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Sample records for cabinet gorge hatchery

  1. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1988 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1989-02-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1988. Estimated kokanee abundance in early September was 10.2 million fish. This estimate is 70% higher than 1987 and 140% higher than the populations's low point in 1986. Increased population size over the past two years is the result of two consecutive strong year classes produced from high recruitment of hatchery and wild fry. High recruitment of wild fry in 1988 resulted from good parental escapement (strong year class) in 1987 and relatively high fry survival. Hatchery fry made up 51% of total fry recruitment (73% of total fry biomass), which is the largest contribution since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. High hatchery fry abundance resulted from a large release (13 million fry) from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery and excellent fry survival (29%) during their first summer in Lake Pend Oreille. Improved fry release strategies enhanced survival, which doubled from 1987 to 1988 and was ten times higher than survival in 1986. Our research goal is to maintain 30% survival so we are very optimistic, but need to replicate additional years to address annual variability. 27 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaugh L.

    1994-07-01

    Lake Pend Oreille once provided the most popular kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka fishery in northern Idaho. A dramatic decline in the population occurred from the mid-1960s to 1970s. Restoration efforts included construction of the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to supplement the wild population and restore the fishery. In this study, hatchery-reared age 0 kokanee were stocked into Lake Pend Oreille from 1986 through 1992. Seven experimental stocking strategies for kokanee were tested using five locations and two time periods (early May through early June or late July). In 1985, the age 3 and older kokanee totaled about 0.35 million, but rose to 0.78 million in 1986, was stable, was then followed by a decline in 1990 to 0.53 million, then improved to 1.75 million in 1992. Much of the annual variation in total numbers of kokanee, ranging from 4.5 million to 10.2 million, was due to hatchery stockings of age 0 fish. Standing stocks of kokanee remained stable and ranged from 8 to 10 kg/hectare de spite dramatic changes in density due to age 0 fish. Prior to this study (1985), standing stocks were substantially higher (mean = 13.6 kg/hectare), indicating that the population may be operating below carrying capacity. The authors found survival of age 0 hatchery kokanee by each release season to range from 3% in 1986 to 39% in 1992, while the mean from 1987 through 1992 was 23%. They found significant (P=0.05) differences in survival between years, but they could not detect differences between stocking locations (P>0.71). Their analysis of survival between time (early vs late) and location was weak and inconclusive because after 1989 they had fewer fish to stock and could not repeat testing of some release strategies. They believe some of the variation in survival between release groups each year was due to the length of time between release in the lake and trawling.

  3. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1987 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1988-05-01

    Estimated kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka abundance in Lake Pend Oreille was 6.01 million during late summer 1987. This estimate is 40% higher than the 1986 estimate and is the second largest population estimate since 1977. Higher abundance is predominantly a result of enhanced fry survival and recruitment. Hatchery-reared fry contribution was 22% of total fry recruitment in 1987, compared to 8% in 1986, and resulted from a fivefold increase in survival. Much of this improvement can be attributed to the large (52 mm) fry produced at Cabinet Gorge Hatchery in 1987 and represents the first measurable contribution of the new hatchery to the kokanee rehabilitation program. Survival of hatchery-reared fry released into Clark Fork River was nearly one-half that of fry released into Sullivan Springs due to poor flow conditions and potentially high predation during migration from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery to Lake Pend Oreille. Wild fry survival was enhanced by early availability of forage (cladocern zooplankton) during fry emergence in late spring. Cladoceran production began three weeks earlier in 1987 than 1986, which resulted from reduced Mysis abundance and earlier thermal stratification of Lake Pend Oreille, which helped segregate cladocerans from mysid predation. Kokanee dry otolith coding was evaluated to provide a reliable long-term mark. Analysis of daily growth increments on otoliths was used successfully in 1987 to differentiate fry from various release sites. The technique will be refined during 1988 to include coding fry otoliths with water temperature fluctuations during hatchery residence. 23 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1989 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher, Brian

    1990-04-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1989. Estimated kokanee abundance in late August was 7.71 million fish. Decreased population size is the result of lower hatchery and wild fry recruitment and low age 1+ survival. Lower recruitment of wild fry in 1989 resulted from a smaller parental escapement in 1988 and lower wild fry survival. Six fry release strategies were evaluated in 1989. Two groups were released in Clark Fork River to help improve a spawning run to Cabinet Gorge Hatchery. Survival from the mid-summer release, which was barged down Clark Fork River to avoid low flow problems, was not significantly different from the early release. The final assessment of these release strategies will be evaluated when adults return to Cabinet gorge Hatchery in 1992 and 1993. Fry released to support the Sullivan Springs Creek spawning run also survived will in 1989. Two open-water releases were made during early and mid-summer. 30 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1990 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-03-01

    Rehabilitation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka in Lake Pend Oreille met with some success in 1990, but unexpected results have raised new questions. Estimated kokanee abundance during late August of 1990 was about 6.9 million fish. This is a decline of 19% from 1989, a continued decrease since 1988. The decreased population was attributed to low stocking of hatchery fry (7.3 million), lower wild fry survival in 1990 (1.5%), and exceptionally poor survival of fish ages 3+ and 4+. Average survival of the older fish was only 11% in 1990 compared to 72% in prior years. Compensatory survival was noted for kokanee ages 1+ and 2+, with an average of 81% in 1990 compared to 44% in 1989. Hatchery fry comprised 47% of the total kokanee fry recruitment in 1990 (80% of fry biomass). This contribution ranked third behind 1988 and 1989 since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. Survival of hatchery fry was 20%, the second highest since this investigation began. Findings of 1990 indicate a more comprehensive approach to managing kokanee must take into account predator stockings and predator/prey interaction. An unexpected low adult escapement was responsible for an egg-take of only 5.6 million eggs in 1990, 58% of the previous year, which will limit experimental stocking in 1991. Modification of the fish ladder at the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to improve adult escapement is strongly recommended to increase egg-take. 27 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1987-02-01

    Estimated kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) abundance in Lake Pend Oreille was 4.3 million during September 1986. This estimate was similar to 1985 and indicates continued suppression of the kokanee population since initial decline in the late 1960s. Atypically high survival of wild fry resulted in similar fry recruitment in 1986 as 1985, whereas hatchery-reared fry contributed only 8% to total fry recruitment as a result of low post-release survival (3%). Fry released into the Clark Fork River from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery had very low survival during emigration to Lake Pend Oreille, resulting from poor flow conditions and potentially high predation. Fry survival during emigration was twice as high during nighttime flows of 16,000 cfs than 7,800 cfs. Emigration also was faster during higher flows. Several marks were tested to differentially mark fry release groups to help determine impacts of flow and other factors on fry survival. Survival of fry marked with tetracycline and fluorescent dye was high (>99%) during the 10-week study. In contrast, survival of fry marked with fluorescent grit marks ranged from 5 to 93%, depending on application pressure and distance from the fry. Retention was high (>96%) for tetracycline and grit marks during the study, whereas dye marks were discernible (100%) for only one week. 23 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-01-01

    water temperatures of July, and higher cladoceran densities compared to June. River release Lower survival of the early Clark Fork is attributed to the exceptionally high river flows (1,984 cm /s or 70,000 ft /s) and low density of zooplankton. Age of adult kokanee sampled at Sullivan Springs was 1% age 2, 46% age 3, and 53% age 4. The high proportion of age 3 kokanee resulted in lower average fecundity. Recovery of about 160 fin clipped kokanee at Sullivan Springs provided evidence of imprinting. About 0.4% of the marked kokanee released in 1988 returned to spawn at age 3. This failure of a spawning run to Clark Fork River and low (<0.000l%) returns to the Cabinet Gorge Hatchery is a major concern. Total fishing effort was 460,679 h (220%) or about 12 h/hectare. A sport fishery survey indicated anglers harvested 276,457 fish of which 227,140 were kokanee and 2,157 Gerrard rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (>610 mm) while an additional 14,800 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were released. The harvest of kokanee is at 33% of the management goals, but the harvest of large Gerrard rainbow trout was the best in 15 years.

  8. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1985 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1986-07-01

    Mid-water trawling techniques were used during September to estimate kokanee population abundance, structure and survival. Abundance in 1985 was estimated at 4.5 million fish (198 per hectare), down from over 12 million kokanee in 1974 when the population was first monitored. Hatchery fry production (<6 million annually) has stabilized kokanee abundance since its initial decline in the late 1960s. Wild fry recruitment has remained relatively stable at 1.8 million since 1978; whereas recruitment of hatchery-reared fry has ranged from 0.09 to 1.98 million. The 1985 creel survey indicated that kokanee harvest rates remain low, with approximately one kokanee harvested per hour of effort from April to August. Catch rates were as high as 3.5 fish per hour during the mid-1960s. The zooplankton community was monitored with periodic plankton tows. Zooplankton composition in 1985 was similar to previous years and appears to have stabilized following the introduction of mysids, with peak cladoceran production occurring several weeks after peak kokanee emergence. Delayed release of hatchery fry resulted in higher survival of hatchery (7.3%) than wild (0.43%) kokanee fry. Other release strategies will be tested as more fry become available.

  9. Hatchery Update 2011: Willard National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes the purposes of the hatchery and discusses hatchery goals and assessments for calendar year 2011. Topics include endangered species recovery...

  10. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  11. Abe Cabinet in Danger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Scandals in Shinzo Abe’s government have tarnished the LDP’s image and jeopardized its chances of winning the next parliamentary electionsS hinzo Abe’sjob is on the line. During the past seven months sev-eral members of Japanese prime minister’s cabinet

  12. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  13. Fish Hatchery Management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish hatchery management is efficient tool in intensive fish culture. The vital requirements of fish hatchery, hatchery construction, concrete tank construction, nursery, rearing and production ponds, fish seed hatchery, hormone in fish spawning, hypophysation, compounds used for induced breeding, hormone administration, spawning and rearing, steps in artificial propagation, hatchery management, nursery management are basic elements in effective hatchery management. The article reviews these vital elements to re-awaken fish farmers, Fisheries students private and public sectors in the formulation of fisheries policies.

  14. Hatchery update 2011: Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes the purposes of the hatchery and discusses hatchery goals and assessments for calendar year 2011. Topics include the current fish production...

  15. Comprehensive hatchery management plan: Carson National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Hatchery Management Plan (CHMP) for the Carson National Fish Hatchery (NFH) is an operational management plan which outlines policy, legal...

  16. Hatchery update 2010: Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes the purposes of the hatchery and discusses hatchery goals and assessments for calendar year 2010. Topics include the current fish...

  17. Cabinet of curiosities fuels creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2004-01-01

    During the initial stages of the design process, industrial designers often use their private collection of images, magazines, and objects to gather ideas and to discuss matters with their colleagues. These collections are rather like the cabinet of curiosities or wunderkammer that the well-to-do of

  18. Phototherapy cabinet for ultraviolet radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, S.N.; Frost, P.

    1981-08-01

    A newly designed cabinet can be used for the treatment of psoriasis with fluorescent ultraviolet (UV) lamps. the new design provides more uniform distribution of UV radiation in both the horizontal and vertical axes, and several safety features have been added. The distribution and uniformity of UV output in this and in a previously described cabinet are compared. The UV output at the vertical center of the older UV light cabinet was six times greater than that at either the top or bottom, while the design of the present cabinet provides uniform UV radiation except for a slight increase at head height and at the level of the lower legs compared with the middle third of the cabinet. The variation in output of the older cabinet may, in part, explain the commonly encountered difficulty in the phototherapy of psoriasis of the scalp and lower extremities.

  19. Calculation of Loudspeaker Cabinet Diffraction and Correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Yi; SHEN Yong; XIA Jie

    2011-01-01

    A method of calculating the cabinet edge diffractions for loudspeaker driver when mounted in an enclosure is proposed,based on the extended Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin model.Up to the third order,cabinet diffractions are discussed in detail and the diffractive effects on the radiated sound field of the loudspeaker system are quantitatively described,with a correction function built to compensate for the diffractive interference.The method is applied to a practical loudspeaker enclosure that has rectangular facets.The diffractive effects of the cabinet on the forward sound radiation are investigated and predictions of the calculations show quite good agreements with experimental measurements.Most loudspeaker systems employ box-like cabinets.The response of a loudspeaker mounted in a box is much rougher than that of the same driver mounted on a large baffle.Although resonances in the box are partly responsible for the lack of smoothness,a major contribution is the diffraction of the cabinet edges,which aggravates the final response performance.Consequently,an analysis of the cabinet diffraction problem is required.%A method of calculating the cabinet edge diffractions for loudspeaker driver when mounted in an enclosure is proposed, based on the extended Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin model. Up to the third order, cabinet diffractions are discussed in detail and the diffractive effects on the radiated sound field of the loudspeaker system are quantitatively described, with a correction function built to compensate for the diffractive interference. The method is applied to a practical loudspeaker enclosure that has rectangular facets. The diffractive effects of the cabinet on the forward sound radiation are investigated and predictions of the calculations show quite good agreements with experimental measurements.

  20. Russia's science minister keeps cabinet post

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Mikhail Kirpichnikov, minister for science and technology has kept his post in the cabinet of the new prime minister Sergei Stepashin. Yevgeniy Adamov also remains as minister of atomic energy (2 paragraphs).

  1. StreamNet Query System: Hatchery Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These trends include all counts of fish obtained at a hatchery or one of its satellite facilities. The only method allowed is hatchery rack / weir, and the count...

  2. Neosho National Fish Hatchery contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish were collected from Neosho National Fish Hatchery (NNFH) to determine if metal or organic contaminants were elevated in the biota located on the hatchery. Whole...

  3. Umatilla Hatchery Final Predesign Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown Author

    1988-04-01

    This report provides information on the preliminary design of Umatilla Fish Hatchery near Irrigon, Oregon. The fish hatchery will be capable of rearing steelhead and chinook with an initial capacity of 290,000 pounds. Future expansion will allow for a total capacity of 500,000 pounds if the initial production goals are met. The hatchery will consist of both Oregon and Michigan style ponds. The Oregon ponds are similar to those at Irrigon. The Michigan ponds are more narrow and shallow, are self cleaning, and use oxygen supplementation to obtain higher rearing densities as is currently being done in the state of Michigan. The Oregon ponds are a two-pass system with the capability to convert to Michigan style ponds, if this mode of operation proves to be an effective method in the west. The Michigan ponds are three-pass with the capability to expand to four-pass.

  4. 24 CFR 3280.204 - Kitchen cabinet protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kitchen cabinet protection. 3280.204 Section 3280.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Kitchen cabinet protection. (a) The bottom and sides of combustible kitchen cabinets over cooking...

  5. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide based product as a hatchery sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, P; Cox, S; Gadde, U; Clark, F D; Bramwell, K; Watkins, S E

    2016-12-05

    Formaldehyde is commonly used to overcome contaminants introduced by hatching eggs or water supply in the hatcher cabinets. However, health risks associated with its use make economical alternatives important. This project evaluated a chlorine dioxide based product (CDBP) (0.3% concentrate) as a hatchery sanitizer in decontaminating microbial populations on the shell surface of hatching eggs (>18 d old), as well as its impact on hatchability and chick performance. Hatchers (0.20 m(2)) designed to hold approximately 50 eggs and equipped with circulation fans, heaters, and thermostats were used for the evaluation. For each of the 2 trials conducted, 450 hatching eggs were obtained and incubated in a common setter. Eggs used in trial 1 were floor eggs whereas in trial 2 nest eggs were used. On d 18 of incubation, eggs were removed from the setter, and viable eggs were randomly allocated to 9 hatchers. Pre-treatment egg rinse samples (10 eggs per hatcher) were collected for initial microbial analysis. Three hatchers were treated with CDBP and 3 hatchers with a formaldehyde based product (FBP). Three untreated hatchers served as control (C). Prior to hatch, 10 eggs/incubator, not previously rinsed, were used for post treatment microbial counts. The hatched chicks were reared until d 21 in floor pens with a common starter diet. For the CDBP treated eggs, hatchability and chick performance (weight gains, mortality, and FCR on d 7 and d 21) were similar to the other treatments. The application rate of CDBP evaluated in this study was not an effective antimicrobial alternative to formaldehyde for sanitizing hatching eggs in hatcher cabinets prior to hatch.

  6. Modeling structural acoustic properties of loudspeaker cabinets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu

    In this dissertation, a theoretical/numerical methodology is presented for coarse and fast predictions of cabinet vibrations. The study is focused on vibrations of rib-stiffened panels by improving a smearing technique and employing it into finite element modeling. The computationally efficient...... in the calculation of bending stiffness in this dissertation. The improved smearing technique results in good accuracy for predicted natural frequencies and forced vibrations of flat stiffened plates. Another improvement concerns the orientation of the stiffeners. The original smearing technique presupposes...... the vibrational properties and associated sound radiation of models including stiffened panels. Overall, the developed technique is found to be a good method for fast estimations of cabinet vibrations....

  7. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  8. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  9. Random Vibration Analysis of the Electronic Equipment Cabinet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanping; LIU Dongqing

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the vibration characteristic of system structure of electronic equipment cabinet within the particular vibration frequency, the finite element analysis software- ANSYS is used to simulate the tests of random vibrations of the cabinet system and obtain the isopleths graph of deformation and stress of the cabinet. It can confirm maximum of deformation and stress of the cabinet and position happened. Through more analysis of the frequency response curve, which can confirm harmful consequences random vibrations caused and weak link of the cabinet structure. The numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. It shows that this research provides an efficient method for the anti-seismic design and the dynamic optimization design.

  10. Clinostat Delivers Power To Plant-Growth Cabinets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushong, Wilton E.; Fox, Ronald C.; Brown, Christopher S.; Biro, Ronald R.; Dreshel, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinostat rotates coaxial pair of plant-growth cabinets about horizontal axis while supplying cabinets with electric power for built-in computers, lamps, fans, and auxiliary equipment, such as nutrient pumps. Each cabinet self-contained unit for growing plants in controlled environment. By rotating cabinets and contents about horizontal axis, scientists simulate and study some of effects of microgravity on growth of plants. Clinostat includes vertical aluminum mounting bracket on horizontal aluminum base. Bearings on bracket hold shaft with V-belt pulley. At each end of shaft, circular plate holds frame mount for cabinet. Mounting plates also used to hold transparent sealed growth chambers described in article, "Sealed Plant-Growth Chamber For Clinostat" (KSC-11538).

  11. Erwin National Fish Hatchery [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Erwin National Fish Hatchery. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinets that are...

  13. [Microcontroller temperature regulator MPT110 for drying-sterilizing cabinets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostin, N N; Gavrishchuk, V I; Zelepukin, S A; Shkulepa, V M; Zharov, E N

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes a MPT-110 temperature microcontroller developed by the closed joint-stock company "OPLEKS" (Orel, Russia) and the results of comparative tests performed in the @IIICC-80 drying sterilizing cabinet. The use of the MPT-110 controller is shown to improve the quality of control and to shorten the times that is taken for the cabinet to reach the preset temperature point.

  14. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peone, Tim L. (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Wellpinit, WA)

    2005-03-01

    Due to the construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam (1939), anadromous salmon have been eradicated and resident fish populations permanently altered in the upper Columbia River region. Federal and private hydropower dam operations throughout the Columbia River system severely limits indigenous fish populations in the upper Columbia. Artificial production has been determined appropriate for supporting a harvestable fishery for kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake (Grand Coulee Dam impoundments). A collaborative multi-agency artificial production program for the Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake fisheries exists consisting of the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery, Ford Trout Hatchery and the Lake Roosevelt Kokanee and Rainbow Trout Net Pen Rearing Projects. These projects operate complementary of one another to target an annual release of 1 million yearling kokanee and 500,000 yearling rainbow trout for Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fry/fingerlings for Banks Lake. Fish produced by this project in 2004 to meet collective fish production and release goals included: 1,655,722 kokanee fingerlings, 537,783 rainbow trout fingerlings and 507,660 kokanee yearlings. Kokanee yearlings were adipose fin clipped before release. Stock composition consisted of Lake Whatcom kokanee, 50:50 diploid-triploid Spokane Trout Hatchery (McCloud River) rainbow trout and Phalon Lake red-band rainbow trout. All kokanee were marked with either thermal, oxytetracyline or fin clips prior to release. Preliminary 2004 Lake Roosevelt fisheries investigations indicate hatchery/net pen stocking significantly contributed to harvestable rainbow trout and kokanee salmon fisheries. An increase in kokanee harvest was primarily owing to new release strategies. Walleye predation, early maturity and entrainment through Grand Coulee Dam continues to have a negative impact on adult kokanee returns and limits the

  15. Hatcheries, Harvest and Wild Fish: An Integrated Program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Warm Springs Indian...

  16. Salmon hatcheries for the 21st century: A model at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Salmon hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest continue to produce fish for harvest, largely to fulfill a mitigation function. Fisheries management struggles with the...

  17. Closed supermarket refrigerator and freezer cabinets. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligthart, F.A.T.M. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The City of Amsterdam's Environmental and Building Department commissioned the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to calculate the time needed to recoup the cost of closing the existing refrigerator and freezer display cabinets used in supermarkets. We were asked to give particular consideration to the following aspects: (1) The cabinet's energy consumption; (2) The energy price; and (3) The cost of closing the cabinet. The payback period has been calculated by dividing the investment required to close the cabinet by the amount saved on energy each year, less any additional costs incurred as a result of the scheme. For existing upright refrigerator cabinets, that period works out at 2.9 years with a margin error of {+-}0.9 years. In the case of chest freezers, it is approximately 2.4 years, with a maximum of 2.5 and a minimum of 1.3 years. For chest refrigerators, the payback period is 9.4 years. If units are closed overnight only, the time needed to payback the cost of that measure ranges between 1.8 and 4.1 years. Moreover, research shows that closing refrigerator and freezer display units will not reduce turnover. In addition, it will significantly improve the ambient climate in supermarkets.

  18. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Eggshells, which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of m...

  19. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the c

  20. Ford Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, Hatcheries Division, Annual Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovrak, Jon; Ward, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration's participation with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ford Hatchery, provides the opportunity for enhancing the recreational and subsistence kokanee fisheries in Banks Lake. The artificial production and fisheries evaluation is done cooperatively through the Spokane Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery (WDFW), Banks Lake Volunteer Net Pen Project, and the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. Ford Hatchery's production, together with the Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, will contribute to an annual goal of one million kokanee yearlings for Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fingerlings and fry for Banks Lake. The purpose of this multi-agency program is to restore and enhance kokanee salmon and rainbow trout populations in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake due to Grand Coulee Dam impoundments. The Ford Hatchery will produce 9,533 lbs. (572,000) kokanee annually for release as fingerlings into Banks Lake in October. An additional 2,133 lbs. (128,000) kokanee will be transferred to net pens on Banks Lake at Electric City in October. The net pen raised kokanee will be reared through the fall, winter, and early spring to a total of 8,533 lbs and released in May. While the origin of kokanee comes from Lake Whatcom, current objectives will be to increase the use of native (or, indigenous) stocks for propagation in Banks Lake and the Upper Columbia River. Additional stocks planned for future use in Banks Lake include Lake Roosevelt kokanee and Meadow Creek kokanee. The Ford Hatchery continues to produce resident trout (80,584 lb. per year) to promote the sport fisheries in trout fishing lakes in eastern Washington (WDFW Management, Region 1). Operation and maintenance funding for the increased kokanee program was implemented in FY 2001 and scheduled to continue through FY 2010. Funds from BPA allow for an additional employee at the Ford Hatchery to assist in the operations and maintenance associated

  1. MEPR versus EEPR valves in open supermarket refrigerated display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, A.; Bansal, P.K. [Auckland Univ, (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the comparative experimental field performance of mechanical evaporator pressure regulating valves (MEPR) and electronic evaporator pressure regulating valves (EEPR) under the identical operating conditions of supermarket open multi-deck refrigerated display cabinets. The main goal of the supermarket refrigeration system design is to keep the displayed product at the required constant temperature, while minimising the cooling load to increase the overall energy efficiency of the system. Field tests have shown that the electronic evaporator pressure valve has a significant effect on improving the cabinet temperature and reducing the rate of frost formation on the evaporator coils with subsequent improvements in the air curtain strength. (author)

  2. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for growth and survival in the hatchery and seaward migration after release (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and Clearwater Hatchery; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies suggest that sea ranching of anadromous salmonids can result in domestication (increased fitness in the hatchery program) and a loss of fitness for natural production; however, the mechanism has not been characterized adequately. We artificially spawned hatchery and wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River, Idaho, reared the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) in hatcheries, and tested for differences in survival, growth, early maturation, downstream migration, and adult returns. Rearing treatments were mixed (crosses reared together) and separate (crosses reared separately from each other) at the hatchery of origin for the hatchery population where smolts are produced in one year, and at a nearby hatchery employing lower rations, lower winter temperatures, and two years of rearing to more closely mimic the natural life history (natural smolt age = 2-4 years). The hatchery population had been artificially propagated for six generations at the onset of our study. We found little or no difference in survival in the hatchery but substantially higher rates of growth and subsequent downstream migration for HxH than for WxW fish. Faster growth for HxH fish resulted in greater size at release which contributed to their higher migration rate, but other as yet uncharacterized traits also affected migration since the migration difference between crosses was apparent even within size classes. Growth of WxW fish was slower in the mixed than in the separate treatment indicating that WxW fish were competitively inferior to HxH fish in the hatchery environment. Incidence of precocious males was higher for WxW than for HxH fish in the separate but not in the mixed treatment. Incidence of HxH precocious males was similar between treatments. Apparently, the presence of HxH fish suppressed high incidence of early maturation by WxW males. A direct effect beyond

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.308 - Obtaining filing cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining filing cabinets. 101-26.308 Section 101-26.308 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES...

  4. Improvement on the Design of a Cabinet Grain Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adzimah K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Grains are routinely seen dumped in villages and major cities during the peak of harvest. Therefore it is necessary that these grains are properly dried and stored to ensure availability and wholesomeness throughout the year. Advancements have taken place in the practice of drying since the first world war. Manufacturing methods have greatly improved production rate and the production line bottle-neck created by extended drying time inherent in the use old drying methods can no longer be tolerated. Main objectives of this study were to improve on the design of an existing cabinet grain dryer (to redesign the already existing cabinet grain dryer so as to: (i Optimize efficiency at low cost (ii Reduce total time of drying (iii Produce viable and quality grain. Approach: The improvement on the design of the existing cabinet dryer had been achieved through proper focus on the selection of power source, materials and other design criteria for the various components of the existing one. The dryer consists of a cabinet containing trays in which the grains to be dried are spread. After the grains were loaded, the cabinet closed and heated air of about 35-40°C blown across the grains. Heat was supplied by an electrical heating coil and hot air was blown from the heater housing to the drying chamber by the aid of a fan. The dryer also consisted of a thermostat which turns off the machine if inlet temperature exceeds 40°C. Results: The result of the improvement on the design of a cabinet grain dryer showed that; (i It was less costly (ii It was cheap to maintain since the fan is the only moving component and can hardly become faulty (iii drying time of the grain was reduced (iv The machine ergonomic; operation of the machine does not require specialization (v The machine is safer to operate since the use of gas has been eliminated (vi Time between two batches was reduced with the introduction of a trolley (vii Energy for loading or

  5. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  6. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Hayes, Michael C.; Groberg, Jr., Warren J. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    1994-06-01

    The Umatilla Hatchery is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing summer steelhead in the Umatilla River and expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council`s goal of doubling salmonid production in the Columbia Basin. This report covers the second year of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. As both the hatchery and the evaluation study are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary.

  7. Sound Radiation from a Loudspeaker Cabinet using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    Ideally, the walls of a loudspeaker cabinet are rigid. However, in reality, the cabinet is excited by the vibration of the loudspeaker units and by the acoustic pressure inside the cabinet. The radiation of sound caused by such vibration can influence the overall performance of the loudspeaker......, in some cases becoming clearly audible. The aim of this study is to provide a tool that can evaluate the contribution from the cabinet to the overall sound radiated by a loudspeaker. The specific case of a B&O Beolab 9 early prototype has been investigated. An influence by the cabinet of this prototype...... and the impulse response) of the loudspeaker and the cabinet. A significant influence of the cabinet has been detected, which becomes especially apparent in the time domain, during the sound decay process....

  8. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponton, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  9. People Are Leaving The Three Gorges Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    With the Chinese Government deciding to build a reservoir at Ibc Three Gorges in the Changjiang River, which is believed to be one of the best sources of water power in the world, residents living in that area have been asked to move. The orderly migration of local residents is a great concern of the Central Government and is being well

  10. Effectiveness of an integrated hatchery program: Can genetic-based performance differences between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Drake, Deanne C.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Young, Sewall F.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of wild (W) and hatchery (H) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was evaluated for a sixth generation hatchery program. Management techniques to minimize genetic divergence from the wild stock included regular use of wild broodstock and volitional releases of juveniles. Performance of HH, WW, and HW (hatchery female spawned with wild male) crosses was compared in hatchery and stream environments. The WW juveniles emigrated from the hatchery at two to three times the rate of HH fish in the fall (HW intermediate) and 35% more HH than WW adults returned (27% more HW than WW adults). Performance in the stream did not differ statistically between HH and WW fish, but outmigrants (38% WW, 30% HW, and 32% HH fish) during the first 39 days of the 16-month sampling period composed 74% of total outmigrants. Differences among hatchery-reared crosses were partially due to additive genetic effects, were consistent with domestication (increased fitness for the hatchery population in the hatchery program), and suggested that selection against fall emigration from the hatchery was a possible mechanism of domestication.

  11. Integrated Hatchery Operations : Existing Policy Affecting Hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-05-01

    Collected together in this document is relevant laws and policy of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington State Department of Wildlife, Oregon State, Washington Department of Fisheries, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game as they affect hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  12. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations

  13. Occurrence of antibiotics in water from fish hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Earl M.; Dietze, Julie E.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery of pharmaceuticals in streams across the United States (Kolpin and others, 2002) has raised the visibility and need for monitoring of antibiotics in the environment. Possible sources of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals in streams may include fish hatcheries. This fact sheet presents the results from a preliminary study of fish hatcheries across the United States for the occurrence and concentration of antibiotics present in fish hatchery water. The study examines both sufonamides and tetracyclines. Sulfonamides are synthetic compounds, and tetracyclines are naturally occurring compounds. The use of antibiotics added to specially formulated feed is a common practice in fish hatcheries to treat and prevent bacterial infections in large fish populations. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antibiotics are oxytetracycline-HCI, sulfamerazine, and a combination drug containing ormetoprim and sulfadiamethoxine (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2003). During January 2001?June 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory (OGRL), Lawrence, Kansas, cooperatively collected water samples from 13 fish hatcheries across the United States (fig. 1) with the assistance of hatchery operators. A method for the analysis of antibiotics was developed and used to identify and quantify these compounds in fish hatchery water (Lindsey and others, 2001). This study was completed to determine if trace levels of antibiotics [approximately 1 microgram per liter (?g/L) or 1 part per billion or greater occurred] in which water associated with fish hatcheries, which are a potential source of these compounds in surface water.

  14. Cabinet Governance and Political Stability in English Urban Councils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Greasley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers have long been concerned with the quality of local political leadership and have often resorted to institutional reform to try to improve political leadership. This paper looks at a specific and neglected facet of the political management reforms that have been implemented in English local government over the last decade: the tenure and turnover of cabinet members. The tenure of top politicians may be an important influence on the performance of local government particularly when political management is designed to favour individualised leadership. On the one hand, excessively short tenures for top politicians may damage the ability of governments to develop strategic plans and ensure they are implemented while on the other hand the risk of loss of office is central to political accountability and excessively long tenures may be indicative of an insulated and unresponsive elite. While some research attention has been paid to the tenures of leaders of councils in England there is little systematic information about the tenure of cabinet members. This paper discusses the relevance of cabinet stability and provides an overview of recent experience in England.

  15. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  16. The Three Gorges Project: How sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa Brian Morgan, Te Kipa; Sardelic, Daniel N.; Waretini, Amaria F.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryIn 1984 the Government of China approved the decision to construct the Three Gorges Dam Project, the largest project since the Great Wall. The project had many barriers to overcome, and the decision was made at a time when sustainability was a relatively unknown concept. The decision to construct the Three Gorges Project remains contentious today, especially since Deputy Director of the Three Gorges Project Construction Committee, Wang Xiaofeng, stated that "We absolutely cannot relax our guard against ecological and environmental security problems sparked by the Three Gorges Project" (Bristow, 2007; McCabe, 2007). The question therefore was posed: how sustainable is the Three Gorges Project? Conventional approaches to sustainability assessment tend to use monetary based assessment aligned to triple bottom line thinking. That is, projects are evaluated as trade-offs between economic, environmental and social costs and benefits. The question of sustainability is considered using such a traditional Cost-Benefit Analysis approach, as undertaken in 1988 by a CIPM-Yangtze Joint Venture, and the Mauri Model Decision Making Framework (MMDMF). The Mauri Model differs from other approaches in that sustainability performance indicators are considered independently from any particular stakeholder bias. Bias is then introduced subsequently as a sensitivity analysis on the raw results obtained. The MMDMF is unique in that it is based on the Māori concept of Mauri, the binding force between the physical and the spiritual attributes of something, or the capacity to support life in the air, soil, and water. This concept of Mauri is analogous to the Chinese concept of Qi, and there are many analogous concepts in other cultures. It is the universal relevance of Mauri that allows its use to assess sustainability. This research identified that the MMDMF was a strong complement to Cost-Benefit Analysis, which is not designed as a sustainability assessment tool in itself. The

  17. Impact on Mountainous Agricultural Development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area forced by Migrants of the Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Baolei

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Project attracts worldwide attention because of the Three Gorges migrants, and the agriculture of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area is a foundation for the development of the Three Gorges migrants. The Three Gorges Reservoir Area is situated at the mountainous area with bad agricultural development conditions and relatively low levels of development. As a result, the large-scale migration has special influence on its agricultural development, which has attracted much attention. The paper analyzes influence that the migrants have forced on its agricultural development based on the scientific data, and makes some explorations on the models that are suitable for the development of mountainous agriculture in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

  18. China Kitchen Cabinet King——Yao Liangsong Concerning Yao Liangsong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Yao Liangsong,Board Chairman of Guangzhou Optima Kitchen Enterprise Co.,Ltd.,graduated from Beijing University of Aeronautics in 1985.In 1988,he quit his leisure teacher job and tried to organize some business.After running a restaurant,being a salesman,establishing a medical instrument company,he successfully set up in kitchen cabint market,founded the kitchen cabinet brand"Optima",became a forerunner in industrialized kitchen cabinet industry,and the pace-setter of China kitchen cabinet industry.He is called"China Kitchen Cabinet King"

  19. Handling and Treatment of Poultry Hatchery Waste: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Rodda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature review was undertaken to identify methods being used to handle and treat hatchery waste. Hatchery waste can be separated into solid waste and liquid waste by centrifuging or by using screens. Potential methods for treating hatchery waste on site include use of a furnace to heat the waste to produce steam to run a turbine generator or to use an in line composter to stabilise the waste. There is also potential to use anaerobic digestion at hatcheries to produce methane and fertilisers. Hatcheries disposing wastewater into lagoons could establish a series of ponds where algae, zooplankton and fish utilise the nutrients using integrated aquaculture which cleans the water making it more suitable for irrigation. The ideal system to establish in a hatchery would be to incorporate separation and handling equipment to separate waste into its various components for further treatment. This would save disposal costs, produce biogas to reduce power costs at plants and produce a range of value added products. However the scale of operations at many hatcheries is too small and development of treatment systems may not be viable.

  20. The flood control and regulation of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Qihua

    2011-01-01

    The important role of Three Gorges Project (TGP) in the flood management of the Yangtze River Basin is summarized. The Optimal Regulation Schemes of the Three Gorge Reservoir is briefly described. The flood regulation effect of TGP is analyzed. Typical issues related to reservoir operation for flood regulation are discussed and suggestions are put forward for the future work.

  1. The October Three Gorges International Tourism Festival in Yichang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Three Gorges International Tourism Festival was held in Yichang, Hubei Province, from 1st to 7th October. The festival is a key component of the Chinese Folk Arts Tour sponsored by the China Tourism Administration. The program of 20 events included the opening ceremony, the Three Gorges carnival, the evening fireworks party, the China netizen tourism festival, the Zhaojun tourism festival, the

  2. Optimization of the Document Placement in the RFID Cabinet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiedrowicz Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the issue of optimization of the document placement in a single RFID cabinet. It has been assumed that the optimization problem means the reduction of archivization time with respect to the information on all documents with RFID tags. Since the explicit form of the criterion function remains unknown, for the purpose of its approximation, the regression analysis method has been used. The method uses data from a computer simulation of the process of archiving data about documents. To solve the optimization problem, the modified gradient projection method has been used.

  3. Ajna: negotiating forms in the making of a musical cabinet

    OpenAIRE

    Fernaeus, Ylva; Vallgårda, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Ajna is a musical cabinet made from a rich composition of acoustic materials and designed to perform digitally composed music. In this paper, we aim to unpack the design as well as key aspects of the design process that lead up to this unique artwork. We base our analysis on interviews with its two creators as well as on observations of Ajna performing in different contexts. From the perspective of interaction design, we first analyse the process of its making through the negotiations between...

  4. Long Valley Caldera Lake and reincision of Owens River Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2016-12-16

    Owens River Gorge, today rimmed exclusively in 767-ka Bishop Tuff, was first cut during the Neogene through a ridge of Triassic granodiorite to a depth as great as its present-day floor and was then filled to its rim by a small basaltic shield at 3.3 Ma. The gorge-filling basalt, 200 m thick, blocked a 5-km-long reach of the upper gorge, diverting the Owens River southward around the shield into Rock Creek where another 200-m-deep gorge was cut through the same basement ridge. Much later, during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 22 (~900–866 ka), a piedmont glacier buried the diversion and deposited a thick sheet of Sherwin Till atop the basalt on both sides of the original gorge, showing that the basalt-filled reach had not, by then, been reexcavated. At 767 ka, eruption of the Bishop Tuff blanketed the landscape with welded ignimbrite, deeply covering the till, basalt, and granodiorite and completely filling all additional reaches of both Rock Creek canyon and Owens River Gorge. The ignimbrite rests directly on the basalt and till along the walls of Owens Gorge, but nowhere was it inset against either, showing that the basalt-blocked reach had still not been reexcavated. Subsidence of Long Valley Caldera at 767 ka produced a steep-walled depression at least 700 m deeper than the precaldera floor of Owens Gorge, which was beheaded at the caldera’s southeast rim. Caldera collapse reoriented proximal drainages that had formerly joined east-flowing Owens River, abruptly reversing flow westward into the caldera. It took 600,000 years of sedimentation in the 26-km-long, usually shallow, caldera lake to fill the deep basin and raise lake level to its threshold for overflow. Not until then did reestablishment of Owens River Gorge begin, by incision of the gorge-filling ignimbrite.

  5. Vibrio Bacteria Counts from Hatcheries and Shellfish Beds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1996 to the present samples of water, sediment and macerated oyster set (Crassostrea virginica, Gmelin) taken at low tide at a Long Island oyster hatchery were...

  6. Methow River Steelhead - Methow River Steelhead hatchery reform research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead in Pacific Northwest hatcheries are typically reared for release as 1-year-old smolts, rather than the 2and 3-year-old smolt life history patterns found in...

  7. StreamNet Hatchery Facilities (updated May 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This coverage is a spatial representation of most of the Pacific Northwest hatchery facilities in the StreamNet database. Information about the location of each...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Tishomingo National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tishomingo National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Leadville National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leadville National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  11. Hatchery-borne Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee infections in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Brown, D.J.; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    A substantial increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar Tennessee was observed in broiler flocks in Denmark at the turn of the year 1994 and in the following months. Epidemiological data indicated that a single hatchery was involved in spreading of the infection. Molecular characterization...... of S. enterica serovar Tennessee isolates from Danish broilers (1992 to 1995), the suspected hatchery and strains from various other sources included for comparison was initiated in order to trace the source of infection of the broilers. In general, strains of S. enterica ser. Tennessee showed only....... Restriction enzyme analysis of the plasmid ensured that the plasmids from broilers and the hatchery were identical. By analysis of cleaning and disinfection procedures and by sampling of different control points in the hatchery it was shown that S. enterica ser. Tennessee had colonized areas of the hatchers...

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes Building America-funded research by teams and national laboratories that resulted in the development of an ASHRAE standard and a standardized testing method for testing the air leakage of HVAC air handlers and furnace cabinets and has spurred equipment manufacturers to tighten the cabinets they use for residential HVAC systems.

  13. Patterns of post-cabinet careers: When one door closes another door opens?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dörrenbächer, N.

    2016-01-01

    This article tackles the question to what extent former cabinet members go through the so-called revolving door by starting a second career in the private sector, and what factors make them likely to do so. After a cabinet position, career advancement in the political and public sector is difficult.

  14. Monitoring and evaluation plan for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has proposed to build and operate the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in the Clearwater River subbasin of Idaho for the purpose of restoring self-sustaining populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon to their native habitats. The project comprises a combination of incubation and rearing facilities, satellite rearing facilities, juvenile and adult collection sites, and associated production and harvest management activities. As currently conceived, the NPTH program will produce approximately 768,000 spring chinook parr, 800,000 summer chinook fry, and 2,000,000 fall chinook fry on an annual basis. Hatchery fish would be spawned, reared, and released under conditions that promote wild-type characteristics, minimize genetic changes in both hatchery and wild chinook populations, and minimize undesirable ecological interactions. The primary objective is to enable hatchery-produced fish to return to reproduce naturally in the streams in which they are released. These and other characteristics of the project are described in further detail in the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan, the 1995 Supplement to the Master Plan, and the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement. The report in hand is referred to in project literature as the NPTH Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Plan. This report describes monitoring and evaluation activities that will help NPTH managers determine whether they were successful in restoring chinook salmon populations and avoiding adverse ecological impacts.

  15. Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in array of cabinets supporting secure physical partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, James L.; Camp, William J.

    2007-07-17

    A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective routers in neighboring row cabinet boards with the routers in series connection coupled to routers in series connection in respective neighboring column cabinet boards. The array can include disconnect cabinets or respective routers in all boards in each cabinet connected in a toroid. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

  16. Modeling and performance analyses of evaporators in frozen-food supermarket display cabinets at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getu, H.M.; Bansal, P.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents modeling and experimental analyses of evaporators in 'in situ' frozen-food display cabinets at low temperatures in the supermarket industry. Extensive experiments were conducted to measure store and display cabinet relative humidities and temperatures, and pressures, temperatures and mass flow rates of the refrigerant. The mathematical model adopts various empirical correlations of heat transfer coefficients and frost properties in a fin-tube heat exchanger in order to investigate the influence of indoor conditions on the performance of the display cabinets. The model is validated with the experimental data of 'in situ' cabinets. The model would be a good guide tool to the design engineers to evaluate the performance of supermarket display cabinet heat exchangers under various store conditions. (author)

  17. Ecological operation for Three Gorges reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian GUO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional operation rule of Three Gorges reservoir has mainly focused on water for flood control, power generation, navigation, water supply and recreation and given less attention to the negative impacts of reservoir operation on river ecosystem. In order to reduce the negative influence of reservoir operation, ecological operation of the reservoir should be studied to maintain healthy river ecosystem. The study considered the ecological operation targets, including maintaining river environmental flow and protecting the spawning and reproduction of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Based on the flow data from 1900 to 2006 of Yichang gauge as the control station of the Yangtze River, the minimal and optimal river environmental flows were analyzed, and eco-hydrological targets of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River were calculated. The paper proposed a reservoir ecological operation model of comprehensively considering flood control, power generation, navigation and ecological environment. Three typical periods including wet, normal and dry year were selected and particle swarm optimization was applied to analyze the model. The results show that there are different influences of ecological operation rules on economic benefit of hydropower station and reservoir ecological operation model can simulate the flood pulse for requirement of spawning of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Finally, ecological operation measures of Three Gorges reservoir were proposed. According to the results, by adopting a suitable re-operation scheme, the hydropower benefit of the reservoir will not decrease dramatically while the ecological demand can be met. The results provide the reference for making the reasonable operation schemes for Three Gorges reservoir.

  18. The dam design of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaomao; Xu Linxiang; Liao Renqiang

    2011-01-01

    The dam of Three Gorges Project is a concrete gravity dam with the crest elevation of 185 m, the maximum height of 181 m and dam axis length of 2 309.5 m. The dam consists of spillway, powerhouse, non-over flow, ship-lift, temporary ship-lock, left diversion wall and longitudinal cofferdam blocks. Some key techniques relating to dam structure design are presented, including hydraulics of flood discharge structure, dam joint design, layout and structural type of penstock, deep anti-sliding stability of dam foundation, reconstruction of temporary ship-lock and closed drainage and pumping of dam foundation.

  19. Floodwater utilization of the Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qian-jin; CAO Guang-jing; DAI Hui-cao; ZHAO Yun-fa

    2009-01-01

    Floods are both risks and resources. Floodwater utilization is an important part of flood management. Considering the rising shortage of water resources, serious water pollution, and undersupply of electric power, it's imperative to strengthen flood management. In light of the hydrological characteristics of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) on the Yangtze River in P. R. China, we investigated the necessity and feasibility of TGP floodwater utilization, proprosed dynamic control of limited water level during flood season of the reservoir and basin-wide integrated floodwater management as strategies, and identified problems that might occur in practice.

  20. Power Production Management of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Three Gorges Hydropower Plant is the one with the largest installed capacity in the world today and has a decisive and important influence upon the security of the national power grids. It has been operated stably and supplied the East China, Central China, South China, Sichuan and Chongqing with clean renewable energy. This paper presents the management of the project’s dispatch, operation and maintenance and puts forward new ideas and new methods for the plant management, which may provide valuable re...

  1. Power Production Management of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Three Gorges Hydropower Plant is the one with the largest installed capacity in the world today and has a decisive and important influence upon the security of the national power grids. It has been operated stably and supplied the East China, Central China, South China,Sichuan and Chongqing with clean renewable energy. This paper presents the management of the project's dispatch, operation and maintenance and puts forward new ideas and new methods for the plant management, which may provide valuable references for the operation of oversized hydropower plants.

  2. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations

  3. Evaluation of the Reproductive Success of Wild and Hatchery Steelhead in Hatchery and Natural and Hatchery Environments : Annual Report for 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas P.; Seamons, todd; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry

    2008-12-05

    This report summarizes the field, laboratory, and analytical work from December 2007 through November 2008 on a research project that investigates interactions and comparative reproductive success of wild and hatchery origin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout in Forks Creek, a tributary of the Willapa River in southwest Washington. First, we continued to successfully sample hatchery and wild (i.e., naturally spawned) adult and wild smolt steelhead at Forks Creek. Second, we revealed microsatellite genotype data for adults and smolts through brood year 2008. Finally, four formal scientific manuscripts were published in 2008 and two are in press, one is in revision and two are in preparations.

  4. Yiling District,Pearl of the Three Gorges Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    YLING District of Yichang City, Hubei Province, near the Yangtze liver Xiling Gorge, marks the midway spot between the river’s upper and middle reaches. It is site of the Gezhouba Dam and the Three Gorges Project dam, and has consequently been dubbed gate to the Three Gorges. With a territory of 3,424 square kilometers, Yiling is the largest and most populous district of Yichang City.Urban construction-The district has invested one billion yuan in urban construction which has expanded the urban area to 8 square kilometers. The local infrastructure, transportation and environment have also been upgraded.

  5. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  6. Encouraging resilience within SMEs: the Cabinet Office's proposed approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Stuart

    2011-06-01

    This paper introduces the Cabinet Office's Civil Contingencies Secretariat (CCS). It explains how the National Risk Assessment, produced within the CCS, is created and used. As part of the recent Strategic Defence and Security Review, the Government made a commitment to improve the business continuity of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).This paper describes the CCS's approach to achieving this, and explains why the resilience of SMEs is important to both local communities, at a time of disruption or crisis, and the essential services sectors, such as energy, food and transport. It provides an outline of a strategic approach that will seek to simplify business continuity by making it accessible, achievable and affordable, and, in partnership with the organisations that SMEs turn to for advice, promotes the benefits of business continuity and encourages its use.

  7. Detailed CFD Modelling of Open Refrigerated Display Cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dinis Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFDs modelling of air flow and heat transfer in an open refrigerated display cabinet (ORDC is performed in this study. The physical-mathematical model considers the flow through the internal ducts, across fans and evaporator, and includes the thermal response of food products. The air humidity effect and thermal radiation heat transfer between surfaces are taken into account. Experimental tests were performed to characterize the phenomena near physical extremities and to validate the numerical predictions of air temperature, relative humidity, and velocity. Numerical and experimental results comparison reveals the predictive capabilities of the computational model for the optimized conception and development of this type of equipments. Numerical predictions are used to propose geometrical and functional parametric studies that improve thermal performance of the ORDC and consequently food safety.

  8. Flow and performance of an air-curtain biological safety cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chou, Chun I

    2009-06-01

    Using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer gas concentration detection techniques, this study examines aerodynamic flow properties and the characteristics of escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination of a biological safety cabinet installed with an air curtain across the front aperture. The experimental method partially simulates the NSF/ANSI 49 standards with the difference that the biological tracer recommended by these standards is replaced by a mixture of 10% SF(6) in N(2). The air curtain is set up across the cabinet aperture plane by means of a narrow planar jet issued from the lower edge of the sash and a suction flow going through a suction slot installed at the front edge of the work surface. Varying the combination of jet velocity, suction flow velocity, and descending flow velocity reveals three types of characteristic flow modes: 'straight curtain', 'slightly concave curtain', and 'severely concave curtain'. Operating the cabinet in the straight curtain mode causes the air curtain to impinge on the doorsill and therefore induces serious escape from containment. In the severely concave curtain mode, drastically large inward dispersion and cross-cabinet contamination were observed because environmental air entered into the cabinet and a three-dimensional vortical flow structure formed in the cabinet. The slightly concave curtain mode presents a smooth and two-dimensional flow pattern with an air curtain separating the outside atmosphere from the inside space of the cabinet, and therefore exhibited negligibly small escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination.

  9. Will the Three Gorges Dam Stand The Test of Time?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    After successfully containing the biggest flood this century, the Three Gorges Dam,on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in central China’s Hubei Province, has encountered another flood, that of public opinion:Will this dam be able to hold floods that are "once-in-10,000-years" or "once-in-1,000-years" or "once-in-a-century"? Should numerous hazards this year, including land and mudslides and mountain torrents,be blamed on accumulation of sediment caused by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam? To get answers to these questions,journalists from Xinhua News Agency interviewed Cao Guangjing, Board Chairman of the China Three Gorges Corp., the operator of the Three Gorges Dam.

  10. Tour Group Cruises the Three Gorges in Luxury Boat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    BOARDING "Sheena," a luxury boat owned by the Sino-American Deluxe Boat Company, I began a five-day tour to Sanxia (Three Gorges of the Changjiang River) with ten other European and American tourists.

