WorldWideScience

Sample records for cabig terminology review

  1. A Systematic Review of Audiology Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-09-01

    The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels. PMID:27626085

  2. Terminology of Sexuality Expressions that Exclude Penetration: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menn, Mindy; Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, Buzz; Peck-Parrott, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    Precise terminology is paramount in sexuality education. Most sexuality research focuses on the dichotomous concepts of sexual intercourse and virginity, yet there are many expressions of sexuality classified as neither. The purpose of this literature review is to identify and examine the various terms and definitions describing sexuality…

  3. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Ylioja, Thomas; Lackey, Mellanye

    2016-01-01

    Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28–29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching. PMID:27219460

  4. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Ylioja, Thomas; Lackey, Mellanye

    2016-01-01

    Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching. PMID:27219460

  5. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G L Lee

    Full Text Available Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.

  6. A review on the risk management terminology for the use in standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report describes a result of reviews on the risk management terminology for the use in standards. Experiences in related technical fields and their definitions are reviewed according to the concepts and operational definitions of risk terminologies. It results into a draft standard for KS in the fields of product safety. Quality Assurance, Industrial and Occupational Safety, Financial Management and Risk Management, and others may show many different definitions for their own technical purpose. A draft KS standard for risk terminology must be revised and enhanced to be adopted to the product safety. However, this review does not provide a strict guide for use in the operational definitions of risk terms, but does provide a common base among application areas. The result of this review is submitted to Korea Standard Association in form of a draft KS standards, KS X 0000 : 2001 (ISO TBD : 1999), titled as ' Risk management terminology - Guidelines for use in standards '

  7. A review on the risk management terminology for the use in standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon

    2001-03-01

    This technical report describes a result of reviews on the risk management terminology for the use in standards. Experiences in related technical fields and their definitions are reviewed according to the concepts and operational definitions of risk terminologies. It results into a draft standard for KS in the fields of product safety. Quality Assurance, Industrial and Occupational Safety, Financial Management and Risk Management, and others may show many different definitions for their own technical purpose. A draft KS standard for risk terminology must be revised and enhanced to be adopted to the product safety. However, this review does not provide a strict guide for use in the operational definitions of risk terms, but does provide a common base among application areas. The result of this review is submitted to Korea Standard Association in form of a draft KS standards, KS X 0000 : 2001 (ISO TBD : 1999), titled as ' Risk management terminology - Guidelines for use in standards '.

  8. A Review of Auditing Methods Applied to the Content of Controlled Biomedical Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinxin; Fan, Jung-Wei; Baorto, David M.; Weng, Chunhua; Cimino, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Although controlled biomedical terminologies have been with us for centuries, it is only in the last couple of decades that close attention has been paid to the quality of these terminologies. The result of this attention has been the development of auditing methods that apply formal methods to assessing whether terminologies are complete and accurate. We have performed an extensive literature review to identify published descriptions of these methods and have created a framework for characterizing them. The framework considers manual, systematic and heuristic methods that use knowledge (within or external to the terminology) to measure quality factors of different aspects of the terminology content (terms, semantic classification, and semantic relationships). The quality factors examined included concept orientation, consistency, non-redundancy, soundness and comprehensive coverage. We reviewed 130 studies that were retrieved based on keyword search on publications in PubMed, and present our assessment of how they fit into our framework. We also identify which terminologies have been audited with the methods and provide examples to illustrate each part of the framework. PMID:19285571

  9. Whither "Peer Review"? Terminology Matters for the Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sonya L; Paulson, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    In two-year college writing classrooms and beyond, peer review is one of the most widely used tools for helping students improve their writing. Despite its widespread usage, however, it is one of the most diffuse, inconsistent, and ambiguous practices associated with writing instruction. This essay aims to explore the widely varying terminology…

  10. Alkali – activated binders: a review part 1. Historical background, terminology, reaction mechanisms and hydration products

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    The disintegration of concrete structures made of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is a worrying topic of increasing significance. The development of new binders with longer durability is therefore needed. Alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to OPC binders, which seems to have superior durability and environmental impact. This paper reviews current knowledge about alkali-activated binders. The subjects of Part 1 in this paper are historical background, terminology a...

  11. Terminology and Reporting Criteria for Radiofrequency Ablation of Tumors in the Scientific Literature: Systematic Review of Compliance with Reporting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Materials and Methods Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure ...

  12. Terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency ablation of tumors in the scientific literature: Systematic review of compliance with reporting standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for RF tumor ablation has been gaining support according to the recently published scientific reports, especially in the field of radiology

  13. Terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency ablation of tumors in the scientific literature: Systematic review of compliance with reporting standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for

  14. Development of the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Database: a caBIG Silver level compliant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Taoying; Shenoy, Pareen J; Sinha, Rajni; Graiser, Michael; Bumpers, Kevin W; Flowers, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    Lymphomas are the fifth most common cancer in United States with numerous histological subtypes. Integrating existing clinical information on lymphoma patients provides a platform for understanding biological variability in presentation and treatment response and aids development of novel therapies. We developed a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) Silver level compliant lymphoma database, called the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Data-system (LEAD), which integrates the pathology, pharmacy, laboratory, cancer registry, clinical trials, and clinical data from institutional databases. We utilized the Cancer Common Ontological Representation Environment Software Development Kit (caCORE SDK) provided by National Cancer Institute's Center for Bioinformatics to establish the LEAD platform for data management. The caCORE SDK generated system utilizes an n-tier architecture with open Application Programming Interfaces, controlled vocabularies, and registered metadata to achieve semantic integration across multiple cancer databases. We demonstrated that the data elements and structures within LEAD could be used to manage clinical research data from phase 1 clinical trials, cohort studies, and registry data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. This work provides a clear example of how semantic technologies from caBIG can be applied to support a wide range of clinical and research tasks, and integrate data from disparate systems into a single architecture. This illustrates the central importance of caBIG to the management of clinical and biological data. PMID:19492074

