposed to radiation environments, each Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device has unique error signatures. Subsequently, fail-safe and mitigation strategies will differ per FPGA type. In this session several design approaches for safe systems will be presented. It will also explore the benefits and limitations of several mitigation techniques. The intention of the presentation is to provide information regarding FPGA types, their susceptibilities, and proven fail-safe strategies; so that users can select appropriate mitigation and perform the required trade for system insertion. The presentation will describe three types of FPGA devices and their susceptibilities in radiation environments.

  9. New Developments in FPGA: SEUs and Fail-Safe Strategies from the NASA Goddard Perspective (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan


    It has been shown that, when exposed to radiation environments, each Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device has unique error signatures. Subsequently, fail-safe and mitigation strategies will differ per FPGA type. In this session several design approaches for safe systems will be presented. It will also explore the benefits and limitations of several mitigation techniques. The intention of the presentation is to provide information regarding FPGA types, their susceptibilities, and proven fail-safe strategies; so that users can select appropriate mitigation and perform the required trade for system insertion. The presentation will describe three types of FPGA devices and their susceptibilities in radiation environments.

  10. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the drying chamber. The biomass absorbs the heat and transforms the moisture content within the biomass into water vapour and then leaves the chamber via the exhaust air outlet. This problem however can be solved by adopting indirect solar drying system. High and controllable temperatures can be achieved as a fan is used to move the air through the solar collector. This project has successfully created a solar cabinet dryer that combines both direct and indirect solar drying systems and functions to dry biomass as well as crops effectively and efficiently with minimal maintenance. Hence, it is indeed a substitution for conventional dryers which are affordable to local farmers.

  11. Be-safe travel, a web-based geographic application to explore safe-route in an area (United States)

    Utamima, Amalia; Djunaidy, Arif


    In large cities in developing countries, the various forms of criminality are often found. For instance, the most prominent crimes in Surabaya, Indonesia is 3C, that is theft with violence (curas), theft by weighting (curat), and motor vehicle theft (curanmor). 3C case most often occurs on the highway and residential areas. Therefore, new entrants in an area should be aware of these kind of crimes. Route Planners System or route planning system such as Google Maps only consider the shortest distance in the calculation of the optimal route. The selection of the optimal path in this study not only consider the shortest distance, but also involves other factors, namely the security level. This research considers at the need for an application to recommend the safest road to be passed by the vehicle passengers while drive an area. This research propose Be-Safe Travel, a web-based application using Google API that can be accessed by people who like to drive in an area, but still lack of knowledge of the pathways which are safe from crime. Be-Safe Travel is not only useful for the new entrants, but also useful for delivery courier of valuables goods to go through the safest streets.

  12. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindqvist Kent


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual

  13. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes? (United States)

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent


    The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual. Increased relational resources facilitated the transfer of information

  14. Towards an ethics safe harbor for global biomedical research (United States)

    Dove, Edward S.; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Zawati, Ma'n H.


    Although increasingly global, data-driven genomics and other ‘omics’-focused research hold great promise for health discoveries, current research ethics review systems around the world challenge potential improvements in human health from such research. To overcome this challenge, we propose a ‘Safe Harbor Framework for International Ethics Equivalency’ that facilitates the harmonization of ethics review of specific types of data-driven international research projects while respecting globally transposable research ethics norms and principles. The Safe Harbor would consist in part of an agency supporting an International Federation for Ethics Review (IFER), formed by a voluntary compact among countries, granting agencies, philanthropies, institutions, and healthcare, patient advocacy, and research organizations. IFER would be both a central ethics review body, and also a forum for review and follow-up of policies concerning ethics norms for international research projects. It would be built on five principle elements: (1) registration, (2) compliance review, (3) recognition, (4) monitoring and enforcement, and (5) public participation. The Safe Harbor would create many benefits for researchers, countries, and the general public, and may eventually have application beyond (gen)omics to other areas of biomedical research that increasingly engage in secondary use of data and present only negligible risks. PMID:27774154

  15. Perioperative Care of Prisoners: Providing Safe Care. (United States)

    Smith, Francis Duval


    Correctional nurses are trained to care for prisoners in a controlled security environment; however, when a convict is transferred to a noncorrectional health care facility, the nurses there are often unfamiliar with custody requirements or how to safely care for these patients. The care of prisoners outside of prison has not been adequately investigated, and a gap exists between research and nursing education and practice. Nurses rarely have to consider how providing care for a prisoner in custody affects their practice, the potential dissonance between routine nursing care and the requirements to maintain security, or that care of prisoners in unsecured clinical areas places the nurse and other personnel at risk for physical assault or prisoner escape. Educating perioperative nurses in the care of prisoners in a public hospital environment is important for the provision of safe care and prevention of physical and emotional repercussions to personnel. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human cloning: can it be made safe? (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian


    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?

  17. Safe Sleep for Babies PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Every year, there are about 3,500 sleep-related deaths among U.S. babies. Learn how to create a safe sleep environment for babies.  Created: 1/9/2018 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/9/2018.

  18. Safe exercise prescription for children and adolescents


    Alleyne, Julia MK


    This article provides practical advice on healthy exercise prescription for children. There is growing scientific evidence about the abilities and limits of child athletes in both recreational and competitive environments. As exercise becomes essential for the prevention of illness and maintenance of health, the counselling for an exercise prescription requires enhanced knowledge. The latest recommendations on safe strength, resistance and weight training are presented in a concise format for...

  19. Safe exercise prescription for children and adolescents. (United States)

    Alleyne, J M


    This article provides practical advice on healthy exercise prescription for children. There is growing scientific evidence about the abilities and limits of child athletes in both recreational and competitive environments. As exercise becomes essential for the prevention of illness and maintenance of health, the counselling for an exercise prescription requires enhanced knowledge. The latest recommendations on safe strength, resistance and weight training are presented in a concise format for office use.

  20. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew


    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  1. SAFE: SPARQL Federation over RDF Data Cubes with Access Control. (United States)

    Khan, Yasar; Saleem, Muhammad; Mehdi, Muntazir; Hogan, Aidan; Mehmood, Qaiser; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Sahay, Ratnesh


    Several query federation engines have been proposed for accessing public Linked Open Data sources. However, in many domains, resources are sensitive and access to these resources is tightly controlled by stakeholders; consequently, privacy is a major concern when federating queries over such datasets. In the Healthcare and Life Sciences (HCLS) domain real-world datasets contain sensitive statistical information: strict ownership is granted to individuals working in hospitals, research labs, clinical trial organisers, etc. Therefore, the legal and ethical concerns on (i) preserving the anonymity of patients (or clinical subjects); and (ii) respecting data ownership through access control; are key challenges faced by the data analytics community working within the HCLS domain. Likewise statistical data play a key role in the domain, where the RDF Data Cube Vocabulary has been proposed as a standard format to enable the exchange of such data. However, to the best of our knowledge, no existing approach has looked to optimise federated queries over such statistical data. We present SAFE: a query federation engine that enables policy-aware access to sensitive statistical datasets represented as RDF data cubes. SAFE is designed specifically to query statistical RDF data cubes in a distributed setting, where access control is coupled with source selection, user profiles and their access rights. SAFE proposes a join-aware source selection method that avoids wasteful requests to irrelevant and unauthorised data sources. In order to preserve anonymity and enforce stricter access control, SAFE's indexing system does not hold any data instances-it stores only predicates and endpoints. The resulting data summary has a significantly lower index generation time and size compared to existing engines, which allows for faster updates when sources change. We validate the performance of the system with experiments over real-world datasets provided by three clinical organisations as