  11. Safety Ensured for Cultural Heritages in the Three Gorges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoWeidong

    2003-01-01

    “When the steep gorges become a vast quiet lake, the whole world will be amazed” This is a line from Chairman Mao's famous poem expressing his lifelong dream to build a gigantic dam over the Yangtze River.

  12. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focher, Shannon M.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Hayes, Michael C. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Hatchery for the period November 1, 1995 to October 31, 1996. Studies at Umatilla Hatchery are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in Michigan raceways. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at Umatilla Hatchery and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program is intensively monitored and evaluated as part of the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring are mandatory and have become the responsibility of the fish health staff conducting the studies at Umatilla Hatchery. Additional studies include evaluations of sport fisheries in the Umatilla River and mass marking and straying of fall chinook salmon. Juvenile rearing experiments have been completed for subyearling fall chinook salmon reared in Michigan and Oregon raceways. Although preliminary adult return data has been recovered, the most data on post-release survival is incomplete. Conclusions in this report should be viewed as preliminary and used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available.

  13. Water chemistry - Investigation of Methods to Improve Homing by Hatchery Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Investigate olfactory imprinting techniques that will improve homing by hatchery salmon to their hatchery of origin, and thereby reduce potential risks from these...

  14. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA): Erwin National Fish Hatchery, Unicoi County, Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Erwin National Fish Hatchery (NFH) summarizes available and relevant information for hatchery water resources...

  15. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment – Ouray National Wildlife Refuge and Ouray National Fish Hatchery.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — EXECUTIVE SUMMARY-Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR) and Ouray National Fish Hatchery (ONFH) share many attributes. Hatchery facilities are within the boundaries...

  16. Sherman Creek Hatchery; 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Mitch [Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA (United States). Hatcheries Program

    1997-01-01

    The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations of the SCH have been modified to better achieve program goals. These strategic changes have been the result of recommendations through the Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) and were implemented to enhance imprinting, improve survival and operate the two kokanee facilities more effectively. The primary change has been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a kokanee yearling (post smolt) program. The second significant change has been to rear 120,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October to enable the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee for the yearling program.

  17. Willamette Hatchery Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1993-11-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present adult runs from 2.5 million to 5.0 million fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults.

  18. Dynamics of seawater bacterial communities in a shellfish hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Chapman, C C; Bermudes, M; Tamplin, M L

    2013-08-01

    Bacterial disease is a significant issue for larviculture of several species of shellfish, including oysters. One source of bacteria is the seawater used throughout the hatchery. In this study carried out at a commercial oyster hatchery in Tasmania, Australia, the diversity of the bacterial community and its relationship with larval production outcomes were studied over a 2-year period using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and tag-encoded pyrosequencing. The bacterial communities were very diverse, dominated by the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The communities were highly variable on scales of days, weeks and seasons. The difference between the intake seawater and treated clean seawater used in the hatchery was smaller than the observed temporal differences in the seawater throughout the year. No clear correlation was observed between production outcomes and the overall bacterial community structure. However, one group of Cyanobacterial sequences was more abundant when mass mortality events occurred than when healthy spat were produced although they were always present.

  19. 电子机柜空调器%Electronic Control Cabinet Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强

    2014-01-01

    该文介绍了一种小型电子机柜空调器的设计方案,该空调器解决了密闭电子机柜散热的问题,能够在较小尺寸下达到1000W的制冷量,实现对相对密闭电子机柜小环境内温湿度的有效控制,提高机柜内电子设备的可靠性。%This paper introduces the design of a small electronic cabinet air-conditioner, the air-conditioner solves the sealed electronic cabinet cooling problems, have the cooling capacity of 1000W at a smaller size, realize the effective control of the rela-tive closed electronic cabinet small environment temperature and humidity, to improve the reliability of electronic equipment cabinet.

  20. Building services cabinets as teaching material in a degree in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gómez, César; Zapata, Omayra; Zuazua, Amaia; Villanueva, Sonia; Olaizola, Paula

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this innovative educational project is to encourage students' interest in one of the most underrated fields of architecture: building services. With this material students interact with real elements and thereby understand the relationship between facilities and the building. A set of three small technical cabinets is planned. They allow for comfortable use and movement inside the building, need minimum maintenance and are easily stored. The result is an alternative concept of a mobile laboratory called a 'technical cabinet', made up of three mobile units for fire safety, electricity and the heating/cooling system. The design, content and learning systems of the cabinets confirmed the validity of the initial concept during the first year of use. A protocol has also been developed for each of the technical cabinets so that the teaching experience may be of use in other Schools of Architecture.

  1. CAPITAL MARKET’S REACTION TOWARDS 2014 WORKING CABINET ANNOUNCEMENT (INDONESIAN CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Saputra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the market reaction regarding the announcement  of working cabinet following the election of Jokowi as the President of Indonesia. Political events such as presidential election, government change, cabinet announcement, and other events are very influential towards price and trade volume at the stock exchange since the political events are closely related to the state economy stability.  The Sample in this study is stock which was listed as issuers in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX which included in LQ45 company group during this research period from 20 October– 3 November 2014. The result shows that there was significant effect towards abnormal return difference before and after the cabinet announcement on the companies listed in LQ 45. The existence of this significant difference means that market reacted with the cabinet announcement event.

  2. Numerical Analysis of Mist-Cooled High Power Components in Cabinets

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Niru; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Hodes, Marc; Salamon, Todd; Lyons, Alan; Kolodner, Paul; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2009-01-01

    The heat dissipation capacity of air-cooled computing and telecommunications cabinets is limited by acoustic noise and fan reliability considerations. The present work quantifies the potential for thermal management of a sealed cabinet using an evaporating mist introduced upstream of the high-power electronic components. The proposed concept consists of droplets of mist being dispersed in the air flowing through a heat sink. The evaporated mist is condensed at the outlet of the circuit packs ...

  3. Evaluation of seismic characteristics and structural integrity for the cabinet of HANARO seismic monitoring analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, Doo Byung

    2003-06-01

    The HANARO SMAS(Seismic Monitoring Analysis System) is classified as Non-Nuclear Safety(NNS), seismic category I, and quality class T. It is required that this system can perform required functions, which are to preserve its structural integrity during and after an OBE or SSE. In this work, the structural integrity and seismic characteristics of the cabinet of the newly developed SMAS have been estimated. The most parts of the cabinet are identically designed with those of Yonggwhang and Gori Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs), unit 1 that successfully completed the required seismic qualification tests. The structure of the cabinet of the SMAS is manufactured by the manufacturer of the cabinet of Yonggwhang and Gori NPPs. To evaluate the seismic characteristics of the SMAS, the RRS(Required Response Spectra) of the newly developed cabinet are compared with those of Yonggwhang and Gori NPPs, unit 1. In addition, natural frequencies of the cabinet of HANARO, Yonggwhang, and Gori NPPs were measured for the comparison of the seismic characteristics of the installed cabinets. In case of HANARO, the bottom of the cabinet is welded to the base plate. The base plate is fixed to the concrete foundation by using anchor bolts. For the evaluation of the structural integrity of the welding parts and the anchor bolts, the maximum stresses and forces of the welding parts and the anchor bolts due to seismic loading are estimated. The analysis results show that maximum stresses and forces are less than the allowable limits. This new SMAS is operating at HANARO instrument room to acquire and analyze the signal of earthquake.

  4. From National Enclaves to Supporting Offices: an Analysis of the 1999 Reform of European Commissioners’ Cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renke Deckarm

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the transformation of European commissioners’ private offices (cabinets from national enclaves to supporting offices. Structural changes were caused by a reform by then-Commission President Prodi in 1999. To analyse this reform, a typology based on management literature is developed. The reform is characterised as ‘big bang’: it was strategically planned by a leader, transformational and affected the entire cabinet system. The most important measures were that at least three nationalities and three Commission officials were required in cabinets. These and other measures anticipated changing demands towards cabinets caused by the 2004/7 enlargement and the Kinnock reforms. This article closes a gap in research on the Commission, in which cabinets are seldom analysed in their own right. It complements earlier evidence on change in cabinets by explaining why and how structural changes evoked a functional transformation. This contributes to the broader research agenda on change in the functioning of the Commission. Content analysis of primary sources (Prodi’s speeches and publications, expert interviews and a biographic database and recent academic publications contribute to the analysis.

  5. Hubei's Yichang—— Pearl of the Three Gorges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    NESTLED near the mouth of Hubei's Xiling Gorge, Yichang is becoming an ever-stronger tourist magnet in the revamped Three Gorges area. Many traditional tourist spots have made way for China's huge navigation and hydroelectricity project on the Yangtze River, but Yichang, dubbed “Pearl ofthe Three Gorges,” retains its pullingpower, reinforced by the emergence of a new Three Gorges tourist area.

  6. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Spring Chinook Master Plan, Technical Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashe, Becky L.; Concannon, Kathleen; Johnson, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Spring chinook salmon populations in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde rivers are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are at high risk of extirpation. The Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are co-managers of conservation/restoration programs for Imnaha and Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon that use hatchery supplementation and conventional and captive broodstock techniques. The immediate goal of these programs is to prevent extirpation and provide the potential for restoration once factors limiting production are addressed. These programs redirect production occurring under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) from mitigation to conservation and restoration. Both the Imnaha and Grande Ronde conservation/restoration programs are described in ESA Section 10 permit applications and the co-managers refer to the fish production from these programs as the Currently Permitted Program (CPP). Recently, co-managers have determined that it is impossible to produce the CPP at Lookingglass Hatchery, the LSRCP facility intended for production, and that without additional facilities, production must be cut from these conservation programs. Development of new facilities for these programs through the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program is considered a new production initiative by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and requires a master plan. The master plan provides the NPPC, program proponents and others with the information they need to make sound decisions about whether the proposed facilities to restore salmon populations should move forward to design. This master plan describes alternatives considered to meet the facility needs of the CPP so the conservation program can be fully implemented. Co-managers considered three alternatives: modify Lookingglass Hatchery; use existing facilities elsewhere in the Basin; and use new facilities in

  7. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Spring Chinook Master Plan, Technical Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashe, Becky L.; Concannon, Kathleen; Johnson, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Spring chinook salmon populations in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde rivers are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are at high risk of extirpation. The Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are co-managers of conservation/restoration programs for Imnaha and Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon that use hatchery supplementation and conventional and captive broodstock techniques. The immediate goal of these programs is to prevent extirpation and provide the potential for restoration once factors limiting production are addressed. These programs redirect production occurring under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) from mitigation to conservation and restoration. Both the Imnaha and Grande Ronde conservation/restoration programs are described in ESA Section 10 permit applications and the co-managers refer to the fish production from these programs as the Currently Permitted Program (CPP). Recently, co-managers have determined that it is impossible to produce the CPP at Lookingglass Hatchery, the LSRCP facility intended for production, and that without additional facilities, production must be cut from these conservation programs. Development of new facilities for these programs through the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program is considered a new production initiative by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and requires a master plan. The master plan provides the NPPC, program proponents and others with the information they need to make sound decisions about whether the proposed facilities to restore salmon populations should move forward to design. This master plan describes alternatives considered to meet the facility needs of the CPP so the conservation program can be fully implemented. Co-managers considered three alternatives: modify Lookingglass Hatchery; use existing facilities elsewhere in the Basin; and use new facilities in

  8. Democracy and the Making of the President’s Cabinet in Nigeria: A Reflection of the Olusegun Obasanjo’s and Goodluck Jonathan’s Cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Adeniran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Presidency, especially in Federal systems, holds peculiar and haunting fascination for scholars in their attempts to diagnose the workings of modern governments. The increasing powers of the Presidency, the recurrent debates over their use or abuse and the continuous interrogation of the extent of the legitimate use of such powers, invariably compel attention to the study of the Presidency. In Nigeria, a critical inquiry that goes beyond the surface seems to be long overdue and an appraisal of the making of a Presidential cabinet appears a vital part of the advancement of knowledge in this regard. Thus, this study is a review of democracy and the making of the presidential cabinet in Nigeria with a reflection of the Olusegun Obasanjo’s and the Goodluck Jonathan’s Cabinets. The aims are (i to investigate the role of the President as crisis manager when a nation faces serious internal security challenges; (ii to appraise the President’s role as manager of the economy – especially when fiscal and monetary policies are set in the context of double – digit inflation and severe economic dislocations; and (iii to assess the interactions between the President, the Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs and the National Assembly. The study reveals among many others that for the President to be effective he needs a cabinet that fully understands what he wants to achieve, the way he wants to go about it and the time he wants to achieve it. In fact, the president needs a cabinet that shares in his vision of development for the country. Sequel to the above, the president should rely more on expertise and competence by lifting square peg into square holes.

  9. Post-glacial rock avalanche causing epigenetic gorge incision (Strassberg gorge, Eastern Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Diethard

    2015-04-01

    In the western part of the Eastern Alps, the Strassberg gorge 1.5 km in length and down to 100 m in depth shows a marked asymmetry in height of its right/left brinklines. The gorge is incised into Upper Triassic dolostones, and parallels an older valley filled with Quaternary deposits. Upstream, the valley-fill consists of (a) glacial till (Last Glacial Maximum, LGM), overlain by (b) a rock avalanche deposit (RAD) at least a few tens of meters thick, and (c) alluvial deposits shed over the RAD (except for projecting boulders); the RAD is locally also downlapped by scree slopes. Downstream, the valley-fill consists of glacio-fluvial deposits overlain by LGM till and, on top, the RAD. The rock avalanche defaced from the west slope of mount Hohe Munde (2662 m asl), and consists exclusively of clasts of Wetterstein Limestone (Triassic p. p.). Rock avalanche defacement was tied to a system of NW-SE trending strike-slip faults (Telfs fault zone). The rock avalanche descended before the old valley was significantly cleared of glaciofluvial/glacial deposits of the LGM. On a plateau west of the present bedrock gorge, LGM till is veneered over a large area by RAD; the till and the RAD both were later involved in slumping. The RAD covers a total planview area of ~3.7 square kilometers. The fahrböschung of the rock avalanche is reconstructed between 16°-14.5°. In its proximal part, the rock avalanche propagated by dynamic fragmentation; in the distal part, propagation was by sheet-like 'plug flow', perhaps in part over a snow cover. The filling of the old valley by the RAD led to: (a) formation and filling of a small intramontane basin directly upstream, and (b) incision of the present Strassberg gorge along a course westward-parallel to the old valley. Mean rates of bedrock incision required to form the deepest reach of the present canyon range from 1 cm/a (since 10 ka) to 0.7 cm/a (since 15 ka). In the considered area, talus breccias of pre-LGM age locally show zones of

  10. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonecypher, R. Wess; Groberg, Jr., Warren J.; Farman, Brett M. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    2001-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan (MI) raceways using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss). The hatchery was completed in fall 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to evaluate new production and supplementation techniques. MI raceways at UFH increase smolt production with a limited water supply. Test results for MI raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia River basin. The UFH is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council's goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990). The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery (Carmichael 1990) was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. The monitoring and evaluation goals are: (1) Provide information and recommendations for the culture and release of hatchery fish, harvest regulations, and natural escapement to accomplish long-term natural and hatchery production goals in the Umatilla River basin that are consistent with provisions of the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. (2) Assess the

  11. Validation of cross-contamination control in biological safety cabinet for biotech/pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Tu, Jin-Xin; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben

    2015-12-01

    For class II, type A2 biological safety cabinets (BSC), NSF/ANSI Standard 49 should be conformed in cabinet airflow velocity derivation, particle contamination, and aerodynamic flow properties. However, there exists a potential problem. It has been built that the cabinet air flow stabilize is influenced by the quantity of downflow of air and the height above the cabinet exhaust opening. Three air downflow quantities were compared as an operating apparatus was placed from 20 to 40 cm above the bench of the cabinet. The results show that the BSC air downflow velocity is a function of increased sampling height, displaying that containment is improvingly permitted over product protection as the sampling height decreases. This study investigated the concentration gradient of particles at various heights and downflow air quantity from the bench of the BSC. Experiment results indicate that performance near the bench was better than in the rest of the BSC. In terms of height, the best cleanliness was measured at a height of 10 cm over the bench; it reduced actually with add in height. The empirical curves accommodate, founded on the concentration gradient of particle created was elaborated for evaluating the particle concentration at different heights and downflow air quantity from the source of the bench of the BSC. The particle image velocimetry system applied for BSC airflow research to fix amount of airflow patterns and air distribution measurement and results of measurements show how obstructions can greatly influence the airflow and contaminant transportation in a BSC.

  12. Do stocked hatchery-reared juveniles ecologically suppress wild juveniles in Salvelinus leucomaenis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Doi, T

    2014-05-01

    The dominancy of semi-wild and hatchery-reared white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles was evaluated using pair-wise enclosure tests and field stocking tests. The semi-wild S. leucomaenis originated in a hatchery, being stocked into the test stream as eyed-eggs. In the pair-wise enclosure test, the semi-wild S. leucomaenis dominated the hatchery S. leucomaenis that were of a similar standard length (L(S) ). The semi-wild S. leucomaenis were subordinate to hatchery S. leucomaenis that were > 11% larger in LS . In the field stocking test, the abundance and growth of semi-wild S. leucomaenis was decreased in the presence of larger hatchery S. leucomaenis (14% larger LS ). Taken together, these results suggest that larger hatchery S. leucomaenis ecologically suppress the smaller semi-wild S. leucomaenis. Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles that are stocked with the intention of supplementing natural populations should be < 10% larger than their wild counterparts at the time of stocking to minimize their competitive advantage. The semi-wild and hatchery S. leucomaenis used in both tests were genetically similar individuals, suggesting that the differences are due to the early rearing environment of either a natural stream or hatchery. The hatchery S. leucomaenis have lower levels of aggression as a result of selection in the hatchery rearing environment. Rearing in a natural stream from the eyed-egg stage is likely to increase their lowered aggression.

  13. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for

  14. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David B.; Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.

    2001-08-17

    This report consists of activities/events conducted in response to the Objectives and Tasks described in the 1999 contract Statement Of Work for the Planning and Planning and Design (P and D) and Maintenance (O and M) activities of the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH). The report follows the format of the contract for ease in finding accomplishments. Although specific emphasis will be placed on activities related directly to the NPTH, activities from other artificial production related projects might also be noted because of overlap in staff duties and production facilities. Additionally, the project leader's role has evolved as other Tribal fisheries projects have been developed and assigned to the Production Division, Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM), and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT). Thus, implementation of the project leader role for the NPTH actually entails specific duties of the Production Division Director and the Production Division Coordinator, as well as the Hatchery Division Coordinator.

  15. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1999-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chess, Dale W.; Cameron, William A.; Stonecypher, Jr., R. Wes (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Salem, OR)

    2003-12-01

    REPORT A: UMATILLA HATCHERY MONITORING AND EVALUATION--This report summarizes monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) for 1 November, 1999 to 31 October, 2002. Studies at UFH are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in ''Michigan raceways''. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at UFH and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program are intensively monitored and evaluated along with the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring at UFH are mandatory. An experiment designed to evaluate rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon in Michigan and Oregon raceways has been completed. An evaluation of survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at three densities will be completed with final returns in 2005. Two new evaluations were started during this reporting period. The first is an evaluation of spring chinook survival of groups transferred to Imeques acclimation facility in the fall, overwinter-acclimated and released with the standard acclimated production groups in March. The second is an evaluation of subyearling fall chinook survival and straying of a direct-stream released group in the lower Umatilla River and the standard group acclimated at Thornhollow acclimation facility in the upper Umatilla River. An important aspect of the project is evaluation of the spring chinook and summer steelhead fisheries in the upper and lower Umatilla River. REPORT B: Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000 Fiscal Year--The results presented in this report are from the ninth year of Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation in the Umatilla Hatchery program. Broodstock monitoring for hatchery production was conducted on adult returns to the

  16. Single Party Cabinets and Presidential Democracies: insights from the Argentinean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo CAMERLO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of presidential cabinets has mainly focused on coalitional formations, distinguishing individual ministers in terms of their party affiliation particularly at cabinet instauration and termination. This article moves the focus to single-party cabinets to study minister appointment in situations where the legislative support is less relevant. A model of analysis that observes extra-partisan affiliations, individual technical skills and personal liaison with the president is proposed and exploratory applied to the Argentinean case. The results suggest that well positioned presidents tend to apply closer strategies of portfolio distribution, with levels of institutionalization that depends on the president’s party organization and the president’s style of leadership.

  17. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.; French, Rod A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1993-03-01

    This report covers the first year of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. As both the hatchery and the evaluation study are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary. The most crucial data for evaluating the success of the hatchery program, the data on post-release performance and survival, is yet unavailable. In addition, several years of data are necessary to make conclusions about rearing performance at Umatilla Hatchery. The conclusions drawn in this report should be viewed as preliminary and should be used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available. A comprehensive fish health monitoring regimen was incorporated into the monitoring and evaluation study for Umatilla Hatchery. This is a unique feature of the Umatilla Hatchery evaluation project.

  18. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Conceptual Design Report, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery (Montgomery Watson, Bellevue, WA)

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  19. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (Idaho)

    1996-06-01

    This summary gives the major points of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prepared for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery by the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and other interested parties. The Nez Perce once were one of the largest Plateau tribes in the Northwest and occupied a territory that included north central Idaho, southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. Salmon and other migratory fish species are an invaluable food resource and an integral part of the Nez Perce Tribe`s culture. Anadromous fish have always made up the bulk of the Nez Perce tribal diet and this dependence on salmon was recognized in the treaties made with the Tribe by the US. The historic economic, social, and religious significance of the fish to the Nez Perce Tribe continues to this day, which makes the decline of fish populations in the Columbia River Basin a substantial detrimental impact to the Nez Perce way of life. The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that would rear and release spring, summer, and fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), biologically similar to wild fish, to reproduce in the Clearwater River Subbasin. Program managers propose techniques that are compatible with existing aquatic and riparian ecosystems and would integrate hatchery-produced salmon into the stream and river environments needed to complete their life cycle.

  20. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (Idaho).

    1996-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Nez Perce Tribe propose a supplementation program to restore chinook salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin in Idaho. The Clearwater River is a tributary to the Snake River, which empties into the Columbia River. The Nez Perce Tribe would build and operate two central incubation and rearing hatcheries and six satellite facilities. Spring, summer and fall chinook salmon would be reared and acclimated to different areas in the Subbasin and released at the hatchery and satellite sites or in other watercourses throughout the Subbasin. The supplementation program differs from other hatchery programs because the fish would be released at different sizes and would return to reproduce naturally in the areas where they are released. Several environmental issues were identified during scoping: the possibility that the project would fail if mainstem Columbia River juvenile and adult passage problems are not solved; genetic risks to fish listed as endangered or threatened; potential impacts to wild and resident fish stocks because of increase competition for food and space; and water quality. The Proposed Action would affect several important aspects of Nez Perce tribal life, primarily salmon harvest, employment, and fisheries management.

  1. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Brown, Kassandra A.; Waln, Karen (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) for the period November 1, 1997 to October 31, 1998. Studies at Umatilla Hatchery are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in ''Michigan raceways''. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at UFH and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program are intensively monitored and evaluated as part of the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring are mandatory and have become the responsibility of the fish health staff conducting studies at UFH. Additional studies include evaluations of sport fisheries in the Umatilla River and mass marking and straying of fall chinook salmon. Except for adult recovery data, an experiment designed to evaluate rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon in Michigan and Oregon raceways has been completed. We are currently in the second year of rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon at three densities. Experimental rearing of subyearling, fall release, and yearling spring chinook salmon, and steelhead has also been conducted. Although preliminary adult return data has been recovered, data on smolt-to-adult survival for all groups is incomplete. Conclusions in this report should be viewed as preliminary and used in conjunction with additional data as it becomes available.

  2. School District Cabinet Member Task and Relationship Conflict Behavior during Budget Development in a State Fiscal Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The first purpose of this study was to determine to what extent task and relationship conflict occurred in school district cabinets during budget development in a state budget crisis. The second purpose was to determine which cabinet member task and relationship conflict behaviors were demonstrated during budget development in a state…

  3. Risks in the physical recovery system of waste refrigerator cabinets and the controlling measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jujun; Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-12-18

    Environmental information in physical recovery system of waste refrigerator cabinets was provided in this paper. The system included closed shearing, activated carbon adsorption (ACA), air current separation, magnetic separation, and eddy current separation. Exposures of CFC-11, heavy metals, and noise emitted from the system were assessed. Abundant CFC-11 (>510 mg/m³) was detected in crusher cavity. However, due to the employment of ACA, little CFC-11 (refrigerator cabinets on environmental protection. Meanwhile, it contributed to the knowledge of environmental information of physical technology for recovering e-waste.

  4. Will the Three Gorges Dam Stand The Test of Time?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Netizens have collected several ar-ticles about the flood-control capacity of the Three Gorges Dam. In these articles, its capacity was differently described as tackling flooding "once-in-10,000-years" "once-in- l,O00-years" or "once-in-a-century" Can you give the specifics of the flood control capacity of the dam?

  5. An Evaluation of Otolith Thermal Marking at the Feather River Hatchery, California

    OpenAIRE

    Mercer, Michael; Kurth, Ryon

    2014-01-01

    doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v12iss4art3 California’s Feather River Hatchery (FRH) propagates two runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): spring run and fall run. Loss of spawning habitat and historical hatchery practices have led to introgression of these runs. Recent efforts to reform hatchery operations at the FRH are focused on reducing introgression and increasing the proportion of natural-origin spawners in the broodstock. Implementing these re...

  6. Kalispel Resident Fish Project: Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluff, Stanley

    2000-12-01

    No Annual Production Goals were achieved for the year. The Kalispel Hatchery experienced two episodes of brood fish mortality. The first due to a standpipe malfunction and the second attributed to gas bubble disease caused by elevated Total Dissolved Gases (TDG's) in the reservoir. To date, the hatchery has 29 brood fish in the raceway and ready to spawn. If all things go well this spring, hatchery operations should be well underway next year.

  7. Kalispel Resident Fish Project- Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalispel Tribe, Department of Natural Resources

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, construction activities commenced on a largemouth bass hatchery located on the Kalispel Indian Reservation. The major construction activities were complete as of October 1997. Of the six objectives identified in the 1997 Annual Operating Plan two objectives were fully achieved: the assembly of the life support system, and the preparation of the hatchery Operations and Maintenance Manual. The remaining four objectives were not fully achieved due to the hatchery not being completed before the spawning season (spring).

  8. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a major negative impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas have been completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, destroying the primary food resource (salmon) for many native people forcing them to rely heavily upon resident fish to replace these lost resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program that addresses the loss of anadromous fish resources in the Upper Columbia Sub-Region within the ''blocked area'' created by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. This project enhances resident fisheries located in the Intermountain and Columbia Cascade Provinces, specifically within the Colville Reservation portion of the Upper Columbia, SanPoil and Oakanogan Sub-Basins. The project partially mitigates for anadromous fish losses through protection/augmentation of resident fish populations to enhance fishery potential (i.e. in-place, out-of-kind mitigation) pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The Colville Tribal Hatchery (CTH) is located on the northern bank of the Columbia River just down stream of the town of Bridgeport, Washington that is just down stream of Chief Joseph Dam. The hatchery is located on land owned by the Colville Tribes. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout annually. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence/recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members and provide for a successful nonmember sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to support &apos

  9. Morphometric comparison between hatchery-reared and wild-caught megalopae of the mangrove crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Andressa Casagrande Ayres

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the morphometry of hatchery-reared and wild-caught mangrove crab (Ucides cordatus megalopae. Ten U. cordatus megalopae of each group (hatchery-reared and wild-caught were individually analyzed using a stereoscopic microscope equipped with an ocular micrometer. Length, width, and height of all megalopae were measured, and the size of body appendices was determined. The results indicate that the hatchery-reared megalopae are more robust than the wild ones. Furthermore, some significant differences in the size of certain appendices can be cues of the kind of alterations that hatchery-reared individuals experience.

  10. Inner gorges cut by subglacial meltwater during Fennoscandian ice sheet decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J D; Codilean, A T; Stroeven, A P; Fabel, D; Hättestrand, C; Kleman, J; Harbor, J M; Heyman, J; Kubik, P W; Xu, S

    2014-05-09

    The century-long debate over the origins of inner gorges that were repeatedly covered by Quaternary glaciers hinges upon whether the gorges are fluvial forms eroded by subaerial rivers, or subglacial forms cut beneath ice. Here we apply cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating to seven inner gorges along ~500 km of the former Fennoscandian ice sheet margin in combination with a new deglaciation map. We show that the timing of exposure matches the advent of ice-free conditions, strongly suggesting that gorges were cut by channelized subglacial meltwater while simultaneously being shielded from cosmic rays by overlying ice. Given the exceptional hydraulic efficiency required for meltwater channels to erode bedrock and evacuate debris, we deduce that inner gorges are the product of ice sheets undergoing intense surface melting. The lack of postglacial river erosion in our seven gorges implicates subglacial meltwater as a key driver of valley deepening on the Baltic Shield over multiple glacial cycles.

  11. The Black Box of the Nice Treaty Negotiations: The influence of the Dutch cabinet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Luitwieler (Sander)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study applies a relational influence approach to analyse the European Union (EU) Nice Treaty negotiation process (2000) and explain its outcome, focusing on the influence of the Dutch cabinet in the context of the other participating actors (14 member states, the European Commissio

  12. Study on the characteristic decomposition components of air-insulated switchgear cabinet under partial discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Yingang; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ying; Qiu, Yinjun; Chen, Lincong

    2016-07-01

    Air-insulated switchgear cabinet plays a critical role in entire power transmission and distribution system. Its stability directly affects the operational reliability of the power system. And the on-line gas detection method, which evaluates the insulation status of insulation equipment by detecting the decomposition components of filled air in cabinet, becomes an innovative way to ensure the running stability of air-insulated switchgear cabinet. In order to study the characteristic gas types and production regularity of decomposition components under partial discharge, three insulation defects: needle-plate, air-gap and impurity defect are proposed to simulate the insulation defects under partial discharge in air-insulated switchgear cabinet. Firstly, the generation pathways and mechanism of composition components are discussed. Then CO and NO2 are selected as the characteristic decomposition components to characterize the partial discharge due to their high concentration and chemical stability. Based on the different change regularity of CO and NO2 concentration under different insulation defect, it provides an effective way to evaluate and predict the insulation defect type and severity in the field.

  13. An Electronic Filing Cabinet for "Classic" Articles and Other Teaching Materials: Something Old, Something New

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Simon; Lapid, Maria I.; Philbrick, Kemuel L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: "Classic" articles remain an important resource in teaching psychiatry. But, such materials are often buried in a faculty member's filing cabinet, effectively lost in today's world of instant access. We attempt to recover these materials through a marriage of traditional reading lists and contemporary technology. Method: The authors…

  14. Political death and survival in the Netherlands : Explaining resignations of individual cabinet members 1946 - 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovens, Mark; Brandsma, G.J.; Thesingh, D.

    2015-01-01

    Resignation by individual cabinet ministers is a major political event. Little is known, however, about the incidence, the patterns and the causes of ministerial resignations. This article works towards a political survival model of individual (junior and senior) ministers in the Netherlands, a coun

  15. Children: Oklahoma's Investment in Tomorrow '96. Preliminary Report: Agency Budget by Cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, Oklahoma City.

    This report presents preliminary Oklahoma state agency budget summaries for all programs serving children in the Departments of Administration, Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Human Resources, Safety and Security, Tourism and Recreation, and Veterans Affairs. The budget figures are organized by cabinet and…

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD KITCHEN CABINET COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system at two cabinet manufacturing plants: one in Portland, OR, and the other in Redwood City, CA. Technology transfer ef...

  17. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Waln, Karen; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1996-01-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council`s Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of the Umatilla Hatchery in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan type of rearing using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus nzykiss). The hatchery was completed in the fall of 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to develop considerable knowledge and understanding of new production and supplementation techniques. The use of the Michigan raceways in rearing at Umatilla Hatchery was selected because it could increase smolt production given the limited hatchery well water supply and allow comparison of Michigan raceways with the standard Oregon raceways. Results of testing the Michigan raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia Basin. The Umatilla Hatchery is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council`s goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan . The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. This report covers the first four years of the monitoring of the hatchery.

  18. Frost formation and defrost control parameters for open multideck refrigerated food display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassou, S.A.; Datta, D. [Brunel Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Marriott, D. [Safeway Stores plc, Hayes (United Kingdom)

    2001-04-03

    In order to achieve the required air and product temperatures in refrigerated food display cabinets, the evaporator coils, which are normally located in the base of the cabinets, operate at temperatures below the freezing point of water. The air which is circulated over the evaporator coil is cooled below its dew point and water vapour present in the air condenses and eventually freezes on the coil surface. With continuous operation of the coil, frost will accumulate on the coil surface leading to a decrease both in the air flowrate and in the overall heat transfer coefficient. In order to maintain satisfactory performance, evaporator coils are defrosted periodically. Although different defrost control strategies can be employed, for simplicity and cost considerations, defrosting in supermarket refrigeration systems is usually controlled by a pre-set time cycle. It is widely acknowledge, however, that time-based defrost may cause a number of unnecessary defrost cycles and this reduces the energy efficiency of the refrigeration systems as well as the accuracy of temperature control of the cabinets. Implementing defrost only when it is needed or on 'demand' should reduce the number of defrost cycles and lead to savings in energy and improved product quality. This paper reports on field and experimental investigations on the processes of frosting and defrosting of medium-temperature display cabinet evaporator coils. The results show that for medium-temperature refrigeration applications where the environment temperature is kept reasonably constant, the store humidity is the primary parameter influencing the rate of frost formation. Using relative humidity as a control parameter the defrost frequency can be reduced considerably without affecting cabinet performance and product integrity. Alongside the effect of relative humidity, the paper also considers the effects of other performance parameters on the processes of frosting and defrosting such as cooling

  19. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance Annual Report, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenema, David

    2003-03-01

    The Kalispel Tribal hatchery successfully spawned largemouth bass broodfish in spring 2002. Approximately 150,000 eggs were produced and hatched. These fry were started on brine shrimp for a period of ten days. At this time, the fry needed more abundance food supply. Cannibalism started and the hatchery staff transferred the remaining fry to the river in hopes that some fish would survive.

  20. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  1. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers. 145.9 Section 145.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... POULTRY General Provisions § 145.9 Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers....

  2. Physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration and ocean entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Sheehan, Timothy F.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Lipsky, Christine; Kocik, John F.; Regish, Amy M.; O'Dea, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Billions of hatchery salmon smolts are released annually in an attempt to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on freshwater habitats, often with limited success. Mortality of wild and hatchery fish is high during downstream and early ocean migration. To understand changes that occur during migration, we examined physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration, and early ocean entry in two successive years. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased in the hatchery during spring, increased further after river release, and was slightly lower after recapture in the ocean. Plasma growth hormone levels increased in the hatchery, were higher in the river, and increased further in the ocean. Plasma IGF-I remained relatively constant in the hatchery, increased in the river, then decreased in the ocean. Plasma thyroid hormones were variable in the hatchery, but increased in both river- and ocean-captured smolts. Naturally reared fish had lower condition factor, gill NKA activity, and plasma thyroxine than hatchery fish in the river but were similar in the ocean. This novel data set provides a vital first step in understanding the role and norms of endocrine function in smolts and the metrics of successful marine entry.

  3. Ecological interactions between hatchery summer steelhead and wild Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Willamette River basin, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Green, Ethan D.; Vernon, Christopher R.; Mcmichael, Geoffrey A.

    2014-12-23

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which juvenile hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead overlap in space and time, to evaluate the extent of residualism among hatchery summer steelhead in the South Santiam River, and to evaluate the potential for negative ecological interactions among hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead. Because it is not possible to visually discern juvenile winter steelhead from resident rainbow trout, we treated all adipose-intact juvenile O. mykiss as one group that represented juvenile wild winter steelhead. The 2014 study objectives were to 1) estimate the proportion of hatchery summer steelhead that residualized in the South Santiam River in 2014, 2) determine the extent to which hatchery and naturally produced O. mykiss overlapped in space and time in the South Santiam River, and 3) characterize the behavioral interactions between hatchery-origin juvenile summer steelhead and naturally produced O. mykiss. We used a combination of radio telemetry and direct observations (i.e., snorkeling) to determine the potential for negative interactions between hatchery summer and wild winter steelhead juveniles in the South Santiam River. Data collected from these two independent methods indicated that a significant portion of the hatchery summer steelhead released as smolts did not rapidly emigrate from the South Santiam River in 2014. Of the 164 radio-tagged steelhead that volitionally left the hatchery, only 66 (40.2%) were detected outside of the South Santiam River. Forty-four (26.8% of 164) of the radio-tagged hatchery summer steelhead successfully emigrated to Willamette Falls. Thus, the last known location of the majority of the tagged fish (98 of 164 = 59.8%) was in the South Santiam River. Thirty-three of the tagged hatchery steelhead were detected in the South Santiam River during mobile-tracking surveys. Of those, 21 were found to be alive in the South Santiam River over three months after

  4. Ecological interactions between hatchery summer steelhead and wild Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Willamette River basin, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnish, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Green, Ethan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcmichael, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which juvenile hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead overlap in space and time, to evaluate the extent of residualism among hatchery summer steelhead in the South Santiam River, and to evaluate the potential for negative ecological interactions among hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead. Because it is not possible to visually discern juvenile winter steelhead from resident rainbow trout, we treated all adipose-intact juvenile O. mykiss as one group that represented juvenile wild winter steelhead. The 2014 study objectives were to 1) estimate the proportion of hatchery summer steelhead that residualized in the South Santiam River in 2014, 2) determine the extent to which hatchery and naturally produced O. mykiss overlapped in space and time in the South Santiam River, and 3) characterize the behavioral interactions between hatchery-origin juvenile summer steelhead and naturally produced O. mykiss. We used a combination of radio telemetry and direct observations (i.e., snorkeling) to determine the potential for negative interactions between hatchery summer and wild winter steelhead juveniles in the South Santiam River. Data collected from these two independent methods indicated that a significant portion of the hatchery summer steelhead released as smolts did not rapidly emigrate from the South Santiam River in 2014. Of the 164 radio-tagged steelhead that volitionally left the hatchery, only 66 (40.2%) were detected outside of the South Santiam River. Forty-four (26.8% of 164) of the radio-tagged hatchery summer steelhead successfully emigrated to Willamette Falls. Thus, the last known location of the majority of the tagged fish (98 of 164 = 59.8%) was in the South Santiam River. Thirty-three of the tagged hatchery steelhead were detected in the South Santiam River during mobile-tracking surveys. Of those, 21 were found to be alive in the South Santiam River over three months after

  5. Occurrence of antibiotics in water from 13 fish hatcheries, 2001-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, J.E.; Scribner, E.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Kolpin, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    A 2-year study of extensive and intensive fish hatcheries was conducted to assess the general temporal occurrence of antibiotics in aquaculture. Antibiotics were detected in 15% of the water samples collected during the 2001-2002 collection period and in 31% of the samples during the 2003 collection period. Antibiotics were detected more frequently in samples from the intensive hatcheries (17 and 39%) than in samples from the extensive hatcheries (14 and 4%) during the 2001-2002 and 2003 collection periods, respectively. The maximum ormetoprim, oxytetracycline, and sulphadimethoxine concentrations were higher in samples from the intensive hatcheries (12, 10, and 36 µg L-1), respectively, than in samples from the extensive hatcheries (<0.05, 0.31, and 1.2 µg L-1), respectively. Sulphadimethoxine persisted for a longer period of time (up to 48 days) than ormetoprim (up to 28 days) and oxytetracycline (less than 20 days).

  6. Energy of forest systems in the Three Gorge Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The energy of three forest ecosystems in the Three Gorge Reservoir Area were analyzed. The results showed that the existing energy were 151.2438, 139.2014 and 175.1659 (x1010 J/hm2), the annual net fixed energy were 38.8924, 31.2214 and 46.8231 (x1010J/hm2), and the utilization efficiency of light energy were 1.16, 0.99 and 1.40 for the Quercus acutissima forest(Q.A.), the Pinus massoniana forest (P.M.), and the Queresus acutissima and Pinus massoniana mixed forest (Q.P.), respectively. In the Three Gorge Reservoir Area, the energy efficiency of Quercus acutissima and Pinus massoniana mixed forest is the best.

  7. A dedicated column for Three Gorges environment to be launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Three Gorges Dam will be the largest hydroelectric dam in the world after the construction is completed in 2008.Ever since the proposal of its erection, the massive project has attracted attention worldwide, and it has progressed under strict control and amazingly ahead of schedule. It will be magnificent to see all the 26 hydro turbines spinning in onrushing water and giant ships traveling back and forth on the Yangtze River.

  8. Bedrock gorges in the central mainland Kachchh: Implications for landscape evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G Thakkar; B Goyal; A K Patidar; D M Maurya; L S Chamyal

    2006-04-01

    Kachchh possesses a fault-controlled first-order topography and several geomorphic features indicative of active tectonics.Though coseismic neotectonic activity is believed to be the major factor in the evolution of the landscape,detailed documentation and analysis of vital landscape features like drainage characteristics,bedrock gorges and terraces are lacking.The present study is a site-speci fic documentation of gorges developed in the central part of the mainland Kachchh.We analyzed and interpreted four gorges occurring on either side of Katrol Hill Fault (KHF).The Khari river gorge is endowed with six levels of bedrock terraces,some of which are studded with large potholes and flutings.Since no active development of potholes is observed along the rivers in the present day hyper-arid conditions,we infer an obvious linkage of gorges to the humid phases,which provided high energy runoff for the formation of gorges and distinct bedrock terraces and associated erosional features.Development of gorges within the miliolites and incision in the fluvial deposits to the south of the KHF indicates that the gorges were formed during Early Holocene.However,ubi-quitous occurrence of gorges along the streams to the south of KHF,the uniformly N40°E trend of the gorges,their close association with transverse faults and the short length of the exceptionally well developed Khari river gorge in the low-relief rocky plain to the north of KHF suggests an important role of neotectonic movements.

  9. Activities and Ergonomics of Workers in Broiler Hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCS Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study was to assess ergonomic factors, posture and biomechanics of workers of a broiler egg hatchery. The analysis of ergonomic factors was based on physical work load, thermal environment, and exposure to light and noise. The posture of workers was analyzed using photographic records which were evaluated by the software program OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System. A biomechanics analysis was also performed based on the photographs taken of the employee at various angles, which were used as inputs to the Michigan two-dimensional biomechanical model software program. The results show that certain activities can be considered unhealthy due to the exposure of employees to physical and thermal overload. The continuous noise levels and lighting were outside the range considered adequate by the regulations of the Brazilian Ministry of Labor. The manner in which certain activities are carried out when associated with weight and poor posture can result in body lesions in broiler hatchery employees. It is therefore necessary to apply specific ergonomic programs, including scheduled breaks, training, and other measures in order to reduce or to eliminate the risks involved in these activities.

  10. Chinalco Signed Agreement with Three Gorges Group to Explore Cooperation in Aluminum-Electricity Joint Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>On December 9th Chinalco signed a framework agreement for strategic cooperation with China Three Gorges Group Corporation ("Three Gorges Group") in Beijing. Both sides will carry out comprehensive cooperation in the investment and construction of domestic and oversea hydro power energy

  11. The Three Gorges Museum Opens to Display Ba and Shu Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoHong

    2005-01-01

    After more than four years of preparation and construction, the Three Gorges Museum, with some tent housand collections and occupying 42, 500 square meters, opened this June to collect, study and showcase history and culture in Chongqing and surrounding Three Gorges areas.

  12. Guidelines for Including Gorges in the Tourist Offer of the Apuseni Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA COCEAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In any tourism development plans, the starting point ought to be the accurate assessment of the tourism resources that can be efficiently put to use. When evaluating the potential for the tourism development of karstic gorges, the most objective criteria were applied: the attractiveness of each gorge, the location and the competitive forms of tourism that can be developed in the area. As a result, we have identified four categories of gorges: primary, secondary, complementary gorges and those of less relevance for the tourism phenomenon. The next step that would have a direct impact on the development of tourism around gorges (building of infrastructure, access roads, etc. is to consolidate and revitalize the brand of each gorge in order to define it as a unique tourist destination. Effective branding of gorges starts with establishing the unique selling proposition, consisting of those attributes of high specificity that determine certain dominant types of tourism. It is only after identifying the strengths that build up their own tourist brands that one can consider including these landmarks in thematic routes, creating synergy and adding value to the whole gorge ensemble.

  13. Influence of supermarket environmental parameters on the frosting and defrosting of vertical multideck display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassou, S.A.; Datta, D.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on results of investigations to identify and quantify the effect of in-store environmental conditions on frost accumulation on the evaporator coils of open multideck refrigerated display cabinets. Field and environmental chamber-based tests have shown that both ambient relative humidity and temperature of a store have a significant effect on the rate of frost formation on the evaporator coils, with the effect of relative humidity being much more pronounced than the effect of temperature. In supermarkets where a fixed-time defrost control strategy is employed, it is possible that cabinets are defrosted too infrequently at high relative humidities, resulting in high product temperatures, and too frequently at low relative humidities, resulting in excessive energy consumption. Considerable opportunity exists for the application of more sophisticated defrost control strategies, both to save energy and improve temperature control.

  14. Are antipredator behaviours of hatchery Salmo salar juveniles similar to wild juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvanes, A G V

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how antipredator behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar developed during conventional hatchery rearing of eggs from wild brood stock, compared with the behaviour of wild-caught juveniles from the same population. Juveniles aged 1+ years were tested in two unfamiliar environments; in one S. salar were presented with simulated predator attacks and in the other they were given the opportunity to explore an open-field arena. No difference was found in their spontaneous escape responses or ventilation rate (reflex responses) after simulated predator attacks. Hatchery-reared juveniles were more risk-prone in their behaviours than wild-caught individuals. Hatchery juveniles stayed less time in association with shelter. In the open-field arena, hatchery juveniles were more active than wild juveniles. Hatchery juveniles were also immobile for less time and spent a shorter amount of time than wild juveniles in the fringe of the open-field arena. Salmo salar size had no effect on the observed behaviour. Overall, this study provides empirical evidence that one generation of hatchery rearing does not change reflex responses associated with threats, whereas antipredator behaviour, typically associated with prior experience, was less developed in hatchery-reared than in wild individuals.

  15. Spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Thomas; Riley, Stephen C.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hansen, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Fidelity to high-quality spawning sites helps ensure that adults repeatedly spawn at sites that maximize reproductive success. Fidelity is also an important behavioural characteristic to consider when hatchery-reared individuals are stocked for species restoration, because artificial rearing environments may interfere with cues that guide appropriate spawning site selection. Acoustic telemetry was used in conjunction with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to compare degree of spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron. Annual survival was estimated to be between 77% and 81% and did not differ among wild and hatchery males and females. Site fidelity estimates were high in both wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (ranging from 0.78 to 0.94, depending on group and time filter), but were slightly lower in hatchery-reared fish than in wild fish. The ecological implication of the small difference in site fidelity between wild and hatchery-reared lake trout is unclear, but similarities in estimates suggest that many hatchery-reared fish use similar spawning sites to wild fish and that most return to those sites annually for spawning.

  16. Chemical and histological studies of wild and hatchery salmon in fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.; Halver, J.E.; Woodall, A.N.

    1960-01-01

    In a study of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), the gross chemical and histological changes occurring over a 14-month period spent in fresh water were determined. The determinations were made at 3-month intervals on: 1) hatchery-reared fish, 2) fish hatchery-reared for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and then planted in a controlled stream for the remainder of the period; and 3) an indigenous group of wild fish in this stream. Wild fish showed high incidence of tissue damage from spinose hairs of the moth larva, Halisidota argentata. Hatchery fish were similarly affected with the severity and incidence of lesions varying directly with the time of exposure of the larvae in the wild environment. Both groups of fish were heavily parasitized by sporozoan organisms in the kidney and spinal cord. Kidney disease appeared in both wild and planted hatchery fish. The gross chemical composition of hatchery fish transformed rapidly after planting to that of the wild fish. Although the initial rate of fat loss is essentially constant for all hatchery groups after planting, fish that were hatchery reared for 9 to 12 months did not complete the transformation to the wild-type body composition by the time of downstream migration at 14 months.

  17. The Addition of Hatchery Liquid Waste to Dairy Manure Improves Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WRT Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the optimal inclusion level of liquid egg hatchery waste for the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure. A completely randomized experimental was applied, with seven treatments (liquid hatchery waste to cattle manure ratios of0: 100, 5:95, 10:90, 15:85, 20:80, 25:75 and 30:70, with five replicates (batch digester model each. The evaluated variables were disappearance of total solids (TS, volatile solids (VS, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and specific production of biogas and of methane. Maximum TS and VS disappearance of 41.3% and 49.6%, were obtained at 15.5% and 16.0% liquid hatchery waste inclusion levels. The addition of 22.3% liquid hatchery considerably reduced NDF substrate content (53.2%. Maximum specific biogas production was obtained with 17% liquid hatchery waste, with the addition of 181.7 and 229.5 L kg-1TS and VS, respectively. The highest methane production, at 120.1 and 151.8 L CH4 kg-1TS and VS, was obtained with the inclusion of 17.5 and 18.0% liquid hatchery waste, respectively. The addition of liquid hatchery waste atratios of up to 15.5%in co-digestion with cattle manure reduced solid and fiber levels in the effluent, and improved biogas and methane production.

  18. Genetic differences in growth, migration, and survival between hatchery and wild steelhead and Chinook salmon: Introduction and executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of studies testing for genetically based differences in performance (growth, migration, and survival) between hatchery and wild populations of steelhead and Chinook salmon (Project Number 90-052). The report is organized into 10 chapters with a general study introduction preceding the first chapter. A growing body of data shows that domestication and a resulting loss of fitness for natural rearing occur in hatchery populations of anadromous salmonids; however, the magnitude of domestication will vary among species and hatchery programs. Better information on domestication is needed to accurately predict the consequences when hatchery and wild fish interbreed. The intent of hatchery supplementation is to increase natural production through introduction of hatchery fish into natural production areas. The goal of this study was to provide managers with information on the genetic risks of hatchery supplementation to wild populations of Columbia River Basin summer steelhead and spring Chinook salmon.

  19. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA polymorphism reveals life history dependent interbreeding between hatchery and wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2000-01-01

    The effects of stocking hatchery trout into wild populations were studied in a Danish river, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Baseline samples were taken from hatchery trout and wild trout assumed to be unaffected by previous stocking. Also, samples were taken from...... resident and sea trout from a stocked section of the river. Genetic differentiation between the hatchery strain and the local wild population was modest (microsatellite F-ST = 0.06). Using assignment tests, more than 90% of individuals from the baseline samples were classified correctly. Assignment tests...... to the hatchery strain suggested that interbreeding took place between hatchery and wild trout. The latter result also indicated that male hatchery trout contributed more to interbreeding than females. We suggest that stronger selection acts against stocked hatchery trout that become anadromous compared...