  15. Pediatric Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is working with NCI Enterprise Vocabulary Services (EVS) to provide standardized terminology for coding pediatric clinical trials and other resea

  16. Terminology used for renewable liquid and gaseous fuels based on the conversion of electricity: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    As the transport sector transitions away from fossil fuels and renewable fuels shift into focus, it is important that the terminology around renewable fuels is clarified. A number of terms such as synthetic fuel and electrofuel are used to describe both renewable and alternative fuels. The aim of...... results confirm that the term synthetic fuel is used generically in the majority of articles, without providing information about the production process of the fuel or differentiating between fossil-based and renewable-based synthetic fuels. The majority of the articles use the term synthetic fuel to...... describe fuels produced with coal-, gas- and biomass-to-liquid (xTL) technologies. However, a number of articles use the term beyond this definition. Results for the term electrofuel gave a similar outcome, as it was not clear which processes were used for the fuel production. In some cases, both synthetic...

  17. Cross-terminology mapping challenges: A demonstration using medication terminological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Saitwal, Himali; Qing, David; Jones, Stephen; Bernstam, Elmer; Chute, Christopher G.; Johnson, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Standardized terminological systems for biomedical information have provided considerable benefits to biomedical applications and research. However, practical use of this information often requires mapping across terminological systems—a complex and time-consuming process. This paper demonstrates the complexity and challenges of mapping across terminological systems in the context of medication information. It provides a review of medication terminological systems and their linkages, then des...

  18. Clinician Responses to Client Traumas: A Chronological Review of Constructs and Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Jason M; Nelson-Gardell, Debra; MacNeil, Gordon

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a chronologically-organized review of various concepts and constructs in the literature describing professional burnout, compassion fatigue, secondary traumatic stress reactions, as well as other related terms and constructs that have been used to describe these experiences among clinical practitioners and other social service professionals. A timeline will provide a graphic illustration of the historical relationships between the concepts under examination. This paper begins with a review of practitioner-related stress that primarily results from interaction with clients, followed by an examination of professional burnout, which is thought to result largely from environmentally-related issues. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of posttraumatic growth and compassion satisfaction. PMID:25951839

  19. Ethnoveterinary Knowledge of Azarbaijanian People about the Terminology and Pathogenesis of the Animal Infectious Diseases: A Historical and Modern Review of Iranian Native Veterinary Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Shayegh; Peyman Mikaili

    2011-01-01

    This a unique report about the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Azarbaijanian people about the terminology and pathogenesis of the animal infectious diseases in folkloric literature and the part of literature which has prolonged among the villagers and conserved its own existence but its terms have not registered in their written forms. Collecting and reviewing these terms about the animal diseases put an apparent persistence on the long experience among native Azerbaijani people (Iran) in its ve...

  20. Making anatomic terminology of the prostate and contiguous structures clinically useful: historical review and suggestions for revision in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robert P; Cheville, John C; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Herein we review nomenclature of the prostate and contiguous structures in each of the 10 official publications from the 1895 [Basel] Nomina Anatomica to the 1998 Terminologia Anatomica. We then compare existing clinical terminology with official terminology endorsed by anatomists over the years with a goal to modernize official terminology. Problematic terms, namely, lobes and lobuli, fascia versus capsule, Denonvilliers' fascia, and transition versus periurethral zone, are addressed. The idea of recognizing prostate arteries, veins, nerves, and neurovascular bundles is introduced. Prostatic and membranous urethras and the closely related external urethral sphincter are covered. We believe urogenital hiatus should also be called anterior levator hiatus. Trapezoid zone should be discarded in future editions of nomenclature. Our recommended changes are supported by a series of pertinent photographs of gross and whole mount histologic specimens and magnetic resonance images. Finally, we provide a new table of terms for the prostate with recommended amendments and deletions to existing official nomenclature as contained in the 1998 Terminologia Anatomica. PMID:19941362

  1. Eternal inflation and chaotic terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    ``Eternal inflation'' is often confused with ``chaotic inflation''. Moreover, the term ``chaotic inflation'' is being used in three different meanings (all of them unrelated to eternal inflation). I make some suggestions in an effort to untangle this terminological mess. I also give a brief review of the origins of eternal inflation.

  2. Civil engineering terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhta, Milan; Brunčič, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Among all crises, which have struck Slovenian construction industry, the crisis of civil engineering terminology is perhaps less noticeable, but still as important as all the others. The lack of fundamental characteristics of proper terminology causes a reasonable doubt whether Slovenian civil engineering terminology actually exists. After three editions of Splošni tehniški slovar (A General Technical Dictionary), a preparation of the new civil engineering dictionary represents one step towar...

  3. ABC3 Part I: a review of the guidelines for terminology, classification and management of cervical cytology in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J H F

    2012-12-01

    The provision of guidance on cytology reporting and evaluation, first outlined in 1995 with the publication of Achievable Standards, Benchmarks for Reporting, and Criteria for Evaluating Cervical Cytopathology (ABC), and subsequently revised and expanded in a second edition in 2000, has been pivotal to the success of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP), ensuring that standards are upheld, and that rigorous evaluation and quality assurance take place. In the last decade, major changes to the NHSCSP, notably the adoption of revised age ranges and screening intervals for all women in England, implementation of liquid-based cytology and, most recently, the decision to introduce high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing for triage of low-grade and borderline (equivalent to 'atypical') cytological abnormalities and test of cure after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) determined that an updated version of ABC was required. The third edition of ABC recommends adoption, with minor modification, of the revised British Society for Clinical Cytology terminology and provides guidance on the management of abnormal cytology results linked to this terminology taking account of HR-HPV testing. To accommodate these changes, expanded result codes, which are electronic codes used to transfer management information to central computers for follow-up, call and recall of individual women, have been developed. Further guidance on specimen adequacy is also provided. Revised performance indicators are described and explained in a separate article by R. Blanks in this issue of Cytopathology. All the changes in ABC3 are designed to support the mission statement of the NHSCSP that 'the objective of cervical screening is to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality by screening with a high sensitivity for the detection of CIN2 or worse, whilst maintaining a high specificity'. PMID:23173804