  2. A new safe and cost-effective percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy: SafeTrach. (United States)

    Ullman, Johan; Karling, Jonas; Margolin, Gregori


    Conclusion SafeTrach is a new simplified and safe technique to perform percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) that eliminates known risk factors compared with existing percutaneous techniques. In the present clinical study, also patients with disadvantageous anatomy not suitable for conventional PDT (CPDT) were treated without complications using SafeTrach. PDT with SafeTrach (STPDT) offers an excellent solution for patients who need tracheotomy in connection with elective ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgery. Objectives To assess a new technique for percutaneous tracheotomy. Methods Seventeen patients were tracheotomized with STPDT using SafeTrach for the initial penetration sequence and single step dilatational techniques for the dilatational sequence. The patients represented a variety of different neck anatomies. Fifteen patients were head- and neck cancer patients that were subjects of free flap transplants. Results This study showed that STPDT was safe and easy to perform and time-efficient. The median duration of the procedure was 11.5 min and the puncture was in all cases located in the midline of the trachea either between the 2nd and 3rd tracheal ring (n = 13) or between the 3rd and 4th ring (n = 4).

  3. Clinical Practice Guideline: Safe Medication Use in the ICU. (United States)

    Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Dasta, Joseph F; Buckley, Mitchell S; Devabhakthuni, Sandeep; Liu, Michael; Cohen, Henry; George, Elisabeth L; Pohlman, Anne S; Agarwal, Swati; Henneman, Elizabeth A; Bejian, Sharon M; Berenholtz, Sean M; Pepin, Jodie L; Scanlon, Mathew C; Smith, Brian S


    To provide ICU clinicians with evidence-based guidance on safe medication use practices for the critically ill. PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science for relevant material to December 2015. Based on three key components: 1) environment and patients, 2) the medication use process, and 3) the patient safety surveillance system. The committee collectively developed Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions and quality of evidence statements pertaining to medication errors and adverse drug events addressing the key components. A total of 34 Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions, five quality of evidence statements, and one commentary on disclosure was developed. Subcommittee members were assigned selected Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions or quality of evidence statements. Subcommittee members completed their Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation of the question with his/her quality of evidence assessment and proposed strength of recommendation, then the draft was reviewed by the relevant subcommittee. The subcommittee collectively reviewed the evidence profiles for each question they developed. After the draft was discussed and approved by the entire committee, then the document was circulated among all members for voting on the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. The committee followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to determine quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. This guideline evaluates the ICU environment as a risk for medication-related events and the environmental changes that are possible to improve safe medication use. Prevention strategies for medication-related events are reviewed by medication use process node (prescribing, distribution, administration, monitoring). Detailed

  4. Can Robotic Thyroidectomy Be Performed Safely in Thyroid Carcinoma Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun Chai


    Full Text Available Since the adoption of the Da Vinci robotic system for remote access thyroid surgery, robotic thyroidectomy (RT has become a popular surgical option for patients who want to avoid neck scars. Surgeons in South Korea pioneered this surgical technique and have reported successful outcomes. Although many studies have reported that RT is a feasible and safe therapeutic alternative, concerns over the surgical and oncological safety of RT remain. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of RT and compares the surgical safety and oncological completeness of RT with conventional open thyroidectomy.

  5. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan


    In this book, the authors present current research on the types, design and safety issues of railways. Topics discussed include the acoustic characteristics of noise in train stations; monitoring railway structure conditions and opportunities to use wireless sensor networks as tools to improve...... the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity...

  6. Asymptotically safe inflation from quadratic gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, Alfio


    Asymptotically Safe theories of gravity have recently received much attention. In this work we discuss a class of inflationary models derived from quantum-gravity modification of quadratic gravity according to the induced scaling around the non-Gaussian fixed point at very high energies. It is argued that the presence of a three dimensional ultraviolet critical surface generates operators of non-integer power of the type $R^{2-\\theta/2}$ in the effective Lagrangian, where $\\theta>0$ is a critical exponent. The requirement of a successful inflationary model in agreement with the recent Planck 2015 data puts important constraints on the strenght of this new type of couplings.

  7. Parenteral nutrition: indications and safe management. (United States)

    Wyer, Nicky


    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of what parenteral nutrition (PN) is and when its use is required. It will describe the process of nutritional assessment, and considerations when choosing venous access. The different approaches to provision of PN solutions in hospital will be discussed. Catheter-related and metabolic complications can occur during delivery of PN; there will be a discussion of the different types of complications and how these can be avoided or minimised. Finally, the pivotal role of the nurse in the assessment and ongoing care of patients who require PN will be highlighted, including skills required to administer PN safely.

  8. A Safe Protocol for Amalgam Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana G. Colson


    Full Text Available Today's environment has different impacts on our body than previous generations. Heavy metals are a growing concern in medicine. Doctors and individuals request the removal of their amalgam (silver mercury restorations due to the high mercury content. A safe protocol to replace the silver mercury filling will ensure that there is minimal if any absorption of materials while being removed. Strong alternative white composite and lab-processed materials are available today to create a healthy and functioning mouth. Preparation of the patient prior to the procedure and after treatment is vital to establish the excretion of the mercury from the body.

  9. Control fusion for safe multi-robot coordination (United States)

    Bostelman, Roger; Marvel, Jeremy


    Future smart manufacturing systems will include more complex coordination of mobile manipulators (i.e., robot arms mounted on mobile bases). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) conducts research on the safety and performance of multiple collaborating robots using a mobile platform, an automatic guided vehicle (AGV) with an onboard manipulator. Safety standards for robots and industrial vehicles each mandate their failsafe control, but there is little overlap between the standards that can be relied on when the two systems are combined and their independent controllers make collaborative decisions for safe movement. This paper briefly discusses previously uncovered gaps between AGV and manipulator standards and details decision sharing for when manipulators and AGVs are combined into a collaborative, mobile manipulator system. Tests using the NIST mobile manipulator with various control methods were performed and are described along with test results and plans for further, more complex tests of implicit and explicit coordination control of the mobile manipulator.

  10. 31st August 2011 - Government of Japan R. Chubachi, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office, Vice Chairman, Representative Corporate Executive Officer and Member of the Board, Sony Corporation, visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior physicist T. Kondo.

    CERN Multimedia

    Raphaël Piguet


    31st August 2011 - Government of Japan R. Chubachi, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office, Vice Chairman, Representative Corporate Executive Officer and Member of the Board, Sony Corporation, visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior physicist T. Kondo.