  20. Cabinet Appointment in Uruguay: Legislative Strategy, hierarchy of portfolio and party affiliation of ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel CHASQUETTI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation and change of presidential cabinets in Uruguay during the period 1985-2010. In the first section we present the institutional and political features of the process of appointment and resignation of the ministers. The second section describes the cabinets formed in this period and shows that presidents have exchanged seats in cabinet by legislative support. The third section analyzes the political attributes of the ministers appointed (party affiliation, previous experience and the type of linkage that they keep with the president. The fourth analyze the relationship between the time survival of the individuals in office, the political responsibility in front of congress and the existence of a legislative majority that support the president. The last section describes the Uruguayan pattern of ministerial designation based in (i the establishment of an order of importance of portfolios, (ii the nomination of individuals with party affiliation (weather insider or adherent politicians and (iii the influence of the legislative support in defining the ministerial team.

  1. Improving the Sun Drying of Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with Photo-Selective Dryer Cabinet Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Rebecca R; Avena-Mascareno, Roberto; Alonzo, Jérôme; Fichot, Mélissa I

    2016-10-01

    Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole. These materials do not significantly affect the measured quality metrics during the first day of sun drying. However, when drying is taken to completion, some minor but significant quality differences are observed. Infrared-blocking material produces dried apricot with lower red color, compared to clear, opaque black, and ultraviolet-blocking materials. Clear material produced dried apricot with significantly lower antioxidant activity, compared to black and infrared-blocking materials. Using appropriate photo-selective drying cabinet materials can reduce the required sun drying time for apricots by 1 to 2 d, compared with fully shaded drying. Ultraviolet-blocking material is recommended to maximize drying rate and minimize quality degradation.

  2. Kalispel Resident Fish Project: Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluff, Stanley

    2000-12-01

    In October of 1997, The construction of the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was complete. No spawning activity was recorded for the spring of 1998. On June 14, 1999 the first spawn at the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was successful. A total of seven nests were fertilized that produced approximately 144,000 fry. The second spawn occurred on July 13, 1999 and a total of six nests were fertilized producing approximately 98,0000 fry. The total amount of largemouth bass fry produced at the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was 242,000.

  3. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan and Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Mobrand, Lars Erik

    1992-03-01

    This report describes the findings that have resulted from the effort to create a proposed Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in northern Idaho. This effort has been undertaken because of low population densities of salmon in the Clearwater and Salmon River Basins. The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) has approved the NPTH concept. For the NPTH to proceed, the Council must approve a master plan and amend the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (CBFWP). Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also must be met. The goals of NPTH are to: (1) develop, increase, and reintroduce natural populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook in the Clearwater and Salmon River Basins; (2) sustain long-term preservation and genetic integrity of target fish populations; (3) keep the ecological and genetic impacts of nontarget fish populations within acceptable limits; and, (4) provide harvest opportunities for both tribal and non-tribal anglers.

  4. Comparative analyses of the vascular flora of the Pčinja river gorges in Serbia and Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatković B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study’s aim is the comparative chorologic and ecological analysis of the vascular flora of the two gorges of the Pčinja River in Serbia and Macedonia which are 27 km apart. In the two gorges 1564 taxa have been recorded, 1057 being in the upper gorge in Serbia and 1174 in the lower gorge in Macedonia. Common to both gorges are 666 taxa. Chorological spectra show that in both gorges the most abundant are Mediterranean-submediterranean plants, 32.85% being in the upper and 43.97% in the lower gorge. Differences in the studied vegetation result from a diverse participation of other floristic elements such as Central European ones that are more abundant in the upper gorge (17.05% than in the lower gorge (10.86 %. The life-form spectrum reveals that the flora in both gorges is hemicryptophyte-therophyte in character. Both gorges belong to an enclave of a Mediterranean-submediterranean region, i.e. to its submediterranean Macedonian- Thracian province.

  5. On the land use in Three Gorges Reservoir area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HELonghua; LorenzKing; JIANGTong

    2003-01-01

    In this study the arable land changes in two counties (Zigui and Xingshan) in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China are investigated. The statistical data fTom the officially published statistical books are used to study these changes in the two counties during the past 50 years since 1949. The changes of arable land, changes of arable land per capita, and changes of multiple crop index in Zigui and Xingshan counties are examined. Using an index method, we conclude that the two counties are critical in the sustainable utilization of arable land.

  6. Vascular flora of the Uvac River Gorge in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During research on the vascular flora of the Uvac River Gorge, 730 species and infraspecific taxa from 87 families were found. The most numerous representatives were from the families Asteraceae (81 taxa, Fabaceae (57, Poaceae (55 and Lamiaceae (47. Hemicryptophytes were the dominant life form (56,6%; in the chorological sense, the most numerous were sub-Central-European (16,3 % and Euro-Asian species (11,5 %. The following endemic species were recorded: Alyssum markgrafii, Valeriana simplicifolia, Cicerbita pancicii, Lamium bifidum balcanicum, Alyssum corymbosum, Fumana bonapartei, Euphorbia glabriflora, and Potentilla visianii.

  7. Las presas de Glen Canyon y Flaming Gorge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman, D. L.

    1962-04-01

    Full Text Available El Bureau of Reclamation, con sede en Denver, Colorado (EE. UU., está actualmente construyendo dos presas, de hormigón y gran altura. Este Departamento desempeña una función similar a la que vienen desarrollando nuestras Confederaciones hidrográficas nacionales. Las dos presas son: la de Glen Canyon, de 216 m de altura, y la de Flaming Gorge, de 153, que son las más importantes en cuanto a almacenamiento y reserva se refiere.

  8. The power plant among Three Gorges; Kraftstasjonen blant Tre kloefter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensvold, Tore

    2003-07-01

    In 2009 the Three Gorges power station on the Yangtze River in China will be completed, with 26 turbines that together will produce 84.60 TWh/year. In this article a Norwegian expert describes his experience from a tourist visit, approaching the plant onboard a cruise ship. In addition to giving the main technical data he comments on peoples' resistance against being transferred, on scepticism and fear of a dam break, on the shortcomings of the power grid and on the not very extensive Norwegian contribution to the world's largest power plant.

  9. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Onjukka, Sam T.; Focher, Shannon M. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the first three years of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. Because the hatchery and the evaluation study and the fish health monitoring investigations are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary. The majority of the data that is crucial for evaluating the success of the hatchery program, the data on post-release performance and survival, is yet unavailable. In addition, several years of data are necessary to make conclusions about rearing performance at Umatilla Hatchery. The conclusions drawn in this report should be viewed as preliminary and should be used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available.

  10. Contaminant Survey of Mescalero and Dexter National Fish Hatcheries in New Mexico - July 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water supplies utilized by national fish hatcheries are generally presumed to be uncontaminated. However, sublethal concentrations of potentially toxic substances in...

  11. Loss of genetic variability at the transferrin locus in five hatchery stocks of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calcagnotto Daniela

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and conservation of the genetic variability in stocks maintained as live gene banks have become a high priority task for Brazilian fish culture. The aim of the present survey was to assess the transferrin allelic diversity of five hatchery stocks of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. The tambaqui stock from Pentecoste, the oldest maintained in Brazilian hatchery stations, retained three of the six alleles detected in wild populations of tambaqui from the Amazon River. Other hatchery stocks, directly or indirectly derived from the Pentecoste stock, did not show transferrin allelic variability. Insufficient number of founders and genetic drift due to sampling errors seem to be the main causes leading to loss of genetic diversity in tambaqui hatchery stocks. Appropriate management strategies are required in order to improve the genetic potential of tambaqui stocks in Brazil.

  12. The Trail Inventory of Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Private John Allen National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Private John Allen National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Harrison Lake National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Harrison Lake National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  15. Physiological Assessment of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : Final Report, 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Donald A.; Beckman, Brian R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2003-08-01

    It is generally held that hatchery-reared salmonids are of inferior quality and have lower smolt-to-adult survival compared to naturally-reared salmon. The overall objectives of the work performed under this contract were the following: (1) Characterize the physiology and development of naturally rearing juvenile salmonids to: (2) Allow for the design of effective rearing programs for producing wild-like smolts in supplementation and production hatchery programs. (3) Examine the relationship between growth rate and size on the physiology and migratory performance of fish reared in hatchery programs. (4) Examine the interaction of rearing temperature and feed rate on the growth and smoltification of salmon for use in producing a more wild-like smolt in hatchery programs.

  16. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting

  17. Monitoring and Evaluation Plan for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery, 1996 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, Cleveland R.

    1996-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has proposed to build and operate the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in the Clearwater River subbasin of Idaho for the purpose of restoring self-sustaining populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon to their native habitats. The project comprises a combination of incubation and rearing facilities, satellite rearing facilities, juvenile and adult collection sites, and associated production and harvest management activities. As currently conceived, the NPTH program will produce approximately 768,000 spring chinook parr, 800,000 summer chinook fry, and 2,000,000 fall chinook fry on an annual basis. Hatchery fish would be spawned, reared, and released under conditions that promote wild-type characteristics, minimize genetic changes in both hatchery and wild chinook populations, and minimize undesirable ecological interactions. The primary objective is to enable hatchery-produced fish to return to reproduce naturally in the streams in which they are released. These and other characteristics of the project are described in further detail in the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan (Larson and Mobrand 1992), the 1995 Supplement to the Master Plan (Johnson et al. 1995), and the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement (Bonneville Power Administration et al. 1996). The report in hand is referred to in project literature as the NPTH Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Plan. This report describes monitoring and evaluation activities that will help NPTH managers determine. whether they were successful in restoring chinook salmon populations and avoiding adverse ecological impacts. Program success will be gauged primarily by changes in the abundance and distribution of supplemented chinook populations. The evaluation of project-related impacts will focus on the biological effects of constructing and operating NPTH hatchery facilities, introducing hatchery fish into the natural environment, and removing or displacing wild

  18. Accumulation of floating microplastics behind the Three Gorges Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Gong, Wen; Lv, Jizhong; Xiong, Xiong; Wu, Chenxi

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in surface water from the Three Gorges Reservoir. Nine samples were collected via trawl sampling with a 112 μmmesh net. The abundances of microplastics were from 3407.7 × 10(3) to 13,617.5 × 10(3) items per square kilometer in the main stream of the Yangtze River and from 192.5 × 10(3) to 11,889.7 × 10(3) items per square kilometer in the estuarine areas of four tributaries. The abundance of microplastics in the main stream of the Yangtze River generally increased as moving closer to the Three Gorges Dam. The microplastics are made exclusively of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS). Together with microplastics, high abundance of coal/fly ash was also observed in the surface water samples. Comparing with previously reported data, microplastics in the TGR were approximately one to three orders of magnitudes greater, suggesting reservoirs as potential hot spot for microplastic pollution.

  19. Do open-cycle hatcheries relying on tourism conserve sea turtles? Sri Lankan developments and economic-ecological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Clem; Wilson, Clevo

    2005-04-01

    By combining economic analysis of markets with ecological parameters, this article considers the role that tourism-based sea turtle hatcheries (of an open-cycle type) can play in conserving populations of sea turtles. Background is provided on the nature and development of such hatcheries in Sri Lanka. The modeling facilitates the assessment of the impacts of turtle hatcheries on the conservation of sea turtles and enables the economic and ecological consequences of tourism, based on such hatcheries, to be better appreciated. The results demonstrate that sea turtle hatcheries serving tourists can make a positive contribution to sea turtle conservation, but that their conservation effectiveness depends on the way they are managed. Possible negative effects are also identified. Economic market models are combined with turtle population survival relationships to predict the conservation impact of turtle hatcheries and their consequence for the total economic value obtained from sea turtle populations.

  20. After Three Gorges Dam: What have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, J.; Williams, P.; Wong, R.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    China is at a critical point in its development path. By investing heavily in large-scale infrastructure, the rewards of economic growth weigh against long-term environmental and social costs. The construction of Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric project, began in 1994. Between 2002 and 2010, its 660 kilometer reservoir filled behind a 181 meter dam, displacing at least 1.4 million people and transforming Asia's longest river (the Yangtze) while generating nearly 100 billion kWh/yr of electricity -- 2.85% of China's current electric power usage. As the mega-project progenitor in a cascade of planned dams, the Three Gorges Dam emerges as a test case for how China will plan, execute and mitigate its development pathway and the transformation of its environment. Post-Project Assessments (PPA) provide a systematic, scientific method for improving the practice of environmental management - particularly as they apply to human intervention in river systems. In 2012, the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning at University of California, Berkeley organized a symposium-based PPA for the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. Prior to this symposium, the twelve invited Chinese scientists, engineers and economists with recent research on Three Gorges Dam had not had the opportunity to present their evaluations together in an open, public forum. With a 50-year planning horizon, the symposium's five sessions centered on impacts on flows, geomorphology, geologic hazards, the environment and socioeconomic effects. Three Gorges' project goals focused on flood control, hydropower and improved navigation. According to expert research, major changes in sediment budget and flow regime from reservoir operation have significantly reduced sediment discharge into the downstream river and estuary, initiating a series of geomorphic changes with ecological and social impacts. While the dam reduces high flow stages from floods originating above the

  1. One New Type Vertical Open Display Cabinet and Its Thermostatic Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ji Song

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical Open Display Cabinets (VODC are widely used in supermarkets for food or drink sales under an adaptive temperature. In this study, one new type VODC which developed based on ice-slurry technology and central refrigeration was established and its thermostatic performances was experimental studied and compared with a conventional one which chilled by refrigerating R22 directly. The experimental results show that it has good refrigerating effects and few temperature fluctuations. It can basically satisfy food fresh-keeping demands. This new type VODC can operate at high efficiency and save money for the users, indirectly protect our living environment.

  2. 'Cabinet-safe' study of 1-8 MeV electron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, D P; Yoon, W Y; Harmon, F

    2001-01-01

    The development of 'cabinet-safe' accelerator technology for approx 1-8 MeV electron LINACs would remove the only major barrier to large-scale 'field' applications of these accelerators. These applications range from non-destructive evaluation and assay to radiolytic degradation of hazardous waste. All field applications require large forward dose and very little lateral dose. We investigated the origin, energy, and angular distribution of unwanted lateral radiation dose from two different electron LINACS at three energies. We report on the contributions of various beam parameters to unwanted radiation dose and propose methods to control key beam parameters that significantly contribute to these doses.

  3. Density, distribution, and genetic structure of grizzly bears in the Cabinet-Yaak Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Amy C.; Boyd, Kristina L; Boulanger, John; Royle, J. Andrew; Kasworm, Wayne F.; Paetkau, David; Proctor, Michael F; Annis, Kim; Graves, Tabitha A.

    2016-01-01

    The conservation status of the 2 threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations in the Cabinet-Yaak Ecosystem (CYE) of northern Montana and Idaho had remained unchanged since designation in 1975; however, the current demographic status of these populations was uncertain. No rigorous data on population density and distribution or analysis of recent population genetic structure were available to measure the effectiveness of conservation efforts. We used genetic detection data from hair corral, bear rub, and opportunistic sampling in traditional and spatial capture–recapture models to generate estimates of abundance and density of grizzly bears in the CYE. We calculated mean bear residency on our sampling grid from telemetry data using Huggins and Pledger models to estimate the average number of bears present and to correct our superpopulation estimates for lack of geographic closure. Estimated grizzly bear abundance (all sex and age classes) in the CYE in 2012 was 48–50 bears, approximately half the population recovery goal. Grizzly bear density in the CYE (4.3–4.5 grizzly bears/1,000 km2) was among the lowest of interior North American populations. The sizes of the Cabinet (n = 22–24) and Yaak (n = 18–22) populations were similar. Spatial models produced similar estimates of abundance and density with comparable precision without requiring radio-telemetry data to address assumptions of geographic closure. The 2 populations in the CYE were demographically and reproductively isolated from each other and the Cabinet population was highly inbred. With parentage analysis, we documented natural migrants to the Cabinet and Yaak populations by bears born to parents in the Selkirk and Northern Continental Divide populations. These events supported data from other sources suggesting that the expansion of neighboring populations may eventually help sustain the CYE populations. However, the small size, isolation, and inbreeding documented by this study

  4. Land Use Impacts of Plastic Mulch Tomato Production and Evaluation of Sorbent Control on Shellfish Hatchery Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Dorothy Reade

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, shellfish hatcheries operating on the Eastern Shore of Virginia noticed an increase in mortalities of their clam larvae; it was suspected that this was a result of the deteriorating quality of the estuarine water used by aquaculture hatcheries. Many hatcheries obtain their facility process water directly from nearby streams and estuaries. During the same time period, there was also an increase in the use of plastic mulch on some of the vegetable fields on the Eastern ...

  5. PAH distribution and mass fluxes in the Three Gorges Reservoir after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyerling, Dominik; Wang, Jingxian; Hu, Wei; Westrich, Bernhard; Peng, Chengrong; Bi, Yonghong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-09-01

    Mass fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were calculated for the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, based on concentration and discharge data from the Yangtze River. Virtual Organisms (VOs) have been applied during four campaigns in 2008, 2009 (twice) and 2011 at sampling sites distributed from Chongqing to Maoping. The total PAH mass fluxes ranged from 110 to 2,160 mg s(-1). Highest loads were determined at Chongqing with a decreasing trend towards Maoping in all four sampling campaigns. PAH remediation capacity of the TGR was found to be high as the mass flux reduced by more than half from upstream to downstream. Responsible processes are thought to be adsorption of PAH to suspended particles, dilution and degradation. Furthermore, the dependence of PAH concentration upon water depth was investigated at Maoping in front of the Three Gorges Dam. Although considerable differences could be revealed, there was no trend observable. Sampling of water with self-packed filter cartridges confirmed more homogenous PAH depth distribution. Moreover, PAH content of suspended particles was estimated from water concentrations gathered by VOs based on a water-particle separation model and subsequently compared to PAH concentration measured in water and in filter cartridges. It could be shown that the modeled data predicts the concentration caused by particle-bound PAHs to be about 6 times lower than PAHs dissolved in water. Besides, the model estimates the proportions of 5- and 6-ring PAHs being higher than in water phase.

  6. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairgrieve, William; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2004-04-01

    The Colville Tribal Hatchery produced 62,335 pounds of trout during the contract period, however, only 46,092 pounds were liberated to lakes and streams. The remaining production will be carried over to 2004 to be planted as larger fish into reservation waters for the lakes opener. New raceways were completed in November and brought on line in the spring. These raceways currently hold the redband rainbow brood stock and will be spawned in 2004. Efforts are continuing to capture redbands from other streams in coordination with the monitoring and evaluation program. Creel was expanded by hiring a second creel clerk to give better coverage of reservation waters by reducing travel time. Marking continues on all fish planted from CTH and refinements continue to be made. The first tag retention study has been completed and the second study is now underway to determine long term tag recognition. Lakes continue to be surveyed to complete the baseline analysis of all reservation lakes and will be completed in 2004.

  7. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1997-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam is used for holding and spawning adult fall chinook and coho salmon. Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and summer steelhead. The main goal of acclimation is to reduce stress from trucking prior to release and improve imprinting of juvenile salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin. Juveniles are transported to the acclimation facilities primarily from Umatilla and Bonneville Hatcheries. This report details activities associated with operation and maintenance of the Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques, Thornhollow and Three Mile Dam facilities in 1996.

  8. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic Leaf-off for New River Gorge National River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS IMAGINE and MrSID image of New River Gorge National River (final_neri_mosaic.img). Produced from 471 color infrared photos taken...

  9. Adult Education and the Politics of Knowledge: The Relevance of Malta's Dun Gorg Preca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the contributions of Gorg Preca, a Maltese priest, to adult education in Malta. Highlights his commitment to democratization of knowledge, outreach to communities, and conviction that knowledge should not be the preserve of an elite. (SK)

  10. Field Plot Points for New River Gorge National River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set contains point features which represent locations of vegetation sampling plots in the New River Gorge National River. Location coordinates for most...

  11. Evaluation of Pure Oxygen Systems at the Willamette Hatchery: Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Factory

    1990-05-01

    The oxygen transfer columns at the Williamette Hatchery are based on a design used by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. The geometry and internal construction of the Mlilliamette Hatchery Oxygen Transfer Columns differ from the Michigan columns in several important ways. The performance of the columns was evaluated during May, 1990. The absorption efficiency of the 24 and 30 inch Williamette Hatchery Oxygen Transfer Columns ranged from 30 to 60%, which is comparable to published information on the Michigan columns. The performance of the 24 inch Williamette Hatchery Oxygen Transfer Columns was superior to either the 30 inch columns or the Michigan columns. The yearly oxygen demand for the Williamette Hatchery oxygen supplementation project is estimated to be 31,713 lb. Based on a oxygen purity of 99.6% and oxygen costs of $0.40/100 ft{sup 3}, increasing the absorption efficiency from 50 to 75% would decrease oxygen costs of the present project by only approximately $1018/year, which is small compared to the annual project cost. The pure oxygen system at Williamette Hatchery is designed for experimental purposes, therefore the existing system is adequate its intended use. While oxygen is not a major cost in the present experimental system, it will be much more critical in full-scale applications. It was necessary to build separate columns for the Williamette Oxygen Supplementation Project, but a centralized system may be more cost-effective in larger applications. There is considerable interest in the use of the Michigan type column in the Pacific Northwest and better definition of their operating characteristics or improvement in their performance would be useful to hatchery operations. In addition, there are a number of other oxygen transfer systems that may have potential in the Pacific Northwest.

  12. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  13. Sustainable development pattern and strategy in the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The development pattern, development situation, and existing problems of land exploitation in Zigui County, Three Gorges Reservoir Areas of China were presented. The sustainable development mode and its strategy in the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas was also discussed. A sustainable development framework for low mountain regions, middle mountain regions and high mountain regions was developed, and management countermeasures for structural optimization of complex ecosystems were advanced.

  14. Operation Analysis on T&D Equipment in Three Gorges LeftBank Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The paper outlines the Yangtze Three Gorges water conservancy complex. It describes the power transmission and distribution equipment in the Three Gorges LeftBank Hydropower Station, especially large high-voltage distribution devices. It elaborates the measures for suppressing GIS over-voltage and the tests on VFTO, besides technical measures to ensure safety and stability of power system in the station. It also makes some analyses and summaries about the problems encountered in operation of the equipment.

  15. Variation Characteristics of Water Environmental Capacity in Poyang Lake under the Scheduling of Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the variation characteristics of water environmental capacity in Poyang Lake under the scheduling of Three Gorges Reservoir.[Method] Choosing chemical oxygen demand (COD),total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) as the control indexes of pollutants in Poyang Lake,the variation characteristics of water environmental capacity in Poyang Lake under the scheduling of Three Gorges Reservoir were analyzed based on the water environment mathematical models of organic compounds ...

  16. CFD Parametric Studies for Global Performance Improvement of Open Refrigerated Display Cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dinis Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed CFD modelling of an open refrigerated display cabinet has been formulated in a previous study. Some modifications are introduced in order to perform parametric studies dealing with low-cost geometrical and functional characteristics for improvement of the global performance and energy efficiency. The parametric studies are devoted to the analysis of the thermal response and behaviour inside the food conservation space influenced by (1 air flow rate through the evaporator heat exchanger; (2 air curtain behaviour; (3 hole dimensions and distribution of the back panel; (4 discharge and return grilles angles; and (5 flow deflectors inside the internal duct. The analysis of the numerical predictions from the parametric studies allows the development of an optimized model for the conception of an open refrigerated display cabinet with a more adequate configuration. The numerical predictions of the optimized model show lower product temperature and reduced electrical energy consumption, allowing the improvement of the food safety and the energy rationalization of the refrigeration equipment.

  17. CABINETS OPERATING RULES AND COALITIONN FORMATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA IRINA IONITA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of communism in the late ’80 in Central and Eastern Europe, due to the appearance of several political parties in each state, there was the need to form coalitions in order to provide support for the governments. This paper aims to identify the institutional features that influence the coalition formation process using the rational choice institutionalism approach. In this case, the political parties, who seek to optimize their benefits in the government formation process, are constrained by the institutional environment. The institutional environment comprises the rules that determine how the governments are formed. Particularly, this paper aim is to identify how the cabinet operating rules affect the outcomes of the coalition formation process. In order to do so, I will develop a quantitative analysis of 110 cabinets in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria formed after the first free elections subsequent to the communist fall until the beginning of 2010. These countries represent the post-communist states that joined the European Union, finalizing the democratization process at least from a formal point a view. This cross-country comparison tries to explain how some institutional features influence the formation of coalitions in new democracies. This research is valuable due to the lack of this type of comparative studies on Central and Eastern European states.

  18. Vibroacoustic Analysis of a Refrigerator Freezer Cabinet Coupled with an Air Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Çelikkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the vibration and acoustic interactions between the structure and the cavity inside the freezer cabinet were investigated. Thus, a set of numerical and experimental analyses were performed. In the numerical analysis, the acoustic characteristics of the freezer cavity were solved, and the mixed finite element method was then implemented to analyse the coupled behaviour of the cavity with the air duct using the Acoustic Fluid-Structure Interaction (AFSI technique. In the experimental analyses, an acoustic modal analysis of the freezer cavity and a structural modal analysis of the air duct were performed for the validation process. A good agreement was obtained among the results. Thus, the accuracy of the numerical model was confirmed. The validated models were used for optimizing the design. To solve the noise generation mechanism inside the freezer cabinet, the noise primarily generated by the freezer fan unit was measured under normal working conditions of the refrigerator, and the resonance frequencies were obtained. This information was compared with the normal modes of the air duct, and the overlapping frequencies were identified. To reduce the interaction between the source and the structure, a few design modifications were applied to the air duct. Thus, the structural-borne noise radiating from the air duct into the freezer cavity was reduced.

  19. THE CURRENT TOURISTIC CAPITALIZATION OF THE KARSTIC GORGES IN THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COCEAN GABRIELA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Current Touristic Capitalization of the Karstic Gorges in the Apuseni Mountains. The karstic gorges in the Apuseni Mountains have a remarkable touristic potential, thus being one of the reference resources in the Apuseni Mountains, alongside caves and cultural heritage. The Apuseni Mountains are in fact the most typical study area in this matter in Romania due to the relatively large number of sectors. The main attractions of gorges are the morphological and aesthetic features, as well as the fact that they constitute the absolutely necessary framework for some more technical forms of tourism: climbing, canyoning or even speleotourism. However, despite their considerable potential, tourism does not yet have an economic dimension around the gorges of the Apuseni Mountains. Accommodation units, the clearest indicator of such economic dimension, have not yet appeared in the gorges’ perimeter or in the immediate adjacent areas. Other units have developed in neighboring areas based on other attractive resources but they are, in most cases, unsuitable for the groups of tourists visiting gorges. In addition, the existing facilities and the presentation of gorges on the touristic market do not support tourism development in the specified areas, and do not support the development of new accommodation units.

  20. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovrak, Jon (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Program, Hatcheries Division, Ford, WA); Combs, Mitch (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Program, Hatcheries Division, Kettle Falls, WA)

    2004-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operation and evaluation. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribes form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery. The LRHCT also serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. Since 1994 the kokanee fingerling program has changed to yearling releases. By utilizing both the hatcheries and additional net pens, up to 1,000,000 kokanee yearlings can be reared and released. The construction and operation of twenty net pens in 2001 enabled the increased production. Another significant change has been to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native tributary stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and

  1. A tool for tracking genetic contributions of wild Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus broodstock to hatchery populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jackie T; Sherwin, William B; Taylor, Matthew D

    2014-12-01

    Stock enhancement, restocking and sea ranching are being increasingly applied in both fisheries and conservation. The contribution of hatchery stock to fishery harvest and the maintenance of the genetic structure of stocked populations are both important considerations when releasing captive-bred organisms into natural systems. Use of wild-caught broodstock generally overcomes some of the genetic problems associated with domesticated hatchery populations, but there is still a need to ensure that a sufficient proportion of the natural population contribute to production of the stocked cohort to realise the genetic benefits of using wild-caught broodstock. Releases of Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus are under investigation as a means of increasing prawn production in recruitment-limited areas. We used the highly variable mitochondrial control region (mtCR) to assign post-larvae to maternal lineages in the hatchery and also to investigate the reproductive performance of female broodstock in terms of contribution to the production of the cohorts of post-larvae in the hatchery. Our data showed that mtCR can be a useful tool for tracking lineages and provided genetic evidence that unequal contribution and underproducing females can occur even in wild-caught broodstock. This work therefore highlights the importance of monitoring the genetic composition of pre-release hatchery stocks.

  2. Occurrence, size, and tag retention of sneaker male hatchery rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isely, J.J.; Grabowski, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    One alternative reproductive tactic involving early-maturing, cryptic males is referred to as "sneaking." Although sneakers tend to be easily detectable upon close inspection, little is known about the proportion of a fish population consisting of sneakers. We examined 15,400 age-1 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a hatchery. Total length (mm), wet weight (g), and sex (sneaker male or unknown) were recorded for each fish. We also individually tagged each sneaker male with soft visual implant alphanumeric (VIalpha) tags that were sequentially numbered and held the fish for 25 d before inspection. Sneakers constituted 2.8% of the hatchery rainbow trout population and were smaller in total length and weight than typical rainbow trout of the same age. Retention of the VIalpha tags in sneakers was 58.9%, significantly lower than has been reported under similar circumstances. We found that sneaker males may contribute substantially to hatchery populations. Reduced tag retention in sneakers may bias studies evaluating the effect of hatchery fish on wild populations. We believe that hatchery-produced sneaker males have the potential to contribute importantly to the genetic composition of wild populations.

  3. Evaluation of chemical control for nonnative crayfish at a warm-water fish production hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Ann L.; McKee, M.J.; DiStefano, R.J.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (≤24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Testing identified a formulation of cypermethrin (Cynoff®) as the most potent of five pesticides evaluated for toxicity to crayfish. A 4-hr exposure to a cypermethrin concentration of 100 μg · L-1 was found to kill 100% of juvenile and adult WRC; however, adult VC were not consistently killed. Concentrations of cypermethrin ≤100 μg · L-1 did not cause significant (>10%) mortality in juvenile FHM. Additional testing is needed to examine selectivity between crayfish and hatchery fish species. Biosecurity protocols at hatcheries that use chemical control have the potential to reliably prevent inadvertent transfers of live crayfish in fish shipments.

  4. Evaluation of chemical control for nonnative crayfish at a warm-water fish production hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Ann L.; McKee, M.J.; DiStefano, R.J.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (≤24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Testing identified a formulation of cypermethrin (Cynoff®) as the most potent of five pesticides evaluated for toxicity to crayfish. A 4-hr exposure to a cypermethrin concentration of 100 μg · L-1 was found to kill 100% of juvenile and adult WRC; however, adult VC were not consistently killed. Concentrations of cypermethrin ≤100 μg · L-1 did not cause significant (>10%) mortality in juvenile FHM. Additional testing is needed to examine selectivity between crayfish and hatchery fish species. Biosecurity protocols at hatcheries that use chemical control have the potential to reliably prevent inadvertent transfers of live crayfish in fish shipments.

  5. Status of biosecurity and prevalent parasitic diseases in finfish hatcheries of Jessore, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdus Samad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the status of biosecurity and prevalent parasitic diseases in finfish hatcheries of Jessore district. The peak season of seed production was found April to May. Management of biosecurity has been practiced to prevent disease outbreaks and exert quite satisfactory. It was observed; hatchery owners cleaned their hatchery units regularly and maintained hygiene (76.66%, water quality (56.66%, disinfected equipments (76.00%, stocked disease free broods (76.00% and quarantine (56.66%. Prevalence of diseases were- lernaeasis (34.10%, argulosis (23.86%, leeches (11.36%, dactylogyrosis (7.95%, gyrodactylosis (10.23% and others (12.50% in brood fish and fry. In broods, average prevalence was 16.67% with 9.25% mortality. Besides average prevalence was 10-15% with 10% mortality in fry. The epizootiological pattern showed the highest frequency of parasitic diseases during winter because of loss of appetites. The study demonstrated that sumithion was used by (93.32%, magic (46.33%, depterax (56.67%, lime with KMnO4 (80.00%, lime with salt (66.67% and lime- salt- KMnO4 (50.00% by hatchery owners respectively for treatments. Lack of assistance, proper knowledge and suitable therapeutics with its proper use were the major problems in the hatcheries.

  6. A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

  7. [BETWEEN HORROR AND SCIENCE: THE BIRTH OF A CABINET OF PATHOLOGICAL ANATHOMY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PALERMO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craxí, Lucia; Maresi, Emiliano; Franco, Vito

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of the Cabinet of Pathological Anathomy at the University of Palermo, describes rapidly its current status and analyzes the composition of its displays in 1859. It aims to highlight the analogies with other collections of a similar kind and to pinpoint potential actions to endorse and develop this important scientific asset.

  8. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara David R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. Results To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen

  9. Ground-water resources in the vicinity of the Crown Point fish hatchery, Essex County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, I.H.

    1968-01-01

    The Crown Point Fish Hatchery, one of several hatcheries operated by the New York State Conservation Department, is located in Crown Point Center, Essex County, on the eastern edge of the Adirondack Highlands and about 2 miles west of lake Champlain. Figure 1 is a location map of the vicinity of the Hatchery. This report summarizes an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York State Conservation Department, Division of Water Resources, to locate and evaluate sources of additional ground-water supply for the Hatchery. In order to expand the facilities at the Hatchery, an additional water supply of about 100 gpm (gallons per minute) to as much as 350 gpm is needed. In addition, the type of fish culture practiced requires a water temperature of about 7 to 13 degrees Celsius (centigrade) for optimum results.

  10. Modeling the response of native steelhead to hatchery supplementation programs in an Idaho River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Alan; Bjornn, T.C.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    A life history model was used to predict the response of native steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Lochsa River, Idaho, to long-term supplementation with hatchery fry and smolts. The four key factors affecting the response of the native fish to a stocking program were (1) the number of native spawners, (2) the number of stocked fish, (3) the number and fitness of progeny from stocked fish, and (4) the amount of mating between hatchery and native fish. Long-term stocking of fry or smolts led to the extinction of native fish in some scenarios. The model can be used to help assess the risks and benefits of proposed stocking programs.

  11. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Mitch (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Kettle Falls, WA)

    2003-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year

  12. Widespread hybridization among species of Indian major carps in hatcheries, but not in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, V.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons;

    2005-01-01

    samples. Individual admixture coefficients showed that 24% of all hatchery-reared fishes were hybrids, whereas a single hybrid was observed in the wild-caught samples. Only catla Catla catla x rohu Labeo rohita and mrigal Cirrhinus cirrhosus x rohu hybrids were observed, the vast majority of which were F......-hybrids in hatchery samples, reproductive barriers among species have so far precluded widespread introgression. Continued hybridization may eventually lead to a breakdown of species barriers, thereby compromising the genetic integrity of the species in the wild, and leading to production losses...

  13. Meeting Summary of Kitchen Cabinet on Financial Due Diligence to Reduce Proliferation Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carr, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory convened the Kitchen Cabinet (KC) to facilitate a candid discussion about the role of financial institutions (FIs) in antiproliferation efforts to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by identifying suspicious business transactions and exports when making lending or insurance decisions. The meeting brought together a group of export control specialists, largely representatives from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Participating Governments (PGs) and finance experts representing banks and insurance companies. By assembling a KC of experts, the group could understand what suspicious transactions look like from each other’s perspectives and better inform each of their operations. The goal was to develop red flags FIs could use to identify suspicious proliferation-related transactions and to help governments gain a clearer picture of proliferation using financial information.

  14. A multiple-drawer medication layout problem in automated dispensing cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazour, Jennifer A; Meller, Russell D

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we investigate the problem of locating medications in automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) to minimize human selection errors. We formulate the multiple-drawer medication layout problem and show that the problem can be formulated as a quadratic assignment problem. As a way to evaluate various medication layouts, we develop a similarity rating for medication pairs. To solve industry-sized problem instances, we develop a heuristic approach. We use hospital ADC transaction data to conduct a computational experiment to test the performance of our developed heuristics, to demonstrate how our approach can aid in ADC design trade-offs, and to illustrate the potential improvements that can be made when applying an analytical process to the multiple-drawer medication layout problem. Finally, we present conclusions and future research directions.

  15. Wood dust and formaldehyde exposures in the cabinet-making industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass-Kortsak, A M; Holness, D L; Pilger, C W; Nethercott, J R

    1986-12-01

    Time-weighted average (TWA) personal total and respirable dust exposures were determined gravimetrically for 48 subjects in 4 cabinet-making plants. TWA personal formaldehyde exposures also were obtained, with the use of 3M 3750 passive monitors. Selective area sampling for formaldehyde was undertaken using two methods. The results obtained with the passive monitors were compared to the standard chromotropic acid impinger method. Considerable variation was noted in the dust exposures. Cabinet-makers exposed to softwoods were found to have a mean exposure of approximately one half of the current applicable ACGIH TWA-TLV, while hard-wood exposure was twice the applicable TWA-TLV. The highest dust exposures were recorded for those workers sanding, the mean total dust being 2.91 mg/m3 (S.E. 0.70) and respirable dust 0.63 mg/m3 (S.E. 0.20). Sanding operations also were found to produce a higher proportion of respirable dust (22%) than other woodworking operations (6%-14%). Workers in assembly areas also were found to have higher dust exposures, likely reflecting the fact that conventional dust collection devices for stationary woodworking equipment are not appropriate for hand held tools and hand sanding. The importance of making respirable dust measurements is discussed. The poor correlation between paired total and respirable dust concentrations indicates that both measurements should be made. Some potential limitations to respirable wood dust sampling using 10 mm nylon cyclones are noted, however. Area dust concentrations were found to be significantly lower than personal exposures, emphasizing the importance of personal sampling data. Formaldehyde vapor exposures were very low, with a mean of 0.06 ppm (S.E. 0.01).

  16. Federal cabinet minister from N.B joins opponents to LNG terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.

    2005-08-25

    This article addressed the debate regarding the United States' proposal to construct liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities on a pristine bay between New Brunswick and Maine. Two LNG projects are currently being promoted for Passamaquoddy Bay, and 2 more proposals are expected to be announced in the near future. However, the proponents have not yet submitted any formal applications to the Canadian government. A federal cabinet minister from New Brunswick has joined the growing opposition to the proposed project, claiming that the location on the Maine side of Passamaquoddy Bay, a large inlet off the Bay of Fundy, poses too many risks to the habitat of several endangered or at-risk species, including the North Atlantic Right Whale. The proposed sites in Maine are directly across a narrow bay where tourism and fishing are prime industries in New Brunswick. The cabinet minister claims that with over 2,000 miles of coastline on the eastern seaboard, another location can be found for the LNG facilities that would not present navigational difficulties. The Canadian federal government has the jurisdiction to stop the project by not allowing the supertankers to cross Canadian waters to enter the Bay. The waters are known for their treacherous navigation. The premier of New Brunswick has also stepped in to ensure that the governor of Maine is made aware of Canada's opposition to the project. Officials with Downeast LNG and Quoddy Bay LLC claim there would not be any safety or environmental risks associated with the LNG project.

  17. Self-sustained cabinet based on fuel cell technology and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rafael Augusto de Oliveira; Valentim, Rafael Bertier; Glir, Joao Raphael Zanlorensi; Stall, Alexandre; Sommer, Elise Meister; Sanches, Luciana Schimidilin; Dias, Fernando Gallego; Korndorfer, Heitor Medeiros de Albuquerque; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: rafaelcorrea123@hotmail.com; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahasse, Florida (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Center for Advanced Power Systems

    2010-07-01

    Along the past few years, there has been intensive research on clean and renewable energy production. Two main reasons have been pointed out: pollution caused by oil based fuels consumption and their availability diminution, which increases their production costs. Fuel Cells have shown to be a clean and renewable energy source, which reveals them as a promising solution, although their technology needs further development. Fuel Cells produce electricity, water and heat consuming hydrogen and oxygen, this provided pure or from a natural air source. Present research has combined different equipment to compose a self-sustaining fuel cells technology based cabinet for energy production, which is a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFC). This system contains: fuel cells stack, electrolyzer, photovoltaic panel, batteries, current inverter and a charge controller. Photovoltaic panel charges the batteries, while charge controller controls the batteries loading. Batteries are connected to an inverter which converts direct current into alternating current. Inverter is connected to an electrolyzer (Hogen GC 600) which splits the water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen molecules. Produced hydrogen supplies the fuel cell stack and the oxygen is released directly to the atmosphere. Fuel cell stacks power production is transformed into mechanical energy by a fan. Electrical power generated by Ballard stack is 5.124 W, with a voltage of 36.6 V and current of 0.14 A. The system proved to have a great efficiency and to be capable to assemble two renewable energy sources (solar and fuel cell technology) in a self-sustainable cabinet. It has also been shown that equipment such as Electrolyzer, Fuel Cell Stack and Photovoltaic panel can be fit together in the order to produce energy. Therefore, research on Fuel Cells Regenerative System reveals great importance for developing a new, clean, renewable and regenerative energy production system. (author)

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  19. Influence of flocculation on sediment deposition process at the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangwei; Liu, Xiaofang; Ji, Zuwen; Dong, Zhandi; Hu, Haihua

    2016-01-01

    By comparing the original particle gradation of sediment from the Three Gorges Reservoir with the single particle gradation, the differences in these two particle gradations showed that there is sediment flocculation in the Three Gorges Reservoir, which can accelerate the sediment deposition rate in the reservoir. In order to determine the influence of flocculation on the sediment settling velocity, sediment was collected at the Three Gorges Reservoir, and the indoor quiescent settling experiment was performed to study the mechanism of sediment flocculation. The experimental results showed that sediments aggregated from single particles into floccules in the settling processes. The single particles smaller than 0.022 mm will participate in the formation of floccules, which accounts for 83% of the total amount of sediment in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Moreover, the degree of sediment flocculation and the increase in sediment settling velocity were directly proportional to the sediment concentration. Taking the average particle size and the median particle size as the representative particle size, respectively, the maximum flocculation factors were calculated to be 3.4 and 5.0. Due to the sediment flocculation, the volume of sediment deposition will increase by 66% when the mass settling flux factor of total sediment had a maximum value of 1.66, suggesting that flocculation has a significant influence on the sediment deposition rate in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  20. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program Hatcheries Division: Ford Hatchery, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike; Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia

    2002-11-01

    will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  1. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Complex; Operations and Maintenance and 2005 Annual Operation Plan, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Harold R.; Lundberg, Jeffrey H.; Penney, Aaron K. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-02-01

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) responds directly to a need to mitigate for naturally-reproducing salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin. The overall goal is to produce and release fish that will survive to adulthood, spawn in the Clearwater River subbasin and produce viable offspring that will support future natural production and genetic integrity. Several underlying purposes of fisheries management will be maintained through this program: (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Columbia River subbasin anadromous fish resources. (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater River subbasin. (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project completion. (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations. (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits. (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal Management of Nez Perce Tribal hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that will rear and release spring, fall, and early-fall stocks of chinook salmon. Two life stages of spring chinook salmon will be released: parr and presmolts. Fall and early-fall chinook salmon will be released as subyearling smolts. The intent of NPTHC is to use conventional hatchery and Natural Rearing Enhancement Systems (NATURES) techniques to develop, increase and restore natural populations of spring and fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin.

  2. BACTERIAL FLORA OF HATCHERY ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR IN-VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Khan, H. Afzal and F. Deeba

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Four hatcheries, located in and around Faisalabad, were sampled a day before hatch out in six batches for environmental bacterial flora. Hatchery air, egg-shell surface, surfaces of selected locations and water supply samples were taken for this purpose. The percent (relative occurrence of various bacterial species recovered from hatchery environment revealed that Bacillus subtilis was the predominant isolate (26.93%. followed by Escherichia coli (24.08%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (16.32%, Staphylococcus aureus (8.16%, Paratyphoid salmonellae (6.93%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.48%, Citrobacter jreundii (4.08%, Enterococcus faecalis (3.26%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.26%, Bordetella avium (1.63% and Proteus vulgaris (0.81%. In second part of the study, bacterial isolates were subjected to in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity to 8 antibiotics of common poultry use. It was found that 98.92, 79.56. 65.59, 61.29, 61.29, 61.29, 53.76 and 38.70 percent of bacterial isolates were sensitive to Norfloxacin, Gentamicin, Neomycin, Chloramphenicol, Doxycycline, Flumequine, Erythromycin, and Ampicillin, respectively. In the final part of the study, bacterial isolates were tested for resistance to 3 commerical hatchery disinfectants (TH4®, Aldekol Des® 0.2, and Bromosept 10% soln. ®. Only 3.22% of the isolates showed resistance at manufacturer's recommended dilution (MRD levels while 11.82% of the isolates showed resistance at concentrations below the MRD levels.

  3. Serotype and genotype diversity and hatchery transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial poultry flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Nielsen, E.M.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the genotype and serotype diversity of Campylobacter coli and C jejuni in two parent flocks of adult hens and their offspring over two rotations in order to evaluate the role of hatchery mediated transmission and/or vertical transmission of campylobacters in broiler flocks. In tot...

  4. Egg saprolegniasis in a commercial sunshine bass hatchery: Control regime developed using copper sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  5. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  6. Vibrio anguillarum and larval mortality in a California coastal shellfish hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, L H; Blecka, J; Zebal, R

    1978-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum was isolated as a pathogen in the commercial culture of oyster spat at Pigeon Point, Calif. A water-soluble, heat-stable exotoxin extracted from cultures of the vibrio inhibited larval swimming and contributed to larval mortality. Although the vibrio was insensitive to penicillin in standard plate testing, this antibiotic proved useful in preventing mass larval mortalities in the hatchery.

  7. 75 FR 60804 - Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Lower American River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reclamation, the lead Federal agency, and the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), acting as the lead State agency, have made available for public review and comment a Draft EIS/EIR for the Nimbus... Bureau of Reclamation Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Lower American River, California...

  8. Hatchery manual for broodstock management and larval production of tubrot (Psetta maxima)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Poelman, M.

    2011-01-01

    This hatchery manual is intended to provide detailed information from available published work and grey literature on turbot broodstock management and larval production. In reviewing larviculture techniques for turbot, it is notable that the major initial zoo technical advances were made in the 1980

  9. Nutritional supplement of hatchery eggshell membrane improves poultry performance and provides resistance against endotoxin stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confe...

  10. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Complex; Operations and Maintenance and 2004 Annual Operation Plan, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Harold R.; Penney, Aaron K.; Larson, Roy Edward (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) responds directly to a need to mitigate for naturally-reproducing salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin. The overall goal is to produce and release fish that will survive to adulthood, spawn in the Clearwater River subbasin and produce viable offspring that will support future natural production and genetic integrity. Several underlying purposes of fisheries management will be maintained through this program: (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Columbia River subbasin anadromous fish resources. (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater River subbasin. (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project completion. (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations. (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits. (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal Management of Nez Perce Tribal hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that will rear and release spring, fall, and early-fall stocks of chinook salmon. Two life stages of spring chinook salmon will be released: parr and presmolts. Fall and early-fall chinook salmon will be released as subyearling smolts. The intent of NPTHC is to use conventional hatchery and Natural Rearing Enhancement Systems (NATURES) techniques to develop, increase and restore natural populations of spring and fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin.

  11. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Mitch (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Kettle Falls, WA)

    2002-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from

  12. Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Duane D. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-11-14

    This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)). Improvements at the IDFG Eagle Fish Hatchery and NMFS Burley Creek Hatchery will focus on increasing sockeye salmon captive broodstock and egg production. Improvements at the ODFW Oxbow Fish Hatchery will be made to accommodate the incubation, hatching and rearing of 150,000 sockeye salmon smolts for release into Idaho's Sawtooth Valley, Upper Salmon River near IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and/or Redfish Lake Creek 1.4 km downstream of Redfish Lake. Modifications to Oxbow Fish Hatchery (ODFW) will include retro-fit existing pond drains so pond cleaning effluent water can be routed to the pollution abatement pond, and modifications to the abatement pond. Also included in this project as an added phase, was the rerouting of the hatchery building effluent water to meet state DEQ guidelines for the use of formalin to treat salmonid eggs. Some additional funding for the described Oxbow Hatchery modifications will come from Mitchell Act Funding. All personnel costs associated with this project will come from Mitchell Act funding. Due to heavy work load issues, being under staffed, and two emergency projects in the spring and summer of 2006, ODFW engineers were not able to complete all plans and get them out for bid in 2006. As a result of these circumstances retro-fitting pond drains and modifications to the abatement pond was carried over into fiscal year 2007-2008. A no cost time extension to the contract was approved by BPA. The format for this report will follow the standard format for

  13. Differences in survival and growth in hatchery and stream environments, and in maturation of residuls in a stream, between progeny of hatchery and wild steelhead (Study sites: Brushy Fork Creek and Dworshak Hatchery; Stocks:Dworshak hatchery and Fish Creek wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1993): Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater survival in hatchery and natural rearing environments was compared between progeny of hatchery (H) and wild (W) steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho. Adults from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild adults from Fish Creek fish were artificially spawned, and their progeny were genetically marked at the PEPA allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in production facilities at the hatchery and in Brushy Fork Creek, also in the Clearwater River drainage, in a common garden design. Survival was higher for H than for W progeny at the hatchery but lower for H than for W progeny in Brushy Fork, indicating reduced fitness of the hatchery population for natural rearing and suggesting domestication as the cause. Survival at the hatchery was lower than is typical due to disease outbreaks. Survival of the first year-class of experimental fish to smolt release was only 18%. Survival of H fish was 3.8 times that of W fish under these poor survival conditions. All fish from the second year-class died halfway through the scheduled 10 month rearing period. Survival of H fish was 5.2 times that of W fish to when 1% of the initial fry were still alive indicating that W fish succumbed to the epizootic sooner than did H fish. Emigrants from the Brushy Fork study reach were sampled for three years and fish residing in the study reach were sampled for six years following fry release. Most emigrants were one or two years old and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 93 mm). Survival in Brushy Fork was lower for H than for W fish of the first year-class. Survival of the second year-class was higher for H than for W fish during the first two months in the stream but was lower for H than for W fish thereafter, and net survival from release to ages 3 and older was also lower for H than for W fish if our emigrant samples were representative (periods of inoperative emigrant traps prevented certainty about this

  14. Acoustic Emission Parameters of Three Gorges Sandstone during Shear Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental investigation of sandstone samples from the Three Gorges during shear failure was conducted using acoustic emission (AE and direct shear tests. The AE count rate, cumulative AE count, AE energy, and amplitude of the sandstone samples were determined. Then, the relationships among the AE signals and shearing behaviors of the samples were analyzed in order to detect micro-crack initiation and propagation and reflect shear failure. The results indicated that both the shear strength and displacement exhibited a logarithmic relationship with the displacement rate at peak levels of stress. In addition, the various characteristics of the AE signals were apparent in various situations. The AE signals corresponded with the shear stress under different displacement rates. As the displacement rate increased, the amount of accumulative damage to each specimen decreased, while the AE energy peaked earlier and more significantly. The cumulative AE count primarily increased during the post-peak period. Furthermore, the AE count rate and amplitude exhibited two peaks during the peak shear stress period due to crack coalescence and rock bridge breakage. These isolated cracks later formed larger fractures and eventually caused ruptures.