  4. E-terminology *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article addresses computer applications in terminology and terminography. Terminologists aim at creating source language terms and target language term equivalents for new concepts and thereby enhancing communication in various subject areas and domains. The worldwide market for terminological products is gradually expanding. There is an ever increasing need for the elaboration of terminologies and the distribution of terminologically relevant information, either in computerized form or in printed form, to provide available terminological data to as many users as possible. This article provides various strategies for different users to access multilingual terminology resources. On-line availability of terminological data can empower South African language practitioners and subject specialists. Matters dealing with terminological management systems form a vital part of this article. Outcomes, advantages, constraints and requirements regarding e-terminology are given.

    Keywords: COMPUTER APPLICATION, ELECTRONIC TERMINOLOGY, E-TERMINOLOGY, HUMAN?COMPUTER INTERFACE, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE, KNOWLEDGEBASED SOCIETY, LANGUAGE BARRIER, MACHINE TRANSLATION, MULTILINGUAL TERM EQUIVALENTS, MULTILINGUAL TERMINOLOGY, TERMINOLOGY APPLICATION

    Opsomming: E-terminologie. Hierdie artikel behandel rekenaartoepassings in terminologieen terminografie. Terminoloë stel hul ten doel om brontaalterme en doeltaalekwivalente virnuwe begrippe te skep en daardeur kommunikasie in verskeie vakgebiede en terreine te verbeter.Die wêreldwye mark vir terminologiese produkte brei geleidelik uit. Daar is 'n steeds groter wordendebehoefte aan die uitbouing van terminologieë en die verspreiding van terminologies relevanteinligting, in óf gerekenariseerde óf gedrukte vorm, ten einde die beskikbare terminologieseinligting aan soveel gebruikers moontlik te voorsien. Hierdie artikel bied verskeie strategieë aanverskillende gebruikers om toegang tot

  5. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration – or...... merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in...

  6. Nuclear power plant common aging terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report defines and encourages the use of a set of common terms and definitions that characterize aging and aging management of nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components. Common aging terminology encompasses the areas of degradation causes, degradation/aging, life, failure, and maintenance. The terminology should prove useful in plant license renewal, life-cycle management, maintenance, and equipment qualification. The principal intended benefits are improved reporting and interpretation of plant experience data (especially failure data) and improved interpretation and compliance with codes, standards, and regulations related to aging of nuclear power plants. The terminology was developed using a sound, systematic technical and lexicographical approach, as well as input from a committee with members from electric utilities, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and national research laboratories. Draft definitions received an extensive industry review. Formal comments were received from 19 organizations worldwide. The report presents the results of this effort and contains definitions, figures, examples of usage, dictionary definitions, and discussions describing the relationships among the 85 terms and 27 synonyms of the common aging terminology. The terms and definitions are generally consistent with similar terminology used by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). The common aging terminology has been reviewed by NUMARC and the NRC and is recommended for use throughout the nuclear power industry

  7. Morphing Terminology Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Hart, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Calapristi, Augustin J.

    2010-06-28

    This study investigates methods of automatically identifying and characterizing significant transitions in term usage over time. Within scientific literature, the occurrence of terms reflects the use of technologies and techniques as well as the study of specific species and materials. Transitions in terminology usage may be a result of vocabulary standardization or specialization in which terms are replaced with their shorter form. They may also be a result of new applications, combinations, alternatives, or interests that result in the appearance of new or existing terminology in unexpected contexts.

  8. [Terminology concerning intravenous ports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Rafał; Kłosińska, Katarzyna; Cichostępski, Dariusz; Dilling, Monika; Domke, Beata; Duraj, Marian; Fenikowski, Dariusz; Fuss, Julia; Góraj, Elwira; Grudzień, Paweł; Grzegorczyk, Iwona; Grzesiak, Joanna; Hasak, Liudmila; Janc, Jarosław; Kąkol, Michał; Kiluk, Marek; Kłobukowski, Wojciech; Leś, Jarosław; Leśnik, Patrycja; Lukasiewicz, Sergiusz; Małas, Tadeusz; Malczewska, Agnieszka; Mierzejewski, Marek; Misiak, Małgorzata; Nicpoń, Jakub; Pyrek, Beata; Rojek, Elżbieta; Siemiaszko, Anna; Siemiaszko, Grzegorz; Sieracki, Andrzej; Smiatacz, Marek; Sobczyk, Agnieszka; Starzec, Wioletta; Voloboyeva, Anna; Zdyb, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Ports are more and more often applied with patients requiring the permanent intravenous access, not only in the cancer treatment. Very devices, as well as procedures associated with applying them are determined in the heterogeneous way. Therefore during the last conference "Intravenous Port--implantation, care, complications" an attempt to systematize the applied terminology was made. PMID:26094345

  9. THE TERMINOLOGY OF LIBRARY SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Љиљана Матић

    2014-01-01

    The master’s thesis entitled The Terminology of Library Science presents the general state of the terminology of library science in the Serbian language and analyses the terminological system which was formed in the last couple of decades in relation to library and information science. The terminology of library science is seen as a characteristic of professional language. The research is conducted on a corpus which excludes sources relating extremely to either library science or information ...