  11. Prepare to protect: Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room. (United States)

    Herseth, Andrew; Goldsmith-Grinspoon, Jennifer; Scott, Pataya


    Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room can be critical to the effective continuity of business operations because a firm's most valuable asset is its people. This paper describes aspects of operations and maintenance (O&M) for existing tornado safe rooms as well as a few planning and design aspects that affect the ultimate operation of a safe room for situations where a safe room is planned, but not yet constructed. The information is based on several Federal Emergency Management Agency safe room publications that provide guidance on emergency management and operations, as well as the design and construction of tornado safe rooms.

  12. Identifying best practices for "Safe Harbor" legislation to protect child sex trafficking victims: Decriminalization alone is not sufficient. (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Susan; Azzi, Veronica F; Ryan, Gery; Brook, Robert; Chung, Paul J


    Several states have recently enacted "Safe Harbor" laws to redirect child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and child sex trafficking from the criminal justice system and into the child welfare system. No comprehensive studies of Safe Harbor law implementation exist. The nine state Safe Harbor laws enacted by 2012 were analyzed to guide state legislators, health professionals, law enforcement agents, child welfare providers, and other responders to the commercial sexual exploitation of children on the development and implementation of state Safe Harbor laws. The authors conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with Safe Harbor experts in these states. Participants conveyed that Safe Harbor legislation signified a critical paradigm shift, treating commercially sexually exploited youth not as criminals but as vulnerable children in need of services. However, Safe Harbor legislation varied widely and significant gaps in laws exist. Such laws alone were considered insufficient without adequate funding for necessary services. As a result, many well-meaning providers were going around the Safe Harbor laws by continuing to incarcerate commercially sexually exploited youth in the juvenile justice system regardless of Safe Harbor laws in place. This was done, to act, in their view, in what was the best interest of the victimized children. With imperfect laws and implementation, these findings suggest an important role for local and state responders to act together to protect victims from unnecessary criminalization and potential further traumatization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Organizing Safe Transitions from Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Häggström


    Full Text Available Background. Organizing and performing patient transfers in the continuum of care is part of the work of nurses and other staff of a multiprofessional healthcare team. An understanding of discharge practices is needed in order to ultimate patients’ transfers from high technological intensive care units (ICU to general wards. Aim. To describe, as experienced by intensive care and general ward staff, what strategies could be used when organizing patient’s care before, during, and after transfer from intensive care. Method. Interviews of 15 participants were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. The results showed that the categories secure, encourage, and collaborate are strategies used in the three phases of the ICU transitional care process. The main category; a safe, interactive rehabilitation process, illustrated how all strategies were characterized by an intention to create and maintain safety during the process. A three-way interaction was described: between staff and patient/families, between team members and involved units, and between patient/family and environment. Discussion/Conclusions. The findings highlight that ICU transitional care implies critical care rehabilitation. Discharge procedures need to be safe and structured and involve collaboration, encouraging support, optimal timing, early mobilization, and a multidiscipline approach.

  14. Soft Contact Lenses Safe for Kids and Teens, Review Finds (United States)

    ... Soft Contact Lenses Safe for Kids and Teens, Review Finds Infection ... 2017 WEDNESDAY, July 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Soft contact lenses are as safe for children and teens as ...

  15. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims or...

  16. 31 CFR 515.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 515... Definitions § 515.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the custody... upon the meaning of the term custody. ...

  17. 31 CFR 500.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 500... Definitions § 500.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the custody... upon the meaning of the term custody. ...

  18. Safe operation of a batch reactor: Safe storage of organic peroxides in supply vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, M.; Steensma, Metske; Westerterp, K.R.


    In this study, we investigated the limits of safe operation for a cooled reactor, operated batchwise. As an example of a single-phase reaction, we studied the decomposition of t-butyl peroxypivalate, a well-known organic peroxide, undergoing self-heating at relatively low temperatures. If

  19. Safe Schools for LGBTQI Students: How Do Teachers View Their Role in Promoting Safe Schools? (United States)

    Vega, Stephanie; Crawford, Heather Glynn; Van Pelt, J-Lynn


    This literature review presents insights from existing research on how teachers view their role in creating safe schools for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) students. Analysis of the literature shows that there are concerns for LGBTQI students' safety in schools, that educational settings operate from…

  20. Safe and Secure Services Based on NGN (United States)

    Fukazawa, Tomoo; Nisase, Takemi; Kawashima, Masahisa; Hariu, Takeo; Oshima, Yoshihito

    Next Generation Network (NGN), which has been undergoing standardization as it has developed, is expected to create new services that converge the fixed and mobile networks. This paper introduces the basic requirements for NGN in terms of security and explains the standardization activities, in particular, the requirements for the security function described in Y.2701 discussed in ITU-T SG-13. In addition to the basic NGN security function, requirements for NGN authentication are also described from three aspects: security, deployability, and service. As examples of authentication implementation, three profiles-namely, fixed, nomadic, and mobile-are defined in this paper. That is, the “fixed profile” is typically for fixed-line subscribers, the “nomadic profile” basically utilizes WiFi access points, and the “mobile profile” provides ideal NGN mobility for mobile subscribers. All three of these profiles satisfy the requirements from security aspects. The three profiles are compared from the viewpoint of requirements for deployability and service. After showing that none of the three profiles can fulfill all of the requirements, we propose that multiple profiles should be used by NGN providers. As service and application examples, two promising NGN applications are proposed. The first is a strong authentication mechanism that makes Web applications more safe and secure even against password theft. It is based on NGN ID federation function. The second provides an easy peer-to-peer broadband virtual private network service aimed at safe and secure communication for personal/SOHO (small office, home office) users, based on NGN SIP (session initiation protocol) session control.

  1. Safe lifting in patients with chronic low back pain : Comparing FCE lifting task and NIOSH lifting guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, Wietske; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Brouwer, Sandra; Reneman, Michiel F.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.


    Introduction: Both the floor-to-waist lifting task of the Isernhagen Work Systems Functional Capacity Evaluation (IWS FCE) and recommended weight limit (RWL) of the NIOSH produce safe lifting weights and are used world-wide nowadays. It is unknown whether they produce similar safe lifting weights.

  2. 75 FR 7149 - SAFE Mortgage Licensing Act: HUD Responsibilities Under the SAFE Act; Extension of Public Comment... (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Parts 30 and 3400 RIN 2502-A170 SAFE Mortgage Licensing... responsibilities under the Secure and Fair Enforcement Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008 (SAFE Act), which was...