  15. [Zoning of water environment protection in Three Gorges Reservoir watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-jing; Xi, Chun-yan; Zheng, Bing-hui

    2011-04-01

    Regional differences in socio-economic development, land use, vegetation cover, and relative location of water body within a watershed bring about significant effects on the water environment quality of the watershed. Concerning about the core demands of water body protection, it is important and necessary to carry out zoning water environment protection for whole watershed. With a view to the spatial differences in regional characteristics of eco-environment and water body pressure-respond features, this paper studied the zoning of water environment protection in the Three Gorges Reservoir watershed, based on the methods of ecological factors overlay and ecological sensitivity analysis. The factors considered included hydrothermal conditions, terrain topography, administrative unit, and ecological sensitivity. Three regions in the watershed were zoned, i. e., 1) red region, namely strictly protected region, with an area of 2924 km2 and occupying 5.1% of the total; 2) yellow region, namely first class protection region, with an area of 10477 km2 and occupying 18.4%; and 3) blue region, namely second class protection region, with an area of 43599 km2 and occupying 76.5%. The key environmental problems of the regions were identified, and the strategies for the regions' development and water environment protection were proposed.

  16. The resettlement planning and practice of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Boxun; Yin Zhongwu; Wang Diyou

    2011-01-01

    Migrant resettlement is essential to the success of the Three Gorges Project (TGP), and the smooth implementation of resettlement is ensured by the resettlement planning and effective organization management. In the process of resettlement planning and implementation, systematic legislation and document support system is established; environmental capacity analysis and assets appraisal methods are introduced; resettlement sites are selected through in-depth analysis and comparison; the relationship between resettlement compensation and local development is correctly under- stood and considered, and reasonable resettlement schedules are well prepared. Through the establishment of efficient management system and capital management mode of "static control and dynamic management", as well as the timely adjustment of plan according to actual situations, the resettlement is accomplished smoothly. Thus, the social stability of the reservoir area is ensured ; the economic development of reservoir area is promoted, and it has promoted successfully the improvement of legislation, regulations and techniques for land requisition and resettlement. The paper also discusses the theory and prospective work of resettlement.

  17. A disposal strategy of industrial hazardous wastes in the Three Gorges Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A large quantity of industrial hazardous wastes (IHWs) accumulates in the Three Gorges Region. This study found that approximately 15 000 t IHWs were piled in the region by October 2001. These IHWs came from various sources and were complex in composition, mostly toxic and difficult to be disposed. IHW is regarded as a potential threat to the ecological environment, water resources and survival of local residents. It is important and indispensable to dispose the waste properly. To meet the regulation requirements on the disposal of IHWs and to minimize environmental effects on the Three Gorges Region, a disposal strategy is proposed, according to which approximately 600 t of the IHWs can be disposed by chemical stabilization,incineration and other treatment measures, and the rest need be stockpiled in safe and reliable places situated above the 177 m impoundment line of the Three Gorges dam.

  18. Nutritional and behavioral effects of gorge and fast feeding in captive lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Joanne D; Gross, Kathy L; Lowry, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity manifest behaviors and physiological conditions that are not common in the wild. Lions in captivity face problems of obesity, inactivity, and stereotypy. To mediate common problems of captive lions, this study implemented a gorge and fast feeding schedule that better models naturalistic patterns: African lions (Panthera leo) gradually adapted from a conventional feeding program to a random gorge and fast feeding schedule. Digestibility increased significantly and food intake and metabolizable energy intake correspondingly decreased. Lions also showed an increase in appetitive active behaviors, no increase in agonistic behavior, and paced half as frequently on fast days as on feeding days. Thus, switching captive lions to a gorge and fast feeding schedule resulted in improved nutritional status and increased activity.

  19. ADP-flow velocity profile to interpret hydromorphological features of China's Yangtze Three-Gorges valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; CHEN Zhongyuan; XU Kaiqin; WEI Taoyuan; LI Maotian; WANG Zhanghua; Masataka Watanabe

    2005-01-01

    In late May and early June, 2002, a field investigation was conducted along the Three-Gorges valley of the upper Yangtze catchment by ADP (Acoustic Doppler Profile SONTEK-500). Data obtained when surveying were accompanied with discharge of 1000 m) and shallower water depth (50 m) and U-shaped river-channel morphology. Mapping the river cross-section area at those sites can determine that smaller cross-section area accelerates the flow velocity. From Wanxian to Fengjie, the average flow velocity ranging from 3.0 to 4.5 m/s is in-phase with the water depth. The high-flow velocity is associated with narrower river-channel, where V-shaped gorges valley occurs with small cross-section area. Further downstream from Fengjie to Zigui, the low flow velocity is linked to deep river channel characterized by W-shaped valley morphology of large cross-section area, in general. The average flow velocity is 2.5―3.5 m/s, and maximum can reach 6.0 m/s near Wu-Gorge. Our survey had also detected a slow-flow velocity (mostly 100 m; maximum) in the gorges valley (30―40 m below the present mean sea level). This contrasts to the relative shallow water river-channel above Fengjie, i.e. 20―30 m in general and 50―60 m, maximum at gorges site. The present ADP investigation displays the hydromorphological feature in the Three-Gorges valley, and most importantly, it accumulates invaluable dataset for the post-dam study in the near future.

  20. Effect on Stratum Gradient Frequency Distribution of Landslides in the Three Gorges Area of Northeast Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiaoyi; QIAO Jianping

    2006-01-01

    The landslide data were calculated in the Three Gorges Area of northeast Chongqing. The results showed that landslide frequency distributions of gradients accorded with the Weibull probability density distribution function. The landslide hazard ratios of gradients were acquired by Weibull accumulation probability distribution function in the different geological units. There was discord between landslide hazard ratio of different geological units and variance of landslide gradient. But they were approximate homology in the strata of Jurassic. The results indicate that the Weibull distribution can quantitatively evaluate the landslide hazard ratios of gradients of the different strata in the Three Gorges Area.

  1. Study on the causes and countermeasures for the dislocation of industrial structure in Three Gorges Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yinzhen; Lu Yaobin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper. the dislocation of industrial structure refers to the inconsistency between employment structure and output structure in three industries. During the past over ten years, with the development of the Three Gorges regional social and economic, the industrial structure has optimized and upgraded constantly. However, for kinds of reasons, employment structure transference has lagged far behind output structure transference. In This paper, we try to analyze the causes of dislocation of the Three Gorges Regional industrial structure in analytical method of dislocation of industrial structure, and put forward the fundamental measures to optimize industrial structure and promote sustainable development of the regional economy.

  2. Assessments to determine the effect of current and alternate ladder operations on brood stock collection and behavior of hatchery fall Chinook Salmon at Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery during 2003-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery traditionally operates an adult ladder, without closure, from the start of the tule fall Chinook salmon run in late August until...

  3. Assessments to determine the effect of current and alternate ladder operations on brood stock collection and behavior of hatchery fall Chinook Salmon at Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery during 2004-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production of upriver bright fall Chinook salmon at Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery was introduced as part of the John Day Dam mitigation program in the...

  4. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project, Operations and Maintenance and Planning and Design, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.; Penney, Aaron K. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2006-03-01

    This report fulfills the contract obligations based on the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2001 annual report combines information from two contracts with a combined value of $2,336,491. They are identified by Bonneville Power Administration as follows: (1) Operations and Maintenance--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4504, and (2) Planning and Design--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4035. The Operations and Maintenance (O&M) budget of $2,166,110 was divided as follows: Facility Development and Fish Production Costs--$860,463; and Equipment Purchases as capital cost--$1,305,647 for equipment and subcontracts. The Planning and Design (P&D) budget of $170,381 was allocated to development of a Coho master planning document in conjunction with Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery. The O&M budget expenditures represent personnel and fish production expenses; e.g., administration, management, coordination, facility development, personnel training and fish production costs for spring Chinook and Coho salmon. Under Objective 1: Fish Culture Training and Education, tribal staff worked at Clearwater Anadromous Hatchery (CAFH) an Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) facility to produce spring Chinook smolt and parr for release that are intended to provide future broodstock for NPTH. As a training exercise, BPA allowed tribal staff to rear Coho salmon at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) facility. This statement of work allows this type of training to prepare tribal staff to later rear salmon at Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery under Task 1.6. As a subset of the O&M budget, the equipment purchase budget of $1,305,647 less $82,080 for subcontracts provides operational and portable equipment necessary for NPTH facilities after construction. The equipment budget for the year was $1,223,567; this year's purchases amounted $287,364.48 (see

  5. The practice of project construction and management of Three Gorges ship-lock%The practice of project construction and management of Three Gorges ship-lock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Qixiang; Yang Zongli; Liu Gang

    2011-01-01

    The double-line five-step ship-lock of Three Gorges Project (TGP) is an extra-large navigation structure with the maximum design total head and single-step delivery head in the world and complicated technical problems. The ship- lock is a challenging and world-class project integrating the advanced techniques and equipment, the up-to-date technol- ogies and materials, as well as the advanced project management. Through 17-year construction and 9-year operation of the ship-lock, various difficulties in design, construction, equipment manufacturing and installation as well as system debugging have been overcome effectively. The project management ideas, management system, management methods, technological innovation and team building are summarized according to the management practice of the second stage main work of Three Gorges ship-lock.

  6. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reti, Jay S

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  7. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S Reti

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1 models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2 develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3 statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated

  8. Calibration of an x-ray cabinet unit for radiobiology use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKerracher, Carolyn; Thwaites, David I [Oncology Physics, Edinburgh Cancer Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-21

    A Faxitron sealed x-ray cabinet, operated at 100 kV, was modified to irradiate monkey testicles, to a uniform, accurately calibrated dose, for work aimed at investigating spermatogenesis in children undergoing radiotherapy. An aluminium filter was added to increase the beam quality and a lead collimating system manufactured to reduce the beam size to between 1 and 4 cm diameter. Percentage depth doses and profiles were analysed and relative in-air outputs measured with a selection of small (0.2 cc, 0.015 cc) ion chambers. The absolute calibration of the unit was carried out in a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} beam with a 0.6 cc chamber. Backscatter factors were based on standard tables, but then modified according to experimental results with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) in a phantom to account for reduced scatter in the irradiation situations. A suitable irradiation set-up was devised for the monkeys, to ensure accuracy of delivered dose to the target volume and minimize the dose to the surrounding healthy tissue. The homogeneity throughout the testes was calculated to be well within {+-}5%, using a parallel-opposed irradiation technique. The TLD measured doses to the testes on three monkeys were lower than the calculated doses by 3 to 6%. Following modifications to the standard percentage depth doses to account for changes in scatter conditions, these differences became {+-}3%. The uncertainties on both calculated and measured dose were estimated to be approximately {+-}3.2% at 1 SD.

  9. Development and evaluation of an air-curtain fume cabinet with considerations of its aerodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R F; Wu, Y D; Chen, H D; Chen, C-C; Chen, C-W; Chang, C-P; Shih, T-S

    2007-03-01

    In order to avoid the inherent aerodynamic difficulties of the conventional fume hood, an innovative design--the 'air curtain-isolated fume hood' is developed. The new hood applies a specially designed air curtain (which is generated by a narrow planar jet and a suction slot flow at low velocities) across the sash plane. The hood constructed for the study is full size and transparent for flow visualization. The aerodynamic characteristics are diagnosed by using the laser-light-sheet-assisted smoke flow visualization method. Four characteristic air-curtain flow modes are identified in the domain of jet and suction velocities when the sash remains static. Some of these characteristic flow modes have much improved flow patterns when compared with those of the conventional fume hoods. From the viewpoint of the aerodynamics and mass transport, the results indicate that the air curtain properly setup across the sash opening allows almost no sensible exchange of momentum and mass between the flowfields of the cabinet and the outside environment. Two standard sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas concentration measurement methods following the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 standard and the prEN14175 protocol for static test are employed to examine the contaminant leakage levels. Results of the rigorous examinations of leakage show unusually satisfactory hood performance. The leakage of the tracer gas can approach almost null (<0.001 p.p.m.) if the jet and suction velocities are properly adjusted.

  10. a Cabinet Level Thermal Test Vehicle to Evaluate Hybrid Double-Sided Cooling Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qihong; Joshi, Yogendra

    Packaging of power semiconductor devices presents some of the greatest thermal design challenges due to the resulting high heat fluxes. Advanced cooling techniques are desired to help meet these demands for current and future devices. A hybrid double-sided approach combining micro-channel liquid cooling, thermoelectric cooling, and forced air convection is investigated via a test vehicle for the thermal management of electronic cabinets. A reduction of 74% in the chip junction temperature rise was achieved by using double-sided cooling, compared to single-sided air convection. Further reduction can be achieved by utilizing thermoelectric cooling (TEC). Additional reductions of 22.4% and 6.5% were achieved by utilizing TEC in single-sided air cooling and double-sided cooling, respectively. The effect of water flow rates through the air-to-liquid heat exchanger and the microchannel heat sink on the chip junction temperature rise was insignificant, compared to the effect of TEC, and cooling configuration.

  11. Early enrichment effects on brain development in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): no evidence for a critical period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Joacim; Aarestrup, Kim; Thomassen, Søren T.;

    2012-01-01

    In hatcheries, fish are normally reared in barren environments, which have been reported to affect their phenotypic development compared with wild conspecifics. In this study, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) alevins were reared in conventional barren hatchery trays or in either of two types...... of structurally enriched trays. We show that increased structural complexity during early rearing increased brain size in all investigated brain substructures. However, these effects disappeared over time after transfer to barren tanks for external feeding. Parallel to the hatchery study, a group of salmon parr...... was released into nature and recaptured at smoltification. These stream-reared smolts developed smaller brains than the hatchery reared smolts, irrespective of initial enrichment treatment. These novel findings do not support the hypothesis that there is a critical early period determining the brain growth...

  12. Wenatchee River steelhead reproductive success - Estimate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild steelhead in the Wenatchee River, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project uses genetic parentage analysis to estimate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild steelhead spawning in the Wenatchee River, WA. The...

  13. Wenatchee Chinook Parentage - Evaluate the reproductive success of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon in the Wenatchee River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using genetic parentage analysis to measure the relative fitness of hatchery and wild spring run Chinook salmon that spawn in the Wenatchee River. In addition...

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  16. The research and demonstration of some major geological problems of Three Gorges Project%The research and demonstration of some major geological problems of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Deji; Man Zuowu

    2011-01-01

    The research process, main contents, methods and conclusions for some major engineering geological problems of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) are reviewed and introduced, including dam site selection, regional tectonic stability and seismic activity, stability of reservoir bank and reservoir-induced earthquake. Meanwhile, the above mentioned engineering geological problems are evaluated according to the preliminary test results since TGP operation and impoundment in 2003.

  17. Innovation in Cable Outgoing Pattern of LV Cabinets%低压柜电缆出线方式创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申景阳

    2015-01-01

    老山自行车馆工程低压柜为上出线方式,低压柜的出线电缆放置在两层1 000 mm × 200 mm的桥架中, 由于出线回路复杂, 上下层桥架中的电缆存在进入同一面低压柜的情况, 特别是1AA1~1AA7, 2AA1~2AA7两列低压柜中集中了场馆近90%的用电负荷, 共需配出百余条供电电缆. 两层配电桥架的设计不可能合理安装上下交错的电缆. 通过自主创新和方案策划, 设计并实施了柜顶配线箱, 有效地解决了低压柜上出线的各种问题, 保证了安装质量和观感效果.%The LV cabinets of Laoshan Velodrome Project are characterized by upper cables outgoing, which are arranged between two layers of 1 000 mm × 200 mm bridging structure. The loop of the outgoing cables is complex, the cable in the upper layer of the bridging structure and that in the lower layer enter the same LV cabinet, and especially 90 % of the electrical loads of Laoshan Velodrome is concentrated in 1AA1~1AA7 and 2AA1~2AA7 LV cabinets, so hundreds of power supply cables are required. The design of two-layer power distribution bridging structure is unable to realize reasonable installation of the cables staggered up and down. Through independent innovation and program planning, a cable distribution box is designed to arrange on the cabinet top to effectively solve various problems caused by upper cables outgoing of LV cabinets and guarantee the installation quality and appearance effect.

  18. Current Situation of Land Use in Three-gorges Reservoir Region in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuhai; WANG; Qigang; ZHOU; Fei; YANG; Pengwu; YANG; Yao; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Land is rare natural resource.Production and construction of all sectors in a region must be based on land.Thus,overall research and analysis on current situation of land use can reveal scope,depth and reasonableness of land use,is helpful for analyzing internal mechanism land use change,and can reflect production scale,level and characteristics,and also can provide basis for optimization and adjustment of land use structure.Based on RS and GIS technologies,with the aid of TM image data of the Three-gorges Reservoir Region in 2010,the data of current situation of land use in Three-gorges Reservoir Region was obtained,and current land use situation was analyzed using geographimetrics and landscape ecology methods.Results show that since natural,social and economic conditions are different,land type diversity,combination type and location index of counties in the Three-gorges Reservoir Region are varied.In the land use diversity index,Xingshan County has the most single land use type(mainly forest land); in land use degree,Yuzhong District has the highest land use degree; in the integrated index of land use,Changshou District has the lowest integrated index of land use.This study is expected to provide reference and basis for formulating policies of protecting ecological environment of the Three-gorges Reservoir Region.

  19. Spatial forecast of landslides in three gorges based on spatial data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianmin; Niu, Ruiqing

    2009-01-01

    The Three Gorges is a region with a very high landslide distribution density and a concentrated population. In Three Gorges there are often landslide disasters, and the potential risk of landslides is tremendous. In this paper, focusing on Three Gorges, which has a complicated landform, spatial forecasting of landslides is studied by establishing 20 forecast factors (spectra, texture, vegetation coverage, water level of reservoir, slope structure, engineering rock group, elevation, slope, aspect, etc). China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (Cbers) images were adopted based on C4.5 decision tree to mine spatial forecast landslide criteria in Guojiaba Town (Zhigui County) in Three Gorges and based on this knowledge, perform intelligent spatial landslide forecasts for Guojiaba Town. All landslides lie in the dangerous and unstable regions, so the forecast result is good. The method proposed in the paper is compared with seven other methods: IsoData, K-Means, Mahalanobis Distance, Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance, Parallelepiped and Information Content Model. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper has a high forecast precision, noticeably higher than that of the other seven methods.

  20. Protection of Underground Cultural Heritage in the Three-Gorges Dam Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoWeidong

    2003-01-01

    Archeological survey in the Three Gorges started in the early 20th century. In the 1920s, American scholars conducted surveys on cultural relics and fossils around the area.During the anti-Japanese war (1938-1945), Chinese scholars who retreated from the coastal and eastern part also made archeological investigation on

  1. Research on the human resource development of the Three Gorges Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yinzhen; Sun Dalin

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Region (TGR) is an economic region of China, and lies in the western part of Yangtze economic belt. It takes the Three Gorges Project as leading, Chongqing and Yichang City as main body, the Three Gorges Reservoir as ligament. It covers about 700 km of the Yangtze River valley from Chongqing to Yichang, in- cluding Chongqing City, Yichang City and Enshi District of Hubei Province. Since the construction of Three Gorges Project and establishment of Chongqing as municipality directly under the Central Government, the regional econ-omy, culture, education, technology, etc., all developed harmoniously and rapidly, and the diathesis of the regional human resources also got an exaltation. While compared with the eastern region of China, the economy, science and technology in this region still fall behind, and the current situation is of no optimism. Based on the theory of human resources development, this paper analyzes current situation and problems in the human resources development of the TGR, and puts forward the countermeasures, such as planning human resources development program based on"anaphase support "policy, developing education and training business, reasonably organizing labor export, etc.

  2. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume II of III; Data Summaries, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatick, Emil; Ringe, R.R.; Zaugg, Waldo S. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1988-02-02

    The main functions of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) aquaculture task biologists and contractual scientists involved in the 1978 homing studies were primarily a surveillance of fish physiology, disease, and relative survival during culture in marine net-pens, to determine if there were any unusual factors that might affect imprinting and homing behavior. The studies were conducted with little background knowledge of the implications of disease and physiology on imprinting and homing in salmonids. The health status or the stocks were quite variable as could be expected. The Dworshak and Wells Hatcheries steelhead suffered from some early stresses in seawater, probably osmoregulatory. The incidences of latent BKD in the Wells and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead and Kooskia Hatchery spring chinook salmon were extremely high, and how these will affect survival in the ocean is not known. Gill enzyme activity in the Dworshak and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead at release was low. Of the steelhead, survival in the Tucannon Hatchery stock will probably be the highest, with Dworshak Hatchery stock the lowest. This report contains the data for the narratives in Volume I.

  3. Testing for genetic differences in survival and growth between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon from Warm Springs River, Oregon (Study sites: Warm Springs Hatchery and Little White Salmon River; Stocks: Warm Springs hatchery and Warm Springs River wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1996): Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery in north - central Oregon was initiated with spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Warm Springs River. Managers included wild fish in the broodstock most years and avoided artificial selection to minimize genetic divergence from the wild founder population. We tested for genetic differences in survival and growth between the hatchery and wild populations to ascertain whether this goal has been achieved. Progeny of hatchery x hatchery (HH), hatchery female x wild male (HW), and wild x wild (WW) crosses were genetically marked at the sSOD - 1* allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in hatchery ponds in 1992 and 1996 and in the Little White Salmon River, in south - central Washington, in 1996. Fish were evaluated to returning adult at the hatchery and over their freshwater residence of 16 months in the stream. The three crosses differed on several measures including survival to outmigration in the stream (WW>HH>HW) and juvenile growth in the hatchery (1992 year - class; WW>HW>HH); however, results may have been confounded. The genetic marks were found to differentially effect survival in a companion study (HH mark favored over WW mark; HW mark intermediate). Furthermore, HW survival in the current study was neither intermediate, as would be expect ed from additive genetic effects, nor similar to that of HH fish as would be expected from maternal effects since HW and HH fish were maternal half - siblings. Finally, the unexpected performance of HW fish precludes ruling out maternal differences between hatchery and wild mothers as the cause of differences between HH and WW fish. The key finding that survival of HH fish in a stream was 0.91 that for WW fish, indicating a small loss of fitness for natural rearing in the hatchery population, is valid only if three conditions hold: (1) any selection on the genetic marks was in the same direction as in the companion study, (2) lower survival in

  4. Environment-dependent plasticity and ontogenetic changes in the brain of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, J.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Thomassen, S.T.;

    2017-01-01

    enhancement strategies, like environmental enrichment. Here, we investigated the size of the brain in hatcheryreared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar kept at standard (high) and reduced (low) tank densities. In contrast to our predictions, we found that fish reared at high density had larger dry mass of cerebellum......Lowered rearing density has repeatedly been shown to increase the performance of hatchery-reared salmonids stocked into natural environments. One possible mechanism for this pattern could be that lower densities enhance brain development, which has been shown to be the case in other hatchery...... the opposite pattern was observed for telencephalon. Overall, these results reveal substantial brain plasticity depending on the surrounding environment as well as ontogenetic adaptive changes in the brain of the Atlantic salmon...

  5. Progress in live food production and use in fish and shellfish hatcheries

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P

    1998-01-01

    Different species of microalgae, the rotifer, Brachionus spp., and the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., are essential live food in the farming of several species of molluscs (e.g. oyster, clam, scallop), crustaceans (e.g. marine shrimp, freshwater prawn, crabs) and fish (e.g. bass, bream, grouper, turbot, flounder, halibut, ayu). A brief overview is given of the latest developments in their production and use in industrial hatcheries.

  6. Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, Johan; Verdonck, Linda; Robles-Arozarena, Rocio; Rivera, Gabriel; Bolland, Annick; Balladares, Marcos; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Calderon, Jorge; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Swings, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been...

  7. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Mitch (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Kettle Falls, WA)

    2001-03-01

    The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. These strategic changes have been the result of recommendations through the Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) and were done to enhance imprinting, improve survival and operate the two kokanee facilities more effectively. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear 200,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from the monitoring program also suggests that the hatchery and net pen rearing programs have been beneficial to enhancing the Lake Roosevelt fishery while not negatively impacting wild and native stocks within the lake.

  8. THE EFFECT OF STOCKING FISH PRODUCTION ON THE QUALITY OF WATER DISCHARGED FROM THE HATCHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bonisławska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a fish hatchery (Stocking-Breeding Centre in Goleniów -OHZ, focused on the production and on-growing of stocking material, on the quality of post-production water. The following parameters were determined: dissolved oxygen, organic matter content, buffering capacity, the concentration of some forms of nitrogen and phosphorus ((N-NH4+, N-NO2–, N-NO3-, total nitrogen, P-PO43-, total phosphorus and the concentration of chloride ions. The study also included the measurements of water temperature, electrolytic conductivity and pH. It was shown that the water supplied to the hatchery had good quality, providing optimum conditions for growth and living of fry and juvenile forms of various fish species (most indices were within the range of the first water quality class. Production activities at the hatchery caused a reduction in the quality of discharged post-production water with respect to indicators such as total suspended solids, organic matter and phosphorus.

  9. Landslides in the western Columbia Gorge, Skamania County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Evarts, Russell C.; Bard, Joseph A.

    2016-11-04

    SummaryRecent light detection and ranging (lidar) imagery has allowed us to identify and map a large number of previously unrecognized landslides, or slides, in heavily forested terrain in the western Columbia Gorge, Skamania County, Washington, and it has revealed that the few previously recognized areas of instability are actually composites of multiple smaller landslides. The high resolution of the imagery further reveals that landslides in the map area have complex movement histories and span a wide range of relative ages. Movement histories are inferred from relative landslide locations and crosscutting relations of surface features. Estimated age ranges are based on (1) limited absolute dating; (2) relative fineness of landscape surface textures, calibrated by comparison with surfaces of currently active and dated landslides as interpreted from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), global positioning system (GPS), and historical records; (3) sharpness and steepness of larger-scale surface morphologic features, calibrated by comparison with similar dated features in other regions; (4) degree of surface erosion; and (5) evidence of erosion or deposition by late Pleistocene (15–22 ka) Missoula floods at or below 200 m altitude. The relative age categories are recent (0 to ~1,000 years old), intermediate-age (~1,000 to ~15,000 years old), and old (>~15,000 years old). Within the 221.5 km2 map area, we identified 215 discrete landslides, covering 140.9 km2 (64 percent of the map area). At least 12 of the recent landslides are currently moving or have moved within the last two decades. Mapping for this study expanded the area of previously recognized unstable terrain by 56 percent. Landslide geometries suggest that more than half (62 percent) of these slope failures are translational landslides or composite landslides with translational elements, with failure occurring along gently sloping bedding planes in zones of deeply weathered, locally clay rich

  10. Survival of hatchery Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Mitchill, 1815) in the Suwannee River, Florida: a 19-year evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael; Clugston, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental release of 1192 hatchery-reared, individually PIT tagged, 220 days old (296–337 mm TL) Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, was undertaken in 1992 in the Suwannee River, Florida. The original objectives of the 1992 release experiment were to: (1) evaluate survival rate of cultured Gulf sturgeon in the wild vs survival rate of their wild 1992 cohort counterparts, (2) determine the differential effect of release site within the river upon long-term survival, and (3) evaluate comparative growth rates of recaptured hatchery vs captured wild 1992 cohort Gulf sturgeon. The present investigation addressed those original objectives, plus an additional fourth objective: (4) evaluation of hatchery fish recapture rate change over the 19-year experiment. The primary objective was to determine efficacy of potential conservation aquaculture for this species in terms of long-term survival in the wild. Follow-up 1993–2011 gill net sampling in freshwater reaches (rkm 4–237) and the estuarine river mouth (rkm −6 to 4) yielded recaptures representing 13.0% of the total released. Mean annual hatchery fish mortality (including emigration) rate estimated for the 19-year period (1993–2011) was more than twice that for same cohort wild fish. Mark-recapture survival probability (phi) for hatchery fish, 1993–2011, was substantially lower (0.733) than for their wild counterparts (0.888). Mean annual hatchery fish recapture rate, as a percentage of all 1992 cohort fish recaptures, declined significantly after age-7, coinciding with age of onset of migration into the open Gulf of Mexico. Hypothesized causal factors may be differentially lower fitness in the marine habitat or permanent outmigration due to natal river imprinting failure. Hatchery fish recapture rates varied significantly for fish from the ten release sites, being highest near the river mouth, and lowest for the furthest upriver sites in the Suwannee River and its Santa Fe River tributary

  11. Validation of peracetic acid as a sporicide for sterilization of working surfaces in biological safety cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina B.R. Sella

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to validate the use of peracetic acid as sporicide agent to decontaminate the workingsurface of a laminar flow biological safety cabinet (BSC, as an alternative to glutaraldehyde, including the selection ofthe disinfecting agent, the method of application, and the contact time.Materials and methods: The test organism was the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372, which isa surrogate for an important infectious agent. Spore cultures were prepared from B. atrophaeus and used them to testthe sporicidal efficacy of peracetic acid on a BSC stainless steel surface. The performance of the sterilant was assessedby determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and by microbial challenge in conditions that mimicked surfacecontamination. It was used 2.0% glutaraldehyde solution as the control.Results: The range of MICs was 0.6-1.1% for the control and 0.003-0.006% for the 0.2% peracetic acid solution. The 0.2%peracetic acid was an effective sterilant against B. atrophaeus spores (6-7 log spores, under defined conditions of useafter 40 min contact time, which was double that recommended on the product label.Conclusion: It was conclude that while the results of official methods can help to evaluate how products will perform,they are not usually reproducible in real-life user conditions and environments. Validation tests must be carried out toensure the efficacy and safety of surface decontamination procedures. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(3: 93-99Key words: Peracetic acid, sporicidal activity, sterility, Bacillus atrophaeus spores, glutaraldehyde

  12. Survey of Disturbance to Alpine Tundra in Atigun Gorge from Snow-Vehicle Traffic in November 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Snow vehicles operated by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company Alyeska traveled from the Dalton Highway into Atigun Gorge in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in...

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  14. Evaluation of Pure Oxygen Systems at the Umatilla Hatchery: Task 1-Review and Evaluation of Supplemental O2 Systems, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Factory

    1991-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council has established a goal of doubling the size of salmon runs in the Columbia River Basin. The achievement of this important goal is largely dependent upon expanding the production of hatchery fish. Pure oxygen has been commonly used to increase the carrying capacity of private sector salmonid hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest. The use of supplemental oxygen to increase hatchery production is significantly less expensive than the construction of new hatcheries and might save up to $500 million in construction costs.

  15. Angler harvest, hatchery return, and tributary stray rates of recycled adult summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    Hatchery ‘recycling’ programs have been used to increase angling opportunities by re-releasing fish into a river after they returned to a hatchery or fish trap. Recycling is intended to increase opportunities for fishermen, but this strategy could affect wild fish populations if some recycled fish remain in the river and interact with wild fish populations. To quantify hatchery return and angler harvest rates of recycled steelhead, we conducted a 2-year study on the Cowlitz River, Washington. A total of 1051 steelhead were recycled, including 218 fish that were radio-tagged. Fates of recycled steelhead were similar between years: 48.4% returned to the hatchery, 19.2% were reported captured by anglers, and 32.4% remained in the river. A multistate model quantified the effects of covariates on hatchery return and angler harvest rates, which were positively affected by river discharge and negatively affected by time since release. However, hatchery return rates increased and angler harvest rates decreased during periods of increasing discharge. A total of 21.1% (46 fish) of the radio-tagged steelhead failed to return to the hatchery or be reported by anglers, but nearly half of those fish (20 fish) appeared to be harvested and not reported. The remaining tagged fish (11.9% of the radio-tagged population) were monitored into the spawning period, but only five fish (2.3% of the radio-tagged population) entered tributaries where wild steelhead spawning occurs. Future research focused on straying behaviour, and spawning success of recycled steelhead may further advance the understanding of the effects of recycling as a management strategy.

  16. FISH HATCHERY IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF BOSANSKA KRUPA IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PILOT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ajanovic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Government financed the project GCP/BIH/003/NOR “Support to Income Generation through establishment of a Fish Hatchery in Bosnia and Herzegovina”, worth one million US dollars, that includes the construction of a fish hatchery on the banks of the River Krusnica in order to create jobs and incomes for people living with disability in Bosanska Krupa. The hatchery is dedicated to producing local strains of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario, grayling (Thymallus thymallus and Danube salmon (Hucho hucho for re–stocking the natural waters of the Krusnica/Una River catchments (and larger Bosnia and Herzegovina and Danube basin, support the rehabilitation of fish populations and to help revitalize local tourism. The Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia (REU of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO, based in Budapest, Hungary implements the project in close collaboration with the Sport Fishermen’s Association of Krusnica, which currently has 351 members. A fish hatchery, a pilot Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS in the valley of the River Krusnica, is the first of its kind in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is suitable for production of 250,000 to 450,000 fingerlings annually. Five war invalids are employed at the hatchery continuously since fish production began in November of 2008. The production technology learned by the staff abroad was adapted to the local conditions. The hatchery is expected to be self–sustainable in its operation from sale of fingerlings. Since the hatchery activity has received wider publicity, anglers’ interest in the River Krusnica and River Una has increased. Further increase in the number of visitors is expected after restocking the fish into the river, since the bigger fish populations will attract more and more anglers.

  17. A Carboniferous Cabinet of Wonders: an example of how the collaboration of art and Earth Sciences can inspire conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Melissa; Rogers, Janine

    2016-04-01

    The Joggins Fossil Cliffs (Nova Scotia, Canada) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site representing the Late Carboniferous time period (ca. 310-325 mya). The site was formative for Charles Lyell in constructing his geological principles. It is still the best place in the world to view fossils from the Carboniferous 'Coal Age', a time when much of the coal that we use today was formed. The Joggins Fossil Institute is a not-for-profit, charitable organization that co-manages the site with the Province of Nova Scotia. Its mission is to conduct research and educate the public about Earth Sciences through interpretation (e.g., exhibits and tours of the site) and a fossil collection. Fossils are the only direct evidence of how biodiversity has changed over deep time; they are the texts and artifacts that we 'read' in order to understand the development of the earth and that can help humans decipher the deeper histories that produced us. At the Joggins Fossil Institute we primarily present the scientific history of the Carboniferous Period through the use of fossils, but we are also interested in the cultural history of coal production and usage, which is an essential part of the region's economic history. However, this industry has also contributed to climate change and the emergence of a new geological age called the Anthropocene. We encourage our visitors to connect palaeontology and coal energy consumption, and ask them to consider how different values (economic and scientific) are attributed to both coal and fossils; such questions lead directly to discussions about conservation issues. The Joggins Fossil Institute has partnered with the Faculty of Arts at nearby Mount Allison University to create an exhibit that will interrogate these questions. The medium of display that we have chosen is the "cabinet of wonders" or "cabinet of curiosity," which has a rich tradition in western cultures going back to the Renaissance. A venerable intersection of art and science, the cabinet

  18. Real-Time Perceptual Simulation of Moving Sources: Application to the Leslie Cabinet and 3D Sound Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronland-Martinet R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Perception of moving sound sources obeys different brain processes from those mediating the localization of static sound events. In view of these specificities, a preprocessing model was designed, based on the main perceptual cues involved in the auditory perception of moving sound sources, such as the intensity, timbre, reverberation, and frequency shift processes. This model is the first step toward a more general moving sound source system, including a system of spatialization. Two applications of this model are presented: the simulation of a system involving rotating sources, the Leslie Cabinet and a 3D sound immersion installation based on the sonification of cosmic particles, the Cosmophone.

  19. Real-Time Perceptual Simulation of Moving Sources: Application to the Leslie Cabinet and 3D Sound Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Voinier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Perception of moving sound sources obeys different brain processes from those mediating the localization of static sound events. In view of these specificities, a preprocessing model was designed, based on the main perceptual cues involved in the auditory perception of moving sound sources, such as the intensity, timbre, reverberation, and frequency shift processes. This model is the first step toward a more general moving sound source system, including a system of spatialization. Two applications of this model are presented: the simulation of a system involving rotating sources, the Leslie Cabinet and a 3D sound immersion installation based on the sonification of cosmic particles, the Cosmophone.

  20. Quantifying the growth of a rapidly eroding bedrock gorge using repeat terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Da'an River Gorge in western Taiwan provides a unique opportunity to observe the formation and evolution of a natural bedrock gorge. The 1.2 km long and up to 20 m deep gorge has formed since 1999 in response to uplift of the riverbed during the Chi-Chi earthquake. The extremely rapid pace of erosion enables us to observe both downcutting and channel widening over short time periods. We have monitored the evolution of the gorge since 2009 using repeat RTK GPS surveys and terrestrial Lidar scans. GPS surveys of the channel profile are conducted frequently, with 24 surveys to date, while Lidar scans are conducted after major floods, or after 5-9 months without a flood, for a total of 8 scans to date. The Lidar data are most useful for recording erosion of channel walls, which is quite episodic and highly variable along the channel. By quantifying the distribution of wall erosion in space and time, we can improve our understanding of channel widening processes and of the development of the channel planform, particularly the growth of bends. During the summer of 2012, the Da'an catchment experienced two large storm events, a meiyu (plum rain) event on June 10-13 that brought 800 mm of rain, and a typhoon on August 1-3 that brought 650 mm of rain. The resulting floods had significant geomorphic effects on the Da'an gorge, including up to 10s of meters of erosion on some sections of the gorge walls. We quantify these changes using Lidar surveys conducted on June 7, July 3, and in mid-August. Channel wall collapses also occur in the absence of large floods, and we use scans from August 23, 2011 and June 7, 2012 to quantify erosion during a period that included a number of small floods, but no large ones. This allows us to compare the impact of 9 months of normal conditions to the impact of short-duration extreme events.Before June flood After June flood

  1. Growth, smoltification, and smolt-to-adult return of spring chinook salmon from hatcheries on the Deschutes river, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, B.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Sharpe, C.; Hirtzel, S.; Schrock, R.; Larsen, D.A.; Ewing, R.D.; Palmisano, A.; Schreck, C.B.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between smoltification and smolt-to-adult return (SAR) of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Deschutes River, Oregon, was examined for four release groups in each of three successive years. Fish were reared, marked with coded wire tags, and released from Round Butte Hatchery, Pelton Ladder rearing facility, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. Smolt releases occurred in nearly the same place at similar times, allowing a direct comparison of SAR to several characters representing smolt quality. Return rates varied significantly among facilities, varying over an order of magnitude each year. The highest average SAR was from Pelton Ladder, the lowest was from Warm Springs. Each of the characters used as metrics of smoltification - fish size, spring growth rate (February-April), condition factor, plasma hormone concentration (thyroxine, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I]), stress challenge, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and liver glycogen concentration - varied significantly among facilities and seasonally within hatchery groups. However, only spring growth rate, gill ATPase activity, and plasma IGF-I concentration showed significant relationships to SAR. These characters and SAR itself were consistently lower for fish released from Warm Springs Hatchery than for fish from Round Butte Hatchery and Pelton Ladder. This demonstrates that differences in the quality of fish released by facilities may have profound effects on subsequent survival and suggests that manipulations of spring growth rate may be used to influence the quality of smolts released from facilities.

  2. Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunz, G W.; Minello, T J.

    2001-05-31

    We examined the patterns of habitat-specific mortality for newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using an experimental mesocosm approach. Experiments were designed to analyze prey vulnerability and fish rearing-type (wild-caught or hatchery-reared) in estuarine habitats of varying structural complexity including marsh (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), seagrass (Halodule wrightii Aschers), and nonvegetated sand bottom. We used two different predators, pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides Linnaeus) and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus Cuvier). For both predators, vulnerability of wild-caught red drum was significantly lower in structurally complex habitats such as seagrass and oyster reef; the highest vulnerability was associated with the nonvegetated bottom. This habitat effect was not apparent for hatchery-reared prey. In trials using a combination of both rearing-types, there was no significant habitat effect on prey selection, but hatchery-reared red drum suffered higher overall mortality than wild-caught fish from pinfish predators. In these trials, spotted seatrout did not select for either prey type. Differences we observed in prey vulnerability were likely caused by behavioral differences between wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum. Our results reinforce the conclusion that structural complexity in estuarine habitats increases survival of newly settled fishes. Our data also suggest that hatchery-reared red drum may be more vulnerable to predation than natural fishes, and that survival of stocked fish may be enhanced through habitat-related behavior modification.

  3. Probabilistic model for vessel-bridge collisions in the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo GENG; Hong WANG; Junjie WANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on a field observation on vessel transit path of three bridges over the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir, and an analysis of the geometric probabilistic model of transiting vessels in collision probability calculation, the aberrancy angle and vessel velocity probabilistic model related with impact force, a probabilistic model is established and also verified by goodness-of-fit test. The vessel transit path distribution can be expressed by the normal distribution model. For the Three Gorges Reservoir, the mean and standard deviation adopt 0.2w and 0.1w, respectively (w is the channel width).The aberrancy angle distribution of vessels accepts maximum I distribution model, and its distribution parameters can be taken as 0.314 and 4.354. The velocity distribution of up-bound and down-bound vessels can also be expressed by the normal distribution model.

  4. Review on Commissioning Test of Three Gorges Power Transmission & Substation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wankai; Yin Yonghua; Zeng Nanchao; Wang Minxin; Chong Zhiyi; Ma Weimin; Kang Jian; Yang Xiaoli

    2009-01-01

    @@ Holding the greatest power transmission capacity in China,Three Gorges power transmission and substation (T&S) project is an important landmark in the history of Chinese power transmission construction.Based on the technological achievements[1-5]and operational experience[6-8]in the field of AC/DC power T&S projects,the commissioning test of the Three Gorges power T&S project made scientific calculation and simulation tests according to the features of power T&S projects,carefully formulated the test scheme and plan,and fulfilled all the test items with high efficiency and quality,which provides a technological basis for project acceptance and the assurance for timely putting into operation.

  5. Ecological Approaches to Urban Migration of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yalong

    2005-01-01

    With the approach of the second water storage of the Three Gorges Project, urban migration has become a great concern. However, being influenced by economical, social or other factors, ecological problems have apparently become pressing. All these problems are exerting great impact upon the speed and quality of new city's or town's construction. By means of ecology, urban ecology, landscape ecology,human settlement science as well as the principle of sustainable development, this paper analyzes the ecological problems in urban migration, and the corresponding approaches in order to promote ecological environment construction of new cities and give an impetus to sustainable development of the whole human settlements in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

  6. Legal study on water environmental protection of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG He

    2007-01-01

    Water environment security of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area has become a more extensive concern since the impoundment of the reservoir. This paper describes the existing water environmental hazards and defects in current legal system for water environmental protection in this area, and also discusses their possible causes and potential problems in the future based on first hand materials and other literature. According to the theories of integrated river basin management and environmental equity principle, legal proposals are put forward, which include building an unitary legal system dedicated to the Reservoir Area, setting up a basin authority of the Yangtze River to preside over the resources protection and development, using interests' compensation system to solve interest conflicts among different reaches, and making concrete regulations to direct public participation in water environmental security protection of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  7. Three-Gorge Dam influences wetland macrophytes in middle and lower reaches of Yangtze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dongting Lake, located in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze, is regarded as a lake during the water swelling period and a continent in the ebbing period. The construction of the Three-Gorge Dam has influenced the water level of Dongting Lake and the growth of wetland macrophytes in the area. In this study, the growth of main species of wetland macrophytes, such as Carex and Phragmites at Dongting Lake, was observed, and the hydraulic gradient, one of the main factors dominating the abundance and distribution of wetland macrophytes, was also studied at six stations in Dongting Lake area and the effect of the Three-Gorge Dam construction on the growth of wetland macrophytes was observed.

  8. Planning and design of a green city in Kaixian for population relocation of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wei; JIANG Jia-long; John KOCH-SCHULTE; Neol LEE

    2008-01-01

    We describe the green space system planning and design of a new Kaixian City for migrants in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of P.R.China. The goal of the project was to provide a high quality settlement for migrants relocated from the old Kaixian City that had a history of over one thousand years and from other places with different traditional cultures. Our efforts focused on conceiving affordable strategies to increase green areas, improve waterfront landscapes, deal with water level fluctuation,integrate diverse folk cultures, and encourage bicycling as an environmentally-friendly form of urban transportation.The new city is anticipated to benefit from the green space systems with an improved eco-environment, enriched tourism resources, cheap landscaping costs, relief from traffic pressure, and in other ways. The planning philosophies employed could be useful in the engineering and construction of other cities in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.

  9. Statement of Henry M. Ramirez, Chairman, Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for Spanish Speaking People, Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, July 23, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Henry M.

    On July 23, 1973, Dr. Henry M. Ramirez, Chariman of the Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for Spanish Speaking People, spoke before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. Dr. Ramirez outlined why the Cabinet Committee is needed, gave examples of the Committee's accomplishments, and discussed future plans to assure that…

  10. Peştera Liliecilor (Liliecilor Cave from the Olteţului Gorges. Mineralogical data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Marincea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of RX and IR analyses we emphasize an associations of minerals in Peştera Liliecilor (Liliecilor Cave from the Olteţului Gorges made up by hydroxylapatite,carbonate-hydroxylapatite, ardealite, brushite and gypsum as the main minerals and quartz and illite as secondary minerals. In the final part of the paper, the authors present some opinions about the possible genesis of the mineral species.

  11. FLUVIAL PROCESSES IN THE LOWER JINGJIANG RIVER: IMPACT OF THE THREE GORGES RESERVOIR IMPOUNDMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun SHAO; Hong WANG; Zhaoyin WANG

    2005-01-01

    Sediment supply to the lower Jingjiang River will be subject to substantial reduction after the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, which could result in an excess of carrying capacity and serious bank erosions in the downstream alluvial channel, threatening the bank protection works and the safety of the Jingjiang Dyke. This paper presents a summary of research works concerning the fluvial processes in the lower Jingjiang River and the possible impact of the Three Gorges Reservoir impoundment on the variation of its channel pattern. Three different predictions have been put forward by researchers: 1) the Jingjiang River will evolve towards a more sinuous, meandering channel pattern, with extensive bank erosion taking place along the river; 2) the river channel will be straightened and broadened because no point bar can be formed due to reduced sediment supply while bank erosion develops in the concave bank, and 3) this river reach will maintain its present channel pattern without significant change, although the sinuosity may be slightly reduced, since: a) the Three Gorges Reservoir mainly intercept sediment particles with sizes larger than 0.025mm, and b) the complex interaction between the Yangtze River and the Dongting Lake helps to reduce the negative effect of channel erosion through certain self-adjusting mechanism in fluvial processes. Discrepancy between these predictions shows that further research efforts are needed to understand the impact of Three Gorges Reservoir operation on the downstream fluvial processes. Meanwhile, there is an urgent need to closely monitor future development in the fluvial processes of the Jingjiang River and its influence on the safety of the Jingjiang Dykes.

  12. Static and Dynamic Damage Analysis of Mass Concrete in Hydropower House of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马震岳; 张存慧

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes a 3D numerical model for 15# hydropower house of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) and performs a nonlinear static and dynamic damage analysis. In this numerical model, a coupling model of finite and infinite elements for simulating infinite foundation of hydropower station is adopted. A plastic-damage model based on continuum damage mechanics, which includes the softening and damage behavior under tension is considered for the concrete material. The dynamic equilibrium equations of moti...

  13. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sean Doody

    Full Text Available In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2, for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25 for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general.

  14. Assessment and application of potential food provisioning services of ecosystems in Three-gorge areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongzhong; Gao, Yanghua; Zhu, Lifen

    2006-08-01

    The assessment of food provisioning services of ecosystems in Three-gorge areas is helpful for better understanding the function of ecosystems in local human well-beings. In this paper, process-based models are used to assess the potential food provisioning services derived from agriculture ecosystems and grassland ecosystems, a modifying model along with normal woodlands and a set of modifying coefficients is built to assess the potential food from woodland ecosystems. A set of power regression models based on environment factors are built to estimate the potential fish production from water ecosystems. Land cover data stemmed from Landsat TM images, as well as other natural and social-economic data in 1km resolution such as temperature, precipitation, and DEM, are used to support these assessment models. It shows that the four ecosystems in Three-gorge areas can provide 85.98×10 12 calories heat, 2.49 billion kilograms protein and 823.4 million kilograms fat. Human carrying capacity model under the balance nutrition pattern is built in this paper, which results in two key findings: ecosystems in Three-gorge areas can feed 45.92 million people under wealthy living standard which is 1.53 times of the current population, and the sustainable population is from 9.69 to 36.23 million under that living standard. Multi-scale population pressure model is built to calculate the population pressure index in Three-gorge areas. The grain for green pressure index, a multivariate linear weighed model, is used to determine the spatial distribution of farmland fit for grain for green and fit for protecting.

  15. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303

  16. Application of a bioenergetics model for hatchery production: Largemouth bass fed commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csargo, Isak J.; Michael L. Brown,; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Fish bioenergetics models based on natural prey items have been widely used to address research and management questions. However, few attempts have been made to evaluate and apply bioenergetics models to hatchery-reared fish receiving commercial feeds that contain substantially higher energy densities than natural prey. In this study, we evaluated a bioenergetics model for age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoidesreared on four commercial feeds. Largemouth bass (n ≈ 3,504) were reared for 70 d at 25°C in sixteen 833-L circular tanks connected in parallel to a recirculation system. Model performance was evaluated using error components (mean, slope, and random) derived from decomposition of the mean square error obtained from regression of observed on predicted values. Mean predicted consumption was only 8.9% lower than mean observed consumption and was similar to error rates observed for largemouth bass consuming natural prey. Model evaluation showed that the 97.5% joint confidence region included the intercept of 0 (−0.43 ± 3.65) and slope of 1 (1.08 ± 0.20), which indicates the model accurately predicted consumption. Moreover model error was similar among feeds (P = 0.98), and most error was probably attributable to sampling error (unconsumed feed), underestimated predator energy densities, or consumption-dependent error, which is common in bioenergetics models. This bioenergetics model could provide a valuable tool in hatchery production of largemouth bass. Furthermore, we believe that bioenergetics modeling could be useful in aquaculture production, particularly for species lacking historical hatchery constants or conventional growth models.