  10. Coming to terms with the concept of moving species threatened by climate change - a systematic review of the terminology and definitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria H Hällfors

    Full Text Available Intentional moving of species threatened by climate change is actively being discussed as a conservation approach. The debate, empirical studies, and policy development, however, are impeded by an inconsistent articulation of the idea. The discrepancy is demonstrated by the varying use of terms, such as assisted migration, assisted colonisation, or managed relocation, and their multiple definitions. Since this conservation approach is novel, and may for instance lead to legislative changes, it is important to aim for terminological consistency. The objective of this study is to analyse the suitability of terms and definitions used when discussing the moving of organisms as a response to climate change. An extensive literature search and review of the material (868 scientific publications was conducted for finding hitherto used terms (N = 40 and definitions (N = 75, and these were analysed for their suitability. Based on the findings, it is argued that an appropriate term for a conservation approach relating to aiding the movement of organisms harmed by climate change is assisted migration defined as follows: Assisted migration means safeguarding biological diversity through the translocation of representatives of a species or population harmed by climate change to an area outside the indigenous range of that unit where it would be predicted to move as climate changes, were it not for anthropogenic dispersal barriers or lack of time. The differences between assisted migration and other conservation translocations are also discussed. A wide adoption of the clear and distinctive term and definition provided would allow more focused research on the topic and enable consistent implementation as practitioners could have the same understanding of the concept.

  11. Coming to terms with the concept of moving species threatened by climate change - a systematic review of the terminology and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällfors, Maria H; Vaara, Elina M; Hyvärinen, Marko; Oksanen, Markku; Schulman, Leif E; Siipi, Helena; Lehvävirta, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Intentional moving of species threatened by climate change is actively being discussed as a conservation approach. The debate, empirical studies, and policy development, however, are impeded by an inconsistent articulation of the idea. The discrepancy is demonstrated by the varying use of terms, such as assisted migration, assisted colonisation, or managed relocation, and their multiple definitions. Since this conservation approach is novel, and may for instance lead to legislative changes, it is important to aim for terminological consistency. The objective of this study is to analyse the suitability of terms and definitions used when discussing the moving of organisms as a response to climate change. An extensive literature search and review of the material (868 scientific publications) was conducted for finding hitherto used terms (N = 40) and definitions (N = 75), and these were analysed for their suitability. Based on the findings, it is argued that an appropriate term for a conservation approach relating to aiding the movement of organisms harmed by climate change is assisted migration defined as follows: Assisted migration means safeguarding biological diversity through the translocation of representatives of a species or population harmed by climate change to an area outside the indigenous range of that unit where it would be predicted to move as climate changes, were it not for anthropogenic dispersal barriers or lack of time. The differences between assisted migration and other conservation translocations are also discussed. A wide adoption of the clear and distinctive term and definition provided would allow more focused research on the topic and enable consistent implementation as practitioners could have the same understanding of the concept. PMID:25055023

  12. Medical radiology terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standardization achievements in the field of radiology induced the IEC to compile the terminology used in its safety and application standards and present it in publication 788 (1984 issue), entitled 'Medical radiology terminology'. The objective pursued is to foster the use of standard terminology in the radiology standards. The value of publication 788 lies in the fact that it presents definitions of terms used in the French and English versions of IEC standards in the field of radiology, and thus facilitates adequate translation of these terms into other languages. In the glossary in hand, German-language definitions have been adopted from the DIN standards in cases where the French or English versions of definitions are identical with the German wording or meaning. The numbers of DIN standards or sections are then given without brackets, ahead of the text of the definition. In cases where correspondance of the various texts is not so good, or reference should be made to a term in a DIN standard, the numbers are given in brackets. (orig./HP)

  13. Compilation of EMP terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive set of terms and expressions which have appeared in the EMP literature are presented in alphabetical order with some cross-referencing for terms of similar meaning. Multiple definitions or explanations for some of the terms are given, and some definitions have been modified slightly for conciseness or clarity. Such terminology does not yet represent a set of standards for the community, but some consistency of expression is evident. Users should be aware of multiple meanings given to similar terms in common usage

  14. A reference terminology for drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, W. D.; Wroe, C. J.; Rector, A. L.; Rogers, J E; Fistein, J. L.; Johnson, P.

    1999-01-01

    GALEN technology for re-usable terminologies using formal classification is being applied to the creation and maintenance of a reference terminology for drugs. GALEN's techniques are being used to address specific deficiencies of existing drug classifications that make it difficult to create and maintain guidelines to support prescribing in the care of patients with chronic diseases. The reference terminology is in two parts; firstly, a re-usable and automatically-classified 'ontology' is bui...

  15. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  16. Terminology matters: a critical exploration of corporate social responsibility terms

    OpenAIRE

    Baden, Denise; Harwood, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance and impact of terminology used to describe Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Through a review of key literature and concepts, we uncover how the economic business case has become the dominant driver behind CSR action. With reference to the literature on semiotics, connotative meaning and social marketing we explore how the terminology itself may have facilitated this co-opting of an ethical concept by economic interests. The broade...

