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Sample records for cabinet gorge hatchery

  1. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaugh L.

    1994-07-01

    Lake Pend Oreille once provided the most popular kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka fishery in northern Idaho. A dramatic decline in the population occurred from the mid-1960s to 1970s. Restoration efforts included construction of the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to supplement the wild population and restore the fishery. In this study, hatchery-reared age 0 kokanee were stocked into Lake Pend Oreille from 1986 through 1992. Seven experimental stocking strategies for kokanee were tested using five locations and two time periods (early May through early June or late July). In 1985, the age 3 and older kokanee totaled about 0.35 million, but rose to 0.78 million in 1986, was stable, was then followed by a decline in 1990 to 0.53 million, then improved to 1.75 million in 1992. Much of the annual variation in total numbers of kokanee, ranging from 4.5 million to 10.2 million, was due to hatchery stockings of age 0 fish. Standing stocks of kokanee remained stable and ranged from 8 to 10 kg/hectare de spite dramatic changes in density due to age 0 fish. Prior to this study (1985), standing stocks were substantially higher (mean = 13.6 kg/hectare), indicating that the population may be operating below carrying capacity. The authors found survival of age 0 hatchery kokanee by each release season to range from 3% in 1986 to 39% in 1992, while the mean from 1987 through 1992 was 23%. They found significant (P=0.05) differences in survival between years, but they could not detect differences between stocking locations (P>0.71). Their analysis of survival between time (early vs late) and location was weak and inconclusive because after 1989 they had fewer fish to stock and could not repeat testing of some release strategies. They believe some of the variation in survival between release groups each year was due to the length of time between release in the lake and trawling.

  2. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1985 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1986-07-01

    Mid-water trawling techniques were used during September to estimate kokanee population abundance, structure and survival. Abundance in 1985 was estimated at 4.5 million fish (198 per hectare), down from over 12 million kokanee in 1974 when the population was first monitored. Hatchery fry production (<6 million annually) has stabilized kokanee abundance since its initial decline in the late 1960s. Wild fry recruitment has remained relatively stable at 1.8 million since 1978; whereas recruitment of hatchery-reared fry has ranged from 0.09 to 1.98 million. The 1985 creel survey indicated that kokanee harvest rates remain low, with approximately one kokanee harvested per hour of effort from April to August. Catch rates were as high as 3.5 fish per hour during the mid-1960s. The zooplankton community was monitored with periodic plankton tows. Zooplankton composition in 1985 was similar to previous years and appears to have stabilized following the introduction of mysids, with peak cladoceran production occurring several weeks after peak kokanee emergence. Delayed release of hatchery fry resulted in higher survival of hatchery (7.3%) than wild (0.43%) kokanee fry. Other release strategies will be tested as more fry become available.

  3. Effects of the Cabinet Gorge Kokanee Hatchery on Wintering Bald Eagles in the Lower Clark Fork River and Lake Pend, Oreille, Idaho: 1986 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crenshaw, John G.

    1987-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on the lower Clark Fork River, Lake Pend Oreille, and the upper Pend Oreille River, Idaho, were documented during the winters of 1985--86 and 1986--87. Peak counts of bald eagles in weekly aerial censuses were higher in 1985--86 (274) and 1986--87 (429) than previously recorded in mid-winter surveys. Differences in eagle distribution within and between years were apparently responses to changes in prey availability. Eight bald eagles were captured and equipped with radio transmitters in the winter and spring of 1986. Residencies within the study area averaged 13.9 days in 1985--86 and 58.3 days for the four eagles that returned in 1986-87. The eagles exhibited considerable daily movement throughout the study area. After departing the area, one eagle was later sighted approximately 1185 km to the southwest in northern California. Eagle behavioral activity was recorded at time budget sessions at areas of heavy use. Perching in live trees was the most common behavior observed. 34 refs., 39 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Hatchery Update 2011: Willard National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes the purposes of the hatchery and discusses hatchery goals and assessments for calendar year 2011. Topics include endangered species...

  5. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  6. Reducing airborne pathogens and dust in commercial hatching cabinets with an electrostatic space charge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B W; Waltman, W D

    2003-01-01

    Commercial hatcheries typically infuse hydrogen peroxide or formaldehyde gas into hatching cabinets to reduce airborne pathogens that may lead to disease transmission during the hatch. A nonchemical option, an electrostatic space charge system (ESCS), was customized for full-sized commercial hatching cabinets and was tested extensively in broiler hatcheries. The ESCS cleans air by transferring a strong negative electrostatic charge to dust and microorganisms that are aerosolized during the hatch and collecting the charged particles on grounded plates or surfaces. In studies with three poultry companies, the ESCS resulted in significant (P or = 0.05) from those with formaldehyde, and in 93%-96% lower Enterobacteriaceae than with no treatment or with hydrogen peroxide treatment (P hatchery. PMID:12887184

  7. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  8. Fish Hatchery Management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish hatchery management is efficient tool in intensive fish culture. The vital requirements of fish hatchery, hatchery construction, concrete tank construction, nursery, rearing and production ponds, fish seed hatchery, hormone in fish spawning, hypophysation, compounds used for induced breeding, hormone administration, spawning and rearing, steps in artificial propagation, hatchery management, nursery management are basic elements in effective hatchery management. The article reviews these vital elements to re-awaken fish farmers, Fisheries students private and public sectors in the formulation of fisheries policies.

  9. Comprehensive hatchery management plan: Carson National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Hatchery Management Plan (CHMP) for the Carson National Fish Hatchery (NFH) is an operational management plan which outlines policy, legal...

  10. Hatchery update 2010: Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes the purposes of the hatchery and discusses hatchery goals and assessments for calendar year 2010. Topics include the current fish...

  11. Cabinet of curiosities fuels creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2004-01-01

    During the initial stages of the design process, industrial designers often use their private collection of images, magazines, and objects to gather ideas and to discuss matters with their colleagues. These collections are rather like the cabinet of curiosities or wunderkammer that the well-to-do of

  12. Hatchery evaluation report: Lyons Ferry Hatchery - fall chinook. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Fall Chinook). The audit is being conducted as a requirement of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) ''Strategy for Salmon'' and the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Under the audit, the hatcheries are evaluated against policies and related performance measures developed by the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT). IHOT is a multi-agency group established by the NPPC to direct the development of new basinwide standards for managing and operating fish hatcheries. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  13. State Children's Cabinets and Councils: 2008 Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Elizabeth; Ravindranath, Nalini; Folliard, June

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves as the introduction to the State Children's Cabinets and Councils Series, a set of reports intended to capture and organize the decisions and experiences of more than 20 children's cabinets and councils and present them against an emerging set of expectations about what the public and policy makers could and should expect from…

  14. 24 CFR 3280.204 - Kitchen cabinet protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kitchen cabinet protection. 3280... Kitchen cabinet protection. (a) The bottom and sides of combustible kitchen cabinets over cooking ranges... is designed for the future installation of a cooking range, the metal hood and cabinet...

  15. Fluid dynamics of cytotoxic safety cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconnier, R; Bonthoux, F

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the specific fluid dynamics characteristics of cytotoxic safety cabinets (CSC), particularly those used in cancer drug reconstitution operations. Measurements taken on site were used to derive characteristic data for these cabinets. An in-depth laboratory investigation of airflows inside another CSC was also conducted. Anemometric values recorded on these two installations enabled the experimental validation of computational fluid dynamics methods applied to CSC. The digital flow simulations conducted provide a better understanding of the detailed flow structure inside a CSC and made it possible to study the influence of different operating parameters on the air velocity distribution inside the cabinet front opening: recycled air temperature, product protection airflow rate, suction openings spatial distribution, air compensation mode and draughts, operator arm penetration, and operator presence in front of the cabinet. PMID:20007340

  16. Neosho National Fish Hatchery contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish were collected from Neosho National Fish Hatchery (NNFH) to determine if metal or organic contaminants were elevated in the biota located on the hatchery....

  17. StreamNet Query System: Hatchery Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These trends include all counts of fish obtained at a hatchery or one of its satellite facilities. The only method allowed is hatchery rack / weir, and the count...

  18. Application of disinfectants in poultry hatcheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samberg, Y; Meroz, M

    1995-06-01

    Veterinary control and routine sanitary procedures in commercial poultry hatcheries should include the following: choice of a suitable geographical location to ensure an isolated site; proper hatchery design with separation of major operations; one-way flow of work within the hatchery; adequate ventilation of each room; routine cleaning and disinfection; formaldehyde fumigation or alternative method for disinfection of eggs, equipment and incubators; a routine programme for monitoring microbial contamination levels within the hatchery. PMID:7579636

  19. Umatilla Hatchery Final Predesign Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown Author

    1988-04-01

    This report provides information on the preliminary design of Umatilla Fish Hatchery near Irrigon, Oregon. The fish hatchery will be capable of rearing steelhead and chinook with an initial capacity of 290,000 pounds. Future expansion will allow for a total capacity of 500,000 pounds if the initial production goals are met. The hatchery will consist of both Oregon and Michigan style ponds. The Oregon ponds are similar to those at Irrigon. The Michigan ponds are more narrow and shallow, are self cleaning, and use oxygen supplementation to obtain higher rearing densities as is currently being done in the state of Michigan. The Oregon ponds are a two-pass system with the capability to convert to Michigan style ponds, if this mode of operation proves to be an effective method in the west. The Michigan ponds are three-pass with the capability to expand to four-pass.

  20. Detecting Fan Faults in refrigerated Cabinets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Rasmussen, B.D.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2002-01-01

    Fault detection in supermarket refrigeration systems is an important topic due to both economic and food safety reasons. If faults can be detected and diagnosed before the system drifts outside the specified operational envelope, service costs can be reduced and in extreme cases the costly...... faults in display cabinets under the wide operational conditions that display cabinets are exposed to. The approach described uses a non- linear parity equation comparing the heat transfer rates of the air and the refrigerant. The paper presents the detection method and discusses the application of the...

  1. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  2. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  3. Failure cause analysis and improvement for magnetic component cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic component cabinet is an important thermal control device fitted on the nuclear power. Because it used a self-saturation amplifier as a primary component, the magnetic component cabinet has some boundness. For increasing the operation safety on the nuclear power, the author describes a new scheme. In order that the magnetic component cabinet can be replaced, the new type component cabinet is developed. Integrate circuit will replace the magnetic components of every function parts. The author has analyzed overall failure cause for magnetic component cabinet and adopted some measures

  4. An experimental investigation of internally ignited fires in nuclear power plant control cabinets: Part 1: Cabinet effects tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of full-scale cabinet fire tests was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The cabinet fire tests were prompted by the potential threat to the safety of a nuclear power plant by a cabinet fire in either the control room or in a switchgear type room. The purpose of these cabinet fire tests was to characterize the development and effects of internally ignited cabinet fires as a function of several parameters believed to most influence the burning process. A primary goal of this test program was to test representative and credible configurations and materials. This series of 22 cabinet fire tests demonstrated that fires in either benchboard or vertical cabinets with either IEEE-383 qualified cable or unqualified cable can be ignited and propagate. However, fires with IEEE-383 qualified cable do not propagate as rapidly nor to the extent that unqualified cable does. Furthermore, the results showed that the thermal environment in the test enclosure and adjacent cabinets is not severe enough to result in autoignition of other combustibles; although in some of the larger fires melting of plastic materials may occur. Smoke accumulation in the room appeared to be the most significant problem, as smoke obscured the view in the enclosure within minutes after ignition. Essentially, a cabinet fire can propagate within a single cabinet; however, for the conditions tested it does not appear that the fire poses a threat outside the burning cabinet except the resulting smoke

  5. Three Gorges Dam, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest.This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: 60 x 24 km (36 x 15 miles) Location: 30.6 deg. North lat., 111.2 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3

  6. An Overview of Three Gorges Project Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Shouren

    2010-01-01

    @@ Objectives and benefits of the project Flood control The Three Gorges Project(TGP)is a key project to the harnessing and development of the Yangtze River.The damsite is located at Sandouping in Xiling gorge of the Yangtze Three Gorges,Yichang City,Hubei Province,38 km from its downstream Gezhouba hydroproject.

  7. Attractive Scenery of the Lesser Three Gorges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    THE Yangtze (Changjiang) Three Gorges or the Larger Three Gorges are famous all over the world for their magnificen scenery of valleys and distinguishing features of mountains and water. On the lower reaches of the Ninghe River flowing through Wushan County in Chongqing is the Lesser Three Gorges, which is becoming known by more and more people with its

  8. 75 FR 15430 - Chief Joseph Hatchery Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Chief Joseph Hatchery Program AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... announces the availability of the ROD to implement the proposed action identified in BPA's Chief Joseph Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0384, November 2009). BPA has decided to fund...

  9. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... program should be designed and implemented. (b) The hatchery building should be arranged so that separate... processing, and egg tray and hatching basket washing. Traffic and airflow patterns in the hatchery should be..., poults, or other newly hatched poultry should be distributed in clean, new boxes and new chick...

  10. Lynch Ferry Hatchery - Summer Steelhead, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Summer Steelhead). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead, and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  11. Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Summer Steelhead, Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Summer Steelhead). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead, and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  12. Three Gorges Dam Passes Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Floodwaters are released from the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River in Yichang,central China’s Hubei Province,on July 20.The dam,China’s largest flood control project,acts as a buffer for the worst flood-ing in decades as it blocks more than 40 percent of upstream water.The peak influx into the Three Gorges Reservoir topped 70,000 cubic meters a second on July 20,the highest level since the dam was completed last year.The flow is still 30,000 cubic meters below its designed capacity.The discharge has been kept under 40,000 cubic meters a second to help flood-fighting efforts in downstream areas that have been plagued by weeks of heavy rainfalls.The Three Gorges Reservoir has a capacity of more than 20 billion cubic meters with a maximum water level of 175 meters.

  13. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  14. Hatchery hygiene evaluation by microbiological examination of hatchery samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Kim, K S

    2010-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the bacterial contamination of air and the surface of equipment and facilities in hatchery. In addition, the inhibitory effects of formaldehyde application methods on aerosol bacterial counts in the hatchers were also investigated. In the operating hatchers, the contamination of air by aerobic bacteria, coliform, and fungi was high, measuring over 300 cfu/63.6 cm(2). In the egg sorting room, contamination was moderate, whereas in the remaining sampling sites such as the setter room, candling-transfer room, and chick counting room, contamination was minimal, measuring less than 10 cfu/63.6 cm(2) for aerobic bacteria, 5 cfu/63.6 cm(2) for coliform, and 2 cfu/63.6 cm(2) for fungi. The bacterial contamination on the surface of the equipment and facilities showed similar tendencies with that of air. However, on the surfaces of the equipment and facilities in the hatcher room corridors and nonoperating hatchers where the bacterial contamination of the air was low, bacterial counts were high, measuring over 100 cfu/16 cm(2). Salmonella was mainly isolated from the hatcher rooms, chick counting room, and the related equipment and facilities but not from the areas used for the earlier processing step such as the egg receiving room, egg sorting room, setter rooms, and candling-transfer room. The Salmonella serotype that was most frequently isolated from the hatchery was Salmonella Senftenberg. The other occasional Salmonella serotypes such as Salmonella Schwarzengrund, Salmonella Madelia, Salmonella Montevideo, and Salmonella Enteritidis were isolated. The experimental group receiving formaldehyde by constant rate infusion during hatching had a significantly superior inhibitory effect on aerosol bacterial count 4 h before hatching as compared with the group receiving formaldehyde into a basin and the negative control group (P < 0.05). PMID:20548066

  15. Random Vibration Analysis of the Electronic Equipment Cabinet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanping; LIU Dongqing

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the vibration characteristic of system structure of electronic equipment cabinet within the particular vibration frequency, the finite element analysis software- ANSYS is used to simulate the tests of random vibrations of the cabinet system and obtain the isopleths graph of deformation and stress of the cabinet. It can confirm maximum of deformation and stress of the cabinet and position happened. Through more analysis of the frequency response curve, which can confirm harmful consequences random vibrations caused and weak link of the cabinet structure. The numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. It shows that this research provides an efficient method for the anti-seismic design and the dynamic optimization design.

  16. Modeling structural acoustic properties of loudspeaker cabinets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu

    that the stiffeners are parallel to the edges of the plate, but simple considerations make it possible to relax this requirement. Whereas the improved smearing technique is well established for stiffened flat panels, there is no similar established technique for doubly curved stiffened shells. In an additional study......In this dissertation, a theoretical/numerical methodology is presented for coarse and fast predictions of cabinet vibrations. The study is focused on vibrations of rib-stiffened panels by improving a smearing technique and employing it into finite element modeling. The computationally efficient...... smearing technique for a cross-stiffened flat thin rectangular plate has been known for many years, but so far the accuracy of predicted natural frequencies has been inadequate. To improve predictions, all stiffeners including the ones neglected in the ordinary smearing technique are taken into account...

  17. Alchesay National Fish Hatchery [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map depicts lands owned andor administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at AlchesayWilliams Creek National Fish Hatchery Complex.

  18. Acceptance Test Plan for Fourth-Generation Corrosion Monitoring Cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the third-generation corrosion monitoring cabinet (Hiline Engineering Part No.0004-CHM-072-C01). This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer of the cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinet. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation

  19. Design and Development of a Domestic Biscuit Cabinet Tray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Olufemi Ajayeoba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A locally made biscuit cabinet dryer to be operated in homes was designed and developed to prepare biscuits in Nigeria homes. A thorough study of the imported dryer for home use was done. Design drawings and calculations were established and the machine was fabricated with well selected materials and components all sourced locally. The 714mm x 574mm x 984mm box shaped cabinet was constructed using mild steel and fiber glass was used as insulator to control heat loss by conduction The performance of the fabricated cabinet tray dryer was finally evaluated against an imported cabinet tray dryer in using a t-test analysis at 95% confidence level, and the result showed that there is no significant difference between the locally fabricated and the imported dryers.

  20. Put Teachers on Your Administrative Cabinet, and Restore Labor Harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Bill D.

    1982-01-01

    In Whithall (Michigan) schools, a teacher representative is included on the superintendent's administrative cabinet. Teacher participation has improved internal communication, aided in a campaign for a tax millage increase, and helped solve problems with teacher transfers. (MLF)

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinets that are...

  2. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  3. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peone, Tim L. (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Wellpinit, WA)

    2005-03-01

    Due to the construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam (1939), anadromous salmon have been eradicated and resident fish populations permanently altered in the upper Columbia River region. Federal and private hydropower dam operations throughout the Columbia River system severely limits indigenous fish populations in the upper Columbia. Artificial production has been determined appropriate for supporting a harvestable fishery for kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake (Grand Coulee Dam impoundments). A collaborative multi-agency artificial production program for the Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake fisheries exists consisting of the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery, Ford Trout Hatchery and the Lake Roosevelt Kokanee and Rainbow Trout Net Pen Rearing Projects. These projects operate complementary of one another to target an annual release of 1 million yearling kokanee and 500,000 yearling rainbow trout for Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fry/fingerlings for Banks Lake. Fish produced by this project in 2004 to meet collective fish production and release goals included: 1,655,722 kokanee fingerlings, 537,783 rainbow trout fingerlings and 507,660 kokanee yearlings. Kokanee yearlings were adipose fin clipped before release. Stock composition consisted of Lake Whatcom kokanee, 50:50 diploid-triploid Spokane Trout Hatchery (McCloud River) rainbow trout and Phalon Lake red-band rainbow trout. All kokanee were marked with either thermal, oxytetracyline or fin clips prior to release. Preliminary 2004 Lake Roosevelt fisheries investigations indicate hatchery/net pen stocking significantly contributed to harvestable rainbow trout and kokanee salmon fisheries. An increase in kokanee harvest was primarily owing to new release strategies. Walleye predation, early maturity and entrainment through Grand Coulee Dam continues to have a negative impact on adult kokanee returns and limits the

  4. Salmon hatcheries for the 21st century: A model at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Salmon hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest continue to produce fish for harvest, largely to fulfill a mitigation function. Fisheries management struggles with the...

  5. Hatcheries, Harvest and Wild Fish: An Integrated Program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Warm Springs Indian...

  6. Closed supermarket refrigerator and freezer cabinets. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligthart, F.A.T.M. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The City of Amsterdam's Environmental and Building Department commissioned the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to calculate the time needed to recoup the cost of closing the existing refrigerator and freezer display cabinets used in supermarkets. We were asked to give particular consideration to the following aspects: (1) The cabinet's energy consumption; (2) The energy price; and (3) The cost of closing the cabinet. The payback period has been calculated by dividing the investment required to close the cabinet by the amount saved on energy each year, less any additional costs incurred as a result of the scheme. For existing upright refrigerator cabinets, that period works out at 2.9 years with a margin error of {+-}0.9 years. In the case of chest freezers, it is approximately 2.4 years, with a maximum of 2.5 and a minimum of 1.3 years. For chest refrigerators, the payback period is 9.4 years. If units are closed overnight only, the time needed to payback the cost of that measure ranges between 1.8 and 4.1 years. Moreover, research shows that closing refrigerator and freezer display units will not reduce turnover. In addition, it will significantly improve the ambient climate in supermarkets.

  7. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Teams (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Fall Chinook). The audit is being conducted as a requirement of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) ``Strategy for Salmon`` and the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Under the audit, the hatcheries are evaluated against policies and related performance measures developed by the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT). IHOT is a multi-agency group established by the NPPC to direct the development of new basinwide standards for managing and operating fish hatcheries. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  8. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the c

  9. MEPR versus EEPR valves in open supermarket refrigerated display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, A.; Bansal, P.K. [Auckland Univ, (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the comparative experimental field performance of mechanical evaporator pressure regulating valves (MEPR) and electronic evaporator pressure regulating valves (EEPR) under the identical operating conditions of supermarket open multi-deck refrigerated display cabinets. The main goal of the supermarket refrigeration system design is to keep the displayed product at the required constant temperature, while minimising the cooling load to increase the overall energy efficiency of the system. Field tests have shown that the electronic evaporator pressure valve has a significant effect on improving the cabinet temperature and reducing the rate of frost formation on the evaporator coils with subsequent improvements in the air curtain strength. (author)

  10. Ford Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, Hatcheries Division, Annual Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovrak, Jon; Ward, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration's participation with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ford Hatchery, provides the opportunity for enhancing the recreational and subsistence kokanee fisheries in Banks Lake. The artificial production and fisheries evaluation is done cooperatively through the Spokane Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery (WDFW), Banks Lake Volunteer Net Pen Project, and the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. Ford Hatchery's production, together with the Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, will contribute to an annual goal of one million kokanee yearlings for Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fingerlings and fry for Banks Lake. The purpose of this multi-agency program is to restore and enhance kokanee salmon and rainbow trout populations in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake due to Grand Coulee Dam impoundments. The Ford Hatchery will produce 9,533 lbs. (572,000) kokanee annually for release as fingerlings into Banks Lake in October. An additional 2,133 lbs. (128,000) kokanee will be transferred to net pens on Banks Lake at Electric City in October. The net pen raised kokanee will be reared through the fall, winter, and early spring to a total of 8,533 lbs and released in May. While the origin of kokanee comes from Lake Whatcom, current objectives will be to increase the use of native (or, indigenous) stocks for propagation in Banks Lake and the Upper Columbia River. Additional stocks planned for future use in Banks Lake include Lake Roosevelt kokanee and Meadow Creek kokanee. The Ford Hatchery continues to produce resident trout (80,584 lb. per year) to promote the sport fisheries in trout fishing lakes in eastern Washington (WDFW Management, Region 1). Operation and maintenance funding for the increased kokanee program was implemented in FY 2001 and scheduled to continue through FY 2010. Funds from BPA allow for an additional employee at the Ford Hatchery to assist in the operations and maintenance associated

  11. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for growth and survival in the hatchery and seaward migration after release (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and Clearwater Hatchery; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies suggest that sea ranching of anadromous salmonids can result in domestication (increased fitness in the hatchery program) and a loss of fitness for natural production; however, the mechanism has not been characterized adequately. We artificially spawned hatchery and wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River, Idaho, reared the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) in hatcheries, and tested for differences in survival, growth, early maturation, downstream migration, and adult returns. Rearing treatments were mixed (crosses reared together) and separate (crosses reared separately from each other) at the hatchery of origin for the hatchery population where smolts are produced in one year, and at a nearby hatchery employing lower rations, lower winter temperatures, and two years of rearing to more closely mimic the natural life history (natural smolt age = 2-4 years). The hatchery population had been artificially propagated for six generations at the onset of our study. We found little or no difference in survival in the hatchery but substantially higher rates of growth and subsequent downstream migration for HxH than for WxW fish. Faster growth for HxH fish resulted in greater size at release which contributed to their higher migration rate, but other as yet uncharacterized traits also affected migration since the migration difference between crosses was apparent even within size classes. Growth of WxW fish was slower in the mixed than in the separate treatment indicating that WxW fish were competitively inferior to HxH fish in the hatchery environment. Incidence of precocious males was higher for WxW than for HxH fish in the separate but not in the mixed treatment. Incidence of HxH precocious males was similar between treatments. Apparently, the presence of HxH fish suppressed high incidence of early maturation by WxW males. A direct effect beyond

  12. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peone, Tim L. (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Wellpinit, WA)

    2006-03-01

    Due to the construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam (1939), anadromous salmon have been eradicated and resident fish populations permanently altered in the upper Columbia River region. Federal and private hydropower dam operations throughout the Columbia River system severely limits indigenous fish populations in the upper Columbia. Artificial production has been determined appropriate for supporting harvestable fisheries for kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake (Grand Coulee Dam impoundments). The Spokane Tribe, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Colville Confederated Tribes and Lake Roosevelt Development Association/Lake Roosevelt Volunteer Net Pen Project are cooperating in a comprehensive artificial production program to produce kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for annual releases into the project area. The program consists of the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery, Ford Trout Hatchery and Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Net Pen Rearing Projects. The Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake Fisheries Evaluation Program monitor and evaluates release strategies and production methods for the aforementioned projects. Between 1985 and 2005 the projects have collectively produced up to 800,000 rainbow trout and 4 million kokanee salmon for release into Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fry for Banks Lake annually. In 2005, the annual release goal included 3.3 million kokanee fry, 475,000 kokanee yearlings and 500,000 rainbow trout yearlings. Fish produced by this project in 2005 to meet collective fish production and release goals included: 3,446,438 kokanee fingerlings, 347,730 rainbow trout fingerlings and 525,721 kokanee yearlings. Kokanee yearlings were adipose fin clipped before release. Stock composition consisted of Meadow Creek and Lake Whatcom kokanee, diploid-triploid Spokane Trout Hatchery (McCloud River) rainbow trout and

  13. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for fish to survive to spawning maturity, to spawn

  14. 21 CFR 1020.40 - Cabinet x-ray systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... surface of the cabinet, other than a port, which remains open during generation of x radiation. (3... radiation attenuation, and exclude personnel from its interior during generation of x radiation. Included..., during generation of x-rays, for the purpose of conveying material to be irradiated into and out of...

  15. The WWW Cabinet of Curiosities: A Serendipitous Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Josie

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that the WWW is able to be fruitfully understood as a research tool when we utilise the metaphor of the cabinet of curiosities, the wunderkammer. It unpeels some of the research attributes of the metaphor as it reveals the multiplicity of connectivity on the web that provides serendipitous interactions between unexpected…

  16. Cultural considerations at Three Gorges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Rushu [China TGP Development Corporation, Hunbei (China)

    2000-08-01

    More than 100 interesting relics and sites will be affected when the Yangtze Three Gorges dam is impounded in one of the most important historical regions of China. This great tourist attraction has survived for 5000 years. The Chinese government is fully cognisant of the need to protect its inheritance and appropriate plans have been formulated in advance of the lake (surface area 1084 km{sup 2}) which will be formed. The article discusses protection measures, policies and laws for cultural protection, and the fate of relics found. The types of relics in the area are listed and a summary of the project programme is given. The plans are in place to build a first class hydro scheme whilst protecting the environment and protecting cultural relics and heritage.

  17. Improvement on the Design of a Cabinet Grain Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adzimah K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Grains are routinely seen dumped in villages and major cities during the peak of harvest. Therefore it is necessary that these grains are properly dried and stored to ensure availability and wholesomeness throughout the year. Advancements have taken place in the practice of drying since the first world war. Manufacturing methods have greatly improved production rate and the production line bottle-neck created by extended drying time inherent in the use old drying methods can no longer be tolerated. Main objectives of this study were to improve on the design of an existing cabinet grain dryer (to redesign the already existing cabinet grain dryer so as to: (i Optimize efficiency at low cost (ii Reduce total time of drying (iii Produce viable and quality grain. Approach: The improvement on the design of the existing cabinet dryer had been achieved through proper focus on the selection of power source, materials and other design criteria for the various components of the existing one. The dryer consists of a cabinet containing trays in which the grains to be dried are spread. After the grains were loaded, the cabinet closed and heated air of about 35-40°C blown across the grains. Heat was supplied by an electrical heating coil and hot air was blown from the heater housing to the drying chamber by the aid of a fan. The dryer also consisted of a thermostat which turns off the machine if inlet temperature exceeds 40°C. Results: The result of the improvement on the design of a cabinet grain dryer showed that; (i It was less costly (ii It was cheap to maintain since the fan is the only moving component and can hardly become faulty (iii drying time of the grain was reduced (iv The machine ergonomic; operation of the machine does not require specialization (v The machine is safer to operate since the use of gas has been eliminated (vi Time between two batches was reduced with the introduction of a trolley (vii Energy for loading or

  18. Three Gorges news: power struggle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennell, T.; Mooney, P.

    1999-08-16

    Inside Beijing's Zhongnanhai Compound, where the top leaders in China work, the Three Gorges power project is known as Canada's dam, because Canadian taxpayers funded the study that led to the creation of the $45 billion hydroelectric dam on the Yangtze River, the largest ever conceived. When completed in 2009, the village homes and town apartments of almost 1.5 million people will be submerged beneath a lake reservoir longer than Lake Superior. For them the dreams of Canadian engineers will have become a nightmare. As the River rises, thousands will be forcibly removed, but mounting problems could slow the process. The relocation drive is behind, construction is running over cost, and top officials are criticizing the project. All of this has led its opponents to hope that plans for Canada's dam may be altered before it becomes China's disaster. Senior staff at Canada's embassy met recently with Chinese officials to discuss the dam's troubled financing, and were told that the project was under control. When visiting the vast construction site, which is the size of a small city, it is difficult to imagine that Three Gorges could be halted. Nearly 25,000 workers, working around the clock, have already completed the foundation of the 185 m high dam. Once complete, its 126 turbines, three of which are being built by GE Canada, will match the output of 18 nuclear power plants. The two km wide barrier will also provide critical flood control along the Yangtze River. The negative socio-environmental impacts are stressed. 2 maps.

  19. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Bonneville Hatchery - Urb Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Bonneville Hatchery (Upriver bright [URB] Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located on the Columbia River just west of Cascade Locks, Oregon. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall Chinook and URB Fall Chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of at two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  20. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Spring Chinook : an Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Spring Chinook). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead. and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  1. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Bonneville Hatchery - Tule Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Bonneville Hatchery (Tule Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located on the Columbia River just west of Cascade Locks, Oregon. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall Chinook and URB Fall Chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  2. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery - Tule Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery (Tule Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located along the Columbia River at Underwood, Washington, approximately 30 miles upstream of Bonneville Dam. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  3. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  4. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Hayes, Michael C.; Groberg, Jr., Warren J. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    1994-06-01

    The Umatilla Hatchery is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing summer steelhead in the Umatilla River and expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council`s goal of doubling salmonid production in the Columbia Basin. This report covers the second year of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. As both the hatchery and the evaluation study are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary.

  5. Handling and Treatment of Poultry Hatchery Waste: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda Rodda; Zhihong Miao; Phil Glatz

    2011-01-01

    A literature review was undertaken to identify methods being used to handle and treat hatchery waste. Hatchery waste can be separated into solid waste and liquid waste by centrifuging or by using screens. Potential methods for treating hatchery waste on site include use of a furnace to heat the waste to produce steam to run a turbine generator or to use an in line composter to stabilise the waste. There is also potential to use anaerobic digestion at hatcheries to produce methane and fertilis...

  6. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a major negative impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas have been completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, destroying the primary food resource (salmon) for many native people forcing them to rely heavily upon resident fish to replace these lost resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program that addresses the loss of anadromous fish resources in the Upper Columbia Sub-Region within the ''blocked area'' created by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. This project enhances resident fisheries located in the Intermountain and Columbia Cascade Provinces, specifically within the Colville Reservation portion of the Upper Columbia, SanPoil and Oakanogan Sub-Basins. The project partially mitigates for anadromous fish losses through protection/augmentation of resident fish populations to enhance fishery potential (i.e. in-place, out-of-kind mitigation) pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The Colville Tribal Hatchery (CTH) is located on the northern bank of the Columbia River just down stream of the town of Bridgeport, Washington that is just down stream of Chief Joseph Dam. The hatchery is located on land owned by the Colville Tribes. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout annually. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence/recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members and provide for a successful nonmember sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to support ''carry-over'' fisheries. Fish

  7. Effectiveness of an integrated hatchery program: Can genetic-based performance differences between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Drake, Deanne C.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Young, Sewall F.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of wild (W) and hatchery (H) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was evaluated for a sixth generation hatchery program. Management techniques to minimize genetic divergence from the wild stock included regular use of wild broodstock and volitional releases of juveniles. Performance of HH, WW, and HW (hatchery female spawned with wild male) crosses was compared in hatchery and stream environments. The WW juveniles emigrated from the hatchery at two to three times the rate of HH fish in the fall (HW intermediate) and 35% more HH than WW adults returned (27% more HW than WW adults). Performance in the stream did not differ statistically between HH and WW fish, but outmigrants (38% WW, 30% HW, and 32% HH fish) during the first 39 days of the 16-month sampling period composed 74% of total outmigrants. Differences among hatchery-reared crosses were partially due to additive genetic effects, were consistent with domestication (increased fitness for the hatchery population in the hatchery program), and suggested that selection against fall emigration from the hatchery was a possible mechanism of domestication.

  8. Integrated Hatchery Operations : Existing Policy Affecting Hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-05-01

    Collected together in this document is relevant laws and policy of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington State Department of Wildlife, Oregon State, Washington Department of Fisheries, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game as they affect hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  9. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations

  10. High Efficancy Integrated Under-Cabinet Phosphorescent OLED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Hack

    2001-10-31

    In this two year program Universal Display Corporation (UDC) together with the University of Michigan, Teknokon, developed and delivered an energy efficient phosphorescent OLED under cabinet illumination system. Specifically the UDC team goal was in 2011 to deliver five (5) Beta level OLED under cabinet lighting fixtures each consisting of five 6-inch x 6-inch OLED lighting panels, delivering over 420 lumens, at an overall system efficacy of >60 lm/W, a CRI of >85, and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 20,000 hours. During the course of this program, the Team pursued the commercialization of these OLED based under cabinet lighting fixtures, to enable the launch of commercial OLED lighting products. The UDC team was ideally suited to develop these novel and efficient solid state lighting fixtures, having both the technical experience and commercial distribution mechanisms to leverage work performed under this contract. UDC's business strategy is to non-exclusively license its PHOLED technology to lighting manufacturers, and also supply them with our proprietary PHOLED materials. UDC is currently working with several licensees who are manufacturing OLED lighting panels using our technology. During this 2 year program, we further developed our high efficiency white Phosphorescent OLEDs from the first milestone, achieving a 80 lm/W single pixel to the final milestone, achieving an under-cabinet PHOLED lighting system that operates at 56 lm/W at 420 lumens. Each luminaire was comprised of ten 15cm x 7.5cm lighting modules mounted in outcoupling enhancement lenses and a control module. The lamps modules are connected together using either plugs or wires with plugs on each end, allowing for unlimited configurations. The lamps are driven by an OLED driver mounted in an enclosure which includes the AC plug. As a result of advancements gained under this program, the path to move OLED lighting panels from development into manufacturing has been

  11. A machine vision system for classifying rectangular cabinet frames

    OpenAIRE

    Bari, Farooq

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes a machine vision solution to an industrial classification task. The specific problem is the identification of kitchen cabinet frames that travel on a conveyor belt. For these components, it is possible to acquire silhouette images and perform two dimensional image analysis. Corner point locations are used as features which are compared with a database of known frame styles. This thesis describes a novel image acquisition system that utilizes backlighting and a line scan ...

  12. Quality Model of Foodstuff in a Refrigerated Display Cabinet

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Commercial refrigerating systems need to be defrosted regularly to maintain a satisfactory performance. When defrosting the evaporator coil, the air temperature inside the display cabinet will increase, and float outside the normal temperature range for a period of time, the question is what happens to the food inside during this period, when we look at the quality factor?This paper discusses quality model of foodstuff, different scenarios of defrost scheme are simulated, questions such as ho...

  13. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Iain S.

    2010-01-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the developm...

  14. Occurrence of antibiotics in water from fish hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Earl M.; Dietze, Julie E.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery of pharmaceuticals in streams across the United States (Kolpin and others, 2002) has raised the visibility and need for monitoring of antibiotics in the environment. Possible sources of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals in streams may include fish hatcheries. This fact sheet presents the results from a preliminary study of fish hatcheries across the United States for the occurrence and concentration of antibiotics present in fish hatchery water. The study examines both sufonamides and tetracyclines. Sulfonamides are synthetic compounds, and tetracyclines are naturally occurring compounds. The use of antibiotics added to specially formulated feed is a common practice in fish hatcheries to treat and prevent bacterial infections in large fish populations. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antibiotics are oxytetracycline-HCI, sulfamerazine, and a combination drug containing ormetoprim and sulfadiamethoxine (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2003). During January 2001?June 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory (OGRL), Lawrence, Kansas, cooperatively collected water samples from 13 fish hatcheries across the United States (fig. 1) with the assistance of hatchery operators. A method for the analysis of antibiotics was developed and used to identify and quantify these compounds in fish hatchery water (Lindsey and others, 2001). This study was completed to determine if trace levels of antibiotics [approximately 1 microgram per liter (?g/L) or 1 part per billion or greater occurred] in which water associated with fish hatcheries, which are a potential source of these compounds in surface water.

  15. Cabinet Sh2104 with protective equipment for shunting reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogilev, G.P.; Kozina, N.I.; Ivanova, N.M.; Berger, P.A.

    1985-08-01

    A cabinet with a set of protective equipment for shunting reactors has been developed by the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Relay Engineering. This Sh2104 cabinet houses relays for protection and control of compensating reactors as well. The equipment will protect a reactor whether the latter is connected into the line directly or through a tripping switch, by disconnecting it from the line or by actuating that switch respectively. For better reliability, the equipment for protection of shunting relays is grouped into a main set and a backup set. The main set includes longitudinally-acting differential phase-current relays, lead high-voltage insulation checkers, gas-leak protection, and standby reactor or line disconnectors. The backup set includes a 2-step zero-sequence current relay. The equipment for protection of compensating reactors consists of longitudinally acting differential current relays, distance relays, peak-current relays, and gas-leak protection. Two power supplies (50 W and 100 W) are provided for energizing all the equipment in this cabinet. Provided are also means for continuous operational monitoring and spot-check testing. The overall dimensions are 600x600x2200 mm/sup 3/, the total weight is 250 kg.

  16. Measurement of the transient shielding effectiveness of shielding cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herlemann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new definitions of shielding effectiveness (SE for high-frequency and transient electromagnetic fields were introduced by Klinkenbusch (2005. Analytical results were shown for closed as well as for non closed cylindrical shields. In the present work, the shielding performance of different shielding cabinets is investigated by means of numerical simulations and measurements inside a fully anechoic chamber and a GTEM-cell. For the GTEM-cell-measurements, a downscaled model of the shielding cabinet is used. For the simulations, the numerical tools CONCEPT II and COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS were available. The numerical results agree well with the measurements. They can be used to interpret the behaviour of the shielding effectiveness of enclosures as function of frequency. From the measurement of the electric and magnetic fields with and without the enclosure in place, the electric and magnetic shielding effectiveness as well as the transient shielding effectiveness of the enclosure are calculated. The transient SE of four different shielding cabinets is determined and discussed.

  17. Cabinet Governance and Political Stability in English Urban Councils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Greasley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers have long been concerned with the quality of local political leadership and have often resorted to institutional reform to try to improve political leadership. This paper looks at a specific and neglected facet of the political management reforms that have been implemented in English local government over the last decade: the tenure and turnover of cabinet members. The tenure of top politicians may be an important influence on the performance of local government particularly when political management is designed to favour individualised leadership. On the one hand, excessively short tenures for top politicians may damage the ability of governments to develop strategic plans and ensure they are implemented while on the other hand the risk of loss of office is central to political accountability and excessively long tenures may be indicative of an insulated and unresponsive elite. While some research attention has been paid to the tenures of leaders of councils in England there is little systematic information about the tenure of cabinet members. This paper discusses the relevance of cabinet stability and provides an overview of recent experience in England.

  18. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  19. Variation of Modal Characteristics of Electrical Cabinet According to the Excitation Level in Impact Hammer Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many electrical cabinets in nuclear power plants. Safety-related equipment is typically seismic qualified before installation. Seismic qualification of equipment is possible when identifying the accurate dynamic characteristics of the equipment. According to the nature of the cabinet, the dynamic characteristics of the electrical cabinet vary nonlinearly with excitation level. This study analyzed the nonlinear variation of the dynamic properties of an actual cabinet. For the purpose of this study, a seismic monitoring system cabinet was selected as a specimen. The impact hammer tests were conducted to identify a variation of the dynamic characteristics of the specimen by increasing the impulse level. Modal identification technique was used to extract the modal properties of the cabinet from the measurements

  20. The protozoan diseases of hatchery fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, F.F.

    1935-01-01

    Following the somewhat bleak picture painted in the consideration of the bacterial diseases of hatchery fish in the last number of The Progressive Fish Culturist, it is a relief to turn to another large group of fish diseases caused by small, single-celled parasitic animals known as the protozoa. To the hatcheryman, the protozoan diseases of fish are just as important as the bacterial diseases for they are equally destructive if allowed to run unchecked. The protozoan diseases are just as common as those caused by bacteria, particularly at those hatcheries which depend upon lakes or streams for their water supplies. However, a very cheery point of difference exists between these two groups of diseases—the protozoan diseases are easier to recognize and, for the most part, they are exceedingly easy to eradicate. To the hatcheryman who has struggled day and night for weeks in an attempt to combat an epidemic wherein he is rewarded immediately by the satisfying sight of a complete recovery of his infected fish as the direct result of his labors.

  1. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponton, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  2. Relics in the Three Gorges Under Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoWeidong

    2003-01-01

    So far,a total of 246 heritage sites above the earth's surface in the Three Gorges Dam area within Chongqing Municipality are under the state protection plan,including watchtowers of the Han Dynasty (206BC-220 AD), folk dwellings, religious structures,ancient official buildings and schools,bridges,towers,city

  3. Sound Radiation from a Loudspeaker Cabinet using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    Ideally, the walls of a loudspeaker cabinet are rigid. However, in reality, the cabinet is excited by the vibration of the loudspeaker units and by the acoustic pressure inside the cabinet. The radiation of sound caused by such vibration can influence the overall performance of the loudspeaker...... had been reported, based on subjective testing. This study aims to detect the reported problem. The radiation from the cabinet is calculated using the Boundary Element Method. The analysis examines both the frequency domain and the time domain characteristics (in other words, the steady state response...

  4. Evaluation of a class III biological safety cabinet for enclosure of an ultracentrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatigny, M A; Dunn, S; Ishimaru, K; Eagleson, J A; Prusiner, S B

    1979-11-01

    An evaluation of a special safety cabinet housing a high-speed centrifuge was made. The cabinet enclosed both the top access port and the drive and pumping machinery of the centrifuge. A titanium rotor was loaded with tubes containing a bacterial culture, weakened, and driven until rotor rupture occurred. There were several bent and broken components in the centrifuge, and bacteria leaked from the vacuum chamber. Although the forces were sufficient to displace the cabinet, none of the test bacteria were found outside the cabinet. PMID:543704

  5. China Kitchen Cabinet King——Yao Liangsong Concerning Yao Liangsong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Yao Liangsong,Board Chairman of Guangzhou Optima Kitchen Enterprise Co.,Ltd.,graduated from Beijing University of Aeronautics in 1985.In 1988,he quit his leisure teacher job and tried to organize some business.After running a restaurant,being a salesman,establishing a medical instrument company,he successfully set up in kitchen cabint market,founded the kitchen cabinet brand"Optima",became a forerunner in industrialized kitchen cabinet industry,and the pace-setter of China kitchen cabinet industry.He is called"China Kitchen Cabinet King"

  6. Handling and Treatment of Poultry Hatchery Waste: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Rodda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature review was undertaken to identify methods being used to handle and treat hatchery waste. Hatchery waste can be separated into solid waste and liquid waste by centrifuging or by using screens. Potential methods for treating hatchery waste on site include use of a furnace to heat the waste to produce steam to run a turbine generator or to use an in line composter to stabilise the waste. There is also potential to use anaerobic digestion at hatcheries to produce methane and fertilisers. Hatcheries disposing wastewater into lagoons could establish a series of ponds where algae, zooplankton and fish utilise the nutrients using integrated aquaculture which cleans the water making it more suitable for irrigation. The ideal system to establish in a hatchery would be to incorporate separation and handling equipment to separate waste into its various components for further treatment. This would save disposal costs, produce biogas to reduce power costs at plants and produce a range of value added products. However the scale of operations at many hatcheries is too small and development of treatment systems may not be viable.

  7. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peone, Tim L. (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Willpinit, WA)

    2003-03-01

    The Spokane Tribal Hatchery (Galbraith Springs) project originated from the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The goal of this project is to aid in the restoration and enhancement of the Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake fisheries adversely affected by the construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam. The objective is to produce kokanee salmon and rainbow trout for release into Lake Roosevelt for maintaining a viable fishery. The goal and objective of this project adheres to the NPPC Resident Fish Substitution Policy and specifically to the biological objectives addressed in the NPPC Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to mitigate for hydropower related fish losses in the blocked area above Chief Joseph/Grand Coulee Dams.