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  18. Water Environmental Issue in Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Its Protective Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By single-factor-index evaluation on water of earth's surface, the result shows that the water-quality keep Ⅲ grade on the whole in Yang-tze River, Jia-ling River and Wu River of the Three Gorges reservoir, it occurs no obviously deteriorated tendency in 2005. But some sub-grade rivers are polluted badly, cross-section amount of water-quality Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ only has 64 percent, their water-quality is bad. It is clear that the gap between the water environmental state and the object of keeping water- quality Ⅱ in the Three Gorges reservoir is very big. This paper thoroughly analyses the problems and causes of the water environment, points out that the main factors resulting in the water pollution in recent years include the industrial sewage, solid wastes, soil and water loss, domestic rubbish and agricultural non-point source pollution, and finally puts forward the countermeasures for protecting of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  19. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Industrial Development in Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the general situation of the research area,the SWOT analysis is applied to study the strengths,weakness,opportunities and threats of the industrial development in Three Gorges Reservoir area. The strengths are represented by the following four aspects:abundant agricultural resources,rich tourism resources,rich mineral resources and rich hydro energy. The weaknesses are analyzed from the following three aspects:the backward infrastructure,the acute conflict of the emigration of manufactures and the poor exploitation of advantageous resources. The opportunities of industrial development,which cover the opportunities bought by the guidance of national policies and preferential policies,by the improvement of traffic conditions in the reservoir area and by the completion and operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir Project. From the analysis of poor investment environment,irrational industrial structure and serious shortage of capitals,the threats of the industrial development are analyzed. In order to promote further the industrial development of the Three Gorges Reservoir area,the countermeasures are put forward. In the first place,optimizing the industrial structure and developing leading industries;in the second place,strengthening the construction of infrastructure and improving the investment environment;in the third place,optimizing human resources so as to provide intellectual support for industrial development.

  20. Path Choice and Fiscal Policies of Three Gorges Reservoir in Post-Migration Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The developmental status of the Three Gorges Reservoir in the post-migration era is expounded.Firstly,positioning of ecological reservoir is incompatible with its development;secondly,adopting the market selection and government-directed migration mode;thirdly,tough task in the post-migration era;fourthly,prevention of geological disasters and environmental management.After the analyses,the adoptable approaches for developing the Three Gorges Reservoir are concluded.The approaches cover supporting migrants and trying to stabilize and enrich them;supporting the development of industries around the reservoir;intensifying the construction of ecological environment in the reservoir;and strengthening the support of central fiscal policies.The policies and suggestions on developing the Three Gorges Reservoir from the perspective of fiscal policies are put forward.Firstly,they include the fiscal and tax measures on prompting ecological migration and stabilizing and enriching migrants.The specific measures include the fiscal and tax measures on promoting the employment of migrants;measures on providing social security for migrants;fiscal subsidies and preferential policies and increasing the input on solving the problems left after reconstruction.Secondly,they are the fiscal and tax measures for promoting the industrial development in the reservoir.The specific contents include displaying the functions of industrial fund to optimize the industrial structure of the reservoir;providing preferential policies on taxes to attract capitals and intensifying the strength of local finance.

  1. A new horned crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene hominid sites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Brochu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fossil record reveals surprising crocodile diversity in the Neogene of Africa, but relationships with their living relatives and the biogeographic origins of the modern African crocodylian fauna are poorly understood. A Plio-Pleistocene crocodile from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, represents a new extinct species and shows that high crocodylian diversity in Africa persisted after the Miocene. It had prominent triangular "horns" over the ears and a relatively deep snout, these resemble those of the recently extinct Malagasy crocodile Voay robustus, but the new species lacks features found among osteolaemines and shares derived similarities with living species of Crocodylus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The holotype consists of a partial skull and skeleton and was collected on the surface between two tuffs dated to approximately 1.84 million years (Ma, in the same interval near the type localities for the hominids Homo habilis and Australopithecus boisei. It was compared with previously-collected material from Olduvai Gorge referable to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis places the new form within or adjacent to crown Crocodylus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new crocodile species was the largest predator encountered by our ancestors at Olduvai Gorge, as indicated by hominid specimens preserving crocodile bite marks from these sites. The new species also reinforces the emerging view of high crocodylian diversity throughout the Neogene, and it represents one of the few extinct species referable to crown genus Crocodylus.

  2. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, US Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  3. Data in support of manuscript "Evaluation of Chemical Control for Invasive Crayfish at a Warmwater Fish Production Hatchery"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (less than or equal to 24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Data included are: Collection location and size of test organisms; Test chemical concentrations and recovery; Mortality and effect-based responses of test organisms; Water quality of test solutions

  4. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Washington Department of Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  5. Pathogenic bacteria isolated from disease outbreaks in shellfish hatcheries. First description of Vibrio neptunius as an oyster pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Susana; Romalde, Jesús L; Montes, Jaime; Barja, Juan L

    2005-11-28

    Shellfish hatcheries are often affected by disease outbreaks. Three such episodes were investigated in different Galician hatcheries in order to establish the relationship between present microbiota and mortalities. Isolates were obtained from various parts of the hatcheries. Experimental tests for pathogenicity were carried out in microscale experiments using selected strains on Ostrea edulis larvae. The pathogenicity of 1 strain from each outbreak was demonstrated and shown to cause high mortalities (ranging from 98.5 to 100%) in 72 to 96 h after inoculation of larval cultures. All 3 strains belong to the genus Vibrio. One of the strains was identified as Vibrio neptunius and is the first description of this species as a molluscan pathogen. The other 2 strains showed low similarity with the Vibrio species analysed and may constitute new species within this genus.

  6. Wynoochee Hydropower/Fish Hatchery Study: Draft Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    annual energy output of 37,400 MWH, and 1 October 1981 power values prepared by the San Francisco Regional Office of the FERC. The average annual power...seepage would pro- hatchery outlet during critical Vide seme flow in the reach at all times. loa flow periods (April- Juane ). With the provision of...fisheries shouild be for pumping water," Gov. RayAs -fsaid. In a letter to Col, Leon Moraski fully considered at all levels "The unique opportunity this of

  7. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project : Combined-Planning & Design and Operations & Maintenance Reports, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.

    2002-12-31

    Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2000 Combined Maintenance and Operations (O&M) and Planning and Design (P&D) contract is hereby completed based on this annual report patterned after the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration. Primary project activities focused on completion of the Northwest Power Planning Council Step-3 process that: (1) Accepted final design, (2) Authorized a capital construction amount of $16,050,000, and (3) Authorized contractor selection, and (4) Provided construction site dedication, and (5) Implemented construction activities over an anticipated 2-year period of July 2000 through October 2002.

  8. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303

  9. Effects of hatchery fish density on emigration, growth, survival, and predation risk of natural steelhead parr in an experimental stream channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Christopher P.; Riley, Stephen C.; Berejikian, Barry A.

    2011-01-01

    Hatchery supplementation of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss raises concerns about the impacts on natural populations, including reduced growth and survival, displacement, and increased predation. The potential risks may be density dependent.We examined how hatchery stocking density and the opportunity to emigrate affect the responses of natural steelhead parr in an experimental stream channel and after 15 d found no density-dependent effects on growth, emigration, or survival at densities ranging from 1-6 hatchery parr/m2. The opportunity for steelhead parr to emigrate reduced predation by coastal cutthroat trout O. clarkii clarkii on both hatchery and natural steelhead parr. The cutthroat trout exhibited a type-I functional response (constant predation rate with increased prey density) for the hatchery and composite populations. In contrast, the predation rate on natural parr decreased as hatchery stocking density increased. Supplementation with hatchery parr at any experimental stocking density reduced the final natural parr density. This decline was explained by increased emigration fromthe supplemented groups. Natural parr had higher mean instantaneous growth rates than hatchery parr. The proportion of parr emigrating decreased as parr size increased over successive experimental trials. Smaller parr had lower survival and suffered higher predation. The final density of the composite population, a measure of supplementation effectiveness, increased with the hatchery steelhead stocking rate. Our results indicate that stocking larger hatchery parr (over 50 d postemergence) at densities within the carrying capacity would have low short-term impact on the growth, survival, and emigration of natural parr while increasing the density of the composite population; in addition, a stocking density greater than 3 fish/m2 might be a good starting point for the evaluation of parr stocking in natural streams.

  10. BACTERIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF HATCHERIES FLUFF AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deeba, H. Afzal, M. Siddique and F. M. Khan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 100 fluff samples were collected from five hatcheries located in and around Faisalabad. After isolation of different bacteria in the hatcheries fluff their sensitivity to Norfloxacin, Gentamicin, Flumequine, Chloramphenicol, Neomycin, Ampicillin and Erythromycin was determined. Similarly, the susceptibility of the bacterial isolates for three disinfectants (EWABO ALDEKOL, TH4 and BROMOSEPT and three spray sanitizers (Sani squad. Sanitol and TH4 was also observed. The results indicated that the occurrence of different bacterial species among 148 isolates was: Escherichia coli 62 (41.89%, Paratyphoid salmonellae 24 (16.22%, Salmonella pullorum 3 (2.03%, Proteus mirabelis 2(1.35%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4(2.70%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 2(1.35%, Streptococcus faecalis 4 (2.70%, Staphylococcus aureus 22(14.8%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 7 (4.73% and Bacillus subtilis 18 (12.16%. The in vitro sensitivity of the isolates was highest for Norfloxacin (91.89% and the lowest for Erythromycin (16.89 %. The bacterial isolates (Salmonella pullorum, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus faecalis were 100 percent susceptible for all the three disinfectants. Efficacy of sprays Sani Squad and TH4 was 100 percent for some of the bacterial isolates e.g. Salmonella pullorum, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The efficacy of spray sanitol was more than 60 percent for some of the bacterial isolates including E. coli, Salmonella pullorum and Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. Genetic diversity of culturable Vibrio in an Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tzu Nin; Bolch, Christopher J S

    2015-09-17

    Bacillary necrosis associated with Vibrio species is the common cause of larval and spat mortality during commercial production of Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. A total of 87 randomly selected Vibrio isolates from various stages of rearing in a commercial mussel hatchery were characterised using partial sequences of the ATP synthase alpha subunit gene (atpA). The sequenced isolates represented 40 unique atpA genotypes, overwhelmingly dominated (98%) by V. splendidus group genotypes, with 1 V. harveyi group genotype also detected. The V. splendidus group sequences formed 5 moderately supported clusters allied with V. splendidus/V. lentus, V. atlanticus, V. tasmaniensis, V. cyclitrophicus and V. toranzoniae. All water sources showed considerable atpA gene diversity among Vibrio isolates, with 30 to 60% of unique isolates recovered from each source. Over half (53%) of Vibrio atpA genotypes were detected only once, and only 7 genotypes were recovered from multiple sources. Comparisons of phylogenetic diversity using UniFrac analysis showed that the culturable Vibrio community from intake, header, broodstock and larval tanks were phylogenetically similar, while spat tank communities were different. Culturable Vibrio associated with spat tank seawater differed in being dominated by V. toranzoniae-affiliated genotypes. The high diversity of V. splendidus group genotypes detected in this study reinforces the dynamic nature of microbial communities associated with hatchery culture and complicates our efforts to elucidate the role of V. splendidus group bacteria in vibriosis.

  12. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toms C. Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV, Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae.

  13. Nursery production of hatchery-reared milkfish, Chanos chanos in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure stable supply of milkfish, Chanos chanos fingerlings for stocking in ponds or cageswhere they will be reared until harvestable size, nursery production of hatchery-reared milkfish fry inearthen ponds and fed solely on natural food (periphyton was developed. Trials were conducted using500 m2 earthen ponds during the dry and wet months. The ponds were prepared and added withfertilizers in order to enhance the production of natural food. Hatchery-reared milkfish fry were stockedat densities ranging 20 – 39 fry/m2. At least a month (< 40 days after stocking, the fry reached thefingerling stage (2.59 – 4.63 g with survival rates of 68.6% - 81.0%. There was better productionduring the dry months due to abundant supply of natural food, although it was also possible to obtaingood production during the wet months when pond conditions are favorable. This strategy of rearingmilkfish fry in nursery ponds using natural food could be a viable and inexpensive technique inmaintaining sustainable milkfish aquaculture.

  14. Role of shellfish hatchery as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Claudio D; Rojas, Rodrigo; Garrido, Marcela; Geisse, Julieta; González, Gerardo

    2013-09-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of resistant bacteria in florfenicol-treated and untreated scallop larval cultures from a commercial hatchery and to characterize some selected florfenicol-resistant strains. Larval cultures from untreated and treated rearing tanks exhibited percentages of copiotrophic bacteria resistant to florfenicol ranging from 0.03% to 10.67% and 0.49-18.34%, respectively, whereas florfenicol resistance among oligotrophic bacteria varied from 1.44% to 35.50% and 3.62-95.71%, from untreated and treated larvae, respectively. Florfenicol resistant microbiota from reared scallop larvae mainly belonged to the Pseudomonas and Pseudoalteromonas genus and were mainly resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and co-trimoxazole. This is the first study reporting antimicrobial resistant bacteria associated to a shellfish hatchery and the results suggest that a continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance even in absence of antibacterial therapy is urgently required to evaluate potential undesirable consequences on the surrounding environments.

  15. Pathogenicity testing of shellfish hatchery bacterial isolates on Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Robyn M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Elston, Ralph A; Herwig, Russell P

    2004-03-10

    Bacterial diseases are a major cause of larval mortality in shellfish hatcheries. Even with proper sanitation measures, bacterial pathogens cannot be eliminated in all cases. The pathogenicity of bacteria isolated from Pacific Northwest shellfish hatcheries to Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae was investigated. We found 3 highly pathogenic strains and 1 mildly pathogenic strain among 33 isolates tested. These strains appear to be members of the genus Vibrio. Although there have been many studies of bivalve bacterial pathogens, a standard method to assess bacterial pathogenicity in bivalve larvae is needed. Thus, we developed 2 methods using either 15 ml conical tubes or tissue culture plates that were employed for rapidly screening bacterial strains for pathogenicity to Pacific oyster larvae. The tissue culture plates worked well for screening both mildly pathogenic strains and LD50 (lethal dose) assays. This method allowed for non-intrusive and non-destructive observation of the oyster larvae with a dissecting microscope. The LD50 for the 3 highly pathogenic strains ranged between 1.6 and 3.6 x 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) ml(-1) after 24 h and between 3.2 x 102 and 1.9 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1) after 48 h.

  16. Characterization of estuary use by Nisqually Hatchery Chinook based on Otolith analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind-Null, Angie M.; Larsen, Kim A.; Reisenbichler, Reg

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preservation and extensive restoration of the Nisqually delta ecosystem are planned to assist in recovery of the stock. A pre-restoration baseline including life history types, estuary residence time, growth rates, and habitat use are needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon to restoration. Otolith analysis has been selected as a means to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually estuary. Over time, the information from the otolith analyses will be used to: 1) determine if estuary restoration actions cause changes to the population structure (i.e. frequency of the different life history trajectories) for Nisqually River Chinook, 2) compare pre- and post- restoration residence times and growth rates, 3) suggest whether estuary restoration yields substantial benefits for Chinook salmon through (1) and (2), and 4) compare differences in habitat use between hatchery and wild Chinook to further protect ESA listed stock. Otoliths are calcium carbonate structures in the inner ear that grow in proportion to the overall growth of the fish. Daily growth increments can be measured so date and fish size at various habitat transitions can be back-calculated. Careful analysis of otolith microstructure can be used to determine the number of days that a fish resided in the estuary as a juvenile (increment counts), size at entrance to the estuary, size at egress, and the amount that the fish grew while in the estuary. Juvenile hatchery Chinook salmon are generally released as smolts that move quickly through the delta with much shorter residence times than for many wild fish and are not dependent on the delta as nursery habitat (Myers and Horton 1982; Mace 1983; Levings et al. 1986). The purpose of this study is to use and

  17. 智能控制加热柜热泵系统研究%Research of intelligent control system of heat pump heating cabinet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华

    2014-01-01

    文章提出一种智能控制加热柜热泵系统的实现方案,介绍了智能控制加热柜热泵系统的结构形式,分析了智能控制加热柜热泵系统和采用的智能控制技术,在此基础上重点阐述了智能控制加热柜热泵系统设计及GPRS计算机远程监控技术的实现。%This article proposes an implementation of intelligent control cabinet heating heat pump system.The structure in the form of intelligent control cabinet heating heat pump system.Analyzing intelligent control systems and the use of heat pump heating cabinet intelligent control technology.On this basis, focusing on the intelligent control cabinet heat pump heating system design and GPRS remote monitoring technology to achieve.

  18. Effect of the Panel Type and Panel Thickness on Moment Resistance of Screw-Jointed Corner Joints and Stiffness of Four-Member Cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yuksel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of panel type and panel thickness on moment resistance of L-type corner joints and deflection characteristics of four-member cabinets. Three different wood based panels, namely particleboard (PB, medium density fiberboard (MDF, and okoume (Aucoumea klaineana plywood (PW were utilized in two different thickness levels for constructing the four-member cabinets. All corner joints and cases were assembled with 4 x 50 mm screws without adhesive. The four member cabinets were tested under static load by supporting at three points. Furthermore, moment resistances of the same type jointed L-type corner joints were tested under static compression and tension loads. Test results indicated that the highest stiffness values were observed with 15 mm PW. This showed that 15 mm plywood could be used instead of 18 mm PW. 16 mm PB and MDF cabinets yielded higher stiffness values than those of 18 mm MDF, PW, and PB. Test results also indicated that 15 mm and 16 mm thick panels can have nearly the same stiffness as 18 mm thick panel.

  19. Operation Problems and Solutions for Switch Cabinets and Looped Network Cabinets%开关柜、环网柜设备运行问题分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨堃

    2015-01-01

    12~40.5kV开关柜、环网柜设备是电网系统中运行数量最多的一次变电设备,近年来,开关柜、环网柜事故频发,造成了经济损失、人员伤亡等不好的社会影响.通过对在运开关柜、环网柜开展全面排查、治理,发现其事故隐患及固有缺陷主要集中在接线方式、内部电弧释放能力、内部绝缘、发热和防误闭锁等方面,通过制定针对性的对策,开关柜、环网柜事故数量大大减少,电网运行可靠性稳步提升.%12~40.5kV switch cabinets and looped network cabinets of are the largest number of primary substation devices. In recent years,there were many accidents of these devices,which cause negative social influence including economic loss and casualties.Based on comprehensive examination,it is found that the accident potential and inherent defects are mainly concentrated on connection mode,internal arc release ability,internal insulation,overheating,and error-locking preventing.The number of accidents greatly is reduced and the reliability of power system operation is improved significantly through specific countermeasures.

  20. Use of UV-C radiation to disinfect non-critical patient care items: a laboratory assessment of the Nanoclave Cabinet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Ginny

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The near-patient environment is often heavily contaminated, yet the decontamination of near-patient surfaces and equipment is often poor. The Nanoclave Cabinet produces large amounts of ultraviolet-C (UV-C radiation (53 W/m2 and is designed to rapidly disinfect individual items of clinical equipment. Controlled laboratory studies were conducted to assess its ability to eradicate a range of potential pathogens including Clostridium difficile spores and Adenovirus from different types of surface. Methods Each test surface was inoculated with known levels of vegetative bacteria (106 cfu/cm2, C. difficile spores (102-106 cfu/cm2 or Adenovirus (109 viral genomes, placed in the Nanoclave Cabinet and exposed for up to 6 minutes to the UV-C light source. Survival of bacterial contaminants was determined via conventional cultivation techniques. Degradation of viral DNA was determined via PCR. Results were compared to the number of colonies or level of DNA recovered from non-exposed control surfaces. Experiments were repeated to incorporate organic soils and to compare the efficacy of the Nanoclave Cabinet to that of antimicrobial wipes. Results After exposing 8 common non-critical patient care items to two 30-second UV-C irradiation cycles, bacterial numbers on 40 of 51 target sites were consistently reduced to below detectable levels (≥ 4.7 log10 reduction. Bacterial load was reduced but still persisted on other sites. Objects that proved difficult to disinfect using the Nanoclave Cabinet (e.g. blood pressure cuff were also difficult to disinfect using antimicrobial wipes. The efficacy of the Nanoclave Cabinet was not affected by the presence of organic soils. Clostridium difficile spores were more resistant to UV-C irradiation than vegetative bacteria. However, two 60-second irradiation cycles were sufficient to reduce the number of surface-associated spores from 103 cfu/cm2 to below detectable levels. A 3 log10 reduction in

  1. Savoirs mondains, savoirs savants : les femmes et leurs cabinets de curiosités au siècle des Lumières

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Gargam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans la France des Lumières, la culture de la curiosité est un phénomène de mode mais surtout un jeu social et intellectuel. La présente étude entend retracer l’histoire d’une trentaine de cabinets féminins de curiosité tenus à cette époque. Des femmes fortunées de l’aristocratie et de la bourgeoisie parisienne et provinciale ont alors constitué sous l’emprise de leur libido sciendi des cabinets d’alchimie, de minéralogie, de physique‑chimie, d’histoire naturelle et d’anatomie naturelle et artificielle. Ces cabinets obéissent à une typologie particulière. Il en existe deux catégories : les cabinets d’amateurs, constitués pour la parade et le spectacle des visiteurs et fonctionnant comme de véritables écoles de plaisirs intellectuels et éducatifs ; les cabinets à finalité scientifique et didactique, formés par des savantes expérimentées qui se livrent dans leurs laboratoires à des recherches personnelles et expérimentales au nom des progrès de la science médicale et de l’instruction publique. La réflexion porte aussi sur le fonctionnement de ces cabinets privés de curiosité, particulièrement sur leur mode de constitution, leur décor intérieur ainsi que sur le contenu des collections qui nécessitaient certaines techniques d’organisation, d’acquisition et de conservation communes à celles de leurs homologues masculins.During the Enlightenment in France, curiosity culture constituted both a fashion and an intellectual and social game.  This article explores thirty cabinets of  curiosities run by women during this period. Wealthy women from the Parisiain and provincial aristocracy and middle classes organized cabinets in alchemy, mineralogy, physics and chemistry, natural history and biology studies. These cabinets can be divided into two distinct categories. The first represented amateur interests; they were developed for show and served as schools for intellectual and

  2. Optimization and investigation of the effect of velocity distribution of air curtains on the performance of food refrigerated display cabinets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, XueHong; Chang, ZhiJuan; Ma, QiuYang; Lu, YanLi; Yin, XueMei

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on improving the performance of the vertical open refrigerated display cabinets (VORDC) by optimizing the structure of deflector, which is affected by inlet velocity and velocity distribution of air curtains. The results show that the temperature of products located at the front and at the rear reduces as the increases of inlet velocity of air curtains. The increase of the inlet velocity of air curtains can strengthen the disturbance inside the VORDC, and also decrease the temperature of products inside the VORDC; the increase of the outer velocity of air curtain will exacerbate the disturbance outside the VORDC and decrease air curtain's performance. The present study can provide a theoretical foundation for the design of VORDC.

  3. Relationship between landslides and lithology in the Three Gorges Reservoir area based on GIS and information value model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caiyan WU; Jianping QIAO

    2009-01-01

    Development of landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is related to many factors. Lithology is one of the indispensable internal factors, besides relative height differences, slope gradients and slope profiles. We used an information value model with geographical information system (GIS) technology to study how lithology contributes to the development of landslides from the Yunyang to Wushan segment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area and we quantify the relationship between lithology and development of landslides. Via an investigation of 205 examples of past landslides, we found that the lithology of J3s, J3p and T2b contributes most. Our research results can provide a valid basis for future construction in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.

  4. Energetics of Ortho-7 (oxime drug translocation through the active-site gorge of tabun conjugated acetylcholinesterase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sinha

    Full Text Available Oxime drugs translocate through the 20 Å active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase in order to liberate the enzyme from organophosphorus compounds' (such as tabun conjugation. Here we report bidirectional steered molecular dynamics simulations of oxime drug (Ortho-7 translocation through the gorge of tabun intoxicated enzyme, in which time dependent external forces accelerate the translocation event. The simulations reveal the participation of drug-enzyme hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and water bridges between them. Employing nonequilibrium theorems that recovers the free energy from irreversible work done, we reconstruct potential of mean force along the translocation pathway such that the desired quantity represents an unperturbed system. The potential locates the binding sites and barriers for the drug to translocate inside the gorge. Configurational entropic contribution of the protein-drug binding entity and the role of solvent translational mobility in the binding energetics is further assessed.

  5. Energetics of Ortho-7 (oxime drug) translocation through the active-site gorge of tabun conjugated acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Vivek; Ganguly, Bishwajit; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar

    2012-01-01

    Oxime drugs translocate through the 20 Å active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase in order to liberate the enzyme from organophosphorus compounds' (such as tabun) conjugation. Here we report bidirectional steered molecular dynamics simulations of oxime drug (Ortho-7) translocation through the gorge of tabun intoxicated enzyme, in which time dependent external forces accelerate the translocation event. The simulations reveal the participation of drug-enzyme hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and water bridges between them. Employing nonequilibrium theorems that recovers the free energy from irreversible work done, we reconstruct potential of mean force along the translocation pathway such that the desired quantity represents an unperturbed system. The potential locates the binding sites and barriers for the drug to translocate inside the gorge. Configurational entropic contribution of the protein-drug binding entity and the role of solvent translational mobility in the binding energetics is further assessed.

  6. [Study on species and distribution of flora of national rare and endangered medicinal plant in the Three Gorges area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    According to the China Plant Red Data Book and National Key Protected Wild Plants, the distribution of the rare and endangered plants and national conservative plants in the Three Gorges area were investigated and statistically analyzed. Its floristic composition and characteristics of geographical distribution were explored. As a result, a total of 97 species of medicinal flora belonging to rare and endangered national protection plants were found in the Three Gorges area. They come from 81 genera of 46 families. Their vertical distribution is obvious and horizontal distribution has discontinuous overlap. There are many ancient relict medicinal plants in the Three Gorges area. These medicinal plants have obvious temperate characteristics, and are easily found at warm and moist ravines and hillsides; The proportion of tree is much higher than that of herb, vine, shrub and fern. Most of them belong to specific and monotypic genera.

  7. Optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices using Taguchi methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavalkar, S P; Bhole, A G; Babu, P V Vijay; Prakash, Chandra

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for the reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices in the context of M. rosenbergii. The fresh water in the development of fisheries needs to be of suitable quality. Lack of desirable quality in available fresh water is generally the confronting restraint. On the Indian subcontinent, groundwater is the only source of raw water, having varying degree of hardness and thus is unsuitable for the fresh water prawn hatchery practices (M. rosenbergii). In order to make use of hard water in the context of aqua-hatchery, Lime-Soda process has been recommended. The efficacy of the various process parameters like lime, soda ash and detention time, on the reduction of hardness needs to be examined. This paper proposes to determine the parameter settings for the CIFE well water, which is pretty hard by using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal Arrays of Taguchi, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been applied to determine their dosage and analysed for their effect on hardness reduction. The tests carried out with optimal levels of Lime-Soda process parameters confirmed the efficacy of the Taguchi optimisation method. Emphasis has been placed on optimisation of chemical doses required to reduce the total hardness using Taguchi method and ANOVA, to suit the available raw water quality for aqua-hatchery practices, especially for fresh water prawn M. rosenbergii.

  8. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the "naïve" treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the "exposed" treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles.

  9. How do hatcheries influence embryonic development of sea turtle eggs? Experimental analysis and isolation of microorganisms in leatherback turtle eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino-Martinez, Juan; Marco, Adolfo; Quiñones, Liliana; Abella, Elena; Abad, Roberto Muriel; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Many conservation programs consider translocation of turtle nests to hatcheries as a useful technique. The repeated use of the same incubation substrate over several seasons in these hatcheries could, however, be harmful to embryos if pathogens were able to accumulate or if the physical and chemical characteristics of the incubation environment were altered. However, this hypothesis has yet to be tested. We conducted two field experiments to evaluate the effects of hatchery sand and eggshell decay on the embryonic development of leatherback sea turtle eggs in Colombia. We identified the presence of both fungi and bacteria species on leatherback turtle eggs. Sea turtle eggs exposed to previously used hatchery substrates or to decaying eggshells during the first and middle third of the embryonic development produced hatchlings that were smaller and/or weighed less than control eggs. However, this did not negatively influence hatching success. The final third of embryonic development seems to be less susceptible to infection by microorganisms associated with decaying shells. We discuss the mechanisms that could be affecting sea turtle egg development when in contact with fungi. Further studies should seek to understand the infection process and the stages of development in which the fungi are more virulent to the eggs of this critically endangered species.

  10. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the “naïve” treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the “exposed” treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles. PMID:27560932

  11. Scientific and technological progress and innovation of Three Gorges Project%Scientific and technological progress and innovation of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chaoran; Sun Zhiyu

    2011-01-01

    In the design, construction and operation periods of the Three Gorges Project (TGP), great challenges have been met in different fields such as water resources and hydropower project construction, electromechanical equipment manufacture and ecological environment protection. In view of the key techniques and difficulties in the construction period, scientific and technological breakthroughs have been made by the experts and scholars of various fields and a series of innovative achievements are gained, which make the scientific and technological levels in relevant fields improved. Some major innovative achievements in the construction and operation of TGP are enumerated, which are significant for the hydropower project construction and clean energy development in the future in China.

  12. Preliminary project study Cerneux Gorge, Moutier, La Birse - Renewal of concession for water use; Vorprojektstudie Kraftwerk Cerneux Gorge Moutier, La Birse. Erneuerung der Konzession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, A.; Weber, E.; Zimmermann, D.

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a project study for a 180 kW small hydropower plant on the Birse river in Cerneux Gorge, Switzerland. The project foresees a refurbishment of the installation, whose present structures and machinery date back to 1926 and which does not optimally use the water flow and head available. The development of the project is described and technical details of the proposed hydropower installation including its 'rubber dam' - a large rubber tube that can be inflated with water - and the power-plant's turbine and generator are given, as are figures on the plant's planned power production. A fish ladder enables the river fauna to pass round the dam and provides a residual water flow for the river bed between dam and turbine outlet at the same time. Figures are presented on water flow, power generation and investment costs.

  13. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskill, Mark (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Creston National Fish Hatchery, Kalispell, MT)

    2003-03-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 150,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in July 2001 for this objective. Another 120,000 westslope cutthroat eggs were taken from feral fish at Rogers Lake in May of 2001 by the Creston Hatchery crew. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 50,500 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Arlee State Fish Hatchery in December 2001 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring.

  14. Eutrophication investigation and assessment of the Daning River after water storage of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Chenghua; XING Zhiguo; ZHAO Wenqian; WANG Derui; DENG Chunguang; LI Yongjian; XING Mei

    2005-01-01

    The Daning River is a very important tributary in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. It is also a famous scenic spot. Anomalies appeared after water storage of the reservoir in June, 2003. In September, 2003, eutrophication monitoring in the 135-m backwater reach of the Daning River was conducted and the data were simply analyzed. The assessment result is that water body in the segment from Shuanglong to Longmen was mesotrophic or eutrophic. At the same time, the causes of its nutritional change were discussed, and counter-measures have been proposed.

  15. Compensation for Land Loss in Reservoir Resettlement: A Case Study of The Three Gorges Project, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yi-qian; Tan Yan

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies current policies in compensation for land lost due to construction of the Three Gorges project (TGP), China. In the case study of Kaixian County, the value of land in the peri-urban areas is underestimated. Some losses in land are tangible and thus measurable, but some losses are intangible and thus immeasurable. The land available in the resettlement areas is scarce and rarely of equivalent quality. This study suggests that the loss of agricultural land be compensated with alternative land and/or non-land-based livelihood strategies, including part compensation in monetary terms and preferential policies.

  16. Compensation for Land Loss in Reservoir Resettlement: A Case Study of The Three Gorges Project, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYi-qian; TanYan

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies current policies in compensation for land lost due to construction of the Three Gorges project (TGP), China. In the case study of Kaixian County, the value of land in the peri-urban areas is underestimated. Some losses in land are tangible and thus measurable, but some losses are intangible and thus immeasurable. The land available in the resettlement areas is scarce and rarely of equivalent quality. This study suggests that the loss of agricultural land be compensated with alternative land and/or non-land-based livelihood strategies, including part compensation in monetary terms and preferential policies.

  17. Fossil Association from the Lower Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Yangtze Gorges Area, Hubei, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Junfeng; Tsuyoshi KOMIYA; LI Yong; HAN Jian; ZHANG Xingliang; ZHANG Zhifei; OU Qiang; LIU Jianni; SHU Degan; Shigenori MARUYAMA

    2008-01-01

    Apart from previously reported Small Shelly Fossils (SSFs), a macroscopic fossil assemblage, comprising abundant algae, cone-shaped tubular fossil forms, and probable impressions of a megascopic metazoan, comes from the Lower Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area of western Hubei Province, south China. The visible fossils are preserved in thin-laminated siltstone or muddy siltstone intercalated between 8-15 mm-thick carbonate deposits, probably representing sedimentary settings of a constrained local depression in the shallow water carbonate platform during the Early Cambrian Meishucunian Stage. The macroscopic fossil association provides significant fossil evidence about the evolution of life from the late Precambrian to the 'Cambrian explosion' interval.

  18. First study of Vibrios in larval cultures of pullet carpet shell clam (Venerupis corrugata in hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Dubert Pérez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocol for hatchery culture of the pullet carpet shell clam Venerupis corrugata spat is currently under development, as the only reliable means of providing spat to replenish natural beds or to support aquaculture activities. Among other variables, the microbiota has been demonstrated to be critical for successful bivalve culture. Shellfish hatcheries are hindered by fatal outbreaks of disease, regardless the bivalve species. These mass mortalities are mainly caused by opportunistic bacteria belonging to genus Vibrio and constitute one bottleneck for this economic activity. Different species, as V. tubiashii, V. pectenicida, V. splendidus, V. neptunius, V. ostreicida and V. bivalvicida, have been identified as responsible of mortalities in hatchery-reared larvae, affecting a wide range of bivalves. This is the first report of the microbiota associated with larval cultures of the pullet carpet shell clam. We present the results of the microbiological analyses of two larval cultures of pullet carpet shell reared in the Centro de Investigacións Mariñas (CIMA, Xunta de Galicia de Ribadeo (Galicia, NW Spain following the procedures developed in the institution. Each batch, A and B, was obtained from broodstocks collected in natural environment but in different geographical locations, the stock A (SW Galicia and the stock B (NW Galicia. Previous records of mortalities led us to divide each batch in two. One sub-batch (A1 and B1 was cultured following the routine procedures. Antibiotic was experimentally added to the other sub-batch (A2 and B2 with the aim of evaluating the effects on the culturable bacterial population (total marine bacteria and presumptive vibrios and on larval survival. Chloramphenicol, formerly the most commonly used antibiotic in bivalve hatcheries, was supplied with each change of seawater during larval development. Microbiological samples of broodstock, larvae and seawater in culture tanks were taken and processed

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  20. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project; Operations and Maintenance and Planning and Design, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.; Penney, Aaron K. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-12-01

    This report fulfills the contract obligations based on the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2002 annual report combines information from two contracts with a combined value of $3,036,014. Bonneville Power Administration identifies them as follows; (1) Part I--Operations and Maintenance--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4504, and $2,682,635 which includes--Equipment costs of $1,807,105. (2) Part II--Planning and Design--Project No. 1983-35-04, Contract No. 4035, $352,379 for Clearwater Coho Restoration Master Plan development Based on NPPC authorization for construction and operation of NPTH, the annual contracts were negotiated for the amounts shown above under (1) and (2). Construction contracts were handled by BPA until all facilities are completed and accepted.

  1. Crocodilian Nest in a Late Cretaceous Sauropod Hatchery from the Type Lameta Ghat Locality, Jabalpur, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Srivastava

    Full Text Available The well-known Late Cretaceous Lameta Ghat locality (Jabalpur, India provides a window of opportunity to study a large stable, near shore sandy beach, which was widely used by sauropod dinosaurs as a hatchery. In this paper, we revisit the eggs and eggshell fragments previously assigned to lizards from this locality and reassign them to crocodylomorphs. Several features point to a crocodilian affinity, including a subspherical to ellipsoidal shape, smooth, uneven external surface, discrete trapezoid shaped shell units with wide top and narrow base, basal knobs and wedge shaped crystallites showing typical inverted triangular extinction under crossed nicols. The crocodylomorph eggshell material presented in this paper adds to the skeletal data of these most probably Cretaceous-Eocene dryosaurid crocodiles.

  2. Characterization of four lytic transducing bacteriophages of luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolated from shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hatcheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Sanjeevi; Chrisolite, Bagthasingh; Alavandi, Shankar V; Poornima, Modem; Kalaimani, Natarajan; Santiago, T Chinnappan

    2011-12-01

    Four lytic bacteriophages designated as φVh1, φVh2, φVh3, and φVh4 were isolated from commercial shrimp hatcheries, possessing broad spectrum of infectivity against luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolates, considering their potential as biocontrol agent of luminescent bacterial disease in shrimp hatcheries, and were characterized by electron microscopy, genomic analysis, restriction enzyme analysis (REA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Three phages φVh1, φVh2, and φVh4 had an icosahedral head of 60-115 nm size with a long, noncontractile tail of 130-329 × 1-17 nm, belonged to the family Siphoviridae. φVh3 had an icosahedral head (72 ± 5 nm) with a short tail (27 × 12 nm) and belonged to Podoviridae. REA with DraI and PFGE of genomic DNA digested with ScaI and XbaI and cluster analysis of their banding patterns indicated that φVh3 was distinct from the other three siphophages. PFGE-based genome mean size of the four bacteriophages φVh1, φVh2, φVh3, and φVh4 was estimated to be about 85, 58, 64, and 107 kb, respectively. These phages had the property of generalized transduction as demonstrated by transduction with plasmid pHSG 396 with frequencies ranging from 4.1 × 10(-7) to 2 × 10(-9) per plaque-forming unit, suggesting a potential ecological role in gene transfer among aquatic vibrios.

  3. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Makkar

    Full Text Available Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase

  4. EFFECT OF FEEDING COOKED HATCHERY WASTE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan and Bashir Mahmood Bhatti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Raw hatchery waste was cooked with water at 2:1 ratio for 15 minutes and then oven dried at 65C and ground. Hatchery waste meal (HWM thus prepared contained 32% crude protein, 16% ether extract, 0.9% crude fibre, 40% total ash, 11.1% nitrogen free extract, 20% calcium and 0.6 % available phosphorous with no E.Coli and Salmonella. In biological evaluation trail, non significant differences was observed among rations in which HWM replaced the fish meal at 0(A, 25(B, 50(C and 75 (D levels in broiler rations. These rations showed that protein efficiency ratios were 1.68, 1.79, 1.65,and 1.64 apparent biological value 59.96, 60.25, 59.75 and 58.32% respectively, indicating better balance of amino acid in HWM to be replaced with fish meal,. In 6 weeks performance trail, the body weight gains were 1807.69, 1916.39, 1788.39 and 1635.66 gm in A, B, C and D rations, respectively. Whereas, FCR values were 2.59, 2.32, 2.43 and 2.63 in the corresponding groups, which shows no significant difference among all rations. The cost per chick to market age was lowest in ration containing high level of HWM (7.5% and highest in ration containing high level of fish meal (10% indicating maximum replacement of fish meal by HWM in broiler ration is economical. Similarly, slaughtering data revealed no significant difference among all rations in all parameters. It may be concluded that the HWM can completely replace fish meal in commercial broiler rations.

  5. Short-term food restriction followed by controlled refeeding promotes gorging behavior, enhances fat deposition, and diminishes insulin sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Kara L; Ke, Jia-Yu; Lee, Hui-Young; Stout, Michael B; Cole, Rachel M; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I; Belury, Martha A

    2015-07-01

    Rodents are commonly used in food restriction refeeding studies to investigate weight regain. Mice that are rationed food every 24 h may consume all allocated food in a short time (gorge) and therefore undergo a brief well-fed period followed by an extended fasted period until the next day's food allotment. These exaggerated metabolic states are not typical in mice fed ad libitum (nibbling). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the intraday and cumulative metabolic consequences of gorging (induced by food restriction) in mice during controlled refeeding. Accordingly, following a temporary food restriction, mice were fed rations similar to intakes of controls fed ad libitum. Temporary food restriction initiated gorging behavior that persisted during refeeding; consequently, metabolism-related measurements were obtained in the gorging mice during their daily fed and fasted metabolic states. Robust differences in adipose tissue lipogenic and inflammatory gene expression were found in the gorging mice by metabolic state (fed versus fasted). Additionally, despite a reduced cumulative food intake compared to mice fed ad libitum, restriction-induced gorging mice had increased intraabdominal fat accumulation, diminished hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and a gene expression profile favoring lipid deposition. Our findings highlight the intraday differences in gene expression in gorging mice before and after feeding that confound comparisons with mice fed ad libitum, or nibbling. The present study also provides evidence that weight regain following food restriction is associated with cumulative metabolic and behavioral abnormalities in mice.

  6. High voltage switchgear cabinet based on IoT technology%基于物联网的智能高压开关柜设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新波; 方寿贤; 王霄宽; 王红亮; 李小博; 李文静

    2013-01-01

    An intelligent high voltage switchgear cabinet is designed based on IoT (Internet of Things) technologies. Its IED(Intelligent Electronic Device) applies dual-CPU(DSP+ARM) structure,which collects the information from the intelligent monitoring unit via CAN bus/485 bus/ZigBee and communicates with the service center of substation control layer for remote monitoring according to IEC61850 protocol. Its intelligent control unit monitors the binary variables, temperature and humidity of cabinet and displays the states of cabinet via LCD screen/highlighted indictor bars/indictor lights. The control unit is also responsible for the electric operation control of cabinet. Device information is assigned as electronic tag inside the device,which is read and transmitted to the IED of cabinet by the intelligent recognition unit using RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) technology. The received information is further sent to the integrated information platform for device locating and tracking. The intelligent high voltage switchgear cabinet is installed in a substation and operates well.%设计了一种基于物联网技术的智能开关柜.智能开关柜IED采用DSP+ARM双CPU的结构,通过CAN总线、RS-485总线、ZigBee技术等接收智能监测单元监测到的信息,按照IEC61850协议与站控层服务中心进行通信,实现远程监控功能.智能控制单元对柜内开关量、温度、湿度等进行监测,并通过液晶屏、高亮指示条和指示灯显示开关柜状态,同时负责实现开关柜电动操作控制.智能识别单元将设备信息以电子标签的形式预埋在设备中,通过无线射频识别(RFID)技术直接将设备信息传递给智能开关柜IED,由开关柜上传到一体化信息平台,对设备进行准确定位、跟踪.所设计的智能开关柜已成功应用于唐山虹桥变电站,现场工作正常.

  7. Natural Reproductive Success and Demographic Effects of Hatchery-Origin Steelhead in Abernathy Creek, Washington : Annual Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center

    2008-12-01

    Many hatchery programs for steelhead pose genetic or ecological risks to natural populations because those programs release or outplant fish from non-native stocks. The goal of many steelhead programs has been to simply provide 'fishing opportunities' with little consideration given to conservation concerns. For example, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has widely propagated and outplanted one stock of winter-run steelhead (Chambers Creek stock) and one stock of summer-run steelhead (Skamania stock) throughout western Washington. Biologists and managers now recognize potential negative effects can occur when non-native hatchery fish interact biologically with native populations. Not only do non-native stocks pose genetic and ecological risks to naturally spawning populations, but non-native fish stray as returning adults at a much higher rate than do native fish (Quinn 1993). Biologists and managers also recognize the need to (a) maintain the genetic resources associated with naturally spawning populations and (b) restore or recover natural populations wherever possible. As a consequence, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the NOAA Fisheries have been recommending a general policy that discourages the use of non-native hatchery stocks and encourages development of native broodstocks. There are two primary motivations for these recommendations: (1) reduce or minimize potential negative biological effects resulting from genetic or ecological interactions between hatchery-origin and native-origin fish and (2) use native broodstocks as genetic repositories to potentially assist with recovery of naturally spawning populations. A major motivation for the captive-rearing work described in this report resulted from NOAA's 1998 Biological Opinion on Artificial Propagation in the Columbia River Basin. In that biological opinion (BO), NOAA concluded that non-native hatchery stocks of steelhead jeopardize the continued existence of

  8. Evaluation of two release operations at Bonneville Dam on the smolt-to-adult survival of Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery fall Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In March 2004, two groups of coded wire tagged subyearling fall Chinook were released from Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery to directly evaluate the effects of...

  9. Differential performance Of ventral fin clipped and adipose fin clipped/coded-wire tagged spring Chinook Salmon at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Confederated Tribes of the...

  10. WA - Investigation of contaminants in feeds and fish at FWS Pacific Region National Fish Hatcheries and the ramifications to human and ecological health

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Returning adult salmon and steelhead were sampled at three National Fish Hatcheries (NFHs); Warm Springs NFH (spring Chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Quilcene NFH...

  11. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data on the effects of release density on release success in hatchery-reared red king crab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data is from an experiment designed to test the viability of using hatchery reared crab to supplement wild stocks and to determine the optimal density for...

  12. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Hatchery Evaluation Studies (LSRCP) and the Imnaha Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 1999 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies were designed and closely coordinated to provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) biological characteristics, behavior and emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Data collected from these studies are shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). These data are essential to quantify smolt survival rates under the current passage conditions and to evaluate the future recovery strategies that seek to optimize smolt survival through the hydroelectric system. Information shared with the FPC assists with in-season shaping of flow and spill management requests in the Snake River reservoirs. The Bonneville Power Administration and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service contracted the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) to monitor emigration timing and tag 21,200 emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River during the spring emigration period (March 1-June 15) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 1999 marked the eighth year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River and the sixth year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Determine spring emigration timing of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River trap. (2) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on emigration timing. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in

  13. Monitoring Crustal Deformation by GPS and InSAR in the Three Gorge Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The on-going Three Gorges Project (TGP) aims to build one of the largest hydropower stations in the world. Previous investigations have concluded that the reservoir is likely to induce medium-to-intense earthquakes. 23 GPS stations have been established to maintain a geodetic and seismological monitoring network around the reservoir to monitor seismicity and crustal deformation, and to facilitate mitigation activities in case an intense earthquake occurs. The velocity of GPS site was derived from 3 repeated GPS surveys. Meanwhile, another effort has been made to investigate the feasibility of application of satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques in detecting crustal deformation possibly caused by impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It has been made to derive digital elevation models (DEM) using European Remote Sensing (ERS) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. Pairs of ERS SAR images in raw format are processed to generate digital elevation models. This effort will help us evaluate the accuracy of the InSAR techniques for further derivation of background deformation patterns and future detection of reservoir-induced crustal deformation in the area.

  14. Impacts of Soil-Water Conservation in Jialing River on Sedimentation of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Xiaozhang; CAO Shuyou; JIANG Xiaohua

    2006-01-01

    The Jialing River is one of the main tributaries of the Yangtze River. The average annual runoff accounts for 16% and the sediment load 26% of the total at Yichang therefore it's one of the main contributors of sediment to the Three Gorges Reservoir. Ever since 1989, our country has implemented "Yangtze River soil and water conservation" project, Till the end of 1996, altogether 25.8 % of erosion area in Jialing River has been improved after large scale conservation has taken effect. The analysis and comparison between records taken before and after the implementation of soil and water conservation on runoff and sediment yield indicated that the sediment load soil erosion in Jialing river basin has been taken under control to some extent. Amount of annual runoff in main conservations have generally dropped by exponential function. Obvious result has been achieved in Jialing River, efficiency of sand reduction is about 10%-25%. Therefore, sediment to Three Gorges Reservoir is decreased accordingly, and it will be beneficial to take advantage of reservoir's synthetic benefit.

  15. Vegetation Activity Trend and Its Relationship with Climate Change in the Three Gorges Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifeng Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on SPOT/VGT NDVI time series images from 1999 to 2009 in the Three Gorges Area (TGA, we detected vegetation activity and trends using two methods, the Mann-Kendall and Slope tests. The relationships between vegetation activity trends and annual average temperature and annual total precipitation were analyzed using observational data in seven typical meteorological stations. Vegetation activity presents a distinctive uptrend during the study period, especially in Fengjie, Yunyang, Wushan, Wuxi, and Badong counties located in the midstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir. However, in the Chongqing major area (CMA and its surrounding areas and Fuling, Yichang, and part of Wanzhou, vegetation activity shows a decreasing trend as a result of urban expansion. The NDVI has two fluctuation troughs in 2004 and 2006. The annual mean temperature presents a slight overall upward trend, but the annual total precipitation does not present a significant trend. And they almost have no significant correlations with the NDVI. Therefore, temperature and precipitation are not major influences on vegetation activity change. Instead, increasing vegetation cover benefits from a number of environment protection policies and management, and ecological construction is a major factor resulting in the upward trend. In addition, resettlement schemes mitigate the impact of human activity on vegetation activity.

  16. Environmental emigration stress of slope farmland in the Three Gorges area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The project of 'grain for green', to restore woodland and grass by retreating from slopefarmland, as a fundamental measure of eeo-environmental rehabilitation, is being conducted in thereservoir area of the Three Gorges gradually. However, the de-farming of slope farmland will reducethe amount of farmland in de-farmed areas, especially in the areas with concentrated slope farmland,which would cause the problems of environmental emigration. The people who cannot regain enoughfarmland by relocating farmlands within village after de-farming and have to emigrate to other placesare called environmental emigrants or ecological emigrants. In the research, a de-farming stress indexmodel and an environmental emigration model are developed based on GRID data, and the potentialamount of environmental emigration caused by de-farming of slope farmland in the reservoir area issimulated aided with GIS. The simulation indicates that the potential emigration amount caused byde-farming is quite large. When the de-farming stress index reaches 40%, the amount is as large as890,000 people, which is equivalent to the emigrants caused by the submergence of the ThreeGorges reservoir. So it should be considered as a big problem during the eco-environmentalrehabilitation in this area. Some suggestions are raised to tackle the problem. Firstly, the emigrationplan should be included in the de-farming plan. Secondly, some provinces, especially those located inthe lower reaches of the Yangtze River, should accommodate part of the environmental emigrants.

  17. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is 0.87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members’ quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations,with impact coefficient of 0.74. Thus,the problems influencing the performance of organizations,in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,are pointed out. Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  18. Development and research on the GIS-based landslide prediction system of the Three Gorges area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qiao; Tang, Zhongshi; Wang, Haiwei

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we discussed the development and research of the GIS-based landslide prediction system of the Three Gorges area. First of all, we systematically revisited the basic issues of the landslide prediction, including the principles of landslide prediction, the division of sliding-time and sliding-deformation stages, prediction parameters selection and monitoring sites selection. In addition to reviewing the landslide prediction models, this paper detailed discussed an improved model which makes an integration of the results of multiple prediction models. On the basis of those landslide prediction models, we developed a GIS-based landslide prediction system by using Visual C#.NET and ESRI ArcObjects components. Finally, this paper selected two typical landslide cases in the Three Gorges area: the Xintan landslide and the Lianzi Cliff dangerous rock body, and used the system to calculate and analyze. It validated the applicability and accuracy of the prediction models, made a test of the practicality of the system, and achieved good results.

  19. Eskers and bedrock gorges (tunnel valleys in the Pakasaivo area, western Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johansson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet, including the behavior of the ice sheet and meltwater activity, were conducted in the vicinity of the Pakasaivo canyon lake, located in western Finnish Lapland. Pakasaivo itself, a circular basin up to 100 m deep, was formed in the broken bedrock by glacial erosion and meltwater streams. It was originally related to a former subglacial meltwater system, including the deep Keinokursu gorge. Both this gorge and the Pakasaivo canyon lake were formed subglacially duringan early stage of deglaciation. It was characterized by intense meltwater erosion, which in Pakasaivo also seems to have generated a strong whirl. Steep-crested esker ridges were subsequently deposited; subaerial meltwater activity then followed. Finally the meltwaterwas discharged from the ice-dammed lake north of the area and passed through the Pakasaivo canyon to the ice-free areas. This caused additional intense erosion of the canyon floor and walls, and the deep circular basin is highly similar to a plunge pool formed at the base of a cataract.