  17. INIS: Terminology charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the INIS Reference Series. It is to be used in conjunction with the INIS indexing manual and the INIS thesaurus for the preparation of input to the INIS database. The thesaurus and terminology charts in their first edition (Rev.0) were produced as the result of an agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Except for minor changes the terminology and the interrelationships between terms are those of the December 1969 edition of the Euratom Thesaurus. The purpose of the terminology harts is to display the descriptors of the thesaurus in the context of their hierarchical and other semantic relationships. Hierarchically related terms are grouped in clusters, each representing one of the principal concepts of a subject field. The descriptors are grouped around or under the broadest term of the clusters which is printed in upper case. The hierarchical relationships within the clusters are shown by the arrangement of the terms in smaller boxes within the larger boxes circumscribing the clusters. The clusters are connected by lines of various thickness, representing the other (mostly non-hierarchical) relationships. These connections are the equivalent to 'see also' and 'related term' cross-references. The thickness of the lines represents the strength of the semantic relations, or, in the practice of a retrieval system the probability that one term replacing a connected term in a query, will still yield pertinent references. The figures accompanying the descriptors represent their frequency of assignment to the first 987,000 documents stored in the Euratom system (May 1970). They are presented in order to show the relative importance of the descriptors within the subject field. The asterisks (*) accompanying descriptors in the charts refer to descriptors, for which a scope note can be found in the INIS: Thesaurus at the time the charts went

  18. Geoscience terminology for data interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Workgroups formed by the Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) have been developing vocabulary resources to promote geoscience information exchange. The Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) was formed in 2003 to continue work of the Multhes working group of the 1990s. The Concept Definition Task Group was formed by the CGI Interoperability Working Group in 2007 to develop concept vocabularies for populating GeoSciML interchange documents. The CGI council has determined that it will be more efficient and effective to merge the efforts of these groups and has formed a new Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/geoscience_terminology_working_group.html). Each GTWG member will be expected to shepherd one or more vocabularies. There are currently 31 vocabularies in the CGI portfolio, developed for GeoSciML interchange documents (e.g. see http://resource.geosciml.org/ 201202/). Vocabulary development in both groups has been conducted first by gathering candidate terms in Excel spreadsheets because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Currently there are 30 vocabularies still required for GeoSciML v3, and 38 proposed vocabularies for use with EarthResourceML (https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML). In addition, a project to develop a lithogenetic map unit vocabulary to use for regional geologic map integration using OGC web map services is underway. Considerable work remains to be done to integrate multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, and to make the thesaurus compiled by the

  19. Nuclear terminology during forty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden terminology work in the field of nuclear technology started in the early 1950s. Three dictionaries were completed in 1962, 1975 and 1990, respectively, mainly through cooperation between Swedish Mechanical Standards Institution (SMS) and Swedish Centre for Technical Terminology (TNC). In parallel to this, international work has been performed through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). In conclusion, problems concerning some special terms are discussed. 17 refs

  20. Teaching administrative terminology in Catalan

    OpenAIRE

    Montesinos López, Anna Isabel

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with terminology teaching in the administration field in Catalan language in the context of the specialisation subjects that are offered in the Public Administration Management Degree of the Universitat Politècnica de València (Polytechnic University of Valencia). In this sense, we start from the idea that in order to develop a good system for the teaching of terminological units, previous descriptive studies are required regarding the lexical and specialised combina...

  1. Terminology mining in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlgren, Magnus; Karlgren, Jussi

    2009-01-01

    The highly variable and dynamic word usage in social media presents serious challenges for both research and those commercial applications that are geared towards blogs or other user-generated non-editorial texts. This paper discusses and exemplifies a terminology mining approach for dealing with the productive character of the textual environment in social media. We explore the challenges of practically acquiring new terminology, and of modeling similarity and relatedness of terms from observ...

  2. Consolidation of Heterogeneous Terminology Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiļjevs, Andrejs

    2010-01-01

    Andrejs Vasiļjevs This thesis researches data management and accessibility problems in the terminology domain. The thesis theoretically and practically demonstrates that the usability problems posed by the fragmentation and heterogeneity of terminology resources can be effectively solved with a federated multilingual database system that consolidates data representation and integration in authoring software. A unified consolidation methodology is proposed covering all major aspects from sc...

  3. Sport supporting act: terminology issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The text deals with terminology issues from an interdisciplinary point of view. It is based on two different disciplines, law and kinanthropology, in an area of their overlap. AIM: The aim of the author is to point out some possible legislative problems, which could arise due to the current reading of the sport supporting act (Act no. 115/2001. The second aim of the author is to contribute to the discussion of kinantropologists (possibly also the educational researchers and lawyers and to stress the importance of the systematic approach to terminology formulation. METHODS: The author uses the method of language interpretation. We also use the basic analytical methods, induction and deduction, while we stress the systematic approach to the term formulation. RESULTS: The analysis of the sport supporting act terminology shows some specific legislative problems, which could arise due to the definition of sport in the sport supporting act. The author discusses a possible alternative solution. CONCLUSION: According to the opinion of the author, clear, obvious and unified terminology of kinantropologists as specialists in their discipline should represent a source, from which other sciences could derive their terminology. Defined and inexpert terminology used in other disciplines should not be used as an argument for its adopting in kinanthropology.

  4. Terminology in Doing Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周樱

    2011-01-01

    Terminology plays an important role in doing business English translation.This paper will try to give tentative definitions of what is terminology,of what is business English translation,and render some examples to exemplify the significant impacts of terminology in doing BET.In author's opinion the scope of "terminology" is quite broad.

  5. The Changes in Architecture Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Tran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this research is to inspire a discussion about the changes in architecture terminologywith the revolution in communication and representation forms as a result of digitalisation.The blurred boundary between the virtual and the analogue worlds, the misunderstandings andthe confusion that appear with the interaction of these two worlds nowadays form the major problems facing architectural design, education and research. The researchers in this field arefocused on the interface, the meeting and the transformation point between the digital and analogue worlds in order to prevent those problems and confusions. One of the main reasonsof this ambiguity is the architectural terminology that changes according to the changing status of architectural representation i.e. new forms of representation; new forms of communicationi.e. the new role of the architect and the researcher.Whenever and wherever information and knowledge specialised is created, communicated ortransformed terminology is involved in a way or another. An absence of terminology is combined with an absence of an understanding of concepts. Therefore with the new information and communication technologies; new and developing subject areas the existence of terminology and its update is indispensable. Thus the changing status of the terminology must be analysed. As architecture terminology is essential to improve today’s challenging, multidisciplinary communication in order to clarify the problems of ambiguity and unawareness (as a result of shift of specific architectural vocabulary it is necessary to analyse the changes in the architectural terminology which will form the discussion point of the following paper.As this paper is the beginning step of a research project which started on the occasion of the conference proposed by EAAE/ARCC we will here present only the objectives of this research,its general problematics, the methods that we wish to develop and some provisional

  6. Functioning of the English tourism terminology in the guides to Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Прима, В. В.