  3. Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Alexander, Kamila A; Coleman, Christopher L; Deatrick, Janet A; Jemmott, Loretta S


    This paper is a report of a conceptual analysis of women-controlled safe sex. Women bear disproportionate burdens from sexually related health compromising outcomes. Imbalanced societal gender and power positions contribute to high morbidities. The expression, women-controlled safe sex, aims to empower women to gain control of their sexual lives. Few researchers focus on contextualized socio-cultural definitions of sexual safety among women. The sample included scientific literature from Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO and Sociological Abstracts. Papers were published 2000-2010. Critical analyses of literature about women-controlled safe sex were performed in May 2011 using Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis methods. The search focused on social and cultural influences on sexual practices aimed at increasing women's control over their sexual safety. The analysis uncovered five attributes of women-controlled safe sex: technology; access to choices; women at-risk; 'condom migration' panic; and communication. Three antecedents included: male partner influence; body awareness; and self-efficacy. Consequences were categorized as positive or negative. Nine surrogate terms included: empowerment; gender power; female-controlled sexual barrier method; microbicides; diaphragm; sexual negotiation and communication; female condom; women-initiated disease transmission prevention; and spermicides. Finally, a consensus definition was identified: a socio-culturally influenced multi-level process for initiating sexual safety by women deemed at-risk for sexually related dangers, usually sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV/AIDS. This concept analysis described current significance, uses, and applications of women-controlled safe sex in the scientific literature. The authors clarified its limited nature and conclude that additional conceptual refinement in nursing is necessary to influence women's health. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Safe Recursion on Notation into a Light Logic by Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Roversi


    Full Text Available We embed Safe Recursion on Notation (SRN into Light Affine Logic by Levels (LALL, derived from the logic L4. LALL is an intuitionistic deductive system, with a polynomial time cut elimination strategy. The embedding allows to represent every term t of SRN as a family of proof nets |t|^l in LALL. Every proof net |t|^l in the family simulates t on arguments whose bit length is bounded by the integer l. The embedding is based on two crucial features. One is the recursive type in LALL that encodes Scott binary numerals, i.e. Scott words, as proof nets. Scott words represent the arguments of t in place of the more standard Church binary numerals. Also, the embedding exploits the "fuzzy" borders of paragraph boxes that LALL inherits from L4 to "freely" duplicate the arguments, especially the safe ones, of t. Finally, the type of |t|^l depends on the number of composition and recursion schemes used to define t, namely the structural complexity of t. Moreover, the size of |t|^l is a polynomial in l, whose degree depends on the structural complexity of t. So, this work makes closer both the predicative recursive theoretic principles SRN relies on, and the proof theoretic one, called /stratification/, at the base of Light Linear Logic.

  5. A new approach to utilize Hydrogen as a safe fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aal, H.K.; Sadik, M.; Bassyouni, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Higher Technical Institute, Tenth of Ramadan, Cairo (Egypt); Shalabi, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, KFUPM (Saudi Arabia)


    Fundamental to the creation of a hydrogen economy is a viable, safe and affordable hydrogen-energy-system. Examining carefully some of the key properties of hydrogen that are related to fire and explosion, it is found that hydrogen is combustible over a wide range of concentrations. At atmospheric pressure, it is combustible at concentrations from 4% to 74.2% by volume. It has the highest flame velocity of any gas and its ignition energy is very low, which is 32% less than methane gas. In this paper, the problem of 'safe hydrogen' is tackled using a new theoretical approach. Hydrogen is mixed with predetermined amounts of methane gas and to be sold as 'Hydrothane'. The properties of this mixture-most important are the flame speed, lower explosion limit (LEL) and upper explosion limit (UEL) are to be developed as a function of the ratio of the hydrogen-methane. The maximum flame speed, cm/s, for a selected number of hydrocarbons along with the corresponding volume percentage of combustible mixture (fuel in air) are used in the proposed analysis. In addition, Le Chatelier's law is used to predict limits of flammability of the Hydrothane. (author)

  6. Pseudo Control Hedging and its Application for Safe Flight Envelope Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaerts, T.J.J.; Looye, G.H.N.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.


    This paper describes how the previously developed concept of Pseudo Control Hedging (PCH) can be integrated in a Fault Tolerant Flight Controller (FTFC) as a safe flight envelope protection system of the first degree. This PCH algorithm adapts the reference model for the system output in case of

  7. Safe, Healthy and Ready to Succeed: Arizona School Readiness Key Performance Indicators (United States)

    Migliore, Donna E.


    "Safe, Healthy and Ready to Succeed: Arizona School Readiness Key Performance Indicators" presents a set of baseline measurements that gauge how well a statewide system of school readiness supports is addressing issues that affect Arizona children's readiness for school. The Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) measure the system, rather…

  8. Safe design and operation of fluidized-bed reactors: Choice between reactor models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, E.J.; Westerterp, K.R.


    For three different catalytic fluidized bed reactor models, two models presented by Werther and a model presented by van Deemter, the region of safe and unique operation for a chosen reaction system was investigated. Three reaction systems were used: the oxidation of benzene to maleic anhydride, the

  9. Towards a sustainable safe traffic system in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.


    Los Paises Bajos pertenecen a los paises mas seguros del mundo. La cantidad de victimas en el trafico en veinte anos ha disminuido en mas de la mitad. Se describira (cuantitativamente y cualitativamente) cuales son los desarrollos y las medidas que han contribuido a este desarrollo favorable. Desde

  10. Driving down the road toll by building a safe system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.


    Much has been done to improve road safety in South Australia. Traditional stakeholders such as the police, road authorities and insurance agencies have invested considerable resources into tackling road safety problems and South Australia has good capability via the internationally recognised Centre

  11. Evaluation of efalizumab using safe psoriasis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henninger Eric


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe Psoriasis Control (SPC is an important comprehensive measure that is validated for the assessment of benefit:risk of psoriasis treatments, combining efficacy, quality of life, and safety measures. The objective of this analysis was to assess the benefit:risk of efalizumab, a novel biologic agent indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, by applying the SPC to data from randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies of efalizumab. Methods SPC was applied to week 12 data from four placebo-controlled, Phase III studies: three retrospective and one prospective, the latter including a cohort of "high-need" patients for whom existing therapies were inadequate or unsuitable. Results In the retrospective analysis, 39.4% of patients achieved SPC after 12 weeks of treatment with efalizumab, compared with 10.4% for placebo. In the prospective analysis, 34.3% of patients achieved SPC after 12 weeks of treatment with efalizumab, compared with 7.3% on placebo. Among high-need patients, 33.0% achieved SPC, compared with 3.4% on placebo. Conclusion Efalizumab has a favorable benefit:risk profile using the comprehensive outcome measure SPC.

  12. CarbonSAFE Illinois - Macon County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Steve [University of Illinois; Illinois State Geological Survey


    CarbonSAFE Illinois is a a Feasibility study to develop an established geologic storage complex in Macon County, Illinois, for commercial-scale storage of industrially sourced CO2. Feasibility activities are focused on the Mt. Simon Storage Complex; a step-out well will be drilled near existing storage sites (i.e., the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium’s Illinois Basin – Decatur Project and the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Project) to further establish commercial viability of this complex and to evaluate EOR potential in a co-located oil-field trend. The Archer Daniels Midland facility (ethanol plant), City Water, Light, and Power in Springfield, Illinois (coal-fired power station), and other regional industries are potential sources of anthropogenic CO2 for storage at this complex. Site feasibility will be evaluated through drilling results, static and dynamic modeling, and quantitative risk assessment. Both studies will entail stakeholder engagement, consideration of infrastructure requirements, existing policy, and business models. Project data will help calibrate the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) Toolkit to better understand the risks of commercial-scale carbon storage.