  20. Geographical Overview of the Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir, China - Geologic Hazards and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir on the Yangtze River, China, has been an ambitious and controversial project. The dam, the largest in the world as of 2008, will provide hydropower, help to manage flood conditions, and increase the navigability of the Yangtze River. However, this massive project has displaced human and animal populations and altered the stability of the banks of the Yangtze, and it may intensify the seismic hazard of the area. It has also hindered archeological investigations in the reservoir and dam area. This report, originally in the form of a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation, gives a short history and overview of the dam construction and subsequent consequences, especially geologic hazards already noted or possible in the future. The report provides photographs, diagrams, and references for the reader's further research - a necessity, because this great undertaking is dynamic, and both its problems and successes continue to evolve. The challenges and consequences of Three Gorges Dam will be closely watched and documented as lessons learned and applied to future projects in China and elsewhere.

  1. Orientation of the monastery churches of Ovčar-Kablar gorge (the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovčar-Kablar gorge is after Fruška Gora Mountain the area with the largest number of old Serbian monasteries. This paper analyzes church orientation of all nine monasteries of the gorge from mathematical-geographical point of view, focusing on the churches of six monasteries that originate from the so called extended Middle Ages. Of these six churches only the axis of the Church of the Holy Trinity is directed exactly to the equinoctial east. Considering the means and methods that the chief architect could use, the orientation of monastery church of Vavedenje (“Presentation of Mary” with the aberration of only 4° can be also regarded as accurate. Moreover, this aberration could be the consequence of a mistake made by the chief architect about the date of equinox, which is also the case with the aberration of the monastery church of Sretenje (“Presentation of Our Lord”. The axis of the monastery church of Blagoveštenje (“Annunciation” is approximately directed to the point of the sunrise of summer solstice. Only the axis of the monastery church of Nikolje (“St Nicholas”, the oldest in the group of six of conditionally medieval churches, is out of the eastern sector of the horizon i.e. only this axis is not oriented in accordance with the ideal-type church rule.

  2. Application of Vegetation Geosynthetic Technique to Slope Stability in the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fei; Wang Yuanhan

    2005-01-01

    The vegetation geosynthetic reinforced slope is one of the new composite structures in civil engineering. It has a series of characteristics, such as low cost, convenient construction, optimal land utilization and flexible structure, and it has been widely used in hydraulic engineering, road, railway and harbor construction. The Three Gorges reservoir bank protection system is a challenging work. As the background, the interaction mechanism of soil and reinforced material has been studied. The test engineering is simulated by the numerical methods. The failure mechanism of the reinforced slope in the process is studied through analyzing the variation of the displacement, stress, plastic failure fields and factor of safety in the changing process of the water level. The reasonable evaluation of the protecting effect and bank slope stability is carried out. The research results could be used in the protective design and construction in the high slope in the Three Gorges reservoir region, and it also could provide reference to other protective engineerings in the littoral area.

  3. Weathering Characteristics of Sloping Fields in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-Tao; XU Fei-Fei; CAI Yi; YANG Da-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of understanding the weathering characteristics of surface layers in purple mudstone sloping fields of the Three Gorges Reservoir area of China, oxide content of major elements, composition of clay minerals, magnetic susceptibility, and difference in weathering characteristics of surface layers under different slope gradients were determined.The results showed that the oxide content of Si, Al, and Fe ranged from 60% to 75% and the weathering coefficient with depth showed no trend along the slope gradient. Also, for gentle (10° and 15°) and intermediate (25° and 40°) slopes the clay relative diffraction peak for kaolinite at the surface between 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm declined with an increase in slope gradient, while the relative diffraction peak for kaolinite in weathered layers on steep slopes (50° and 60°) disappeared altogether. Magnetic susceptibility decreased with increasing depth and, for a given depth layer, decreased with an increase in slope gradient. Analysis of the oxide content, weathering coefficients, clay minerals, and magnetic susceptibility showed that in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, the pedogenesis of the weathering layer in purple mudstone sloping fields was weak with weaker soil formation going from gentle slope to steep slope.

  4. Biostable insect kinin analogs reduce blood meal and disrupt ecdysis in the blood-gorging Chagas’ disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-gorging hemipteran that takes blood meals that are approximately 10 times its body weight. This blood meal is crucial for growth and development and is needed to ensure a successful molt into the next instar. Kinins are a multifunctional family of neuropeptides which hav...

  5. Comparación del crecimiento de Argopecten purpuratus entre cohortes obtenidas de captación de larvas en ambiente natural y de hatchery Comparison of growth among cohorts obtained Argopecten purpuratus larval recruitment in natural and hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Pérez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile los cultivos del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus han sido desarrollados intensivamente a partir de la captación de semillas en ambiente natural y desde principios de 1980 con semillas obtenidas en hatchery. Para aportar información sobre el desempeno de semillas de ostión del norte en este estudio se comparó, mediante ANCOVA, el crecimiento en longitud entre cohortes producidas a partir de semillas de ambiente natural y de hatchery en Tongoy, Chile. Se evaluó la consistencia de esta comparación en distintos anos y estaciones, comparándose parejas de cohortes producidas simultáneamente en los anos 2003 (primavera, 2005 (invierno y 2006 (verano. El análisis estadístico mostró que existen diferencias estadísticas significativas entre cohortes obtenidas en ambiente natural y aquellas obtenidas en hatchery. La prueba de Tukey evidenció diferencias significativas entre CN2003 y CH2003 como también entre CN2005 y CH2005, pero no así entre CN2006 y CH2006. Estas diferencias indican que las cohortes de semillas de ambiente natural crecieron más rápido que las de hatchery. La comparación interanual evidenció diferencias estadísticas significativas. Estos resultados son discutidos a la luz de dos factores: la temperatura de cultivo y la heterocigocidad de la población de cultivo.In Chile crops of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus have been developed intensively from seeds obtained in natural environment, and since 1980 from hatchery's seed, when this technique could be controlled and developed. In order to provide information on the performance of seeds of northern scallops in this study growth in length between cohorts produced from seeds obtained in natural environment (CN and hatchery (CH in Tongoy (Chile was compared using ANCOVA. We assessed the consistency of this comparison in different years and seasons. The compared cohorts are pairs of cohorts produced simultaneously in the years 2003 (spring, 2005

  6. 基于Excel的机柜布线工艺改进研究%Research on Improving the Cabinet Cable Process based on Excel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 李臻; 刘云燕

    2016-01-01

    The calculation is complicated and the cable layout is not clear in electronic cabinet depends on the traditional cable table.Use Excel secondary development technology to improve the calculation mode of cable length and create cable layout table of the electronic cabinet automatically,which improves the productivity and the product quality.%依据传统的布线表线缆长度,计算繁琐,而且对于机柜内部布线也不是很方便.利用Excel二次开发技术改进线缆长度计算模式,并自动生成机柜内部线缆布线表,从而提高了生产效率和准确率.

  7. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume III of III; Disease and Physiology Supplements, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatick, Emil; Gilbreath, Lyle G.; Harmon, Jerrel R. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Centr, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1988-02-03

    The main functions of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Aquaculture Task biologists and contractual scientists involved in the 1978 homing studies were primarily a surveillance of fish physiology, disease, and relative survival during culture in marine net-pens, to determine if there were any unusual factors that might affect imprinting and homing behavior. The studies were conducted with little background knowledge of the implications of disease and physiology on imprinting and homing in salmonids. The health status of the stocks was quite variable as could be expected. The Dworshak and Wells Hatcheries steelhead suffered from some early stresses in seawater, probably osmoregulatory. The incidences of latent BKD in the Wells and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead and Kooskia Hatchery spring chinook salmon were extremely high, and how these will affect survival in the ocean is not known. Gill enzyme activity in the Dworshak and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead at release was low. Of the steelhead, survival in the Tucannon Hatchery stock will probably be the highest, with Dworshak Hatchery stock the lowest. This report contains five previously published papers.

  8. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery-and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, S.L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA); Rau, J.A. (Cle Elum Supplementation Research, Cle Elum, WA)

    2003-01-01

    In the Yakima Spring Chinook supplementation program, wild fish are brought into the Cle Elum Hatchery, artificially crossed, reared, transferred to acclimation sites, and released into the upper Yakima River as smolts. When these fish mature and return to the Yakima River most of them will be allowed to spawn naturally; a few, however, will be brought back to the hatchery and used for research purposes. In order for this supplementation approach to be successful, hatchery-origin fish must be able to spawn and produce offspring under natural conditions. Recent investigations on salmonid fishes have indicated that exposure to hatchery environments during juvenile life may cause significant behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes in adult fish. These changes appear to reduce the reproductive competence of hatchery fish. In general, males are more affected than females; species with prolonged freshwater rearing periods are more strongly impacted than those with shorter rearing periods; and stocks that have been exposed to artificial culture for multiple generations are more impaired than those with a relatively short exposure history to hatchery conditions.

  9. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Jasper

    Full Text Available The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta in Prince William Sound (PWS, Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982 with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010 and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  10. Un cabinet d'égyptologue au Siècle des lumières : le cabinet d'histoire naturelle du docteur Gagnon au Musée Stendhal de Grenoble (France), par Joëlle Rochas, de l'Université de Savoie, membre du Comité scientifique Musée Stendhal (France). An meinen lieben Freund Bernhard Wolfmayr

    OpenAIRE

    Rochas, Joëlle

    2010-01-01

    Summary. An Egyptologist's cabinet during the Enlightenment : Dr. Gagnon's natural history cabinet at the Stendhal Museum of Grenoble (France). An meinen lieben Freund Bernhard Wolfmayr. Translated by Sofia Arenzon. In 2008, Grenoble, a city located in the French Alps, has begun restoration work on the house of Dr. Gagnon, grandfather of Stendhal, a world-famous French writer. Dr. Gagnon, a true spirit of the Enlightenment, had a considerable influence on his grandson's education. Being a rea...

  11. Performance Testing and Quality Control of Biological Safety Cabinets%生物安全柜的性能检测与质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective Through performance testing of biological safety cabinet,to understand its performance,so as to improve its safety.Methods Six required items are tested according to the standard of Biological Safety Cabinets.Results The six required items can meet the technical requirements,the biological safety cabinet is qualified.Conclusion Quality control of medical equipment is of great significance.%目的 通过对生物安全柜的性能检测,以掌握其性能现状,提高使用的安全性.方法 依据《生物安全柜》标准,对生物安全性等6个必检项目进行性能检测.结果 6个检测项目符合技术要求,生物安全柜性能合格.结论 加强医疗设备质量控制关系重大,不容忽视.

  12. Inbreeding and genetic diversity analysis in a hatchery release population and clones of Rhopilema esculentum based on microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tao; Chen, Zaizhong; Wang, Mosang; Hu, Yulong; Wang, Weiji

    2016-07-01

    Ten microsatellite markers were used to analyze the levels of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a hatchery release population of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomatidae). A total of 85 alleles were detected in 600 individuals. Within-population levels of observed (H o) and expected (H e) heterozygosity ranged from 0.152 to 0.839 (mean=0.464) and from 0.235 to 0.821 (mean=0.618), respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of each marker ranged from 0.207 to 0.795 with an average of 0.580, indicating that the hatchery population maintained a high level of genetic diversity. Inbreeding levels were estimated in the hatchery population and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.203. This result revealed that a certain level of inbreeding occurred within the population. Meanwhile, we also determined genetic diversity at the clone level. Several polyps from the same scyphistomae were genotyped at the ten microsatellite loci and there was virtually no difference in their genotypes. Furthermore, we calculated the probabilities of exclusion. When both parents were known, the average exclusion probability of ten loci was 99.99%. Our data suggest that the ten microsatellite markers can not only be used to analyze the identity of individuals but they can also be applied to parentage identification. Our research provides a theoretical basis and technical support for genetic diversity detection and reasonable selection of R. esculentum hatchery populations. These findings support the use of releasing studies and conservation of R. esculentum germplasm resources.

  13. 基于RFID的智能控制柜设计%Design of RFID Intelligent Control Cabinet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳伟

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly studies a kind of intelligent checking cabinet, using the station drug management of drug man-agement more stringent local in pharmaceutical management, hospital management, chemical drug prevention, it is adopt RFID automatic identification technology, combined with the electronic lock, the user should have the identity authentication can take medicine, automatic checking the number of drugs after taking medicine the connection to the server, and data commu-nication in real time, record the medicine taking log.%文中介绍了基于RFID的智能控制柜系统的工作原理及软硬件实现方法,该系统采用RFID自动识别技术,配合电子锁,使用人员必须有身份认证才能够取药,取药后自动盘点药品的数量,与服务器连接实时进行数据通信,记录取药日志,实现了药品使用的安全性、可控性、可追溯性,药品管理更加规范,提高了工作效率,系统性能稳定可靠,在实际使用中取得了良好效果。

  14. Comparison of the localization of tetrodotoxin between wild pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with tetrodotoxin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kogen; Takatani, Tomohiro; Nakayasu, Junichi; Yamazaki, Hideki; Sakiyama, Kazutaka; Ikeda, Koichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Sakakura, Yoshitaka

    2013-09-01

    To reveal the accumulation profile of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles, we compared the localization of TTX in various tissues among wild juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with or without TTX administration using immunohistochemical technique with anti-TTX monoclonal antibody. Immuno-positive reaction was observed in hepatic tissue, basal cell of skin and olfactory, olfactory epithelium, optic nerve and brain (optic tectum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata) of wild juveniles (body length: BL, 4.7-9.4 cm). TTX was detected in the same tissues as wild juveniles and epithelial cell layer of intestine of hatchery-reared juveniles (BL, 5.0-5.3 cm) to which TTX was orally administrated. No positive reaction was observed from the tissues of hatchery-reared juveniles without TTX administration. These results suggest that orally administrated TTX to the non-toxic cultured juveniles is accumulated in the same manner of wild juveniles. In addition, our study revealed that pufferfish accumulates TTX in the central nervous system.

  15. Limestone fluidized bed treatment of acid-impacted water at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.J.; Haines, T.A.; Spaulding, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of atmospheric acid deposition have resulted in widespread lake and river acidification in the northeastern U.S. Biological effects of acidification include increased mortality of sensitive aquatic species such as the endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a limestone-based fluidized bed system for the treatment of acid-impacted waters. The treatment system was tested at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine over a period of 3 years. The product water from the treatment system was diluted with hatchery water to prepare water supplies with three different levels of alkalinity for testing of fish health and survival. Based on positive results from a prototype system used in the first year of the study, a larger demonstration system was used in the second and third years with the objective of decreasing operating costs. Carbon dioxide was used to accelerate limestone dissolution, and was the major factor in system performance, as evidenced by the model result: Alk = 72.84 ?? P(CO2)1/2; R2 = 0.975. No significant acidic incursions were noted for the control water over the course of the study. Had these incursions occurred, survivability in the untreated water would likely have been much more severely impacted. Treated water consistently provided elevated alkalinity and pH above that of the hatchery source water. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring the Dynamic of a Fluvial Channel after Lahar Disturbance: Huiloac Gorge (Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, N.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Tanarro, L. M.; Renschler, C.; Sanjosé, J. J.; Atkinson, A.

    2009-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions generate disturbances that affect hydrological systems (Major, 2003) by depositing large volumes of sediments in watersheds that exceed amounts common to non-volcanic river systems (Montgomery, 2005). If the eruption releases abundant melt water, the river system may respond immediately by forming hazardous flows called lahars. River system recovery following eruptive and laharic impact is an important process, but it has received little attention (Gran and Montgomery, 2005) despite the fact that Major et al. (2000) and Hayes et al. (2002) have shown that these disruptions cause long term instability and their effects persist for decades. Lahar deposits resulting from interaction between volcanic activity and the glacier located above the Huiloac Gorge on the northern slope of Popocatepetl volcano (19°02´ N, 98°62´ W, 5,424 m), have infilled the gorge (Palacios, 1995; Palacios et al., 1998 and 2001; Capra et al., 2004; Muñoz, 2007). All of the major lahars that occurred on the volcano in 1995 (4 km), 1997 (21 km), and 2001 (14 km) have channelled through Huiloac Gorge, and have dramatically altered its morphology and dynamics through erosion and deposition. The present study traces these changes in the aftermath of the laharic events that occurred from 1997-2001. A sector of the channel, located at 3200m-3240m altitude, of 500 m long and 15 to 20 m wide, in the mid-section of the gorge, was chosen as the control site. Precipitation is heaviest there and is most apt to trigger secondary post-eruptive lahars. ArcGis software was used to draw 6 geomorphic maps of the site showing spatial variations in the landforms for the period February 2002 - February 2008. In addition, 29 cross-profiles were made of the gorge for the same time interval, excluding February 2004. The volume of sediment eroded and deposited was calculated for each date by comparing variations in the height of the floor and banks of the gorge depicted in the cross-profile, and

  17. Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    This study is related to the design of anti-slide piles for several landslides in Wanzhou city located in the Three Gorges area. Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir the hydro-geological conditions in this area have deteriorated significantly, leading to larger instability problems. China has invested a lot of money in slope stabilization measures for the treatment of landslides in the Three Gorges area. One of the methods for the stabilization of large landslides is the design of anti-sliding piles. This paper focuses on extensive slope stability analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of the landslide masses, and the parameters required for designing the number, size and dimensions of reinforced concrete stabilization piles. The study focuses on determining the rock parameters, anchor depth, and the pile and soil interaction coefficient. The study aims to provide guidelines for anti-slide pile stabilization works for landslides in the Wanzhou area. The research work contains a number of aspects. First a study is carried out on the distribution of pressures expected on the piles, using two different methods that take into account the expected pore water pressure and seismic acceleration. For the Ercengyan landslide , the Limit Equilibrium Method and Strength Reduction Method of FEM are compared through the results of the landslide pressure distributions on the piles and stress fields in the piles. The second component is the study of the required anchor depth of antislide piles, which is carried out using a statistical analysis with data from 20 landslides that have been controlled with anti-sliding piles. The rock characteristics of the anchor locations were obtained using laboratory tests, and a classification of rock mass quality is made for the anchors of antislide piles. The relationship between the critical anchor height and the angle of the landslide slip surface is determined. Two different methods are presented for the length

  18. Conservation and ecofriendly utilization of wetlands associated with the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, J H Martin; Li, Ruoxi; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2013-10-01

    The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River in China has created a major reservoir in which the water level fluctuates annually by about 30 m, generating a drawdown zone of up to 350 km(2) in summer. Since construction of the dam, there has been scientific and public interest in how to use the drawdown zone resources in environmentally sustainable ways. To this end, and with government support, an international conference was held in Chongqing Municipality (China) in October 2011 on the subject of conservation and ecofriendly utilization of wetlands in the Three Gorges Reservoir. The conference proceedings were subsequently published in the Journal of Chongqing Normal University. The proceedings reports are reviewed here in the context of other relevant literature. The proceedings included papers on ecology, ecodesign and ecological engineering, erosion control, plant production and carbon sequestration, phytoremediation of pollution, hydrosystem management, and others. Several of the reports derive from experimental work conducted at a research field station on the Three Gorges Reservoir situated in Kaixian County, Chongqing Municipality. Plant communities in the drawdown zone are declining in diversity and evolving. Experimental plantings of flood-tolerant edible hydrophytes in a dike-pond system reveal their potential to provide economic returns for farmers, and flooding-tolerant trees, such as cypresses, also show promising results for stabilizing soils in the drawdown zone. Flood-tolerant natural plant communities vary strongly with depth and their composition provides useful indicators for revegetation strategies. In the region surrounding the reservoir, remnant natural broad-leaved evergreen forests are most effective in sequestering carbon, and within the drawdown zone, carbon is mostly stored below ground. There is strong interest in the potential of aquatic plants for removal of pollutants, notably N and P, from the reservoir water by means of floating beds

  19. Simulation analysis of within-day flow fluctuation effects on trout below flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Railsback, S. F.; Hayse, J. W.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; EPRI

    2006-01-01

    In addition to being renewable, hydropower has the advantage of allowing rapid load-following, in that the generation rate can easily be varied within a day to match the demand for power. However, the flow fluctuations that result from load-following can be controversial, in part because they may affect downstream fish populations. At Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah, concern has been raised about whether flow fluctuations caused by the dam disrupt feeding at a tailwater trout fishery, as fish move in response to flow changes and as the flow changes alter the amount or timing of the invertebrate drift that trout feed on. Western Area Power Administration (Western), which controls power production on submonthly time scales, has made several operational changes to address concerns about flow fluctuation effects on fisheries. These changes include reducing the number of daily flow peaks from two to one and operating within a restricted range of flows. These changes significantly reduce the value of the power produced at Flaming Gorge Dam and put higher load-following pressure on other power plants. Consequently, Western has great interest in understanding what benefits these restrictions provide to the fishery and whether adjusting the restrictions could provide a better tradeoff between power and non-power concerns. Directly evaluating the effects of flow fluctuations on fish populations is unfortunately difficult. Effects are expected to be relatively small, so tightly controlled experiments with large sample sizes and long study durations would be needed to evaluate them. Such experiments would be extremely expensive and would be subject to the confounding effects of uncontrollable variations in factors such as runoff and weather. Computer simulation using individual-based models (IBMs) is an alternative study approach for ecological problems that are not amenable to analysis using field studies alone. An IBM simulates how a

  20. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2005-05-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that adult salmon produced by artificial culture are not as reproductively successful as wild fish when they spawn under natural conditions. Behavioral, morphological, and physiological divergences have been observed between hatchery and wild fish. These disparities are the likely proximate causes of the differences seen in the reproductive success of hatchery and wild salmonids. Two evolutionary paradigms have been proposed to explain why salmonids cultured in hatcheries are genetically and phenotypically different from wild cohorts. The first proposes that natural selection has been significantly relaxed in hatcheries. Consequently, fish that normally would have perished because of the possession of unsuitable traits are able to survive. If these traits have a genetic basis, they may become established in a hatchery population and cause its productivity to be less than expected if the fish are once again exposed to natural selection pressures. The second theorizes that environmental and social conditions in hatcheries are less variable than in the natural environment and that these conditions will remain relatively constant from one generation to the next. In this circumstance, selection for genetic traits that adapt fish to artificial culture will become prevalent in the population. Such traits may be mal-adaptive under natural conditions. Many of the studies that have compared the reproductive success (RS) of hatchery and wild fish, however, have used non-local hatchery fish that have experienced multiple generations of hatchery culture. Few efforts have been made where both the hatchery and wild fish have originated from the same population. When such studies have been performed differences in the competency of the fish to produce offspring have not been detected or are not as great as those expressed when non-local hatchery fish have been used. The hatchery spring Chinook produced by the Yakima Fisheries Project

  1. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance and Heavy Metal Resistance Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Hatchery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S W Lee; M Najiah; W Wendy; A Zahrol; M Nadirah

    2009-01-01

    In this article,antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria isolated from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) hatchery in Malaysia are described.Although giant freshwater prawn was introduced into Malaysia since the 1980s,there was no database information on antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria from giant freshwater prawn (M.rosenbergii) hatchery in Malaysia.Therefore,this study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance profile to control bacterial diseases in M.rosenbergii hatchery.The results can provide valuable information for local M.rosenbergii post-larval producer.Antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out by disk-diffusion method against 15 types of antibiotics as follows:oxolinic acid (2 μg),ampicillin (10 μg),erythromycin (15 μg),furazolidone (15 μg),lincomycin (15 μg),amoxicillin (25 μg),col istin sulphate (25 μg),doxycycline (30 μg),florfenicol (30 μg),flumequine (30 μg),nalidixic acid (30 μg),tetracycline (30 μg),oleandomyein (15 μg),fosfomycin (50 μg),and spiramycin (100 μg),whereas heavy metal resistance profile of the present bacterial isolates was determined by 2-fold agar dilution technique.In this study,5 types of bacteria were successfully isolated;they were Aeromonas spp.(n= 77),Escherichia coil (n = 73),Edwardsiella spp.(n = 62),Salmonella spp.(n= 75),and Vibrio spp.(n = 43).The result showed that furazolidone was the most effective antibiotic to control the bacteria isolated in this study,approximately 89.7% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to this antibiotic.Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index indicated that the hatchery water source and M.rosenbergii post-larval and sediment tanks were at high-risk exposure to the tested antibiotic.Furthermore,all the tested heavy metals (Cd2+,Cr6+ Hg2+,and Cu2+) failed to inhibit the growth of the bacterial isolates.Therefore,it indicated that the water source of the hatchery is

  2. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via

  3. Production of hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos in nursery ponds through supplemental feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskål, 1755 (average weight of 0.45g were stocked in a 500 m2 nursery pond at a density of 16 juveniles/m2 during the dry months (March-May. The early juveniles were reared for two months with natural food followed by supplementalfeeding. Upon the harvest the fish reached an average weight of 9.30 g and a survival rate of 86.9%. Afeed conversion ratio (FCR of 1.08 was attained, with specific growth rate (SGR of 4.96%/day. Thehigh survival rate and good production could be attributed to the time of the year when the nurseryproduction trial was conducted. The nursery of milkfish in ponds during the summer months ensuressufficient supply of natural food and stable water quality during the crucial phase in the nurseryproduction. This strategy of rearing early juveniles (< 1g of milkfish in nursery ponds at high stockingdensities using a combination of natural food and supplemental feeding could be one of the alternativeapproaches in the nursery production of this fish.

  4. Natural Reproductive Success and Demographic Effects of Hatchery-Origin Steelhead in Abernathy Creek, Washington : Annual Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center

    2008-12-01

    Many hatchery programs for steelhead pose genetic or ecological risks to natural populations because those programs release or outplant fish from non-native stocks. The goal of many steelhead programs has been to simply provide 'fishing opportunities' with little consideration given to conservation concerns. For example, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has widely propagated and outplanted one stock of winter-run steelhead (Chambers Creek stock) and one stock of summer-run steelhead (Skamania stock) throughout western Washington. Biologists and managers now recognize potential negative effects can occur when non-native hatchery fish interact biologically with native populations. Not only do non-native stocks pose genetic and ecological risks to naturally spawning populations, but non-native fish stray as returning adults at a much higher rate than do native fish (Quinn 1993). Biologists and managers also recognize the need to (a) maintain the genetic resources associated with naturally spawning populations and (b) restore or recover natural populations wherever possible. As a consequence, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the NOAA Fisheries have been recommending a general policy that discourages the use of non-native hatchery stocks and encourages development of native broodstocks. There are two primary motivations for these recommendations: (1) reduce or minimize potential negative biological effects resulting from genetic or ecological interactions between hatchery-origin and native-origin fish and (2) use native broodstocks as genetic repositories to potentially assist with recovery of naturally spawning populations. A major motivation for the captive-rearing work described in this report resulted from NOAA's 1998 Biological Opinion on Artificial Propagation in the Columbia River Basin. In that biological opinion (BO), NOAA concluded that non-native hatchery stocks of steelhead jeopardize the continued existence of

  5. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation Creston National Fish Hatchery, FY 2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooley, Sharon

    2009-03-20

    A total of 350,000, M012 strain, westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) eggs were received from Montana Fish Wildlife & Parks (MFWP), Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in June of 2005 to accomplish this fishery management objective. These eggs were incubated, hatched and reared entirely inside the hatchery nursery building using a protected well water supply. Fish grew according to schedule and survival was excellent. The hatchery achieved a 0.78 feed fed to pounds gained conversion ratio for this group of WCT. Not all of the progenies from this fish lot were used for Hungry Horse Dam Fishery Mitigation Implementation. Some were used for other regional fishery management projects. Westslope cutthroat trout were reared using approved fish culture techniques as recommended in the USFWS Fish Hatchery Management Handbook and also utilizing a regimen adapted for hatchery specific site conditions. The fish health for these WCT was very good. Survival from first feeding fry stage to stocking was 79%. The hatchery had an annual fish health inspection performed by the USFWS Bozeman Fish Health Center in mid March of 2006. This inspection found all fish lots at Creston to be disease free. The Montana State Fish Health Board has placed the hatchery under a limited quarantine since May of 2005 due to an epizootic of Furunculosis. This classification has allowed the Creston NFH to stock disease free fish in locations approved by regional fish managers. The hatchery has been working with the State Fish Pathologist to remove the limited quarantine classification from the facility. Although fish health for all station fish lots remains disease free, MFWP has asserted it will not remove the limited quarantine until the new influent water treatment system, including the ultraviolet disinfection unit, is running full time, year round. The USFWS is working to secure the additional funding necessary to operate the treatment building year round. Distribution of the WCT took place from March

  6. Spatial prediction of landslide for Badong County in the Three Gorges reservoir district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiming TANG; Yiping WU

    2006-01-01

    By using the landslide risk evaluating model and the advantages of GIS technology in image processing and space analysis, the relative landslide hazard and risk evaluating system of the new county site of Badong is built up. The system is mainly consisted of four subsystems: Information management subsystem, hazard assessment subsystem, vulnerability evaluation subsystem and risk prediction subsystem. In the system, landslide hazard assessment, vulnerability evaluation, risk predictions are carried out automatically based on irregular units. At last the landslide hazard and risk map of the study area is compiled. During the whole procedure, Matter-Element Model, Artificial Neural Network, and Information Model are used as assessment models. This system provides an effective way for the landslide hazard information management and risk prediction of each district in the Reservoir of Three Gorge Project. The result of the assessment can be a gist and ensure for the land planning and the emigration project in Badong.

  7. Exploiting pattern and sustainable development of marginal lands in the Three Gorge Reservoir Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper studied the distribution and utilization status,reasonable exploitation patterns and potential productivity, and sustainable development of marginal lands in the Three Gorge Reservoir Areas. It has been pointed that problems of the soil fertility degradation, poor productivity in crop lands, natural disasters and environmental deterioration existed in all the exploited marginal lands. In order to maintain the sustainability of the marginal lands, following measure have been proposed: prohibiting cultivation in the crop lands with a slope more than 25°, restoring vegetation in the slope more than 25°, strengthening the basic agricultural construction, establishing the production base of woody feeds and oils, establishing a multi-dimensional management model with reasonable structure and optimumfunction for forestry, agriculture and fishing.

  8. Sediment Deposition Pattern and Flow Conditions in the Three Gorges Reservoir: A Physical Model Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴奎; 邵学军; 李丹勋

    2003-01-01

    Sedimentation in the Three Gorges Reservoir will greatly affect future project functions, such as power generation and navigation, after 50 years of operation. This paper presents results of a physical model study, which indicate that the capacity of both the discharge tunnel and the power plant outlet could be impaired by sediment deposition in front of the dam after 50 years, affecting both the hydropower head and navigation. A flow training scheme based on the third-stage cofferdam for the dam construction is proposed to regulate the flow pattern and control deposition in the near-dam region of the reservoir. This flow training scenario can effectively reduce deposition in the physical model.

  9. Spatial Disparity of Slope Farmland and Food Security in Three Gorges Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liming; FENG Renguo; YANG Yanfeng; GUAN Qingfeng

    2004-01-01

    As an important measure of ecoenvironmental construction, the process of de-farming in slope farmland is being undertaken gradually in the whole China. Meanwhile, the problem of reducing in food yield in de-farming areas can not be neglected any more. It is especially the case in areas with concentrated slope farmland and inconvenient transportation. In this paper, we analyze the causes of hidden troubles in food security, and the spatial relationship between farmland and slope farmland in the reservoir area of Three Gorges, and unveil the spatial disparity of contradictions between food supply and demand. Finally, combining the accessibility of areas, three different spatial types of food security, food security area, food alert area, and food crisis area, are divided.

  10. MODELING OF THE DIVERSION CHANNEL CLOSURE FOR THE THIRD STAGE OF THE THREE GORGES PROJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangqian WANG; Baosheng WU; Junqiang XIA

    2004-01-01

    The closure of third stage diversion channel for the Three Gorges Dam is characterized by large closure discharge, large drop in water surface, and high gap velocity. 1D and 2D flow mathematical models were used in this paper to simulate the hydraulic conditions during the closure. The variation of discharge in the diversion channel and the drops in water surface shared by the upstream and downstream cofferdams were computed using the 1D model, and the detailed hydraulic patterns in the diversion channel were simulated using the 2D model. The computed results indicate that the designed closure scheme for discharge of 9,010 m3/s was feasible for construction, while the designed closure scheme for discharge of 12,200 m3/s was inapplicable.

  11. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on downstream flow, stage, and sediment transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, S.C.L.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Williams, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McCoy, J.; Palmer, C. [USDOE Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in Utah, can produce rapid downstream changes in flow and stage. These changes can in turn affect sediment transport and ecologic resources below the dam. To evaluate these effects, four hydropower operational scenarios with varying degrees of hydropower-release fluctuations were examined. This study demonstrates that the combined use of river-flow routing, water-surface profile, and sediment-transport models can provide useful information for evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower-operations on ecological and other resources downstream of the dam. Study results show that flow fluctuations may or may not persist for a long distance, depending on the initial magnitude of fluctuation and the duration of hydropower peaking. Stage fluctuations depend not only on flow fluctuations but also on river channel characteristics, such as channel width and longitudinal slope.

  12. Contribution to knowledge of the vascular flora of the Resava Gorge, Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijatović Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Resava Gorge is situated in Eastern Serbia in the region of the Gornja Resava River, extending westward from Mt. Globski Krš to the town of Lisine. In floral research conducted during 1997 and 1998, 297 taxa of vascular flora belonging to 68 families were discovered. The families Poaceae (28, Asteraceae (21, Fabaceae (20 and Lamiaceae (19 were best represented. The presence of 49 floral elements was also noted. The greatest number of plants are sub-Central European (18,86 %, Eurasian (14,14 %, sub-Mediterranean (8,75 %, Central European (6,40 % and sub- Eurasian (6,40 %. As for life forms, hemi-cryptophytes (49,50 %, phanerophytes (19,53 % and geophytes (11,11 % were noted as dominant.

  13. Optical dating of the Jingshuiwan Paleolithic site of Three Gorges, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Shuwen; ZHANG Jiafu; GAO Xing; ZHOU Liping; FENG Xingwu; CHEN Fuyou

    2006-01-01

    The Jingshuiwan Paleolithic site occupies the second terrace on the right bank of the Yangtze River. The lithic assemblage is characterized by choppers and scrapers made on pebbles and large flakes--the typical lithic industry of South China. Deposits of the site are mainly composed of fluvial sediments. Quartz grains extracted from these fluvial sediments from which the artifacts were uncovered were dated using the optically stimulated luminescence/single-aliquot regenerative-dose technique. The dating results show that ancient human activities at this site took place in the early Upper Pleistocene (ca. 70 ka). The successful age analysis of the Jingshuiwan site is considered as a major break- through in chronological analysis of Paleolithic open site in the Three Gorges region and even in South China. The dates obtained help to establish a more complete chronological framework of the Paleolithic cultural sequence in the region, and bear significant implications in studying modern human origins in China.

  14. Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is

  15. Analysis of potential impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on archaeological sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.

    1955-12-01

    An archaeological field study was conducted along the Green River in the areas of Little Hole and Browns Park in Utah and Colorado. The purpose of the study was to measure the potential for hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam to directly or indirectly affect archaeological sites in the study area. Thirty-four known sites were relocated, and six new sites were recorded. Information was collected at each site regarding location, description, geomorphic setting, sedimentary context, vegetation, slope, distance from river, elevation above river level, and site condition. Matching the hydrologic projections of river level and sediment load with the geomorphic and sedimentary context at specific site locations indicated that eight sites were in areas with a high potential for erosion.

  16. Cataclysms and controversy -- aspects of the geomorphology of the Columbia River Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim; Burns, Scott; Madin, Ian; Dorsey, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Landslides and floods of lava and water tremendously affected the Columbia River during its long history of transecting the Cascade Volcanic Arc. This field trip touches on aspects of the resulting geology of the scenic Columbia River Gorge, including the river-blocking Bonneville landslide of ~550 years ago and the great late- Pleistocene Missoula floods. Not only did these events create great landscapes, but they inspired great geologists. Mid-nineteenth century observations of the Columbia River and Pacific Northwest by James Dwight Dana and John Strong Newberry helped germinate the “school of fluvial” erosion later expanded upon by the southwestern United States topographic and geologic surveys. Later work on features related to the Missoula floods framed the career of J Harlen Bretz in one of the great geologic controversies of the twentieth century.

  17. Characteristics, classification and ordination of riparian plant communities in the Three-Gorges areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen different vegetation types of grassland and shrubland were selected to study the component and diversity of plant species of riparian plant communities along main channel in the Three-Gorges areas. Species richness (s), Simpson index (D), and Shannon-Weiner index (H) were used to study the biodiversity and the hierarchical classification was carried out by the methods of TWINSPAN and DCA ordination. The results showed that the components of flora were complex and dominated by the temperate type in the riparian plant communities. Species diversity was not different between the communities, but Shannon-Weiner indexes of different layers in some grassland were significantly different. TWINSPAN and DCA indicated that riparian plant communities distributed along the gradient of moisture.

  18. Ecosystem health evaluation system of the water-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ao; YUAN Hui; ZHANG Yan-hui; HU Gang

    2004-01-01

    This paper discribes the definition of ecosystem health for the water-level flutuation zone of the Three Gorges Region and puts forward an evaluation system involving indicators in three groups: 1) structural indicators comprise slope, biodiversity,environmental capacity, stability, restoration ability and damage situation; 2) functional indicators including probability of geological hazard, erosion rate, habitat rate, land use intension and days of tourist season; 3) environmental indicatiors made up of population quality, potential intension of human, ground water quality, ambient air quality, wastewater treatment rate, pesticide use rate, fertilizer use rate, environmental management and public participation. In the design of the system, the subject zone is regarded as the type similar to wetland and the impacts of human activities on the zone are attached great importance to.

  19. Demonstration of three gorges archaeological relics based on 3D-visualization technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenli

    2015-12-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the digital demonstration of three gorges archeological relics to exhibit the achievements of the protective measures. A novel and effective method based on 3D-visualization technology, which includes large-scaled landscape reconstruction, virtual studio, and virtual panoramic roaming, etc, is proposed to create a digitized interactive demonstration system. The method contains three stages: pre-processing, 3D modeling and integration. Firstly, abundant archaeological information is classified according to its history and geographical information. Secondly, build up a 3D-model library with the technology of digital images processing and 3D modeling. Thirdly, use virtual reality technology to display the archaeological scenes and cultural relics vividly and realistically. The present work promotes the application of virtual reality to digital projects and enriches the content of digital archaeology.

  20. Assessment of Rural Migrants’Resettlement in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Chang-chun; DUAN Yue-fang; HUANG Ting-zheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the rural migrants’ resettlement in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and provide a reference for formulating the later migrant support policies, we select 342 rural migrants from County A in Hubei Province and County B in Chongqing Municipality for the household survey. The survey results show that after removal, housing, and infrastructure (electricity, transportation, communication, household appliances) concerning the migrants are improved substantially, but there are still some problems in water drinking, land, employment and income restoration. The later support should put great emphasis on the following aspects: including the rural migrants into the social security system; improving drinking water and irrigation facilities; promoting industrial restructuring; strengthening skills training and education for the migrants, to gradually enrich the migrants and make them live a comfortable life.

  1. 3D gravity imaging of deep geological structure of Huangling Anticline in Three Gorges area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, C.

    2010-12-01

    Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydraulic project in the world. Previous studies showed that Huangling Anticline is one of the main geological units in this area and has great influence on the safety of the dam, so it is important to investigate deep geological structure and evaluate stability of Huangling Anticline. Huangling Anticline locates in northern margin of Yangtze Block. It is surrounded by a few faults, and two of them are Xiannushan Fault and Yuan’an Fault, with NNW direction. There are also two main faults named Xinhua Fault and Yuyangguan-Tumen Fault with NNE and NE direction. These faults are regional faults with different sizes and cutting depth, and take charge of the development of geological structures in Three Gorges area with a long time. Two main arguments about the ability of inducing earthquakes of these faults were presented. One of the arguments suggested that these faults has weak or no enough activity to induce strong earthquakes, their key evidence is the thermoluminescence (TL) dating with some geological characteristics; the other was just opposite, in their opinion, Xiannushan Fault and Yuan’an Fault has deep cutting depth with great activity to induce strong earthquakes. However, they can not provide the evidences of deep geological structures and cutting depth of these faults. In our paper, 3D density structure of upper and middle crust beneath Three Gorges Dam and its adjacent regions is reconstructed by gravity imaging, using the Bouguer gravity anomaly and surface density constraints. Results of gravity imaging indicate that Huangling Anticline is a relatively high density zone. (1) Horizontally, Huangling Anticline is a huge U-shaped crystal rock controlled by Xiannushan Fault and Yuan’an Fault along NNW direction. In the southeast, Yuyangguan-Tumen Fault becomes the boundary of the anticline, and in the west, Xinhua Fault and Xiannushan Fault separate Huangling Anticline from Zigui basin; (2) From vertical profiles of

  2. Runoff Simulation of Three Gorges Area in the Upper Yangtze River during 1998 Flood Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jian; Gabor BALINT; Balazs GAUZER

    2005-01-01

    The contribution of areal precipitation of the catchment from Cuntan to Yichang (Three Gorges area)to eight flood peaks of the Upper Yangtze River (the upper reaches of the Yangtze River) is diagnosed for 1998 flood season. A rainfall-runoff model is employed to simulate runoffs of this catchment. Comparison of observed and simulated runoffs shows that the rainfall-runoff model has a good capability to simulate the runoff over a large-scale river and the results describe the eight flood peaks very well Forecast results are closely associated with the sensitivity of the model to rainfall and the calibration processes. Other reasons leading to simulation errors are further discussed.

  3. Primary Investigations on Yangtze River Bank Slope Stability in Wanzhou for the Three Gorges Reservoir Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wenxing; Yin Kunlong; Xu Yixian

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the main factors contributing to bank slope failures, such as the structure of rock and soil, water level change, bank slope gradient, vegetation, weathering and human activities. Based on these investigations, the bank slope failure models are analyzed. The stability of bank slopes in Wanzhou is investigated using geological surveying, 2D resistivity imaging surveying, excavated trenches and other methods. Finally, the disasters of bank slope failures in Wanzhou were investigated in detail. The results show that instability problems might occur in 60.38 km of bank slopes when the water level rises to 175 m. It is suggested that 37.8 km of unstable bank slopes should be stabilized, and 14.2 km of unstable banks should be moved or avoided after further geological surveying and reconnaissance. These results provide scientific basis and reliable data for the government to develop the third geodisaster prevention plan for the Three Gorges reservoir.

  4. Distribution of nutrients and chlorophyll a in the Three-Gorges Reservoir,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chongming; ZHANG Sheng; LIU Jinghong; WEI Shiqiang; ZHANG Yong; GAO Jixi

    2006-01-01

    The Three-Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is one of the largest water conservancy projects in the world. The status of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass has changed since the Three-Gorges Reservoir started water storage on June 1,2003. The distribution features of nutrients and chlorophyll a were deter mined by cruise monitoring during September 8 - 15, 2003. The results showed that the concentrations of dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) range from 1.01 to 1.35 mg · L-1, those of dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) from 0.028 to 0.054 mg · L-1. The concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus exceed the eutrophication standards of OECD, and the ratio of DTN to DTP is over 16: 1. It is shown that phos phorus is an eutrophication-limiting element in the water body. The concentrations of potassium range from 2.80 to 3.44 mg · L-1; those of total organic carbon from 1.92 to 2.59 mg · L -1; those of chlorophyll a from 1.58 to 7.53 mg · m-3 with an average value of 4.69 mg · m-3 at surface layer. Atrophic gradient could be observed from the oligotropher to the mesotropher in the flow direction. Phytoplankton biomass in creased significantly in the reservoir area than before. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.05, r = 0. 728 ) between chlorophyll a and NO3-N and a significant negative correlation (p < 0. 01, r = -0.9207) between chlorophyll a and turbidity were also observed. Distribution features could be well divided into three clusters in terms of systematic cluster analyses, including the upper-stream area cluster, the middle stream area cluster and the down-stream area cluster.

  5. Potential impacts of Three Gorges Dam in China on the ecosystem of East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baodong; BROCKMANN Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The Changjiang River in China was dammed in 2003.The possible changes in matters fluxes from the river downstream after the completion of Three Gorges Dam and their potential impacts on the ecosystem of the East China Sea are discussed.The estuarine and coastal waters in the East China Sea were heavily fertilized by the inflow of nutrient-rich freshwater from the Changjiang River, which has led to severe eutrophication and frequent harmful algal blooms,thus worsening the ecosystem health in this area.Analy- sis showed that the nutrient loadings are very likely to be reduced in the lower Changjiang River due to the construction of Three Gorges Dam.Especially for the total phosphorus,the discharges to the East China Sea will be reduced by one-third,which would relieve the severe eutrophication in this area.However,the expected decrease in the riverine silicate discharge would lead the ra- tio of silicon to nitrogen to be much less than 1 in the estuarine and coastal waters and thus may cause an elevation of flagellate growth.The changes in the annual water discharges and their seasonal distributions below the dam will be minor.Reduction of suspended particulate matter loading,due to the sedimentation behind the dam,will reduce the nutrient loadings of the particulate form especially for phosphorus,and decrease the turbidity of estuarine and coastal waters.On the other hand,this may enhance the erosion of the delta and the coasts as well as modifythe benthic ecosystem.

  6. Evaluating Vegetation Health Condition Using MODIS Data in the Three Gorges Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩贵锋; 谢雨丝; 蔡智

    2015-01-01

    The satellite-based vegetation condition index (VCI) and temperature condition index (TCI) have been used extensively for drought detection and tracking, the assessment of weather impacts on vegetation and evaluation of the health and productivity of vegetation. In this study, in order to detect and monitor the growth condition of vegetation, we have collected data on vegetation indices and land surface temperature derived from MODIS (2001-2012) and deifned a vegetation health index (VHI) based on VCI and TCI for assessing vegetation health condition in the Three Gorges Area, China (TGA). The results of the study show that temporal and spatial characteristics of vegetation health condition can be detected, tracked and mapped by the VHI index. In most parts of the TGA, the vegetation health condition showed an overall increasing trend during the study period, especially in Wulong, Fengdu, Shizhu and other regions located in the midstream sections of the Three Gorges Reservoir. In addition, the four studied vegetation types all showed clear increasing trends during the study period. The increasing trend in the vegetation health condition shows a strong positive correlation with topographical slope and altitude (below 500 m). Over the seasons, this trend is strongest in autumn, followed by spring. However, the correlations between vegetation health condition and climatic factors are more frequently significant in summer and winter than in autumn and spring. The vegetation health condition has been low in 2006 and 2011. This finding is consistent with the extreme weather conditions in those two years. However, only in the summer is vegetation health condition signiifcantly correlated with three climatic factors in most of the study area. This result implies that vegetation growth may show a lagged response to climatic factors and may also be affected by human activities, including agricultural activities, industrial activities and other economic activities.

  7. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenhouse gas emissions from Three Gorges Reservoir of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activity has led to significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG, which is thought to play important roles in global climate changes. It remains unclear about the kinetics of GHG emissions, including carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous Oxide (N2O from the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR of China, which was formed after the construction of the famous Three Gorges Dam. Here we report monthly measurements for one year of the fluxes of these gases at multiple sites within the TGR region, including three major tributaries, six mainstream sites, two downstream sites and one upstream site. The tributary areas have lower CO2 fluxes than the main storage; CH4 fluxes in the tributaries and upper reach mainstream sites are relative higher. Overall, TGR showed significantly lower CH4 emission rates than most new reservoirs in temperate and tropical regions. We attribute this to the well-oxygenated deep water and high water velocities that may facilitate the consumption of CH4. TGR's CO2 fluxes were lower than most tropical reservoirs and higher than most temperate systems. This could be explained by the high load of labile soil carbon delivered through erosion to the Yangtze River. Compared to fossil-fuelled power plants of equivalent power output, TGR is a very small GHG emitter – annual CO2-equivalent emissions are approximately 1.7% of that of a coal-fired generating plant of comparable power output.

  8. Recreation impacts to cliff resources in the Potomac Gorge: Final report, June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Carr, C.; Davis, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Managers of the National Park Service (NPS) are directed by law to accommodate appropriate types and amounts of visitation while ensuring that: any adverse impacts are the minimum necessary, unavoidable, cannot be further mitigated, and do not constitute impairment or derogation of park resources and values. (NPS 2006). The increasing popularity of the national park system presents substantial management challenges. High visitatation may cause unacceptable impacts to fragile natural and cultural resources, and may also cause crowding and other social impacts, which can also degrade the quality of visitor experiences. Responding to these concerns, NPS managers at Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (CHOH) and George Washington Memorial Parkway (GWMP) sponsored this research within the upper Potomac Gorge portions of these parks to investigate visitation-related impacts to the park?s cliff resources. The cliffs and rocky areas within the Great Falls and Mather Gorge areas provide important habitats for numerous sensitive rare plants and plant communities. A recent General Management Planning process for Great Falls Park (GFP), a portion of GWMP, highlighted the potential impacts of cliff-associated recreational activities, including hiking, climbing, and fishing, on sensitive cliff resources. The planning process identified the need for development of a Climbing Management Plan and a Trail Plan to more specifically address site and visitor management actions needed to protect rare and sensitive natural and cultural resources. Good science to assess cliff-associated rare plants and communities and to determine the existing and potential effects of cliff-related recreational activities is required for these new planning efforts. This research is designed to specifically address these informational needs and to assist park managers on both sides of the river with current and future cliff and recreation management decisions.

  9. Occurrence and infection risk of waterborne pathogens in Wanzhou watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guosheng Xiao; Zhaodan Wang; Ji'an Chen; Zhiqun Qiu; Yanjie Li; Junsheng Qi; Wenyi Liu

    2013-01-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR),formed by China's Yangtze Three Gorges Project,is the largest lake in the world,but there is too little information available about fecal contamination and waterborne pathogen impacts on this aquatic ecosystem.During two successive 1-year study periods (July 2009 to July 2011),the water quality in Wanzhou watershed of the TGR was tested with regard to the presence of fecal indicators and pathogens.According to Chinese and World Health Organization water quality standards,water quality in the mainstream was good but poor in backwater areas.Salmonella,Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC),Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in the watershed.Prevalence and concentrations of the pathogens in the mainstream were lower than those in backwater areas.The estimated risk of infection with Salmonella,EHEC,Cryptosporidium,and Giardia per exposure event ranged from 2.9 × 10-7 to 1.68 × 10-5,7.04 × 10-10 to 2.36 × 10-7,5.39 × 10-6 to 1.25 × 10-4 and 0 to 1.2 × 10-3,respectively,for occupational divers and recreational swimmers exposed to the waters.The estimated risk of infection at exposure to the 95% upper confidence limit concentrations of Salmonella,Cryptosporidium and Giardia may be up to 2.62 × 10-5,2.55 × 10-4 and 2.86 × 10-3,respectively.This study provides useful information for the residents,health care workers and managers to improve the safety of surface water and reduce the risk of fecal contamination in the TGR.