  8. The Three Gorges Project: How sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa Brian Morgan, Te Kipa; Sardelic, Daniel N.; Waretini, Amaria F.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryIn 1984 the Government of China approved the decision to construct the Three Gorges Dam Project, the largest project since the Great Wall. The project had many barriers to overcome, and the decision was made at a time when sustainability was a relatively unknown concept. The decision to construct the Three Gorges Project remains contentious today, especially since Deputy Director of the Three Gorges Project Construction Committee, Wang Xiaofeng, stated that "We absolutely cannot relax our guard against ecological and environmental security problems sparked by the Three Gorges Project" (Bristow, 2007; McCabe, 2007). The question therefore was posed: how sustainable is the Three Gorges Project? Conventional approaches to sustainability assessment tend to use monetary based assessment aligned to triple bottom line thinking. That is, projects are evaluated as trade-offs between economic, environmental and social costs and benefits. The question of sustainability is considered using such a traditional Cost-Benefit Analysis approach, as undertaken in 1988 by a CIPM-Yangtze Joint Venture, and the Mauri Model Decision Making Framework (MMDMF). The Mauri Model differs from other approaches in that sustainability performance indicators are considered independently from any particular stakeholder bias. Bias is then introduced subsequently as a sensitivity analysis on the raw results obtained. The MMDMF is unique in that it is based on the Māori concept of Mauri, the binding force between the physical and the spiritual attributes of something, or the capacity to support life in the air, soil, and water. This concept of Mauri is analogous to the Chinese concept of Qi, and there are many analogous concepts in other cultures. It is the universal relevance of Mauri that allows its use to assess sustainability. This research identified that the MMDMF was a strong complement to Cost-Benefit Analysis, which is not designed as a sustainability assessment tool in itself. The

  9. Williams Creek National Fish Hatchery [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map depicts lands owned andor administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Alchesaywilliams Creek National Fish Hatchery Complex.

  10. The Trail Inventory of Berkshire National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Berkshire Trout Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  11. Vibrio Bacteria Counts from Hatcheries and Shellfish Beds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1996 to the present samples of water, sediment and macerated oyster set (Crassostrea virginica, Gmelin) taken at low tide at a Long Island oyster hatchery were...

  12. Methow River Steelhead - Methow River Steelhead hatchery reform research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead in Pacific Northwest hatcheries are typically reared for release as 1-year-old smolts, rather than the 2and 3-year-old smolt life history patterns found...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Leadville National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leadville National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  15. Patterns of post-cabinet careers: When one door closes another door opens?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dörrenbächer, N.

    2016-01-01

    This article tackles the question to what extent former cabinet members go through the so-called revolving door by starting a second career in the private sector, and what factors make them likely to do so. After a cabinet position, career advancement in the political and public sector is difficult.

  16. 77 FR 17007 - Kootenai National Forest, Cabinet Ranger District, Montana Pilgrim Timber Sale Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... age class structure, via use of timber harvesting and prescribed fire use. Big game forage would be... Forest Service Kootenai National Forest, Cabinet Ranger District, Montana Pilgrim Timber Sale Project.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to Kootenai National Forest, Pilgrim Timber Sale Project, Cabinet...

  17. Modeling and performance analyses of evaporators in frozen-food supermarket display cabinets at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getu, H.M.; Bansal, P.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents modeling and experimental analyses of evaporators in 'in situ' frozen-food display cabinets at low temperatures in the supermarket industry. Extensive experiments were conducted to measure store and display cabinet relative humidities and temperatures, and pressures, temperatures and mass flow rates of the refrigerant. The mathematical model adopts various empirical correlations of heat transfer coefficients and frost properties in a fin-tube heat exchanger in order to investigate the influence of indoor conditions on the performance of the display cabinets. The model is validated with the experimental data of 'in situ' cabinets. The model would be a good guide tool to the design engineers to evaluate the performance of supermarket display cabinet heat exchangers under various store conditions. (author)

  18. Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in array of cabinets supporting secure physical partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, James L.; Camp, William J.

    2007-07-17

    A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective routers in neighboring row cabinet boards with the routers in series connection coupled to routers in series connection in respective neighboring column cabinet boards. The array can include disconnect cabinets or respective routers in all boards in each cabinet connected in a toroid. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

  19. Monitoring and evaluation plan for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has proposed to build and operate the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in the Clearwater River subbasin of Idaho for the purpose of restoring self-sustaining populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon to their native habitats. The project comprises a combination of incubation and rearing facilities, satellite rearing facilities, juvenile and adult collection sites, and associated production and harvest management activities. As currently conceived, the NPTH program will produce approximately 768,000 spring chinook parr, 800,000 summer chinook fry, and 2,000,000 fall chinook fry on an annual basis. Hatchery fish would be spawned, reared, and released under conditions that promote wild-type characteristics, minimize genetic changes in both hatchery and wild chinook populations, and minimize undesirable ecological interactions. The primary objective is to enable hatchery-produced fish to return to reproduce naturally in the streams in which they are released. These and other characteristics of the project are described in further detail in the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan, the 1995 Supplement to the Master Plan, and the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement. The report in hand is referred to in project literature as the NPTH Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Plan. This report describes monitoring and evaluation activities that will help NPTH managers determine whether they were successful in restoring chinook salmon populations and avoiding adverse ecological impacts.

  20. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations

  1. Evaluation of the Reproductive Success of Wild and Hatchery Steelhead in Hatchery and Natural and Hatchery Environments : Annual Report for 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas P.; Seamons, todd; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry

    2008-12-05

    This report summarizes the field, laboratory, and analytical work from December 2007 through November 2008 on a research project that investigates interactions and comparative reproductive success of wild and hatchery origin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout in Forks Creek, a tributary of the Willapa River in southwest Washington. First, we continued to successfully sample hatchery and wild (i.e., naturally spawned) adult and wild smolt steelhead at Forks Creek. Second, we revealed microsatellite genotype data for adults and smolts through brood year 2008. Finally, four formal scientific manuscripts were published in 2008 and two are in press, one is in revision and two are in preparations.

  2. The flood control and regulation of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Qihua

    2011-01-01

    The important role of Three Gorges Project (TGP) in the flood management of the Yangtze River Basin is summarized. The Optimal Regulation Schemes of the Three Gorge Reservoir is briefly described. The flood regulation effect of TGP is analyzed. Typical issues related to reservoir operation for flood regulation are discussed and suggestions are put forward for the future work.

  3. The October Three Gorges International Tourism Festival in Yichang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Three Gorges International Tourism Festival was held in Yichang, Hubei Province, from 1st to 7th October. The festival is a key component of the Chinese Folk Arts Tour sponsored by the China Tourism Administration. The program of 20 events included the opening ceremony, the Three Gorges carnival, the evening fireworks party, the China netizen tourism festival, the Zhaojun tourism festival, the

  4. Encouraging resilience within SMEs: the Cabinet Office's proposed approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Stuart

    2011-06-01

    This paper introduces the Cabinet Office's Civil Contingencies Secretariat (CCS). It explains how the National Risk Assessment, produced within the CCS, is created and used. As part of the recent Strategic Defence and Security Review, the Government made a commitment to improve the business continuity of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).This paper describes the CCS's approach to achieving this, and explains why the resilience of SMEs is important to both local communities, at a time of disruption or crisis, and the essential services sectors, such as energy, food and transport. It provides an outline of a strategic approach that will seek to simplify business continuity by making it accessible, achievable and affordable, and, in partnership with the organisations that SMEs turn to for advice, promotes the benefits of business continuity and encourages its use. PMID:21835751

  5. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  6. A simplified model for nonlinear seismic response analysis of equipment cabinets in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: · Reduction in dynamic stiffness of cabinets of NPPs with increase in excitation level. · Simplified nonlinear model presented for seismic response analysis of cabinets. · Nonlinear behavior taken into account by considering equivalent nonlinearity. · Accurate prediction of softening, less computational effort and no tests required. - Abstract: An analytical model is required when the analysis method or the combined analysis and modal testing method is used as an aid to the seismic qualification (SQ) of equipment cabinets within nuclear power industry. This study proposes a simplified and computationally efficient model to represent the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cabinet during earthquake. The presented model accounts for the softening behavior of the cabinets by incorporating the Duffing's type of restoring force. The characteristic of nonlinear restoring force for the finite element model (FEM) is based on the relationship of stress-strain of the element. Experiments have also been performed on an actual cabinet of nuclear power plant (NPP) to validate the model. The softening or reduction in dynamic stiffness of cabinets with increase in the excitation levels is observed in the experiments. It is also found that material yielding is not a significant source of the nonlinear behavior of the cabinet. The results obtained from the analysis using the proposed model are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The proposed model is expected to be useful for the prediction of seismic behavior of cabinets, particularly during the operation, owing to less computational effort required, accurate prediction of softening and no requirement of tests.

  7. Flow and performance of an air-curtain biological safety cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chou, Chun I

    2009-06-01

    Using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer gas concentration detection techniques, this study examines aerodynamic flow properties and the characteristics of escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination of a biological safety cabinet installed with an air curtain across the front aperture. The experimental method partially simulates the NSF/ANSI 49 standards with the difference that the biological tracer recommended by these standards is replaced by a mixture of 10% SF(6) in N(2). The air curtain is set up across the cabinet aperture plane by means of a narrow planar jet issued from the lower edge of the sash and a suction flow going through a suction slot installed at the front edge of the work surface. Varying the combination of jet velocity, suction flow velocity, and descending flow velocity reveals three types of characteristic flow modes: 'straight curtain', 'slightly concave curtain', and 'severely concave curtain'. Operating the cabinet in the straight curtain mode causes the air curtain to impinge on the doorsill and therefore induces serious escape from containment. In the severely concave curtain mode, drastically large inward dispersion and cross-cabinet contamination were observed because environmental air entered into the cabinet and a three-dimensional vortical flow structure formed in the cabinet. The slightly concave curtain mode presents a smooth and two-dimensional flow pattern with an air curtain separating the outside atmosphere from the inside space of the cabinet, and therefore exhibited negligibly small escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination.

  8. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focher, Shannon M.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Hayes, Michael C. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Hatchery for the period November 1, 1995 to October 31, 1996. Studies at Umatilla Hatchery are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in Michigan raceways. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at Umatilla Hatchery and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program is intensively monitored and evaluated as part of the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring are mandatory and have become the responsibility of the fish health staff conducting the studies at Umatilla Hatchery. Additional studies include evaluations of sport fisheries in the Umatilla River and mass marking and straying of fall chinook salmon. Juvenile rearing experiments have been completed for subyearling fall chinook salmon reared in Michigan and Oregon raceways. Although preliminary adult return data has been recovered, the most data on post-release survival is incomplete. Conclusions in this report should be viewed as preliminary and used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available.

  9. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment – Ouray National Wildlife Refuge and Ouray National Fish Hatchery.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — EXECUTIVE SUMMARY-Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR) and Ouray National Fish Hatchery (ONFH) share many attributes. Hatchery facilities are within the boundaries...

  10. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA): Erwin National Fish Hatchery, Unicoi County, Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Erwin National Fish Hatchery (NFH) summarizes available and relevant information for hatchery water resources...

  11. Water chemistry - Investigation of Methods to Improve Homing by Hatchery Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Investigate olfactory imprinting techniques that will improve homing by hatchery salmon to their hatchery of origin, and thereby reduce potential risks from these...

  12. Ecological operation for Three Gorges reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian GUO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional operation rule of Three Gorges reservoir has mainly focused on water for flood control, power generation, navigation, water supply and recreation and given less attention to the negative impacts of reservoir operation on river ecosystem. In order to reduce the negative influence of reservoir operation, ecological operation of the reservoir should be studied to maintain healthy river ecosystem. The study considered the ecological operation targets, including maintaining river environmental flow and protecting the spawning and reproduction of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Based on the flow data from 1900 to 2006 of Yichang gauge as the control station of the Yangtze River, the minimal and optimal river environmental flows were analyzed, and eco-hydrological targets of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River were calculated. The paper proposed a reservoir ecological operation model of comprehensively considering flood control, power generation, navigation and ecological environment. Three typical periods including wet, normal and dry year were selected and particle swarm optimization was applied to analyze the model. The results show that there are different influences of ecological operation rules on economic benefit of hydropower station and reservoir ecological operation model can simulate the flood pulse for requirement of spawning of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Finally, ecological operation measures of Three Gorges reservoir were proposed. According to the results, by adopting a suitable re-operation scheme, the hydropower benefit of the reservoir will not decrease dramatically while the ecological demand can be met. The results provide the reference for making the reasonable operation schemes for Three Gorges reservoir.

  13. Dynamics of seawater bacterial communities in a shellfish hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Chapman, C C; Bermudes, M; Tamplin, M L

    2013-08-01

    Bacterial disease is a significant issue for larviculture of several species of shellfish, including oysters. One source of bacteria is the seawater used throughout the hatchery. In this study carried out at a commercial oyster hatchery in Tasmania, Australia, the diversity of the bacterial community and its relationship with larval production outcomes were studied over a 2-year period using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and tag-encoded pyrosequencing. The bacterial communities were very diverse, dominated by the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The communities were highly variable on scales of days, weeks and seasons. The difference between the intake seawater and treated clean seawater used in the hatchery was smaller than the observed temporal differences in the seawater throughout the year. No clear correlation was observed between production outcomes and the overall bacterial community structure. However, one group of Cyanobacterial sequences was more abundant when mass mortality events occurred than when healthy spat were produced although they were always present.

  14. Willamette Hatchery Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1993-11-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present adult runs from 2.5 million to 5.0 million fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults.

  15. Sherman Creek Hatchery; 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Mitch [Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA (United States). Hatcheries Program

    1997-01-01

    The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations of the SCH have been modified to better achieve program goals. These strategic changes have been the result of recommendations through the Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) and were implemented to enhance imprinting, improve survival and operate the two kokanee facilities more effectively. The primary change has been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a kokanee yearling (post smolt) program. The second significant change has been to rear 120,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October to enable the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee for the yearling program.

  16. Power Production Management of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Three Gorges Hydropower Plant is the one with the largest installed capacity in the world today and has a decisive and important influence upon the security of the national power grids. It has been operated stably and supplied the East China, Central China, South China,Sichuan and Chongqing with clean renewable energy. This paper presents the management of the project's dispatch, operation and maintenance and puts forward new ideas and new methods for the plant management, which may provide valuable references for the operation of oversized hydropower plants.

  17. Power Production Management of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Three Gorges Hydropower Plant is the one with the largest installed capacity in the world today and has a decisive and important influence upon the security of the national power grids. It has been operated stably and supplied the East China, Central China, South China, Sichuan and Chongqing with clean renewable energy. This paper presents the management of the project’s dispatch, operation and maintenance and puts forward new ideas and new methods for the plant management, which may provide valuable re...

  18. Floodwater utilization of the Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qian-jin; CAO Guang-jing; DAI Hui-cao; ZHAO Yun-fa

    2009-01-01

    Floods are both risks and resources. Floodwater utilization is an important part of flood management. Considering the rising shortage of water resources, serious water pollution, and undersupply of electric power, it's imperative to strengthen flood management. In light of the hydrological characteristics of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) on the Yangtze River in P. R. China, we investigated the necessity and feasibility of TGP floodwater utilization, proprosed dynamic control of limited water level during flood season of the reservoir and basin-wide integrated floodwater management as strategies, and identified problems that might occur in practice.

  19. The dam design of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaomao; Xu Linxiang; Liao Renqiang

    2011-01-01

    The dam of Three Gorges Project is a concrete gravity dam with the crest elevation of 185 m, the maximum height of 181 m and dam axis length of 2 309.5 m. The dam consists of spillway, powerhouse, non-over flow, ship-lift, temporary ship-lock, left diversion wall and longitudinal cofferdam blocks. Some key techniques relating to dam structure design are presented, including hydraulics of flood discharge structure, dam joint design, layout and structural type of penstock, deep anti-sliding stability of dam foundation, reconstruction of temporary ship-lock and closed drainage and pumping of dam foundation.

  20. Acceptance Test Report for Fourth-Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring Cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the third-generation corrosion monitoring cabinet (Hiline Engineering Part No.0004-CHM-072-C01). This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer of the cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinet. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation

  1. Building services cabinets as teaching material in a degree in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gómez, César; Zapata, Omayra; Zuazua, Amaia; Villanueva, Sonia; Olaizola, Paula

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this innovative educational project is to encourage students' interest in one of the most underrated fields of architecture: building services. With this material students interact with real elements and thereby understand the relationship between facilities and the building. A set of three small technical cabinets is planned. They allow for comfortable use and movement inside the building, need minimum maintenance and are easily stored. The result is an alternative concept of a mobile laboratory called a 'technical cabinet', made up of three mobile units for fire safety, electricity and the heating/cooling system. The design, content and learning systems of the cabinets confirmed the validity of the initial concept during the first year of use. A protocol has also been developed for each of the technical cabinets so that the teaching experience may be of use in other Schools of Architecture.

  2. Bedding disposal cabinet for containment of aerosols generated by animal cage cleaning procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, C L; Sabel, F L; Henke, C B

    1976-02-01

    Laboratory tests with aerosolized spores and animal room tests with uranine dye indicate the effectiveness of a prototype bedding disposal cabinet in reducing airborne contamination generated by cage cleaning procedures. PMID:826219

  3. Cabinets and Legislative Cartels in Uruguay: examining the Legislative Consequences of Government Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chasquetti, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Since the return to democracy, Uruguayan presidents have built cabinets of varying natures (majority and minority coalitions, majority and minority parties). Most studies on presidential government assume that the partisan composition of a cabinet is a good predictor of the performance of a government’s legislative program. In this paper I test this hypothesis using Cox and McCubbins’ (1993, 2005) party cartel theory. The results confirm that six o...

  4. Evaluation of seismic characteristics and structural integrity for the cabinet of HANARO seismic monitoring analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, Doo Byung

    2003-06-01

    The HANARO SMAS(Seismic Monitoring Analysis System) is classified as Non-Nuclear Safety(NNS), seismic category I, and quality class T. It is required that this system can perform required functions, which are to preserve its structural integrity during and after an OBE or SSE. In this work, the structural integrity and seismic characteristics of the cabinet of the newly developed SMAS have been estimated. The most parts of the cabinet are identically designed with those of Yonggwhang and Gori Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs), unit 1 that successfully completed the required seismic qualification tests. The structure of the cabinet of the SMAS is manufactured by the manufacturer of the cabinet of Yonggwhang and Gori NPPs. To evaluate the seismic characteristics of the SMAS, the RRS(Required Response Spectra) of the newly developed cabinet are compared with those of Yonggwhang and Gori NPPs, unit 1. In addition, natural frequencies of the cabinet of HANARO, Yonggwhang, and Gori NPPs were measured for the comparison of the seismic characteristics of the installed cabinets. In case of HANARO, the bottom of the cabinet is welded to the base plate. The base plate is fixed to the concrete foundation by using anchor bolts. For the evaluation of the structural integrity of the welding parts and the anchor bolts, the maximum stresses and forces of the welding parts and the anchor bolts due to seismic loading are estimated. The analysis results show that maximum stresses and forces are less than the allowable limits. This new SMAS is operating at HANARO instrument room to acquire and analyze the signal of earthquake.

  5. Yiling District,Pearl of the Three Gorges Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    YLING District of Yichang City, Hubei Province, near the Yangtze liver Xiling Gorge, marks the midway spot between the river’s upper and middle reaches. It is site of the Gezhouba Dam and the Three Gorges Project dam, and has consequently been dubbed gate to the Three Gorges. With a territory of 3,424 square kilometers, Yiling is the largest and most populous district of Yichang City.Urban construction-The district has invested one billion yuan in urban construction which has expanded the urban area to 8 square kilometers. The local infrastructure, transportation and environment have also been upgraded.

  6. A Biological Safety Cabinet Certification Program: Experiences in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whistler, Toni; Kaewpan, Anek; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2016-01-01

    Biological safety cabinets (BSCs) are the primary means of containment used in laboratories worldwide for the safe handling of infectious microorganisms. They provide protection to the laboratory worker and the surrounding environment from pathogens. To ensure the correct functioning of BSCs, they need to be properly maintained beyond the daily care routines of the laboratory. This involves annual maintenance and certification by a qualified technician in accordance to the NSF/American National Standards Institute 49-2014 Biosafety Cabinetry: Design, Construction, Performance, and Field Certification. Service programs can be direct from the manufacturer or through third-party service companies, but in many instances, technicians are not accredited by international bodies, and these services are expensive. This means that a large number of BSCs may not be operating in a safe manner. In this article, we discuss our approach to addressing the lack of trained and qualified personnel in Thailand who can install, maintain, and certify BSCs in a cost-effective and practical manner. We initiated a program to create both local and regional capacity for repair, maintenance, and certification of BSCs and share our experiences with the reader.

  7. Evaluation of Zooplankton in Hatchery Diets for Channel Catfish Fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of zooplankton as a supplemental hatchery diet for fry of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated. When a commercial diet is used as a reference, fry fed exclusively on zooplankton–either live or dried–performed poorly in their growth rate. However, when live or dried zooplan...

  8. Safety Ensured for Cultural Heritages in the Three Gorges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoWeidong

    2003-01-01

    “When the steep gorges become a vast quiet lake, the whole world will be amazed” This is a line from Chairman Mao's famous poem expressing his lifelong dream to build a gigantic dam over the Yangtze River.

  9. Will the Three Gorges Dam Stand The Test of Time?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    After successfully containing the biggest flood this century, the Three Gorges Dam,on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in central China’s Hubei Province, has encountered another flood, that of public opinion:Will this dam be able to hold floods that are "once-in-10,000-years" or "once-in-1,000-years" or "once-in-a-century"? Should numerous hazards this year, including land and mudslides and mountain torrents,be blamed on accumulation of sediment caused by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam? To get answers to these questions,journalists from Xinhua News Agency interviewed Cao Guangjing, Board Chairman of the China Three Gorges Corp., the operator of the Three Gorges Dam.

  10. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Spring Chinook Master Plan, Technical Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashe, Becky L.; Concannon, Kathleen; Johnson, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Spring chinook salmon populations in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde rivers are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are at high risk of extirpation. The Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are co-managers of conservation/restoration programs for Imnaha and Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon that use hatchery supplementation and conventional and captive broodstock techniques. The immediate goal of these programs is to prevent extirpation and provide the potential for restoration once factors limiting production are addressed. These programs redirect production occurring under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) from mitigation to conservation and restoration. Both the Imnaha and Grande Ronde conservation/restoration programs are described in ESA Section 10 permit applications and the co-managers refer to the fish production from these programs as the Currently Permitted Program (CPP). Recently, co-managers have determined that it is impossible to produce the CPP at Lookingglass Hatchery, the LSRCP facility intended for production, and that without additional facilities, production must be cut from these conservation programs. Development of new facilities for these programs through the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program is considered a new production initiative by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and requires a master plan. The master plan provides the NPPC, program proponents and others with the information they need to make sound decisions about whether the proposed facilities to restore salmon populations should move forward to design. This master plan describes alternatives considered to meet the facility needs of the CPP so the conservation program can be fully implemented. Co-managers considered three alternatives: modify Lookingglass Hatchery; use existing facilities elsewhere in the Basin; and use new facilities in

  11. ESRC guide vanes of hydraulic turbine for Three Gorges project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui CHEN

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and internal quality of low carbon martensite Electroslag Remelting Casting (ESRCstainless steel castings are superior to that of sand casting ones. The key technologies for the equipments and ESRC processes have been resolved during the experimental research period of guide vanes of hydraulic turbines for Three Gorges project. And ESRC guide vanes of hydraulic turbines for Three Gorges project have been produced successfully.

  12. ESRC guide vanes of hydraulic turbine for Three Gorges project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical properties and internal quality of low carbon martensite Electroslag Remelting Casting (ESRC)stainless steel castings are superior to that of sand casting ones. The key technologies for the equipments and ESRC processes have been resolved during the experimental research period of guide vanes of hydraulic turbines for Three Gorges project. And ESRC guide vanes of hydraulic turbines for Three Gorges project have been produced successfully.

  13. Democracy and the Making of the President’s Cabinet in Nigeria: A Reflection of the Olusegun Obasanjo’s and Goodluck Jonathan’s Cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Adeniran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Presidency, especially in Federal systems, holds peculiar and haunting fascination for scholars in their attempts to diagnose the workings of modern governments. The increasing powers of the Presidency, the recurrent debates over their use or abuse and the continuous interrogation of the extent of the legitimate use of such powers, invariably compel attention to the study of the Presidency. In Nigeria, a critical inquiry that goes beyond the surface seems to be long overdue and an appraisal of the making of a Presidential cabinet appears a vital part of the advancement of knowledge in this regard. Thus, this study is a review of democracy and the making of the presidential cabinet in Nigeria with a reflection of the Olusegun Obasanjo’s and the Goodluck Jonathan’s Cabinets. The aims are (i to investigate the role of the President as crisis manager when a nation faces serious internal security challenges; (ii to appraise the President’s role as manager of the economy – especially when fiscal and monetary policies are set in the context of double – digit inflation and severe economic dislocations; and (iii to assess the interactions between the President, the Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs and the National Assembly. The study reveals among many others that for the President to be effective he needs a cabinet that fully understands what he wants to achieve, the way he wants to go about it and the time he wants to achieve it. In fact, the president needs a cabinet that shares in his vision of development for the country. Sequel to the above, the president should rely more on expertise and competence by lifting square peg into square holes.

  14. User's manual for the model interface and plugboard cabinets in the 14- by 22-foot subsonic tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Robert B.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1994-01-01

    The primary method of connection between the wind tunnel model instrumentation and the data acquisition system in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel is through the Model Interface (MIF) and Plugboard cabinets. The MIF and Plugboard cabinets allow versatility in the connection of the instrumentation to the different data systems in the facility. The User's Manual describes the components inside the MIF cabinet, the input and output of the MIF, and the MIF patchboard, and the Plugboard cabinets. There are examples of standard connections for most of the instrumentation used in the facility.

  15. A milestone for the Three Gorges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rushu [China Yangzte Three Gorges Project Development Corp., Yichang Hubei (China)

    1999-10-01

    Massive flooding of the Yangtze river in 1998 was a serious cause for concern. The Three Gorges river diversion dam project will reduce the danger. The three construction stages are described. A major milestone was the closure of the Yangtze in 1997 and this was effectively the completion of Stage I. Stage II is construction of the earth-rock cofferdam as a temporary reservoir and the key factor for safe construction of the main stage II works in the dry pit. The cofferdam was filled to flood control elevation and up to July 1998 three peak floods had been handled successfully. Work is in hand for dealing with even higher floods. The 17-year scheme is due for completion in 2009. (UK)

  16. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonecypher, R. Wess; Groberg, Jr., Warren J.; Farman, Brett M. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    2001-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan (MI) raceways using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss). The hatchery was completed in fall 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to evaluate new production and supplementation techniques. MI raceways at UFH increase smolt production with a limited water supply. Test results for MI raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia River basin. The UFH is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council's goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990). The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery (Carmichael 1990) was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. The monitoring and evaluation goals are: (1) Provide information and recommendations for the culture and release of hatchery fish, harvest regulations, and natural escapement to accomplish long-term natural and hatchery production goals in the Umatilla River basin that are consistent with provisions of the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. (2) Assess the

  17. Umatilla Hatchery monitoring and evaluation : annual report, 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan (MI) raceways using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss). The hatchery was completed in fall 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to evaluate new production and supplementation techniques. MI raceways at UFH increase smolt production with a limited water supply. Test results for MI raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia River basin. The UFH is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council's goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990). The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery (Carmichael 1990) was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. The monitoring and evaluation goals are: (1) Provide information and recommendations for the culture and release of hatchery fish, harvest regulations, and natural escapement to accomplish long-term natural and hatchery production goals in the Umatilla River basin that are consistent with provisions of the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. (2) Assess the success of achieving

  18. Validation of cross-contamination control in biological safety cabinet for biotech/pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Tu, Jin-Xin; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben

    2015-12-01

    For class II, type A2 biological safety cabinets (BSC), NSF/ANSI Standard 49 should be conformed in cabinet airflow velocity derivation, particle contamination, and aerodynamic flow properties. However, there exists a potential problem. It has been built that the cabinet air flow stabilize is influenced by the quantity of downflow of air and the height above the cabinet exhaust opening. Three air downflow quantities were compared as an operating apparatus was placed from 20 to 40 cm above the bench of the cabinet. The results show that the BSC air downflow velocity is a function of increased sampling height, displaying that containment is improvingly permitted over product protection as the sampling height decreases. This study investigated the concentration gradient of particles at various heights and downflow air quantity from the bench of the BSC. Experiment results indicate that performance near the bench was better than in the rest of the BSC. In terms of height, the best cleanliness was measured at a height of 10 cm over the bench; it reduced actually with add in height. The empirical curves accommodate, founded on the concentration gradient of particle created was elaborated for evaluating the particle concentration at different heights and downflow air quantity from the source of the bench of the BSC. The particle image velocimetry system applied for BSC airflow research to fix amount of airflow patterns and air distribution measurement and results of measurements show how obstructions can greatly influence the airflow and contaminant transportation in a BSC.

  19. Evaluation of modal properties of cabinet type instrument of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic qualification of safety-related equipment is usually achieved through analysis and testing. Analysis method is preferably adopted for structurally simple equipments which are easy to be mathematically modeled. However, even for relatively complex equipments, analysis method is occasionlly used for computing the input motion or supporting information for the component test followed. Electrical cabinet is a typical example for which analysis method is combinedly used with test to get modal properties of the enclosing cabinet structure. In this paper, with respect to a typical cabinet-type structure(instrumentation cabinet of nuclear power plant) a comparative study has been performed between three different state-of-the-art modeling techniques: lumped mass model, frame model, and FEM modal. From the study results, it has been found that the modal properties of the cabinet-type structure in the elastic behavior range can be reasonably computed through any type of modeling techniques in the practice with slight modification of model properties to get better accuracy. However, it needs additional modeling techniques to get reasonable results up to nonlinear range

  20. Do stocked hatchery-reared juveniles ecologically suppress wild juveniles in Salvelinus leucomaenis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Doi, T

    2014-05-01

    The dominancy of semi-wild and hatchery-reared white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles was evaluated using pair-wise enclosure tests and field stocking tests. The semi-wild S. leucomaenis originated in a hatchery, being stocked into the test stream as eyed-eggs. In the pair-wise enclosure test, the semi-wild S. leucomaenis dominated the hatchery S. leucomaenis that were of a similar standard length (L(S) ). The semi-wild S. leucomaenis were subordinate to hatchery S. leucomaenis that were > 11% larger in LS . In the field stocking test, the abundance and growth of semi-wild S. leucomaenis was decreased in the presence of larger hatchery S. leucomaenis (14% larger LS ). Taken together, these results suggest that larger hatchery S. leucomaenis ecologically suppress the smaller semi-wild S. leucomaenis. Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles that are stocked with the intention of supplementing natural populations should be < 10% larger than their wild counterparts at the time of stocking to minimize their competitive advantage. The semi-wild and hatchery S. leucomaenis used in both tests were genetically similar individuals, suggesting that the differences are due to the early rearing environment of either a natural stream or hatchery. The hatchery S. leucomaenis have lower levels of aggression as a result of selection in the hatchery rearing environment. Rearing in a natural stream from the eyed-egg stage is likely to increase their lowered aggression.

  1. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for

  2. Hubei's Yichang—— Pearl of the Three Gorges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    NESTLED near the mouth of Hubei's Xiling Gorge, Yichang is becoming an ever-stronger tourist magnet in the revamped Three Gorges area. Many traditional tourist spots have made way for China's huge navigation and hydroelectricity project on the Yangtze River, but Yichang, dubbed “Pearl ofthe Three Gorges,” retains its pullingpower, reinforced by the emergence of a new Three Gorges tourist area.

  3. Single Party Cabinets and Presidential Democracies: insights from the Argentinean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo CAMERLO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of presidential cabinets has mainly focused on coalitional formations, distinguishing individual ministers in terms of their party affiliation particularly at cabinet instauration and termination. This article moves the focus to single-party cabinets to study minister appointment in situations where the legislative support is less relevant. A model of analysis that observes extra-partisan affiliations, individual technical skills and personal liaison with the president is proposed and exploratory applied to the Argentinean case. The results suggest that well positioned presidents tend to apply closer strategies of portfolio distribution, with levels of institutionalization that depends on the president’s party organization and the president’s style of leadership.

  4. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1999-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chess, Dale W.; Cameron, William A.; Stonecypher, Jr., R. Wes (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Salem, OR)

    2003-12-01

    REPORT A: UMATILLA HATCHERY MONITORING AND EVALUATION--This report summarizes monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) for 1 November, 1999 to 31 October, 2002. Studies at UFH are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in ''Michigan raceways''. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at UFH and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program are intensively monitored and evaluated along with the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring at UFH are mandatory. An experiment designed to evaluate rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon in Michigan and Oregon raceways has been completed. An evaluation of survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at three densities will be completed with final returns in 2005. Two new evaluations were started during this reporting period. The first is an evaluation of spring chinook survival of groups transferred to Imeques acclimation facility in the fall, overwinter-acclimated and released with the standard acclimated production groups in March. The second is an evaluation of subyearling fall chinook survival and straying of a direct-stream released group in the lower Umatilla River and the standard group acclimated at Thornhollow acclimation facility in the upper Umatilla River. An important aspect of the project is evaluation of the spring chinook and summer steelhead fisheries in the upper and lower Umatilla River. REPORT B: Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000 Fiscal Year--The results presented in this report are from the ninth year of Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation in the Umatilla Hatchery program. Broodstock monitoring for hatchery production was conducted on adult returns to the

  5. Nez Perce tribal hatchery project: annual report 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of activities/events conducted in response to the Objectives and Tasks described in the 1999 contract Statement Of Work for the Planning and Planning and Design (P and D) and Maintenance (O and M) activities of the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH). The report follows the format of the contract for ease in finding accomplishments. Although specific emphasis will be placed on activities related directly to the NPTH, activities from other artificial production related projects might also be noted because of overlap in staff duties and production facilities. Additionally, the project leader's role has evolved as other Tribal fisheries projects have been developed and assigned to the Production Division, Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM), and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT). Thus, implementation of the project leader role for the NPTH actually entails specific duties of the Production Division Director and the Production Division Coordinator, as well as the Hatchery Division Coordinator

  6. Genetic improvement of hatchery propagated bivalve stocks : prospects and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Boudry, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    To date, the most significant genetic improvement for the production of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) has been obtained through the production of triploids, especially since the development of tetraploids. Quantitative genetics studies suggest that significant gains, for disease resistance or other traits, could be obtained in diploids. However, the limited extent of hatchery-propagation (versus natural recruitment) and/or various technical difficulties and biological characteristics of ...

  7. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.; French, Rod A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1993-03-01

    This report covers the first year of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. As both the hatchery and the evaluation study are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary. The most crucial data for evaluating the success of the hatchery program, the data on post-release performance and survival, is yet unavailable. In addition, several years of data are necessary to make conclusions about rearing performance at Umatilla Hatchery. The conclusions drawn in this report should be viewed as preliminary and should be used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available. A comprehensive fish health monitoring regimen was incorporated into the monitoring and evaluation study for Umatilla Hatchery. This is a unique feature of the Umatilla Hatchery evaluation project.

  8. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Conceptual Design Report, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery (Montgomery Watson, Bellevue, WA)

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  9. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (Idaho)

    1996-06-01

    This summary gives the major points of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prepared for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery by the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and other interested parties. The Nez Perce once were one of the largest Plateau tribes in the Northwest and occupied a territory that included north central Idaho, southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. Salmon and other migratory fish species are an invaluable food resource and an integral part of the Nez Perce Tribe`s culture. Anadromous fish have always made up the bulk of the Nez Perce tribal diet and this dependence on salmon was recognized in the treaties made with the Tribe by the US. The historic economic, social, and religious significance of the fish to the Nez Perce Tribe continues to this day, which makes the decline of fish populations in the Columbia River Basin a substantial detrimental impact to the Nez Perce way of life. The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that would rear and release spring, summer, and fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), biologically similar to wild fish, to reproduce in the Clearwater River Subbasin. Program managers propose techniques that are compatible with existing aquatic and riparian ecosystems and would integrate hatchery-produced salmon into the stream and river environments needed to complete their life cycle.

  10. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (Idaho).

    1996-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Nez Perce Tribe propose a supplementation program to restore chinook salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin in Idaho. The Clearwater River is a tributary to the Snake River, which empties into the Columbia River. The Nez Perce Tribe would build and operate two central incubation and rearing hatcheries and six satellite facilities. Spring, summer and fall chinook salmon would be reared and acclimated to different areas in the Subbasin and released at the hatchery and satellite sites or in other watercourses throughout the Subbasin. The supplementation program differs from other hatchery programs because the fish would be released at different sizes and would return to reproduce naturally in the areas where they are released. Several environmental issues were identified during scoping: the possibility that the project would fail if mainstem Columbia River juvenile and adult passage problems are not solved; genetic risks to fish listed as endangered or threatened; potential impacts to wild and resident fish stocks because of increase competition for food and space; and water quality. The Proposed Action would affect several important aspects of Nez Perce tribal life, primarily salmon harvest, employment, and fisheries management.

  11. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project final siting report. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed

  12. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Brown, Kassandra A.; Waln, Karen (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) for the period November 1, 1997 to October 31, 1998. Studies at Umatilla Hatchery are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in ''Michigan raceways''. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at UFH and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program are intensively monitored and evaluated as part of the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring are mandatory and have become the responsibility of the fish health staff conducting studies at UFH. Additional studies include evaluations of sport fisheries in the Umatilla River and mass marking and straying of fall chinook salmon. Except for adult recovery data, an experiment designed to evaluate rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon in Michigan and Oregon raceways has been completed. We are currently in the second year of rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon at three densities. Experimental rearing of subyearling, fall release, and yearling spring chinook salmon, and steelhead has also been conducted. Although preliminary adult return data has been recovered, data on smolt-to-adult survival for all groups is incomplete. Conclusions in this report should be viewed as preliminary and used in conjunction with additional data as it becomes available.

  13. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Nez Perce Tribe propose a supplementation program to restore chinook salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin in Idaho. The Clearwater River is a tributary to the Snake River, which empties into the Columbia River. The Nez Perce Tribe would build and operate two central incubation and rearing hatcheries and six satellite facilities. Spring, summer and fall chinook salmon would be reared and acclimated to different areas in the Subbasin and released at the hatchery and satellite sites or in other watercourses throughout the Subbasin. The supplementation program differs from other hatchery programs because the fish would be released at different sizes and would return to reproduce naturally in the areas where they are released. Several environmental issues were identified during scoping: the possibility that the project would fail if mainstem Columbia River juvenile and adult passage problems are not solved; genetic risks to fish listed as endangered or threatened; potential impacts to wild and resident fish stocks because of increase competition for food and space; and water quality. The Proposed Action would affect several important aspects of Nez Perce tribal life, primarily salmon harvest, employment, and fisheries management

  14. Factors influencing Saprolegnia spp. spore numbers in Norwegian salmon hatcheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoen, E; Evensen, Ø; Skaar, I

    2016-06-01

    A quantitative survey of Saprolegnia spp. in the water systems of Norwegian salmon hatcheries was performed. Water samples from 14 salmon hatcheries distributed along the Norwegian coastline were collected during final incubation in the hatcheries. Samples of inlet and effluent water were analyzed to estimate Saprolegnia propagule numbers. Saprolegnia spores were found in all samples at variable abundance. Number of spores retrieved varied from 50 to 3200 L(-1) in inlet water and from 30 to >5000 L(-1) in effluent water. A significant elevation of spore levels in effluent water compared to inlet water was detected. The estimated spore levels were related to recorded managerial and environmental parameters, and the number of spores in inlet water and temperature was the factor having most influence on the spore concentration in the incubation units (effluent water). Further, the relative impact of spore concentration on hatching rates was investigated by correlation analysis. From this was found that even high spore counts did not impact significantly on hatching success. PMID:26123005

  15. School District Cabinet Member Task and Relationship Conflict Behavior during Budget Development in a State Fiscal Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The first purpose of this study was to determine to what extent task and relationship conflict occurred in school district cabinets during budget development in a state budget crisis. The second purpose was to determine which cabinet member task and relationship conflict behaviors were demonstrated during budget development in a state…

  16. A New Type of Dehumidifier for Enclosed High-voltage Switchgear Cabinet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate the internal condensation of enclosed switchgear cabinet, this paper introduced a subminiature and high-performance dehumidifier based on semiconductor refrigeration technology. This equipment utilized a Fuzzy self-tuning PID intelligent controller to monitor the humidity change in the cabinet continuously and judged the dehumidifier start-stop automatically. Besides, real-time communication with a host computer through RS485 interface was also considered. Experiments showed that this design could effectively reduce the internal humidity, eliminate the condensation, and provide a practical and effective solution to prevent the power device accidents caused by wet and condensation.  

  17. Risks in the physical recovery system of waste refrigerator cabinets and the controlling measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jujun; Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-12-18

    Environmental information in physical recovery system of waste refrigerator cabinets was provided in this paper. The system included closed shearing, activated carbon adsorption (ACA), air current separation, magnetic separation, and eddy current separation. Exposures of CFC-11, heavy metals, and noise emitted from the system were assessed. Abundant CFC-11 (>510 mg/m³) was detected in crusher cavity. However, due to the employment of ACA, little CFC-11 (refrigerator cabinets on environmental protection. Meanwhile, it contributed to the knowledge of environmental information of physical technology for recovering e-waste.

  18. Prediction of Dangerous Time in Case Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Leaks into Household Refrigerator Cabinet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Takatoshi; Kaji, Nobufuji; Miyake, Kunihiro

    Hydrocarbon refrigerators are now on sale in European countries. However, hydrocarbons are flammable. A common claim is that concentration of hydrocarbon in the refrigerator could exceed the lower explosive limit by a sudden leak and then a spark ignites a flame causing overpressure. There is the need of the studies on potential risks originated from the use of flammable refrigerants. Thus, the flow rate of the fresh air into the refrigerator cabinet has been defined experimentally, and the spatial average concentration in the refrigerator cabinet has been analyzed theoretically to predict the dangerous time in excess of the lower explosive limit.

  19. Kalispel Resident Fish Project- Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalispel Tribe, Department of Natural Resources

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, construction activities commenced on a largemouth bass hatchery located on the Kalispel Indian Reservation. The major construction activities were complete as of October 1997. Of the six objectives identified in the 1997 Annual Operating Plan two objectives were fully achieved: the assembly of the life support system, and the preparation of the hatchery Operations and Maintenance Manual. The remaining four objectives were not fully achieved due to the hatchery not being completed before the spawning season (spring).

  20. Kalispel Resident Fish Project: Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluff, Stanley

    2000-12-01

    No Annual Production Goals were achieved for the year. The Kalispel Hatchery experienced two episodes of brood fish mortality. The first due to a standpipe malfunction and the second attributed to gas bubble disease caused by elevated Total Dissolved Gases (TDG's) in the reservoir. To date, the hatchery has 29 brood fish in the raceway and ready to spawn. If all things go well this spring, hatchery operations should be well underway next year.

  1. Effect of different filter methods on water quality to a marine scallop hatchery

    OpenAIRE

    Moepi, Malebo Hellen

    2010-01-01

    Water quality in marine hatcheries is a critical aspect in the production of spat. Different filtering methods have been used to treat the intake seawater in the hatcheries. The Scalpro AS hatchery uses two different types of filters to treat seawater, an active filter media and drum filter. The objective of this study was to establish a better knowledge on the effect of different filtering methods on marine water quality in the production of great scallop (Pecten maximus). The two filters we...

  2. Morphometric comparison between hatchery-reared and wild-caught megalopae of the mangrove crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Andressa Casagrande Ayres

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the morphometry of hatchery-reared and wild-caught mangrove crab (Ucides cordatus megalopae. Ten U. cordatus megalopae of each group (hatchery-reared and wild-caught were individually analyzed using a stereoscopic microscope equipped with an ocular micrometer. Length, width, and height of all megalopae were measured, and the size of body appendices was determined. The results indicate that the hatchery-reared megalopae are more robust than the wild ones. Furthermore, some significant differences in the size of certain appendices can be cues of the kind of alterations that hatchery-reared individuals experience.

  3. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a major negative impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas have been completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, destroying the primary food resource (salmon) for many native people forcing them to rely heavily upon resident fish to replace these lost resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program that addresses the loss of anadromous fish resources in the Upper Columbia Sub-Region within the ''blocked area'' created by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. This project enhances resident fisheries located in the Intermountain and Columbia Cascade Provinces, specifically within the Colville Reservation portion of the Upper Columbia, SanPoil and Oakanogan Sub-Basins. The project partially mitigates for anadromous fish losses through protection/augmentation of resident fish populations to enhance fishery potential (i.e. in-place, out-of-kind mitigation) pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The Colville Tribal Hatchery (CTH) is located on the northern bank of the Columbia River just down stream of the town of Bridgeport, Washington that is just down stream of Chief Joseph Dam. The hatchery is located on land owned by the Colville Tribes. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout annually. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence/recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members and provide for a successful nonmember sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to support &apos

  4. Three Gorges Project Withstanding 2010 Peak Floods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Rushu

    2010-01-01

    The Three Gorges Project(TGP)on the Yangtze River(YR)is the largest hydro-power project in the world;it is now attracting the world wide attention.Possessing comprehensive utilization benefits mainly for flood control,power generation and navigation improvement,TGP is a vital and important project in harnessing and developing the YR.The Project primarily aims at flood control whose reservoir has a total storage capacity of 39.3 billion m3,22.15 billion m3 of which can be set for flood control.Construction of the project has greatly improved the flood control capacity in the middle and lower sections of the YR.In 2010 TGP has successfully withstood 3 peak floods,especially the one on July 20 with a frequency of once in 20-year,the largest since the construction of TGP.TGP as an eco-environmental project will be beneficial to ecological and environmental protection and low carbon economy and it will accelerate coordination of the economy,society,resources and environment and sustainable development along the valley,as well as the rapid development of Chinese economy.