    2015-01-01

    The article outlines main aspects of study of English tourism terminology, in particular, functional. General specific features of English guides and peculiarities of tourism terms functioning in them have been reviewed in the article.Attempted analysis of theoretical and practical aspects of investigating terminology in the works of contemporary scientists made it possible for us to identify a general tendency to consider terminological vocabulary from the points of view of semantics, struct...

  7. User Experimentation with Terminological Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pram Nielsen, Louise

    This paper outlines work-in-progress research suggesting that domain-specific knowledge in terminological resources can be transferred efficiently to end-users across different levels of expertise and by means of different information modes including articles (written mode) and concept diagrams...... (graph mode). An experimental approach is applied in an eye-tracking laboratory, where a natural user situation is replicated for Danish professional potential end-users of a ter-minology and knowledge bank in a chosen pilot domain (taxation)....

  8. INFOTERM – Information Disseminating Centre for Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Auksoriūtė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available International Information Centre for Terminology (INFOTERM was founded in 1971 by contract with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO and the Austrian Standards Institute (ASI. In 1996, INFOTERM was reorganized and established as an independent non-profit organization. INFOTERM promotes and supports the cooperation of existing and the establishment of new terminology centres and networks with the general aim to improve domain communication, knowledge transfer and provision of content with view to facilitating the participation of all in the global multilingual knowledge society. The article presents not only a history of the foundation of INFOTERM, the tasks and activities of INFOTERM and its members, which are international, regional or national terminology institutions, organizations and networks, as well as specialized public or semi-public or other non-profit institutions engaged in terminological activities, but also analyses “Guidelines for terminology policies”, preparied by INFOTERM, and cooperation between INFOTERM and the Institute of the Lithuanian Language.In conclusion, the experience and sharing expertise of INFOTERM regarding harmonized methods and guidelines for terminology management and policies, the management of terminology centres, terminology standardization, the use of terminological data, methods and tools in all applications etc are very important for all countries and language communities especially for countries and language communities with less mature terminologies. The Institute of the Lithuanian Language as a member of INFOTERM has a possibility to get information on terminology research and training, terminology publications, terminological events and activities all over the world.

  9. IBE Glossary of Curriculum Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNESCO International Bureau of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The International Bureau of Education (IBE) has compiled a "Glossary of Curriculum Terminology" offering definitions for over 180 terms related to the curriculum. It is also intended to be a working reference tool for specialists, educators and practitioners, and therefore feedback and suggestions are invited to help us to continue to…

  10. Interrater agreement for Critical Care EEG Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Nicolas; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; LaRoche, Suzette M.; Hahn, Cecil D.; Westover, M. Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective The interpretation of critical care electroencephalography (EEG) studies is challenging because of the presence of many periodic and rhythmic patterns of uncertain clinical significance. Defining the clinical significance of these patterns requires standardized terminology with high interrater agreement (IRA). We sought to evaluate IRA for the final, published American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS)–approved version of the critical care EEG terminology (2012 version). Our evaluation included terms not assessed previously and incorporated raters with a broad range of EEG reading experience. Methods After reviewing a set of training slides, 49 readers independently completed a Web-based test consisting of 11 identical questions for each of 37 EEG samples (407 questions). Questions assessed whether a pattern was an electrographic seizure; pattern location (main term 1), pattern type (main term 2); and presence and classification of eight other key features (“plus” modifiers, sharpness, absolute and relative amplitude, frequency, number of phases, fluctuation/evolution, and the presence of “triphasic” morphology). Results IRA statistics (κ values) were almost perfect (90–100%) for seizures, main terms 1 and 2, the +S modifier (superimposed spikes/sharp waves or sharply contoured rhythmic delta activity), sharpness, absolute amplitude, frequency, and number of phases. Agreement was substantial for the +F (superimposed fast activity) and +R (superimposed rhythmic delta activity) modifiers (66% and 67%, respectively), moderate for triphasic morphology (58%), and fair for evolution (21%). Significance IRA for most terms in the ACNS critical care EEG terminology is high. These terms are suitable for multicenter research on the clinical significance of critical care EEG patterns. PMID:24888711

  11. Terminology Management at the National Language Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Terminology is a strategic resource in a multilingual country. It is the medium through which knowledge and information is disseminated. lhrough the use of correct, standardised terminology, effective scientific and technical communication skills are developed. A brief overview is given of terminology development in South Africa, with special emphasis on the work of the Terminology Division of the National Language Service. Aspects of present terminology practice such as terminology management, the nature of terminology and terminography, and work-flow procedure in a multilingual terminology office receive attention. To present training activities, initiatives and needs attention is also given.