  10. Examining time trends in the Oldowan technology at Beds I and II, Olduvai Gorge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki

    2002-09-01

    The lithic analysis of the Bed I and II assemblages from Olduvai Gorge reveals both static and dynamic time trends in early hominids' technology from 1.8 to 1.2 m.y.a. The Bed I Oldowan (1.87-1.75 m.y.a.) is characterized by the least effort strategy in terms of raw material exploitation and tool production. The inclusion of new raw material, chert, for toolmaking in the following Developed Oldowan A (DOA, 1.65-1.53 m.y.a.) facilitated more distinctive and variable flaking strategies depending on the kind of raw materials. The unique characters of DOA are explainable by this raw material factor, rather than technological development of hominids. The disappearance of chert in the subsequent Developed Oldowan B and Acheulian (1.53-1.2 m.y.a.) necessitated a shift in tool production strategy more similar to that of Bed I Oldowan than DOA. However, the evidence suggests that Bed II hominids might have been more skillful toolmakers, intensive tool-users, and engaged in more active transport of stone tools than the Bed I predecessors. Koobi Fora hominids maintained a more static tool-using behavior than their Olduvai counterparts due mainly to a stable supply of raw materials. They differed from Olduvai hominids in terms of less battering of cores, consistent transport behavior, and few productions of side-struck flakes, indicating a regional variation of toolmaking and using practice. However, they shared with Olduvai hominids a temporal trend toward the production of larger flakes from larger cores after 1.6 m.y.a. Increased intake of animal resources and the expansion of ranging area of Homo ergaster would have led to the development of technological organization. Technological changes in the Oldowan industry are attested at Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora, and Sterkfontein, suggesting that it was a pan-African synchronous phenomenon, beginning at 1.5 m.y.a.

  11. Landslides and Slope Aspect in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area Based on GIS and Information Value Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Caiyan; QIAO Jianping; WANG Meng

    2006-01-01

    Slope aspect is one of the indispensable internal factors besides lithology,relative elevation and slope degree.In this paper authors use information value model with Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to study how slope aspect contributes to landslide growth from Yunyang to Wushan segment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, and the relationship between aspect and landslide growth is quantified.Through the research on 205 landslides examples,it is found that the slope contributes most whose aspect is towards south,southeast and southwest aspect contribute moderately,and other five aspects contribute little.The research result inosculates preferably with the fact.The result of this paper can provide potent gist to the construction of Three Gorges Reservoir area in future.

  12. Optimized two-level placement of test points for multi-objective air monitoring of the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Dong-hai; TAN Chun-lu; WANG Jun-qiang; ZHONG Yuan-chang

    2007-01-01

    To fit the complicated geographic conditions of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, a two-level multi-objective monitoring system was developed to monitor the atmosphere of the area. Statistical analysis of environmental monitoring data and the macro control principle were employed to configure the upper layer. The lower layer was designed by the application of the thumb rule to a local terrain and specific point sources of pollution therein. The optimized two-level system comprises an upper layer of 16 monitoring stations distributed at places of diverse geographical, ecological, economical and social characteristics, and a lower layer of 16 sub-machines at each monitoring station of the upper layer. This optimal outcome fits the complicated conditions of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, substantially cuts down the installation cost and the operation cost, and provides accurate monitoring data of atmosphere over the entire area with a high resolution.

  13. Detection of Acid Rain Stress Effect on Plant Using Hyperspectral Data in Three Gorges Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiaodong; JIANG Hong; YU Shuquan; ZHOU Guomo

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to use hyperspectral data to detect the spectral change caused by acid stress to a native forest type in the Three Gorges region of China.For this purpose,a ground-based hyperspectral experiment was conducted at the Three Gorges region to detect acid deposition that caused Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest degradation.Continuum removal method was used to isolate wavebands more responsive to stress in wavelengths 450-750nm.The differences in chlorophyll concentrations and needle thickness caused by acidic stress are found to be explicable to the different spectral reflectance patterns in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths.Two new chlorotic indices were utilized to explain the stress-caused leaf chiorosis.The comparison of simulated vegetation indices and principal component analysis (PCA) results suggests that it would be possible to monitor acid rain stress effect on forest ecosystem from some wider spectral regions.

  14. Gorging Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pride; Phiri

    2011-01-01

    MY introduction to social networking came in my first year of university.I had never been online before then nor used a computer extensively. The archaic machines at my high school had been good for a few rounds of solitaire and nothing more.Growing up in Zimbabwe at the turn of the century where even cell phones were a novelty,the Internet was just something you read about and then added to the list of things that while nice to have,didn’t really factor into everyday life.

  15. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for survival, growth, dispersal, and male maturation in a natural stream (Study site: Twenty-Mile Creek; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Leonetti,; Stenberg, Karl D.; Slatton, Stacey L.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated in the early 1990s to provide managers with data comparing genetic fitness for natural rearing, as measured by survival of juveniles in freshwater, between steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho. We artificially spawned hatchery steelhead and wild steelhead from the Selway River, a Clearwater River tributary, released the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) as unfed fry in a second order tributary of the South Fork Clearwater River, and monitored fish residing in the stream or emigrating from it for five years. Barrier falls prevented access to the stream by naturally produced steelhead. Over 90% of the emigrants were one or two years of age and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 103 mm). Per fry released, the HxH cross produced 0.64-0.83 times as many emigrants as the WxW cross (PWxW cross for one year-class (P=0.051) and 0.68 times as many for the other (ns). Survival from age-1 to age-4 was lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of one year-class (PWxW residuals of the other (P=0.062). Collectively, these results indicate lower survival for HxH than for WxW fish. Size was often greater for HxH than for WxW fish indicating faster growth for the former, and condition factor was also usually greater for HxH than for WxW fish. Dispersal of fry from release sites and emigration of one- and two-year olds from the study stream were greater for WxW than for HxH fish, and apparently neither was from competitive displacement of small by larger fish. Incidence of flowing milt was higher for HxH than for WxW fish at age-2. Peak incidence of flowing milt for older residuals was similar among crosses (about 50%), but the peak occurred at greater size and age for WxW than for HxH residuals. HxW fish were intermediate between HxH and WxW fish, not similar to HxH fish, in

  16. Low-cost mobile hatchery produced silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus) fingerling:it's growth and economic performance in intensive culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SM Mustafizur Rahman; Biplob Basak; Siddhwartha Kumar Basak; Md Rushna Alam; Md Mohsin Ali; Mohammad Mahfujul Haque

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the growth performance of low-cost mobile hatchery produced silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus) fingerling comparing with typical one, field laboratory complex hatchery. Methods:Assigning Treatment I and Treatment II stoked with low-cost mobile hatchery and field laboratory complex hatchery originated fingerling of silver barb in plastic circular tank. Results:The average weight gain (g/day) of fish was 0.18 and 0.16 g, length gain (cm/d) 0.03 and 0.02, gross yield 0.09 and 0.08 kg/tank per month, net yield 0.03 and 0.01 kg/tank per month respectively in Treatment I and Treatment II. The growth of low-cost mobile hatchery produced silver barb was higher (P Conclusions:The fry from both origins showed more or less similar growth performance and none of them was superior. Considering the economic feasibility in both cases, it is assumed that the intensive culture of silver barb is possible at field level.

  17. Spatial and temporal use of a spawning site in the middle green river by wild and hatchery-reared razorback suckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modde, T.; Bowen, Z.H.; Kitcheyan, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    The population of endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus in the middle Green River (upper Colorado River basin) has declined during the last 40 years. The apparent cause for this decline is a lack of successful recruitment. This study used radiotelemetry to evaluate the ability of hatchery-reared razorback suckers to locate spawning areas where wild fish congregate during the ascending hydrographic limb of the snowmelt runoff. Hatchery-reared razorback suckers appeared to show similar reproductive behavior to wild fish. Both wild and hatchery-reared fish were found near the middle Green River spawning area between 1 and 25 May 2000. Hatchery fish occupied the same areas on the spawning site as wild fish, and remained on the spawning site during both nocturnal and diurnal hours. Males were more abundant on the spawning area than females, but the few females captured tended to stage away from the primary spawning area. The results from this study suggest hatchery-reared fish are capable of responding to natural cues that prompt spawning aggregations and are successful in locating existing spawning aggregations of wild fish. Given attention to stocking criteria, including genetic diversity and the size and time of stocking, the challenges of recovering razorback suckers will center on those factors that led to the population declines, particularly the survival of early life stages in off-channel habitats. ?? American Fisheries Society 2005.

  18. Microhabitat use and seasonal movements of hatchery-reared and wild shortnose sturgeon in the Savannah River, South Carolina--Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trested, D.G.; Ware, K.M.; Bakal, R.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Radio and acoustic telemetry were used to monitor the seasonal movement of hatchery-reared and wild shortnose sturgeon (622-927 mm total length) in the Savannah River. Diploid, and sterile hatchery-reared shortnose sturgeon, and wild shortnose sturgeon showed apparent similar seasonal patterns of movement within the river. We were unable to detect any significant differences in the seasonal mean river location, minimum daily distance moved, absolute distance moved, displacement or mean territory size among treatments. Fish moved throughout the brackish and freshwater interface area of the Savannah River during the summer months. Coinciding with decreasing fall temperatures, fish of all treatment groups moved downriver into brackish areas of the upper estuary, residing in the Front, Middle, and Back Rivers, where they remained through winter. Upriver movements of some hatchery-reared and wild groups began in early February as river temperatures began to increase. Shortnose sturgeon from each group selected apparent similar thermal, salinity and water depth conditions throughout the year. Hatchery-reared fish may be useful as surrogates for wild fish in behavioural studies. Triploid or surgically-sterilized fish may be used in situ behavioural studies where genetic contamination is a concern. It may be possible to monitor habitats used by released hatchery-reared fish to locate or verify remnant populations of rare or endangered species in systems where they are thought to be extirpated.

  19. Land Use Zoning in Three-Gorge Reservoir Region:A Case Study of Fengdu County in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqin; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Taking Fengdu County in Three-Gorge Reservoir region as an example,this paper applies the dynamic clustering analysis model, and divides land resource utilization of Fengdu County into three zones: Yangtze River valley economic zone,low mountains and hills agricultural zone,and low and middle agricultural,forestry and animal husbandry zone. It also analyzes current situation and existing problems in the land utilization of every zone,and finally puts forward corresponding recommendations.

  20. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  2. Problems in the Labor Export of Western Rural Areas——A Case Study of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis gives a brief account of the status of the labor economy in Three Gorges Reservoir area,which indicates that the labor economy in this area has made certain development and is characterized by fragile ecology,backward economic development and weak capacity to absorb employment,the Three Gorges Reservoir area is densely populated and has lots of rural surplus labors which need to be transferred.Then the thesis analyzes the problems in the labor export of this region,which can be manifested in the following aspects:the exported labors are with low quality and single skill;they are narrow-minded and have strong intention for their employment regions;they have low income but high risk to get employed;the government does not provide strong supporting services for exported labors.In order to solve these problems,the thesis proposes the suggestions and measures to develop the labor economy in Three Gorges Reservoir area,say,to perfect and ameliorate the training mechanism and improve the quality and skills of labors;to build the platform of employment network and solve the problems of the asymmetric employment information;to actively develop the intermediary organizations and promote the a proper movement of labor forces;to fully exert the function of government in logistic services and resolve the difficulties of the exported workers.

  3. Canyons and gorges as potential geotourism destinations in Serbia: comparative analysis from two perspectives - general geotourists' and pure geotourists'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božić, Sanja; Tomić, Nemanja

    2015-10-01

    Serbia represents one of those countries which have not yet differentiated themselves on the world tourism map. However, it has an immense but still unrevealed potential for geotourism development. In this paper we analyzed several remarkable canyons and gorges of great scientific importance and geotourism potential. These sites include the Djerdap Gorge and Lazar River Canyon, located in Eastern Serbia and the Ovcar-Kablar Gorge and Uvac Canyon located in Western Serbia. One of the main goals of this paper was to analyze and compare the current state and tourism potential of these geosites by using the M-GAM model for geosite assessment. However, the principal aim of the paper is to analyze how important is each subindicator in the assessment process for different market segments. In this paper, we also analyzed how giving different importance to subindicators can influence the position of the geosites in the matrix indicating different assessment done by two chosen market segments. The research showed that general geotourists appreciate considerably different values when assessing a geosite in comparison to pure geotourists. The paper can be used as framework for developing the tourism management strategy of geosites taking into consideration the needs and preferences of the target market segments.

  4. Cabinet Enterprise Products and Services Customer Satisfaction on Study%橱柜企业的产品服务顾客满意度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许伟; 周敏; 刘天娇; 朱剑刚

    2016-01-01

    With the improvement of people's living standards,demand personalized attention,custom home status increases,important part of the cabinet is a custom home,people pay great attention.In the business world,the service has a very high commercial value,cabinets services related to produce research and development,design,manufacturing to order delivery and maintenance of product users,involving many people and things. Research cabinet business products and services,you can better meet the individual needs,improve customer satisfaction,and bring more business value to the enterprise.%人民生活水平的提高,个性化需求受到重视,定制家居地位逐渐提高,橱柜是定制家居中的重要组成部分,十分受到人们的关注。在商业社会中,服务具有极高的商业价值,橱柜服务涉及到产品的研发、设计、生产到订单的交付及产品用户的维护等等,涉及的人和物众多。研究橱柜企业的产品服务,可以更好地满足人们对个性化的需求,提高顾客满意度,为企业带来更多的商业价值。

  5. Gabinetes de partido único y democracias presidenciales. Indagaciones a partir del caso argentino Single Party Cabinets and Presidential Democracies: insights from the Argentinean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo CAMERLO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los gabinetes presidenciales se ha focalizado predominantemente en las formaciones de coalición, distinguiendo a los ministros en función de su afiliación partidaria particularmente en los momentos de instauración y terminación del gabinete. Este artículo desplaza el foco de análisis hacia los gabinetes de partido único para indagar las modalidades de selección de ministros en situaciones donde el soporte legislativo de coalición pierde relevancia. Se propone un modelo de análisis que incluye la observación de afiliaciones extrapartidarias, capacidades técnicas individuales y vínculos personales con el presidente, y se lo aplica al estudio del caso argentino. Los resultados sugieren que presidentes bien posicionados tienden a aplicar estrategias de distribución de ministerios más cerradas, con grados de institucionalidad que dependen de la organización partidaria del presidente y su estilo de liderazgo.The study of presidential cabinets has mainly focused on coalitional formations, distinguishing individual ministers in terms of their party affiliation particularly at cabinet instauration and termination. This article moves the focus to single-party cabinets to study minister appointment in situations where the legislative support is less relevant. A model of analysis that observes extra-partisan affiliations, individual technical skills and personal liaison with the president is proposed and exploratory applied to the Argentinean case. The results suggest that well positioned presidents tend to apply closer strategies of portfolio distribution, with levels of institutionalization that depends on the president’s party organization and the president’s style of leadership.

  6. An SWOT Analysis of Intelligent Express Delivery Parcel Cabinets%基于SWOT分析的智能快递投递箱发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正伟; 刘欢; 赵国莲; 张瑞

    2015-01-01

    介绍了智能快递投递箱的发展现状,然后采用SWOT分析法,对我国智能快递投递箱的发展优势、劣势、机遇与威胁进行分析,在此基础上提出若干对策建议.%In this paper, we introduced the current status of the development of the intelligent express delivery parcel cabinets, then using the SWOT analysis process, analyzed the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats in their development, and at the end, on such basis, proposed the corresponding countermeasures.

  7. Preservation of hatchery waste by lactic acid fermentation. 2. Large-scale fermentation and feeding trial to evaluate feeding value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, A C; Patterson, P H

    1997-09-01

    Two waste streams from a Leghorn hatchery were preserved and recycled by fermentation with a by-product carbohydrate and extrusion processing into new feed ingredients that were evaluated with broiler chickens. Cockerel chicks (CC) and a 60:40 ratio of CC:shell waste (CC:SW) were fermented in 189-L barrels for 21 d following grinding, then mixing with a liquid culture (0.2%) and carbohydrate source at 15 and 16.66%, respectively. At 2 wk, pH was 4.44 and 5.09 for the CC and CC:SW products compared with higher values of 6.54 and 6.98 for the raw ingredients at the onset. Negligible hydrogen sulfide and no ammonia gas were recorded during the fermentation period. At 21 d, the fermented CC and CC:SW were extruded, dried, and ground to meals containing CP and TMEn levels of 47.4%, 3,187 kcal/kg, and 33.1%, 2,696 kcal/kg, respectively. Broiler chickens were fed a control diet and the CC (5 and 10%) and CC:SW (2.5 and 5%) ingredient diets with corn and soybean meal for 6 wk to evaluate feeding value and carcass yield. Body weight, gain and feed conversion at 42 d for birds fed diets supplemented with CC or CC:SW at all levels were comparable to those of the control. Diets supplemented with hatchery by-product had no negative effect on carcass measurements except ready to cook carcass and wing yield, which were significantly greater for the 10% CC:SW birds than for the control. These data indicate that nutrient dense hatchery by-products can be preserved with fermentation up to 21 d and support broiler live performance and carcass yield as dietary ingredients equal to or better than a corn-soybean meal control.

  8. Study of Disease and Physiology in the 1979 Homing Study Hatchery Stocks: A Supplement to "Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing", 1979 by Slatick, Gilbreath, and Walch.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Anthony J.; Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1981-09-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration, is conducting research on imprinting salmon and steelhead for homing (Slatick et al. 1979, 1980; Novotny and Zaugg 1979). The studies were begun with little background knowledge of the effects of disease or certain physiological functions on imprinting and homing in salmonids. Consequently, work aimed at filling this void was begun by the authors in 1978 (Novotny and Zaugg 1979) and continued in 1979. In 1979, we examined random samples of normal populations of homing test fish at the hatcheries to determine the physiological readiness to migrate and adapt to seawater and general fish health. At the Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington, we determined the survival of samples of the test fish maintained in marine net-pens after release from the hatcheries. Hatcheries and stocks sampled are listed in Table 1.

  9. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Idaho Department of Fish and Game Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighting 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 figs.

  10. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs, 25 figs.

  11. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff, (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Creston National Fish Hatchery, Kalispell, MT)

    2004-02-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually

  12. Geomorphological evolution of a fluvial channel after primary lahar deposition: Huiloac Gorge, Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanarro, L. M.; Andrés, N.; Zamorano, J. J.; Palacios, D.; Renschler, C. S.

    2010-10-01

    Popocatépetl volcano (19°02' N, 98°62' W, 5424 m) began its most recent period of volcanic activity in December 1994. The interaction of volcanic and glacier activity triggered the formation of lahars through the Huiloac Gorge, located on the northern flank of the volcano, causing significant morphological changes in the channel. The most powerful lahars occurred in April 1995, July 1997 and January 2001, and were followed by secondary lahars that formed during the post-eruptive period. This study interprets the geomorphological evolution of the Huiloac Gorge after the January 2001 lahar. Variations in channel morphology at a 520 m-long research site located mid-way down the gorge were recorded over a 4 year period from February 2002 to March 2005, and depicted in five geomorphological maps (scale 1:200) for 14 February and 15 October 2002, 27 September 2003, 9 February 2004, and 16 March 2006. A GIS was used to calculate the surface area for the landforms identified for each map and detected changes and erosion-deposition processes of the landforms using the overlay function for different dates. Findings reveal that secondary lahars and others types of flows, like sediment-laden or muddy streamflows caused by precipitation, rapidly modified the gorge channel following the January 2001 non-eruptive lahar, a period associated with volcanic inactivity and the disappearance of the glacier once located at the headwall of the gorge. Field observations also confirmed that secondary flows altered the dynamics and geomorphological development of the channel. These flows incised and destroyed the formations generated by the primary lahars (1997 and 2001), causing a widening of the channel that continues today. After February 2004, a rain-triggered lahar and other flows infilled the channel with materials transported by these flows. The deposits on the lateral edges of the channel form terraces. A recent lull in lahar activity contrasts with the increasing instability of

  13. The reason and precaution of rectifier cabinet of locomotive SS7E%浅析SS7 E机车整流柜故障原因及防止措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽玲

    2015-01-01

    针对检修过程中频现的SS7E整流柜击穿及刚上车整流柜出现击穿的现象,通过分析整流柜的结构,工作原理,工作特点并结合实际工作情况寻找关键原因,解决问题,减少了事件的发生。%This article mainly concentrate on the frequent occurrence of the puncture of rectifier cabinet of locomotive SS7E and the puncture of the rectifier cabinet when the locomotive just started.Solved this problem by analysis the construction of rectifier cabinet, working principle, working characteristics and combined the Actual work.

  14. Genetic variation within and among Danish brown trout ( Salmo trutta L) hatchery strains, assessed by PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Rasmussen, Gorm;

    1997-01-01

    Eleven Danish brown trout hatchery strains were studied by PCR- RFLP analysis of the ND-I and ND-5/6 segments of the mitochondrial genome. For comparison, data from wild trout representing three Danish river systems also were included. Reduced variability in terms of nucleon diversity and number...... of haplotypes was observed in most hatchery strains. However, computer simulations showed that even with relatively large numbers of female spawners considerable loss of haplotypes could take place over time. Therefore, reduced variability in some of the strains did not necessarily indicate a critical loss...

  15. About Computer Monitoring System of Three Gorges ship lift%三峡升船机计算机监控系统简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈斌

    2013-01-01

    Three Gorges ship lift will be shipping in June 2015. Construction of the Three Gorges ship lift with a large-scale, high technical difficulty, operational control complexity, and high operation and maintenance requirements for the realization of the automation of the control run, the Three Gorges ship lift using advanced computer control technology and introduced the first safety PLC control theory. In order so that we can learn more about the Three Gorges ship lift electric control system, this paper briefly describes the Three Gorges ship lift computer monitoring system.%三峡升船机将于2015年6月通航。三峡升船机具有建设规模大、技术难度高、运行控制复杂、运行维护要求高等特点,为实现上述控制方式的自动化运行,三峡升船机采用了先进的计算机监控技术并首次引入了安全PLC控制理论。为了使大家能更多了解三峡升船机电气控制系统,本文简要介绍了三峡升船机计算机监控系统。

  16. Reservoir-induced landslides and risk control in Three Gorges Project on Yangtze River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueping Yin; Bolin Huang; Wenpei Wang; Yunjie Wei; Xiaohan Ma; Fei Ma; Changjun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The Three Gorges region in China was basically a geohazard-prone area prior to construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). After construction of the TGR, the water level was raised from 70 m to 175 m above sea level (ASL), and annual reservoir regulation has caused a 30-m water level difference after impoundment of the TGR since September 2008. This paper first presents the spatiotemporal distribu-tion of landslides in six periods of 175 m ASL trial impoundments from 2008 to 2014. The results show that the number of landslides sharply decreased from 273 at the initial stage to less than ten at the second stage of impoundment. Based on this, the reservoir-induced landslides in the TGR region can be roughly classified into five failure patterns, i.e. accumulation landslide, dip-slope landslide, reversed bedding landslide, rockfall, and karst breccia landslide. The accumulation landslides and dip-slope landslides account for more than 90%. Taking the Shuping accumulation landslide (a sliding mass vol-ume of 20.7 × 106 m3) in Zigui County and the Outang dip-slope landslide (a sliding mass volume of about 90 × 106 m3) in Fengjie County as two typical cases, the mechanisms of reactivation of the two landslides are analyzed. The monitoring data and factor of safety (FOS) calculation show that the accumulation landslide is dominated by water level variation in the reservoir as most part of the mass body is under 175 m ASL, and the dip-slope landslide is controlled by the coupling effect of reservoir water level variation and precipitation as an extensive recharge area of rainfall from the rear and the front mass is below 175 m ASL. The characteristics of landslide-induced impulsive wave hazards after and before reservoir impoundment are studied, and the probability of occurrence of a landslide-induced impulsive wave hazard has increased in the reservoir region. Simulation results of the Ganjingzi land-slide in Wushan County indicate the strong relationship between

  17. The littoral zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xing-zhong; Zhang, Yue-wei; Liu, Hong; Xiong, Sen; Li, Bo; Deng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    For flood control purpose, the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) varies significantly. The annual reservoir surface elevation amplitude is about 30 m behind the dam. Filling of the reservoir has created about 349 km(2) of newly flooded riparian zone. The average flooding period lasts for more than 6 months, from mid-October to late April. The dam and its associated reservoir provide flood control, power generation, and navigation, but there are also many environmental challenges. The littoral zone is the important part of the TGR, once its eco-health and stability are damaged,which will directly endanger the ecological safety of the whole reservoir area and even the Yangtze River Basin. So, understanding the great ecological opportunities which are hidden in littoral zone of TGR (LZTGR) and putting forward approaches to solve the environmental problems are very important. LZTGR involves a wide field of problems, such as the landslides, potential water pollution, soil erosion, biodiversity loss, land cover changes, and other issues. The Three Gorges dam (TGD) is a major trigger of environmental change in the Yangtze River. The landslides, water quality, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, dam operation, and challenge for land use are closely interrelated across spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, the ecological and environmental impacts caused by TGD are necessarily complex and uncertain. LZTGR is not only a great environmental challenge but also an ecological opportunity for us. In fact, LZTGR is an important structural unit of TGR ecosystem and has special ecosystem services function. Vegetation growing in LZTGR is therefore a valuable resource due to accumulation of carbon and nutrients. Everyone thinks that the ecological approach to the problem is needed. If properly designed, dike-pond systems, littoral woods systems, and re-created waterfowl habitats will have the capacity to capture nutrients from uplands and obstruct soil erosion

  18. Reservoir-induced landslides and risk control in Three Gorges Project on Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueping Yin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges region in China was basically a geohazard-prone area prior to construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR. After construction of the TGR, the water level was raised from 70 m to 175 m above sea level (ASL, and annual reservoir regulation has caused a 30-m water level difference after impoundment of the TGR since September 2008. This paper first presents the spatiotemporal distribution of landslides in six periods of 175 m ASL trial impoundments from 2008 to 2014. The results show that the number of landslides sharply decreased from 273 at the initial stage to less than ten at the second stage of impoundment. Based on this, the reservoir-induced landslides in the TGR region can be roughly classified into five failure patterns, i.e. accumulation landslide, dip-slope landslide, reversed bedding landslide, rockfall, and karst breccia landslide. The accumulation landslides and dip-slope landslides account for more than 90%. Taking the Shuping accumulation landslide (a sliding mass volume of 20.7 × 106 m3 in Zigui County and the Outang dip-slope landslide (a sliding mass volume of about 90 × 106 m3 in Fengjie County as two typical cases, the mechanisms of reactivation of the two landslides are analyzed. The monitoring data and factor of safety (FOS calculation show that the accumulation landslide is dominated by water level variation in the reservoir as most part of the mass body is under 175 m ASL, and the dip-slope landslide is controlled by the coupling effect of reservoir water level variation and precipitation as an extensive recharge area of rainfall from the rear and the front mass is below 175 m ASL. The characteristics of landslide-induced impulsive wave hazards after and before reservoir impoundment are studied, and the probability of occurrence of a landslide-induced impulsive wave hazard has increased in the reservoir region. Simulation results of the Ganjingzi landslide in Wushan County indicate the

  19. Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guosheng; Qiu, Zhiqun; Qi, Junsheng; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Fengdan; Liu, Wenyi; Luo, Jiaohua; Shu, Weiqun

    2013-05-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the biggest lake in the world and a major water source in China. There is no information about occurrence and impact of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on the aquatic ecosystem. 61 surface water samples from 23 monitoring sites and 5 treated effluent samples were collected and analyzed. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found, respectively, in 86.4% and 65.2% of a total of 66 water samples, with high concentrations in treated effluent. The mean percent recovery was 29.14% for oocysts and 34.86% for cysts. A seasonal pattern was observed, with positive samples for Cryptosporidium more frequent in flood period and positive samples for Giardia more frequent in impounding period. Counts of enterococci, fecal coliforms and total coliforms, and turbidity were significantly associated with Cryptosporidium concentration in backwater (water in a main river which is backed up by the Three Gorges Dam) areas of tributaries but not Giardia. High associations were also found between oocyst and cyst in backwater areas of tributaries and cities. The risks of infection and illness due to water consumption in four different exposure routes were estimated. The results showed that swimming in the TGR has the highest infection risk with 1.39 × 10(-3) per time (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-600.3 × 10(-5)) for Cryptosporidium and 2.08 × 10(-4) per time (95% CI: 0.05-878.87 × 10(-6)) for Giardia, while directly drinking unboiled tap water treated with the conventional process has the highest morbidity with 524.98 per 100,000 population per year (95% CI: 10.35-2040.26) for Cryptosporidium and 5.89 per 100,000 population per year (95% CI: 0.08-22.67) for Giardia. This study provides new useful information for drinking water plants, health care workers and managers to improve the safety of tap water and deduce the risk of surface water contamination in China.

  20. 我国快递业自提柜的应用研究%Research on the application of the lifting cabinet in the express industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田凤权

    2014-01-01

    电商模式近几年在我国得到飞速发展,其销售额逐年成倍增长,同时促进了快递业投递货物中的自提柜业务的发展。对我国快递业出现的自提柜业务模式的发展现状和发展中的瓶颈障碍进行了分析,并提出了自提柜的未来发展前景和发展建议。%Business model in recent years in our country obtained the rapid development,its sales increases year by year,while promoting the express industry to deliver the goods in the question of cabinet business development.The emergence of China's express industry since the development present situation and the development counter business model in the obstacle is analyzed,and proposed future development prospects and development proposals raise the cabinet.

  1. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  2. Microsatellite DNA markers: evaluating their potential for estimating the proportion of hatchery-reared offspring in a stock enhancement programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravington, M V; Ward, R D

    2004-05-01

    We describe a statistical method for estimating the effectiveness of a stock enhancement programme using nuclear DNA loci. It is based on knowing the population allele frequencies and the genotypes of the hatchery parents (mother only, or mother and father), and on determining the probability that a wild-born animal will by chance have a genotype consistent with hatchery origin. We show how to estimate the proportion of released animals in the wild population, and its standard error. The method is applied to a data set of eight microsatellite loci in brown tiger prawns (Penaeus esculentus), prior to the start of a possible enhancement programme. We conclude that, for this particular data set, the effectiveness of such an enhancement programme could be quantified accurately if both maternal and paternal genotypes are known, but not if maternal genotypes only are known. Full paternal genotyping would require offspring genotyping and thus would be expensive, but a partly typed paternal genotype from a mass homogenate of offspring would be almost as effective and much cheaper. The experiment would become feasible based on maternal genotypes alone, if a further three typical microsatellite loci could be found to add to the existing panel of eight. The methods detailed should be of interest to any enhancement project that relies on nuclear DNA markers to provide tags.

  3. Hatchery production of European lobster (Homarus gammarus, L.: broodstock management and effects of different holding systems on larval survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ballestrazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biometry of wild berried females was collected during an entire reproductive season at the South-Wexford Lobster Co-op hatchery in Nethertown, Ireland. Second degree regressions between total body weight (TW, g and carapace length (CL, mm (TW=CL2 -36.675CL+1793.2, R2=0.9022 and number of “weaned” larvae and carapace length (Larvae number=1.217CL2–21.777CL-5281.1, R2 =0.743 were observed. Afterwards, berried females were divided according to two variables: 1. holding system: recirculating system (Rs vs barrel (Bar; 2. CL size: 120 mm (C. The total weight of larvae (212.5 vs 92.4 g and their numbers (7788 vs 5679 were significantly higher for the largest females than for the smaller sizes (P<0.01. The maximum survival rate of larvae (77.86% was noted for initial stocking density <1000 individuals/hopper, but the optimal stocking density for management purposes in the hatchery is higher (2001-3000 individuals/hopper.

  4. Survey of pathogens in hatchery Chinook salmon with different out-migration histories through the Snake and Columbia rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gaest, A L; Dietrich, J P; Thompson, D E; Boylen, D A; Strickland, S A; Collier, T K; Loge, F J; Arkoosh, M R

    2011-06-01

    The operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) has negatively affected threatened and endangered salmonid populations in the Pacific Northwest. Barging Snake River spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha through the FCRPS is one effort to mitigate the effect of the hydrosystem on juvenile salmon out-migration. However, little is known about the occurrence and transmission of infectious agents in barged juvenile salmon relative to juvenile salmon that remain in-river to navigate to the ocean. We conducted a survey of hatchery-reared spring Chinook salmon at various points along their out-migration path as they left their natal hatcheries and either migrated in-river or were barged through the FCRPS. Salmon kidneys were screened by polymerase chain reaction for nine pathogens and one family of water molds. Eight pathogens were detected; the most prevalent were Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Species in the family Saprolegniaceae were also commonly detected. Pathogen prevalence was significantly greater in fish that were barged through the FCRPS than in fish left to out-migrate in-river. These results suggest that the transmission of infectious agents to susceptible juvenile salmon occurs during the barging process. Therefore, management activities that reduce pathogen exposure during barging may increase the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon after they are released.

  5. Genetic Differentiation between Natural and Hatchery Stocks of Japanese Scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis as Revealed by AFLP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Jiang Liu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Japanese scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis is a cold-tolerant bivalve that was introduced to China for aquaculture in 1982. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers were used to investigate levels of genetic diversity within M. yessoensis cultured stocks and compare them with wild populations. Six pairs of primer combinations generated 368 loci among 332 individuals, in four cultured and three wild populations. High polymorphism at AFLP markers was found within both cultured and wild M. yessoensis populations. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 61.04% to 72.08%, while the mean heterozygosity ranged from 0.2116 to 0.2596. Compared with wild populations, the four hatchery populations showed significant genetic changes, such as lower expected heterozygosity and percentage of polymorphic loci, and smaller frequency of private alleles, all indicative of a reduction in genetic diversity. Some genetic structures were associated with the geographical distribution of samples; with all samples from Dalian and Japan being closely related, while the population from Russia fell into a distinct clade in the phylogenetic analysis. The genetic information derived from this study indicated that intentional or accidental release of selected Japanese scallops into natural sea areas might result in disturbance of local gene pools and loss of genetic variability. We recommend monitoring the genetic variability of selected hatchery populations to enhance conservation of natural Japanese scallop resources.

  6. Structure Design of Electric Cabinet for Space Remote Sensor%空间遥感器电控箱结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克军; 董吉洪; 宣明; 郭权锋; 李延春

    2015-01-01

    Electric cabinet for space remote sensor, which can’t be repaired on-orbit, needs to have high electromag-netic shielding ability and mechanical stability. Aiming at the requirements of electromagnetic shielding ability and me-chanical stability, an electric cabinet with frame-type double-cavity structure of electromagnetic shielding is designed. The main body adopts stable frame-type structure,which has good mechanical performance. Electric cabinet as a whole structure, which has extremely high electromagnetic shielding ability, is separated to two closed cavities. One is used for carrying electronics and the other is responsible for transferring the data signal. The electric field radiation immunity test (RS103) and electric field radiation emission test (RE102) show the effect of the electromagnetic shielding struc-ture meets the demand of space application. Besides,the finite element analysis and dynamic test are carried out on the Electric cabinet. The fundamental frequency is 235 Hz,which meets the design requirement of 120Hz. The double-cav-ity electric cabinet has excellent mechanical properties and high electromagnetic shielding ability.%空间遥感器电控箱的在轨不可维修性要求其具有高的电磁屏蔽能力和力学稳定性。针对电磁屏蔽能力和力学稳定性要求,设计了一种框架式结构的双腔隔离电磁屏蔽结构。该结构主体采用稳定的框架式结构,力学性能好。电控箱整体结构分为两个封闭的腔体,一个腔体用来承载电子学器件,一个腔体负责数据信号的转出,具有极高的电磁屏蔽能力。通过反应电控箱结构屏蔽能力的电场辐射抗扰度试验(RS103)和电场辐射发射试验(RE102)证明了该结构的电磁屏蔽效果满足航天应用需求。并且,对整个结构进行了有限元分析和动力学试验,基频是235HZ,满足设计要求的120HZ,双腔隔离电控箱具有优良的力学性能和极高的电磁屏蔽能力。

  7. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Migration Years 1996-1998 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, Thomas J.; Basham, Larry R. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2000-10-01

    The Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) is a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to measure the smolt-to-adult survival rates of hatchery spring and summer chinook at major production hatcheries in the Snake River basin and at selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates for Snake River basin chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Estimates of smolt-to-adult survival rates will be made both from Lower Granite Dam back to Lower Granite Dam (upriver stocks) and from the hatchery back to the hatchery (upriver and downriver stocks). This status report covers the first three migration years, 1996 to 1998, of the study. Study fish were implanted with a PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tag which allows unique identification of individual fish. Beginning in 1997, a predetermined proportion of the PIT tagged study fish in the collection/bypass channel at the transportation sites, such as Lower Granite and Little Goose dams, was purposely routed to the raceways for transportation and the rest was routed back to the river. Two categories of in-river migrating fish are used in this study. The in-river group most representative of the non-tagged fish are fish that migrate past Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental dams undetected in the bypass systems. This is because all non-tagged fish collected at these three dams are currently being transported. The other in-river group contains those fish remaining in-river below Lower Monumental Dam that had previously been detected at one or more dams. The number of fish starting at Lower Granite dam that are destined to one of these two in-river groups must be estimated. The Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methodology was used for that purpose. Adult (including jacks) study fish returning to the hatcheries in the Snake River basin were sampled at the Lower Granite Dam adult trap. There the PIT

  8. Post-Release Performance of Natural and Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, William P.

    2008-04-01

    In 2006, we continued a multi-year study to compare smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) ratios between two groups of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that reached the sea through a combination of either (1) transportation and inriver migration or (2) bypass and inriver migration. We captured natural subyearlings rearing along the Snake and Clearwater rivers and implanted them with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, but knew in advance that sample sizes of natural fish would not be large enough for precise comparisons of SAR ratios. To increase sample sizes, we also cultured Lyons Ferry Hatchery subyearlings under a surrogate rearing strategy, implanted them with PIT tags, and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers to migrate seaward. The surrogate rearing strategy involved slowing growth at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to match natural subyearlings in size at release as closely as possible, while insuring that all of the surrogate subyearlings were large enough for tagging (i.e., 60-mm fork length). Surrogate subyearlings were released from late May to early July 2006 to coincide with the historical period of peak beach seine catch of natural parr in the Snake and Clearwater rivers. We also PIT tagged a large representative sample of hatchery subyearlings reared under a production rearing strategy and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 2006 as part of new research on dam passage experiences (i.e., transported from a dam, dam passage via bypass, dam passage via turbine intakes or spillways). The production rearing strategy involved accelerating growth at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, sometimes followed by a few weeks of acclimation at sites along the Snake and Clearwater rivers before release from May to June. Releasing production subyearlings has been suggested as a possible alternative for making inferences on the natural population if surrogate fish were not available. Smoltto-adult return rates are not

  9. New evidence of Yangtze delta recession after closing of the Three Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X. X.; Yang, S. L.; Wang, R. S.; Zhang, C. Y.; Li, P.

    2017-01-01

    Many deltas are likely undergoing net erosion because of rapid decreases in riverine sediment supply and rising global sea levels. However, detecting erosion in subaqueous deltas is usually difficult because of the lack of bathymetric data. In this study, by comparing bathymetric data between 1981 and 2012 and surficial sediment grain sizes from the Yangtze subaqueous delta front over the last three decades, we found severe erosion and significant sediment coarsening in recent years since the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the largest dam in the world. We attributed these morphological and sedimentary variations mainly to the human-induced drastic decline of river sediment discharge. Combined with previous studies based on bathymetric data from different areas of the same delta, we theorize that the Yangtze subaqueous delta is experiencing overall (net) erosion, although local accumulation was also noted. We expect that the Yangtze sediment discharge will further decrease in the near future because of construction of new dams and delta recession will continue to occur. PMID:28145520

  10. Affecting factors of preferential flow in the forest of the Three Gorges area, Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jinhua; ZHANG Hongjiang; HE Fan; QI Shenglin; SUN Yanhong; ZHANG Youyan; SHI Yuhu

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the factors affecting preferential flow,a 2.9 m-long,2.6 m-deep soil profile was dug in the Quxi watershed,Yangtze River.To analyze the influence of rainfall on preferential flow,the preferential flow process was observed when the rainfalls were recorded.Soil physical and infiltration characteristics were also measured to study their effect on preferential flow.The results showed that the rainfall amount that could cause preferential flow was over 26 mm.There are four types of rainfall in the Three Gorges area,namely gradually dropping rain,even rain,sudden rain and peak rain.Preferential flow process was found to be relevant to the rainfall process.It was determined that with different rainfall types,preferential flow appeared at different times,occurring first in peak rain,followed by sudden rain,gradually dropping rain,and then even rain.Preferential flow would appear when the rainfall intensity was over 0.075 mm/min.In the studied area,the coarse soil particles increased with the soil depth,and for the deeper soil layer,the coarse particles promote the formation of preferential flow.Preferential flow accelerates the steady infiltration rate in the 83-110 cm soil horizon,and the quickly moving water in this horizon also enhanced the further formation and development of preferential flow.

  11. Landslide displacement analysis based on fractal theory, in Wanzhou District, Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Slow moving landslide is a major disaster in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. It is difficult to compare the deformation among different parts of this kind of landslide through GPS measurements when the displacement of different monitoring points is similar in values. So far, studies have been seldom carried out to find out the information hidden behind those GPS monitoring data to solve this problem. Therefore, in this study, three landslides were chosen to perform landslide displacement analysis based on fractal theory. The major advantage of this study is that it has not only considered the values of the displacement of those GPS monitoring points, but also considered the moving traces of them. This allows to reveal more information from GPS measurements and to obtain a broader understanding of the deformation history on different parts of a unique landslide, especially for slow moving landslides. The results proved that using the fractal dimension as an indicator is reliable to estimate the deformation of each landslide and to represent landslide deformation on both spatial and temporal scales. The results of this study could make sense to those working on landslide hazard and risk assessment and land use planning.

  12. Biostabilization and Transport of Cohesive Sediment Deposits in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongwei; Fazeli, Mehdi; Cheng, Wei; Huang, Lei; Hu, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    Cohesive sediment deposits in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China, were used to investigate physical and geochemical properties, biofilm mass, and erosion and deposition characteristics. Biofilm cultivation was performed in a recirculating flume for three different periods (5, 10 and 15 days) under ambient temperature and with sufficient nutrients supply. Three groups of size-fractionated sediment were sequentially used, including 0-0.02 mm, 0.02-0.05 mm and 0.05-0.10 mm. Desired conditions for erosion and deposition were designed by managing high bed shear stress at the narrow part of upstream flume and low shear stress at the wide part of downstream flume. Biostabilization and transport characteristics of the biofilm coated sediment (bio-sediment) were strongly influenced by the cultivation period, and the results were compared with clean sediment. The bio-sediment was more resistant to erosion, and the mean shear stress was increased by factors of 2.65, 2.73 and 5.01 for sediment with 5, 10 and 15 days of biofilm growth compared with clean sediment, resulting in less sediment being eroded from the bed. Simultaneously, the settling velocity was smaller for bio-sediment due to higher organic content and porosity (i.e., lower density). Additionally, there was a smaller probability of deposition for sediment with a longer cultivation period after erosion, resulting in more retention time in aquatic systems. These results will benefit water management in natural rivers.

  13. Mathematical model for interactions and transport of phosphorus and sediment in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Fang, Hongwei; Reible, Danny

    2015-11-15

    Phosphorus fate and transport in natural waters plays a crucial role in the ecology of rivers and reservoirs. In this paper, a coupled model of hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and phosphorus transport is established, in which the effects of sediment on phosphorus transport are considered in detail. Phosphorus adsorption is estimated using a mechanistic surface complexation model which is capable of simulating the adsorption characteristics under various aquatic chemistry conditions. The sediment dynamics are analyzed to evaluate the deposition and release of phosphorus at the bed surface. In addition, the aerobic layer and anaerobic layer of the sediments are distinguished to study the distribution of phosphorus between dissolved and particulate phases in the active sediment layer. The proposed model is applied to evaluate the effects of various operating rules on sediment and phosphorus retention in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Results show that the proposed model can reasonably reflect the phosphorus transport with sediment, and management scenarios that influence sediment retention will also influence the phosphorus balance in the TGR. However, modest operational changes which have only minor effects on sediment retention also have limited influence on the phosphorous balance.

  14. Simulation of Reservoir Sediment Flushing of the Three Gorges Reservoir Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation and its effect on the environment are the most serious world-wide problems in water resources development and utilization today. As one of the largest water conservancy projects, the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR has been controversial since its demonstration period, and sedimentation is the major concern. Due to the complex physical mechanisms of water and sediment transport, this study adopts the Error Back Propagation Training Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN to analyze the relationship between the sediment flushing efficiency of the TGR and its influencing factors. The factors are determined by the analysis on 1D unsteady flow and sediment mathematical model, mainly including reservoir inflow, incoming sediment concentration, reservoir water level, and reservoir release. Considering the distinguishing features of reservoir sediment delivery in different seasons, the monthly average data from 2003, when the TGR was put into operation, to 2011 are used to train, validate, and test the BP-ANN model. The results indicate that, although the sample space is quite limited, the whole sediment delivery process can be schematized by the established BP-ANN model, which can be used to help sediment flushing and thus decrease the reservoir sedimentation.

  15. Spatial and temporal aspects of greenhouse gas emissions from Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Before completion of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China, there was growing apprehension that it would become a major emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG: Carbon Dioxide (CO2, Methane (CH4 and Nitrous Oxide (N2O. We report monthly measurements for one year of the fluxes of these gases at multiple sites within the TGR, Yangtze River, China, and from several major tributaries, and immediately downstream of the dam. The tributary areas have lower CO2 fluxes than the main storage; CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere after passage through the turbines are negligible. Overall, TGR showed significantly lower CH4 emission rates than most new reservoirs in temperate and tropical regions. We attribute this to the well-oxygenated deep water and high water velocities which produce oxic mainstem conditions inimical to CH4 emission. TGR's CO2 fluxes were lower than most tropical reservoirs and higher than most temperate systems. This is due to the high load of metabolizable soil carbon delivered through erosion to the Yangtze River. Compared to fossil fuelled power plants of equivalent power output TGR is a very small GHG emitter, annual CO2-equivalent emissions are approximately 1.7% of a coal-fired generating plant of comparable power output.

  16. Trace element and rare earth element of cap carbonate in Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in Yangtze Gorges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jing; CHU XueLei; CHANG HuaJin; FENG LianJun

    2009-01-01

    For the Doushantuo cap carbonate at the Jiulongwan section in the Yangtze Gorges,its concentrations of redox sensitive elements suggest two distinct enrichments in stratigraphy. These enrichments occur at about 0.8 m and 3.3 m above the bottom of cap carbonate,respectively. They are interpreted as the temporary anoxic depositional conditions due to the oxidation of seeped methane. REE+Y patterns of the cap carbonate are classified into three types with different styles:(1) from the bottom to 2.45 m,representing the behaviors of freshwater and suggesting that massive meltwater swarmed into surface oceans during the deglaciation; (2) from 2.45 m to 3.3 m,indicating the pattern of ancient seawater possibly due to upwelling of deep water; and (3) from 3.3 m to the top,showing "MREE bulge"pattern with HREE-depletion as a result of diagenesis. The three-stage REE+Y patterns represent the transformations of shallow water in the wake of the Marinoan glaciation in this region:the fresh meltwater was dominant first,end then it interfused into the oceanic basin by the transgression and upwelling.Bloom of plankton further introduced anoxia near the water-sediment interface.

  17. Chemical element transfer of weathering granite regolith in the Three Gorges Dam region of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Clearing up sediment and regolith on the foundation of the dam in the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River in 1999, riverbed were exposed. On the basis of weathering granite regolith sampled from different portions of the valley landforms, by analysing total chemical contents with X rays fluorescent slice and calculating proper value of chemical element transferring ratio and intensity, the transferring law of chemical elements in different portions of the landforms were concluded: 1) In various landforms of the river valley, the process of desilication is not distinct; 2) in weathering granite regolith of riverbed, easy soluble CaO and MgO are relatively enriched whereas A1203 tends to decrease. The enriching rate of Fe203 is the greatest in various landforms of the river valley; 3) in weathering granite regolith of flood-plain, K20 and MgO contents are relatively enriched; 4) the weathering granite regolith of valley slope is a typical north subtropical weathering regolith, and its chemical weathering degree is in the transition phase from early to middle period; and 5) there is an opposite layer where K20 is relatively leaching and Na20 relatively enriching in 6.5 m depth of all weathering granite regolith.

  18. Emergy-analysis based approaches to develop circular economy in the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-hui; GAN Lian-jun

    2007-01-01

    The eco-environment and the condition of economic development in the Three Gorges area were evaluated with emergy indices calculated with the statistic data of the years from 1997 to 2005. The rising environmental loading ratio indicates an increasing pressure of economic activities on the environment and the economic development achieved at the cost of over-exploitation of resources and environment deterioration. The net emergy yield ratio implies that the economic system of this area was a self-contained, resource-export-oriented type at a relatively low level of technology. The emergy sustainability index of about 6 implies the economy of this area was under developed but had a potential to grow. According to the results of the emergy analysis, circular economy should be taken as the economic model of this region's development. This economic system should be water-resource-oriented and more open, make combined use of local and extraneous resources, and have an updated systematic structure with emphasis on emergy recirculation.

  19. Investigation and analysis of hazardous waste in the Three Gorges Area of Chongqing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li; LIU Xi-rong; WANG Li-ao; ZHOU Zai-jiang

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the investigation of hazardous waste (HW) in the Three Gorges Area of Chongqing region, which indicates that by May 2002, the dumped HW therein amounted to 14 600 t and was mainly distributed in five districts and counties with 11 000 t in Fuling, 1 650 t in Fengdu, 950 t in Wanzhou; 630 t in Wushan and 430 t in Yunyang. The total amount was composed of 9 670 t chromic residue, 2 310 t waste oil and residue, 410 t waste (false) fertilizer, 28 t waste chemical medicine, 26 t waste materials and 2 200 t other things including acid residue, waste asbestos, fluorine silicate,pigment, additive, waste acid, alkali, nitric acid, vitriol, lead mud, storage battery, calcium carbide, potassium cyanide, polluted soil, discard dynamite, waste packing barrel of cyanides, etc. In all of the HW, 578 t can be treated by chemical neutralization and stabilization technology such as redox, chemical precipitation, acid and alkali neutralization, etc., and the rest is temporarily untreatble and should be removed and piled at a temporary storage site above the 177 m water level of the dam with an aim to be transported to a future disposal site for innocuous treatment.