  5. The Three Gorges Dam Affects Regional Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liguang; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Zhihong

    2006-01-01

    Issues regarding building large-scale dams as a solution to power generation and flood control problems have been widely discussed by both natural and social scientists from various disciplines, as well as the policy-makers and public. Since the Chinese government officially approved the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) projects, this largest hydroelectric project in the world has drawn a lot of debates ranging from its social and economic to climatic impacts. The TGD has been partially in use since June 2003. The impact of the TGD is examined through analysis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall rate and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature and high-resolution simulation using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The independent satellite data sets and numerical simulation clearly indicate that the land use change associated with the TGD construction has increased the precipitation in the region between Daba and Qinling mountains and reduced the precipitation in the vicinity of the TGD after the TGD water level abruptly rose from 66 to 135 m in June 2003. This study suggests that the climatic effect of the TGD is on the regional scale (approx.100 km) rather than on the local scale (approx.10 km) as projected in previous studies.

  6. Children: Oklahoma's Investment in Tomorrow '96. Preliminary Report: Agency Budget by Cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, Oklahoma City.

    This report presents preliminary Oklahoma state agency budget summaries for all programs serving children in the Departments of Administration, Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Human Resources, Safety and Security, Tourism and Recreation, and Veterans Affairs. The budget figures are organized by cabinet and…

  7. Political death and survival in the Netherlands : Explaining resignations of individual cabinet members 1946 - 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovens, Mark; Brandsma, G.J.; Thesingh, D.

    2015-01-01

    Resignation by individual cabinet ministers is a major political event. Little is known, however, about the incidence, the patterns and the causes of ministerial resignations. This article works towards a political survival model of individual (junior and senior) ministers in the Netherlands, a coun

  8. Study on the characteristic decomposition components of air-insulated switchgear cabinet under partial discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Yingang; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ying; Qiu, Yinjun; Chen, Lincong

    2016-07-01

    Air-insulated switchgear cabinet plays a critical role in entire power transmission and distribution system. Its stability directly affects the operational reliability of the power system. And the on-line gas detection method, which evaluates the insulation status of insulation equipment by detecting the decomposition components of filled air in cabinet, becomes an innovative way to ensure the running stability of air-insulated switchgear cabinet. In order to study the characteristic gas types and production regularity of decomposition components under partial discharge, three insulation defects: needle-plate, air-gap and impurity defect are proposed to simulate the insulation defects under partial discharge in air-insulated switchgear cabinet. Firstly, the generation pathways and mechanism of composition components are discussed. Then CO and NO2 are selected as the characteristic decomposition components to characterize the partial discharge due to their high concentration and chemical stability. Based on the different change regularity of CO and NO2 concentration under different insulation defect, it provides an effective way to evaluate and predict the insulation defect type and severity in the field.

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD KITCHEN CABINET COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system at two cabinet manufacturing plants: one in Portland, OR, and the other in Redwood City, CA. Technology transfer ef...

  10. An automated dosimetry system for testing whole-body ultraviolet phototherapy cabinets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique is described for automated ultraviolet dosimetry within whole-body phototherapy cabinets. A dual-head detector system has been designed, permitting simultaneous assessment of irradiance levels and radiant intensities from individual lamps. One detector is used in combination with a diffuser/filter system for the measurement of irradiance and the other is mounted at the end of a slit collimator to provide a measurement which can be related to the radiant intensities of the individual lamps. These quantities are derived from 800 separate measurements made during rotation of the detector head around a 360 deg. circle at a fixed height and position within the cabinet under remote computer software control. The device has advantages compared with standard techniques, enabling measurements to be made without the need for a person to be present in the cabinet. A full set of measurements is made with minimal switching of the power supply to the lamps. This simplifies the assessment and reduces the uncertainty from variation in output after the lamps are switched on. Variations in irradiance with orientation for the smaller phototherapy cabinets are clearly demonstrated. Plots of data from the collimated detector show peaks corresponding to the lamps and the surrounding reflectors. The plots enable failed lamps to be detected and peak values can be related to radiant intensities of individual lamps. (author)

  11. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Waln, Karen; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1996-01-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council`s Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of the Umatilla Hatchery in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan type of rearing using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus nzykiss). The hatchery was completed in the fall of 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to develop considerable knowledge and understanding of new production and supplementation techniques. The use of the Michigan raceways in rearing at Umatilla Hatchery was selected because it could increase smolt production given the limited hatchery well water supply and allow comparison of Michigan raceways with the standard Oregon raceways. Results of testing the Michigan raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia Basin. The Umatilla Hatchery is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council`s goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan . The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. This report covers the first four years of the monitoring of the hatchery.

  12. Seismic response prediction for cabinets of nuclear power plants by using impact hammer test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective method to predict the seismic response of electrical cabinets of nuclear power plants is developed. This method consists of three steps: (1) identification of the earthquake-equivalent force based on the idealized lumped-mass system of the cabinet, (2) identification of the state-space equation (SSE) model of the system using input-output measurements from impact hammer tests, and (3) seismic response prediction by calculating the output of the identified SSE model under the identified earthquake-equivalent force. A three-dimensional plate model of cabinet structures is presented for the numerical verification of the proposed method. Experimental validation of the proposed method is carried out on a three-story frame which represents the structure of a cabinet. The SSE model of the frame is accurately identified by impact hammer tests with high fitness values over 85% of the actual frame characteristics. Shaking table tests are performed using El Centro, Kobe, and Northridge earthquakes as input motions and the acceleration responses are measured. The responses of the model under the three earthquakes are predicted and then compared with the measured responses. The predicted and measured responses agree well with each other with fitness values of 65-75%. The proposed method is more advantageous over other methods that are based on finite element (FE) model updating since it is free from FE modeling errors. It will be especially effective for cabinet structures in nuclear power plants where conducting shaking table tests may not be feasible. Limitations of the proposed method are also discussed.

  13. Frost formation and defrost control parameters for open multideck refrigerated food display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassou, S.A.; Datta, D. [Brunel Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Marriott, D. [Safeway Stores plc, Hayes (United Kingdom)

    2001-04-03

    In order to achieve the required air and product temperatures in refrigerated food display cabinets, the evaporator coils, which are normally located in the base of the cabinets, operate at temperatures below the freezing point of water. The air which is circulated over the evaporator coil is cooled below its dew point and water vapour present in the air condenses and eventually freezes on the coil surface. With continuous operation of the coil, frost will accumulate on the coil surface leading to a decrease both in the air flowrate and in the overall heat transfer coefficient. In order to maintain satisfactory performance, evaporator coils are defrosted periodically. Although different defrost control strategies can be employed, for simplicity and cost considerations, defrosting in supermarket refrigeration systems is usually controlled by a pre-set time cycle. It is widely acknowledge, however, that time-based defrost may cause a number of unnecessary defrost cycles and this reduces the energy efficiency of the refrigeration systems as well as the accuracy of temperature control of the cabinets. Implementing defrost only when it is needed or on 'demand' should reduce the number of defrost cycles and lead to savings in energy and improved product quality. This paper reports on field and experimental investigations on the processes of frosting and defrosting of medium-temperature display cabinet evaporator coils. The results show that for medium-temperature refrigeration applications where the environment temperature is kept reasonably constant, the store humidity is the primary parameter influencing the rate of frost formation. Using relative humidity as a control parameter the defrost frequency can be reduced considerably without affecting cabinet performance and product integrity. Alongside the effect of relative humidity, the paper also considers the effects of other performance parameters on the processes of frosting and defrosting such as cooling

  14. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  15. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance Annual Report, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenema, David

    2003-03-01

    The Kalispel Tribal hatchery successfully spawned largemouth bass broodfish in spring 2002. Approximately 150,000 eggs were produced and hatched. These fry were started on brine shrimp for a period of ten days. At this time, the fry needed more abundance food supply. Cannibalism started and the hatchery staff transferred the remaining fry to the river in hopes that some fish would survive.

  16. Diet composition and feeding periodicity of wild and hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Diel feeding periodicity, daily ration, and diet composition of wild and hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were examined in Lake Ontario and the Salmon River, New York. The diet of wild riverine salmon was composed mainly of aquatic invertebrates (63.4%), mostly ephemeropterans (25.8%), chiromomids (15.8%), and trichopterans (8.3%). The diet of riverine Chinook was more closely associated with the composition of drift samples rather than bottom samples, suggesting mid-water feeding. In Lake Ontario terrestrial invertebrates were more important in the diet of hatchery Chinook (49.0%) than wild salmon (30.5%) and diet overlap between hatchery and wild salmon was low (0.46%). The diet of both hatchery and wild Chinook salmon was more closely associated with the composition of mid-water invertebrate samples rather than benthic core samples, indicating mid-water and surface feeding. Hatchery Chinook salmon consumed significantly less food (P Ontario consumed more food than wild salmon in the Salmon River. Peak feeding of wild Chinook salmon occurred between 1200-1600 hours in Lake Ontario and between 1600-2000 hours in the Salmon River; there was no discernable feeding peak for the hatchery Chinook in Lake Ontario. Hatchery Chinook salmon also had the least diverse diet over the 24-hour sample period. These results suggest that at 7 days post-stocking hatchery Chinook salmon had not yet fully adapted to their new environment.

  17. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  18. Ecological interactions between hatchery summer steelhead and wild Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Willamette River basin, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Green, Ethan D.; Vernon, Christopher R.; Mcmichael, Geoffrey A.

    2014-12-23

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which juvenile hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead overlap in space and time, to evaluate the extent of residualism among hatchery summer steelhead in the South Santiam River, and to evaluate the potential for negative ecological interactions among hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead. Because it is not possible to visually discern juvenile winter steelhead from resident rainbow trout, we treated all adipose-intact juvenile O. mykiss as one group that represented juvenile wild winter steelhead. The 2014 study objectives were to 1) estimate the proportion of hatchery summer steelhead that residualized in the South Santiam River in 2014, 2) determine the extent to which hatchery and naturally produced O. mykiss overlapped in space and time in the South Santiam River, and 3) characterize the behavioral interactions between hatchery-origin juvenile summer steelhead and naturally produced O. mykiss. We used a combination of radio telemetry and direct observations (i.e., snorkeling) to determine the potential for negative interactions between hatchery summer and wild winter steelhead juveniles in the South Santiam River. Data collected from these two independent methods indicated that a significant portion of the hatchery summer steelhead released as smolts did not rapidly emigrate from the South Santiam River in 2014. Of the 164 radio-tagged steelhead that volitionally left the hatchery, only 66 (40.2%) were detected outside of the South Santiam River. Forty-four (26.8% of 164) of the radio-tagged hatchery summer steelhead successfully emigrated to Willamette Falls. Thus, the last known location of the majority of the tagged fish (98 of 164 = 59.8%) was in the South Santiam River. Thirty-three of the tagged hatchery steelhead were detected in the South Santiam River during mobile-tracking surveys. Of those, 21 were found to be alive in the South Santiam River over three months after

  19. Ecological interactions between hatchery summer steelhead and wild Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Willamette River basin, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnish, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Green, Ethan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcmichael, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which juvenile hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead overlap in space and time, to evaluate the extent of residualism among hatchery summer steelhead in the South Santiam River, and to evaluate the potential for negative ecological interactions among hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead. Because it is not possible to visually discern juvenile winter steelhead from resident rainbow trout, we treated all adipose-intact juvenile O. mykiss as one group that represented juvenile wild winter steelhead. The 2014 study objectives were to 1) estimate the proportion of hatchery summer steelhead that residualized in the South Santiam River in 2014, 2) determine the extent to which hatchery and naturally produced O. mykiss overlapped in space and time in the South Santiam River, and 3) characterize the behavioral interactions between hatchery-origin juvenile summer steelhead and naturally produced O. mykiss. We used a combination of radio telemetry and direct observations (i.e., snorkeling) to determine the potential for negative interactions between hatchery summer and wild winter steelhead juveniles in the South Santiam River. Data collected from these two independent methods indicated that a significant portion of the hatchery summer steelhead released as smolts did not rapidly emigrate from the South Santiam River in 2014. Of the 164 radio-tagged steelhead that volitionally left the hatchery, only 66 (40.2%) were detected outside of the South Santiam River. Forty-four (26.8% of 164) of the radio-tagged hatchery summer steelhead successfully emigrated to Willamette Falls. Thus, the last known location of the majority of the tagged fish (98 of 164 = 59.8%) was in the South Santiam River. Thirty-three of the tagged hatchery steelhead were detected in the South Santiam River during mobile-tracking surveys. Of those, 21 were found to be alive in the South Santiam River over three months after

  20. Annexe 3. Cabinet de Monsieur Jean-Pierre Fourcade, Ministre de l'Économie et des Finances

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Communiqué publié par le ministère de l'Économie et des Finances début juin 1974 Directeur du Cabinet : M. Guy DELORME, inspecteur des finances, directeur à l'administration centrale du ministère de l'Économie et des Finances. Directeur adjoint du Cabinet : M. Guy VIDAL, chef de service au ministère de l'Économie et des Finances. Chef de Cabinet : M. Bernard HALLEGOT, chef de service départemental de la Concurrence et des Prix Conseillers techniques M. Denis BAUCHARD, administrateur civil ho...

  1. Induced Earthquake Monitoring of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Rushu

    2011-01-01

    The Three Gorges Project(TGP) on the Yangtze River(YR) is the largest water power station in the world;it is now attracting the worldwide attention. Possessing comprehensive utilization benefits mainly for flood control,power generation and navigation imp

  2. Do we need big flood to cut spectacular river gorges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Loreto; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Mather, Anne; Stokes, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The study of a historical erosional process occurred in a dam spillway in NW Spain evidences extremely rapid gorge formation in granite. Historic documents, photographs and surveys preserved at the Historical Archives allowed the reconstruction of the whole erosion process. A ~270 m long, ~100 m deep and ~100 to 160 m wide amphitheater headed canyon was carved over 6 years. The study approaches the reconstruction of the scour site topography prior to the gorge formation and during the erosion events, and analyses the erosion mechanisms involved in the canyon cutting. Data reveal extremely high (>100 m/year) erosion rates, the highest reported so far on earth, associated to small-moderate floods (~100-1500m3/s). Results come to nuance the established models of erosion and gorge formation which are used to analyze the landscape evolution. The example demonstrates that moderate water discharges are capable of radical erosion suggesting that adjustments to changes such as drainage diversion and capture, or glacier outburst, may be initially much more rapid than has hereto been assumed. Structural preconditioning of the bedrock through jointing and faulting was the primary control on landscape change, conditioning gorge morphology and the rate at which erosion progress.

  3. Will the Three Gorges Dam Stand The Test of Time?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Netizens have collected several ar-ticles about the flood-control capacity of the Three Gorges Dam. In these articles, its capacity was differently described as tackling flooding "once-in-10,000-years" "once-in- l,O00-years" or "once-in-a-century" Can you give the specifics of the flood control capacity of the dam?

  4. Interdisciplinary survey on Three-Gorge Reservoir rewarding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A multi-target and interdisciplinary investigation of the mighty Yangtze River's section between Chongqing and the reservoir stemmed by the giant Three-Gorge Dam has recently been completed by CAS researchers from the Institute of Hydroecology (IOH) and their collaborators.

  5. Occurrence of antibiotics in water from 13 fish hatcheries, 2001-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, J.E.; Scribner, E.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Kolpin, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    A 2-year study of extensive and intensive fish hatcheries was conducted to assess the general temporal occurrence of antibiotics in aquaculture. Antibiotics were detected in 15% of the water samples collected during the 2001-2002 collection period and in 31% of the samples during the 2003 collection period. Antibiotics were detected more frequently in samples from the intensive hatcheries (17 and 39%) than in samples from the extensive hatcheries (14 and 4%) during the 2001-2002 and 2003 collection periods, respectively. The maximum ormetoprim, oxytetracycline, and sulphadimethoxine concentrations were higher in samples from the intensive hatcheries (12, 10, and 36 µg L-1), respectively, than in samples from the extensive hatcheries (<0.05, 0.31, and 1.2 µg L-1), respectively. Sulphadimethoxine persisted for a longer period of time (up to 48 days) than ormetoprim (up to 28 days) and oxytetracycline (less than 20 days).

  6. Time constraints for the Yellow River traversing the Sanmen Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, P.; Jia, J.; Zheng, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Yellow River is sourced to the northern piedmont of the Bayanhar Mountain Range in the Qinghai Province. It is the second longest river in China, traversing 5464 km. The Yellow River bends like a square in its middle course before traversing the Sanmen Gorge. The Sanmen Gorge is the last gorge in the main course of the Yellow River. After the Sanmen Gorge, the Yellow River flows into vast plains without any barrier, and finally emptys into the Bohai Bay. Thus, the timing of cut-through the Sanmen Gorge implies a true sense of formation and connection of the Yellow River. Drilling in the Weihe Basin, located west of the Sanmen Gorge, shows deposition of over 1000 m lacustrine/fluvial sediments and suggests existence of a paleolake in the basin before the Sanmen Gorge was cut through. The lacustrine/fluvial sequence outcrops at the west bank of the Youhe reservoir is composed of the Sanmen Formation and the Youhe Formation, typical of the sediments in the Weihe Basin. We studied five lacustrine/fluvial phase samples collected from the Youhe reservoir section and three fluvial sand samples relating to transition from lake to fluvial environments from Xihoudu. Our cosmogenic nuclide burial ages suggest that the paleolake formed 2 Ma ago, the transition of the Youhe Formation to the Sanmen Formation occurred 1.8 Ma ago, and the transition from lake to fluvial environment occurred 1.4-1.5 Ma ago. Thick fluvial sands, 90-120 m and 60 m higher than the current water level of the Yellow River, are preserved at Liujiahou and Mapo, respectively, located within the Sanmen Gorge. Dating of these fluvial sands suggests their deposition ages over 1.3 Ma. Zircon U-Pb age distributions of the sands further suggest that Weihe primarily flowed over the Sanmen Gorge 1.3-1.5 Ma ago, followed by the Yellow River cutting through the gorge 1.3-1.4 Ma ago. Previous studies show that the Yellow River appeared at Lanzhou 1.7 Ma ago and running through to the Bohai Bay in the Early

  7. Comparison of ozone and formaldehyde as poultry hatchery disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whistler, P E; Sheldon, B W

    1989-10-01

    Ozone and formaldehyde were compared as poultry hatchery disinfectants in a poultry setter, and evaluated for effectiveness. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhimurium, and Proteus spp. were inoculated onto open petri plates and exposed to ozone or onto filter paper strips and exposed to ozone or formaldehyde in a poultry setter. Ozone (1.41 to 1.68% by weight) resulted in significant bacterial reductions of greater than 4 log10 on the open plates and greater than 3 log10 on filter paper strips, whereas formaldehyde (triple strength) resulted in greater than 7 log10 reduction on filter paper strips. Ozone was similarly lethal to organisms on filter paper strips at 90% relative humidity (RH) and 13.9 C, and at 50% RH and 37.7 C. Although under the conditions of this study formaldehyde (triple strength) was more lethal than ozone, ozone killed greater than 99.9% of the starting microbial populations. In the event that formaldehyde can no longer be used in the hatchery, an effective alternative may be ozone. PMID:2511564

  8. Activities and Ergonomics of Workers in Broiler Hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCS Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study was to assess ergonomic factors, posture and biomechanics of workers of a broiler egg hatchery. The analysis of ergonomic factors was based on physical work load, thermal environment, and exposure to light and noise. The posture of workers was analyzed using photographic records which were evaluated by the software program OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System. A biomechanics analysis was also performed based on the photographs taken of the employee at various angles, which were used as inputs to the Michigan two-dimensional biomechanical model software program. The results show that certain activities can be considered unhealthy due to the exposure of employees to physical and thermal overload. The continuous noise levels and lighting were outside the range considered adequate by the regulations of the Brazilian Ministry of Labor. The manner in which certain activities are carried out when associated with weight and poor posture can result in body lesions in broiler hatchery employees. It is therefore necessary to apply specific ergonomic programs, including scheduled breaks, training, and other measures in order to reduce or to eliminate the risks involved in these activities.

  9. Nez Perce tribal hatchery project: annual report 1998; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of activities/events conducted in response to the Objectives and Tasks described in the 1998 contract Statement Of Work for the Planning and Predesign activities of the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH). The report follows the format of the contract for ease in finding accomplishments. Although specific emphasis will be placed on activities related directly to the NPTH, activities from other artificial production related projects may also be noted because of overlap in staff duties and production facilities. Additionally, the project leader's role has evolved as other Tribal fisheries projects have been developed and assigned to the Production Services Division, Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT). Thus, implementation of the project leader role for the NPTH actually entails specific duties of the Hatchery Supervisor, the Production Coordinator as well as the Production Director. The Production Director, Ed Larson was absent mos t of January and part of February before he began working part time from home while recovering from back surgery

  10. Influence of supermarket environmental parameters on the frosting and defrosting of vertical multideck display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassou, S.A.; Datta, D.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on results of investigations to identify and quantify the effect of in-store environmental conditions on frost accumulation on the evaporator coils of open multideck refrigerated display cabinets. Field and environmental chamber-based tests have shown that both ambient relative humidity and temperature of a store have a significant effect on the rate of frost formation on the evaporator coils, with the effect of relative humidity being much more pronounced than the effect of temperature. In supermarkets where a fixed-time defrost control strategy is employed, it is possible that cabinets are defrosted too infrequently at high relative humidities, resulting in high product temperatures, and too frequently at low relative humidities, resulting in excessive energy consumption. Considerable opportunity exists for the application of more sophisticated defrost control strategies, both to save energy and improve temperature control.

  11. 储药柜的优化模型%The optimal model of medicine cabinet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟秋平

    2014-01-01

    Design of medicine cabinet is facing the problems of how to reduce redundancy and improve the storage of medicine. According to the different specifications of the medical box, design the best scheme of medicine cabinet layout in the condition of minimum redundancy. This model can be expanded to the largest problem of storage capacity.%储药柜的设计面临如何降低冗余和提高储药量等问题。文章针对不同规格的药盒,在冗余最小的条件下,设计储药柜布局的最佳方案。该模型可推广至最大储物量问题。

  12. Quality Model of Foodstuff in the Control of Refrigerated Display Cabinet

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Commercial refrigerating systems need to be defrosted regularly to maintain a satisfactory performance. When defrosting the evaporator coil, the air temperature inside the display cabinet will increase, and float outside the normal temperature range for a period of time, the question is what happens to the food inside during this period, when we look at the quality factor?This paper discusses quality model of foodstuff, different scenarios of defrost scheme are simulated, questions such as ho...

  13. Genetic differences in growth, migration, and survival between hatchery and wild steelhead and Chinook salmon: Introduction and executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of studies testing for genetically based differences in performance (growth, migration, and survival) between hatchery and wild populations of steelhead and Chinook salmon (Project Number 90-052). The report is organized into 10 chapters with a general study introduction preceding the first chapter. A growing body of data shows that domestication and a resulting loss of fitness for natural rearing occur in hatchery populations of anadromous salmonids; however, the magnitude of domestication will vary among species and hatchery programs. Better information on domestication is needed to accurately predict the consequences when hatchery and wild fish interbreed. The intent of hatchery supplementation is to increase natural production through introduction of hatchery fish into natural production areas. The goal of this study was to provide managers with information on the genetic risks of hatchery supplementation to wild populations of Columbia River Basin summer steelhead and spring Chinook salmon.

  14. Spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Thomas; Riley, Stephen C.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hansen, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Fidelity to high-quality spawning sites helps ensure that adults repeatedly spawn at sites that maximize reproductive success. Fidelity is also an important behavioural characteristic to consider when hatchery-reared individuals are stocked for species restoration, because artificial rearing environments may interfere with cues that guide appropriate spawning site selection. Acoustic telemetry was used in conjunction with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to compare degree of spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron. Annual survival was estimated to be between 77% and 81% and did not differ among wild and hatchery males and females. Site fidelity estimates were high in both wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (ranging from 0.78 to 0.94, depending on group and time filter), but were slightly lower in hatchery-reared fish than in wild fish. The ecological implication of the small difference in site fidelity between wild and hatchery-reared lake trout is unclear, but similarities in estimates suggest that many hatchery-reared fish use similar spawning sites to wild fish and that most return to those sites annually for spawning.

  15. Chemical and histological studies of wild and hatchery salmon in fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.; Halver, J.E.; Woodall, A.N.

    1960-01-01

    In a study of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), the gross chemical and histological changes occurring over a 14-month period spent in fresh water were determined. The determinations were made at 3-month intervals on: 1) hatchery-reared fish, 2) fish hatchery-reared for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and then planted in a controlled stream for the remainder of the period; and 3) an indigenous group of wild fish in this stream. Wild fish showed high incidence of tissue damage from spinose hairs of the moth larva, Halisidota argentata. Hatchery fish were similarly affected with the severity and incidence of lesions varying directly with the time of exposure of the larvae in the wild environment. Both groups of fish were heavily parasitized by sporozoan organisms in the kidney and spinal cord. Kidney disease appeared in both wild and planted hatchery fish. The gross chemical composition of hatchery fish transformed rapidly after planting to that of the wild fish. Although the initial rate of fat loss is essentially constant for all hatchery groups after planting, fish that were hatchery reared for 9 to 12 months did not complete the transformation to the wild-type body composition by the time of downstream migration at 14 months.

  16. Cabinet Appointment in Uruguay: Legislative Strategy, hierarchy of portfolio and party affiliation of ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel CHASQUETTI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation and change of presidential cabinets in Uruguay during the period 1985-2010. In the first section we present the institutional and political features of the process of appointment and resignation of the ministers. The second section describes the cabinets formed in this period and shows that presidents have exchanged seats in cabinet by legislative support. The third section analyzes the political attributes of the ministers appointed (party affiliation, previous experience and the type of linkage that they keep with the president. The fourth analyze the relationship between the time survival of the individuals in office, the political responsibility in front of congress and the existence of a legislative majority that support the president. The last section describes the Uruguayan pattern of ministerial designation based in (i the establishment of an order of importance of portfolios, (ii the nomination of individuals with party affiliation (weather insider or adherent politicians and (iii the influence of the legislative support in defining the ministerial team.

  17. Kalispel Resident Fish Project: Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluff, Stanley

    2000-12-01

    In October of 1997, The construction of the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was complete. No spawning activity was recorded for the spring of 1998. On June 14, 1999 the first spawn at the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was successful. A total of seven nests were fertilized that produced approximately 144,000 fry. The second spawn occurred on July 13, 1999 and a total of six nests were fertilized producing approximately 98,0000 fry. The total amount of largemouth bass fry produced at the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was 242,000.

  18. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area. The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water. The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of

  19. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan and Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Mobrand, Lars Erik

    1992-03-01

    This report describes the findings that have resulted from the effort to create a proposed Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in northern Idaho. This effort has been undertaken because of low population densities of salmon in the Clearwater and Salmon River Basins. The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) has approved the NPTH concept. For the NPTH to proceed, the Council must approve a master plan and amend the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (CBFWP). Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also must be met. The goals of NPTH are to: (1) develop, increase, and reintroduce natural populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook in the Clearwater and Salmon River Basins; (2) sustain long-term preservation and genetic integrity of target fish populations; (3) keep the ecological and genetic impacts of nontarget fish populations within acceptable limits; and, (4) provide harvest opportunities for both tribal and non-tribal anglers.

  20. Energy of forest systems in the Three Gorge Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The energy of three forest ecosystems in the Three Gorge Reservoir Area were analyzed. The results showed that the existing energy were 151.2438, 139.2014 and 175.1659 (x1010 J/hm2), the annual net fixed energy were 38.8924, 31.2214 and 46.8231 (x1010J/hm2), and the utilization efficiency of light energy were 1.16, 0.99 and 1.40 for the Quercus acutissima forest(Q.A.), the Pinus massoniana forest (P.M.), and the Queresus acutissima and Pinus massoniana mixed forest (Q.P.), respectively. In the Three Gorge Reservoir Area, the energy efficiency of Quercus acutissima and Pinus massoniana mixed forest is the best.

  1. The hydraulic turbines of the Three Gorges dam; Les turbines hydrauliques du barrage des trois gorges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremond, J. [Societe GEC-Alsthom Neyrpic (France); Vuillerod, G. [Alsthom Hydro (France)

    1999-10-01

    As part of the hydroelectric installation of the Three Gorges on the Yangtze river in China, the Alsthom group recorded a major order for the supply of 8 Francis turbines out of the 14 to be installed in the left bank power station. This colossal project will include 26 Francis turbines of 710 MW, a spillway designed for a maximum flow of 116 000 m{sup 3}/s, a ship-lock of 5 steps with a capacity of 10 000 tons and a ship-lift of 3000 tons. The concrete gravity dam will be 2.3 km long. As oriented by the Specifications, and due to their exceptional size (runner diameter: 9800 mm), the design of these units relies upon well-proofed solutions such as those already experienced on the Itaipu south American large scale hydro project, in which Alsthom already contributed 20 years ago. The runners (450 tons each, external diameter 10 600 mm) will be fabricated by welding of separate elements made of martensitic stainless steel. Most of the components have to be delivered in several parts and reassembled at site by welding or bolting. The left bank power station is scheduled to be operational in 2006. (authors) 2 refs.

  2. A dedicated column for Three Gorges environment to be launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Three Gorges Dam will be the largest hydroelectric dam in the world after the construction is completed in 2008.Ever since the proposal of its erection, the massive project has attracted attention worldwide, and it has progressed under strict control and amazingly ahead of schedule. It will be magnificent to see all the 26 hydro turbines spinning in onrushing water and giant ships traveling back and forth on the Yangtze River.

  3. Bedrock gorges in the central mainland Kachchh: Implications for landscape evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G Thakkar; B Goyal; A K Patidar; D M Maurya; L S Chamyal

    2006-04-01

    Kachchh possesses a fault-controlled first-order topography and several geomorphic features indicative of active tectonics.Though coseismic neotectonic activity is believed to be the major factor in the evolution of the landscape,detailed documentation and analysis of vital landscape features like drainage characteristics,bedrock gorges and terraces are lacking.The present study is a site-speci fic documentation of gorges developed in the central part of the mainland Kachchh.We analyzed and interpreted four gorges occurring on either side of Katrol Hill Fault (KHF).The Khari river gorge is endowed with six levels of bedrock terraces,some of which are studded with large potholes and flutings.Since no active development of potholes is observed along the rivers in the present day hyper-arid conditions,we infer an obvious linkage of gorges to the humid phases,which provided high energy runoff for the formation of gorges and distinct bedrock terraces and associated erosional features.Development of gorges within the miliolites and incision in the fluvial deposits to the south of the KHF indicates that the gorges were formed during Early Holocene.However,ubi-quitous occurrence of gorges along the streams to the south of KHF,the uniformly N40°E trend of the gorges,their close association with transverse faults and the short length of the exceptionally well developed Khari river gorge in the low-relief rocky plain to the north of KHF suggests an important role of neotectonic movements.

  4. The Trail Inventory of Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  5. The Trail Inventory of North Attleboro National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on North Attleboro National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  6. Growth of hatchery raised banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis (de Man) (Crustacea: Decapoda) juveniles under different salinity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    In order to optimise the conditions for improved production of the banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis in the farms, effect of salinity on growth and survival was studied for 4 weeks using hatchery reared juveniles. Survival was very poor in salinity...

  7. Contaminant Survey of Mescalero and Dexter National Fish Hatcheries in New Mexico - July 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water supplies utilized by national fish hatcheries are generally presumed to be uncontaminated. However, sublethal concentrations of potentially toxic substances...

  8. Bioenergetics estimate of the effects of stocking density on hatchery production of smallmouth bass fingerlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, G.L.; Fisher, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Production of and consumption by hatchery-reared tingerling (age-0) smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu at various simulated stocking densities were estimated with a bioenergetics model. Fish growth rates and pond water temperatures during the 1996 growing season at two hatcheries in Oklahoma were used in the model. Fish growth and simulated consumption and production differed greatly between the two hatcheries, probably because of differences in pond fertilization and mortality rates. Our results suggest that appropriate stocking density depends largely on prey availability as affected by pond fertilization and on fingerling mortality rates. The bioenergetics model provided a useful tool for estimating production at various stocking density rates. However, verification of physiological parameters for age-0 fish of hatchery-reared species is needed.

  9. Loss of genetic variability at the transferrin locus in five hatchery stocks of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calcagnotto Daniela

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and conservation of the genetic variability in stocks maintained as live gene banks have become a high priority task for Brazilian fish culture. The aim of the present survey was to assess the transferrin allelic diversity of five hatchery stocks of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. The tambaqui stock from Pentecoste, the oldest maintained in Brazilian hatchery stations, retained three of the six alleles detected in wild populations of tambaqui from the Amazon River. Other hatchery stocks, directly or indirectly derived from the Pentecoste stock, did not show transferrin allelic variability. Insufficient number of founders and genetic drift due to sampling errors seem to be the main causes leading to loss of genetic diversity in tambaqui hatchery stocks. Appropriate management strategies are required in order to improve the genetic potential of tambaqui stocks in Brazil.

  10. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Onjukka, Sam T.; Focher, Shannon M. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the first three years of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. Because the hatchery and the evaluation study and the fish health monitoring investigations are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary. The majority of the data that is crucial for evaluating the success of the hatchery program, the data on post-release performance and survival, is yet unavailable. In addition, several years of data are necessary to make conclusions about rearing performance at Umatilla Hatchery. The conclusions drawn in this report should be viewed as preliminary and should be used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available.

  11. Physiological Assessment of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : Final Report, 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Donald A.; Beckman, Brian R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2003-08-01

    It is generally held that hatchery-reared salmonids are of inferior quality and have lower smolt-to-adult survival compared to naturally-reared salmon. The overall objectives of the work performed under this contract were the following: (1) Characterize the physiology and development of naturally rearing juvenile salmonids to: (2) Allow for the design of effective rearing programs for producing wild-like smolts in supplementation and production hatchery programs. (3) Examine the relationship between growth rate and size on the physiology and migratory performance of fish reared in hatchery programs. (4) Examine the interaction of rearing temperature and feed rate on the growth and smoltification of salmon for use in producing a more wild-like smolt in hatchery programs.

  12. The Trail Inventory of Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Private John Allen National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Private John Allen National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  14. The Panel Layout Overview of PET Plant DCS Cabinet%聚酯工厂DCS机柜盘内布置概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项飞

    2014-01-01

    PET Plant adopts distributed control system as the factory control means. DCS consists of system cabinet and auxiliary cabinet, with the latter including marshalling cabinet, safe grid cabinet, relay cabinet and power cabinet. Taking Honeywell Experion PKS-C300 series as an example, this paper first elaborates the cabinet layout preparation via system overview planning and I/O address list, and then elaborates the panel layout principles and implementation solution for system cabinet and Auxiliary Cabinet.%聚酯工厂采用集散控制系统作为工厂控制手段,控制系统设置系统柜及辅助柜,辅助柜包括接线柜、安全栅柜、继电器柜和供电柜等。以Honeywell公司的Experion PKS-C300系列为例,从系统概貌规划到I/O地址分配表排布阐述机柜布置前期准备的工作内容,再详细阐述了系统柜及辅助机柜的盘内布置原则及实施方案。

  15. Ontogenetic selection on hatchery salmon in the wild: natural selection on artificial phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Michael M; Lachapelle, Kevin A; Kinnison, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Captive rearing often alters the phenotypes of organisms that are destined for release into the wild. Natural selection on these unnatural phenotypes could have important consequences for the utility of captive rearing as a restoration approach. We show that normal hatchery practices significantly advance the development of endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry by 30+ days. As a result, hatchery fry might be expected to face strong natural selection resulting from their developmental a...

  16. Selection and characterization of potential probiotic bacteria for Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp hatcheries in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Ansquer, Dominique; Chevalier, Anne; Dauga, Clement; Peyramale, Aude; Wabete, Nelly; Labreuche, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    In New Caledonia, shrimp hatcheries are confronted with mass mortality in the larval stages, a phenomenon poorly understood as no specific causative agent has been identified. This has resulted in an excessive use of prophylactic antibiotics, although their adverse effects in aquaculture are notorious. The present work was thus aimed at selecting potential probiotic strains for penaeid hatcheries. From a pool of more than 400 marine bacterial isolates sampled from the local marine environ...

  17. Monitoring and Evaluation Plan for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery, 1996 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, Cleveland R.

    1996-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has proposed to build and operate the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in the Clearwater River subbasin of Idaho for the purpose of restoring self-sustaining populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon to their native habitats. The project comprises a combination of incubation and rearing facilities, satellite rearing facilities, juvenile and adult collection sites, and associated production and harvest management activities. As currently conceived, the NPTH program will produce approximately 768,000 spring chinook parr, 800,000 summer chinook fry, and 2,000,000 fall chinook fry on an annual basis. Hatchery fish would be spawned, reared, and released under conditions that promote wild-type characteristics, minimize genetic changes in both hatchery and wild chinook populations, and minimize undesirable ecological interactions. The primary objective is to enable hatchery-produced fish to return to reproduce naturally in the streams in which they are released. These and other characteristics of the project are described in further detail in the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan (Larson and Mobrand 1992), the 1995 Supplement to the Master Plan (Johnson et al. 1995), and the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement (Bonneville Power Administration et al. 1996). The report in hand is referred to in project literature as the NPTH Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Plan. This report describes monitoring and evaluation activities that will help NPTH managers determine. whether they were successful in restoring chinook salmon populations and avoiding adverse ecological impacts. Program success will be gauged primarily by changes in the abundance and distribution of supplemented chinook populations. The evaluation of project-related impacts will focus on the biological effects of constructing and operating NPTH hatchery facilities, introducing hatchery fish into the natural environment, and removing or displacing wild

  18. Guidelines for Including Gorges in the Tourist Offer of the Apuseni Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA COCEAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In any tourism development plans, the starting point ought to be the accurate assessment of the tourism resources that can be efficiently put to use. When evaluating the potential for the tourism development of karstic gorges, the most objective criteria were applied: the attractiveness of each gorge, the location and the competitive forms of tourism that can be developed in the area. As a result, we have identified four categories of gorges: primary, secondary, complementary gorges and those of less relevance for the tourism phenomenon. The next step that would have a direct impact on the development of tourism around gorges (building of infrastructure, access roads, etc. is to consolidate and revitalize the brand of each gorge in order to define it as a unique tourist destination. Effective branding of gorges starts with establishing the unique selling proposition, consisting of those attributes of high specificity that determine certain dominant types of tourism. It is only after identifying the strengths that build up their own tourist brands that one can consider including these landmarks in thematic routes, creating synergy and adding value to the whole gorge ensemble.

  19. Simulation of multi-deck medium temperature display cabinets with the integration of CFD and cooling coil models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A.; Hadawey, A. [Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, the model for the multi-deck medium temperature display cabinets is developed with the integration of CFD and cooling coil sub-models. The distributed method is used to develop the cooling coil model with the airside inputs from the outputs of the CFD model. Inversely, the airside outputs from the cooling coil model are used to update the boundary conditions of the CFD model. To validate this cabinet model, a multi-deck medium temperature display cabinet refrigerated with a secondary refrigerant cooling coil was selected as a prototype and mounted in an air conditioned chamber. Extensive tests were conducted at constant space air temperature and varied relative humilities. The cabinet model has been validated by comparing with the test results for the parameters of air at different locations of the flow path, and temperatures of refrigerant and food product, etc. The validated model is therefore used to explore and analyse the cabinet performance and control strategies at various operating and design conditions. (author)

  20. Do open-cycle hatcheries relying on tourism conserve sea turtles? Sri Lankan developments and economic-ecological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Clem; Wilson, Clevo

    2005-04-01

    By combining economic analysis of markets with ecological parameters, this article considers the role that tourism-based sea turtle hatcheries (of an open-cycle type) can play in conserving populations of sea turtles. Background is provided on the nature and development of such hatcheries in Sri Lanka. The modeling facilitates the assessment of the impacts of turtle hatcheries on the conservation of sea turtles and enables the economic and ecological consequences of tourism, based on such hatcheries, to be better appreciated. The results demonstrate that sea turtle hatcheries serving tourists can make a positive contribution to sea turtle conservation, but that their conservation effectiveness depends on the way they are managed. Possible negative effects are also identified. Economic market models are combined with turtle population survival relationships to predict the conservation impact of turtle hatcheries and their consequence for the total economic value obtained from sea turtle populations.

  1. Density, distribution, and genetic structure of grizzly bears in the Cabinet-Yaak Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Amy C.; Boyd, Kristina L; Boulanger, John; Royle, J. Andrew; Kasworm, Wayne F.; Paetkau, David; Proctor, Michael F; Annis, Kim; Graves, Tabitha A.

    2016-01-01

    The conservation status of the 2 threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations in the Cabinet-Yaak Ecosystem (CYE) of northern Montana and Idaho had remained unchanged since designation in 1975; however, the current demographic status of these populations was uncertain. No rigorous data on population density and distribution or analysis of recent population genetic structure were available to measure the effectiveness of conservation efforts. We used genetic detection data from hair corral, bear rub, and opportunistic sampling in traditional and spatial capture–recapture models to generate estimates of abundance and density of grizzly bears in the CYE. We calculated mean bear residency on our sampling grid from telemetry data using Huggins and Pledger models to estimate the average number of bears present and to correct our superpopulation estimates for lack of geographic closure. Estimated grizzly bear abundance (all sex and age classes) in the CYE in 2012 was 48–50 bears, approximately half the population recovery goal. Grizzly bear density in the CYE (4.3–4.5 grizzly bears/1,000 km2) was among the lowest of interior North American populations. The sizes of the Cabinet (n = 22–24) and Yaak (n = 18–22) populations were similar. Spatial models produced similar estimates of abundance and density with comparable precision without requiring radio-telemetry data to address assumptions of geographic closure. The 2 populations in the CYE were demographically and reproductively isolated from each other and the Cabinet population was highly inbred. With parentage analysis, we documented natural migrants to the Cabinet and Yaak populations by bears born to parents in the Selkirk and Northern Continental Divide populations. These events supported data from other sources suggesting that the expansion of neighboring populations may eventually help sustain the CYE populations. However, the small size, isolation, and inbreeding documented by this study

  2. 'Cabinet-safe' study of 1-8 MeV electron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, D P; Yoon, W Y; Harmon, F

    2001-01-01

    The development of 'cabinet-safe' accelerator technology for approx 1-8 MeV electron LINACs would remove the only major barrier to large-scale 'field' applications of these accelerators. These applications range from non-destructive evaluation and assay to radiolytic degradation of hazardous waste. All field applications require large forward dose and very little lateral dose. We investigated the origin, energy, and angular distribution of unwanted lateral radiation dose from two different electron LINACS at three energies. We report on the contributions of various beam parameters to unwanted radiation dose and propose methods to control key beam parameters that significantly contribute to these doses.

  3. One New Type Vertical Open Display Cabinet and Its Thermostatic Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ji Song

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical Open Display Cabinets (VODC are widely used in supermarkets for food or drink sales under an adaptive temperature. In this study, one new type VODC which developed based on ice-slurry technology and central refrigeration was established and its thermostatic performances was experimental studied and compared with a conventional one which chilled by refrigerating R22 directly. The experimental results show that it has good refrigerating effects and few temperature fluctuations. It can basically satisfy food fresh-keeping demands. This new type VODC can operate at high efficiency and save money for the users, indirectly protect our living environment.

  4. The Effect of Dowel and Minifix on the Bending Moment in the Cabinet-type Furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin Yerlikaya, Nurdan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the dowel and minifix on the bending moment of L-type corner joints in the cabinet-type furniture investigated. For this purpose, melamine-coated fiberboard (MCF) is used in the tension and compression experiments. Dowel and minifix as fasteners are used. “2 minifix”, “2 minifix + 1 dowel”, “2 minifix + 2 dowel”, and “2 dowel” as joint type are used. According to experimental results, the highest bending moment value was obtained in the “2 minifix + 2 dowel” join...

  5. How Do Hatcheries Influence Embryonic Development of Sea Turtle Eggs? Experimental Analysis and Isolation of Microorganisms in Leatherback Turtle Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño-Martínez, Juan; Molist, Adolfo; Quiñones, Liliana; Abella, Elena; Muriel, Roberto; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Many conservation programs consider translocation of turtle nests to hatcheries as a useful technique. The repeated use of the same incubation substrate over several seasons in these hatcheries could, however, be harmful to embryos if pathogens were able to accumulate or if the physical and chemical characteristics of the incubation environment were altered. However, this hypothesis has yet to be tested. We conducted two field experiments to evaluate the effects of hatchery sand and eggshell ...

  6. Situational analysis of Nile tilapia and African catfish hatcheries management: a case study of Kisii and Kirinyaga counties in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Orina, P.S.; Maina, J.G.; Wangia, S.M.; Karuri, E.G.; Mbuthia, P. G.; Omolo, B.; Owiti, G.O.; Musa, S; Munguti, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The number of private and public hatcheries in Kenya has increased tremendously due to fingerlings shortage experienced at the launch of Fish Farming Enterprise Productivity Program (FFEPP) a move likely to compromise quality. This study aimed at assessing the management levels of hatcheries in Kirinyaga and Kisii Counties of Central and Western Kenya respectively. Kisii and Kirinyaga Counties demonstrated high gender disparity with only 1 hatchery being owned and managed by a lady. Majority ...

  7. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairgrieve, William; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2004-04-01

    The Colville Tribal Hatchery produced 62,335 pounds of trout during the contract period, however, only 46,092 pounds were liberated to lakes and streams. The remaining production will be carried over to 2004 to be planted as larger fish into reservation waters for the lakes opener. New raceways were completed in November and brought on line in the spring. These raceways currently hold the redband rainbow brood stock and will be spawned in 2004. Efforts are continuing to capture redbands from other streams in coordination with the monitoring and evaluation program. Creel was expanded by hiring a second creel clerk to give better coverage of reservation waters by reducing travel time. Marking continues on all fish planted from CTH and refinements continue to be made. The first tag retention study has been completed and the second study is now underway to determine long term tag recognition. Lakes continue to be surveyed to complete the baseline analysis of all reservation lakes and will be completed in 2004.