  13. Safe and optimized used fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiguer, M.; Casablanca, J. L.


    A Post-Fukushima perspective This paper lists and briefly describes challenges and issues at stake that used Fuel Management will be facing at existing spent fuel p001 at reactors in operation or permanently shutdown in the aftermath of Fukushima and upcoming stress tests and beyond. It is also an attempt to jet from the perspective of AREVA, existing and proven products and services going along risk reduction strategies that may be of value to adequate protection that appropriately balances defence-in-depth and risk considerations as far as Used Fuel Management is considered and this from the very starting point namely the unloading of used fuel at SFP. Over the past decades, AREVA never stops enhancing used fuel recycling performances and developing innovative solutions to respond to plant, utility or country related constraints. This will be illustrated through a few business cases that best describe the various proven solutions and implemented contractual schemes for the safe and optimized management of used fuel today.

  14. Drainless mastectomy: Is it safe and effective? (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth; Piper, Jennifer


    Practice regarding the use of post operative drains after simple mastectomy varies widely. This project aimed to establish if not using a drain lead to an increase in post-operative seroma formation or other complications. Women undergoing simple mastectomy ± sentinel node biopsy were included. Patients were allocated to drain/no drain group via operating surgeon. Data was collected retrospectively from computer based records. Drain output, length of stay, seroma formation and volume and post-operative complications were recorded. There were 39 patients in the drain group and 24 patients in the no drain group. Patients did not differ significantly in terms of age, BMI or specimen weight. Seroma was more prevalent in the no drain group (62 v 83%) and required more clinic attendances for aspiration with larger volumes drained (360 vs 725 ml, p = 0.0096). There was no difference in overall complication rate. There did not appear to be a correlation between seroma formation and age, BMI or mastectomy weight. The use of a drain after simple mastectomy may confer lower rates of seroma formation as well as lower overall volumes. Therefore drainless mastectomy appears to be safe but may require more post-operative intervention. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee


    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  16. Is percutaneous nephrolithotomy in solitary kidneys safe? (United States)

    Wong, Kathie Alexina; Sahai, Arun; Patel, Amit; Thomas, Kay; Bultitude, Matthew; Glass, Jonathan


    To review our experience from a high volume stone center with a focus on efficacy, safety, and renal function. Stones requiring percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with solitary kidneys can pose significant anxiety to the urologist. Limited data are available in published reports in this setting. A comprehensive retrospective review of medical records was performed on patients who underwent PCNL and had a solitary kidney or a single functioning renal unit. Data were collected on patient demographics, stone burden, outcomes, complications, and renal function. Of 378 PCNLs performed between January 2003 and September 2011, 22 were performed in 17 patients with a single functioning kidney. Three procedures were performed in a transplanted kidney. In those with solitary calculus, the longest mean length and stone surface area were 37 mm and 825 mm(2), respectively. Stone-free rate was 59%. Auxiliary procedures were required in 6 cases, resulting in a stone-free rate of 77%. Median inpatient stay was 4 days. Serum creatinine values improved from 144 to 126 umol/L before and after the procedure and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate improved similarly from 51 to 59 mls/minute, respectively. Blood transfusion was required in 1 patient, sepsis developed in 3, and 2 patients required a stent for obstruction. PCNL in solitary kidneys is safe with an acceptable complication rate if performed in a high volume center. Outcomes are good, although auxiliary procedures may be necessary. Renal function remains stable or improves after procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Thyroidectomy under local anaesthesia: how safe? (United States)

    Misauno, M A; Yilkudi, M G; Akwaras, A L; Embu, H Y; Ojo, E O; Dakum, N K; Sule, A Z; Ugwu, B T


    In order to compliment the inadequate health facilities in the rural areas in Nigeria, nongovernmental organisations provide adhoc outreach health camps that offer treatment in various medical specialties including surgery. Rural outreach health camps. To evaluate the safety of thyroidectomy under local anaesthesia at rural outreach setting with inadequate facilities for general anaesthesia. This was a prospective descriptive study of 33 consecutive cases of thyroidectomy performed using field block with 1% lignocaine and adrenaline 1: 200,000 dilution during two free medical outreaches that held at Jos, Nigeria in March and October 2005 respectively, lasting two weeks each. A total of 33 primary thyroid operations were performed consisting of 30 subtotal thyroidectomies (91%), 2 lobectomies (6%) and one total thyroidectomy (3%), The patients were aged between 23 and 62 years with a mean age of 45.8 years. There were 3 males and 30 females with a male: female ratio of 1:10. There was no mortality but morbidity was 2/33 (6%) Two complications were recorded in 2 patients and were superficial surgical site infection (3%) and reactionary haemorrhage (3%). We conclude that thyroidectomy under local anaesthesia is a safe procedure in experienced hands at rural settings with inadequate facilities for general anaesthesia.

  18. Surgery aboard ship: is it safe? (United States)

    Fontana, M; Lucha, P; Snyder, M; Liston, W


    A retrospective review was performed on 684 surgical procedures done aboard U.S. Atlantic Fleet ships during a 3-year period from 1994 to 1996. These procedures were compared with similar procedures performed at the Naval Medical Center in Portsmouth, Virginia. Morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and compared. A very low morbidity rate (0.43%) was reported for surgical procedures performed while deployed compared with 1.69% for procedures at the Naval Medical Center. One mortality was reported. These extremely low rates are felt to be attributable to multiple causes, including a highly selected, healthy patient population, performance of only low-risk procedures, early presentation of surgical problems, and early medical evacuation of patients with complex medical and surgical problems. We feel that elective surgical procedures such as vasectomy, circumcision, inguinal hernia repair, and hemorrhoidectomy can be performed safely aboard ship. This would increase the training opportunity for all members of the medical department and at the same time decrease the costs and risks associated with medical evacuation.

  19. Aluminum vaccine adjuvants: are they safe? (United States)

    Tomljenovic, L; Shaw, C A


    Aluminum is an experimentally demonstrated neurotoxin and the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant. Despite almost 90 years of widespread use of aluminum adjuvants, medical science's understanding about their mechanisms of action is still remarkably poor. There is also a concerning scarcity of data on toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. In spite of this, the notion that aluminum in vaccines is safe appears to be widely accepted. Experimental research, however, clearly shows that aluminum adjuvants have a potential to induce serious immunological disorders in humans. In particular, aluminum in adjuvant form carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus have profound and widespread adverse health consequences. In our opinion, the possibility that vaccine benefits may have been overrated and the risk of potential adverse effects underestimated, has not been rigorously evaluated in the medical and scientific community. We hope that the present paper will provide a framework for a much needed and long overdue assessment of this highly contentious medical issue.