  20. Tibetan plateau river incision inhibited by glacial stabilization of the Tsangpo gorge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korup, Oliver; Montgomery, David R

    2008-10-09

    A considerable amount of research has focused on how and when the Tibetan plateau formed in the wake of tectonic convergence between India and Asia. Although far less enquiry has addressed the controls on river incision into the plateau itself, widely accepted theory predicts that steep fluvial knick points (river reaches with very steep gradients) in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis at the southeastern plateau margin should erode rapidly, driving a wave of incision back into the plateau. Preservation of the plateau edge thus presents something of a conundrum that may be resolved by invoking either differential rock uplift matching erosional decay, or other mechanisms for retarding bedrock river incision in this region where high stream power excludes the potential for aridity as a simple limit to dissection of the plateau. Here we report morphologic evidence showing that Quaternary depression of the regional equilibrium line altitude, where long-term glacier mass gain equals mass loss, was sufficient to repeatedly form moraine dams on major rivers: such damming substantially impeded river incision into the southeastern edge of the Tibetan plateau through the coupled effects of upstream impoundment and interglacial aggradation. Such glacial stabilization of the resulting highly focused river incision centred on the Tsangpo gorge could further contribute to initiating and accentuating a locus of rapid exhumation, known as tectonic anaeurysm.

  1. Earliest porotic hyperostosis on a 1.5-million-year-old hominin, olduvai gorge, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo

    Full Text Available Meat-eating was an important factor affecting early hominin brain expansion, social organization and geographic movement. Stone tool butchery marks on ungulate fossils in several African archaeological assemblages demonstrate a significant level of carnivory by Pleistocene hominins, but the discovery at Olduvai Gorge of a child's pathological cranial fragments indicates that some hominins probably experienced scarcity of animal foods during various stages of their life histories. The child's parietal fragments, excavated from 1.5-million-year-old sediments, show porotic hyperostosis, a pathology associated with anemia. Nutritional deficiencies, including anemia, are most common at weaning, when children lose passive immunity received through their mothers' milk. Our results suggest, alternatively, that (1 the developmentally disruptive potential of weaning reached far beyond sedentary Holocene food-producing societies and into the early Pleistocene, or that (2 a hominin mother's meat-deficient diet negatively altered the nutritional content of her breast milk to the extent that her nursing child ultimately died from malnourishment. Either way, this discovery highlights that by at least 1.5 million years ago early human physiology was already adapted to a diet that included the regular consumption of meat.

  2. Lions as Bone Accumulators? Paleontological and Ecological Implications of a Modern Bone Assemblage from Olduvai Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Yravedra, José; Baquedano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Analytic models have been developed to reconstruct early hominin behaviour, especially their subsistence patterns, revealed mainly through taphonomic analyses of archaeofaunal assemblages. Taphonomic research is used to discern which agents (carnivores, humans or both) generate the bone assemblages recovered at archaeological sites. Taphonomic frameworks developed during the last decades show that the only large-sized carnivores in African biomes able to create bone assemblages are leopards and hyenas. A carnivore-made bone assemblage located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti (within Olduvai Gorge) was studied. Taphonomic analyses of this assemblage including skeletal part representation, bone density, breakage patterns and anatomical distribution of tooth marks, along with an ecological approach to the prey selection made by large carnivores of the Serengeti, were carried out. The results show that this bone assemblage may be the first lion-accumulated assemblage documented, although other carnivores (namely spotted hyenas) may have also intervened through postdepositional ravaging. This first faunal assemblage potentially created by lions constitutes a new framework for neotaphonomic studies. Since lions may accumulate carcasses under exceptional circumstances, such as those documented at the site reported here, this finding may have important consequences for interpretations of early archaeological and paleontological sites, which provide key information about human evolution. PMID:27144649

  3. Phosphorus Loss from Dry Sloping Lands of Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zheng-Feng; GAO Ming; XIE De-Ti; WANG Zi-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Eutrophication in the Three Gorges Reservoir has become a serious issue,and phosphorus (P) is the nutrient thought to be primarily responsible although there are few studies about P loss from the mostly sloping farmlands of the area.This work investigated the amounts and forms of P loss from 9 farmlands with the slopes of 4°,9°,and 17° in a small watershed,Wangjiagou in Fuling District,Chongqing of China.The slope of the relationship between runoff and rainfall increased with field slope; i.e.,there was a significant interaction between the effects of rainfall and field slope on water export.For sediment export by surface runoff,there was no interaction between field slope and rainfall,and the intercept of the relationship between rainfall and sediment loss was significantly different for the 3 slopes.The main P loss was from sediments,regardless of slope.In the runoff water,particulate P was the largest P fraction,and its loss was greatest from the steepest land and least from the flattest.The release of total P and available P from sediments followed the same trend.The P loss during May to July in Wangjiagou was more than 60% of the annual total.

  4. Seasonal variation in functional phytoplankton groups in Xiangxi Bay, Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Min; BI Yonghong; HU Jianlin; ZHU Kongxian; ZHOU Guangjie; HU Zhengyu

    2011-01-01

    We describe the phytoplankton dynamics and structure in Xiangxi Bay,Three Gorges Reservoir.Samples were collected monthly in the surface waters between August 2007 and July 2008.We identified 10 principle functional groups.C-strategists and S/R-strategists with a wide range of tolerance dominated the phytoplankton assemblage.Seasonal variation was related to water column stability because of changes in hydraulic operation in October,January,and May.Functional group C (Asterionellaformosa)and P (Aulacoseria granulata) dominated in August and September,whereas group Lo (Peridiniopsis niei)was the most abundant between February and April,forming a dinoflagellate bloom.Group B (Stephanodiscus hantzschii),X2 (Komma acudata),and Y ( Cryptomonas erosa) were present throughout most of the year but were most abundant in late spring.A cyanobacterial bloom occurred from June to July,during which group M ( Microcystis aeruginosa,M.wesenbergii) and H1 (Anabaena flos-aquae) were dominant.Green algae,characterized by group G (Eudorina sp.,Pandorina sp.,Pyramidomonas sp.) and J (Pediastrum spp.,Coelastrum spp.,Scenedesums spp.),were abundant after the bloom degraded.This sequence was corroborated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA).The summary sequence of functional groups resulting from CCA was:C/P→ Lo→H1/M/J/G.The dynamics of the phytoplankton community may be explained by the stability of water column,irradiance,water temperature,and nutrient structure.

  5. EXPLORATION ON METHOD OF AUTO-CLASSIFICATION FOR MAIN GROUND OBJECTS OF THREE GORGES RESERVOIR AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-lei; SONG Meng-qiang; ZHOU Wan-cun

    2005-01-01

    Taking TM images, SPOT photos and DEM images as the basic information, this paper had not only put forward a kind of manual controlled computer-automatic extraction method, but also completed the task of extracting the main types of ground objects in the Three Gorges Reservoir area under relatively high accuracy, after finishing such preprocessing tasks as correcting the topographical spectrum and synthesizing the data. Taking the specialized image analysis software-eCognition as the platform, the research achieved the goal of classifying through choosing samples, picking out the best wave bands, and producing the identifying functions. At the same time the extraction process partly dispelled the influence of such phenomena as the same thing with different spectrums, different things with the same spectrum, border transitions, etc. The research did certain exploration in the aspect of technological route and method of using automatic extraction of the remote sensing image to obtain the information of land cover for the regions whose ground objects have complicated spectrums.

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING THERMAL STRUCTURE IN A TRIBUTARYBAY OF THREE GORGES RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhen-zhen; WANG Ling-ling

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the factors influencing the thermal structure of tributaries in the Three Gorges Reservoir(TGR),a well validated three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water temperature model was proposed to simulate the water temperature distribution in the Xiangxi Bay,a representative tributary of TGR.The numerical results show that water temperature stratification seasonally occurred in the Xiangxi Bay,with stable vertical temperature profiles.It is found from the numerical experiments that three key factors are responsible for the formation of water temperature structure:(1)very often,the locations of thermocline are mainly determined by wind speeds,and the higher the wind speed is,the deeper the thermocline is located beneath the water surface,which could be expressed by a fitted exponential function,(2)the thermal structure is affected by static stability of water column,and the thermocline becomes closer to the water surface and its thickness increases with the increase of temperature,(3)due to the effect of the thermal density inflow,the water temperature of the hypolimnion tends to be uniform,however,even under the condition of larger inflow discharge,the influence of the inflow on the epilimnion and the thermocline is not significant.

  7. The design and practice of giant hydro-turbine generating units of Three Gorges Project%The design and practice of giant hydro-turbine generating units of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Jianxiong; Liu Jingwang; Yuan Dafu

    2011-01-01

    The main technical problems that should be considered in the design of hydro-turbine generating units of Three Gorges Project (TGP) are analyzed;the key technical researches performed are summarized, and the parameters of hydro-turbine generating units are optimized through the study on key technical problems. The unit operation indicates that the performance of the hydro-turbine generating units is excellent, and the units can operate in a safe, stable and highly efficient mode for a long term. Therefore, it is verified effectively that the general technical design of units is scientific and rational.

  8. Genetic differences between wild and hatchery populations of Diplodus sargus and D. vulgaris inferred from RAPD markers: implications for production and restocking programs design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J C; Lino, P G; Leitão, A; Joaquim, S; Chaves, R; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Guedes-Pinto, H; dos Santos, M Neves

    2010-01-01

    Restocking and stock enhancement programs are now recognized as an important tool for the management of fishery resources. It is important, however, to have an adequate knowledge on the genetic population structure of both the released stock and the wild population before carrying out such programs. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were applied to assess genetic diversity and population structure of wild and hatchery populations of the white seabream Diplodus sargus and the common two-banded seabream D. vulgaris (Sparidae). The estimated values for intrapopulation genetic variation, measured using the percentage of polymorphic loci (%P), Shannon index (H'), and Nei's gene diversity (h), showed high values for all populations. The percentage of genetic variation within D. sargus and D. vulgaris populations, based on coefficient of gene differentiation, reached 82.5% and 90% of the total genetic variation, respectively. An undeniable decrease in genetic variation was found in both hatchery populations, particularly in D. sargus, compared to the wild ones. However, the high values of variation within all populations and the low levels of genetic variation among populations did not indicate inbreeding or depression effects, thus indicating a fairly proper hatchery management. Nevertheless, the results of this study highlight the importance of monitoring the genetic variation of hatchery populations, particularly those to be used in restocking programs. The creation of a genetic baseline database will contribute to a more efficient conservation management and to the design of genetically sustainable restocking programs.

  9. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2006-05-01

    Reproductive success in wild- and first generation hatchery-origin spring Chinook males was examined by allowing the fish to compete for spawning opportunities in two sections of an observation stream. Behavioral observations were used to characterize the frequency of aggression and courting activities. Microsatellite DNA from each male and fry collected from the observation stream were used in pedigree analyses to estimate reproductive success. The coefficient of variation in male reproductive success equaled 116 and 86% in the two populations. No differences were detected in reproductive success due to hatchery or wild origin. Nor were any behavioral differences found between hatchery and wild males. Although statistical power was low due to intrinsic variation a great deal of overlap existed in the reproductive success values of hatchery and wild males. Significant disparities existed among the males on their ability to produce offspring. Males achieving high reproductive success mated with numerous females, were socially dominant, aggressive, and tended to stay in localized areas, courting and spawning with females that were adjacent to one another.

  10. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 3 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Curtis (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2004-05-01

    This is the third in a series of annual reports that address reproductive ecological research and comparisons of hatchery and wild origin spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the baseline reproductive ecology, demographics and phenotypic traits of the unsupplemented upper Yakima population, however this report focuses on data collected on hatchery and wild spring chinook returning in 2003; the third year of hatchery adult returns. This report is organized into three chapters, with a general introduction preceding the first chapter and summarizes data collected between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2004 in the Yakima basin. Summaries of each of the chapters in this report are included below. A major component of determining supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is an increase in natural production. Within this context, comparing upper Yakima River hatchery and wild origin fish across traits such as sex ratio, age composition, size-at-age, fecundity, run timing and gamete quality is important because these traits directly affect population productivity and individual fish fitness which determine a population's productivity.

  11. 'One Health' investigation: outbreak of human Salmonella Braenderup infections traced to a mail-order hatchery - United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, J H; Pringle, J; Jones, R W; Nix, B E; Borders, J; Heseltine, G; Gomez, T M; McCLUSKEY, B; Roney, C S; Brinson, D; Erdman, M; McDANIEL, A; Behravesh, C Barton

    2015-07-01

    Human salmonellosis linked to contact with live poultry is an increasing public health concern. In 2012, eight unrelated outbreaks of human salmonellosis linked to live poultry contact resulted in 517 illnesses. In July 2012, PulseNet, a national molecular surveillance network, reported a multistate cluster of a rare strain of Salmonella Braenderup infections which we investigated. We defined a case as infection with the outbreak strain, determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with illness onset from 25 July 2012-27 February 2013. Ill persons and mail-order hatchery (MOH) owners were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. Traceback and environmental investigations were conducted. We identified 48 cases in 24 states. Twenty-six (81%) of 32 ill persons reported live poultry contact in the week before illness; case-patients named 12 different MOHs from eight states. The investigation identified hatchery D as the ultimate poultry source. Sampling at hatchery D yielded the outbreak strain. Hatchery D improved sanitation procedures and pest control; subsequent sampling failed to yield Salmonella. This outbreak highlights the interconnectedness of humans, animals, and the environment and the importance of industry knowledge and involvement in solving complex outbreaks. Preventing these infections requires a 'One Health' approach that leverages expertise in human, animal, and environmental health.

  12. INDIVIDUAL TISSUE TO TOTAL BODY-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS AND TOTAL, POLAR, AND NON-POLAR LIPIDS IN TISSUES OF HATCHERY LAKE TROUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissue body weight relaltionships, total lipid, and major lipid subclasses were measured in 20 adult hatchery lake trout to obtain a more in-depth understanding of the major lipid compartments of the "lean" lake trout for use in modeling the disposition of xenobiotics. It is sug...

  13. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Curtis M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from Oncorh Consulting to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning, and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the second in a series of reports that address reproductive ecological research and monitoring of spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. In addition to within-year comparisons, between-year comparisons will be made to determine if traits of the wild Naches basin control population, the naturally spawning population in the upper Yakima River and the hatchery control population are diverging over time. This annual report summarizes data collected between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2003. In the future, these data will be compared to previous years to identify general trends and make preliminary comparisons. Supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's (YKFP) spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is defined as increasing natural production and harvest opportunities, while keeping adverse ecological interactions and genetic impacts within acceptable bounds (Busack et al. 1997). Within this context demographics, phenotypic traits, and reproductive ecology have significance because they directly affect natural productivity. In addition, significant changes in locally adapted traits due to hatchery influence, i.e. domestication, would likely be maladaptive resulting in reduced population productivity and fitness (Taylor 1991; Hard 1995). Thus, there is a need to study demographic and phenotypic traits in the YKFP in order to understand hatchery and wild population productivity, reproductive ecology, and the effects of domestication (Busack et al. 1997). Tracking trends in these traits over time is also a critical aspect of domestication monitoring (Busack

  14. The Drivers of Land Use Change in the Migration Area, Three Gorges Project, China:Advances and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiupai Ni; Jing'an Shao

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed existing literatures on land use change since the demonstration phase of the Three Gorges Project and found that reservoir inundation,migration resettlement,urban relocation,and post-supporting construction were first paid more attention to,when analyzing the driving forces of land use change in the migration area.However,at the post-migration period (the end of migration resettlement),above-mentioned drivers had not obviously driven land use change,but the evolutions of "migration demands" replacing them increasingly became the major drivers of land use change in the migration area.Therefore,the future priority fields of land use explanations in the migration area,Three Gorges Project were (1) identifying the corresponding relationships between the spatial distributions of land use change and migration resettlement and indigenous inhabitants; (2) understanding the change of "migration demands" and their causing "indigenous inhabitants' demands"being how to drive land use transforms; (3) finding the driving processes of the conflict and exclusion between immigrants and indigenous inhabitants,and the transfer of immigrants and indigenous inhabitants on land use change; and (4) measuring the dynamic feedback of "migration demands" at different stages on the processes,directions and their corresponding impacts of land use change in order to building the coupling framework among "migration demands",driver behaviors,and land use.This paper presents a new access for the explanation of land use change and also supplies scientific proofs to obtain adaptive decision-making to optimize land use patterns in the migration area,Three Gorges Project.

  15. Dynamics of Rodent and Rodent-borne Disease during Construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir from 1997 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Zhao Rui; LU Liang; MAO De Qiang; PAN Hui Ming; FENG Lian Gui; YANG Xiao Bing; LIU Feng Feng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of impoundment and active public health interventions on rodent populations and rodent-borne diseases in the Three Gorges reservoir region from 1997 to 2012. Methods Surveillance data from 1997 to 2012 were extracted from the Public Health Surveillance System of The Three Gorges established in 1997. Temporal changes in the incidences of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and leptospirosis, rodent density, pathogen-carrying rates, and their correlations were analyzed. ResultsThe average indoor and outdoor rodent densities decreased overall from 1997 to 2012. The average densities decreased by 47.72% (from 4.38% to 2.29%) and 39.68% (from 4.41% to 2.66%), respectively, after impoundment (2003-2012) compared with before impoundment (1997-2002). The average annual incidence rates of HFRS and leptospirosis were 0.29/100,000 and 0.52/100,000, respectively, and decreased by 85.74% (from 0.68/100,000 to 0.10/100,000) and 95.73% (from 1.47/100,000 to 0.065/100,000), respectively, after impoundment compared with before impoundment. Incidences of HFRS and leptospirosis appear to be positively correlated with rodent density in the reservoir area. Conclusion This study demonstrated that rodent density and incidences of rodent-borne diseases decreased and were maintained at low levels during construction of the Three Gorges dam. Measures that reduce rodent population densities could be effective in controlling rodent-borne diseases during large-scale hydraulic engineering construction.

  16. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, Steven L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, Curtis M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA); Watson, Bruce D. (Yakima Nation, Toppenish, WA)

    2003-05-01

    In 2001 hatchery- and wild-origin spring chinook were placed into an observation stream located at the Cle Elum Supplementation Research Facility to compare their reproductive success. Two groups containing both wild- and hatchery fish of both sexes were brought into the stream and allowed to spawn. Their longevity, spawning participation, and reproductive success were assessed. In addition, wild- and hatchery-origin precocious males were also introduced into one of the sections and allowed to spawn. We found that hatchery and wild males generally lived longer than females. In one group hatchery and wild females lived for similar periods of time while in the other wild females lived longer than hatchery fish. Wild females were also more successful at burying their eggs and the eggs they buried had higher survival rates. This result occurred in both groups of fish. Spawning participation in males was estimated by using two statistics referred to as percent gonad depletion (PGD) and percent testes retention (PRT). Both of these measures assumed that loss of testes weight in males would reflect their spawning participation and therefore could be used to estimate reproductive success. Hatchery and wild males had similar PGD and PRT values. One of these measures, PRT, was negatively associated with male reproductive success, confirming the idea that reduction in testes weight can be used as a surrogate measure of a male's ability to produce offspring Fry from the observation stream were collected throughout the emergence period that ran from January through May. Proportionate sub-samples of these fish were removed and microsatellite DNA was extracted from them. Pedigree analyses were performed to ascertain which adult fish had produced them. These analyses disclosed that wild males were more successful at producing progeny in one of the groups. No difference occurred in the other group. Precocial males and jacks fathered fewer progeny than did fish maturing at ages

  17. Safety impact of piled municipal solid waste dumps in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on water quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The safety of water quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir(TGR)is very important.Protections and remediation of environment safety are very crucial for guaranteeing TGR environmental quality.When piled municipal solid waste(MSW) dumps are submerged without treatment,pollutants in the MSW will leach into the water and threaten the water safety of the reservoir.Based on the surveys of the amount,distribution and characteristics of piled MSW in the TGR area,this study focusing on the MSW dumps at the water leve...

  18. Design of monitoring and early warning system for geo-hazards in Three Gorges reservoir area using infrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, N.; Zeng, Z. X.; Yang, Y. C.

    2009-04-01

    With the progress of the Three Gorges Dam Project, geological disasters have become increasingly prominent. The reservoir area prone to landslides, collapses, cracks, and earthquake disaster because the complex terrain and geological conditions. It is of significance to monitor and foresee geo-hazards in the reservoir area. Here we introduce our design of monitoring and early warning system for geo-hazards in Three Gorges reservoir area using infrasound. Infrasound may be abnormal during geological disasters, such as debris and earthquake occurred. The formation a d movement of debris flow in its basin will generate infrasound, and spread to the surrounding air medium. Velocity of infrasound is much larger than that of debris flow, so we can monitor and forecast debris flow using infrasound. The sudden vertical displacement brought about by earthquake will generate acoustic-gravity wave which can be observed in distance to monitor earthquake, especially to monitor earthquake precursors. So we try to monitor the geological disasters for the Three Gorges reservoir area in China by design a infrasound array monitor system. This work is supported by Chinese "985 Project". The infrasound monitor system is comprised of two observation stations arranged in Badong county inside the reservoir area and in Wuhan city, respectively. Each station has respectively arranged a kind of augmentable linear array in the form of quasi-uniform linear array and additional amending direction sensors. The linear array comprises eight sensors arranged in several different uniform intervals along a line. The amending direction sensor is situated at certain point in mid-perpendicular of linear array in order to reduce multiplicity in determine the direction of arrival. The sensors used in the system are CDC-2B capacitances infrasonic receiver which can observe frequency ranging 0~20Hz. The, measurement resolution is 750mV/LPa. Infrasonic wave signal collected by sensor is transferred from

  19. Survival of Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-Flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1998-2001 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA)

    2002-09-01

    We report results from four years (1998-2001) of an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. We report analyses of associations among river conditions and survival and travel time estimates, which include data from 1995 through 1997. At weekly intervals from early June to early July each year (mid-May to late June in 2001), hatchery-reared subyearling fall chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released above Lower Granite Dam at Pittsburgh Landing and Billy Creek on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Each year, a small proportion of fish released were not detected until the following spring. However, the number that overwintered in the river and migrated seaward as yearlings the following spring was small and had minimal effect on survival estimates. Concurrent with our studies, a number of subyearling fall chinook salmon that reared naturally in the Snake River were caught by beach seine, PIT tagged, and released. We compared a number of characteristics of hatchery and wild fish. Hatchery and wild fish were similar in 2001, and from 1995 through 1997. Results for 1998 through 2000 showed some relatively large differences between hatchery and wild fish. However, recent information suggests that a considerable proportion of wild subyearling chinook salmon migrating in a given year may actually be stream-type (spring/summer), rather than ocean-type (fall) fish, which may account for some of the differences we have observed.

  20. Migratory patterns of hatchery and stream-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the Connecticut River, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Haro, Alexander; Lerner, Darren T.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Regish, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    The timing of downstream migration and detection rates of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts and stream-reared smolts (stocked 2 years earlier as fry) were examined in the Connecticut River (U.S.A.) using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted into fish and then detected at a downstream fish bypass collection facility at Turners Falls, MA (river length 192 km). In two successive years, hatchery-reared smolts were released in mid-April and early May at two sites: the West River (river length 241 km) or the Passumpsic (river length 450 km). Hatchery-reared smolts released higher in the catchment arrived 7 to 14 days later and had significantly lower detection rates than smolts stocked lower in the catchment. Hatchery-reared smolts released 3 weeks apart at the same location were detected downstream at similar times, indicating that early-release smolts had a lower average speed after release and longer residence time. The size and gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity of smolts at the time of release were significantly greater for detected fish (those that survived and migrated) than for those that were not detected. Stream-reared pre-smolts (>11·5 cm) from four tributaries (length 261–551 km) were tagged in autumn and detected during smolt migration the following spring. Stream-reared smolts higher in the catchment arrived later and had significantly lower detection rates. The results indicate that both hatchery and stream-reared smolts from the upper catchment will arrive at the mouth of the river later and experience higher overall mortality than fish from lower reaches, and that both size and gill NKA activity are related to survival during downstream migration.

  1. The effect of structural enrichment in hatchery tanks on the morphology of two neotropical fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah de Oliveira Saraiva

    Full Text Available Reared fish differ from wild fish in several aspects, including morphology, because they are adapted to captive conditions that are totally different from natural conditions. To minimize the influence of the hatchery environment on the morphology of fish, the use of environmental enrichment through the incorporation of natural designs in captivity, has been proposed. In the present study, we performed the physical structuring of fish farming tanks to verify the enrichment effect on the morphology of two species of neotropical fishes: Prochilodus lineatus and Brycon orbignyanus. Each species was subjected to four different treatments over two months: tanks with submersed logs, with artificial aquatic plants, with both structures and without any structure. Results showed that the structural enrichment had a strong effect on the morphology of the cultured fish, which varied with each species analyzed and with the type of structural complexity added to the tanks. There was an increase of morphological variability in the population of P. lineatus and an increase of the average length in the population of B. orbignyanus. This shows that the environmental enrichment is capable to induce morphological differentiation through phenotypic plasticity, probably generating phenotypes more adapted to exploiting a complex environment. Peixes cultivados diferem de peixes selvagens em vários aspectos, incluindo morfologia, pois são adaptados às condições de cativeiro, que são totalmente diferentes das condições naturais. Para minimizar a influência do meio de cultivo sobre a morfologia dos peixes, o enriquecimento ambiental, através da incorporação de 'designs' naturais em cativeiro, tem sido proposto. No presente estudo, foi realizada a estruturação física de tanques de piscicultura para verificar o efeito deste tipo de enriquecimento ambiental sobre a morfologia de duas espécies de peixes neotropicais: Prochilodus lineatus e Brycon orbignyanus

  2. Diversity of microbial plankton across the Three Gorges Dam of the Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam (TGD of the Yangtze River, China, is one of the largest irrigation and hydroelectric engineering projects in the world. The effects of huge man-made projects like TGD on fauna and macrophyte are obvious, mainly through changes of water dynamics and flow pattern; however, it is less clear how microorganisms respond to such changes. This research was aimed to examine differences in microbial diversity at different seasons and locations (in front of and behind the TGD. In addition, differences between particle-attached and free-living communities were also examined. The community structures of total and potentially active microorganisms in the water columns behind and in front of the TGD were analyzed with the DNA- and RNA-based 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic approaches over three different seasons. Clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes were prepared after amplification from extracted DNA and, for some samples, after preparing cDNA from extracted rRNA. Differences were observed between sites at different seasons and between free-living and particle-attached communities. Both bacterial and archaeal communities were more diverse in summer than in winter, due to higher nutrient levels and warmer temperature in summer than in winter. Particle-attached microorganisms were more diverse than free-living communities, possibly because of higher nutrient levels and heterogeneous geochemical micro-environments in particles. Spatial variations in bacterial community structure were observed, i.e., the water reservoir behind the TGD (upstream hosted more diverse bacterial populations than in front of the dam (downstream, because of diverse sources of sediments and waters from upstream to the reservoir. These results have important implications for our understanding of responses of microbial communities to environmental changes in river ecosystems affected by dam construction.

  3. Effects of hedgerows on sediment erosion in Three Gorges Dam Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong-Feng BU; Qiang-Guo GAI; Sai-Leung NG; Kwai-Cheong CHAU; Shu-Wen DING

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam Area refers to the river section from Chongqing to Yichang on the Yangtze River,which has a drainage area of 75,098 km2,and involves 19 cities and counties.Contour hedgerows have been used in this area to control soil erosion and to improve hillslope stability in the catchment of this river section.Five experimental hedgerow plots were established in 1994 in order to study the effects of hedgerows on erosion control.During the period of 1994-1997,runoff and soil loss data were collected on these test plots,including the chemical and physical properties of soil and related topographical data.The results indicate that:(1) after 4 years of cultivation and crop planting,soil fertility increased dramatically in the hedgerow plots.Soil organic matter,total nitrogen,and total phosphorus contents in the hedgerow plots were 5-9 times higher than that in the control plot.In each of the hedgerow plots,soil structure became more stable,the quantity of granules larger than 0.02 mm increased and those finer than 0.02 mm decreased;(2) All hedgerow plots showed a major effect on reducing soil loss and surface runoff;(3) Overland flow velocity along the upper portion of the hedgerow plots was greatly reduced due to hedgerow resistance,which explains the significant decrease in soil losses in hedgerow plots,despite the fact that the hedgerow plots and the control plots had the same total runoff.

  4. Water Environment Pollution in Three—Gorge Reservoir Area and Treatment Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOGuyuan; XUXiaoyi; 等

    2002-01-01

    After the erecgtion of Three-Gorge Reservoir,The Water Environment in the reservoir area will be turned into water dobies like laker,and the self-clarification ability of water will also be moch slower than ever,Now,the quality of water in most segments in upper reaches of Yangtze River cannot meet the requiremets of I-II class Environment Quality Standard (GHZB1-1999),In Yangtze River,Jialing River and Wujiang River,the mian indexes such as colon bacillus,nonionic ammonia,chemical oxygen demand(COD),petroleum,phenol,total phosphorus(TP),heavy metal,etc.,have exceeded the standard limits.The water bodies of the reservoir area are facing serious risk of eutrophicatioinm.To solve that problem.A countermeasure of multi-spot diverted treatment and separate discharge is recommended,for doing this,lots of smallscale wastemwate treatment facilities employing updated activated sludge treatment technologies are to be set up.Up to now,a number of sewage treatment technologies to control eutrophication of water have been developed,which include processes of sequencing batch activated sludge(SBR),absorbing bio-degradation (AB),oxidation channel,package intermittent aeration system(PIAS),intermittent cylce extended aeration system(ICEAS),UNITANK and so on ,The Efective one to be applied in the reservoir area should convey the requirements of ecological agriculture,forestry and urban planning ,and be accompanied by legal support for appropriate exploitation of natural resources.

  5. Genetic variation and spread pattern of invasive Conyza sumatrensis around China’s Three Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ming-Xun; Li, Xiao-Qiong; Ding, Jian-Qing

    2010-11-01

    Genetic diversity and structure within and between 17 populations of invasive Conyza sumatrensis (Asteraceae) around the world's biggest hydroelectric dam (Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on the Yangtze River in China) and nearby localities were surveyed using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to determine the spread pattern of this invader in TGD and nearby regions. A total of 434 individuals were analysed, for which 15 ISSR primers amplified 81 bands, with 54 (66.7%) being polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic loci within a population ranged from 31% to 58%, Nei's gene diversity was 0.385 ± 0.056, and mean Shannon's Index was 0.5815 ± 0.0833, indicating a high genetic variation in this self-fertile plant. Mass seed production and multiple introductions associated with dam construction and local development were thought to be responsible for the high level of genetic variation. Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed 36.5% of genetic variation residing within populations, 35.0% among populations within regions, and 28.5% among the three regions: TGD, upper reaches of TGD, and lower reaches of TGD. Most populations were genetically related to their nearest neighbors, while gene flow (mainly via seed movement) across TGD existed. Long-distance dispersal of seeds and pollen such as by water current, wind and human transportation could explain the low level of geographic structure of genetic variation. The highest genetic variation was found in a population in TGD, and most populations from TGD showed closer genetic relationship to the lower reaches population, which indicated that C. sumatrensis at TGD has likely experienced multiple introductions mainly from lower reaches, which is near the area of primary introduction (southern China) of C. sumatrensis.

  6. High-resolution monitoring of fluvial bedrock erosion in a natural gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Alexander R.; Turowski, Jens M.

    2014-05-01

    Morphological evolution of terrestrial and planetary landscapes is of increasing interest in the geosciences. In mountainous regions stream development and stream shape as a consequence of the interaction of uplift and erosion is fundamental for surface formation. Bedrock stream sections are prevalent that are routings for water and sediments. Hence, the correct description of bedrock channel evolution is fundamental for landscape modelling. To analyse how in situ erosion rates depend on factors like discharge, sediment transport and topography, there is a need of highly resolved topographic field data that so far is not available. Here we present preliminary outcomes of a change detection study from the Gorner Gorge above Zermatt, Switzerland. The outflow of the Gorner glacier (the Gornera stream) is captured most of the time by a water intake for hydropower production. However this intake is flushed twice a day in summer to purge settled sediments. Then the Gornera, charged with erosive bedload, runs along its natural stream bed that cuts through a roche moutonnée. This bedrock section (25m long, 5m wide and 8m deep) was surveyed repeatedly twice a year benefiting from nearly dry bed conditions during water capturing. A Leica ScanStation C10 was used for capturing high density point clouds (aspired average point spacing 5mm) of the bedrock surfaces. Referencing each of the various scanning positions was conducted using Leica HDS targets attached to fixed anchor bolts in the bedrock, that were surveyed locally with a total station. Resulting DEMs were used to calculate DEMs of difference (DoDs) for the bedrock walls and a huge boulder residing on the gravel bed. Erosion rates are visualised and discussed in respect of to the local spatial arrangement of the bedrock to the stream flow and water level.

  7. Preliminary report on methane emissions from the Three Gorges Reservoir in the summer drainage period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Lu; Hua Zheng; Yongjuan Zhou; Jiangxiao Qiu; Zhiyun Ouyang; Le Yang; Xiaoke Wang; Xiaonan Duan; Yujing Mu; Wenzhi Song; Feixiang Zheng; Junfeng Niu; Lei Tong

    2011-01-01

    Recently reported summertime methane (CH4) emissions (6.7 ± 13.3 mg CH4/(m2.hr)) from newly created marshes in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR),China have triggered broad concern in academic circles and among the public.The CH4 emissions from TGR water surfaces and drawdown areas were monitored from 3rd June to 16th October 2010 with floating and static chambers and gas chromatography.The average CH4 emission flux from permanently flooded areas in Zigui,Wushan and Yunyang Counties was (0.33 + 0.09) mg CH4/(m2·hr).In half of these hottest months of the year,the wilderness,cropland and deforested drawdown sites were aerobic and located above water level,and the CH4 emissions were very small,ranging from a sink at 0.12 mg CH4/(m2·hr) to a source at 0.08 mg CH4/(m2·hr) except for one mud-covered site after flood.Mean CH4 emission in flooded drawdown sites was 0.34 mg CH4,/(m2·hr).The emissions from the rice paddy sites in the drawdown area were averaged at (4.86 ± 2.31) mg CH4/(m2·hr).Excepting the rice-paddy sites,these results show much lower emission levels than previously reported.Our results indicated considerable spatial and temporal variation in CH4 emissions from the TGR.Human activities and occasional events,such as flood,may also affect emission levels.Long-term CH4 measurements and modeling in a large region are necessary to accurately estimate greenhouse gas emissions from the TGR.

  8. [Distribution of Mercury in Plants at Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Wang, Yong-min; Li, Xian-yuan; Tang, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; WANG, Ding-yong

    2015-11-01

    The mercury (Hg) distribution and storage in plants at water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir were investigated by analyzing the total mercury(THg) and methylmercury ( MeHg) levels in different parts of plants collected from three typical sites including Shibaozhai, Zhenxi and Hanfeng Lake in WLFZ. The results indicated that THg and MeHg concentrations in plants ranged from (1.62 ± 0.57) to (49.42 ± 3.93) μg x kg(-1) and from (15.27 ± 7.09) to (1 974.67 ± 946.10) ng x kg(-1), respectively. In addition, THg levels in different plant parts followed the trend: root > leaf > stem, and similar trend for MeHg was observed with the highest level in root. An obvious spatial distribution was also found with the THg and MeHg levels in plants in Hanfeng higher than those in the same plants in the other two sampling sites (Shibaozhai and Zhenxi), and there was a difference of THg and MeHg storage in plants in various attitudes. The corresponding THg and MeHg storages were 145.3, 166.4, 124.3 and 88.2 mg x hm(-2), and 1.9, 2.7, 3.6 and 3.2 mg x hm(-2) in 145-150, 150-160, 160-170 and 170-175 m attitudes. The accumulation ability of dominant plants in WLFZ for THg (bioaccumulation factor, BAF 1).

  9. Suitability of Taxodium distichum for Afforesting the Littoral Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Du, Chunlan; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J H Martin; Xiao, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The littoral zone ecosystem of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has become significantly degraded by annual cycles of prolonged winter flooding and summer drought. For purposes of flood control and sediment management, the water level in the reservoir is lowered by 30 m during the summer monsoon season and raised again to 175 m above sea level each year at the end of the monsoon period. To explore an effective way to promote biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, we examined Taxodium distichum as a species for afforesting the littoral zone. Sapling growth variations were measured after two rounds of winter flooding. Dominant influence factors were determined by redundancy analysis. Herb community similarities between the experimental afforested areas and nearby control areas were assessed to detect the ecosystem influence of the experimental afforestation. 94.5% of saplings planted at elevations above 168 m survived. All measured growth indices (tree height, diameter at breast height, crown width and foliage density) decreased as the flood depth increased. Completely submerged saplings had a mean dieback height of -0.65 m. Greater initial foliage density led to increased tree height and stem diameter. Shannon-Wiener indices were not significantly different between plots in experimental and control areas, but the low similarity of herb communities between experimental and control areas (0.242 on average) suggested that afforestation would enrich plant community structure and improve littoral zone ecosystem stability. Because littoral zone afforestation provides several ecosystem services (habitat, carbon sink, water purification and landscaping), it is a promising revegetation model for the TGR.

  10. Water Quality Assessment of Gufu River in Three Gorges Reservoir (China Using Multivariable Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwen Ge

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To provide the reasonable basis for scientific management of water resources and certain directive significance for sustaining health of Gufu River and even maintaining the stability of water ecosystem of the Three-Gorge Reservoir of Yangtze River, central China, multiple statistical methods including Cluster Analysis (CA, Discriminant Analysis (DA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were performed to assess the spatial-temporal variations and interpret water quality data. The data were obtained during one year (2010~2011 of monitoring of 13 parameters at 21 different sites (3003 observations, Hierarchical CA classified 11 months into 2 periods (the first and second periods and 21 sampling sites into 2 clusters, namely, respectively upper reaches with little anthropogenic interference (UR and lower reaches running through the farming areas and towns that are subjected to some human interference (LR of the sites, based on similarities in the water quality characteristics. Eight significant parameters (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, temperature, nitrate nitrogen, total organic carbon, total hardness, total alkalinity and silicon dioxide were identified by DA, affording 100% correct assignations for temporal variation analysis, and five significant parameters (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, electrical conductivity and total organic carbon were confirmed with 88% correct assignations for spatial variation analysis. PCA (varimax functionality was applied to identify potential pollution sources based on the two clustered regions. Four Principal Components (PCs with 91.19 and 80.57% total variances were obtained for the Upper Reaches (UR and Lower Reaches (LR regions, respectively. For the UR region, the rainfall runoff, soil erosion, scouring weathering of crustal materials and forest areas are the main sources of pollution. The pollution sources for the LR region are anthropogenic sources (domestic and agricultural runoff

  11. 三峡工程大坝设计%The dam design of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小毛; 徐麟祥; 廖仁强

    2011-01-01

    The dam of Three Gorges Project is a concrete gravity dam with the crest elevation of 185 m, the maximum height of 181 m and dam axis length of 2 309.5 m. The dam consists of spillway, powerhouse, non-overflow, ship-lift, temporary ship-lock, left diversion wall and longitudinal cofferdam sections. Some key techniques relating to dam structure design are presented, including hydraulics of flood discharge structure, joint design, layout and structural style of penstock, deep anti-sliding stability of dam foundation, sealing of temporary ship-lock and closed drainage and pumping of dam foundation.%三峡工程大坝为混凝土重力坝,坝顶高程185 m,最大坝高181 m,坝轴线全长2309.5 m,分为泄洪坝段、厂房坝段、非溢流坝段、升船机坝段、临时船闸坝段、左导墙坝段和纵向围堰坝段.笔者着重从泄洪建筑物水力学、坝体分缝、电站引水压力管道布置及结构形式、坝基深层抗滑稳定、临时船闸封堵、坝基封闭抽排等方面对大坝结构设计进行了简要介绍.

  12. Hydraulic characteristics and sediment generation on slope erosion in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Feng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological processes play important roles in soil erosion processes of the hillslopes. This study was conducted to investigate the hydrological processes and the associated erosional responses on the purple soil slope. Based on a comprehensive survey of the Wangjiaqiao watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir, four typical slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°and 20° were applied to five rainfall intensities (0.6, 1.1, 1.61, 2.12 and 2.54 mm·min-1. The results showed that both surface and subsurface runoff varied greatly depending on the rainfall intensity and slope gradient. Surface runoff volume was 48.1 to 280.1 times of that for subsurface runoff. The critical slope gradient was about 10°. The sediment yield rate increased with increases in both rainfall intensity and slope gradient, while the effect of rainfall intensity on the sediment yield rate was greater than slope gradient. There was a good linear relationship between sediment yield rate and Reynolds numbers, flow velocity and stream power, while Froude numbers, Darcy-Weisbach and Manning friction coefficients were not good hydraulic indicators of the sediment yield rate of purple soil erosion. Among the three good indicators (Re, v and w, stream power was the best predictor of sediment yield rate (R2 = 0.884. Finally, based on the power regression relationship between sediment yield rate, runoff rate, slope gradient and rainfall intensity, an erosion model was proposed to predict the purple soil erosion (R2 = 0.897. The results can help us to understand the relationship between flow hydraulics and sediment generation of slope erosion and offer useful data for the building of erosion model in purple soil.

  13. Characterization of the disturbed zone in a large rock excavation for the Three Gorges Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, J.H.; Ge, X.R. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China); Lee, C.F. [Hong Kong Univ., (China)

    2001-02-01

    In situ studies were conducted in the navigation structures of China's Three Gorges Project. The navigation structures included the permanent shiplock, the shiplift and the temporary shiplock located on the left bank of the Yangtze River. Each of the structures was constructed by deep excavation into the plagioclase granite basement rock to maximum depths of 173.5, 140 and 86 m respectively. A comprehensive study was conducted to determine the mechanical properties and the actual extent of the weakened or disturbed zones. It was determined that excavation in a rock mass results in the disturbance of the stress regime, and creates a stress-relieved, locally weakened zone. The two types of geological and geophysical tests used to determine the vertical extent of this disturbed or weakened zone were the cross-hole seismic wave penetration test and the borehole elastic modulus test. The deformation characteristics were monitored and evaluated to determine the horizontal extent of the weakened zone. It was shown that the P-wave velocity in the disturbed zone was reduced by 34-38 per cent compared to an undisturbed rock. Similarly, the P-wave in the borehole elastic modulus was reduced by 12-31 per cent. This reduction resulted from local sliding along the structural planes which created an opening in the primary structural planes. No newly formed fracture planes were found in the weakened zones. The disturbed zone was compared with both the tensile stress zones and the shear-damaged zones calculated by the finite element method. A reinforcement plan using cable bolts or conventional rock bolts anchored into the undisturbed basement rock was recommended. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 17 figs.

  14. Audiomagnetotelluric data to characterize the Revett-type copper-silver deposits at Rock Creek in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The Revett-type deposits at Rock Creek are part of the concealed stratabound copper-silver deposits located in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness of Montana. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources data are being evaluated with existing and new mineral deposit models to predict the possibility and probability of undiscovered deposits in covered terranes. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and depth of the mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional southwest-northeast audiomagnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. Further studies will attempt to determine if induced polarization parameters can be extracted from the magnetotelluric data to determine the size of the mineralized area. The purpose of this report is to release the audiomagnetotelluric sounding data collected along that southwest-northeast profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  15. Implementation and Design of an Escalator Cabinet Test Bench%自动扶梯控制柜检测台的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁

    2014-01-01

    According to GB16899-2011 Manufacturing and Installing Safety Specifications of Escalators and Au-tomatic Sidewalks, this paper analyzed the configuration of escalator cabinet system, came up with the adjust-ment, tested scheme, provided the electricity circuit theory and the method to produce velocity pulse and listed the materials.%根据GB16899-2011《自动扶梯和自动人行道的制造与安装安全规范》的要求,分析了扶梯控制系统的组成结构,提出了一种检测自动扶梯控制柜功能的方案,给出了电路原理、产生速度脉冲的方法,并列出了材料清单。

  16. Broadband Light Boba′s Utensils Disinfection (Cabinet)%宽频光波巴氏食具消毒技术(柜)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      臭氧能消毒也能放毒,是把有利有弊的“双刃剑”,盲目在室内使用高浓度臭氧消毒产品,很可能导致人体皮肤癌变和肺气肿。消费者本想花钱消费健康产品,得到的却是污染。在密封的消毒柜内,臭氧往往无法完全分解。长时间吸入残留在餐具上的臭氧,会对人体健康造成损伤。因此,研究可以替代臭氧消毒的消毒技术是广大用户的需求。该技术主要引入巴氏消毒理念,温度更低、更安全,将宽频光波消毒技术与食品级的巴氏消毒技术和高反射光消毒技术有机结合,形成一套绿色的、完整的、高效的协同消毒技术,应用于食具消毒柜中。利用宽频光波消毒技术的原理及各消毒因子协同消毒、优势互补的机理,突破以往食具消毒柜的理念,为消毒柜行业的进一步改良和突破提供科学的理论依据。%Ozone disinfection is also poisoning, so that it is the pros and cons of the " double-edged sword. It is recognized that blindly using high concentrations of ozone disinfection products indoor is likely to cause human skin cancer and emphysema, so that consumers want to spend money consumer Health, but in-stead the pollution! Disinfection in a sealed cabinet, ozone is often not completely decomposed. If residual o-zone in the cutlery on the long inhaled, it will cause damage to our body, so the study can replace ozone disin-fection technology is the needs of customers, the technology is the introduction of pasteurization concept, at lower temperatures, more security, promote low-carbon life. And broadband light disinfection of food-grade pasteurization technology and high reflectance of light disinfection technology combine to form a green, com-plete and efficient collaborative disinfection technology used in the disinfection tableware cabinet. Broadband lightwave the mechanism of the principle of disinfection technology and the disinfection

  17. 电力自动化设备机柜屏蔽效能测试与整改%Shielding Effectiveness Measurement and Reform of Power Automation Equipment Cabinet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖保明

    2016-01-01

    介绍了电力机柜屏蔽效能的测试方法和整改措施,分析了电力机柜屏蔽效能与机柜内部的电力二次设备辐射电磁抗扰度之间的关系,并提出了一种有效提高电力机柜内部二次设备或系统电磁辐射抗扰度的方法,通过实验验证表明,在机柜开口的屏蔽网罩,必须保证它的电连续性,开口或连接不好的缝隙,会使屏蔽网罩的作用大幅降低,甚至没有屏蔽作用。%Introduction was made to a test method of power cabinet shielding effectiveness. The paper analyzed the relationship between the power cabinet shielding effectiveness and the radiation electromagnetic immunity of the electric power secondary equipment within the cabi-net and raised a kind of effective method to increase the radiation electromagnetic immunity of secondary equipment and system within in the electric cabinets. The experiment results show that the shielding mesh enclosure of open end electric cabinets should be switched on constantly, otherwise the function of shielding mesh enclosure would be reduced greatly, even there is non any shielding functions.

  18. Three Gorges Reservoir Area: soil erosion under natural condition vs. soil erosion under current land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt, Sarah; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Apparently, the current most prominent human-induced example for large scale environmental impact is the Three Gorges Dam in China. The flooding alongside the Yangtze River, and its tributaries results in a vast loss of settlement and farmland area with productive, fertile valley soils. Due to the associated high land use dynamic on uphill-sites, the soil resources are underlying high land use pressure. Within our study, the soil erosion under natural conditions is compared to the soil erosion under current land use after the impoundment. Both were modeled using the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) which is able to predict long-term annual soil loss with limited data. The database consists of digital terrain data (45 m resolution DEM, erosive slope length based on Monte-Carlo-Aggregation according to Behrens et al. (2008)), field investigations of recent erosion forms, and literature studies. The natural disposition to soil erosion was calculated considering the USLE factors R, S, and K. The soil erosion under current land use was calculated taking into account all USLE factors. The study area is the catchment of the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. Within the Xiangxi Catchment (3,200 km²) the highly dynamic backwater area (580 km²), and two micro-scale study sites (Xiangjiaba with 2.8 km², and Quyuan with 88 km²) are considered more detailed as they are directly affected by the river impoundment. Central features of the Xiangxi Catchment are the subtropical monsoon climate, an extremely steep sloping relief (mean slope angle 39°, SD 22.8°) artificially fractured by farmland terraces, and a high soil erodibility (mean K factor 0.37, SD 0.13). On the catchment scale the natural disposition to soil erosion makes up to mean 518.0 t ha-1 a-1. The maximum potential soil loss of 1,730.1 t ha-1 a-1 under natural conditions is reached in the Quyuan site (mean 635.8 t ha-1 a-1) within the backwater area (mean 582.9 t ha-1 a-1). In the

  19. 室内柜式空气净化器嵌入式系统的设计%Design of embedded system for cabinet indoor air purifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玉德; 黄开; 金运掌; 徐伟; 杨乾; 周宝军

    2013-01-01

    Based on the traditional air purifier of filter and coupled with the function of ultraviolet and anion,we have designed the embedded system of cabinet indoor air purifier controlled by AVR single chip. The system is composed of control,the hardware and software programming. The designed functions of the embedded system is very advanced, including the MCU control function,key function,LCD display function,the main motor control function,stepper motor function, sensor applications function of data acquisition, generating device of ultraviolet radiation function, generating device of anion function,infrared remote control function and the device of buzzer function and so on, which achieved all effects of cabinet indoor air purifier at last.%在传统过滤式净化器基础上,加上紫外线和负离子净化功能,研究出一种基于AVR单片机控制的室内柜式空气净化器嵌入式系统.该系统是由控制、驱动硬件部分和软件编写程序部分构成.该嵌入式系统设计先进,包括单片机控制功能、按键功能、液晶显示功能、主电机控制功能、步进电机工作功能、传感器数据采集应用功能、紫外线发生装置功能、负离子发生装置功能、红外遥控功能和蜂鸣器发生装置功能等一系列功能设计,最终实现了柜式空气净化器所有功能效果.

  20. DCS Cabinet Power Loss Analysis for CPR 1000 Nuclear Power Plant%CPR1000核电厂DCS机柜失电分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亮; 赵岩峰; 孙永滨

    2014-01-01

    The DCS overall structure of CRP1000 nuclear power plant was introduced . Based on the RPC ,the signal interface character and signal processing mechanism on the key root were analyzed .By the power loss analyzing of RPC ,the RPC loss power may lead reactor trip signal from anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) system .The results indicate that it is necessary to search DCS cabinet power loss analysis .Optimi‐zing and assigning the main waterflow signals can avoid trigger reactor trip signal by mistake .The DCS cabinet power loss analysis can optimize the I&C (instrumentation and control) design and increase the nuclear plant’s reliability .%介绍了CPR1000核电厂数字化控制系统(DCS)的总体结构,以反应堆保护机柜(RPC)为基础,分析RPC的信号接口特性和信号关键路径节点的信号处理机制。结合RPC Ⅳ保护通道失电造成未能停堆的预期瞬变(ATWS)系统误发停堆信号的原因进行分析及优化,结果表明:对DCS机柜失电分析的研究是必要的,通过对RPC Ⅳ的给水流量信息进行优化和合理分配,可避免误发停堆信号。失电分析可优化仪控的设计,提高核电厂的可靠性。