  8. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities; Operations and Maintenance, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, Gerald

    2003-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem, Thornhollow and Pendleton satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam and South Fork Walla Walla facilities are used for holding and spawning chinook salmon. In some years, Three Mile Dam may also be used for holding and spawning coho salmon. In the spring of 2002, summer steelhead were acclimated and released at Bonifer Pond (54,917), Minthorn Springs (47,521), and Pendleton (54,366). Yearling coho (1,621,857) were also acclimated and released at Pendleton. Yearling spring chinook salmon (876,121) were acclimated and released at Imeques C-mem-ini-kem. At Thornhollow, 520,564 yearling fall chinook and 307,194 subyearling fall chinook were acclimated. In addition, 104,908 spring chinook were transported to Imeques C-mem-ini-kem in November for release in the spring of 2003. CTUIR and ODFW personnel monitored the progress of outmigration for juvenile releases at the Westland Canal juvenile facility. Nearly all juveniles released in the spring migrated downstream prior to the trap being opened in early July. A total of 100 unmarked and 10 marked summer steelhead were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from September 21, 2001, through April 2, 2002. An estimated 180,955 green eggs were taken from 36 females and were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for incubation and rearing. A total of 560 adult and 26 jack spring chinook salmon were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from April 22 through June 12, 2002

  9. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program. Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Nez Perce Tribe propose a supplementation program to restore chinook salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin in Idaho. The Clearwater River is a tributary to the Snake River, which empties into the Columbia River. The Nez Perce Tribe would build and operate two central incubation and rearing hatcheries and six satellite facilities. Several environmental issues were identified during scoping: the possibility that the project would fail if mainstem Columbia river juvenile and adult passage problems are not solved; genetic risks to fish listed as endangered or threatened; potential impacts to wild and resident fish stocks because of increased competition for food and space; and water quality. The Proposed Action would affect several important aspects of Nez Perce tribal life, primarily salmon harvest, employment, and fisheries management. Impacts to cultural resources can be avoided so impacts would be low. Soil impacts would be localized and their effects would be local and temporary during construction. Impacts to water quality would be low. Mitigation would be used if impacts to groundwater or surface water are greater than anticipated. No impacts to floodplains are expected. Impacts to all categories of fish range from no to high impacts

  10. Managed metapopulations: do salmon hatchery 'sources' lead to in-river 'sinks' in conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C Johnson

    Full Text Available Maintaining viable populations of salmon in the wild is a primary goal for many conservation and recovery programs. The frequency and extent of connectivity among natal sources defines the demographic and genetic boundaries of a population. Yet, the role that immigration of hatchery-produced adults may play in altering population dynamics and fitness of natural populations remains largely unquantified. Quantifying, whether natural populations are self-sustaining, functions as sources (population growth rate in the absence of dispersal, λ>1, or as sinks (λ<1 can be obscured by an inability to identify immigrants. In this study we use a new isotopic approach to demonstrate that a natural spawning population of Chinook salmon, (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha considered relatively healthy, represents a sink population when the contribution of hatchery immigrants is taken into consideration. We retrieved sulfur isotopes ((34S/(32S, referred to as δ(34S in adult Chinook salmon otoliths (ear bones that were deposited during their early life history as juveniles to determine whether individuals were produced in hatcheries or naturally in rivers. Our results show that only 10.3% (CI = 5.5 to 18.1% of adults spawning in the river had otolith δ(34S values less than 8.5‰, which is characteristic of naturally produced salmon. When considering the total return to the watershed (total fish in river and hatchery, we estimate that 90.7 to 99.3% (CI of returning adults were produced in a hatchery (best estimate = 95.9%. When population growth rate of the natural population was modeled to account for the contribution of previously unidentified hatchery immigrants, we found that hatchery-produced fish caused the false appearance of positive population growth. These findings highlight the potential dangers in ignoring source-sink dynamics in recovering natural populations, and question the extent to which declines in natural salmon populations are undetected by

  11. CABINETS OPERATING RULES AND COALITIONN FORMATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA IRINA IONITA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of communism in the late ’80 in Central and Eastern Europe, due to the appearance of several political parties in each state, there was the need to form coalitions in order to provide support for the governments. This paper aims to identify the institutional features that influence the coalition formation process using the rational choice institutionalism approach. In this case, the political parties, who seek to optimize their benefits in the government formation process, are constrained by the institutional environment. The institutional environment comprises the rules that determine how the governments are formed. Particularly, this paper aim is to identify how the cabinet operating rules affect the outcomes of the coalition formation process. In order to do so, I will develop a quantitative analysis of 110 cabinets in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria formed after the first free elections subsequent to the communist fall until the beginning of 2010. These countries represent the post-communist states that joined the European Union, finalizing the democratization process at least from a formal point a view. This cross-country comparison tries to explain how some institutional features influence the formation of coalitions in new democracies. This research is valuable due to the lack of this type of comparative studies on Central and Eastern European states.

  12. CFD Parametric Studies for Global Performance Improvement of Open Refrigerated Display Cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dinis Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed CFD modelling of an open refrigerated display cabinet has been formulated in a previous study. Some modifications are introduced in order to perform parametric studies dealing with low-cost geometrical and functional characteristics for improvement of the global performance and energy efficiency. The parametric studies are devoted to the analysis of the thermal response and behaviour inside the food conservation space influenced by (1 air flow rate through the evaporator heat exchanger; (2 air curtain behaviour; (3 hole dimensions and distribution of the back panel; (4 discharge and return grilles angles; and (5 flow deflectors inside the internal duct. The analysis of the numerical predictions from the parametric studies allows the development of an optimized model for the conception of an open refrigerated display cabinet with a more adequate configuration. The numerical predictions of the optimized model show lower product temperature and reduced electrical energy consumption, allowing the improvement of the food safety and the energy rationalization of the refrigeration equipment.

  13. Las presas de Glen Canyon y Flaming Gorge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman, D. L.

    1962-04-01

    Full Text Available El Bureau of Reclamation, con sede en Denver, Colorado (EE. UU., está actualmente construyendo dos presas, de hormigón y gran altura. Este Departamento desempeña una función similar a la que vienen desarrollando nuestras Confederaciones hidrográficas nacionales. Las dos presas son: la de Glen Canyon, de 216 m de altura, y la de Flaming Gorge, de 153, que son las más importantes en cuanto a almacenamiento y reserva se refiere.

  14. Geomagnetic polarity epochs: new data from Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromme, C.S.; Hay, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    The lower lava flow of Bed I in Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika, carries natural remanent magnetization (NRM) having normal polarity. Thermal demagnetization experiments demonstrate the stability of this NRM. Thus the Olduvai geomagnetic polarity event, which was originally named from the upper lava flow in Bed I, is represented in its type locality by two normally magnetized lavas. These lavas have been shown to be 1.9 m.y. old, and although they are distinct from each other in composition and surface structure, their eruptions appear to have been closely spaced in time. ?? 1967.

  15. On the land use in Three Gorges Reservoir area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HELonghua; LorenzKing; JIANGTong

    2003-01-01

    In this study the arable land changes in two counties (Zigui and Xingshan) in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China are investigated. The statistical data fTom the officially published statistical books are used to study these changes in the two counties during the past 50 years since 1949. The changes of arable land, changes of arable land per capita, and changes of multiple crop index in Zigui and Xingshan counties are examined. Using an index method, we conclude that the two counties are critical in the sustainable utilization of arable land.

  16. The power plant among Three Gorges; Kraftstasjonen blant Tre kloefter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensvold, Tore

    2003-07-01

    In 2009 the Three Gorges power station on the Yangtze River in China will be completed, with 26 turbines that together will produce 84.60 TWh/year. In this article a Norwegian expert describes his experience from a tourist visit, approaching the plant onboard a cruise ship. In addition to giving the main technical data he comments on peoples' resistance against being transferred, on scepticism and fear of a dam break, on the shortcomings of the power grid and on the not very extensive Norwegian contribution to the world's largest power plant.

  17. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovrak, Jon (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Program, Hatcheries Division, Ford, WA); Combs, Mitch (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Program, Hatcheries Division, Kettle Falls, WA)

    2004-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operation and evaluation. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribes form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery. The LRHCT also serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. Since 1994 the kokanee fingerling program has changed to yearling releases. By utilizing both the hatcheries and additional net pens, up to 1,000,000 kokanee yearlings can be reared and released. The construction and operation of twenty net pens in 2001 enabled the increased production. Another significant change has been to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native tributary stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and

  18. A tool for tracking genetic contributions of wild Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus broodstock to hatchery populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jackie T; Sherwin, William B; Taylor, Matthew D

    2014-12-01

    Stock enhancement, restocking and sea ranching are being increasingly applied in both fisheries and conservation. The contribution of hatchery stock to fishery harvest and the maintenance of the genetic structure of stocked populations are both important considerations when releasing captive-bred organisms into natural systems. Use of wild-caught broodstock generally overcomes some of the genetic problems associated with domesticated hatchery populations, but there is still a need to ensure that a sufficient proportion of the natural population contribute to production of the stocked cohort to realise the genetic benefits of using wild-caught broodstock. Releases of Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus are under investigation as a means of increasing prawn production in recruitment-limited areas. We used the highly variable mitochondrial control region (mtCR) to assign post-larvae to maternal lineages in the hatchery and also to investigate the reproductive performance of female broodstock in terms of contribution to the production of the cohorts of post-larvae in the hatchery. Our data showed that mtCR can be a useful tool for tracking lineages and provided genetic evidence that unequal contribution and underproducing females can occur even in wild-caught broodstock. This work therefore highlights the importance of monitoring the genetic composition of pre-release hatchery stocks.

  19. Vertebral deformities in hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hongjian; Zhang, Xiumei; Fu, Mei; Xi, Dan; Su, Shengqi; Yao, Weizhi

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared vertebral deformities of hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. A total of 362 hatchery-reared flounder (total length 122.5-155.8 mm) were collected from three commercial hatcheries located in Yantai, East China, and 89 wild fish (total length 124.7-161.3 mm) were caught off Yangma Island near Yantai City (37°27'N, 121°36'E). All the fish were dissected, photographed, and images of the axial skeleton were examined for vertebral deformities. Compared with wild-caught flounder in which no deformed vertebrae were detected, 48 (13.3%) hatcheryreared fish had deformed vertebrae. The deformities were classified as compression, compression-ankylosis, and dislocation-ankylosis. The vertebral deformities were mainly localized between post-cranial vertebra 1 and 3, with vertebrae number 1 as the most commonly deformed. The causative factors leading to vertebral deformities in reared Japanese flounder may be related to unfavorable temperature conditions, inflammation, damage, or rupture to the intervertebral ligaments under rearing conditions. Furthermore, no significant difference in the total number of vertebral bodies was observed between wild-caught (38.8±0.4) and hatchery-reared flounder (38.1±0.9) ( P>0.05). However, the number of vertebral bodies of hatchery-reared and wild-caught flounder ranged from 35 to 39 and from 38 to 39, respectively.

  20. A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

  1. Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengcai

    2015-10-01

    Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element 'draft-tube' that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700-1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences. PMID:26442144

  2. Local Climate Sensitivity of the Three Gorges Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Norman L.; Jin, Jiming; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2005-02-18

    Two simulations, control and land use change, were performed for an eight week period (2 April-16 May 1990) to determine the net sensitivity of the local climate around the Three Gorges Dam. The analysis indicates that the large reservoir acts as a potential evaporating surface that decreases the surface temperature, cools the lower atmosphere, decreasing upward motion, and increasing sinking air mass. Such sinking results in low level moisture divergence, decreasing cloudiness, and increasing net downward radiation, which increases the surface temperature. However, results indicate that evaporative cooling dominates radiative warming in this initial study. The strong evaporation also supplies moisture to the atmosphere, suggesting an increase in precipitation, but the sinking moist air diverges away from the TGD region with no net change in precipitation. This numerical study represents an initial methodology for quantification of the impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the local climate and a more comprehensive, fine-scale set of multi-season simulations with additional observational data is needed for a more complete analysis.

  3. Accumulation of floating microplastics behind the Three Gorges Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Gong, Wen; Lv, Jizhong; Xiong, Xiong; Wu, Chenxi

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in surface water from the Three Gorges Reservoir. Nine samples were collected via trawl sampling with a 112 μmmesh net. The abundances of microplastics were from 3407.7 × 10(3) to 13,617.5 × 10(3) items per square kilometer in the main stream of the Yangtze River and from 192.5 × 10(3) to 11,889.7 × 10(3) items per square kilometer in the estuarine areas of four tributaries. The abundance of microplastics in the main stream of the Yangtze River generally increased as moving closer to the Three Gorges Dam. The microplastics are made exclusively of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS). Together with microplastics, high abundance of coal/fly ash was also observed in the surface water samples. Comparing with previously reported data, microplastics in the TGR were approximately one to three orders of magnitudes greater, suggesting reservoirs as potential hot spot for microplastic pollution. PMID:25935612

  4. After Three Gorges Dam: What have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, J.; Williams, P.; Wong, R.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    China is at a critical point in its development path. By investing heavily in large-scale infrastructure, the rewards of economic growth weigh against long-term environmental and social costs. The construction of Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric project, began in 1994. Between 2002 and 2010, its 660 kilometer reservoir filled behind a 181 meter dam, displacing at least 1.4 million people and transforming Asia's longest river (the Yangtze) while generating nearly 100 billion kWh/yr of electricity -- 2.85% of China's current electric power usage. As the mega-project progenitor in a cascade of planned dams, the Three Gorges Dam emerges as a test case for how China will plan, execute and mitigate its development pathway and the transformation of its environment. Post-Project Assessments (PPA) provide a systematic, scientific method for improving the practice of environmental management - particularly as they apply to human intervention in river systems. In 2012, the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning at University of California, Berkeley organized a symposium-based PPA for the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. Prior to this symposium, the twelve invited Chinese scientists, engineers and economists with recent research on Three Gorges Dam had not had the opportunity to present their evaluations together in an open, public forum. With a 50-year planning horizon, the symposium's five sessions centered on impacts on flows, geomorphology, geologic hazards, the environment and socioeconomic effects. Three Gorges' project goals focused on flood control, hydropower and improved navigation. According to expert research, major changes in sediment budget and flow regime from reservoir operation have significantly reduced sediment discharge into the downstream river and estuary, initiating a series of geomorphic changes with ecological and social impacts. While the dam reduces high flow stages from floods originating above the

  5. 75 FR 6058 - Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish Hatchery and Stocking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Fish and Game's (CDFG) Fish Hatchery and Stocking Program (Program). FWS is lead agency, under the... Fish and Wildlife Service Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish Hatchery and Stocking Program AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  6. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA polymorphism reveals life history dependent interbreeding between hatchery and wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar;

    2000-01-01

    The effects of stocking hatchery trout into wild populations were studied in a Danish river, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Baseline samples were taken from hatchery trout and wild trout assumed to be unaffected by previous stocking. Also, samples were taken from...

  7. [BETWEEN HORROR AND SCIENCE: THE BIRTH OF A CABINET OF PATHOLOGICAL ANATHOMY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PALERMO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craxí, Lucia; Maresi, Emiliano; Franco, Vito

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of the Cabinet of Pathological Anathomy at the University of Palermo, describes rapidly its current status and analyzes the composition of its displays in 1859. It aims to highlight the analogies with other collections of a similar kind and to pinpoint potential actions to endorse and develop this important scientific asset.

  8. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara David R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. Results To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen

  9. PAH distribution and mass fluxes in the Three Gorges Reservoir after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyerling, Dominik; Wang, Jingxian; Hu, Wei; Westrich, Bernhard; Peng, Chengrong; Bi, Yonghong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-09-01

    Mass fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were calculated for the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, based on concentration and discharge data from the Yangtze River. Virtual Organisms (VOs) have been applied during four campaigns in 2008, 2009 (twice) and 2011 at sampling sites distributed from Chongqing to Maoping. The total PAH mass fluxes ranged from 110 to 2,160 mg s(-1). Highest loads were determined at Chongqing with a decreasing trend towards Maoping in all four sampling campaigns. PAH remediation capacity of the TGR was found to be high as the mass flux reduced by more than half from upstream to downstream. Responsible processes are thought to be adsorption of PAH to suspended particles, dilution and degradation. Furthermore, the dependence of PAH concentration upon water depth was investigated at Maoping in front of the Three Gorges Dam. Although considerable differences could be revealed, there was no trend observable. Sampling of water with self-packed filter cartridges confirmed more homogenous PAH depth distribution. Moreover, PAH content of suspended particles was estimated from water concentrations gathered by VOs based on a water-particle separation model and subsequently compared to PAH concentration measured in water and in filter cartridges. It could be shown that the modeled data predicts the concentration caused by particle-bound PAHs to be about 6 times lower than PAHs dissolved in water. Besides, the model estimates the proportions of 5- and 6-ring PAHs being higher than in water phase. PMID:24726518

  10. Widespread hybridization among species of Indian major carps in hatcheries, but not in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, V.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons;

    2005-01-01

    samples. Individual admixture coefficients showed that 24% of all hatchery-reared fishes were hybrids, whereas a single hybrid was observed in the wild-caught samples. Only catla Catla catla x rohu Labeo rohita and mrigal Cirrhinus cirrhosus x rohu hybrids were observed, the vast majority of which were F......-hybrids in hatchery samples, reproductive barriers among species have so far precluded widespread introgression. Continued hybridization may eventually lead to a breakdown of species barriers, thereby compromising the genetic integrity of the species in the wild, and leading to production losses...

  11. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Mitch (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Kettle Falls, WA)

    2003-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year

  12. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic Leaf-off for New River Gorge National River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS IMAGINE and MrSID image of New River Gorge National River (final_neri_mosaic.img). Produced from 471 color infrared photos taken...

  13. Field Plot Points for New River Gorge National River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set contains point features which represent locations of vegetation sampling plots in the New River Gorge National River. Location coordinates for most...

  14. 33 CFR 110.127b - Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127b Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah. (a... moorings, piles, or stakes are prohibited. Single and fore-and-aft temporary moorings will be allowed....

  15. United Kingdom security policy during the Blair Cabinet (1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Elena Brânda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom’s security policy between 1997-2007, the time when Tony Blair���s Labour dominated the Cabinet, cannot be easily distinguished from the foreign policy. The two are strategically combined and are the responsibility of so many institutions that one finds it difficult to assess them. However, as the period is dominated by the 9/11 attacks and the military interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq, the British defense policy is unitarily centered on the threat of terrorism and weapons of mass destruction. Despite the many holders of decision-making power, it appears that the instruments to be used in achieving a state of comfort on a security level are mainly documents that are to become the basis of further action.

  16. Meeting Summary of Kitchen Cabinet on Financial Due Diligence to Reduce Proliferation Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carr, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory convened the Kitchen Cabinet (KC) to facilitate a candid discussion about the role of financial institutions (FIs) in antiproliferation efforts to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by identifying suspicious business transactions and exports when making lending or insurance decisions. The meeting brought together a group of export control specialists, largely representatives from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Participating Governments (PGs) and finance experts representing banks and insurance companies. By assembling a KC of experts, the group could understand what suspicious transactions look like from each other’s perspectives and better inform each of their operations. The goal was to develop red flags FIs could use to identify suspicious proliferation-related transactions and to help governments gain a clearer picture of proliferation using financial information.

  17. A multiple-drawer medication layout problem in automated dispensing cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazour, Jennifer A; Meller, Russell D

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we investigate the problem of locating medications in automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) to minimize human selection errors. We formulate the multiple-drawer medication layout problem and show that the problem can be formulated as a quadratic assignment problem. As a way to evaluate various medication layouts, we develop a similarity rating for medication pairs. To solve industry-sized problem instances, we develop a heuristic approach. We use hospital ADC transaction data to conduct a computational experiment to test the performance of our developed heuristics, to demonstrate how our approach can aid in ADC design trade-offs, and to illustrate the potential improvements that can be made when applying an analytical process to the multiple-drawer medication layout problem. Finally, we present conclusions and future research directions.

  18. Wood dust and formaldehyde exposures in the cabinet-making industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass-Kortsak, A M; Holness, D L; Pilger, C W; Nethercott, J R

    1986-12-01

    Time-weighted average (TWA) personal total and respirable dust exposures were determined gravimetrically for 48 subjects in 4 cabinet-making plants. TWA personal formaldehyde exposures also were obtained, with the use of 3M 3750 passive monitors. Selective area sampling for formaldehyde was undertaken using two methods. The results obtained with the passive monitors were compared to the standard chromotropic acid impinger method. Considerable variation was noted in the dust exposures. Cabinet-makers exposed to softwoods were found to have a mean exposure of approximately one half of the current applicable ACGIH TWA-TLV, while hard-wood exposure was twice the applicable TWA-TLV. The highest dust exposures were recorded for those workers sanding, the mean total dust being 2.91 mg/m3 (S.E. 0.70) and respirable dust 0.63 mg/m3 (S.E. 0.20). Sanding operations also were found to produce a higher proportion of respirable dust (22%) than other woodworking operations (6%-14%). Workers in assembly areas also were found to have higher dust exposures, likely reflecting the fact that conventional dust collection devices for stationary woodworking equipment are not appropriate for hand held tools and hand sanding. The importance of making respirable dust measurements is discussed. The poor correlation between paired total and respirable dust concentrations indicates that both measurements should be made. Some potential limitations to respirable wood dust sampling using 10 mm nylon cyclones are noted, however. Area dust concentrations were found to be significantly lower than personal exposures, emphasizing the importance of personal sampling data. Formaldehyde vapor exposures were very low, with a mean of 0.06 ppm (S.E. 0.01).

  19. Self-sustained cabinet based on fuel cell technology and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rafael Augusto de Oliveira; Valentim, Rafael Bertier; Glir, Joao Raphael Zanlorensi; Stall, Alexandre; Sommer, Elise Meister; Sanches, Luciana Schimidilin; Dias, Fernando Gallego; Korndorfer, Heitor Medeiros de Albuquerque; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: rafaelcorrea123@hotmail.com; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahasse, Florida (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Center for Advanced Power Systems

    2010-07-01

    Along the past few years, there has been intensive research on clean and renewable energy production. Two main reasons have been pointed out: pollution caused by oil based fuels consumption and their availability diminution, which increases their production costs. Fuel Cells have shown to be a clean and renewable energy source, which reveals them as a promising solution, although their technology needs further development. Fuel Cells produce electricity, water and heat consuming hydrogen and oxygen, this provided pure or from a natural air source. Present research has combined different equipment to compose a self-sustaining fuel cells technology based cabinet for energy production, which is a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFC). This system contains: fuel cells stack, electrolyzer, photovoltaic panel, batteries, current inverter and a charge controller. Photovoltaic panel charges the batteries, while charge controller controls the batteries loading. Batteries are connected to an inverter which converts direct current into alternating current. Inverter is connected to an electrolyzer (Hogen GC 600) which splits the water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen molecules. Produced hydrogen supplies the fuel cell stack and the oxygen is released directly to the atmosphere. Fuel cell stacks power production is transformed into mechanical energy by a fan. Electrical power generated by Ballard stack is 5.124 W, with a voltage of 36.6 V and current of 0.14 A. The system proved to have a great efficiency and to be capable to assemble two renewable energy sources (solar and fuel cell technology) in a self-sustainable cabinet. It has also been shown that equipment such as Electrolyzer, Fuel Cell Stack and Photovoltaic panel can be fit together in the order to produce energy. Therefore, research on Fuel Cells Regenerative System reveals great importance for developing a new, clean, renewable and regenerative energy production system. (author)

  20. Sustainable development pattern and strategy in the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The development pattern, development situation, and existing problems of land exploitation in Zigui County, Three Gorges Reservoir Areas of China were presented. The sustainable development mode and its strategy in the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas was also discussed. A sustainable development framework for low mountain regions, middle mountain regions and high mountain regions was developed, and management countermeasures for structural optimization of complex ecosystems were advanced.

  1. Paths Choice and Fiscal Policies of Three Gorges Reservoir in Post-Migration Era

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Su-juan

    2011-01-01

    The developmental status of the Three Gorges Reservoir in the post-migration era is expounded. Firstly, the positioning of ecological reservoir is incompatible with its development; secondly, the adopting the market selection and government-directed migration mode; thirdly, the tough task in the post-migration era; fourthly, the prevention of geological disasters and environmental management. After the analyses, the adoptable approaches for developing the Three Gorges Reservoir are concluded....

  2. Regional Impact of Climate on Japanese Encephalitis in Areas Located near the Three Gorges Dam

    OpenAIRE

    Yuntao Bai; Zhiguang Xu; Jing Zhang; Deqiang Mao; Chao Luo; Yuanyuan He; Guodong Liang; Bo Lu; Michael S. Bisesi; Qinghua Sun; Xinyi Xu; Weizhong Yang; Qiyong Liu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we aim to identify key climatic factors that are associated with the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in areas located near the Three Gorges Dam, between 1997 and 2008. METHODS: We identified three geographical regions of Chongqing, based on their distance from the Three Gorges Dam. Collectively, the three regions consisted of 12 districts from which study information was collected. Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression models were run to identify key climatic...

  3. Operation Analysis on T&D Equipment in Three Gorges LeftBank Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The paper outlines the Yangtze Three Gorges water conservancy complex. It describes the power transmission and distribution equipment in the Three Gorges LeftBank Hydropower Station, especially large high-voltage distribution devices. It elaborates the measures for suppressing GIS over-voltage and the tests on VFTO, besides technical measures to ensure safety and stability of power system in the station. It also makes some analyses and summaries about the problems encountered in operation of the equipment.

  4. Visual Analysis Special Report Technical Appendix, Operation of Flaming Gorge Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Hanchett, Brent

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses the scenic resources surrounding Flaming Gorge Reservoir and the Green River Corridor. The focus is on potential visual impacts to changes in shoreline exposure resulting from fluctuating ongoing water levels and downstream water flows. Discussion will include scenic resources on the Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area (NRA) and the Green River Corridor. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA Forest Service) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) have de...

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  6. Behavior of Plastic Concrete Diaphragm Walls in Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The high earth and rockfill cofferdam of Three Gorges Project employs plastic co ncrete diaphragm walls as seepage barrier. In view of the importance and technic al difficulty of the cofferdams, the behavior of plastic concrete and the diaphr agm walls within the cofferdams was studied. Plastic concrete samples taken from concrete mixer in the dam site were tested by using large triaxial testing appa ratus in Tsinghua University. Mechanical properties and parameters of Duncan-Ch ang nonlinear elastic model were obtained. Test results indicated that, comparin g with ordinary concrete, the mate rials have the features of low modulus of deformation and favorable impermeabili t y. The analysis of stresses and deformations of the diaphragm walls was performe d by means of finite element method (FEM), using parameters obtained from the re sult of triaxial tests. Calculation results were discussed.

  7. Impacts of the Three Gorges Project on Local Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z.; Liang, S.; Feng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Three Gorges Project (TGP) is the largest hydroelectric project in the world and has led to significant land cover changes in Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Since its construction the debates on its environmental and climatic impacts have never stopped, especially after the extreme drought and flood in Yangtze River Basin these years. TGP reached its final impounding water level in 2010. However, studies on systematically monitoring the long-term variations in surface and atmospheric parameters in TGRA are still lacking. In this study, three important surface parameters - surface albedo, land surface temperature (LST) and evapotranspiration (ET) and two climatic parameters - air temperature and precipitation were investigated from 2000 to 2013 by combining multiple remote sensing data and ground measurements. Results showed that along the reservoir albedo decreased significantly as a result of water impounding. Correspondingly, in the same region daytime LST decreased in spring and summer and nighttime LST increased in autumn and winter. In the western region of TGRA, albedo increased due to resettlement and LST also changed. The average ET increased by 20% in TGR but kept stable in the whole TGRA. In contrast to LST, air temperature showed less apparent spatial and temporal variability. Only in the region near the dam air temperature experienced a decrease at daytime and an increase at nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated precipitation revealed no apparent changes in TGRA and the precipitation anomaly in northwest of TGRA may not be connected with TGP. All of the findings provide a more substantial clues of local climate change caused by TGP.

  8. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program Hatcheries Division: Ford Hatchery, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike; Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia

    2002-11-01

    will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  9. 75 FR 60804 - Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Lower American River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reclamation, the lead Federal agency, and the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), acting as the lead State agency, have made available for public review and comment a Draft EIS/EIR for the Nimbus... Bureau of Reclamation Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Lower American River, California...

  10. Egg saprolegniasis in a commercial sunshine bass hatchery: Control regime developed using copper sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  11. Hatchery manual for broodstock management and larval production of tubrot (Psetta maxima)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Poelman, M.

    2011-01-01

    This hatchery manual is intended to provide detailed information from available published work and grey literature on turbot broodstock management and larval production. In reviewing larviculture techniques for turbot, it is notable that the major initial zoo technical advances were made in the 1980

  12. Vibrio anguillarum and larval mortality in a California coastal shellfish hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, L H; Blecka, J; Zebal, R

    1978-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum was isolated as a pathogen in the commercial culture of oyster spat at Pigeon Point, Calif. A water-soluble, heat-stable exotoxin extracted from cultures of the vibrio inhibited larval swimming and contributed to larval mortality. Although the vibrio was insensitive to penicillin in standard plate testing, this antibiotic proved useful in preventing mass larval mortalities in the hatchery.

  13. Serotype and genotype diversity and hatchery transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial poultry flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Nielsen, E.M.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2001-01-01

    or horizontal transmission via the hatchery are not significant transmission routes of C jejuni to broiler chickens under Danish conditions. In the cases where more than one Campylobacter clone simultaneously colonised flocks, we found that the different clones coexisted in flocks rather than excluding each...

  14. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Complex; Operations and Maintenance and 2004 Annual Operation Plan, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Harold R.; Penney, Aaron K.; Larson, Roy Edward (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) responds directly to a need to mitigate for naturally-reproducing salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin. The overall goal is to produce and release fish that will survive to adulthood, spawn in the Clearwater River subbasin and produce viable offspring that will support future natural production and genetic integrity. Several underlying purposes of fisheries management will be maintained through this program: (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Columbia River subbasin anadromous fish resources. (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater River subbasin. (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project completion. (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations. (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits. (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal Management of Nez Perce Tribal hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that will rear and release spring, fall, and early-fall stocks of chinook salmon. Two life stages of spring chinook salmon will be released: parr and presmolts. Fall and early-fall chinook salmon will be released as subyearling smolts. The intent of NPTHC is to use conventional hatchery and Natural Rearing Enhancement Systems (NATURES) techniques to develop, increase and restore natural populations of spring and fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin.

  15. BACTERIAL FLORA OF HATCHERY ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR IN-VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Khan, H. Afzal and F. Deeba

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Four hatcheries, located in and around Faisalabad, were sampled a day before hatch out in six batches for environmental bacterial flora. Hatchery air, egg-shell surface, surfaces of selected locations and water supply samples were taken for this purpose. The percent (relative occurrence of various bacterial species recovered from hatchery environment revealed that Bacillus subtilis was the predominant isolate (26.93%. followed by Escherichia coli (24.08%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (16.32%, Staphylococcus aureus (8.16%, Paratyphoid salmonellae (6.93%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.48%, Citrobacter jreundii (4.08%, Enterococcus faecalis (3.26%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.26%, Bordetella avium (1.63% and Proteus vulgaris (0.81%. In second part of the study, bacterial isolates were subjected to in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity to 8 antibiotics of common poultry use. It was found that 98.92, 79.56. 65.59, 61.29, 61.29, 61.29, 53.76 and 38.70 percent of bacterial isolates were sensitive to Norfloxacin, Gentamicin, Neomycin, Chloramphenicol, Doxycycline, Flumequine, Erythromycin, and Ampicillin, respectively. In the final part of the study, bacterial isolates were tested for resistance to 3 commerical hatchery disinfectants (TH4®, Aldekol Des® 0.2, and Bromosept 10% soln. ®. Only 3.22% of the isolates showed resistance at manufacturer's recommended dilution (MRD levels while 11.82% of the isolates showed resistance at concentrations below the MRD levels.

  16. Nutritional supplement of hatchery eggshell membrane improves poultry performance and provides resistance against endotoxin stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confe...

  17. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  18. Techno-Arrogance and Halfway Technologies: Salmon Hatcheries on the Pacific Coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffe, Gary K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses an attempt to recover Pacific salmonid fisheries with hatcheries as an example of a human attitude toward nature that places technological mastery over nature at the forefront of our approach to many environmental problems. Points out how this approach addresses the symptoms but not the causes of the salmon population decline. Suggests…

  19. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Complex; Operations and Maintenance and 2005 Annual Operation Plan, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Harold R.; Lundberg, Jeffrey H.; Penney, Aaron K. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-02-01

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) responds directly to a need to mitigate for naturally-reproducing salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin. The overall goal is to produce and release fish that will survive to adulthood, spawn in the Clearwater River subbasin and produce viable offspring that will support future natural production and genetic integrity. Several underlying purposes of fisheries management will be maintained through this program: (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Columbia River subbasin anadromous fish resources. (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater River subbasin. (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project completion. (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations. (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits. (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal Management of Nez Perce Tribal hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that will rear and release spring, fall, and early-fall stocks of chinook salmon. Two life stages of spring chinook salmon will be released: parr and presmolts. Fall and early-fall chinook salmon will be released as subyearling smolts. The intent of NPTHC is to use conventional hatchery and Natural Rearing Enhancement Systems (NATURES) techniques to develop, increase and restore natural populations of spring and fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin.

  20. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Mitch (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Kettle Falls, WA)

    2002-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from

  1. Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Duane D. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-11-14

    This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)). Improvements at the IDFG Eagle Fish Hatchery and NMFS Burley Creek Hatchery will focus on increasing sockeye salmon captive broodstock and egg production. Improvements at the ODFW Oxbow Fish Hatchery will be made to accommodate the incubation, hatching and rearing of 150,000 sockeye salmon smolts for release into Idaho's Sawtooth Valley, Upper Salmon River near IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and/or Redfish Lake Creek 1.4 km downstream of Redfish Lake. Modifications to Oxbow Fish Hatchery (ODFW) will include retro-fit existing pond drains so pond cleaning effluent water can be routed to the pollution abatement pond, and modifications to the abatement pond. Also included in this project as an added phase, was the rerouting of the hatchery building effluent water to meet state DEQ guidelines for the use of formalin to treat salmonid eggs. Some additional funding for the described Oxbow Hatchery modifications will come from Mitchell Act Funding. All personnel costs associated with this project will come from Mitchell Act funding. Due to heavy work load issues, being under staffed, and two emergency projects in the spring and summer of 2006, ODFW engineers were not able to complete all plans and get them out for bid in 2006. As a result of these circumstances retro-fitting pond drains and modifications to the abatement pond was carried over into fiscal year 2007-2008. A no cost time extension to the contract was approved by BPA. The format for this report will follow the standard format for

  2. Differences in survival and growth in hatchery and stream environments, and in maturation of residuls in a stream, between progeny of hatchery and wild steelhead (Study sites: Brushy Fork Creek and Dworshak Hatchery; Stocks:Dworshak hatchery and Fish Creek wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1993): Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater survival in hatchery and natural rearing environments was compared between progeny of hatchery (H) and wild (W) steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho. Adults from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild adults from Fish Creek fish were artificially spawned, and their progeny were genetically marked at the PEPA allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in production facilities at the hatchery and in Brushy Fork Creek, also in the Clearwater River drainage, in a common garden design. Survival was higher for H than for W progeny at the hatchery but lower for H than for W progeny in Brushy Fork, indicating reduced fitness of the hatchery population for natural rearing and suggesting domestication as the cause. Survival at the hatchery was lower than is typical due to disease outbreaks. Survival of the first year-class of experimental fish to smolt release was only 18%. Survival of H fish was 3.8 times that of W fish under these poor survival conditions. All fish from the second year-class died halfway through the scheduled 10 month rearing period. Survival of H fish was 5.2 times that of W fish to when 1% of the initial fry were still alive indicating that W fish succumbed to the epizootic sooner than did H fish. Emigrants from the Brushy Fork study reach were sampled for three years and fish residing in the study reach were sampled for six years following fry release. Most emigrants were one or two years old and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 93 mm). Survival in Brushy Fork was lower for H than for W fish of the first year-class. Survival of the second year-class was higher for H than for W fish during the first two months in the stream but was lower for H than for W fish thereafter, and net survival from release to ages 3 and older was also lower for H than for W fish if our emigrant samples were representative (periods of inoperative emigrant traps prevented certainty about this

  3. Modeling the potential impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon culture programs: an example at Winthrop National Fish Hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kyle C; Peterson, Douglas P

    2014-09-01

    Hatcheries have long been used in an attempt to mitigate for declines in wild stocks of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), though the conservation benefit of hatcheries is a topic of ongoing debate. Irrespective of conservation benefits, a fundamental question is whether hatcheries will be able to function as they have in the past given anticipated future climate conditions. To begin to answer this question, we developed a deterministic modeling framework to evaluate how climate change may affect hatcheries that rear Pacific salmon. The framework considers the physiological tolerances for each species, incorporates a temperature-driven growth model, and uses two metrics commonly monitored by hatchery managers to determine the impacts of changes in water temperature and availability on hatchery rearing conditions. As a case study, we applied the model to the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Winthrop National Fish Hatchery. We projected that hatchery environmental conditions remained within the general physiological tolerances for Chinook salmon in the 2040s (assuming A1B greenhouse gas emissions scenario), but that warmer water temperatures in summer accelerated juvenile salmon growth. Increased growth during summer coincided with periods when water availability should also be lower, thus increasing the likelihood of physiological stress in juvenile salmon. The identification of these climate sensitivities led to a consideration of potential mitigation strategies such as chilling water, altering rations, or modifying rearing cycles. The framework can be refined with new information, but in its present form, it provides a consistent, repeatable method to assess the vulnerability of hatcheries to predicted climate change. PMID:24993792

  4. Relying on fin erosion to identify hatchery-reared brown trout in a Tennessee river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerbeek, Jonathan R.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2012-01-01

    Hatchery-induced fin erosion can be used to identify recently stocked catchable-size brown trout Salmo trutta during annual surveys to qualitatively estimate contributions to a fishery. However, little is known about the longevity of this mark and its effectiveness as a short-term (≤ 1 year) mass-marking technique. We evaluated hatchery-induced pectoral fin erosion as a mass-marking technique for short-term stocking evaluations by stocking microtagged brown trout in a tailwater and repeatedly sampling those fish to observe and measure their pectoral fins. At Dale Hollow National Fish Hatchery, 99.1% (228 of 230) of microtagged brown trout in outdoor concrete raceways had eroded pectoral fins 1 d prior to stocking. Between 34 and 68 microtagged and 26-35 wild brown trout were collected during eight subsequent electrofishing samples. In a blind test based on visual examination of pectoral fins at up to 322 d poststocking, one observer correctly identified 91.7% to 100.0% (mean of 96.9%) of microtagged brown trout prior to checking for microtags. In the laboratory, pectoral fin length and width measurements were recorded to statistically compare the fin measurements of wild and microtagged hatchery brown trout. With only one exception, all pectoral fin measurements on each date averaged significantly larger for wild trout than for microtagged brown trout. Based on the number of pectoral fin measurements falling below 95% prediction intervals, 93.7% (148 of 158) of microtagged trout were correctly identified as hatchery fish based on regression models up to 160 d poststocking. Only 72.2% (70 of 97) of microtagged trout were identified correctly after 160 d based on pectoral fin measurements and the regression models. We concluded that visual examination of pectoral fin erosion was a very effective way to identify stocked brown trout for up to 322 d poststocking.

  5. Kathleen Sebelius was a casualty of the widespread expectation that cabinet secretaries have the wisdom and power to work miracles

    OpenAIRE

    Borrelli, MaryAnne

    2014-01-01

    On 10 April, Secretary of Health and Human Services, Kathleen Sebelius, announced her resignation. While the Obama administration’s Obamacare policy has now enrolled of almost 8 million people, Sebelius was widely blamed for last year’s failures of the healthcare.gov website. MaryAnne Borrelli reflects on Sebelius’ resignation, writing that the trials that Sebelius weathered show the scale of the challenges directed at cabinet secretaries and HHS secretaries in particular. Her successor, Sylv...

  6. Assessments to determine the effect of current and alternate ladder operations on brood stock collection and behavior of hatchery fall Chinook Salmon at Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery during 2004-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production of upriver bright fall Chinook salmon at Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery was introduced as part of the John Day Dam mitigation program in the...

  7. Assessments to determine the effect of current and alternate ladder operations on brood stock collection and behavior of hatchery fall Chinook Salmon at Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery during 2003-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery traditionally operates an adult ladder, without closure, from the start of the tule fall Chinook salmon run in late August until...

  8. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project, Operations and Maintenance and Planning and Design, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.; Penney, Aaron K. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2006-03-01

    This report fulfills the contract obligations based on the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2001 annual report combines information from two contracts with a combined value of $2,336,491. They are identified by Bonneville Power Administration as follows: (1) Operations and Maintenance--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4504, and (2) Planning and Design--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4035. The Operations and Maintenance (O&M) budget of $2,166,110 was divided as follows: Facility Development and Fish Production Costs--$860,463; and Equipment Purchases as capital cost--$1,305,647 for equipment and subcontracts. The Planning and Design (P&D) budget of $170,381 was allocated to development of a Coho master planning document in conjunction with Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery. The O&M budget expenditures represent personnel and fish production expenses; e.g., administration, management, coordination, facility development, personnel training and fish production costs for spring Chinook and Coho salmon. Under Objective 1: Fish Culture Training and Education, tribal staff worked at Clearwater Anadromous Hatchery (CAFH) an Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) facility to produce spring Chinook smolt and parr for release that are intended to provide future broodstock for NPTH. As a training exercise, BPA allowed tribal staff to rear Coho salmon at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) facility. This statement of work allows this type of training to prepare tribal staff to later rear salmon at Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery under Task 1.6. As a subset of the O&M budget, the equipment purchase budget of $1,305,647 less $82,080 for subcontracts provides operational and portable equipment necessary for NPTH facilities after construction. The equipment budget for the year was $1,223,567; this year's purchases amounted $287,364.48 (see

  9. Geomorphic impacts of active tectonics on a river course, the case of Klissoura gorge, central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanakas, Konstantinos; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Karymbalis, Efthimios

    2014-05-01

    The delicate balance of the natural processes within the river systems can be easily tipped making them very sensitive to changes occurring on the earth surface. Fluvial systems are therefore profoundly influenced by endogenic processes such as active tectonics as well as global sea level fluctuations following the climatic variations during the Quaternary. This study deals with the geomorphological evolution of the broader area of the abandoned gorge of Klissoura which is located in central Greece. This 130 m deep and roughly 3 km long gorge is a characteristic example of an old drainage course preserved on the footwall blocks of two normal faults which confine both outlets of the deeply incised valley. The gorge has formed by a river that once had a N-S flow direction discharging into the Gulf of Patras. Acheloos River and the much smaller Ermitza Remma Stream are the two recent primary watercourses which drain the area close to the abandoned gorge. Both the dimensions and morphological characteristics of the abandoned deep valley indicate that the gorge has formed by a large river with high discharge in order to incise into the limestone bedrock. In order to investigate the tectonic constrains and determine the geomorphic and climatic processes that compelled the lower reaches of Acheloos River to abandon the gorge and find an outlet following its present course a GIS based analysis at a scale of 1:50.000 was applied in the drainage basin of Acheloos River. Additionally, to reconstruct the palaeolandscape and the earth surface processes, a detailed morphometric and geomorphic analysis of the abandoned gorge was also performed at a scale of 1:5.000 coupled with field observations and stratigraphic analysis of the deposits outcropping on the valley sides within the gorge as well as on both outlets. The geomorphic analysis led to the conclusion that the primary course of the gorge abandonment and diversion and reverse of the drainage is the uplift of the footwall

  10. Eighteenth Century Technological Efficiency: The Reuse of Brazilian Sugar Chest Wood in Portuguese Cabinet Manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied decorative Portuguese furniture from the 18th century Clerigos Church in Porto, to identify the woods used, to analyze their possible origin and understand the criteria for wood choice, according to sample location. We identified wood from Acacia sp., Castanea sativa, Couratari sp. and Dalbergia nigra. D. nigra, Acacia sp. and Couratari sp. may have arrived from Brazil, according to their natural distribution and the Portuguese colonial routes; C. sativa was abundant in the North Region of Portugal. In the 18th century, golden metal brass over black furniture was in fashion in Portuguese ecclesiastical cabinet making. Due to its dark colour, Dalbergia nigra was a desirable wood for the exposed structures of ecclesiastical furniture, such as top drawers and top tables. Couratari is a pale wood. Therefore, it was used in the inner structure of the drawers and legs. Acacia wood was also used in internal parts due to its durability. C. sativa was local and extensive; its wood was used in the inner structures, where it could not be seen. Marks were found in the Couratari wood, which indicated that the timber from chest boards employed to carry sugar from Brazil to Portugal was reused. The high silica content of Couratari wood makes it ideal for building sugar chests.

  11. In-cabinet response spectra development for nuclear power plant motor control centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical Components within older nuclear power plant Motor Control Centers (MCC) are becoming obsolete and may require replacement. Many of these components are safety-related and are required to remain functional during and after a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). New component seismic qualification is typically demonstrated per IEEE 344 by shake table testing the components. To validate the shake table test data, the Test Response Spectra (TRS) must be shown to envelope the Required Response Spectra (RRS) of the component. Due to the panel's flexibility, the panel will amplify the floor response spectra. The amplification factor is dependent on the panel geometry, mass magnitude, and location of electrical components inside the panel. A two step approach is presented to develop the in-cabinet response spectra (i.e., RRS) at the individual electrical component's location. The modal properties of the panel are first obtained using finite element and modal analysis techniques. The modal properties, mass of the component, and the base floor response spectra are then used as input to ABB Impell's FLORA program. The FLORA program generates the RRS curves for the composite panel component system using modal synthesis and perturbation techniques taking into account the oscillator/panel coincident frequencies and the interaction between the electrical component and the MCC panel. In one case, this approach yielded a realistic Amplification Factor of 0.84 compared to factors of 3 and higher from more conservative methods

  12. Wenatchee Chinook Parentage - Evaluate the reproductive success of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon in the Wenatchee River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using genetic parentage analysis to measure the relative fitness of hatchery and wild spring run Chinook salmon that spawn in the Wenatchee River. In...