  20. [Acellular pertussis vaccines--safe alternative]. (United States)

    Szenborn, L; Saraczyńska, E


    This study was undertaken to assess the safety of various acellular vaccines (ACV) TripAcel, PacMarieux--Pasteur Merieux, Infanrix-SKB, Acel-P-Lederle and DTaP-SSI in 355 children, aged 7 weeks to 7 years, dismissed from immunization against pertussis with a whole-cell vaccine. All ACV contained varying concentrations of pertussis toxin; some vaccines contained filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin and/or agglutinogens. The indication of using ACV were adverse effects following immunization (AEFI) after wP vaccine (n = 29) and others reasons, mostly underlying perinatal and CNS pathology (n = 277). The 564 doses of ACV were given in 4 to 1 doses. Reaction forms and clinical follow-up were uniform throughout the study. Serious AEFI cases were not observed not only among children with CNS damage, but also in children with previous AEFI after DTwP vaccine. All ACV recipients consistently reported low rates of reactions in the 48 hours following immunization. We concluded that all investigated ACV were safe and well tolerated even in the group of high-risk children.

  1. Bike to work safely (follow-up)

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head


    Following a recent article about safe cycling (see here), the Bulletin received a request for more details on the type of accidents that are reported.   An analysis of the 38 accidents involving bicycles reported this year up to the end of August reveals that the most common single cause of accidents is slippery surfaces: ice, snow, water and gravel, so the message here is to take extra care, particularly when cycling in bad weather. The second item on the list is obstacles of various kinds: collisions with kerbs, potholes and even the transition from roads to cycle paths. The lesson here is to pay close attention to the surface you’re cycling over, and if you do spot a pothole, even if it does not lead to an accident, report it so that it can be repaired. It’s also worth remembering that you’re more likely to avoid coming off your bike if you keep your hands on the handlebars. The third highest cause is collisions with other vehicles, and here there are lessons for ...

  2. Need for a safe vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Young Kim


    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is a major cause of severe respiratory tract illnesses in infants and young children worldwide. Despite its importance as a respiratory pathogen, there is currently no licensed vaccine for HRSV. Following failure of the initial trial of formalin-inactivated virus particle vaccine, continuous efforts have been made for the development of safe and efficacious vaccines against HRSV. However, several obstacles persist that delay the development of HRSV vaccine, such as the immature immune system of newborn infants and the possible Th2-biased immune responses leading to subsequent vaccine-enhanced diseases. Many HRSV vaccine strategies are currently being developed and evaluated, including live-attenuated viruses, subunit-based, and vector-based candidates. In this review, the current HRSV vaccines are overviewed and the safety issues regarding asthma and vaccine-induced pathology are discussed.

  3. Preparation and characterization of safe microparticles based on xylan. (United States)

    Cartaxo da Costa Urtiga, Silvana; Aquino Azevedo de Lucena Gabi, Camilla; Rodrigues de Araújo Eleamen, Giovanna; Santos Souza, Bartolomeu; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna Freire; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Afonso de Moura Mendonça, Elisângela; Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do; Oliveira, Elquio Eleamen


    This work describes the preparation and evaluation of safe xylan-based microparticles prepared by cross-linking polymerization using sodium trimetaphosphate. The resulting microparticles were evaluated for morphology, particle size, polymer-cross-link agent interaction, and in vitro toxicity. The microparticles showed narrow monodisperse size distributions with their mean sizes being between 3.5 and 12.5 µm in dried state. FT-IR analyzes confirmed the interaction between sodium trimetaphosphate and xylan during the cross-linking process with formation of phosphate ester bonds. Additionally, the X-ray diffraction patterns and FT-IR analyzes suggested that little or no cross-linking agent remained inside the microparticles. Furthermore, the in-vitro studies using Artemia salina and human erythrocytes revealed that the microparticles are not toxic. Therefore, the overall results suggest that these xylan microparticles can be used as a platform for new drug delivery system.

  4. Towards safe robots approaching Asimov’s 1st law

    CERN Document Server

    Haddadin, Sami


    The vision of seamless human-robot interaction in our everyday life that allows for tight cooperation between human and robot has not become reality yet. However, the recent increase in technology maturity finally made it possible to realize systems of high integration, advanced sensorial capabilities and enhanced power to cross this barrier and merge living spaces of humans and robot workspaces to at least a certain extent. Together with the increasing industrial effort to realize first commercial service robotics products this makes it necessary to properly address one of the most fundamental questions of Human-Robot Interaction: How to ensure safety in human-robot coexistence? In this authoritative monograph, the essential question about the necessary requirements for a safe robot is addressed in depth and from various perspectives. The approach taken in this book focuses on the biomechanical level of injury assessment, addresses the physical evaluation of robot-human impacts, and isolates the major factor...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, G; Leif, R


    Biocompatible polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds have been used to produce safe, non-toxic fluorescent microspheres for material penetration studies. The selection of polymeric materials depends on both biocompatibility and processability, with tailored fluorescent properties depending on specific applications. Microspheres are composed of USFDA-approved biodegradable polymers and non-toxic fluorophores and are therefore suitable for tests where human exposure is possible. Micropheres were produced which contain unique fluorophores to enable discrimination from background aerosol particles. Characteristics that affect dispersion and adhesion can be modified depending on use. Several different microsphere preparation methods are possible, including the use of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG), a Sono-Tek atomizer, an emulsion technique, and inkjet printhead. Applications for the fluorescent microspheres include challenges for biodefense system testing, calibrants for biofluorescence sensors, and particles for air dispersion model validation studies.

  6. Secrets of safe laparoscopic surgery: Anaesthetic and surgical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Arati


    Full Text Available In recent years, laparoscopic surgery has gained popularity in clinical practice. The key element in laparoscopic surgery is creation of pneumoperitoneum and carbon dioxide is commonly used for insufflation. This pneumoperitoneum perils the normal cardiopulmonary system to a considerable extent. Every laparoscopic surgeon should understand the consequences of pneumoperitoneum; so that its untoward effects can be averted. Pneumoperitoneum increases pressure on diaphragm, leading to its cephalic displacement and thereby decreasing venous return, which can be aggravated by the position of patient during surgery. There is no absolute contraindication of laparoscopic surgery, though we can anticipate some problems in conditions like obesity, pregnancy and previous abdominal surgery. This review discusses some aspects of the pathophysiology of carbon dioxide induced pneumoperitoneum, its consequences as well as strategies to counteract them. Also, we propose certain guidelines for safe laparoscopic surgery.