    Keywords: BILINGUAL, COMMUNICATION SKILLS, DISSEMINATION, DOCUMENTATION, DOMAIN, MULTILINGUAL, SOCIOLINGUISTICS, SOURCE LANGUAGE, STANDARDISATION, STANDARDISED TERMINOLOGY, SUBJECT FIELD, TARGET LANGUAGE, TECHNICAL DICTIONARIES, TECHNICAL LANGUAGE, TERMINOGRAPHER, TERMINOGRAPHY, TERMINOLOGIST, TERMINOLOGY, TERMINOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, TERMINOLOGY MANAGEMENT, TERMINOLOGY PRACTICE, TERMINOLOGY PRINCIPLES, TERMINOLOGY TRAINING

    Opsomming: Terminologiebestuur by die NasionaleTaaldiens. Tenninologieis'n strategiese bron in 'n meertalige land. Dit is die medium waardeur kennis en inligting veispreiword. Deur die gebruik van korrekte, gestandaardiseerde terrninologie kan eflektiewe wetenskaplikeen tegnologiese kommunikasievermoens ontwikkel word. 'n Kort oorsig word gegee van terminologieontwikkelingin Suid-Afrika, met spesiale klem op die werk van die Terminologieafdelingvan die Nasionale Taaldiens. Aspekte van die huidige terminologiepraktyk soas tenninologiebestuur,die aard van terminologie en terminografie en die werksvloeiprosedure in 'nmeertalige terminologiekantoor ontvang aandag. Aan huidige opleidingsaktiwiteite, -inisiatieween-behoeftes word ook aandag gegee.

    Sleutelwoorde: BRONTAAL, DISSEMINERING, DOELTAAL, DOKUMENTASIE

  12. EFSA Scientific Committee; Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways of...... improving the expression and communication of risk and/or uncertainties in the selected opinions. The Scientific Committee concluded that risk assessment terminology is not fully harmonised within EFSA. In part this is caused by sectoral legislation defining specific terminology and international standards...... international trade, the Scientific Committee concludes that particular care must be taken that the principles of CAC, OIE or IPPC are followed strictly. EFSA Scientific Panels should identify which specific approach is most useful in dealing with their individual mandates. The Scientific Committee considered...

  13. Are ISO Terminology Standards Fit for Terminology Management at the NATO?

    OpenAIRE

    Steurs, Frieda; Kockaert, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    NATO Conference on Terminology Management 19-20 November 2015 Are ISO Terminology Standards Fit for Terminology Management at the NATO? Hendrik J. Kockaert1,2 & Frieda Steurs1,2,3 KU Leuven1, University of the Free State2, UCO3 Abstract The NATO Terminology Office (NTO) advocates clear and unambiguous communication among its members and partners, following the NATO Policy for Standardization: "NATO documents must contain NATO agreed terminology." It is the NATO Termino...

  14. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).

  15. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index

  16. On the terminology of the penumbra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classic studies of the motion of charged cosmic rays in the geomagnetic field laid the ground work for determing the form and characteristics of the regions allowed or forbidden to particles approaching points within the field. Because of the high precision now required of penumbral information, digital computer based mapping techniques are used universally in place of the earlier techniques. Some confusion has arisen in the application of terms such as main cone, Stormer cone, and shadow cone, to the regions distinguished by the computer technique. The criteria by which the various regions are distinguished are reviewed, and suggestions made in relation to modified terminology to be used in discussing and presenting results

  17. Complementary/Alternative therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials and a critique of current terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Edzard; Schmidt, Katja; Baum, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study was to evaluate and critically analyze all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of ''alternative cancer cures'' (ACCs) for breast cancer. The electronic databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Scirus, BIOSIS, CancerLit and CINAHL and for ongoing trials the MetaRegister at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ and the National Research Register at http://www.update-software.com/national/ were searched from their inception. Bibliographies of located studies were scanned. Unpublished or ongoing trials were identified through correspondence with experts in the field. Our own files were hand searched for further RCTs. Review methods included a systematic review of RCTs involving breast cancer patients treated with ACCs, survival, parameters indicative of tumor burden, disease progression, cancer recurrence, and cancer cure. Results were tabulated and summarized. Thirteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. In most cases their methodological quality is low, with only two RCTs scoring ''4'' and four RCTs scoring ''3'' out of 5 possible points for methodological quality. The treatments tested included various methods of psychosocial support such as group support therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy cognitive existential group therapy, a combination of muscle relaxation training and guided imagery, the Chinese herbal remedy Shi Quan Da Bu Tang, thymus extract, transfer factor, melatonin, and factor AF2. Encouraging but not fully convincing results emerged for melatonin. PMID:17238981

  18. Naming the Soft Tissue Layers of the Temporoparietal Region: Unifying Anatomic Terminology Across Surgical Disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Davidge; W.R. van Furth; A. Agur; M. Cusimano

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The complexity of temporoparietal anatomy is compounded by inconsistent nomenclature. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review of the variations in terminology and anatomic descriptions of the temporoparietal soft tissue layers, with the aim of improving learning and communication ac

  19. Conceptual Terminological Structure of Pedagogy as the Subject of Historical Pedagogic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Koshkina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the formation and development of pedagogic terminology. The author theoretically substantiates the potential of the historical pedagogic research concerning the conceptual and terminological structure of the Russian pedagogy. The research is based on the following ideas: correlation between the scientific terminology formation and scientific knowledge genesis; philosophic concept as a form and result of reality reflection; linguistic concept of the term as a functional unit of a scientific language; specifics of pedagogic knowledge reflection in conceptual form. The main research findings include identifying methodological requirements for analyzing the conceptual scientific formation in historical context; substantiating the resource basis; revealing the investigation principles; describing the tools and their implementation peculiarities with regard to the specifics of pedagogical concepts and terms. The acquired results can be used while exploring the pedagogic history problems, pedagogic methodology and terminology. In conclusion, the actual research trends of pedagogic terminology formation are reviewed from the historical pedagogic perspective. 

  20. INTERVIEW: Knowledge and Terminology Management at Crisplant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.; Toft, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    Margrethe H. Møller interviews Lisbeth Kjeldgaard Almsten (translator/coauthor: Birthe Toft) “If you think that terminology work is simply a matter of buying terminology management software and getting started, you are in for trouble” At Crisplant, we have been doing terminology management for the...... past 20 years. Today, term bases are used not just for terminology-oriented term management. Recording other types of master data needed by all kinds of professionals in the enterprise is equally important. Within the past year, Crisplant has been acquired by the German BEUMER group, which means that...