  13. Wenatchee River steelhead reproductive success - Estimate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild steelhead in the Wenatchee River, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project uses genetic parentage analysis to estimate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild steelhead spawning in the Wenatchee River, WA. The...

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  16. Innovation in Cable Outgoing Pattern of LV Cabinets%低压柜电缆出线方式创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申景阳

    2015-01-01

    老山自行车馆工程低压柜为上出线方式,低压柜的出线电缆放置在两层1 000 mm × 200 mm的桥架中, 由于出线回路复杂, 上下层桥架中的电缆存在进入同一面低压柜的情况, 特别是1AA1~1AA7, 2AA1~2AA7两列低压柜中集中了场馆近90%的用电负荷, 共需配出百余条供电电缆. 两层配电桥架的设计不可能合理安装上下交错的电缆. 通过自主创新和方案策划, 设计并实施了柜顶配线箱, 有效地解决了低压柜上出线的各种问题, 保证了安装质量和观感效果.%The LV cabinets of Laoshan Velodrome Project are characterized by upper cables outgoing, which are arranged between two layers of 1 000 mm × 200 mm bridging structure. The loop of the outgoing cables is complex, the cable in the upper layer of the bridging structure and that in the lower layer enter the same LV cabinet, and especially 90 % of the electrical loads of Laoshan Velodrome is concentrated in 1AA1~1AA7 and 2AA1~2AA7 LV cabinets, so hundreds of power supply cables are required. The design of two-layer power distribution bridging structure is unable to realize reasonable installation of the cables staggered up and down. Through independent innovation and program planning, a cable distribution box is designed to arrange on the cabinet top to effectively solve various problems caused by upper cables outgoing of LV cabinets and guarantee the installation quality and appearance effect.

  17. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume II of III; Data Summaries, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatick, Emil; Ringe, R.R.; Zaugg, Waldo S. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1988-02-02

    The main functions of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) aquaculture task biologists and contractual scientists involved in the 1978 homing studies were primarily a surveillance of fish physiology, disease, and relative survival during culture in marine net-pens, to determine if there were any unusual factors that might affect imprinting and homing behavior. The studies were conducted with little background knowledge of the implications of disease and physiology on imprinting and homing in salmonids. The health status or the stocks were quite variable as could be expected. The Dworshak and Wells Hatcheries steelhead suffered from some early stresses in seawater, probably osmoregulatory. The incidences of latent BKD in the Wells and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead and Kooskia Hatchery spring chinook salmon were extremely high, and how these will affect survival in the ocean is not known. Gill enzyme activity in the Dworshak and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead at release was low. Of the steelhead, survival in the Tucannon Hatchery stock will probably be the highest, with Dworshak Hatchery stock the lowest. This report contains the data for the narratives in Volume I.

  18. Nutritional and behavioral effects of gorge and fast feeding in captive lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Joanne D; Gross, Kathy L; Lowry, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity manifest behaviors and physiological conditions that are not common in the wild. Lions in captivity face problems of obesity, inactivity, and stereotypy. To mediate common problems of captive lions, this study implemented a gorge and fast feeding schedule that better models naturalistic patterns: African lions (Panthera leo) gradually adapted from a conventional feeding program to a random gorge and fast feeding schedule. Digestibility increased significantly and food intake and metabolizable energy intake correspondingly decreased. Lions also showed an increase in appetitive active behaviors, no increase in agonistic behavior, and paced half as frequently on fast days as on feeding days. Thus, switching captive lions to a gorge and fast feeding schedule resulted in improved nutritional status and increased activity.

  19. A disposal strategy of industrial hazardous wastes in the Three Gorges Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A large quantity of industrial hazardous wastes (IHWs) accumulates in the Three Gorges Region. This study found that approximately 15 000 t IHWs were piled in the region by October 2001. These IHWs came from various sources and were complex in composition, mostly toxic and difficult to be disposed. IHW is regarded as a potential threat to the ecological environment, water resources and survival of local residents. It is important and indispensable to dispose the waste properly. To meet the regulation requirements on the disposal of IHWs and to minimize environmental effects on the Three Gorges Region, a disposal strategy is proposed, according to which approximately 600 t of the IHWs can be disposed by chemical stabilization,incineration and other treatment measures, and the rest need be stockpiled in safe and reliable places situated above the 177 m impoundment line of the Three Gorges dam.

  20. The resettlement planning and practice of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Boxun; Yin Zhongwu; Wang Diyou

    2011-01-01

    Migrant resettlement is essential to the success of the Three Gorges Project (TGP), and the smooth implementation of resettlement is ensured by the resettlement planning and effective organization management. In the process of resettlement planning and implementation, systematic legislation and document support system is established; environmental capacity analysis and assets appraisal methods are introduced; resettlement sites are selected through in-depth analysis and comparison; the relationship between resettlement compensation and local development is correctly under- stood and considered, and reasonable resettlement schedules are well prepared. Through the establishment of efficient management system and capital management mode of "static control and dynamic management", as well as the timely adjustment of plan according to actual situations, the resettlement is accomplished smoothly. Thus, the social stability of the reservoir area is ensured ; the economic development of reservoir area is promoted, and it has promoted successfully the improvement of legislation, regulations and techniques for land requisition and resettlement. The paper also discusses the theory and prospective work of resettlement.

  1. Downstream Yangtze River levels impacted by Three Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jida; Sheng, Yongwei; Gleason, Colin J.; Wada, Yoshihide

    2013-12-01

    Changes in the Yangtze River level induced by large-scale human water regulation have profound implications on the inundation dynamics of surrounding lakes/wetlands and the integrity of related ecosystems. Using in situ measurements and hydrological simulation, this study reveals an altered Yangtze level regime downstream from the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) to the Yangtze estuary in the East China Sea as a combined result of (i) TGD’s flow regulation and (ii) Yangtze channel erosion due to reduced sediment load. During the average annual cycle of TGD’s regular flow control in 2009-2012, downstream Yangtze level variations were estimated to have been reduced by 3.9-13.5% at 15 studied gauging stations, manifested as evident level decrease in fall and increase in winter and spring. The impacts on Yangtze levels generally diminished in a longitudinal direction from the TGD to the estuary, with a total time lag of ˜9-12 days. Chronic Yangtze channel erosion since the TGD closure has lowered water levels in relation to flows at most downstream stations, which in turn counteracts the anticipated level increase by nearly or over 50% in winter and spring while reinforcing the anticipated level decrease by over 20% in fall. Continuous downstream channel erosion in the near future may further counteract the benefit of increased Yangtze levels during TGD’s water supplement in winter and accelerate the receding of inundation areas/levels of downstream lakes in fall.

  2. Development and Demonstration of Viable Hatchery and Ongoing Methodologies for Seaweed Species with Identified Commercial Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Dring, Matthew; Edwards, Maeve; Watson, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to develop and conduct trials of industry-scale hatchery and ongrowing methodologies for three seaweed species with commercial potential. These included two edible red algae, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp., and the large brown kelp Laminaria digitata. During the project the large brown kelp Saccharina latissima was added to the work programme. In addition to developing ongrowing methodologies for each of the seaweed species, the proje...

  3. Production of giant freshwater prawn postlarvae in penaeid prawn (shrimp) hatchery: An experience

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Chatterji, A.; Sripada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.

    every day. formulation and feeding schedule: Acknowledgements The Pilot Scale Prawn (shrimp) Hatchery was established with the financial support given by the Department of Biotechnology (New Delhi) under the "Technology Project in Mission Mode on Semi...%) + Soyameal (25%) + Mussel Meat (25%) + Skimmed Milk Powder (12%) + Yeast (3%) Feeding Schedule (at hourly intervals) 0600 BSN 0800 EC 1000 EPC 1200 EPC 1400 FF 1700 FF 1900 BSN (Feeding rate of BSN and feed varies with growth stage as shown in the Table...

  4. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna Jr, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  5. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Mitch (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Kettle Falls, WA)

    2001-03-01

    The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. These strategic changes have been the result of recommendations through the Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) and were done to enhance imprinting, improve survival and operate the two kokanee facilities more effectively. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear 200,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from the monitoring program also suggests that the hatchery and net pen rearing programs have been beneficial to enhancing the Lake Roosevelt fishery while not negatively impacting wild and native stocks within the lake.

  6. ADP-flow velocity profile to interpret hydromorphological features of China's Yangtze Three-Gorges valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; CHEN Zhongyuan; XU Kaiqin; WEI Taoyuan; LI Maotian; WANG Zhanghua; Masataka Watanabe

    2005-01-01

    In late May and early June, 2002, a field investigation was conducted along the Three-Gorges valley of the upper Yangtze catchment by ADP (Acoustic Doppler Profile SONTEK-500). Data obtained when surveying were accompanied with discharge of 1000 m) and shallower water depth (50 m) and U-shaped river-channel morphology. Mapping the river cross-section area at those sites can determine that smaller cross-section area accelerates the flow velocity. From Wanxian to Fengjie, the average flow velocity ranging from 3.0 to 4.5 m/s is in-phase with the water depth. The high-flow velocity is associated with narrower river-channel, where V-shaped gorges valley occurs with small cross-section area. Further downstream from Fengjie to Zigui, the low flow velocity is linked to deep river channel characterized by W-shaped valley morphology of large cross-section area, in general. The average flow velocity is 2.5―3.5 m/s, and maximum can reach 6.0 m/s near Wu-Gorge. Our survey had also detected a slow-flow velocity (mostly 100 m; maximum) in the gorges valley (30―40 m below the present mean sea level). This contrasts to the relative shallow water river-channel above Fengjie, i.e. 20―30 m in general and 50―60 m, maximum at gorges site. The present ADP investigation displays the hydromorphological feature in the Three-Gorges valley, and most importantly, it accumulates invaluable dataset for the post-dam study in the near future.

  7. Activated packed bed bioreactor for rapid nitrification in brackish water hatchery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V J Rejish; Achuthan, Cini; Manju, N J; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2009-03-01

    A packed bed bioreactor (PBBR) was developed for rapid establishment of nitrification in brackish water hatchery systems in the tropics. The reactors were activated by immobilizing ammonia-oxidizing (AMONPCU-1) and nitrite-oxidizing (NIONPCU-1) bacterial consortia on polystyrene and low-density polyethylene beads, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of autotrophic nitrifiers belong to Nitrosococcus mobilis, lineage of beta ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizer Nitrobacter sp. in the consortia. The activated reactors upon integration to the hatchery system resulted in significant ammonia removal (P systems. With spent water the reactors could establish nitrification with high percentage removal of ammonia (78%), nitrite (79%) and BOD (56%) within 7 days of initiation of the process. PBBR is configured in such a way to minimize the energy requirements for continuous operation by limiting the energy inputs to a single stage pumping of water and aeration to the aeration cells. The PBBR shall enable hatchery systems to operate under closed recirculating mode and pave the way for better water management in the aquaculture industry. PMID:19039611

  8. Study on the causes and countermeasures for the dislocation of industrial structure in Three Gorges Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yinzhen; Lu Yaobin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper. the dislocation of industrial structure refers to the inconsistency between employment structure and output structure in three industries. During the past over ten years, with the development of the Three Gorges regional social and economic, the industrial structure has optimized and upgraded constantly. However, for kinds of reasons, employment structure transference has lagged far behind output structure transference. In This paper, we try to analyze the causes of dislocation of the Three Gorges Regional industrial structure in analytical method of dislocation of industrial structure, and put forward the fundamental measures to optimize industrial structure and promote sustainable development of the regional economy.

  9. Effect on Stratum Gradient Frequency Distribution of Landslides in the Three Gorges Area of Northeast Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiaoyi; QIAO Jianping

    2006-01-01

    The landslide data were calculated in the Three Gorges Area of northeast Chongqing. The results showed that landslide frequency distributions of gradients accorded with the Weibull probability density distribution function. The landslide hazard ratios of gradients were acquired by Weibull accumulation probability distribution function in the different geological units. There was discord between landslide hazard ratio of different geological units and variance of landslide gradient. But they were approximate homology in the strata of Jurassic. The results indicate that the Weibull distribution can quantitatively evaluate the landslide hazard ratios of gradients of the different strata in the Three Gorges Area.

  10. Batch uniformity and energy efficiency improvements on a cabinet dryer suitable for smallholder farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precoppe, Marcelo; Janjai, Serm; Mahayothee, Busarakorn; Müller, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Drying can add value, facilitate transport and extend the storage life of agro-products; therefore, in developing countries with poorly established cool-chains, drying is particularly effective. Furthermore, drying within small-scale village-based enterprises contributes to rural development. However, most equipment suitable to such operations yields a product of non-uniform quality and shows low levels of energy efficiency. The aim of this research was to improve the batch uniformity and the energy efficiency of a cabinet dryer suitable for smallholder farmers. Experiments were carried out with the cooperation of a dryer manufacturer and a group of users. On each trial 144.5 kg of peeled and deseeded litchis were placed at the dryer's 17 trays, that were stacked atop each other. Moisture content (wet basis) was reduced from 87 to 23 % in about 15.5 h. It was found that a low-cost modification to the dryer chamber's air inlet was able to improve heat distribution and increase the uniformity of the fruit's moisture content. In the original design, at the end of the drying process, moisture content of the fruits on the top tray was 38 % while at the bottom tray was 12 %. The modification to the dryer reduced this disparity and the final moisture content of the fruits placed at the top tray was 25 % while at the bottom tray was 21 %. In addition, the modification reduced the dryer's air mass flow from 0.3 to 0.1 kg s(-1) without jeopardizing drying forces, consequently the dryer energy efficiency increased from 33 to 42 %. PMID:26243902

  11. The planning and comprehensive utilization of Three Gorges Project%The planning and comprehensive utilization of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Zhiyu; Hu Weizhong; Ding Yi

    2011-01-01

    As the most significant water project, the Three Gorges Project (TGP) was designed to take care of multiple objectives for water utilization such as flood control, power generation and navigation. The implementation of the project improved the flood safety level of Jingjiang reach to more than 100-year return period, which reduced greatly the flood risk at the mid-lower reaches of Changjiang River, produce huge quantity of energy for the central, east and south Chi- na, and improved significantly the navigation conditions of Chuanjiang River. Meanwhile, the operation of the TGP in dry season which compensate the downstream water resources, will as well deepen the navigation channel and thus im- prove the navigation conditions in the middle river reach. With the increasing demands raised from various aspects of the society, new requirements will be made for the TGP for the purpose of harnessing, development and protection of the Yangtze River Basin. Therefore, it will be a long-term task for the operation of TGP on how to optimize the water resources utilization and implement an effective operation.

  12. Evaluation of Pure Oxygen Systems at the Umatilla Hatchery: Task 1-Review and Evaluation of Supplemental O2 Systems, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Factory

    1991-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council has established a goal of doubling the size of salmon runs in the Columbia River Basin. The achievement of this important goal is largely dependent upon expanding the production of hatchery fish. Pure oxygen has been commonly used to increase the carrying capacity of private sector salmonid hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest. The use of supplemental oxygen to increase hatchery production is significantly less expensive than the construction of new hatcheries and might save up to $500 million in construction costs.

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  14. A Carboniferous Cabinet of Wonders: an example of how the collaboration of art and Earth Sciences can inspire conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Melissa; Rogers, Janine

    2016-04-01

    The Joggins Fossil Cliffs (Nova Scotia, Canada) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site representing the Late Carboniferous time period (ca. 310-325 mya). The site was formative for Charles Lyell in constructing his geological principles. It is still the best place in the world to view fossils from the Carboniferous 'Coal Age', a time when much of the coal that we use today was formed. The Joggins Fossil Institute is a not-for-profit, charitable organization that co-manages the site with the Province of Nova Scotia. Its mission is to conduct research and educate the public about Earth Sciences through interpretation (e.g., exhibits and tours of the site) and a fossil collection. Fossils are the only direct evidence of how biodiversity has changed over deep time; they are the texts and artifacts that we 'read' in order to understand the development of the earth and that can help humans decipher the deeper histories that produced us. At the Joggins Fossil Institute we primarily present the scientific history of the Carboniferous Period through the use of fossils, but we are also interested in the cultural history of coal production and usage, which is an essential part of the region's economic history. However, this industry has also contributed to climate change and the emergence of a new geological age called the Anthropocene. We encourage our visitors to connect palaeontology and coal energy consumption, and ask them to consider how different values (economic and scientific) are attributed to both coal and fossils; such questions lead directly to discussions about conservation issues. The Joggins Fossil Institute has partnered with the Faculty of Arts at nearby Mount Allison University to create an exhibit that will interrogate these questions. The medium of display that we have chosen is the "cabinet of wonders" or "cabinet of curiosity," which has a rich tradition in western cultures going back to the Renaissance. A venerable intersection of art and science, the cabinet

  15. FISH HATCHERY IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF BOSANSKA KRUPA IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PILOT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ajanovic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Government financed the project GCP/BIH/003/NOR “Support to Income Generation through establishment of a Fish Hatchery in Bosnia and Herzegovina”, worth one million US dollars, that includes the construction of a fish hatchery on the banks of the River Krusnica in order to create jobs and incomes for people living with disability in Bosanska Krupa. The hatchery is dedicated to producing local strains of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario, grayling (Thymallus thymallus and Danube salmon (Hucho hucho for re–stocking the natural waters of the Krusnica/Una River catchments (and larger Bosnia and Herzegovina and Danube basin, support the rehabilitation of fish populations and to help revitalize local tourism. The Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia (REU of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO, based in Budapest, Hungary implements the project in close collaboration with the Sport Fishermen’s Association of Krusnica, which currently has 351 members. A fish hatchery, a pilot Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS in the valley of the River Krusnica, is the first of its kind in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is suitable for production of 250,000 to 450,000 fingerlings annually. Five war invalids are employed at the hatchery continuously since fish production began in November of 2008. The production technology learned by the staff abroad was adapted to the local conditions. The hatchery is expected to be self–sustainable in its operation from sale of fingerlings. Since the hatchery activity has received wider publicity, anglers’ interest in the River Krusnica and River Una has increased. Further increase in the number of visitors is expected after restocking the fish into the river, since the bigger fish populations will attract more and more anglers.

  16. Low-cost mobile hatchery produced silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus fingerling: it's growth and economic performance in intensive culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mustafizur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the growth performance of low-cost mobile hatchery produced silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus fingerling comparing with typical one, field laboratory complex hatchery. Methods: Assigning Treatment I and Treatment II stoked with low-cost mobile hatchery and field laboratory complex hatchery originated fingerling of silver barb in plastic circular tank. Results: The average weight gain (g/day of fish was 0.18 and 0.16 g, length gain (cm/d 0.03 and 0.02, gross yield 0.09 and 0.08 kg/tank per month, net yield 0.03 and 0.01 kg/tank per month respectively in Treatment I and Treatment II. The growth of low-cost mobile hatchery produced silver barb was higher (P<0.05 although SGR (%/d was 1.63 and 1.89 and FCR was 2.57 and 2.55 for Treatment I and Treatment II, correspondingly and survival was 100% in both cases. In case of economic efficiency, total operating cost were BDT 68.91 and 67.41, revenue BDT 107.35 and 89.30, net profit BDT 38.44 and 21.89 and BCR 1.55 and 1.32 respectively in low-cost mobile hatchery and field laboratory complex hatchery produced fishes. Conclusions: The fry from both origins showed more or less similar growth performance and none of them was superior. Considering the economic feasibility in both cases, it is assumed that the intensive culture of silver barb is possible at field level.

  17. Angler harvest, hatchery return, and tributary stray rates of recycled adult summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    Hatchery ‘recycling’ programs have been used to increase angling opportunities by re-releasing fish into a river after they returned to a hatchery or fish trap. Recycling is intended to increase opportunities for fishermen, but this strategy could affect wild fish populations if some recycled fish remain in the river and interact with wild fish populations. To quantify hatchery return and angler harvest rates of recycled steelhead, we conducted a 2-year study on the Cowlitz River, Washington. A total of 1051 steelhead were recycled, including 218 fish that were radio-tagged. Fates of recycled steelhead were similar between years: 48.4% returned to the hatchery, 19.2% were reported captured by anglers, and 32.4% remained in the river. A multistate model quantified the effects of covariates on hatchery return and angler harvest rates, which were positively affected by river discharge and negatively affected by time since release. However, hatchery return rates increased and angler harvest rates decreased during periods of increasing discharge. A total of 21.1% (46 fish) of the radio-tagged steelhead failed to return to the hatchery or be reported by anglers, but nearly half of those fish (20 fish) appeared to be harvested and not reported. The remaining tagged fish (11.9% of the radio-tagged population) were monitored into the spawning period, but only five fish (2.3% of the radio-tagged population) entered tributaries where wild steelhead spawning occurs. Future research focused on straying behaviour, and spawning success of recycled steelhead may further advance the understanding of the effects of recycling as a management strategy.

  18. The practice of project construction and management of Three Gorges ship-lock%The practice of project construction and management of Three Gorges ship-lock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Qixiang; Yang Zongli; Liu Gang

    2011-01-01

    The double-line five-step ship-lock of Three Gorges Project (TGP) is an extra-large navigation structure with the maximum design total head and single-step delivery head in the world and complicated technical problems. The ship- lock is a challenging and world-class project integrating the advanced techniques and equipment, the up-to-date technol- ogies and materials, as well as the advanced project management. Through 17-year construction and 9-year operation of the ship-lock, various difficulties in design, construction, equipment manufacturing and installation as well as system debugging have been overcome effectively. The project management ideas, management system, management methods, technological innovation and team building are summarized according to the management practice of the second stage main work of Three Gorges ship-lock.

  19. The world's biggest dam construction project at the Yangtze river. The Three Gorges project; Weltweit groesster Staudamm entsteht am Jangtse. Three-Gorges-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreher, G.

    2002-02-11

    The author, having seen the Three Gorges Project model exhibited at the Expo 2000 in Hannover, went there to get an impression of the real dimensions of this gigantic project. His report also contains personal impressions but primarily gives a picture of the engineering, landscaping, and social aspects and implications, also referring to relevant technical information obtained on site.(orig./CB) [German] Der Autor hat den Stand der Arbeiten am Three-Gorges-Projekt (TGP) anhand eines im China-Pavillon auf der Expo 2000 in Hannover detailliert vorgestellten Planungsprojektes zum Anlass genommen, sich vor Ort vom Fortgang der Arbeiten zu ueberzeugen. Vor allem war das Interesse zum heute noch sichtbaren urspruenglichen Landschaftsbild und den sich danach in vielen Bereichen ergebenden Veraenderungen in der Region geweckt. Im Folgenden sollen ein Bild der persoenlichen Eindruecke, eine Einschaetzung des Verfassers zur Situation vor Ort und zeitnahe Aussagen von zugaenglichen Quellen widergespiegelt werden. (orig.)

  20. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S Reti

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1 models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2 develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3 statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated

  1. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reti, Jay S

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  2. The research and demonstration of some major geological problems of Three Gorges Project%The research and demonstration of some major geological problems of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Deji; Man Zuowu

    2011-01-01

    The research process, main contents, methods and conclusions for some major engineering geological problems of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) are reviewed and introduced, including dam site selection, regional tectonic stability and seismic activity, stability of reservoir bank and reservoir-induced earthquake. Meanwhile, the above mentioned engineering geological problems are evaluated according to the preliminary test results since TGP operation and impoundment in 2003.

  3. Real-Time Perceptual Simulation of Moving Sources: Application to the Leslie Cabinet and 3D Sound Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronland-Martinet R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Perception of moving sound sources obeys different brain processes from those mediating the localization of static sound events. In view of these specificities, a preprocessing model was designed, based on the main perceptual cues involved in the auditory perception of moving sound sources, such as the intensity, timbre, reverberation, and frequency shift processes. This model is the first step toward a more general moving sound source system, including a system of spatialization. Two applications of this model are presented: the simulation of a system involving rotating sources, the Leslie Cabinet and a 3D sound immersion installation based on the sonification of cosmic particles, the Cosmophone.

  4. Real-Time Perceptual Simulation of Moving Sources: Application to the Leslie Cabinet and 3D Sound Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Voinier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Perception of moving sound sources obeys different brain processes from those mediating the localization of static sound events. In view of these specificities, a preprocessing model was designed, based on the main perceptual cues involved in the auditory perception of moving sound sources, such as the intensity, timbre, reverberation, and frequency shift processes. This model is the first step toward a more general moving sound source system, including a system of spatialization. Two applications of this model are presented: the simulation of a system involving rotating sources, the Leslie Cabinet and a 3D sound immersion installation based on the sonification of cosmic particles, the Cosmophone.

  5. Research on the human resource development of the Three Gorges Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yinzhen; Sun Dalin

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Region (TGR) is an economic region of China, and lies in the western part of Yangtze economic belt. It takes the Three Gorges Project as leading, Chongqing and Yichang City as main body, the Three Gorges Reservoir as ligament. It covers about 700 km of the Yangtze River valley from Chongqing to Yichang, in- cluding Chongqing City, Yichang City and Enshi District of Hubei Province. Since the construction of Three Gorges Project and establishment of Chongqing as municipality directly under the Central Government, the regional econ-omy, culture, education, technology, etc., all developed harmoniously and rapidly, and the diathesis of the regional human resources also got an exaltation. While compared with the eastern region of China, the economy, science and technology in this region still fall behind, and the current situation is of no optimism. Based on the theory of human resources development, this paper analyzes current situation and problems in the human resources development of the TGR, and puts forward the countermeasures, such as planning human resources development program based on"anaphase support "policy, developing education and training business, reasonably organizing labor export, etc.

  6. Current Situation of Land Use in Three-gorges Reservoir Region in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuhai; WANG; Qigang; ZHOU; Fei; YANG; Pengwu; YANG; Yao; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Land is rare natural resource.Production and construction of all sectors in a region must be based on land.Thus,overall research and analysis on current situation of land use can reveal scope,depth and reasonableness of land use,is helpful for analyzing internal mechanism land use change,and can reflect production scale,level and characteristics,and also can provide basis for optimization and adjustment of land use structure.Based on RS and GIS technologies,with the aid of TM image data of the Three-gorges Reservoir Region in 2010,the data of current situation of land use in Three-gorges Reservoir Region was obtained,and current land use situation was analyzed using geographimetrics and landscape ecology methods.Results show that since natural,social and economic conditions are different,land type diversity,combination type and location index of counties in the Three-gorges Reservoir Region are varied.In the land use diversity index,Xingshan County has the most single land use type(mainly forest land); in land use degree,Yuzhong District has the highest land use degree; in the integrated index of land use,Changshou District has the lowest integrated index of land use.This study is expected to provide reference and basis for formulating policies of protecting ecological environment of the Three-gorges Reservoir Region.

  7. The Three Gorges Dam of China: Technology to Bridge Two Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahby, Wafeek S.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the most sophisticated 20th-century technologies have been applied to build the largest hydroelectric dam in the world, the Three Gorges Dam Project (TGDP) of China. The author administered a study abroad course in China from May 27 to June 10, 2000, to study the massive project as it approached the halfway mark of its second and most…

  8. Spatial and seasonal variability of diffusive methane emissions from the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoke; Duan, Xiaonan; Song, Wenzhi; Sun, Binfeng; Zhang, Qianqian; Zhou, Yongjuan

    2013-06-01

    investigate temporal and spatial variations in diffusive CH4 emission from the surface of the Three Gorges Reservoir, CH4 emissions were measured using the static chamber technique along the mainstream of the reservoir from January to December 2010. The overall average CH4 flux is 7.93 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, which is comparable to those from other temperate reservoirs but significantly lower than those from tropical reservoirs. Seasonal variations showed that CH4 emission reached the maximum in the summer and turned to the low levels in the other seasons; such variations reflected the seasonal dynamics of temperature, dissolved oxygen, and water velocity. Moreover, the yearly average CH4 flux decreased from upstream to downstream before the Three Gorges Dam, but CH4 emission from the surface of the downstream river was higher than that from the surface at Zigui, the upstream water before the Three Gorges Dam. The differences in water velocity and allochthonous input of organic matter probably caused the spatial variations in CH4 emission. These results indicate that systematic sampling is needed to better estimate CH4 emission through coverage of the temporal and spatial scales and to better assess the influence of CH4 emission from the Three Gorges Reservoir on climate change in China, as well as the rest of the world.

  9. Protection of Underground Cultural Heritage in the Three-Gorges Dam Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoWeidong

    2003-01-01

    Archeological survey in the Three Gorges started in the early 20th century. In the 1920s, American scholars conducted surveys on cultural relics and fossils around the area.During the anti-Japanese war (1938-1945), Chinese scholars who retreated from the coastal and eastern part also made archeological investigation on

  10. The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China's Three Gorges: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Cao, Yue; Xi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the short-term impact of involuntary migration resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam project on the 1.3 million persons being displaced. We focus on the social, economic, and mental and physical health impact using three sets of indicators. Using a prospective research design, we gathered information about…

  11. Linking Three Gorges Dam and downstream hydrological regimes along the Yangtze River, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, X.; Dai, Z.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Gao, J.

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of anthropogenic influence, especially dam regulation, on hydrological system is of scientific and practical value for large river management. As the largest dam in the world by far, Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is expected to be a strong evidence on dam impacts on downstream hydrological re

  12. Assessing genetic diversity of wild and hatchery samples of the Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) by the mitochondrial DNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayun; Wu, Bo; Hou, Feixia; Chen, Yongbai; Li, Chong; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    To restore the natural populations of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), a hatchery release program has been underway for nearly 10 years. Using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region, we assessed the genetic diversity and genetic structure among samples collected from three sites of the wild population as well as from three hatcheries. The haplotype diversity of the wild samples (h = 0.899-0.975) was significantly higher than that of the hatchery ones (h = 0.296-0.666), but the nucleotide diversity was almost identical between them (π = 0.0170-0.0280). Relatively high gene flow was detected between the hatchery and wild samples. Analysis of effective population size indicated that M. asiaticus living in the Yangtze River has been expanding following a bottleneck in the recent past. Our results suggest the hatchery release programs for M. asiaticus have not reduced the genetic diversity, but have influenced the genetic structure of the species in the upper Yangtze River. PMID:25242190

  13. Regional impact of climate on Japanese encephalitis in areas located near the three gorges dam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study, we aim to identify key climatic factors that are associated with the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in areas located near the Three Gorges Dam, between 1997 and 2008. METHODS: We identified three geographical regions of Chongqing, based on their distance from the Three Gorges Dam. Collectively, the three regions consisted of 12 districts from which study information was collected. Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression models were run to identify key climatic factors of the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus for both the whole study area and for each individual region; linear regression models were conducted to examine the fluctuation of climatic variables over time during the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. RESULTS: Between 1997 and 2008, the incidence of Japanese encephalitis decreased throughout the entire city of Chongqing, with noticeable variations taking place in 2000, 2001 and 2006. The eastern region, which is closest to the Three Gorges Dam, suffered the highest incidence of Japanese encephalitis, while the western region experienced the lowest incidence. Linear regression models revealed that there were seasonal fluctuations of climatic variables during this period. Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression models indicated a significant positive association between temperature (with a lag of 1 and 3 months and Japanese encephalitis incidence, and a significant negative association between rainfall (with a lag of 0 and 4 months and Japanese encephalitis incidence. CONCLUSION: The spatial and temporal trends of Japanese encephalitis incidence that occurred in the City of Chongqing were associated with temperature and rainfall. Seasonal fluctuations of climatic variables during this period were also observed. Additional studies that focus on long-term data collection are needed to validate the findings of this study and to further explore the effects of the Three Gorges Dam on Japanese

  14. Statement of Henry M. Ramirez, Chairman, Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for Spanish Speaking People, Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, July 23, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Henry M.

    On July 23, 1973, Dr. Henry M. Ramirez, Chariman of the Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for Spanish Speaking People, spoke before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. Dr. Ramirez outlined why the Cabinet Committee is needed, gave examples of the Committee's accomplishments, and discussed future plans to assure that…

  15. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303

  16. Survey of Disturbance to Alpine Tundra in Atigun Gorge from Snow-Vehicle Traffic in November 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Snow vehicles operated by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company Alyeska traveled from the Dalton Highway into Atigun Gorge in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in...

  17. Application of a bioenergetics model for hatchery production: Largemouth bass fed commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csargo, Isak J.; Michael L. Brown; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Fish bioenergetics models based on natural prey items have been widely used to address research and management questions. However, few attempts have been made to evaluate and apply bioenergetics models to hatchery-reared fish receiving commercial feeds that contain substantially higher energy densities than natural prey. In this study, we evaluated a bioenergetics model for age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoidesreared on four commercial feeds. Largemouth bass (n ≈ 3,504) were reared for 70 d at 25°C in sixteen 833-L circular tanks connected in parallel to a recirculation system. Model performance was evaluated using error components (mean, slope, and random) derived from decomposition of the mean square error obtained from regression of observed on predicted values. Mean predicted consumption was only 8.9% lower than mean observed consumption and was similar to error rates observed for largemouth bass consuming natural prey. Model evaluation showed that the 97.5% joint confidence region included the intercept of 0 (−0.43 ± 3.65) and slope of 1 (1.08 ± 0.20), which indicates the model accurately predicted consumption. Moreover model error was similar among feeds (P = 0.98), and most error was probably attributable to sampling error (unconsumed feed), underestimated predator energy densities, or consumption-dependent error, which is common in bioenergetics models. This bioenergetics model could provide a valuable tool in hatchery production of largemouth bass. Furthermore, we believe that bioenergetics modeling could be useful in aquaculture production, particularly for species lacking historical hatchery constants or conventional growth models.

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  19. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase 1, Volume Two (B), Clark Fork River Projects, Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Dams, Operator, Washington Water Power Company.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-06-01

    This report documents best available information concerning the wildlife species impacted and the degree of the impact. A target species list was developed to focus the impact assessment and to direct mitigation efforts. Many non-target species also incurred impacts but are not discussed in this report. All wildlife habitats inundated by the two reservoirs are represented by the target species. It was assumed the numerous non-target species also affected will be benefited by the mitigation measures adopted for the target species. Impacts addressed are limited to those directly attributable to the loss of habitat and displacement of wildlife populations due to the construction and operation of the two hydroelectric projects. Secondary impacts, such as the relocation of railroads and highways, and the increase of the human population, were not considered. In some cases, both positive and negative impacts were assessed; and the overall net effect was reported. The loss/gain estimates reported represent impacts considered to have occurred during one point in time except where otherwise noted. When possible, quantitative estimates were developed based on historical information from the area or on data from similar areas. Qualitative loss estimates of low, moderate, or high with supporting rationale were assessed for each species or species group.

  20. Pathogenic bacteria isolated from disease outbreaks in shellfish hatcheries. First description of Vibrio neptunius as an oyster pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Susana; Romalde, Jesús L; Montes, Jaime; Barja, Juan L

    2005-11-28

    Shellfish hatcheries are often affected by disease outbreaks. Three such episodes were investigated in different Galician hatcheries in order to establish the relationship between present microbiota and mortalities. Isolates were obtained from various parts of the hatcheries. Experimental tests for pathogenicity were carried out in microscale experiments using selected strains on Ostrea edulis larvae. The pathogenicity of 1 strain from each outbreak was demonstrated and shown to cause high mortalities (ranging from 98.5 to 100%) in 72 to 96 h after inoculation of larval cultures. All 3 strains belong to the genus Vibrio. One of the strains was identified as Vibrio neptunius and is the first description of this species as a molluscan pathogen. The other 2 strains showed low similarity with the Vibrio species analysed and may constitute new species within this genus.

  1. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, US Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  2. Early enrichment effects on brain development in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): no evidence for a critical period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Joacim; Aarestrup, Kim; Thomassen, Søren T.;

    2012-01-01

    In hatcheries, fish are normally reared in barren environments, which have been reported to affect their phenotypic development compared with wild conspecifics. In this study, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) alevins were reared in conventional barren hatchery trays or in either of two types...... of structurally enriched trays. We show that increased structural complexity during early rearing increased brain size in all investigated brain substructures. However, these effects disappeared over time after transfer to barren tanks for external feeding. Parallel to the hatchery study, a group of salmon parr...... trajectory. In contrast, our results indicate that brain growth is plastic in relation to environment. In addition, we show allometric growth in brain substructures over juvenile development, which suggests that comparisons between groups of different body size should be made with caution. These results can...

  3. Microalgae production improvement for the ICCM´s Marine Fish Hatchery

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Alva, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Máster Oficial en Cultivos Marinos. VI Máster Internacional en Acuicultura. Trabajo presentado como requisito parcial para la obtención del Título de Máster Oficial en Cultivos Marinos, otorgado por la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), el Instituto Canario de Ciencias Marinas (ICCM), y el Centro Internacional de Altos Estudios Agronómicos Mediterráneos de Zaragoza (CIHEAM) In order to improve the microalgae production in the ICCM`s marine fish hatchery one experiment to...

  4. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project : Combined-Planning & Design and Operations & Maintenance Reports, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.

    2002-12-31

    Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2000 Combined Maintenance and Operations (O&M) and Planning and Design (P&D) contract is hereby completed based on this annual report patterned after the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration. Primary project activities focused on completion of the Northwest Power Planning Council Step-3 process that: (1) Accepted final design, (2) Authorized a capital construction amount of $16,050,000, and (3) Authorized contractor selection, and (4) Provided construction site dedication, and (5) Implemented construction activities over an anticipated 2-year period of July 2000 through October 2002.

  5. GEOMORPHOLOGY. Comment on "Tectonic control of Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge revealed by a buried canyon in Southern Tibet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Peter K; Koons, Peter O; Hallet, Bernard; Meltzer, Anne S

    2015-08-21

    Wang et al. (Reports, 21 November, 2014, p. 978) describe a buried canyon upstream of the Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge and argue that rapid erosion of the gorge was merely a passive response to rapid uplift at ~2.5 million years ago (Ma). We view these data as an expected consequence emerging from feedbacks between erosion and crustal rheology active well before 2.5 Ma. PMID:26293946

  6. Reservoir Operation Rules for Controlling Algal Blooms in a Tributary to the Impoundment of Three Gorges Dam

    OpenAIRE

    Jijian Lian; Ye Yao; Chao Ma; Qizhong Guo

    2014-01-01

    Since the first impoundment of Three Gorges Dam in 2003, algal blooms occur frequently in the near-dam tributaries. It is widely recognized that the impoundment-induced change in hydrodynamic condition with the lower current velocity will make the eutrophication problem even more severe when an excessive amount of nutrients is already loaded into a reservoir and/or its tributaries. Operation tests carried out by Three Gorges Corporation in 2010 point to some feasible reservoir operation schem...

  7. Modular Design of Side Board in Cabinet Applied to Different Cabinet Structures%通用于多种柜体结构的柜类家具旁板模块设计(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪莲

    2013-01-01

    为了家具模块化设计理论能够在家具生产企业中实际应用,真正帮助企业实现模块化设计系统,文章以板式柜类家具为例对其核心部件—旁板模块进行具体的模块化设计分析与计算。文章通过对7种不同柜体结构的分析,根据家具模块化设计原则,列出适用于7种柜体结构的标准旁板模块设计、尺寸公式与排钻方式。这些标准模块能够应用于不同柜体结构和柜体尺寸,确保企业产品的个性化和多样化;所有模块在孔位与尺寸的设计上最大程度的满足在同一生产线上进行批量化生产。达到解决客户的个性化需求与企业生产的批量化之间的矛盾。%In order to the theory of furniture modular design can be applicated practically in furniture enterprise and modular design system can be realized,the cole components—side board’s modular design is analyzed and calculated detailedly though board cabinet as an example.Through analyzing 7 different cabinet structures,holes location of standard side boards is designed according to the theory of furniture modular design,and their size formulas, way of drilling holes are also provided.These standard modules can be applied to different structures and sizes of cabinets for ensuring products individuation and diversification; Holes location and size of these modules are designed in the greatest degree applied to mass production in the same production line,therefore the contradiction between personalized needs of customers and mass production of enterprise will be solved.

  8. 通用于多种柜体结构的柜类家具旁板模块设计(一)%Modular Design of Side Board in Cabinet Applied to Different Cabinet Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪莲

    2013-01-01

    为了家具模块化设计理论能够在家具生产企业中实际应用,真正帮助企业实现模块化设计系统,文章以板式柜类家具为例对其核心部件—旁板模块进行具体的设计分析与计算.文章通过对7种不同柜体结构的分析,根据家具模块化设计原则,进行标准旁板模块的孔位设计、尺寸公式与排钻方式.这些标准模块能够应用于不同柜体结构和柜体尺寸,确保企业产品的个性化和多样化;所有模块在孔位与尺寸的设计上最大程度的满足在同一生产线上进行批量化生产,达到解决客户的个性化需求与企业生产的批量化之间的矛盾.%In order to the theory of furniture modular design can be applicated practically in furniture enterprise and modular design system can be realized,the cole components—side board's modular design is analyzed and calculated detailedly though board cabinet as an example.Through analyzing 7 different cabinet structures,holes location of standard side boards is designed according to the theory of furniture modular design,and their size formulas, way of drilling holes are also provided.These standard modules can be applied to different structures and sizes of cabinets for ensuring products individuation and diversification; Holes location and size of these modules are designed in the greatest degree applied to mass production in the same production line,therefore the contradiction between personalized needs of customers and mass production of enterprise will be solved.

  9. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303

  10. Effects of hatchery fish density on emigration, growth, survival, and predation risk of natural steelhead parr in an experimental stream channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Christopher P.; Riley, Stephen C.; Berejikian, Barry A.

    2011-01-01

    Hatchery supplementation of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss raises concerns about the impacts on natural populations, including reduced growth and survival, displacement, and increased predation. The potential risks may be density dependent.We examined how hatchery stocking density and the opportunity to emigrate affect the responses of natural steelhead parr in an experimental stream channel and after 15 d found no density-dependent effects on growth, emigration, or survival at densities ranging from 1-6 hatchery parr/m2. The opportunity for steelhead parr to emigrate reduced predation by coastal cutthroat trout O. clarkii clarkii on both hatchery and natural steelhead parr. The cutthroat trout exhibited a type-I functional response (constant predation rate with increased prey density) for the hatchery and composite populations. In contrast, the predation rate on natural parr decreased as hatchery stocking density increased. Supplementation with hatchery parr at any experimental stocking density reduced the final natural parr density. This decline was explained by increased emigration fromthe supplemented groups. Natural parr had higher mean instantaneous growth rates than hatchery parr. The proportion of parr emigrating decreased as parr size increased over successive experimental trials. Smaller parr had lower survival and suffered higher predation. The final density of the composite population, a measure of supplementation effectiveness, increased with the hatchery steelhead stocking rate. Our results indicate that stocking larger hatchery parr (over 50 d postemergence) at densities within the carrying capacity would have low short-term impact on the growth, survival, and emigration of natural parr while increasing the density of the composite population; in addition, a stocking density greater than 3 fish/m2 might be a good starting point for the evaluation of parr stocking in natural streams.

  11. Nursery production of hatchery-reared milkfish, Chanos chanos in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure stable supply of milkfish, Chanos chanos fingerlings for stocking in ponds or cageswhere they will be reared until harvestable size, nursery production of hatchery-reared milkfish fry inearthen ponds and fed solely on natural food (periphyton was developed. Trials were conducted using500 m2 earthen ponds during the dry and wet months. The ponds were prepared and added withfertilizers in order to enhance the production of natural food. Hatchery-reared milkfish fry were stockedat densities ranging 20 – 39 fry/m2. At least a month (< 40 days after stocking, the fry reached thefingerling stage (2.59 – 4.63 g with survival rates of 68.6% - 81.0%. There was better productionduring the dry months due to abundant supply of natural food, although it was also possible to obtaingood production during the wet months when pond conditions are favorable. This strategy of rearingmilkfish fry in nursery ponds using natural food could be a viable and inexpensive technique inmaintaining sustainable milkfish aquaculture.

  12. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toms C. Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV, Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae.

  13. Role of shellfish hatchery as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Claudio D; Rojas, Rodrigo; Garrido, Marcela; Geisse, Julieta; González, Gerardo

    2013-09-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of resistant bacteria in florfenicol-treated and untreated scallop larval cultures from a commercial hatchery and to characterize some selected florfenicol-resistant strains. Larval cultures from untreated and treated rearing tanks exhibited percentages of copiotrophic bacteria resistant to florfenicol ranging from 0.03% to 10.67% and 0.49-18.34%, respectively, whereas florfenicol resistance among oligotrophic bacteria varied from 1.44% to 35.50% and 3.62-95.71%, from untreated and treated larvae, respectively. Florfenicol resistant microbiota from reared scallop larvae mainly belonged to the Pseudomonas and Pseudoalteromonas genus and were mainly resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and co-trimoxazole. This is the first study reporting antimicrobial resistant bacteria associated to a shellfish hatchery and the results suggest that a continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance even in absence of antibacterial therapy is urgently required to evaluate potential undesirable consequences on the surrounding environments.

  14. Pathogenicity testing of shellfish hatchery bacterial isolates on Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Robyn M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Elston, Ralph A; Herwig, Russell P

    2004-03-10

    Bacterial diseases are a major cause of larval mortality in shellfish hatcheries. Even with proper sanitation measures, bacterial pathogens cannot be eliminated in all cases. The pathogenicity of bacteria isolated from Pacific Northwest shellfish hatcheries to Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae was investigated. We found 3 highly pathogenic strains and 1 mildly pathogenic strain among 33 isolates tested. These strains appear to be members of the genus Vibrio. Although there have been many studies of bivalve bacterial pathogens, a standard method to assess bacterial pathogenicity in bivalve larvae is needed. Thus, we developed 2 methods using either 15 ml conical tubes or tissue culture plates that were employed for rapidly screening bacterial strains for pathogenicity to Pacific oyster larvae. The tissue culture plates worked well for screening both mildly pathogenic strains and LD50 (lethal dose) assays. This method allowed for non-intrusive and non-destructive observation of the oyster larvae with a dissecting microscope. The LD50 for the 3 highly pathogenic strains ranged between 1.6 and 3.6 x 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) ml(-1) after 24 h and between 3.2 x 102 and 1.9 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1) after 48 h.