  7. Data Safe Havens in health research and healthcare. (United States)

    Burton, Paul R; Murtagh, Madeleine J; Boyd, Andy; Williams, James B; Dove, Edward S; Wallace, Susan E; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Little, Julian; Chisholm, Rex L; Gaye, Amadou; Hveem, Kristian; Brookes, Anthony J; Goodwin, Pat; Fistein, Jon; Bobrow, Martin; Knoppers, Bartha M


    The data that put the 'evidence' into 'evidence-based medicine' are central to developments in public health, primary and hospital care. A fundamental challenge is to site such data in repositories that can easily be accessed under appropriate technical and governance controls which are effectively audited and are viewed as trustworthy by diverse stakeholders. This demands socio-technical solutions that may easily become enmeshed in protracted debate and controversy as they encounter the norms, values, expectations and concerns of diverse stakeholders. In this context, the development of what are called 'Data Safe Havens' has been crucial. Unfortunately, the origins and evolution of the term have led to a range of different definitions being assumed by different groups. There is, however, an intuitively meaningful interpretation that is often assumed by those who have not previously encountered the term: a repository in which useful but potentially sensitive data may be kept securely under governance and informatics systems that are fit-for-purpose and appropriately tailored to the nature of the data being maintained, and may be accessed and utilized by legitimate users undertaking work and research contributing to biomedicine, health and/or to ongoing development of healthcare systems. This review explores a fundamental question: 'what are the specific criteria that ought reasonably to be met by a data repository if it is to be seen as consistent with this interpretation and viewed as worthy of being accorded the status of 'Data Safe Haven' by key stakeholders'? We propose 12 such criteria. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Pressures and procedures for the design of safe consumer products. (United States)

    Wilson, J R


    An assessment is provided of the current position regarding changes in UK or EEC civil law under which injured parties can obtain redress in respect of injuries caused by defective products. One effect of proposed systems of strict liability in tort will be to shift some of the burden of proof from the injured party on to the producer of the product claimed to have caused injury. It is argued that this is a just and logical change, given the unfairness and anomalies in present systems and the relative abilities of consumers and producers to avoid such incidents and to bear or to offset the cost of the consequences. Cases of apparent misuse of a product by a consumer may frequently be induced by the design of that product and could thus be prevented by more thoughtful design. In order that producers can ensure their own viability and satisfy the consumer market, their products must be safe, efficient, comfortable and satisfying to use, as well as durable, serviceable and realistically priced. One requirement for achieving this has been said to be the input of accident and ergonomics data early in the product development process; the present paper examines this proposition. Evidence is provided by research into the design and manufacture of consumer products for the UK market, carried out at Birmingham University. Examined in particular are the extent to which formal development processes and design safety review procedures are used, and the degree of utilisation of accident, ergonomics, user testing and market feedback data, identifying barriers to the widespread use of these. Safe and ergonomic design of products must aim to be seen as a positive business activity, rather than as a cost-centre. The benefits to a company of a comprehensive design safety programme will more than outweigh the costs given the pressures identified earlier.

  9. Automated system for the safe management of the radioactive wastes and liquid effluents in a Radiopharmaceutical an labelled compounds production center; Sistema automatizado para la gestion segura de los desechos radiactivos y efluentes liquidos en un centro de produccion de radiofarmacos y compuestos marcados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador B, Z.H. [Centro de Isotopos, Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada, Km. 3, Guanabacoa, Apartado 3415, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Guerra V, R. [Centro de Gestion de Informacion y Desarrollo de la Energia, Calle 20 No. 4111 e/47 y 18A, Playa, Ciudad La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail:


    The Center of Isotopes of the Republic of Cuba is a radioactive installation of first category that executes the administration of their radioactive waste under authorization of the National Regulatory Authority. The principles of the design and operation of the 'SADR' system for the safe administration of the radioactive waste and liquid effluents are presented. The Visual Basic 6 platform for the programming of the SADR is used and through of their schematic representation, the control flows and of data of the 7 modules that conform it are shown. For each module the functions are described and it presents an image of the corresponding interface. With the SADR its can be carried out the one registration and the upgrade of the inventory of radioactive waste, the planning of those disqualification operations, the annual consolidation of the volumes of waste generated and disqualified, the evaluation of specific and general indicators and the one tendencies analysis. The handling of the system through the intranet allows the enter of data from the operations place with the radioactive wastes. The results of the operation of the SADR show the utility of this work to elevate the efficiency of the administration of the radioactive wastes. (Author)

  10. On the fail-safe design of tendon-driven manipulators with redundant tendons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, Jinn Biau; Liu, Tyng; Lee, Jyh Jone [National Taiwan University, Taipei (China)


    A tendon-driven manipulator having redundant tendons may possess more flexibility in operation, such as optimizing the performance of tendons, reducing the burden of each tendon, and providing fail-safe features. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the design of tendon-driven manipulators with a fail-safe feature, that is, to synthesize a system that may still remain controllable as any of the tendons have broken down or malfunctioned. Characteristics of tendon-driven manipulators are briefly discussed. Criteria for tendon-driven manipulators with redundant tendons and fail-safe feature are then established. Subsequently, constraints for such system are derived from the structure of tendon-driven manipulator. Associated with the criteria, manipulators can remain controllable when any of the tendons fails to function. Finally, a geometric method for determining the structure is developed. Examples of two-DOF and three-DOF tendondriven manipulators are demonstrated.

  11. Inherently safe reactors and a second nuclear era. (United States)

    Weinberg, A M; Spiewak, I


    The Swedish PIUS reactor and the German-American small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor are inherently safe-that is, their safety relies not upon intervention of humans or of electromechanical devices but on immutable principles of physics and chemistry. A second nuclear era may require commercialization and deployment of such inherently safe reactors, even though existing light-water reactors appear to be as safe as other well-accepted sources of central electricity, particularly hydroelectric dams.

  12. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas


    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

  13. Guidelines for reliability analysis of digital systems in PSA context - Phase 2 Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authen, S. (Risk Pilot AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Gustafsson, J. (Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden)); Holmberg, J.-E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))


    The OECD/NEA CSNI Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRisk) has set up a task group called DIGREL to develop a taxonomy of failure modes of digital components for the purposes of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). A parallel Nordic activity carried out a pre-study where a comparison of Nordic experiences and a literature review were performed. The study showed a wide range of approaches and solutions to the challenges given by digital I and C. In 2011, a proposal for the failure modes taxonomy was defined. This is based on a set of requirements agreed on the purpose of the taxonomy. The following levels of details can be distinguished from the hardware point of view: (1) the entire system, (2) a division, (3) processing units (and cabinets), (4) modules, i.e. subcomponents of processing units and (5) generic components, i.e. subcomponents of modules. Module level seems to be the most appropriate from the PSA modelling point of view. The software failure modes taxonomy is still an open issue. An existing simplified PSA model has been complemented with fault tree models for a four-redundant distributed protection system in order to study and demonstrate the effect of design features and modelling approaches. The example shows that even rather simple I and C design leads to rather complex model despite of the fact that many things have been simplified and only a few protection signals are considered. One lesson from the example is that the Alpha factor model should be used to model common cause failures instead of the Beta factor model. Two options were developed to the comparison of different fail-safe principles. The role of detectable and undetectable failure modes with respect to the failed versus spurious actuations can be clearly seen in the results, showing the importance to model these features in PSA. (Author)

  14. Considerations for Safe Innovation: The Case of Graphene. (United States)

    Park, Margriet V D Z; Bleeker, Eric A J; Brand, Walter; Cassee, Flemming R; van Elk, Merel; Gosens, Ilse; de Jong, Wim H; Meesters, Johannes A J; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Quik, Joris T K; Vandebriel, Rob J; Sips, Adriënne J A M


    The terms "Safe innovation" and "Safe(r)-by-design" are currently popular in the field of nanotechnology. These terms are used to describe approaches that advocate the consideration of safety aspects already at an early stage of the innovation process of (nano)materials and nanoenabled products. Here, we investigate the possibilities of considering safety aspects during various stages of the innovation process of graphene, outlining what information is already available for assessing potential hazard, exposure, and risks. In addition, we recommend further steps to be taken by various stakeholders to promote the safe production and safe use of graphene.