  15. Genetic diversity of culturable Vibrio in an Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tzu Nin; Bolch, Christopher J S

    2015-09-17

    Bacillary necrosis associated with Vibrio species is the common cause of larval and spat mortality during commercial production of Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. A total of 87 randomly selected Vibrio isolates from various stages of rearing in a commercial mussel hatchery were characterised using partial sequences of the ATP synthase alpha subunit gene (atpA). The sequenced isolates represented 40 unique atpA genotypes, overwhelmingly dominated (98%) by V. splendidus group genotypes, with 1 V. harveyi group genotype also detected. The V. splendidus group sequences formed 5 moderately supported clusters allied with V. splendidus/V. lentus, V. atlanticus, V. tasmaniensis, V. cyclitrophicus and V. toranzoniae. All water sources showed considerable atpA gene diversity among Vibrio isolates, with 30 to 60% of unique isolates recovered from each source. Over half (53%) of Vibrio atpA genotypes were detected only once, and only 7 genotypes were recovered from multiple sources. Comparisons of phylogenetic diversity using UniFrac analysis showed that the culturable Vibrio community from intake, header, broodstock and larval tanks were phylogenetically similar, while spat tank communities were different. Culturable Vibrio associated with spat tank seawater differed in being dominated by V. toranzoniae-affiliated genotypes. The high diversity of V. splendidus group genotypes detected in this study reinforces the dynamic nature of microbial communities associated with hatchery culture and complicates our efforts to elucidate the role of V. splendidus group bacteria in vibriosis.

  16. 智能控制加热柜热泵系统研究%Research of intelligent control system of heat pump heating cabinet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华

    2014-01-01

    文章提出一种智能控制加热柜热泵系统的实现方案,介绍了智能控制加热柜热泵系统的结构形式,分析了智能控制加热柜热泵系统和采用的智能控制技术,在此基础上重点阐述了智能控制加热柜热泵系统设计及GPRS计算机远程监控技术的实现。%This article proposes an implementation of intelligent control cabinet heating heat pump system.The structure in the form of intelligent control cabinet heating heat pump system.Analyzing intelligent control systems and the use of heat pump heating cabinet intelligent control technology.On this basis, focusing on the intelligent control cabinet heat pump heating system design and GPRS remote monitoring technology to achieve.

  17. Use of UV-C radiation to disinfect non-critical patient care items: a laboratory assessment of the Nanoclave Cabinet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Ginny

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The near-patient environment is often heavily contaminated, yet the decontamination of near-patient surfaces and equipment is often poor. The Nanoclave Cabinet produces large amounts of ultraviolet-C (UV-C radiation (53 W/m2 and is designed to rapidly disinfect individual items of clinical equipment. Controlled laboratory studies were conducted to assess its ability to eradicate a range of potential pathogens including Clostridium difficile spores and Adenovirus from different types of surface. Methods Each test surface was inoculated with known levels of vegetative bacteria (106 cfu/cm2, C. difficile spores (102-106 cfu/cm2 or Adenovirus (109 viral genomes, placed in the Nanoclave Cabinet and exposed for up to 6 minutes to the UV-C light source. Survival of bacterial contaminants was determined via conventional cultivation techniques. Degradation of viral DNA was determined via PCR. Results were compared to the number of colonies or level of DNA recovered from non-exposed control surfaces. Experiments were repeated to incorporate organic soils and to compare the efficacy of the Nanoclave Cabinet to that of antimicrobial wipes. Results After exposing 8 common non-critical patient care items to two 30-second UV-C irradiation cycles, bacterial numbers on 40 of 51 target sites were consistently reduced to below detectable levels (≥ 4.7 log10 reduction. Bacterial load was reduced but still persisted on other sites. Objects that proved difficult to disinfect using the Nanoclave Cabinet (e.g. blood pressure cuff were also difficult to disinfect using antimicrobial wipes. The efficacy of the Nanoclave Cabinet was not affected by the presence of organic soils. Clostridium difficile spores were more resistant to UV-C irradiation than vegetative bacteria. However, two 60-second irradiation cycles were sufficient to reduce the number of surface-associated spores from 103 cfu/cm2 to below detectable levels. A 3 log10 reduction in

  18. Savoirs mondains, savoirs savants : les femmes et leurs cabinets de curiosités au siècle des Lumières

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Gargam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans la France des Lumières, la culture de la curiosité est un phénomène de mode mais surtout un jeu social et intellectuel. La présente étude entend retracer l’histoire d’une trentaine de cabinets féminins de curiosité tenus à cette époque. Des femmes fortunées de l’aristocratie et de la bourgeoisie parisienne et provinciale ont alors constitué sous l’emprise de leur libido sciendi des cabinets d’alchimie, de minéralogie, de physique‑chimie, d’histoire naturelle et d’anatomie naturelle et artificielle. Ces cabinets obéissent à une typologie particulière. Il en existe deux catégories : les cabinets d’amateurs, constitués pour la parade et le spectacle des visiteurs et fonctionnant comme de véritables écoles de plaisirs intellectuels et éducatifs ; les cabinets à finalité scientifique et didactique, formés par des savantes expérimentées qui se livrent dans leurs laboratoires à des recherches personnelles et expérimentales au nom des progrès de la science médicale et de l’instruction publique. La réflexion porte aussi sur le fonctionnement de ces cabinets privés de curiosité, particulièrement sur leur mode de constitution, leur décor intérieur ainsi que sur le contenu des collections qui nécessitaient certaines techniques d’organisation, d’acquisition et de conservation communes à celles de leurs homologues masculins.During the Enlightenment in France, curiosity culture constituted both a fashion and an intellectual and social game.  This article explores thirty cabinets of  curiosities run by women during this period. Wealthy women from the Parisiain and provincial aristocracy and middle classes organized cabinets in alchemy, mineralogy, physics and chemistry, natural history and biology studies. These cabinets can be divided into two distinct categories. The first represented amateur interests; they were developed for show and served as schools for intellectual and

  19. Optimization and investigation of the effect of velocity distribution of air curtains on the performance of food refrigerated display cabinets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, XueHong; Chang, ZhiJuan; Ma, QiuYang; Lu, YanLi; Yin, XueMei

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on improving the performance of the vertical open refrigerated display cabinets (VORDC) by optimizing the structure of deflector, which is affected by inlet velocity and velocity distribution of air curtains. The results show that the temperature of products located at the front and at the rear reduces as the increases of inlet velocity of air curtains. The increase of the inlet velocity of air curtains can strengthen the disturbance inside the VORDC, and also decrease the temperature of products inside the VORDC; the increase of the outer velocity of air curtain will exacerbate the disturbance outside the VORDC and decrease air curtain's performance. The present study can provide a theoretical foundation for the design of VORDC.

  20. Legal study on water environmental protection of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG He

    2007-01-01

    Water environment security of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area has become a more extensive concern since the impoundment of the reservoir. This paper describes the existing water environmental hazards and defects in current legal system for water environmental protection in this area, and also discusses their possible causes and potential problems in the future based on first hand materials and other literature. According to the theories of integrated river basin management and environmental equity principle, legal proposals are put forward, which include building an unitary legal system dedicated to the Reservoir Area, setting up a basin authority of the Yangtze River to preside over the resources protection and development, using interests' compensation system to solve interest conflicts among different reaches, and making concrete regulations to direct public participation in water environmental security protection of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  1. Planning and design of a green city in Kaixian for population relocation of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wei; JIANG Jia-long; John KOCH-SCHULTE; Neol LEE

    2008-01-01

    We describe the green space system planning and design of a new Kaixian City for migrants in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of P.R.China. The goal of the project was to provide a high quality settlement for migrants relocated from the old Kaixian City that had a history of over one thousand years and from other places with different traditional cultures. Our efforts focused on conceiving affordable strategies to increase green areas, improve waterfront landscapes, deal with water level fluctuation,integrate diverse folk cultures, and encourage bicycling as an environmentally-friendly form of urban transportation.The new city is anticipated to benefit from the green space systems with an improved eco-environment, enriched tourism resources, cheap landscaping costs, relief from traffic pressure, and in other ways. The planning philosophies employed could be useful in the engineering and construction of other cities in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.

  2. Ecological Approaches to Urban Migration of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yalong

    2005-01-01

    With the approach of the second water storage of the Three Gorges Project, urban migration has become a great concern. However, being influenced by economical, social or other factors, ecological problems have apparently become pressing. All these problems are exerting great impact upon the speed and quality of new city's or town's construction. By means of ecology, urban ecology, landscape ecology,human settlement science as well as the principle of sustainable development, this paper analyzes the ecological problems in urban migration, and the corresponding approaches in order to promote ecological environment construction of new cities and give an impetus to sustainable development of the whole human settlements in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

  3. Deformation in the Three Gorges Reservoir after the first impoundment determined by GPS measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ruilin; QIAO Xuejun; WANG Qi; XING Canfei; YOU Xinzhao

    2005-01-01

    A 6-year long GPS observation (1998-2003) indicates that crustal deformation in the Three Gorges area is less active at a marginally measurable rate of 0-5 mm/a relative to stable South China block. However, the impounding water in June 2003 has induced transient displacement at the Three Gorges dam and the emerging reservoir. GPS measurements after the first stage of water filling of the reservoir demonstrate that vertical subsidence close by Yangtze River is about 10-40 mm, and the horizontal displacement is less than 5-10 mm. The maximum subsidence induced by the impoundment is located in the segment of the reservoir from Maoping to Xiangxi. The water loading-induced deformation diminishes rapidly with the distance from banks of the reservoir. The overall pattern of transient deformation is consistent with the simulation result of Farrell, and is attributed to the elastic response of upper lithosphere crust to overlying water reservoir.

  4. Landslide Monitoring in Three Gorges Area Using D-InSAR and PS-InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantianuparp, Peraya; Shi, Xuguo; Liao, Mingsheng; Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Landslides are a major hazard in steep mountainous area, like the Three Gorges area. The Three Gorges dam was built on a geologically unstable zone. The geological pressures from the rising water level caused by the dam and the deforestation have further increased the possibility for landslides in the area. Many landslide monitoring techniques are applied to analysis, forecast, and control landslides in this area. D-InSAR and PS-InSAR, the time series InSAR analysis, are used for terrain motion detection and to estimate displacement trends. In this paper, SAR data from systems with different wavelengths, like the C-band ASAR, the L-band PALSAR, and the high-resolution TerraSAR-X X-band data, are used.

  5. Three-Gorge Dam influences wetland macrophytes in middle and lower reaches of Yangtze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dongting Lake, located in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze, is regarded as a lake during the water swelling period and a continent in the ebbing period. The construction of the Three-Gorge Dam has influenced the water level of Dongting Lake and the growth of wetland macrophytes in the area. In this study, the growth of main species of wetland macrophytes, such as Carex and Phragmites at Dongting Lake, was observed, and the hydraulic gradient, one of the main factors dominating the abundance and distribution of wetland macrophytes, was also studied at six stations in Dongting Lake area and the effect of the Three-Gorge Dam construction on the growth of wetland macrophytes was observed.

  6. Probabilistic model for vessel-bridge collisions in the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo GENG; Hong WANG; Junjie WANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on a field observation on vessel transit path of three bridges over the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir, and an analysis of the geometric probabilistic model of transiting vessels in collision probability calculation, the aberrancy angle and vessel velocity probabilistic model related with impact force, a probabilistic model is established and also verified by goodness-of-fit test. The vessel transit path distribution can be expressed by the normal distribution model. For the Three Gorges Reservoir, the mean and standard deviation adopt 0.2w and 0.1w, respectively (w is the channel width).The aberrancy angle distribution of vessels accepts maximum I distribution model, and its distribution parameters can be taken as 0.314 and 4.354. The velocity distribution of up-bound and down-bound vessels can also be expressed by the normal distribution model.

  7. Review on Commissioning Test of Three Gorges Power Transmission & Substation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wankai; Yin Yonghua; Zeng Nanchao; Wang Minxin; Chong Zhiyi; Ma Weimin; Kang Jian; Yang Xiaoli

    2009-01-01

    @@ Holding the greatest power transmission capacity in China,Three Gorges power transmission and substation (T&S) project is an important landmark in the history of Chinese power transmission construction.Based on the technological achievements[1-5]and operational experience[6-8]in the field of AC/DC power T&S projects,the commissioning test of the Three Gorges power T&S project made scientific calculation and simulation tests according to the features of power T&S projects,carefully formulated the test scheme and plan,and fulfilled all the test items with high efficiency and quality,which provides a technological basis for project acceptance and the assurance for timely putting into operation.

  8. The evolution of the clear water hatchery system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the French West Indies from 1979 to 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Denis; Robin, Thierry; Sica Aquacole De Martinique,; Aquacop

    1985-01-01

    The clearwater larval rearing method for Macrobrachium rosenbergii was perfected in the french research center of Tahiti in 1977 nad carried on to improve the technique especially on recirculating system. This aquaculture is launched in Martinique by the regional council in 1976. A first "green water" hatchery is built and provides juveniles to the first ponds.

  9. Use of recirculating aquaculture systems to increase production and quality of hatchery reared juvenile red drum for marine stock enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abundance of economically important marine sportfish has declined in Florida’s waters due to factors such as over-fishing and critical habitat disturbance. Hatchery production and enhancement stocking has traditionally been used in freshwater systems as a means of mitigating for effects such as ...

  10. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the "naïve" treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the "exposed" treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles. PMID:27560932

  11. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the “naïve” treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the “exposed” treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles. PMID:27560932

  12. Static and Dynamic Damage Analysis of Mass Concrete in Hydropower House of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马震岳; 张存慧

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes a 3D numerical model for 15# hydropower house of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) and performs a nonlinear static and dynamic damage analysis. In this numerical model, a coupling model of finite and infinite elements for simulating infinite foundation of hydropower station is adopted. A plastic-damage model based on continuum damage mechanics, which includes the softening and damage behavior under tension is considered for the concrete material. The dynamic equilibrium equations of moti...

  13. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sean Doody

    Full Text Available In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2, for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25 for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general.

  14. Report on the 1980/81 angling census in the Sanyati Gorge, Lake Kariba

    OpenAIRE

    Langerman, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The angling census carried out in the Sanyati Gorge, August 1980 - March 1981, is reported. The results are compared to those obtained in the 1973 census. The objectives of the census were: 1) to determine the extent of angling mortality on tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) thereby quantifying this previously neglected component of total mortality; and 2) to assess the economic importance of tigerfish to the recreational fishery on Lake Kariba.

  15. FLUVIAL PROCESSES IN THE LOWER JINGJIANG RIVER: IMPACT OF THE THREE GORGES RESERVOIR IMPOUNDMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun SHAO; Hong WANG; Zhaoyin WANG

    2005-01-01

    Sediment supply to the lower Jingjiang River will be subject to substantial reduction after the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, which could result in an excess of carrying capacity and serious bank erosions in the downstream alluvial channel, threatening the bank protection works and the safety of the Jingjiang Dyke. This paper presents a summary of research works concerning the fluvial processes in the lower Jingjiang River and the possible impact of the Three Gorges Reservoir impoundment on the variation of its channel pattern. Three different predictions have been put forward by researchers: 1) the Jingjiang River will evolve towards a more sinuous, meandering channel pattern, with extensive bank erosion taking place along the river; 2) the river channel will be straightened and broadened because no point bar can be formed due to reduced sediment supply while bank erosion develops in the concave bank, and 3) this river reach will maintain its present channel pattern without significant change, although the sinuosity may be slightly reduced, since: a) the Three Gorges Reservoir mainly intercept sediment particles with sizes larger than 0.025mm, and b) the complex interaction between the Yangtze River and the Dongting Lake helps to reduce the negative effect of channel erosion through certain self-adjusting mechanism in fluvial processes. Discrepancy between these predictions shows that further research efforts are needed to understand the impact of Three Gorges Reservoir operation on the downstream fluvial processes. Meanwhile, there is an urgent need to closely monitor future development in the fluvial processes of the Jingjiang River and its influence on the safety of the Jingjiang Dykes.

  16. A New Horned Crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene Hominid Sites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Brochu, Christopher A.; Jackson Njau; Robert J Blumenschine; Densmore, Llewellyn D

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The fossil record reveals surprising crocodile diversity in the Neogene of Africa, but relationships with their living relatives and the biogeographic origins of the modern African crocodylian fauna are poorly understood. A Plio-Pleistocene crocodile from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, represents a new extinct species and shows that high crocodylian diversity in Africa persisted after the Miocene. It had prominent triangular "horns" over the ears and a relatively deep snout, these resem...

  17. Impacts of the Three Gorges Dam on microbial structure and potential function

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyun Yan; Yonghong Bi; Ye Deng; Zhili He; Liyou Wu; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou Shi; Jinjin Li; Xi Wang; Zhengyu Hu; Yuhe Yu; Jizhong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam has significantly altered ecological and environmental conditions within the reservoir region, but how these changes affect bacterioplankton structure and function is unknown. Here, three widely accepted metagenomic tools were employed to study the impact of damming on the bacterioplankton community in the Xiangxi River. Our results indicated that bacterioplankton communities were both taxonomically and functionally different between backwater and riverine sites, which re...

  18. Assessment and application of potential food provisioning services of ecosystems in Three-gorge areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongzhong; Gao, Yanghua; Zhu, Lifen

    2006-08-01

    The assessment of food provisioning services of ecosystems in Three-gorge areas is helpful for better understanding the function of ecosystems in local human well-beings. In this paper, process-based models are used to assess the potential food provisioning services derived from agriculture ecosystems and grassland ecosystems, a modifying model along with normal woodlands and a set of modifying coefficients is built to assess the potential food from woodland ecosystems. A set of power regression models based on environment factors are built to estimate the potential fish production from water ecosystems. Land cover data stemmed from Landsat TM images, as well as other natural and social-economic data in 1km resolution such as temperature, precipitation, and DEM, are used to support these assessment models. It shows that the four ecosystems in Three-gorge areas can provide 85.98×10 12 calories heat, 2.49 billion kilograms protein and 823.4 million kilograms fat. Human carrying capacity model under the balance nutrition pattern is built in this paper, which results in two key findings: ecosystems in Three-gorge areas can feed 45.92 million people under wealthy living standard which is 1.53 times of the current population, and the sustainable population is from 9.69 to 36.23 million under that living standard. Multi-scale population pressure model is built to calculate the population pressure index in Three-gorge areas. The grain for green pressure index, a multivariate linear weighed model, is used to determine the spatial distribution of farmland fit for grain for green and fit for protecting.

  19. Water Environmental Issue in Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Its Protective Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By single-factor-index evaluation on water of earth's surface, the result shows that the water-quality keep Ⅲ grade on the whole in Yang-tze River, Jia-ling River and Wu River of the Three Gorges reservoir, it occurs no obviously deteriorated tendency in 2005. But some sub-grade rivers are polluted badly, cross-section amount of water-quality Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ only has 64 percent, their water-quality is bad. It is clear that the gap between the water environmental state and the object of keeping water- quality Ⅱ in the Three Gorges reservoir is very big. This paper thoroughly analyses the problems and causes of the water environment, points out that the main factors resulting in the water pollution in recent years include the industrial sewage, solid wastes, soil and water loss, domestic rubbish and agricultural non-point source pollution, and finally puts forward the countermeasures for protecting of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  20. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Industrial Development in Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the general situation of the research area,the SWOT analysis is applied to study the strengths,weakness,opportunities and threats of the industrial development in Three Gorges Reservoir area. The strengths are represented by the following four aspects:abundant agricultural resources,rich tourism resources,rich mineral resources and rich hydro energy. The weaknesses are analyzed from the following three aspects:the backward infrastructure,the acute conflict of the emigration of manufactures and the poor exploitation of advantageous resources. The opportunities of industrial development,which cover the opportunities bought by the guidance of national policies and preferential policies,by the improvement of traffic conditions in the reservoir area and by the completion and operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir Project. From the analysis of poor investment environment,irrational industrial structure and serious shortage of capitals,the threats of the industrial development are analyzed. In order to promote further the industrial development of the Three Gorges Reservoir area,the countermeasures are put forward. In the first place,optimizing the industrial structure and developing leading industries;in the second place,strengthening the construction of infrastructure and improving the investment environment;in the third place,optimizing human resources so as to provide intellectual support for industrial development.

  1. Path Choice and Fiscal Policies of Three Gorges Reservoir in Post-Migration Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The developmental status of the Three Gorges Reservoir in the post-migration era is expounded.Firstly,positioning of ecological reservoir is incompatible with its development;secondly,adopting the market selection and government-directed migration mode;thirdly,tough task in the post-migration era;fourthly,prevention of geological disasters and environmental management.After the analyses,the adoptable approaches for developing the Three Gorges Reservoir are concluded.The approaches cover supporting migrants and trying to stabilize and enrich them;supporting the development of industries around the reservoir;intensifying the construction of ecological environment in the reservoir;and strengthening the support of central fiscal policies.The policies and suggestions on developing the Three Gorges Reservoir from the perspective of fiscal policies are put forward.Firstly,they include the fiscal and tax measures on prompting ecological migration and stabilizing and enriching migrants.The specific measures include the fiscal and tax measures on promoting the employment of migrants;measures on providing social security for migrants;fiscal subsidies and preferential policies and increasing the input on solving the problems left after reconstruction.Secondly,they are the fiscal and tax measures for promoting the industrial development in the reservoir.The specific contents include displaying the functions of industrial fund to optimize the industrial structure of the reservoir;providing preferential policies on taxes to attract capitals and intensifying the strength of local finance.

  2. A new horned crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene hominid sites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Brochu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fossil record reveals surprising crocodile diversity in the Neogene of Africa, but relationships with their living relatives and the biogeographic origins of the modern African crocodylian fauna are poorly understood. A Plio-Pleistocene crocodile from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, represents a new extinct species and shows that high crocodylian diversity in Africa persisted after the Miocene. It had prominent triangular "horns" over the ears and a relatively deep snout, these resemble those of the recently extinct Malagasy crocodile Voay robustus, but the new species lacks features found among osteolaemines and shares derived similarities with living species of Crocodylus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The holotype consists of a partial skull and skeleton and was collected on the surface between two tuffs dated to approximately 1.84 million years (Ma, in the same interval near the type localities for the hominids Homo habilis and Australopithecus boisei. It was compared with previously-collected material from Olduvai Gorge referable to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis places the new form within or adjacent to crown Crocodylus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new crocodile species was the largest predator encountered by our ancestors at Olduvai Gorge, as indicated by hominid specimens preserving crocodile bite marks from these sites. The new species also reinforces the emerging view of high crocodylian diversity throughout the Neogene, and it represents one of the few extinct species referable to crown genus Crocodylus.

  3. Borehole camera technology and its application in the Three Gorges Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.Y.; Sheng, Q.; Ge, X.R. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Wuhan (China); Law, K.T. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The China's Three Gorges Project is the world's largest hydropower project, consisting of a 1,983-meter long and 185-meter high dam and 26 power generating units. Borehole examination has been conducted at the site to ensure stability of the slope of the ship lock used for navigation. This paper describes 2 systems for borehole inspection and viewing. Both methods of camera borehole technology provide a unique way for geologic engineers to observe the condition inside a borehole. The Axial-View Borehole Television (AVBTV) provides real-time frontal view of the borehole ahead of the probe, making it possible to detect where holes are blocked and to see cracks and other distinctive features in the strata. The Digital Panoramic Borehole Camera System (DPBCS) can collect, measure, save, analyze, manage and displace geological information about a borehole. It can also be used to determine the orientation of discontinuity, generate unrolled image and virtual core graph and conduct statistical analysis. Both camera systems have been demonstrated successfully at the Three Gorges Project for qualitative description of the borehole as well as for quantitative analysis of cracks existing in the rock. It has been determined that most of the cracks dip in the same general direction as the northern slope of the permanent ship lock of the Three Gorges Project. 12 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  4. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskill, Mark (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Creston National Fish Hatchery, Kalispell, MT)

    2003-03-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 150,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in July 2001 for this objective. Another 120,000 westslope cutthroat eggs were taken from feral fish at Rogers Lake in May of 2001 by the Creston Hatchery crew. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 50,500 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Arlee State Fish Hatchery in December 2001 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring.

  5. Urban impacts on the water quality of selected water bodies in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Holbach, Andreas; Wei, Hu; Wang, Lijing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Binghui; Norra, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Urban systems belong to the major input sources for pollutants into aquatic systems. In China, the rising urbanisation and industrialisation causes a growing pressure on rivers, lakes and estuaries. With the recent impoundment of the Yangtze River by the Three Gorges Dam, the newly formed Three Gorges Reservoir is additionally experiencing drastic changes in the flow regime [1]. In the frame of the Sino-German "Yangtze-Project" [2] samples were taken from the water bodies in proximity to the Cities of Chongqing, Kaixian and Wushan during a field campaign in April 2011. Water samples were analysed for inorganic contents in suspended solids and the dissolved phase to assess the impact of these cities on the water quality of the reservoir. Results show that input from urban sources, together with the effects from the impoundment of the Yangtze River, deteriorates the quality of water and sediments in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Water in the Wushan Lake is trapped in by the Yangtze River flowing by, which leads to longer retention times of effluent water from the city. The chemical composition of the lake water is also measurable upstream in the Daninghe itself and might be due to the backwater effect. In the Xiaojiang River near Kaixian the low flow velocity from the backwater effect of the Yangtze, together with influences from the city have led to problems with algal blooms. High metal concentrations at Chongqing indicate a strong impact of this megacity on the water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the sediments of the Yangtze River. Acknowledgements: Financial support by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (BMBF), the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). References: [1] Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China, 2010: Bulletin on the Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Results of the Three Gorges Project 2010 [2

  6. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project; Operations and Maintenance and Planning and Design, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.; Penney, Aaron K. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-12-01

    This report fulfills the contract obligations based on the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2002 annual report combines information from two contracts with a combined value of $3,036,014. Bonneville Power Administration identifies them as follows; (1) Part I--Operations and Maintenance--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4504, and $2,682,635 which includes--Equipment costs of $1,807,105. (2) Part II--Planning and Design--Project No. 1983-35-04, Contract No. 4035, $352,379 for Clearwater Coho Restoration Master Plan development Based on NPPC authorization for construction and operation of NPTH, the annual contracts were negotiated for the amounts shown above under (1) and (2). Construction contracts were handled by BPA until all facilities are completed and accepted.

  7. First study of Vibrios in larval cultures of pullet carpet shell clam (Venerupis corrugata in hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Dubert Pérez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocol for hatchery culture of the pullet carpet shell clam Venerupis corrugata spat is currently under development, as the only reliable means of providing spat to replenish natural beds or to support aquaculture activities. Among other variables, the microbiota has been demonstrated to be critical for successful bivalve culture. Shellfish hatcheries are hindered by fatal outbreaks of disease, regardless the bivalve species. These mass mortalities are mainly caused by opportunistic bacteria belonging to genus Vibrio and constitute one bottleneck for this economic activity. Different species, as V. tubiashii, V. pectenicida, V. splendidus, V. neptunius, V. ostreicida and V. bivalvicida, have been identified as responsible of mortalities in hatchery-reared larvae, affecting a wide range of bivalves. This is the first report of the microbiota associated with larval cultures of the pullet carpet shell clam. We present the results of the microbiological analyses of two larval cultures of pullet carpet shell reared in the Centro de Investigacións Mariñas (CIMA, Xunta de Galicia de Ribadeo (Galicia, NW Spain following the procedures developed in the institution. Each batch, A and B, was obtained from broodstocks collected in natural environment but in different geographical locations, the stock A (SW Galicia and the stock B (NW Galicia. Previous records of mortalities led us to divide each batch in two. One sub-batch (A1 and B1 was cultured following the routine procedures. Antibiotic was experimentally added to the other sub-batch (A2 and B2 with the aim of evaluating the effects on the culturable bacterial population (total marine bacteria and presumptive vibrios and on larval survival. Chloramphenicol, formerly the most commonly used antibiotic in bivalve hatcheries, was supplied with each change of seawater during larval development. Microbiological samples of broodstock, larvae and seawater in culture tanks were taken and processed

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  9. Landslide Monitoring in Three Gorges Area Using Multi-Frequency Insar Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, M.; Balz, T.; Tantianuparp, P.; Shi, X.; Zhang, L.; Wang, T.

    2012-12-01

    Landslide is a term describing the downslope movement of soil, rock, and organic materials under the effects of gravity. Landslides are very destructive forces. In order to decrease landslide occurrences and its impacts, landslide monitoring is applied to analyze, forecast, and control landslides. The Three Gorges Project, the largest hydroelectric project of the world, began to function in 2003. The dam site is situated at Sandouping in China's Hubei Province. The reservoir has a length of approximately 600 km along the Yangtze River. In 2001, in a statistical survey, carried out by the Ministry of Land and Resources of China, landslides were observed in all counties surrounding the Three Gorges reservoir and nearly 2500 landslide bodies were observed. There are many landslide triggering factors in this area, for example the dam was built on a geologically unstable zone, the large surface-water level change, the construction of new buildings and roads, deforestation, etc. The potential landslide hazards are threatening the lives of millions of residents in the area. The Three Gorges area has a rough topography and is heavily vegetated. In an effort to reduce the landslide risks, advanced monitoring techniques and methods, such as a GPS network and other terrestrial surveillance technologies, are used in the area. Although these techniques can acquire highly accurate results, their results are only available over sparse measurement points and it they requires high costs for manpower and rather high costs for the instrument manipulation. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), an active microwave imaging system, suffers from temporal decorrelation when monitoring heavily vegetated area as the Three Gorges. In order to analysis long-term and continuous displacement trend in this area, Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are applied. Both techniques are able to detect surface motions. We use high resolution TerraSAR-X X

  10. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S. K.; Rath, N. C.; Packialakshmi, B.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Huff, G. R.; Donoghue, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  11. Flavobacterium psychrophilum Infections in Salmonid Broodstock and Hatchery-Propagated Stocks of the Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vliet, Danielle; Loch, Thomas P; Faisal, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, threatens wild and propagated salmonids worldwide and leads to substantial economic losses. In addition to being horizontally transmitted, F. psychrophilum can be passed from infected parents to their progeny, furthering the negative impacts of this pathogen. In Michigan, both feral and captive salmonid broodstocks are the gamete sources used in fishery propagation efforts. A 5-year study was initiated to follow the prevalence of systemic F. psychrophilum infections in feral broodstocks of four species (steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss [potadromous Rainbow Trout]; Coho Salmon O. kisutch; Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha; and Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar) residing in three Great Lakes watersheds. Additionally, captive broodstocks of four species (Rainbow Trout, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush, and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) maintained at two facilities were assessed for the presence of F. psychrophilum. The resultant offspring from each broodstock population were sampled for F. psychrophilum infections multiple times throughout hatchery residency. Using selective flavobacterial culture and PCR confirmation, F. psychrophilum was detected in all broodstocks except the captive Lake Trout and Brook Trout. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that among the infected feral broodstocks, Chinook Salmon from the Lake Michigan watershed had the highest prevalence of systemic F. psychrophilum infection (mean = 63.2%). Among the captive broodstocks, the Gilchrist Creek strain of Brown Trout had the highest infection prevalence (mean = 5%). Collectively, the captive broodstocks were found to have significantly lower infection prevalence than the feral broodstocks. Despite the high prevalence of systemic F. psychrophilum infections in many broodstock populations, the bacterium was rarely detected in their progeny during hatchery rearing. However, heavy losses associated

  12. Flavobacterium psychrophilum Infections in Salmonid Broodstock and Hatchery-Propagated Stocks of the Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vliet, Danielle; Loch, Thomas P; Faisal, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, threatens wild and propagated salmonids worldwide and leads to substantial economic losses. In addition to being horizontally transmitted, F. psychrophilum can be passed from infected parents to their progeny, furthering the negative impacts of this pathogen. In Michigan, both feral and captive salmonid broodstocks are the gamete sources used in fishery propagation efforts. A 5-year study was initiated to follow the prevalence of systemic F. psychrophilum infections in feral broodstocks of four species (steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss [potadromous Rainbow Trout]; Coho Salmon O. kisutch; Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha; and Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar) residing in three Great Lakes watersheds. Additionally, captive broodstocks of four species (Rainbow Trout, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush, and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) maintained at two facilities were assessed for the presence of F. psychrophilum. The resultant offspring from each broodstock population were sampled for F. psychrophilum infections multiple times throughout hatchery residency. Using selective flavobacterial culture and PCR confirmation, F. psychrophilum was detected in all broodstocks except the captive Lake Trout and Brook Trout. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that among the infected feral broodstocks, Chinook Salmon from the Lake Michigan watershed had the highest prevalence of systemic F. psychrophilum infection (mean = 63.2%). Among the captive broodstocks, the Gilchrist Creek strain of Brown Trout had the highest infection prevalence (mean = 5%). Collectively, the captive broodstocks were found to have significantly lower infection prevalence than the feral broodstocks. Despite the high prevalence of systemic F. psychrophilum infections in many broodstock populations, the bacterium was rarely detected in their progeny during hatchery rearing. However, heavy losses associated

  13. Characterization of four lytic transducing bacteriophages of luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolated from shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hatcheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Sanjeevi; Chrisolite, Bagthasingh; Alavandi, Shankar V; Poornima, Modem; Kalaimani, Natarajan; Santiago, T Chinnappan

    2011-12-01

    Four lytic bacteriophages designated as φVh1, φVh2, φVh3, and φVh4 were isolated from commercial shrimp hatcheries, possessing broad spectrum of infectivity against luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolates, considering their potential as biocontrol agent of luminescent bacterial disease in shrimp hatcheries, and were characterized by electron microscopy, genomic analysis, restriction enzyme analysis (REA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Three phages φVh1, φVh2, and φVh4 had an icosahedral head of 60-115 nm size with a long, noncontractile tail of 130-329 × 1-17 nm, belonged to the family Siphoviridae. φVh3 had an icosahedral head (72 ± 5 nm) with a short tail (27 × 12 nm) and belonged to Podoviridae. REA with DraI and PFGE of genomic DNA digested with ScaI and XbaI and cluster analysis of their banding patterns indicated that φVh3 was distinct from the other three siphophages. PFGE-based genome mean size of the four bacteriophages φVh1, φVh2, φVh3, and φVh4 was estimated to be about 85, 58, 64, and 107 kb, respectively. These phages had the property of generalized transduction as demonstrated by transduction with plasmid pHSG 396 with frequencies ranging from 4.1 × 10(-7) to 2 × 10(-9) per plaque-forming unit, suggesting a potential ecological role in gene transfer among aquatic vibrios.

  14. Natural Reproductive Success and Demographic Effects of Hatchery-Origin Steelhead in Abernathy Creek, Washington : Annual Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center

    2008-12-01

    Many hatchery programs for steelhead pose genetic or ecological risks to natural populations because those programs release or outplant fish from non-native stocks. The goal of many steelhead programs has been to simply provide 'fishing opportunities' with little consideration given to conservation concerns. For example, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has widely propagated and outplanted one stock of winter-run steelhead (Chambers Creek stock) and one stock of summer-run steelhead (Skamania stock) throughout western Washington. Biologists and managers now recognize potential negative effects can occur when non-native hatchery fish interact biologically with native populations. Not only do non-native stocks pose genetic and ecological risks to naturally spawning populations, but non-native fish stray as returning adults at a much higher rate than do native fish (Quinn 1993). Biologists and managers also recognize the need to (a) maintain the genetic resources associated with naturally spawning populations and (b) restore or recover natural populations wherever possible. As a consequence, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the NOAA Fisheries have been recommending a general policy that discourages the use of non-native hatchery stocks and encourages development of native broodstocks. There are two primary motivations for these recommendations: (1) reduce or minimize potential negative biological effects resulting from genetic or ecological interactions between hatchery-origin and native-origin fish and (2) use native broodstocks as genetic repositories to potentially assist with recovery of naturally spawning populations. A major motivation for the captive-rearing work described in this report resulted from NOAA's 1998 Biological Opinion on Artificial Propagation in the Columbia River Basin. In that biological opinion (BO), NOAA concluded that non-native hatchery stocks of steelhead jeopardize the continued existence of

  15. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data on the effects of release density on release success in hatchery-reared red king crab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data is from an experiment designed to test the viability of using hatchery reared crab to supplement wild stocks and to determine the optimal density for...

  16. Fish research project -- Oregon: Umatilla Hatchery monitoring and evaluation, project period 1 November 1993--30 October 1994. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the first three years of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. Because the hatchery and the evaluation study and the fish health monitoring investigations are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary. The majority of the data that is crucial for evaluating the success of the hatchery program, the data on post-release performance and survival, is yet unavailable. In addition, several years of data are necessary to make conclusions about rearing performance at Umatilla Hatchery. The conclusions drawn in this report should be viewed as preliminary and should be used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available

  17. Evaluation of two release operations at Bonneville Dam on the smolt-to-adult survival of Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery fall Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In March 2004, two groups of coded wire tagged subyearling fall Chinook were released from Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery to directly evaluate the effects of...

  18. WA - Investigation of contaminants in feeds and fish at FWS Pacific Region National Fish Hatcheries and the ramifications to human and ecological health

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Returning adult salmon and steelhead were sampled at three National Fish Hatcheries (NFHs); Warm Springs NFH (spring Chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Quilcene...

  19. Differential performance Of ventral fin clipped and adipose fin clipped/coded-wire tagged spring Chinook Salmon at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Confederated Tribes of...

  20. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Hatchery Evaluation Studies (LSRCP) and the Imnaha Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 1999 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies were designed and closely coordinated to provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) biological characteristics, behavior and emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Data collected from these studies are shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). These data are essential to quantify smolt survival rates under the current passage conditions and to evaluate the future recovery strategies that seek to optimize smolt survival through the hydroelectric system. Information shared with the FPC assists with in-season shaping of flow and spill management requests in the Snake River reservoirs. The Bonneville Power Administration and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service contracted the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) to monitor emigration timing and tag 21,200 emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River during the spring emigration period (March 1-June 15) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 1999 marked the eighth year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River and the sixth year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Determine spring emigration timing of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River trap. (2) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on emigration timing. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in

  1. Relationship between landslides and lithology in the Three Gorges Reservoir area based on GIS and information value model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caiyan WU; Jianping QIAO

    2009-01-01

    Development of landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is related to many factors. Lithology is one of the indispensable internal factors, besides relative height differences, slope gradients and slope profiles. We used an information value model with geographical information system (GIS) technology to study how lithology contributes to the development of landslides from the Yunyang to Wushan segment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area and we quantify the relationship between lithology and development of landslides. Via an investigation of 205 examples of past landslides, we found that the lithology of J3s, J3p and T2b contributes most. Our research results can provide a valid basis for future construction in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.

  2. Energetics of Ortho-7 (oxime drug translocation through the active-site gorge of tabun conjugated acetylcholinesterase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sinha

    Full Text Available Oxime drugs translocate through the 20 Å active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase in order to liberate the enzyme from organophosphorus compounds' (such as tabun conjugation. Here we report bidirectional steered molecular dynamics simulations of oxime drug (Ortho-7 translocation through the gorge of tabun intoxicated enzyme, in which time dependent external forces accelerate the translocation event. The simulations reveal the participation of drug-enzyme hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and water bridges between them. Employing nonequilibrium theorems that recovers the free energy from irreversible work done, we reconstruct potential of mean force along the translocation pathway such that the desired quantity represents an unperturbed system. The potential locates the binding sites and barriers for the drug to translocate inside the gorge. Configurational entropic contribution of the protein-drug binding entity and the role of solvent translational mobility in the binding energetics is further assessed.

  3. Cabinets and Legislative Cartels in Uruguay: Examining the Legislative Consequences of Government Formation Gabinetes y Cárteles Legislativos en Uruguay: examen de las consecuencias legislativas de la formación del gobierno

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Chasquetti

    2013-01-01

    Since the return to democracy, Uruguayan presidents have built cabinets of varying natures (majority and minority coalitions, majority and minority parties). Most studies on presidential government assume that the partisan composition of a cabinet is a good predictor of the performance of a government’s legislative program. In this paper I test this hypothesis using Cox and McCubbins’ (1993, 2005) party cartel theory. The results confirm that six of the eight presidential cabinets’ legislativ...

  4. 基于Excel的机柜布线工艺改进研究%Research on Improving the Cabinet Cable Process based on Excel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 李臻; 刘云燕

    2016-01-01

    The calculation is complicated and the cable layout is not clear in electronic cabinet depends on the traditional cable table.Use Excel secondary development technology to improve the calculation mode of cable length and create cable layout table of the electronic cabinet automatically,which improves the productivity and the product quality.%依据传统的布线表线缆长度,计算繁琐,而且对于机柜内部布线也不是很方便.利用Excel二次开发技术改进线缆长度计算模式,并自动生成机柜内部线缆布线表,从而提高了生产效率和准确率.

  5. Comparación del crecimiento de Argopecten purpuratus entre cohortes obtenidas de captación de larvas en ambiente natural y de hatchery Comparison of growth among cohorts obtained Argopecten purpuratus larval recruitment in natural and hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Pérez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile los cultivos del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus han sido desarrollados intensivamente a partir de la captación de semillas en ambiente natural y desde principios de 1980 con semillas obtenidas en hatchery. Para aportar información sobre el desempeno de semillas de ostión del norte en este estudio se comparó, mediante ANCOVA, el crecimiento en longitud entre cohortes producidas a partir de semillas de ambiente natural y de hatchery en Tongoy, Chile. Se evaluó la consistencia de esta comparación en distintos anos y estaciones, comparándose parejas de cohortes producidas simultáneamente en los anos 2003 (primavera, 2005 (invierno y 2006 (verano. El análisis estadístico mostró que existen diferencias estadísticas significativas entre cohortes obtenidas en ambiente natural y aquellas obtenidas en hatchery. La prueba de Tukey evidenció diferencias significativas entre CN2003 y CH2003 como también entre CN2005 y CH2005, pero no así entre CN2006 y CH2006. Estas diferencias indican que las cohortes de semillas de ambiente natural crecieron más rápido que las de hatchery. La comparación interanual evidenció diferencias estadísticas significativas. Estos resultados son discutidos a la luz de dos factores: la temperatura de cultivo y la heterocigocidad de la población de cultivo.In Chile crops of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus have been developed intensively from seeds obtained in natural environment, and since 1980 from hatchery's seed, when this technique could be controlled and developed. In order to provide information on the performance of seeds of northern scallops in this study growth in length between cohorts produced from seeds obtained in natural environment (CN and hatchery (CH in Tongoy (Chile was compared using ANCOVA. We assessed the consistency of this comparison in different years and seasons. The compared cohorts are pairs of cohorts produced simultaneously in the years 2003 (spring, 2005

  6. 非等温送风机柜空调的性能研究%Performance Analysis of Machine Cabinet Air Conditioner when Supplying Air with Different Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛倩倩; 臧润清; 郝莹

    2011-01-01

    The equipments in the machine room have great calorie power. The calorie power of different cabinet and the different part of a cabinet are also different. The position of the cabinets with different caloricity is indefinite, as a result, the machine room air conditioning can not satisfy the cooling. A cabinet on inequitable internal heat to cool "peer-to-peer" was presented. Through the experiment study ,for an evaporator with multi-channel ,increase the length of the boiling tube and supply the refrigerant separately ,can supply air with different temperature and realize a higher cooling efficiency. Another system equipped back pressure valves on the return gas pipe can realize supplying air with different temperature but the efficiency is lower.%机房设备具有发热量大、每个机柜发热量不同和个体机柜各个局部发热量不一致的特点.由于机房内不同发热量机柜摆放的不确定性,目前在用的机房空调不能满足降温要求.本文提出一种针对于个体机柜内部发热量不均进行"点对点"降温的机柜空调.通过试验研究可知,在一个机体上的多通路蒸发器,通过增加两个通路蒸发管长度,并与其它通路分开供液,可以实现非等温送风,且制冷系统具有较高的工作效率.另一种回气管路装有背压阀的系统虽能实现非等温送风,但制冷系统的效率较低.

  7. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery-and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, S.L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA); Rau, J.A. (Cle Elum Supplementation Research, Cle Elum, WA)

    2003-01-01

    In the Yakima Spring Chinook supplementation program, wild fish are brought into the Cle Elum Hatchery, artificially crossed, reared, transferred to acclimation sites, and released into the upper Yakima River as smolts. When these fish mature and return to the Yakima River most of them will be allowed to spawn naturally; a few, however, will be brought back to the hatchery and used for research purposes. In order for this supplementation approach to be successful, hatchery-origin fish must be able to spawn and produce offspring under natural conditions. Recent investigations on salmonid fishes have indicated that exposure to hatchery environments during juvenile life may cause significant behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes in adult fish. These changes appear to reduce the reproductive competence of hatchery fish. In general, males are more affected than females; species with prolonged freshwater rearing periods are more strongly impacted than those with shorter rearing periods; and stocks that have been exposed to artificial culture for multiple generations are more impaired than those with a relatively short exposure history to hatchery conditions.

  8. Passing a seawater challenge test is not indicative of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts performing as well at sea as their naturally produced conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A J; Berg, M; Bremset, G; Finstad, B; Hvidsten, N A; Jensås, J G; Johnsen, B O; Lund, E

    2016-06-01

    Despite satisfactory reactions to seawater challenge tests indicative of appropriate physiological state, hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts stocked in the Eira River in Norway between 2001 and 2011 performed less well at sea in terms of growth, age at maturity and survival than smolts of natural origin. The mean rates of return to the river for hatchery-reared and naturally produced S. salar were 0·98 and 2·35%. In the Eira River, c. 50 000 hatchery-reared S. salar smolts of local origin were stocked annually to compensate for reduced natural smolt production following regulation for hydroelectric purposes, while a mean of 17 262 smolts were produced naturally in the river. This study demonstrates that, although captive S. salar perform well in seawater challenge tests, hatchery-reared smolts are not necessarily as adaptable to marine life as their naturally produced counterparts. These findings suggest that production of hatchery-reared smolts more similar to naturally produced individuals in morphology, physiology and behaviour will be necessary to improve success of hatchery releases. Where possible, supplementary or alternative measures, including habitat restoration, could be implemented to ensure the long-term viability of wild stocks. PMID:27133912

  9. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume III of III; Disease and Physiology Supplements, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatick, Emil; Gilbreath, Lyle G.; Harmon, Jerrel R. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Centr, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1988-02-03

    The main functions of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Aquaculture Task biologists and contractual scientists involved in the 1978 homing studies were primarily a surveillance of fish physiology, disease, and relative survival during culture in marine net-pens, to determine if there were any unusual factors that might affect imprinting and homing behavior. The studies were conducted with little background knowledge of the implications of disease and physiology on imprinting and homing in salmonids. The health status of the stocks was quite variable as could be expected. The Dworshak and Wells Hatcheries steelhead suffered from some early stresses in seawater, probably osmoregulatory. The incidences of latent BKD in the Wells and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead and Kooskia Hatchery spring chinook salmon were extremely high, and how these will affect survival in the ocean is not known. Gill enzyme activity in the Dworshak and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead at release was low. Of the steelhead, survival in the Tucannon Hatchery stock will probably be the highest, with Dworshak Hatchery stock the lowest. This report contains five previously published papers.

  10. Un cabinet d'égyptologue au Siècle des lumières : le cabinet d'histoire naturelle du docteur Gagnon au Musée Stendhal de Grenoble (France), par Joëlle Rochas, de l'Université de Savoie, membre du Comité scientifique Musée Stendhal (France). An meinen lieben Freund Bernhard Wolfmayr

    OpenAIRE

    Rochas, Joëlle

    2010-01-01

    Summary. An Egyptologist's cabinet during the Enlightenment : Dr. Gagnon's natural history cabinet at the Stendhal Museum of Grenoble (France). An meinen lieben Freund Bernhard Wolfmayr. Translated by Sofia Arenzon. In 2008, Grenoble, a city located in the French Alps, has begun restoration work on the house of Dr. Gagnon, grandfather of Stendhal, a world-famous French writer. Dr. Gagnon, a true spirit of the Enlightenment, had a considerable influence on his grandson's education. Being a rea...

  11. Performance Testing and Quality Control of Biological Safety Cabinets%生物安全柜的性能检测与质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective Through performance testing of biological safety cabinet,to understand its performance,so as to improve its safety.Methods Six required items are tested according to the standard of Biological Safety Cabinets.Results The six required items can meet the technical requirements,the biological safety cabinet is qualified.Conclusion Quality control of medical equipment is of great significance.%目的 通过对生物安全柜的性能检测,以掌握其性能现状,提高使用的安全性.方法 依据《生物安全柜》标准,对生物安全性等6个必检项目进行性能检测.结果 6个检测项目符合技术要求,生物安全柜性能合格.结论 加强医疗设备质量控制关系重大,不容忽视.

  12. 机柜包装生产线的设计方法%The Design Method of the Cabinet Packaging Production Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雁

    2012-01-01

    Introduce present situation of cabinet packaging in industry field. Take a kind of cabinet as an example and introduce the design method of the cabinet packaging production line from designing packaging process route ( a reasonable choice of packaging materials and containers,determine the process of centralized and decentralized) ,drawing process schematic diagrams,equipment selection,and equipment layout program. Point out the benefits of the use of production line in the enterprise.%介绍了机柜包装业界现状.以某款机柜包装为例,从设计包装工艺路线(包括合理选择包装材料和包装容器、确定工序的集中与分散)、绘制工艺原理图、设备选型、设备布局等方面,系统介绍了机柜包装生产线的设计方法和注意事项,并指出生产线在企业运用的好处.

  13. The construction management system and practice of Three Gorges Project%The construction management system and practice of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Guangjing

    2011-01-01

    Three Gorges Project (TGP), the largest water resources and hydropower project in the world with huge scale and complex techniques, has great comprehensive benefits mainly in flood control, power generation and navigation improvement. Through 17-year construction and practice, the project has been successfully completed. Some valuable experience from the successful construction of TGP has been gained for the management system and mechanism of hydropower project construction in China. Its construction management mode produces important influences on the management system of domestic capital construction. With combination of the construction management practice of TGP, the characteristics of management system and mechanism are summarized, and the suggestions on current hydropower development system and construction management mode are put forward.

  14. Small-scale hatchery and larval rearing techniques for local strains of saline-tolerant tilapia, Oreochromis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia aquaculture is an important industry in most tropical and subtropical countries in theworld. This species of fish is able to tolerate a wide range of of environmental conditions and has fastgrowth rates, making it a suitable candidate for aquaculture in developing countries. Tilapias are nowbeing cultured in brackishwater ponds, where salinity levels could reach seawater strength during thesummer months. Hence, research efforts have been directed towards the production of saline-tolerantstrains. Using locally available strains of tilapias, we developed a small-scale hatchery for the productionof saline-tolerant tilapia fingerlings. This paper describes the protocol of this small-scale hatcheryproduction system and larval rearing techniques for the saline-tolerant tilapias. It outlines the detailedprocedures from broodstock selection and maintenance, hatchery management and larval rearingincluding production of all-male offpsprings through dietary inclusion of 17- methyl testosterone andacclimation to high salinity levels.

  15. Inbreeding and genetic diversity analysis in a hatchery release population and clones of Rhopilema esculentum based on microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tao; Chen, Zaizhong; Wang, Mosang; Hu, Yulong; Wang, Weiji

    2016-07-01

    Ten microsatellite markers were used to analyze the levels of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a hatchery release population of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomatidae). A total of 85 alleles were detected in 600 individuals. Within-population levels of observed (H o) and expected (H e) heterozygosity ranged from 0.152 to 0.839 (mean=0.464) and from 0.235 to 0.821 (mean=0.618), respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of each marker ranged from 0.207 to 0.795 with an average of 0.580, indicating that the hatchery population maintained a high level of genetic diversity. Inbreeding levels were estimated in the hatchery population and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.203. This result revealed that a certain level of inbreeding occurred within the population. Meanwhile, we also determined genetic diversity at the clone level. Several polyps from the same scyphistomae were genotyped at the ten microsatellite loci and there was virtually no difference in their genotypes. Furthermore, we calculated the probabilities of exclusion. When both parents were known, the average exclusion probability of ten loci was 99.99%. Our data suggest that the ten microsatellite markers can not only be used to analyze the identity of individuals but they can also be applied to parentage identification. Our research provides a theoretical basis and technical support for genetic diversity detection and reasonable selection of R. esculentum hatchery populations. These findings support the use of releasing studies and conservation of R. esculentum germplasm resources.

  16. Trials for the control of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in hatchery reared Oreochromis niloticus fries by using garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Galil, Mohamed A A; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2012-04-30

    The present work was designed to study the prevalence of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in Oreochromis niloticus fries, and to test the therapeutic efficacy and preventive efficacy of garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves. Trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis are ectoparasitic diseases that affect most warm freshwater fish, especially fries and fingerlings. In a private O. niloticus fish hatchery, the prevalence of trichodinosis in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 37%, 23% and 40.5%, respectively. The highest infection intensity was detected in 30-day-old-fries. The gyrodactylosis was reported only in combination with trichodinosis. In addition, we found that its prevalence in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 17%, 19.5% and 29%, respectively. Mortality rate of fry in the first month of life was 53% as a result of injury to these two types of parasites. The garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves were tested in both in vitro and earthen ponds of the hatchery. Using 2-, 2.5- and 3-ppt (parts per thousand) garlic oil for 4h in vitro water bath treatment resulted in 100% recovery, while 1 and 1.5 ppt garlic oil, respectively, needed 24 and 16 h to treat the infected fries. The treatment by 3 ppt garlic oil as a water bath for 1h treated the two diseases in 55% in 7 days from application in the hatchery earthen pond. In the mean time, 300 mg L(-1) crushed garlic cloves as an indefinite bath in the hatchery earthen pond eliminated 68% of the diseases. The same protocol for preventing the two diseases resulted in obtaining 65% and 75% of parasite free fries, for garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves, respectively, compared to 53% of the control fries. PMID:22137346

  17. An Evaluation of Adult Freshwater Mussels Held in Captivity at the White Sulphur Springs National Fish Hatchery, West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Boyles, Julie L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing need to provide refugia for freshwater mussels impacted by anthropogenic activities and exotic species, facilities should be identified and protocols developed for holding mussels in captivity. White Sulphur Springs National Fish Hatchery (WSSNFH), White Sulphur Springs, WV, has held freshwater mussels for nearly eight years, and has the potential to become an important refugium and propagation facility for conservation of mussels in the Ohio River Basin and elsewhere. ...

  18. Fossil Association from the Lower Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Yangtze Gorges Area, Hubei, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Junfeng; Tsuyoshi KOMIYA; LI Yong; HAN Jian; ZHANG Xingliang; ZHANG Zhifei; OU Qiang; LIU Jianni; SHU Degan; Shigenori MARUYAMA

    2008-01-01

    Apart from previously reported Small Shelly Fossils (SSFs), a macroscopic fossil assemblage, comprising abundant algae, cone-shaped tubular fossil forms, and probable impressions of a megascopic metazoan, comes from the Lower Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area of western Hubei Province, south China. The visible fossils are preserved in thin-laminated siltstone or muddy siltstone intercalated between 8-15 mm-thick carbonate deposits, probably representing sedimentary settings of a constrained local depression in the shallow water carbonate platform during the Early Cambrian Meishucunian Stage. The macroscopic fossil association provides significant fossil evidence about the evolution of life from the late Precambrian to the 'Cambrian explosion' interval.

  19. Eutrophication investigation and assessment of the Daning River after water storage of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Chenghua; XING Zhiguo; ZHAO Wenqian; WANG Derui; DENG Chunguang; LI Yongjian; XING Mei

    2005-01-01

    The Daning River is a very important tributary in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. It is also a famous scenic spot. Anomalies appeared after water storage of the reservoir in June, 2003. In September, 2003, eutrophication monitoring in the 135-m backwater reach of the Daning River was conducted and the data were simply analyzed. The assessment result is that water body in the segment from Shuanglong to Longmen was mesotrophic or eutrophic. At the same time, the causes of its nutritional change were discussed, and counter-measures have been proposed.

  20. The monitoring technology of geological hazards in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and its prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Song; JIANG De-yi; YANG Chun-he; GUO Wei

    2007-01-01

    It summarized current application statuses of the monitoring technology of geological hazard in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Considering the defects of the current monitoring technology of geological hazard, the new remote and centralized monitoring system of geological hazard based on the Internet was established. It also introduced its theory, structure, application and prospect in detail. The new monitoring system can prevent the geologic disaster from happening, and control the danger of it, and improve upon the level of management, and gather head the ability of preventing disaster, and reduce the running cost of the system.

  1. Compensation for Land Loss in Reservoir Resettlement: A Case Study of The Three Gorges Project, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYi-qian; TanYan

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies current policies in compensation for land lost due to construction of the Three Gorges project (TGP), China. In the case study of Kaixian County, the value of land in the peri-urban areas is underestimated. Some losses in land are tangible and thus measurable, but some losses are intangible and thus immeasurable. The land available in the resettlement areas is scarce and rarely of equivalent quality. This study suggests that the loss of agricultural land be compensated with alternative land and/or non-land-based livelihood strategies, including part compensation in monetary terms and preferential policies.

  2. 3D coexisting modes of thermal convection in the faulted Lower Yarmouk Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Fabien; Inbar, Nimrod; Möller, Peter; Raggad, Marwan; Rödiger, Tino; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Siebert, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Numerical investigations of 3D modes of large-scale convection in faulted aquifers are presented with the aim to infer possible transport mechanisms supporting the formation of thermal springs in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG), at the border between Israel and Jordan. The transient finite elements models are based on a geological model of the LYG that introduces more realistic structural features of the basin, compared to previous existing models of the area (Magri et al., submitted). The sensitivity analysis of the fault permeability showed that faults cross-cutting the main regional flow direction allow groundwater to be driven laterally by convective forces within the fault planes. Therein thermal waters can either discharge along the fault traces or exit the fault through adjacent permeable aquifers. The location of springs can migrate with time, is not strictly constrained to the damage zones and reflects the interplay between the wavelength of the multicellular regime in the fault zone and the regional flow toward discharge areas in the lowlands. The results presented here suggest that in the LYG case, crossing flow paths result from the coexistence of fault convection, that can develop for example along NE-SW oriented faults within the Gorge, and additional flow fields that can be induced either by topography N-S gradients, e.g. perpendicular to the major axe of the Gorge, or by local thermal convection in permeable aquifers below Eocene aquiclude. The sensitivity analysis is consistent with the analytical solutions based on viscous-dependent Rayleigh theory. It indicates that in the LYG coexisting transport processes likely occur at fault hydraulic conductivity ranging between 2.3e-7 m/s and 9.3e- 7 m/s (i.e. 7 m/yr and 30 m/yr). The LYG numerical example and the associated Rayleigh analysis can be applied to study the onset of thermal convection and resulting flow patterns of any fractured hydrothermal basin. References Magri F, Möller S, Inbar N, M

  3. 3-NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TURBULENT FLOW AFFECTED BY THREE GORGE PROJECT UNDER CONSTRUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Because of the construction of the Three Gorge Project (TGP), the local turbulent flow, compared to the original, has been changed greatly. In order to analyze the variation of hydrodynamic feature in detail, a 3-D mathematical model was established to simulate the turbulent flow in the corresponding area. The results of computation indicate that great changes of flow took placed in the area close to the cofferdam, but the area is not large. The results are in agreement with that of the obtained.

  4. Limestone fluidized bed treatment of acid-impacted water at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.J.; Haines, T.A.; Spaulding, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of atmospheric acid deposition have resulted in widespread lake and river acidification in the northeastern U.S. Biological effects of acidification include increased mortality of sensitive aquatic species such as the endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a limestone-based fluidized bed system for the treatment of acid-impacted waters. The treatment system was tested at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine over a period of 3 years. The product water from the treatment system was diluted with hatchery water to prepare water supplies with three different levels of alkalinity for testing of fish health and survival. Based on positive results from a prototype system used in the first year of the study, a larger demonstration system was used in the second and third years with the objective of decreasing operating costs. Carbon dioxide was used to accelerate limestone dissolution, and was the major factor in system performance, as evidenced by the model result: Alk = 72.84 ?? P(CO2)1/2; R2 = 0.975. No significant acidic incursions were noted for the control water over the course of the study. Had these incursions occurred, survivability in the untreated water would likely have been much more severely impacted. Treated water consistently provided elevated alkalinity and pH above that of the hatchery source water. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Upwelling of Acidified Water: Not Just an Issue for Shellfish Hatcheries on the West Coast of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poach, M.; Munroe, D.; Abrahamsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Periodic upwelling events are known to occur off the coast of New Jersey during the summer. As with upwelling off the US West Coast, these events can transport acidified water to the surface and shoreward. To determine if upwelling events have the potential to impact shellfish hatcheries in New Jersey, a monitoring study was conducted at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC) of Rutgers University. The AIC is an important hatchery supporting the New Jersey oyster aquaculture industry through the production of disease resistant seed oysters. Starting in June of 2014, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously monitored at the AIC's intake pipe. Periodic grab samples were also collected at the intake and at locations within the facility. Grab samples were preserved and analyzed for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC and pH were used to calculate the aragonite saturation state of the sampled water. During an upwelling event in early July a drop in pH was measured at the intake. Grab samples showed that water of lower pH and aragonite saturation was entering the facility. These results show that hatcheries along the NJ coast need to be aware that upwelling events may bring conditions detrimental for shellfish production.

  6. Comparison of the localization of tetrodotoxin between wild pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with tetrodotoxin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kogen; Takatani, Tomohiro; Nakayasu, Junichi; Yamazaki, Hideki; Sakiyama, Kazutaka; Ikeda, Koichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Sakakura, Yoshitaka

    2013-09-01

    To reveal the accumulation profile of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles, we compared the localization of TTX in various tissues among wild juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with or without TTX administration using immunohistochemical technique with anti-TTX monoclonal antibody. Immuno-positive reaction was observed in hepatic tissue, basal cell of skin and olfactory, olfactory epithelium, optic nerve and brain (optic tectum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata) of wild juveniles (body length: BL, 4.7-9.4 cm). TTX was detected in the same tissues as wild juveniles and epithelial cell layer of intestine of hatchery-reared juveniles (BL, 5.0-5.3 cm) to which TTX was orally administrated. No positive reaction was observed from the tissues of hatchery-reared juveniles without TTX administration. These results suggest that orally administrated TTX to the non-toxic cultured juveniles is accumulated in the same manner of wild juveniles. In addition, our study revealed that pufferfish accumulates TTX in the central nervous system.

  7. Short-term food restriction followed by controlled refeeding promotes gorging behavior, enhances fat deposition, and diminishes insulin sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Kara L; Ke, Jia-Yu; Lee, Hui-Young; Stout, Michael B; Cole, Rachel M; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I; Belury, Martha A

    2015-07-01

    Rodents are commonly used in food restriction refeeding studies to investigate weight regain. Mice that are rationed food every 24 h may consume all allocated food in a short time (gorge) and therefore undergo a brief well-fed period followed by an extended fasted period until the next day's food allotment. These exaggerated metabolic states are not typical in mice fed ad libitum (nibbling). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the intraday and cumulative metabolic consequences of gorging (induced by food restriction) in mice during controlled refeeding. Accordingly, following a temporary food restriction, mice were fed rations similar to intakes of controls fed ad libitum. Temporary food restriction initiated gorging behavior that persisted during refeeding; consequently, metabolism-related measurements were obtained in the gorging mice during their daily fed and fasted metabolic states. Robust differences in adipose tissue lipogenic and inflammatory gene expression were found in the gorging mice by metabolic state (fed versus fasted). Additionally, despite a reduced cumulative food intake compared to mice fed ad libitum, restriction-induced gorging mice had increased intraabdominal fat accumulation, diminished hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and a gene expression profile favoring lipid deposition. Our findings highlight the intraday differences in gene expression in gorging mice before and after feeding that confound comparisons with mice fed ad libitum, or nibbling. The present study also provides evidence that weight regain following food restriction is associated with cumulative metabolic and behavioral abnormalities in mice.

  8. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2005-05-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that adult salmon produced by artificial culture are not as reproductively successful as wild fish when they spawn under natural conditions. Behavioral, morphological, and physiological divergences have been observed between hatchery and wild fish. These disparities are the likely proximate causes of the differences seen in the reproductive success of hatchery and wild salmonids. Two evolutionary paradigms have been proposed to explain why salmonids cultured in hatcheries are genetically and phenotypically different from wild cohorts. The first proposes that natural selection has been significantly relaxed in hatcheries. Consequently, fish that normally would have perished because of the possession of unsuitable traits are able to survive. If these traits have a genetic basis, they may become established in a hatchery population and cause its productivity to be less than expected if the fish are once again exposed to natural selection pressures. The second theorizes that environmental and social conditions in hatcheries are less variable than in the natural environment and that these conditions will remain relatively constant from one generation to the next. In this circumstance, selection for genetic traits that adapt fish to artificial culture will become prevalent in the population. Such traits may be mal-adaptive under natural conditions. Many of the studies that have compared the reproductive success (RS) of hatchery and wild fish, however, have used non-local hatchery fish that have experienced multiple generations of hatchery culture. Few efforts have been made where both the hatchery and wild fish have originated from the same population. When such studies have been performed differences in the competency of the fish to produce offspring have not been detected or are not as great as those expressed when non-local hatchery fish have been used. The hatchery spring Chinook produced by the Yakima Fisheries Project

  9. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via

  10. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance and Heavy Metal Resistance Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Hatchery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S W Lee; M Najiah; W Wendy; A Zahrol; M Nadirah

    2009-01-01

    In this article,antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria isolated from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) hatchery in Malaysia are described.Although giant freshwater prawn was introduced into Malaysia since the 1980s,there was no database information on antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria from giant freshwater prawn (M.rosenbergii) hatchery in Malaysia.Therefore,this study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance profile to control bacterial diseases in M.rosenbergii hatchery.The results can provide valuable information for local M.rosenbergii post-larval producer.Antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out by disk-diffusion method against 15 types of antibiotics as follows:oxolinic acid (2 μg),ampicillin (10 μg),erythromycin (15 μg),furazolidone (15 μg),lincomycin (15 μg),amoxicillin (25 μg),col istin sulphate (25 μg),doxycycline (30 μg),florfenicol (30 μg),flumequine (30 μg),nalidixic acid (30 μg),tetracycline (30 μg),oleandomyein (15 μg),fosfomycin (50 μg),and spiramycin (100 μg),whereas heavy metal resistance profile of the present bacterial isolates was determined by 2-fold agar dilution technique.In this study,5 types of bacteria were successfully isolated;they were Aeromonas spp.(n= 77),Escherichia coil (n = 73),Edwardsiella spp.(n = 62),Salmonella spp.(n= 75),and Vibrio spp.(n = 43).The result showed that furazolidone was the most effective antibiotic to control the bacteria isolated in this study,approximately 89.7% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to this antibiotic.Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index indicated that the hatchery water source and M.rosenbergii post-larval and sediment tanks were at high-risk exposure to the tested antibiotic.Furthermore,all the tested heavy metals (Cd2+,Cr6+ Hg2+,and Cu2+) failed to inhibit the growth of the bacterial isolates.Therefore,it indicated that the water source of the hatchery is

  11. Salinity Tolerance and Preference of Hatchery Reared Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linneaus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Lawson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in fisheries laboratory of Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University, Nigeria on salinity tolerance and preference of hatchery reared Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linneaus, 1758. Tilapias are important candidate species for aquaculture and are increasingly cultured in polyculture system with shrimp. Thus creating a demand for Tilapia genotypes well suited to elevated salinities. O. niloticus is a member of the Family Cichlidae and one of most cultured fish species in Nigeria. It is known for its high prolific rate of breeding and multiplication. Six hundred and sixty (660 fingerlings of the fish measuring between 53-140 mm TL and weighing 8.96 to 21.56 g BW were subjected to salinity regimes of 0-10‰ for 28 days. All the fish survived in 0-7‰, and 100% death was recorded in 9 and 10‰. Different levels of behavioural responses to threat and feeding were observed among the fish. Salinities 0-7‰ were tolerated by the fish, however the most preferred salinity was 1‰. The present study as demonstrated in the laboratory therefore, suggests the possibility of culturing Nile tilapia, O. niloticus in both fresh and low brackish water environments and as added data to the existed reviews on this economically valued fish species. The salinity regimes well that were tolerated and preferred for optimal survival, growth and behavioural performances of O. niloticus are therefore investigated.

  12. Natural Reproductive Success and Demographic Effects of Hatchery-Origin Steelhead in Abernathy Creek, Washington : Annual Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center

    2008-12-01

    Many hatchery programs for steelhead pose genetic or ecological risks to natural populations because those programs release or outplant fish from non-native stocks. The goal of many steelhead programs has been to simply provide 'fishing opportunities' with little consideration given to conservation concerns. For example, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has widely propagated and outplanted one stock of winter-run steelhead (Chambers Creek stock) and one stock of summer-run steelhead (Skamania stock) throughout western Washington. Biologists and managers now recognize potential negative effects can occur when non-native hatchery fish interact biologically with native populations. Not only do non-native stocks pose genetic and ecological risks to naturally spawning populations, but non-native fish stray as returning adults at a much higher rate than do native fish (Quinn 1993). Biologists and managers also recognize the need to (a) maintain the genetic resources associated with naturally spawning populations and (b) restore or recover natural populations wherever possible. As a consequence, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the NOAA Fisheries have been recommending a general policy that discourages the use of non-native hatchery stocks and encourages development of native broodstocks. There are two primary motivations for these recommendations: (1) reduce or minimize potential negative biological effects resulting from genetic or ecological interactions between hatchery-origin and native-origin fish and (2) use native broodstocks as genetic repositories to potentially assist with recovery of naturally spawning populations. A major motivation for the captive-rearing work described in this report resulted from NOAA's 1998 Biological Opinion on Artificial Propagation in the Columbia River Basin. In that biological opinion (BO), NOAA concluded that non-native hatchery stocks of steelhead jeopardize the continued existence of

  13. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation Creston National Fish Hatchery, FY 2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooley, Sharon

    2009-03-20

    A total of 350,000, M012 strain, westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) eggs were received from Montana Fish Wildlife & Parks (MFWP), Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in June of 2005 to accomplish this fishery management objective. These eggs were incubated, hatched and reared entirely inside the hatchery nursery building using a protected well water supply. Fish grew according to schedule and survival was excellent. The hatchery achieved a 0.78 feed fed to pounds gained conversion ratio for this group of WCT. Not all of the progenies from this fish lot were used for Hungry Horse Dam Fishery Mitigation Implementation. Some were used for other regional fishery management projects. Westslope cutthroat trout were reared using approved fish culture techniques as recommended in the USFWS Fish Hatchery Management Handbook and also utilizing a regimen adapted for hatchery specific site conditions. The fish health for these WCT was very good. Survival from first feeding fry stage to stocking was 79%. The hatchery had an annual fish health inspection performed by the USFWS Bozeman Fish Health Center in mid March of 2006. This inspection found all fish lots at Creston to be disease free. The Montana State Fish Health Board has placed the hatchery under a limited quarantine since May of 2005 due to an epizootic of Furunculosis. This classification has allowed the Creston NFH to stock disease free fish in locations approved by regional fish managers. The hatchery has been working with the State Fish Pathologist to remove the limited quarantine classification from the facility. Although fish health for all station fish lots remains disease free, MFWP has asserted it will not remove the limited quarantine until the new influent water treatment system, including the ultraviolet disinfection unit, is running full time, year round. The USFWS is working to secure the additional funding necessary to operate the treatment building year round. Distribution of the WCT took place from March

  14. Biostable insect kinin analogs reduce blood meal and disrupt ecdysis in the blood-gorging Chagas’ disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-gorging hemipteran that takes blood meals that are approximately 10 times its body weight. This blood meal is crucial for growth and development and is needed to ensure a successful molt into the next instar. Kinins are a multifunctional family of neuropeptides which hav...

  15. The Three Gorges Dam: A great leap backward for China's electricity consumers and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, P.; Ryder, G. [Probe International, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-12-16

    Reasons why the Three Gorges Dam, the largest hydroelectric power project in the world, is not only an environmental disaster, but also an economically unsound undertaking for the Chinese economy are discussed. The thrust of the argument is that rapid advancement in technology, in combination with the economic reforms to decentralize electric power production in China, will allow private enterprise to be in direct competition with the Three Gorges (and other bid dam) projects. These factors, combined with the economic pressures resulting from the shutting down of money-losing state enterprises and consequently, a significant reduction in the demand for electricity, spell disaster for the big dam projects conceived during the centrally-planned, Maoist era. Because of the Three Gorges project's unusually large size, the outdated and unreliable power transmission networks in China, and because the local state transmission grids are not connected to China's national grid, the central government will have to invest some $ 30 billion over the next three years in a new national transmission grid. The aggregate result of these events will be that competition from cheaper, cleaner power producers (such as combined cycle power producers) will price the Three Gorges power out of the market by the time it is expected to go into production in 2009. Based on the assessment of reputable world economic and engineering organizations, Probe International recommends cancellation of the project to avoid environmental and economic disaster. 61 refs.

  16. Application of Vegetation Geosynthetic Technique to Slope Stability in the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fei; Wang Yuanhan

    2005-01-01

    The vegetation geosynthetic reinforced slope is one of the new composite structures in civil engineering. It has a series of characteristics, such as low cost, convenient construction, optimal land utilization and flexible structure, and it has been widely used in hydraulic engineering, road, railway and harbor construction. The Three Gorges reservoir bank protection system is a challenging work. As the background, the interaction mechanism of soil and reinforced material has been studied. The test engineering is simulated by the numerical methods. The failure mechanism of the reinforced slope in the process is studied through analyzing the variation of the displacement, stress, plastic failure fields and factor of safety in the changing process of the water level. The reasonable evaluation of the protecting effect and bank slope stability is carried out. The research results could be used in the protective design and construction in the high slope in the Three Gorges reservoir region, and it also could provide reference to other protective engineerings in the littoral area.

  17. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is 0.87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members’ quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations,with impact coefficient of 0.74. Thus,the problems influencing the performance of organizations,in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,are pointed out. Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  18. Orientation of the monastery churches of Ovčar-Kablar gorge (the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovčar-Kablar gorge is after Fruška Gora Mountain the area with the largest number of old Serbian monasteries. This paper analyzes church orientation of all nine monasteries of the gorge from mathematical-geographical point of view, focusing on the churches of six monasteries that originate from the so called extended Middle Ages. Of these six churches only the axis of the Church of the Holy Trinity is directed exactly to the equinoctial east. Considering the means and methods that the chief architect could use, the orientation of monastery church of Vavedenje (“Presentation of Mary” with the aberration of only 4° can be also regarded as accurate. Moreover, this aberration could be the consequence of a mistake made by the chief architect about the date of equinox, which is also the case with the aberration of the monastery church of Sretenje (“Presentation of Our Lord”. The axis of the monastery church of Blagoveštenje (“Annunciation” is approximately directed to the point of the sunrise of summer solstice. Only the axis of the monastery church of Nikolje (“St Nicholas”, the oldest in the group of six of conditionally medieval churches, is out of the eastern sector of the horizon i.e. only this axis is not oriented in accordance with the ideal-type church rule.

  19. Geochemical "fingerprints" for Olduvai Gorge Bed II tuffs and implications for the Oldowan-Acheulean transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Lindsay J.; Njau, Jackson K.; de la Torre, Ignacio; Pante, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Bed II is a critical part of early Pleistocene Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Its deposits include transitions from humid to more arid conditions (with associated faunal changes), from Homo habilis to erectus, and from Oldowan to Acheulean technology. Bed II (~ 1.8-1.2 Ma) is stratigraphically and environmentally complex, with facies changes, faulting, and unconformities, making site-to-site correlation over the ~ 20 km of exposure difficult. Bed II tuffs are thinner, less evenly preserved, and more reworked than those of Bed I. Five marker tuffs (Tuffs IIA-IID, Bird Print Tuff (BPT)), plus local tephra, were collected from multiple sites and characterized using stratigraphic position, mineral assemblage, and electron probe microanalysis of phenocryst (feldspar, hornblende, augite, titanomagnetite) and glass (where available) composition. Lowermost Bed II tuffs are dominantly nephelinitic, Middle Bed II tuffs (BPT, Tuff IIC) have basaltic components, and upper Bed II Tuff IID is trachytic. The BPT and Tuff IID are identified widely using phenocryst compositions (high-Ca plagioclase and high-Ti hornblende, respectively), though IID was originally (Hay, 1976) misidentified as Tuff IIC at Loc 91 (SHK Annexe) in the Side Gorge. This work helps establish a high-resolution basin-wide paleolandscape context for the Oldowan-Acheulean transition and helps link hominin, faunal and archaeological records.

  20. Characterization of Landslide Deformations in Three Gorges Area Using Multiple InSAR Data Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Liao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the areas with steep topography and vulnerable geological condition, landslide deformation monitoring is an important task for risk assessment and management. Differential Synthetic-Aperture Radar interferometry (D-InSAR and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PS-InSAR are two advanced SAR Interferometry techniques for detection, analysis and monitoring of slow moving landslides. The techniques can be used to identify wide displacement areas and measure displacement rates over long time series with millimeter-level accuracy. In this paper, multiple SAR datasets of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT C-band Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR are used for landslide monitoring with both D-InSAR and PS-InSAR techniques in Badong at the Three Gorges area in China. Two areas of significant deformation along the southern riverbank of Yangtze River in Badong are identified by joint analyses of PS-InSAR results from different data stacks. Furthermore, both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the PS-InSAR results are carried out together with preliminary correlation analysis between the time series deformation of a PS point in high risk location and the temporal variation of water level in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  1. Environmental emigration stress of slope farmland in the Three Gorges area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The project of 'grain for green', to restore woodland and grass by retreating from slopefarmland, as a fundamental measure of eeo-environmental rehabilitation, is being conducted in thereservoir area of the Three Gorges gradually. However, the de-farming of slope farmland will reducethe amount of farmland in de-farmed areas, especially in the areas with concentrated slope farmland,which would cause the problems of environmental emigration. The people who cannot regain enoughfarmland by relocating farmlands within village after de-farming and have to emigrate to other placesare called environmental emigrants or ecological emigrants. In the research, a de-farming stress indexmodel and an environmental emigration model are developed based on GRID data, and the potentialamount of environmental emigration caused by de-farming of slope farmland in the reservoir area issimulated aided with GIS. The simulation indicates that the potential emigration amount caused byde-farming is quite large. When the de-farming stress index reaches 40%, the amount is as large as890,000 people, which is equivalent to the emigrants caused by the submergence of the ThreeGorges reservoir. So it should be considered as a big problem during the eco-environmentalrehabilitation in this area. Some suggestions are raised to tackle the problem. Firstly, the emigrationplan should be included in the de-farming plan. Secondly, some provinces, especially those located inthe lower reaches of the Yangtze River, should accommodate part of the environmental emigrants.

  2. Chinese engineers and scientists urge leadership to change Three Gorges Dam operating plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An appeal to the Chinese Leadership by a group of senior engineers, water management experts and academics about the dire consequences of filling the Three Gorges reservoir on the Yangtze River to 175 metres, is reported. Originally, the plan was to keep water levels behind the Three Gorges Dam at 156 metres for the first ten years of operation, in order to allow for resettlement of people displaced by building the dam, and to evaluate the impact of silt deposits on navigation and ports at the upper end of the reservoir. Plans have changed in 1997; the water level is now scheduled to rise to 175 metres in the sixth year of the dam's operation in order to maximize the dam's power output. The appeal by 53 experts warned the Chinese Government that the filling of the reservoir to 175 metres would displace 1.13 million people and raise the water level in the Yangtze River more than 10 metres at Chongqing City, submerging drainage outlets and backing up the city's sewage, as well as increase silt deposits, blocking shipping traffic along the Yangtze River. A parallel is drawn with the Sanmenxia Dam on the Yellow River. It was completed in 1960; it has proven to be useless for controlling floods while producing only one-third of its expected output due to massive silt build-up in the reservoir

  3. Monitoring Crustal Deformation by GPS and InSAR in the Three Gorge Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The on-going Three Gorges Project (TGP) aims to build one of the largest hydropower stations in the world. Previous investigations have concluded that the reservoir is likely to induce medium-to-intense earthquakes. 23 GPS stations have been established to maintain a geodetic and seismological monitoring network around the reservoir to monitor seismicity and crustal deformation, and to facilitate mitigation activities in case an intense earthquake occurs. The velocity of GPS site was derived from 3 repeated GPS surveys. Meanwhile, another effort has been made to investigate the feasibility of application of satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques in detecting crustal deformation possibly caused by impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It has been made to derive digital elevation models (DEM) using European Remote Sensing (ERS) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. Pairs of ERS SAR images in raw format are processed to generate digital elevation models. This effort will help us evaluate the accuracy of the InSAR techniques for further derivation of background deformation patterns and future detection of reservoir-induced crustal deformation in the area.

  4. Impacts of Soil-Water Conservation in Jialing River on Sedimentation of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Xiaozhang; CAO Shuyou; JIANG Xiaohua

    2006-01-01

    The Jialing River is one of the main tributaries of the Yangtze River. The average annual runoff accounts for 16% and the sediment load 26% of the total at Yichang therefore it's one of the main contributors of sediment to the Three Gorges Reservoir. Ever since 1989, our country has implemented "Yangtze River soil and water conservation" project, Till the end of 1996, altogether 25.8 % of erosion area in Jialing River has been improved after large scale conservation has taken effect. The analysis and comparison between records taken before and after the implementation of soil and water conservation on runoff and sediment yield indicated that the sediment load soil erosion in Jialing river basin has been taken under control to some extent. Amount of annual runoff in main conservations have generally dropped by exponential function. Obvious result has been achieved in Jialing River, efficiency of sand reduction is about 10%-25%. Therefore, sediment to Three Gorges Reservoir is decreased accordingly, and it will be beneficial to take advantage of reservoir's synthetic benefit.

  5. Development and research on the GIS-based landslide prediction system of the Three Gorges area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qiao; Tang, Zhongshi; Wang, Haiwei

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we discussed the development and research of the GIS-based landslide prediction system of the Three Gorges area. First of all, we systematically revisited the basic issues of the landslide prediction, including the principles of landslide prediction, the division of sliding-time and sliding-deformation stages, prediction parameters selection and monitoring sites selection. In addition to reviewing the landslide prediction models, this paper detailed discussed an improved model which makes an integration of the results of multiple prediction models. On the basis of those landslide prediction models, we developed a GIS-based landslide prediction system by using Visual C#.NET and ESRI ArcObjects components. Finally, this paper selected two typical landslide cases in the Three Gorges area: the Xintan landslide and the Lianzi Cliff dangerous rock body, and used the system to calculate and analyze. It validated the applicability and accuracy of the prediction models, made a test of the practicality of the system, and achieved good results.

  6. Status of two Coreius species in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuguo; Lloret, J.; Li, Zhongjie; Zhang, Tanglin; Ye, Shaowen; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing; Perera, H. A. C. C.; Liu, Jiashou

    2016-01-01

    Dam construction alters natural flow regimes which, in turn, cause significant changes in fish communities during and after impoundment. The construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir, from impoundment of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River, China, may have affected native fish species. Thus, the status of two lotic freshwater fish species, Coreius heterodon and C. guichenoti, were monitored in the Three Gorges Reservoir, including fish abundance, individual composition, growth, condition, and mortality. Data on both species were gathered from upstream, midstream and downstream areas of the reservoir and, where available, from studies published before and after dam construction. Lower abundance, slower growth, a less diversified age structure, poorer fish condition (indicated by hepatosomatic index) and higher mortalities were recorded in sites nearest the dam compared with upstream areas. Furthermore, after final impoundment, individual Coreius species inhabiting the area changed, with young individuals becoming more abundant, while upstream of the reservoir the two Coreius species became smaller at a given age. The results show that the status of the two Coreius species was subject to dramatic changes after impoundment.

  7. Tomographic study of the velocity structure of the Three Gorges region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Z.; Gurrola, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Three Gorges (TG) located to the northern part of the Yangtze Craton. The crustal structure and tectonic history of TG region drew significant attention after the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. Since then many geophysical and geological surveys have been conducted in TG region to investigate the crustal structure. These surveys provided in-depth understanding of the distribution of general geologic features such as basin, faults, and crust-mantle interface. However, the detailed information, such as the depth of basins, dipping of faults, and the topography of the Moho, is still controversial. From 2008 to 2011, we deployed temporary networks in TG region each summer. A number of local and teleseismic events were recorded. Here we use the local small earthquakes to estimate the velocity structure of TGR region through multiscale tomography. The detailed basin structures and locations of faults are identified by comparing the resolved velocity model with the geologic map and the seismic reflection images. As part of this project we will be testing efficiency of different 2-D tomography methods to determine the relative effectiveness of each. One will use cells of constant velocity the other will have velocities at nodal point and assume continuously varying velocities as all positions. Continuing study based on the results of this paper may reveal more detail of the tectonic activity of TG region in geologic history.

  8. Impacts of the Three Gorges Dam on microbial structure and potential function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qingyun; Bi, Yonghong; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Shi, Zhou; Li, Jinjin; Wang, Xi; Hu, Zhengyu; Yu, Yuhe; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam has significantly altered ecological and environmental conditions within the reservoir region, but how these changes affect bacterioplankton structure and function is unknown. Here, three widely accepted metagenomic tools were employed to study the impact of damming on the bacterioplankton community in the Xiangxi River. Our results indicated that bacterioplankton communities were both taxonomically and functionally different between backwater and riverine sites, which represent communities with and without direct dam effects, respectively. There were many more nitrogen cycling Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Limnohabitans), and a higher abundance of functional genes and KEGG orthology (KO) groups involved in nitrogen cycling in the riverine sites, suggesting a higher level of bacterial activity involved in generating more nitrogenous nutrients for the growth of phytoplankton. Additionally, the KO categories involved in carbon and sulfur metabolism, as well as most of the detected functional genes also showed clear backwater and riverine patterns. As expected, these diversity patterns all significantly correlated with environmental characteristics, confirming that the bacterioplankton communities in the Xiangxi River were really affected by environmental changes from the Three Gorges Dam. This study provides a first comparative metagenomic insight for evaluating the impacts of the large dam on microbial function. PMID:25721383

  9. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region. PMID:21889782

  10. Geographical Overview of the Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir, China - Geologic Hazards and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir on the Yangtze River, China, has been an ambitious and controversial project. The dam, the largest in the world as of 2008, will provide hydropower, help to manage flood conditions, and increase the navigability of the Yangtze River. However, this massive project has displaced human and animal populations and altered the stability of the banks of the Yangtze, and it may intensify the seismic hazard of the area. It has also hindered archeological investigations in the reservoir and dam area. This report, originally in the form of a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation, gives a short history and overview of the dam construction and subsequent consequences, especially geologic hazards already noted or possible in the future. The report provides photographs, diagrams, and references for the reader's further research - a necessity, because this great undertaking is dynamic, and both its problems and successes continue to evolve. The challenges and consequences of Three Gorges Dam will be closely watched and documented as lessons learned and applied to future projects in China and elsewhere.

  11. Reactivation of extremely large paleosinkholes in the Three Gorges Dam area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Lei, M.

    2012-12-01

    Many large sinkholes and tiankengs were found in the Three Gorges Dam area. Most of these features were paleokarst landforms formed within Triassic carbonate rocks. However, one large sinkhole collapsed on May 30, 1997 in Baotaping, Fengjie area. The collapsing process lasted approximately 30 minutes and formed a 20 m deep and 20 - 25 m wide elliptical shaped sinkhole. Karst features including springs, large sinkholes, caves, joints, and fracture zones were mapped in the study area. In addition, three large paleosinkholes were reported in the study area. Geophysical survey and model experimental study of the Baotaping sinkhole reveals that the collapse of this sinkhole was the result of the reactivation of a paleosinkhole. The Beimengou sinkhole in Ziyang village was an extremely large paleosinkhole with a depth of nearly 60 m. Geologic investigation of this sinkhole demonstrates that this sinkhole was likely formed within the lower Triassic (T1j) limestone and propagated to middle Triassic (T2b) carbonates. The mechanism of the formation of Beimengou sinkhole is probably similar to Tiankengs found in the Fengjie area. Karst feature investigation in the study area shows that many large paleosinkholes and Tiankengs exist within lower and middle Triassic carbonate rocks in the Three Gorges Dam area. Water level and hydrodynamic changes after the construction of the world's largest dam may induce geohazards such as landslides and reactivations of large paleosinkholes in the future.

  12. Distribution and clinical features of Paragonimiasis skrjabini in Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-lin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Guang-xi; Chen, Wen-bi; He, Xie; Niu, Hui; Li, Zhen-lian; Chen, Lin; Wang, Li-fang

    2012-12-01

    Paragonimiasis has previously been reported in the Southwest Provinces of China, including Chongqing and Sichuan. The construction of Three Gorges Dam, which was begun in 1994, has resulted in substantial changes to the depth and the flow pattern of the Yangtze River. To investigate epidemiology of the paragonimiasis, 724 people aged 2-49 years were selected and examined for Paragonimus infection by intradermal test (IDT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A survey of eating habits was conducted face-to-face in 5 endemic counties. Freshwater crabs were collected from seven sites in the 5 counties to determine the rate of infection with Paragonimus metacercariae. Additionally, we analyzed 213 case reports from the region dated 2006 to 2009. According to the survey results, the prevalence of Paragonimus skrjabini infection in freshwater crab was 39.65%, and the human infection rates detected by IDT and ELISA were 14.36% (104/724) and 7.46% (54/724), respectively. These results show that the Three Gorges Reservoir is still an area of high paragonimiasis endemicity. The water level of the Yangtze River has risen to 175 m, and the area of water coverage in the region has increased to 1084 km(2). These conditions will favor the growth and expansion of the freshwater crab population. PMID:22814214

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenhouse gas emissions from Three Gorges Reservoir of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Wu, B. F.; Zeng, Y.

    2013-02-01

    Anthropogenic activity has led to significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG), which is thought to play important roles in global climate changes. It remains unclear about the kinetics of GHG emissions, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous Oxide (N2O) from the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) of China, which was formed after the construction of the famous Three Gorges Dam. Here we report monthly measurements for one year of the fluxes of these gases at multiple sites within the TGR region, including three major tributaries, six mainstream sites, two downstream sites and one upstream site. The tributary areas have lower CO2 fluxes than the main storage; CH4 fluxes in the tributaries and upper reach mainstream sites are relative higher. Overall, TGR showed significantly lower CH4 emission rates than most new reservoirs in temperate and tropical regions. We attribute this to the well-oxygenated deep water and high water velocities that may facilitate the consumption of CH4. TGR's CO2 fluxes were lower than most tropical reservoirs and higher than most temperate systems. This could be explained by the high load of labile soil carbon delivered through erosion to the Yangtze River. Compared to fossil-fuelled power plants of equivalent power output, TGR is a very small GHG emitter - annual CO2-equivalent emissions are approximately 1.7% of that of a coal-fired generating plant of comparable power output.

  14. Chinese engineers and scientists urge leadership to change Three Gorges Dam operating plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-26

    An appeal to the Chinese Leadership by a group of senior engineers, water management experts and academics about the dire consequences of filling the Three Gorges reservoir on the Yangtze River to 175 metres, is reported. Originally, the plan was to keep water levels behind the Three Gorges Dam at 156 metres for the first ten years of operation, in order to allow for resettlement of people displaced by building the dam, and to evaluate the impact of silt deposits on navigation and ports at the upper end of the reservoir. Plans have changed in 1997; the water level is now scheduled to rise to 175 metres in the sixth year of the dam's operation in order to maximize the dam's power output. The appeal by 53 experts warned the Chinese Government that the filling of the reservoir to 175 metres would displace 1.13 million people and raise the water level in the Yangtze River more than 10 metres at Chongqing City, submerging drainage outlets and backing up the city's sewage, as well as increase silt deposits, blocking shipping traffic along the Yangtze River. A parallel is drawn with the Sanmenxia Dam on the Yellow River. It was completed in 1960; it has proven to be useless for controlling floods while producing only one-third of its expected output due to massive silt build-up in the reservoir.