  15. Estimation of the activity and doses to personnel which intake Iodine 131 by coffee consumption in a cabinet of Nuclear Medicine; Estimacion de la actividad y dosis a personal que ingirio Yodo 131 por consumo de cafe en un gabinete de Medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz C, M.A.; Alfaro L, M.; Salinas, J.A.; Molina, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Soon after an incident in a cabinet of nuclear medicine, its were carried out in the National Institute of Nuclear Research of Mexico (ININ), a series of bio essays measurements by whole-body counting to six people attributed to this cabinet. Of six people, five are classified as Occupational Exposed Personnel (POE), and the other one that works as secretary, according to the General Regulation of Radiological Safety, is classified as public member. Six people that were involved in this incident, the one which presumably it took place among November 15 and 18, 2002 and that it consisted on the effusion of a vial containing an unknown quantity of Iodine-131 to a coffeepot, they ingested coffee in diverse quantities. The Iodine-131 is used in nuclear medicine, so much for the illnesses diagnostic like in the treatment of thyroid cancer and of hyperthyroidism. (Author)

  16. Safe Evolution Patterns for Software Product Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dintzner, N.


    Despite a global recognition of the problem, and massive investment from researchers and practitioners, the evolution of complex software systems is still a major challenge for today’s architects and developers. In the context of product lines, or highly configurable systems, variability in the

  17. Fire-safe polymers and polymer composites (United States)

    Zhang, Huiqing

    The intrinsic relationships between polymer structure, composition and fire behavior have been explored to develop new fire-safe polymeric materials. Different experimental techniques, especially three milligram-scale methods---pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and pyrolysis GC/MS---have been combined to fully characterize the thermal decomposition and flammability of polymers and polymer composites. Thermal stability, mass loss rate, char yield and properties of decomposition volatiles were found to be the most important parameters in determining polymer flammability. Most polymers decompose by either an unzipping or a random chain scission mechanism with an endothermic decomposition of 100--900 J/g. Aromatic or heteroaromatic rings, conjugated double or triple bonds and heteroatoms such as halogens, N, O, S, P and Si are the basic structural units for fire-resistant polymers. The flammability of polymers can also be successfully estimated by combining pyrolysis GC/MS results or chemical structures with TGA results. The thermal decomposition and flammability of two groups of inherently fire-resistant polymers---poly(hydroxyamide) (PHA) and its derivatives, and bisphenol C (BPC II) polyarylates---have been systematically studied. PHA and most of its derivatives have extremely low heat release rates and very high char yields upon combustion. PHA and its halogen derivatives can completely cyclize into quasi-polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures at low temperatures. However, the methoxy and phosphate derivatives show a very different behavior during decomposition and combustion. Molecular modeling shows that the formation of an enol intermediate is the rate-determining step in the thermal cyclization of PHA. BPC II-polyarylate is another extremely flame-resistant polymer. It can be used as an efficient flame-retardant agent in copolymers and blends. From PCFC results, the total heat of combustion of these copolymers or blends

  18. Is Swimming Safe in Heart Failure? A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Shah, Parin; Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Macnamara, Alexandra; Urbinati, Alessia; Clark, Andrew L

    It is not clear whether swimming is safe in patients with chronic heart failure. Ten studies examining the hemodynamic effects of acute water immersion (WI) (155 patients; average age 60 years; 86% male; mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 29%) and 6 randomized controlled trials of rehabilitation comparing swimming with either medical treatment only (n = 3) or cycling (n = 1) or aerobic exercise (n = 2), (136 patients, average age 59 years; 84% male, mean LVEF 31%) were considered. In 7 studies of warm WI (30-35°C): heart rate (HR) fell (2% to -15%), and both cardiac output (CO) (7-37%) and stroke volume (SV) increased (13-41%). In 1 study of hot WI (41°C), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) fell (41%) and HR increased (33%). In 2 studies of cold WI (12-22°C), there were no consistent effects on HR and CO. Compared with medical management, swimming led to a greater increase in peak VO2 (7-14%) and 6 minute walk test (6MWT) (7-13%). Compared with cycle training, combined swimming and cycle training led to a greater reduction in resting HR (16%), a greater increase in resting SV (23%) and SVR (15%), but no changes in resting CO and a lesser increase in peak VO2 (6%). Compared with aerobic training, combined swimming and aerobic training lead to a reduction in resting HR (19%) and SVR (54%) and a greater increase in SV (34%), resting CO (28%), LVEF (9%), and 6MWT (70%). Although swimming appears to be safe, the studies conducted have been small, very heterogeneous, and inconclusive.

  19. Safe patient care - safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology. (United States)

    St Pierre, Michael


    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organization's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organization's maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organization's safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality. Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate stimulation based team trainings into their

  20. Fascial Anatomy and Its Relevance in Safe Laparoscopic Hysterectomy. (United States)

    Puntambekar, Shailesh P; Puntambekar, Seema P; Gadkari, Yamini; Naval, Suyash


    To demonstrate the importance of being familiar with the anatomy of the endopelvic fascia as seen by laparoscopy to perform safe laparoscopic hysterectomies. Combination of surgical videos and design diagrams. Compiled high-definition surgical videos from the Galaxy Care Laparoscopy Institute, Pune, India. These videos clearly demonstrate the anatomy of the endopelvic fascia and describe tips to avoid damage to the major structures, including the major vessels, ureter, bowel, bladder, and endopelvic fascia. The laparoscopic view of the anatomy with the current camera system is an excellent tool to demonstrate and teach pelvic anatomy, which can be applied to surgical principles in difficult benign and oncological cases. We used a total laparoscopic approach to demonstrate the fasciae that were seen during various types of hysterectomies. The video shows the following: (1) the posterior leaf of the broad ligament was opened until it reached the apex of the uterosacral ligament; (2) the anterior leaf of broad ligament was opened until it reached the vesico-uterine peritoneal reflection; (3) the principles of bladder dissection; (4) the pubocervico-vesical fascia and its relevance to bladder dissection; (5) the relevance of the anatomy of the uterine artery, vein, and ureter with endopelvic fascia within the leaves of the broad ligament; (6) Denonvillier's fascia dissection technique for dissection of the rectum away from the vagina; (7) the anatomy of the vesicocervical ligaments, forming the ureteric tunnel; (8) the dissection principles of lateralizing the ureter in the retrovesical region; (9) the endopelvic fascia reflection, which continued caudally, covering the pelvic floor; and (10) the relevance of the anatomy of the endopelvic fascia and the stress urinary incontinence treatment technique. Understanding the anatomy of the fasciae of the pelvis helps to create avascular planes and is crucial for performing safe hysterectomies. Copyright © 2015 AAGL