  15. Weathering Characteristics of Sloping Fields in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-Tao; XU Fei-Fei; CAI Yi; YANG Da-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of understanding the weathering characteristics of surface layers in purple mudstone sloping fields of the Three Gorges Reservoir area of China, oxide content of major elements, composition of clay minerals, magnetic susceptibility, and difference in weathering characteristics of surface layers under different slope gradients were determined.The results showed that the oxide content of Si, Al, and Fe ranged from 60% to 75% and the weathering coefficient with depth showed no trend along the slope gradient. Also, for gentle (10° and 15°) and intermediate (25° and 40°) slopes the clay relative diffraction peak for kaolinite at the surface between 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm declined with an increase in slope gradient, while the relative diffraction peak for kaolinite in weathered layers on steep slopes (50° and 60°) disappeared altogether. Magnetic susceptibility decreased with increasing depth and, for a given depth layer, decreased with an increase in slope gradient. Analysis of the oxide content, weathering coefficients, clay minerals, and magnetic susceptibility showed that in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, the pedogenesis of the weathering layer in purple mudstone sloping fields was weak with weaker soil formation going from gentle slope to steep slope.

  16. 生物安全柜的质量控制%Quality Control of Biological Safety Cabinet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞; 武文军; 熊陆平; 赵鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To ensure the safety and reliability of using biological safety cabinet(BSC) based on analyzing the quality and performance of BSC. Methods According to the correlative domestic and international criteria, the BSC performance testing content and key projects were analyzed and compared. Results Physical and biological performance tests of BSC included at least leak-tightness of carcass, integrity of high efficiency particulate air(HEPA) filter, airflow velocity of down -flow, airflow velocity of in -flow, airflow pattern, person protection, product protection and cross contamination protection. Conclusion The government should institute laws to regulate quality control of BSC. The laboratory should establish quality management system for periodic checking of BSC.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2012,33(5):113-115]%目的:分析生物安全柜的质量和性能,保障实验室人员安全、可靠地使用生物安全柜.方法:根据国内外相关标准,分析和比较了生物安全柜性能检测的内容和关键项目.结果:生物安全柜的物理和生物性能检测至少包括柜体防泄漏,高效过滤器完整性,下降气流流速,流入气流流速,气流模式,人员、产品与交叉污染保护.结论:国家应制定强制性法规,规定生物安全柜的质量控制;实验室应建立质量管理制度,对生物安全柜进行周期检测.

  17. Low-cost mobile hatchery produced silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus) fingerling:it's growth and economic performance in intensive culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SM Mustafizur Rahman; Biplob Basak; Siddhwartha Kumar Basak; Md Rushna Alam; Md Mohsin Ali; Mohammad Mahfujul Haque

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the growth performance of low-cost mobile hatchery produced silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus) fingerling comparing with typical one, field laboratory complex hatchery. Methods:Assigning Treatment I and Treatment II stoked with low-cost mobile hatchery and field laboratory complex hatchery originated fingerling of silver barb in plastic circular tank. Results:The average weight gain (g/day) of fish was 0.18 and 0.16 g, length gain (cm/d) 0.03 and 0.02, gross yield 0.09 and 0.08 kg/tank per month, net yield 0.03 and 0.01 kg/tank per month respectively in Treatment I and Treatment II. The growth of low-cost mobile hatchery produced silver barb was higher (P Conclusions:The fry from both origins showed more or less similar growth performance and none of them was superior. Considering the economic feasibility in both cases, it is assumed that the intensive culture of silver barb is possible at field level.

  18. 通信用热交换型户外机柜节能降噪设计%Design of Energy-saving and Noise Reduction of Heat Exchange Outdoor Cabinet for Telecommunication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭峰

    2012-01-01

    Design of energy-saving and noise reduction of heat exchange outdoor cabinet for telecommunication breaks the conventional use of the integrated heat exchanger design, and innovates the design of heat exchange outdoor cabinet with new design of cabinet structure and most simple fan and cooling air duct It is better than integrated heat exchange outdoor cabinet in direct costs, noise, energy consumption, even higher than fan outdoor cabinet in the noise and energy consumption, its performance indicators are above the industrial standard, which truly achieves low power dissipation, non-polluting, high level of protection.%通信用热交换型户外机柜节能降噪设计突破常规使用的集成式热交换器的设计,以一个全新设计的机柜结构,以最简单的风机加散热风道的设计革新了热交换户外机柜的设计,在直接成本、噪音、能耗上均比集成式热交换户外机柜要好,甚至在噪音和能耗上高于风扇型户外机柜,各项性能指标均高于行标.真正达到功耗小、无污染、防护等级高.

  19. Gabinetes de partido único y democracias presidenciales. Indagaciones a partir del caso argentino Single Party Cabinets and Presidential Democracies: insights from the Argentinean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo CAMERLO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los gabinetes presidenciales se ha focalizado predominantemente en las formaciones de coalición, distinguiendo a los ministros en función de su afiliación partidaria particularmente en los momentos de instauración y terminación del gabinete. Este artículo desplaza el foco de análisis hacia los gabinetes de partido único para indagar las modalidades de selección de ministros en situaciones donde el soporte legislativo de coalición pierde relevancia. Se propone un modelo de análisis que incluye la observación de afiliaciones extrapartidarias, capacidades técnicas individuales y vínculos personales con el presidente, y se lo aplica al estudio del caso argentino. Los resultados sugieren que presidentes bien posicionados tienden a aplicar estrategias de distribución de ministerios más cerradas, con grados de institucionalidad que dependen de la organización partidaria del presidente y su estilo de liderazgo.The study of presidential cabinets has mainly focused on coalitional formations, distinguishing individual ministers in terms of their party affiliation particularly at cabinet instauration and termination. This article moves the focus to single-party cabinets to study minister appointment in situations where the legislative support is less relevant. A model of analysis that observes extra-partisan affiliations, individual technical skills and personal liaison with the president is proposed and exploratory applied to the Argentinean case. The results suggest that well positioned presidents tend to apply closer strategies of portfolio distribution, with levels of institutionalization that depends on the president’s party organization and the president’s style of leadership.

  20. Monitoring the Dynamic of a Fluvial Channel after Lahar Disturbance: Huiloac Gorge (Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, N.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Tanarro, L. M.; Renschler, C.; Sanjosé, J. J.; Atkinson, A.

    2009-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions generate disturbances that affect hydrological systems (Major, 2003) by depositing large volumes of sediments in watersheds that exceed amounts common to non-volcanic river systems (Montgomery, 2005). If the eruption releases abundant melt water, the river system may respond immediately by forming hazardous flows called lahars. River system recovery following eruptive and laharic impact is an important process, but it has received little attention (Gran and Montgomery, 2005) despite the fact that Major et al. (2000) and Hayes et al. (2002) have shown that these disruptions cause long term instability and their effects persist for decades. Lahar deposits resulting from interaction between volcanic activity and the glacier located above the Huiloac Gorge on the northern slope of Popocatepetl volcano (19°02´ N, 98°62´ W, 5,424 m), have infilled the gorge (Palacios, 1995; Palacios et al., 1998 and 2001; Capra et al., 2004; Muñoz, 2007). All of the major lahars that occurred on the volcano in 1995 (4 km), 1997 (21 km), and 2001 (14 km) have channelled through Huiloac Gorge, and have dramatically altered its morphology and dynamics through erosion and deposition. The present study traces these changes in the aftermath of the laharic events that occurred from 1997-2001. A sector of the channel, located at 3200m-3240m altitude, of 500 m long and 15 to 20 m wide, in the mid-section of the gorge, was chosen as the control site. Precipitation is heaviest there and is most apt to trigger secondary post-eruptive lahars. ArcGis software was used to draw 6 geomorphic maps of the site showing spatial variations in the landforms for the period February 2002 - February 2008. In addition, 29 cross-profiles were made of the gorge for the same time interval, excluding February 2004. The volume of sediment eroded and deposited was calculated for each date by comparing variations in the height of the floor and banks of the gorge depicted in the cross-profile, and

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  3. Morphologic observations on respiratory tracts of chickens after hatchery infectious bronchitis vaccination and formaldehyde fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, A M; Soñez, M C; Plano, C M; von Lawzewitsch, I

    2000-01-01

    The histologic changes in the respiratory tracts of chickens were evaluated after hatchery fumigation with 40% formaldehyde vapors and vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus with live attenuated vaccine (Massachusetts serotype). One-day-old chickens were housed in four isolation units in controlled environmental conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, and separated into four groups: 1) fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group); 2) nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV group); 3) fumigated and nonvaccinated birds (FNV group); and 4) control group (C group). All birds were tested to be free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. After necropsy on the first, eighth, and twenty-sixth days after birth, samples from tracheal upper portion and lungs were conventionally processed for light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue response was monitored by microscopic examination of trachea and lung. On the first day of observation, fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group) showed extensively damaged tracheal epithelium with exfoliated areas and some active glands with electrodense granules, and in the lung, the primary bronchi epithelium had disorganized cilia and abundant lymphocytes, with emphysematous areas in tertiary bronchus. On day 8 after vaccination, cubical and cylindrical tracheal cell proliferation was observed, and on day 26, ciliated columnar epithelium was almost regenerated with heterophil corion infiltration, and hyaline cartilage nodules appeared in parabronchi. The nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV) revealed less injury on the epithelial surface and a more rapid response to epithelial regeneration than the in only fumigated animals (FNV). The control group did not show remarkable morphologic changes. Postvaccinal and fumigation effects on the upper respiratory tract were temporary, whereas in lungs, increased emphysema, cartilage nodules in the interchange zone, and general lymphocyte infiltration had caused

  4. Conservation and ecofriendly utilization of wetlands associated with the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, J H Martin; Li, Ruoxi; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2013-10-01

    The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River in China has created a major reservoir in which the water level fluctuates annually by about 30 m, generating a drawdown zone of up to 350 km(2) in summer. Since construction of the dam, there has been scientific and public interest in how to use the drawdown zone resources in environmentally sustainable ways. To this end, and with government support, an international conference was held in Chongqing Municipality (China) in October 2011 on the subject of conservation and ecofriendly utilization of wetlands in the Three Gorges Reservoir. The conference proceedings were subsequently published in the Journal of Chongqing Normal University. The proceedings reports are reviewed here in the context of other relevant literature. The proceedings included papers on ecology, ecodesign and ecological engineering, erosion control, plant production and carbon sequestration, phytoremediation of pollution, hydrosystem management, and others. Several of the reports derive from experimental work conducted at a research field station on the Three Gorges Reservoir situated in Kaixian County, Chongqing Municipality. Plant communities in the drawdown zone are declining in diversity and evolving. Experimental plantings of flood-tolerant edible hydrophytes in a dike-pond system reveal their potential to provide economic returns for farmers, and flooding-tolerant trees, such as cypresses, also show promising results for stabilizing soils in the drawdown zone. Flood-tolerant natural plant communities vary strongly with depth and their composition provides useful indicators for revegetation strategies. In the region surrounding the reservoir, remnant natural broad-leaved evergreen forests are most effective in sequestering carbon, and within the drawdown zone, carbon is mostly stored below ground. There is strong interest in the potential of aquatic plants for removal of pollutants, notably N and P, from the reservoir water by means of floating beds

  5. Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    This study is related to the design of anti-slide piles for several landslides in Wanzhou city located in the Three Gorges area. Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir the hydro-geological conditions in this area have deteriorated significantly, leading to larger instability problems. China has invested a lot of money in slope stabilization measures for the treatment of landslides in the Three Gorges area. One of the methods for the stabilization of large landslides is the design of anti-sliding piles. This paper focuses on extensive slope stability analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of the landslide masses, and the parameters required for designing the number, size and dimensions of reinforced concrete stabilization piles. The study focuses on determining the rock parameters, anchor depth, and the pile and soil interaction coefficient. The study aims to provide guidelines for anti-slide pile stabilization works for landslides in the Wanzhou area. The research work contains a number of aspects. First a study is carried out on the distribution of pressures expected on the piles, using two different methods that take into account the expected pore water pressure and seismic acceleration. For the Ercengyan landslide , the Limit Equilibrium Method and Strength Reduction Method of FEM are compared through the results of the landslide pressure distributions on the piles and stress fields in the piles. The second component is the study of the required anchor depth of antislide piles, which is carried out using a statistical analysis with data from 20 landslides that have been controlled with anti-sliding piles. The rock characteristics of the anchor locations were obtained using laboratory tests, and a classification of rock mass quality is made for the anchors of antislide piles. The relationship between the critical anchor height and the angle of the landslide slip surface is determined. Two different methods are presented for the length

  6. Simulation analysis of within-day flow fluctuation effects on trout below flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Railsback, S. F.; Hayse, J. W.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; EPRI

    2006-01-01

    In addition to being renewable, hydropower has the advantage of allowing rapid load-following, in that the generation rate can easily be varied within a day to match the demand for power. However, the flow fluctuations that result from load-following can be controversial, in part because they may affect downstream fish populations. At Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah, concern has been raised about whether flow fluctuations caused by the dam disrupt feeding at a tailwater trout fishery, as fish move in response to flow changes and as the flow changes alter the amount or timing of the invertebrate drift that trout feed on. Western Area Power Administration (Western), which controls power production on submonthly time scales, has made several operational changes to address concerns about flow fluctuation effects on fisheries. These changes include reducing the number of daily flow peaks from two to one and operating within a restricted range of flows. These changes significantly reduce the value of the power produced at Flaming Gorge Dam and put higher load-following pressure on other power plants. Consequently, Western has great interest in understanding what benefits these restrictions provide to the fishery and whether adjusting the restrictions could provide a better tradeoff between power and non-power concerns. Directly evaluating the effects of flow fluctuations on fish populations is unfortunately difficult. Effects are expected to be relatively small, so tightly controlled experiments with large sample sizes and long study durations would be needed to evaluate them. Such experiments would be extremely expensive and would be subject to the confounding effects of uncontrollable variations in factors such as runoff and weather. Computer simulation using individual-based models (IBMs) is an alternative study approach for ecological problems that are not amenable to analysis using field studies alone. An IBM simulates how a

  7. Natural Selection and Genetic Drift: Neutral and adaptive genetic variability of hatchery versus wild populations in brown trout Salmo trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Schenekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetic drift and natural selection are two of the major forces shaping the genetic makeup of a population. Genetic drift reduces genetic variability due to the random loss of alleles during the transition from one generation to the next one. The smaller the population, the stronger genetic drift is. Natural selection favors the spread of specific alleles within a population over time, namely those alleles that are beneficial in the specific environment of this population. Individuals that carry alleles that are less advantageous have a lower probability to survive and reproduce. For establishing a captive population, very often, only a small number of individuals are taken and the number breeding individuals used to maintain the population is limited, thus increasing the amount of genetic drift. On the other hand, the drastically different environment in captivity (artificial diet, higher individual density, altered pathogen pressure, etc. may favor alleles that are maladaptive for individuals when they are released back in the wild, e.g. for stocking measures. We screened both, neutral and adaptive genetic markers, in order to assess the relative importance of genetic drift and selection pressure on wild and hatchery populations of Austrian brown trout. We confirm a strong positive selection pressure on an adaptive locus of the Major histocompatibility Complex (MHC, whereas the signal of this selection pressure was more pronounced in hatchery populations. This may either stem from stronger genetic drift in wild populations due to smaller effective population sizes or a stronger directional selection in these wild populations, whereby only particular genetic variants proved to be adaptive in each specific environment. Therefore, the alleles arising from the hatchery selection regime may be detrimental in the wild, which can lead to lower survival rates of stocked fish in wild environments.

  8. Comparison of the riverine and early marine migration behaviour and survival of wild and hatchery-reared sea trout Salmo trutta smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik; Koed, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    The seaward migration of wild (n = 61) and hatchery-reared (n = 46) sea trout smolts was investigated in the Danish River Gudenaa and Randers Fjord (17.3 and 28.6 km stretch, respectively) using acoustic telemetry. Their riverine and early marine migration was monitored by deploying automatic...... listening stations (ALS) at four locations in the river and fjord. Migration speeds were approximately three to eleven times faster in the river than in the early marine environment. Hatchery-reared smolts migrated faster than wild smolts, but the difference was small, especially compared to the large...... differences in migration speeds among habitats. There was no difference in the diurnal activity pattern between wild and hatchery-reared smolts. Both the riverine and early marine migration activity was primarily nocturnal, although some individuals were also recorded by the ALSs during daytime. The survival...

  9. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Idaho Department of Fish and Game Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighting 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 figs.

  10. Study of Disease and Physiology in the 1979 Homing Study Hatchery Stocks: A Supplement to "Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing", 1979 by Slatick, Gilbreath, and Walch.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Anthony J.; Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1981-09-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration, is conducting research on imprinting salmon and steelhead for homing (Slatick et al. 1979, 1980; Novotny and Zaugg 1979). The studies were begun with little background knowledge of the effects of disease or certain physiological functions on imprinting and homing in salmonids. Consequently, work aimed at filling this void was begun by the authors in 1978 (Novotny and Zaugg 1979) and continued in 1979. In 1979, we examined random samples of normal populations of homing test fish at the hatcheries to determine the physiological readiness to migrate and adapt to seawater and general fish health. At the Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington, we determined the survival of samples of the test fish maintained in marine net-pens after release from the hatcheries. Hatcheries and stocks sampled are listed in Table 1.

  11. Nez Perce tribal hatchery project : combined-planning and design and operations and maintenance reports, annual report, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2000 Combined Maintenance and Operations (O and M) and Planning and Design (P and D) contract is hereby completed based on this annual report patterned after the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration. Primary project activities focused on completion of the Northwest Power Planning Council Step-3 process that: (1) Accepted final design, (2) Authorized a capital construction amount of $16,050,000, and (3) Authorized contractor selection, and (4) Provided construction site dedication, and (5) Implemented construction activities over an anticipated 2-year period of July 2000 through October 2002

  12. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff, (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Creston National Fish Hatchery, Kalispell, MT)

    2004-02-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually

  13. The reason and precaution of rectifier cabinet of locomotive SS7E%浅析SS7 E机车整流柜故障原因及防止措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽玲

    2015-01-01

    针对检修过程中频现的SS7E整流柜击穿及刚上车整流柜出现击穿的现象,通过分析整流柜的结构,工作原理,工作特点并结合实际工作情况寻找关键原因,解决问题,减少了事件的发生。%This article mainly concentrate on the frequent occurrence of the puncture of rectifier cabinet of locomotive SS7E and the puncture of the rectifier cabinet when the locomotive just started.Solved this problem by analysis the construction of rectifier cabinet, working principle, working characteristics and combined the Actual work.

  14. Analysis of potential impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on archaeological sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.

    1955-12-01

    An archaeological field study was conducted along the Green River in the areas of Little Hole and Browns Park in Utah and Colorado. The purpose of the study was to measure the potential for hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam to directly or indirectly affect archaeological sites in the study area. Thirty-four known sites were relocated, and six new sites were recorded. Information was collected at each site regarding location, description, geomorphic setting, sedimentary context, vegetation, slope, distance from river, elevation above river level, and site condition. Matching the hydrologic projections of river level and sediment load with the geomorphic and sedimentary context at specific site locations indicated that eight sites were in areas with a high potential for erosion.

  15. Optical dating of the Jingshuiwan Paleolithic site of Three Gorges, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Shuwen; ZHANG Jiafu; GAO Xing; ZHOU Liping; FENG Xingwu; CHEN Fuyou

    2006-01-01

    The Jingshuiwan Paleolithic site occupies the second terrace on the right bank of the Yangtze River. The lithic assemblage is characterized by choppers and scrapers made on pebbles and large flakes--the typical lithic industry of South China. Deposits of the site are mainly composed of fluvial sediments. Quartz grains extracted from these fluvial sediments from which the artifacts were uncovered were dated using the optically stimulated luminescence/single-aliquot regenerative-dose technique. The dating results show that ancient human activities at this site took place in the early Upper Pleistocene (ca. 70 ka). The successful age analysis of the Jingshuiwan site is considered as a major break- through in chronological analysis of Paleolithic open site in the Three Gorges region and even in South China. The dates obtained help to establish a more complete chronological framework of the Paleolithic cultural sequence in the region, and bear significant implications in studying modern human origins in China.

  16. Runoff Simulation of Three Gorges Area in the Upper Yangtze River during 1998 Flood Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jian; Gabor BALINT; Balazs GAUZER

    2005-01-01

    The contribution of areal precipitation of the catchment from Cuntan to Yichang (Three Gorges area)to eight flood peaks of the Upper Yangtze River (the upper reaches of the Yangtze River) is diagnosed for 1998 flood season. A rainfall-runoff model is employed to simulate runoffs of this catchment. Comparison of observed and simulated runoffs shows that the rainfall-runoff model has a good capability to simulate the runoff over a large-scale river and the results describe the eight flood peaks very well Forecast results are closely associated with the sensitivity of the model to rainfall and the calibration processes. Other reasons leading to simulation errors are further discussed.

  17. Spatial Disparity of Slope Farmland and Food Security in Three Gorges Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liming; FENG Renguo; YANG Yanfeng; GUAN Qingfeng

    2004-01-01

    As an important measure of ecoenvironmental construction, the process of de-farming in slope farmland is being undertaken gradually in the whole China. Meanwhile, the problem of reducing in food yield in de-farming areas can not be neglected any more. It is especially the case in areas with concentrated slope farmland and inconvenient transportation. In this paper, we analyze the causes of hidden troubles in food security, and the spatial relationship between farmland and slope farmland in the reservoir area of Three Gorges, and unveil the spatial disparity of contradictions between food supply and demand. Finally, combining the accessibility of areas, three different spatial types of food security, food security area, food alert area, and food crisis area, are divided.

  18. Spatial prediction of landslide for Badong County in the Three Gorges reservoir district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiming TANG; Yiping WU

    2006-01-01

    By using the landslide risk evaluating model and the advantages of GIS technology in image processing and space analysis, the relative landslide hazard and risk evaluating system of the new county site of Badong is built up. The system is mainly consisted of four subsystems: Information management subsystem, hazard assessment subsystem, vulnerability evaluation subsystem and risk prediction subsystem. In the system, landslide hazard assessment, vulnerability evaluation, risk predictions are carried out automatically based on irregular units. At last the landslide hazard and risk map of the study area is compiled. During the whole procedure, Matter-Element Model, Artificial Neural Network, and Information Model are used as assessment models. This system provides an effective way for the landslide hazard information management and risk prediction of each district in the Reservoir of Three Gorge Project. The result of the assessment can be a gist and ensure for the land planning and the emigration project in Badong.

  19. Demonstration of three gorges archaeological relics based on 3D-visualization technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenli

    2015-12-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the digital demonstration of three gorges archeological relics to exhibit the achievements of the protective measures. A novel and effective method based on 3D-visualization technology, which includes large-scaled landscape reconstruction, virtual studio, and virtual panoramic roaming, etc, is proposed to create a digitized interactive demonstration system. The method contains three stages: pre-processing, 3D modeling and integration. Firstly, abundant archaeological information is classified according to its history and geographical information. Secondly, build up a 3D-model library with the technology of digital images processing and 3D modeling. Thirdly, use virtual reality technology to display the archaeological scenes and cultural relics vividly and realistically. The present work promotes the application of virtual reality to digital projects and enriches the content of digital archaeology.

  20. MODELING OF THE DIVERSION CHANNEL CLOSURE FOR THE THIRD STAGE OF THE THREE GORGES PROJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangqian WANG; Baosheng WU; Junqiang XIA

    2004-01-01

    The closure of third stage diversion channel for the Three Gorges Dam is characterized by large closure discharge, large drop in water surface, and high gap velocity. 1D and 2D flow mathematical models were used in this paper to simulate the hydraulic conditions during the closure. The variation of discharge in the diversion channel and the drops in water surface shared by the upstream and downstream cofferdams were computed using the 1D model, and the detailed hydraulic patterns in the diversion channel were simulated using the 2D model. The computed results indicate that the designed closure scheme for discharge of 9,010 m3/s was feasible for construction, while the designed closure scheme for discharge of 12,200 m3/s was inapplicable.

  1. Exploiting pattern and sustainable development of marginal lands in the Three Gorge Reservoir Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper studied the distribution and utilization status,reasonable exploitation patterns and potential productivity, and sustainable development of marginal lands in the Three Gorge Reservoir Areas. It has been pointed that problems of the soil fertility degradation, poor productivity in crop lands, natural disasters and environmental deterioration existed in all the exploited marginal lands. In order to maintain the sustainability of the marginal lands, following measure have been proposed: prohibiting cultivation in the crop lands with a slope more than 25°, restoring vegetation in the slope more than 25°, strengthening the basic agricultural construction, establishing the production base of woody feeds and oils, establishing a multi-dimensional management model with reasonable structure and optimumfunction for forestry, agriculture and fishing.

  2. Sediment Deposition Pattern and Flow Conditions in the Three Gorges Reservoir: A Physical Model Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴奎; 邵学军; 李丹勋

    2003-01-01

    Sedimentation in the Three Gorges Reservoir will greatly affect future project functions, such as power generation and navigation, after 50 years of operation. This paper presents results of a physical model study, which indicate that the capacity of both the discharge tunnel and the power plant outlet could be impaired by sediment deposition in front of the dam after 50 years, affecting both the hydropower head and navigation. A flow training scheme based on the third-stage cofferdam for the dam construction is proposed to regulate the flow pattern and control deposition in the near-dam region of the reservoir. This flow training scenario can effectively reduce deposition in the physical model.

  3. Assessment of Rural Migrants’Resettlement in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Chang-chun; DUAN Yue-fang; HUANG Ting-zheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the rural migrants’ resettlement in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and provide a reference for formulating the later migrant support policies, we select 342 rural migrants from County A in Hubei Province and County B in Chongqing Municipality for the household survey. The survey results show that after removal, housing, and infrastructure (electricity, transportation, communication, household appliances) concerning the migrants are improved substantially, but there are still some problems in water drinking, land, employment and income restoration. The later support should put great emphasis on the following aspects: including the rural migrants into the social security system; improving drinking water and irrigation facilities; promoting industrial restructuring; strengthening skills training and education for the migrants, to gradually enrich the migrants and make them live a comfortable life.

  4. Assessment of pollutant biodegradation at the Yangtze three gorges dam, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranzioch, Irene; Tiehm, Andreas [DVGW Technologiezentrum Wasser (TZW), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The microbiological degradation of pollutants in the aquatic environment is affected by several key factors such as (1) the composition of the microbial community, (2) the oxidation-reduction-conditions, i.e. the availability of electron acceptors and electron donors, and (3) the mass transfer processes (e.g. biovailability of pollutants). As part of the joint Sino-German Yangtze project (www.yangtze-project.de), the Water Technology Centre (TZW) studies the microbial transformation processes with samples taken at the three gorges dam (TGD) area. In particular molecular microbiological methods such as the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) are adapted and applied for a specific monitoring. The first studies focussed on the presence of dechlorinating bacteria and the degradation of halogenated substances. The experiments provide more insight into biodegradation processes and thus contribute to a better understanding of pollutant conversion in the Yangtze area. (org.)

  5. Ten years of the Three Gorges Dam: a call for policy overhaul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiankun; Lu, X. X.

    2013-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world’s largest source of ‘clean’ hydroelectric power (Shen and Xie 2004), has entered its tenth year after the first turbine went into operation in June 2003. The dam, with a generating capacity 20 times that of the United States’ Hoover Dam, has been hailed as a crucial part of a solution to China’s energy crisis. Despite great benefits, however, major concerns have been voiced over the disastrous environmental and social consequences of this massive engineering project (Stone 2011). In this paper, we review the benefits and impacts learned from the controversial megadam over the past decade and discuss perspective quests on policy overhaul for future environmental protection.

  6. Primary Investigations on Yangtze River Bank Slope Stability in Wanzhou for the Three Gorges Reservoir Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wenxing; Yin Kunlong; Xu Yixian

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the main factors contributing to bank slope failures, such as the structure of rock and soil, water level change, bank slope gradient, vegetation, weathering and human activities. Based on these investigations, the bank slope failure models are analyzed. The stability of bank slopes in Wanzhou is investigated using geological surveying, 2D resistivity imaging surveying, excavated trenches and other methods. Finally, the disasters of bank slope failures in Wanzhou were investigated in detail. The results show that instability problems might occur in 60.38 km of bank slopes when the water level rises to 175 m. It is suggested that 37.8 km of unstable bank slopes should be stabilized, and 14.2 km of unstable banks should be moved or avoided after further geological surveying and reconnaissance. These results provide scientific basis and reliable data for the government to develop the third geodisaster prevention plan for the Three Gorges reservoir.

  7. Ecosystem health evaluation system of the water-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ao; YUAN Hui; ZHANG Yan-hui; HU Gang

    2004-01-01

    This paper discribes the definition of ecosystem health for the water-level flutuation zone of the Three Gorges Region and puts forward an evaluation system involving indicators in three groups: 1) structural indicators comprise slope, biodiversity,environmental capacity, stability, restoration ability and damage situation; 2) functional indicators including probability of geological hazard, erosion rate, habitat rate, land use intension and days of tourist season; 3) environmental indicatiors made up of population quality, potential intension of human, ground water quality, ambient air quality, wastewater treatment rate, pesticide use rate, fertilizer use rate, environmental management and public participation. In the design of the system, the subject zone is regarded as the type similar to wetland and the impacts of human activities on the zone are attached great importance to.

  8. Chemical quality of surface water in the Flaming Gorge Reservoir area, Wyoming and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, R.J.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1973-01-01

    Construction of Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation started in 1959, and storage began in November 1962. A reconnaissance study was made during the period 1966-68 to determine the effects of the reservoir on the chemical quality of the effluent water and to describe the quality of the impounded water and inflowing water. The major inflow to the reservoir is from the Green River, which contributes an average of 81 percent of the water and 59 percent of the inflow load of dissolved solids. Together, Blacks Fork and Henrys Fork contribute an average of about 16 percent of the water and about 23 percent of the dissolved-solids load, whereas minor tributaries contribute approximately 3 percent of the total inflow water to the reservoir, but about 18 percent of the total incoming load of dissolved solids. The concentration of dissolved solids in the reservoir in October 1966 was about 150 mg/l (milligrams per liter) greater than the concentration of the 1962-66 inflow and in September 1968 about 95 mg/l greater than the concentration of the 1962-68 inflow. The increased concentration is due. mostly to leaching of minerals from the reservoir bottom. For the 1963-68 water years, about 1.2 million tons of dissolved solids was leached from inundated areas. The major observable difference between the chemical composition of the inflow during 1963-66 and that of the reservoir in 1966 is an increase in the percentage of sulfate and a decrease in the percentage of bicarbonate. Impoundment of water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir during the 1963-68 water years caused the concentration of dissolved solids in the river system to increase by 130 mg/l, or about 32 percent over what would have occurred without the reservoir. Evaporation accounted for an increase of 15 mg/l, and leaching accounted for an increase of 115 mg/l.

  9. Evaluating Vegetation Health Condition Using MODIS Data in the Three Gorges Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩贵锋; 谢雨丝; 蔡智

    2015-01-01

    The satellite-based vegetation condition index (VCI) and temperature condition index (TCI) have been used extensively for drought detection and tracking, the assessment of weather impacts on vegetation and evaluation of the health and productivity of vegetation. In this study, in order to detect and monitor the growth condition of vegetation, we have collected data on vegetation indices and land surface temperature derived from MODIS (2001-2012) and deifned a vegetation health index (VHI) based on VCI and TCI for assessing vegetation health condition in the Three Gorges Area, China (TGA). The results of the study show that temporal and spatial characteristics of vegetation health condition can be detected, tracked and mapped by the VHI index. In most parts of the TGA, the vegetation health condition showed an overall increasing trend during the study period, especially in Wulong, Fengdu, Shizhu and other regions located in the midstream sections of the Three Gorges Reservoir. In addition, the four studied vegetation types all showed clear increasing trends during the study period. The increasing trend in the vegetation health condition shows a strong positive correlation with topographical slope and altitude (below 500 m). Over the seasons, this trend is strongest in autumn, followed by spring. However, the correlations between vegetation health condition and climatic factors are more frequently significant in summer and winter than in autumn and spring. The vegetation health condition has been low in 2006 and 2011. This finding is consistent with the extreme weather conditions in those two years. However, only in the summer is vegetation health condition signiifcantly correlated with three climatic factors in most of the study area. This result implies that vegetation growth may show a lagged response to climatic factors and may also be affected by human activities, including agricultural activities, industrial activities and other economic activities.

  10. Distribution of nutrients and chlorophyll a in the Three-Gorges Reservoir,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chongming; ZHANG Sheng; LIU Jinghong; WEI Shiqiang; ZHANG Yong; GAO Jixi

    2006-01-01

    The Three-Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is one of the largest water conservancy projects in the world. The status of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass has changed since the Three-Gorges Reservoir started water storage on June 1,2003. The distribution features of nutrients and chlorophyll a were deter mined by cruise monitoring during September 8 - 15, 2003. The results showed that the concentrations of dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) range from 1.01 to 1.35 mg · L-1, those of dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) from 0.028 to 0.054 mg · L-1. The concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus exceed the eutrophication standards of OECD, and the ratio of DTN to DTP is over 16: 1. It is shown that phos phorus is an eutrophication-limiting element in the water body. The concentrations of potassium range from 2.80 to 3.44 mg · L-1; those of total organic carbon from 1.92 to 2.59 mg · L -1; those of chlorophyll a from 1.58 to 7.53 mg · m-3 with an average value of 4.69 mg · m-3 at surface layer. Atrophic gradient could be observed from the oligotropher to the mesotropher in the flow direction. Phytoplankton biomass in creased significantly in the reservoir area than before. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.05, r = 0. 728 ) between chlorophyll a and NO3-N and a significant negative correlation (p < 0. 01, r = -0.9207) between chlorophyll a and turbidity were also observed. Distribution features could be well divided into three clusters in terms of systematic cluster analyses, including the upper-stream area cluster, the middle stream area cluster and the down-stream area cluster.

  11. Examining time trends in the Oldowan technology at Beds I and II, Olduvai Gorge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki

    2002-09-01

    The lithic analysis of the Bed I and II assemblages from Olduvai Gorge reveals both static and dynamic time trends in early hominids' technology from 1.8 to 1.2 m.y.a. The Bed I Oldowan (1.87-1.75 m.y.a.) is characterized by the least effort strategy in terms of raw material exploitation and tool production. The inclusion of new raw material, chert, for toolmaking in the following Developed Oldowan A (DOA, 1.65-1.53 m.y.a.) facilitated more distinctive and variable flaking strategies depending on the kind of raw materials. The unique characters of DOA are explainable by this raw material factor, rather than technological development of hominids. The disappearance of chert in the subsequent Developed Oldowan B and Acheulian (1.53-1.2 m.y.a.) necessitated a shift in tool production strategy more similar to that of Bed I Oldowan than DOA. However, the evidence suggests that Bed II hominids might have been more skillful toolmakers, intensive tool-users, and engaged in more active transport of stone tools than the Bed I predecessors. Koobi Fora hominids maintained a more static tool-using behavior than their Olduvai counterparts due mainly to a stable supply of raw materials. They differed from Olduvai hominids in terms of less battering of cores, consistent transport behavior, and few productions of side-struck flakes, indicating a regional variation of toolmaking and using practice. However, they shared with Olduvai hominids a temporal trend toward the production of larger flakes from larger cores after 1.6 m.y.a. Increased intake of animal resources and the expansion of ranging area of Homo ergaster would have led to the development of technological organization. Technological changes in the Oldowan industry are attested at Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora, and Sterkfontein, suggesting that it was a pan-African synchronous phenomenon, beginning at 1.5 m.y.a. PMID:12234546

  12. Analysis of the Movement of Sanzhouxi Landslide in Three-Gorges Reservoir, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Du; Kunlong, Yin; Yiping, Wu; Lixia, Chen

    2014-05-01

    Since the initial impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir in June 2003, a number of new landslides occurred and many dormant landslides were reactivated. Sanzhouxi Landslide located in Wanzhou, the city of Chongqing, 286.9 km west of the Three Gorges Dam and began to deform noticeably after the first impoundment in June 2003. Based on the collection of geological and monitoring data and field investigation, the geological conceptual model was established and the formation mechanism was studied synthetically. Firstly, the intrinsic geological condition, slope structure and material component were analyzed to obtain the geological basis of the landslide formation. Secondly, through the field investigation and analysis of monitoring data, the function of triggering factors, including rainfall and fluctuation of reservoir water level, were discussed. The result indicted that the hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy pressure caused by the rise up of reservoir water level are the main triggering factors for the deformation of landside. Finally, the formation pattern of the landslide was summarized, the formation process is the transition from retrogressive deformation caused by rainfall to the advancing sliding under the action of fluctuation of reservoir water level. The detail formation process is: (1) the top of landslide moved triggered by rainfall, (2) tension cracks occurred in the tongue and middle part of landslide caused by fluctuation of reservoir water level, (3) the tongue and middle part of landslide deformed periodically by the iterative action of rainfall and fluctuation of reservoir water level, (4) the unitive sliding plane formed and the tongue and middle part of landslide moved, (5) the top of landslide slid because of losing bottom supporting.

  13. Potential impacts of Three Gorges Dam in China on the ecosystem of East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baodong; BROCKMANN Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The Changjiang River in China was dammed in 2003.The possible changes in matters fluxes from the river downstream after the completion of Three Gorges Dam and their potential impacts on the ecosystem of the East China Sea are discussed.The estuarine and coastal waters in the East China Sea were heavily fertilized by the inflow of nutrient-rich freshwater from the Changjiang River, which has led to severe eutrophication and frequent harmful algal blooms,thus worsening the ecosystem health in this area.Analy- sis showed that the nutrient loadings are very likely to be reduced in the lower Changjiang River due to the construction of Three Gorges Dam.Especially for the total phosphorus,the discharges to the East China Sea will be reduced by one-third,which would relieve the severe eutrophication in this area.However,the expected decrease in the riverine silicate discharge would lead the ra- tio of silicon to nitrogen to be much less than 1 in the estuarine and coastal waters and thus may cause an elevation of flagellate growth.The changes in the annual water discharges and their seasonal distributions below the dam will be minor.Reduction of suspended particulate matter loading,due to the sedimentation behind the dam,will reduce the nutrient loadings of the particulate form especially for phosphorus,and decrease the turbidity of estuarine and coastal waters.On the other hand,this may enhance the erosion of the delta and the coasts as well as modifythe benthic ecosystem.

  14. Total Nitrogen Sources of the Three Gorges Reservoir--A Spatio-Temporal Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Ren

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial and temporal variation of nutrient concentrations, loads, and their distribution from upstream tributaries is important for the management of large lakes and reservoirs. The Three Gorges Dam was built on the Yangtze River in China, the world's third longest river, and impounded the famous Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR. In this study, we analyzed total nitrogen (TN concentrations and inflow data from 2003 till 2010 for the main upstream tributaries of the TGR that contribute about 82% of the TGR's total inflow. We used time series analysis for seasonal decomposition of TN concentrations and used non-parametric statistical tests (Kruskal-Walli H, Mann-Whitney U as well as base flow segmentation to analyze significant spatial and temporal patterns of TN pollution input into the TGR. Our results show that TN concentrations had significant spatial heterogeneity across the study area (Tuo River> Yangtze River> Wu River> Min River> Jialing River>Jinsha River. Furthermore, we derived apparent seasonal changes in three out of five upstream tributaries of the TGR rivers (Kruskal-Walli H ρ = 0.009, 0.030 and 0.029 for Tuo River, Jinsha River and Min River in sequence. TN pollution from non-point sources in the upstream tributaries accounted for 68.9% of the total TN input into the TGR. Non-point source pollution of TN revealed increasing trends for 4 out of five upstream tributaries of the TGR. Land use/cover and soil type were identified as the dominant driving factors for the spatial distribution of TN. Intensifying agriculture and increasing urbanization in the upstream catchments of the TGR were the main driving factors for non-point source pollution of TN increase from 2003 till 2010. Land use and land cover management as well as chemical fertilizer use restriction were needed to overcome the threats of increasing TN pollution.

  15. Small mammal community succession on the beach of Dongting Lake, China after the Three Gorges Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiwen; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Guo, Cong; Huang, Guoxian; Shen, Guo; Zhou, Xunjun

    2014-06-01

    Although the Three Gorges Project (TGP) may have affected the population structure and distribution of plant and animal communities, few studies have analyzed the effect of this project on small mammal communities. Therefore, the present paper compares the small mammal communities inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake using field investigations spanning a 20-year period, both before and after the TGP was implemented. Snap traps were used throughout the census. The results indicate that the TGP caused major changes to the structure of the small mammal community at a lake downstream of the dam. First, species abundance on the beaches increased after the project commenced. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), which rarely inhabited the beach before the TGP, became abundant (with marked population growth) once water was impounded by the Three Gorges Reservoir. Second, dominant species concentration indices exhibited a stepwise decline, indicating that the community structure changed from a single dominant species to a more diverse species mix after TGP implementation. Third, the regulation of water discharge release by the TGP might have caused an increase in the species diversity of the animal community on the beaches. A significant difference in diversity indices was obtained before and after the TGP operation. Similarity indices also indicate a gradual increase in species numbers. Hence, a long-term project should be established to monitor the population fluctuations of the Yangtze vole (Microtus fortis), the striped field mouse and the Norway rat to safeguard against population outbreaks (similar to the Yangtze vole outbreak in 2007), which could cause crop damage to adjacent farmland, in addition to documenting the succession process of the small mammal community inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake. PMID:24148252

  16. Study of Active Faults in the Three Gorges Dam region by Detecting and Relocating Aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.; Zhu, L.; Xu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seismicity in the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) region and its adjacent areas increased dramatically as the water- level of the TGD reservoir rises since its completion in 2003. Accordingly, many efforts have been put forward to quantify the seismicity and geological hazards in the region. However, the precise detective of earthquakes, especially for the minor ones, remains difficulty because of sparse distribution of permanent seismic stations. From December 2013 to June 2014, we deployed 30 three-component broadband seismic stations in the TGD region. During the deployment, we recorded two earthquakes of magnitudes lager than 5.0, one occurred on December 16th 2013 in Badong and another on March 30th 2014 in Zigui. We firstly used a sliding-window cross-correlation (SCC) detection technique to supplement the events catalog from the China Earthquake Networks Center. Over 500 new events with ML lager than 0.5 were detected. We then relocated 502 events out of the total 987 events using the double-difference (DD) relocation algorithm. We also determined moment tensors of some large earthquakes using gCAP. The results clearly show two active faults along Yangtze River with dips of 50 degrees and 90 degrees to a maximum depth of 10 km, respectively. And they also reveal that water might have permeated to a depth of 6 km corresponds to the interface of sediments and metamorphic basement beneath Zigui Basin. We thus preliminarily judge that the quakes are triggered by local stress adjustment resulting of fluctuation of Three Gorges reservoir's loading.

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenhouse gas emissions from Three Gorges Reservoir of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activity has led to significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG, which is thought to play important roles in global climate changes. It remains unclear about the kinetics of GHG emissions, including carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous Oxide (N2O from the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR of China, which was formed after the construction of the famous Three Gorges Dam. Here we report monthly measurements for one year of the fluxes of these gases at multiple sites within the TGR region, including three major tributaries, six mainstream sites, two downstream sites and one upstream site. The tributary areas have lower CO2 fluxes than the main storage; CH4 fluxes in the tributaries and upper reach mainstream sites are relative higher. Overall, TGR showed significantly lower CH4 emission rates than most new reservoirs in temperate and tropical regions. We attribute this to the well-oxygenated deep water and high water velocities that may facilitate the consumption of CH4. TGR's CO2 fluxes were lower than most tropical reservoirs and higher than most temperate systems. This could be explained by the high load of labile soil carbon delivered through erosion to the Yangtze River. Compared to fossil-fuelled power plants of equivalent power output, TGR is a very small GHG emitter – annual CO2-equivalent emissions are approximately 1.7% of that of a coal-fired generating plant of comparable power output.

  18. An Electrical Cabinet Dedicated Refrigeration Dehumidifier System%一种电柜专用制冷型除湿器系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫铮; 党建军; 高亚强; 李旺

    2014-01-01

    针对电柜专用除湿器中凝露危害设备安全运行的问题,通过半导体制冷技术将空气中的水分冷凝,并通过排水孔排出,利用低温除湿技术的优点,克服传统除湿器凝露对电柜运行所带来的危害。设计相应的控制系统与电源模块,使得在湿度超过设定值时,除湿器可以自动启动。%Electrical cabinet dedicated dehumid-ifier condensation endanger safe operation of equip-ment, semiconductor refrigeration technology through condensation of moisture in the air and is discharged through the drainage holes,and the ad-vantages of using low temperature dehumidifica-tion technology to overcome the traditional dehu-midifier condensation on the electrical cabinet,and to design control systems and power modules,mak-ing the humidity exceeds the set value,the dehu-midifier can be automatically activated.

  19. 我国快递业自提柜的应用研究%Research on the application of the lifting cabinet in the express industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田凤权

    2014-01-01

    电商模式近几年在我国得到飞速发展,其销售额逐年成倍增长,同时促进了快递业投递货物中的自提柜业务的发展。对我国快递业出现的自提柜业务模式的发展现状和发展中的瓶颈障碍进行了分析,并提出了自提柜的未来发展前景和发展建议。%Business model in recent years in our country obtained the rapid development,its sales increases year by year,while promoting the express industry to deliver the goods in the question of cabinet business development.The emergence of China's express industry since the development present situation and the development counter business model in the obstacle is analyzed,and proposed future development prospects and development proposals raise the cabinet.

  20. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column