  1. USED TERMINOLOGY FOR HANDICAPPED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupco AJDINSKI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available For easier and more simply reconcile the position of the terminology, we want to emphasis who are the persons with handicap, or disabled persons for whom we are going to make effort to find the authentic terms.In many different countries exist different definitions for the term: disablement. We use the term “persons with handicap” very often, but is it the right solution? Because this problem is not solved at the world frames, in this presentation we try to gave the authentic and objective use of this terms in the practice, communications and in the legislative here and in the worldwide.In this presentation we are giving the description only for some mentioned terms, which are very important and it also want exceptional treatment (for example: defect, handicap, abnormality, developmental difficulties, difficulties in the social integration, the persons with special needs and etc.With this presentation we want to emphasis just the terminology connected with the handicapped persons, or invalid persons by the existed classifications.

  2. Terminological Definition in Vocabulary Building Process

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedeva Elena S

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the possibilities of using a terminological definition as a short text in the language for specific purposes teaching/learning. Representing an abundant supply of specialized vocabulary and general scientific speech patterns, a terminological definition should be taken into account as a full value language resource.

  3. ON THE TERMINOLOGY OF SPONDYLOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. F. Erdes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, spondyloarthritis studies have accumulated a certain number of terms that are obsolete, but used by physicians in their everyday speech, on the one hand, and a great variety of different definitions, on the other hand. In January 2014, the first organizational meeting of the Expert Group on Spondyloarthritis, Association of Rheumatologists of Russia, decided that its primary task should be to order the terminology used in this area. The authors primarily collected the terms, which had been already used in medical vocabulary, and then divided them into two categories: obsolete definitions and terms to be finalized and unified. This publication gives guidelines for using the medical terms relevant to spondyloarthritis and separately discusses how to correctly write the term sacroiliitis.

  4. INIS, CEA and nuclear terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This poster, prepared for the fifth edition of the meetings of scientific and technical information professionals (RPIST, Nancy (France)), presents, first, the INIS information system, its content and coverage, the French participation to this system and the role of the CEA-Saclay as France's official representative for this system. Then it presents the INIS thesaurus with its different levels as a terminological tool for the indexing of documents and for searching documents inside the database. Finally, the very first electronic version of the multilingual thesaurus is introduced. Several national INIS centres, including the CEA-Saclay, have contributed to the translation of lists of new terms and of forbidden terms (synonyms). (J.S.)

  5. The alphabet soup of perfusion CT and MR imaging: terminology revisited and clarified in five questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiva-Salinas, Carlos [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hospital Universitario y Politecnico la Fe, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Valencia (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Provenzale, James M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Departments of Radiology, Oncology and Biomedical Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Division of Ultra-high Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Morioka (Japan); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); University of Virginia Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, 1215 Lee Street-New Hospital, 1st Floor, Room 1011, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The five questions answered in this article revolve around the different parameters resulting from perfusion imaging processing, and this clarifies the frequently confusing terminology used to describe these parameters. More specifically, the article discusses the different imaging techniques and main mathematical models behind perfusion imaging, reviews the perfusion attributes of brain tissue, and proposes a standardized parameter terminology to facilitate understanding and avoid common misinterpretations. (orig.)

  6. The alphabet soup of perfusion CT and MR imaging: terminology revisited and clarified in five questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The five questions answered in this article revolve around the different parameters resulting from perfusion imaging processing, and this clarifies the frequently confusing terminology used to describe these parameters. More specifically, the article discusses the different imaging techniques and main mathematical models behind perfusion imaging, reviews the perfusion attributes of brain tissue, and proposes a standardized parameter terminology to facilitate understanding and avoid common misinterpretations. (orig.)

  7. A new method for extracting domain terminology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Bing-zhen; CHEN Xiao-rong; HU Yi; LU Ru-zhan

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a new general, highly efficient algorithm for extracting domain terminologies.This domain-independent algorithm with multi-layers of filters is a hybrid of statistic-oriented and rule-oriented methods. Utilizing the features of domain terminologies and the characteristics that are unique to Chinese, this algorithm extracts domain terminologies by generating multi-word unit (MWU) candidates at first and then filtering the candidates through multi-strategies. Our test results show that this algorithm is feasible and effective.

  8. Current procedural terminology; a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Joshua A; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Nicola, Gregory N; Barr, Robert M; Bello, Jacqueline A; Donovan, William D; Tu, Raymond; Alson, Mark D; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2015-04-01

    In 1966, The American Medical Association (AMA) working with multiple major medical specialty societies developed an iterative coding system for describing medical procedures and services using uniform language, the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) system. The current code set, CPT IV, forms the basis of reporting most of the services performed by healthcare providers, physicians and non-physicians as well as facilities allowing effective, reliable communication among physician and other providers, third parties and patients. This coding system and its maintenance has evolved significantly since its inception, and now goes well beyond its readily perceived role in reimbursement. Additional roles include administrative management, tracking new and investigational procedures, and evolving aspects of 'pay for performance'. The system also allows for local, regional and national utilization comparisons for medical education and research. Neurointerventional specialists use CPT category I codes regularly--for example, 36,215 for first-order cerebrovascular angiography, 36,216 for second-order vessels, and 37,184 for acute stroke treatment by mechanical means. Additionally, physicians add relevant modifiers to the CPT codes, such as '-26' to indicate 'professional charge only,' or '-59' to indicate a distinct procedural service performed on the same day. PMID:24589819

  9. Applying Evolutionary Terminology Auditing to SNOMED CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceusters, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary Terminology Auditing is a technique designed to measure quality improvements of terminologies over successive versions. It uses the most recent version of a terminology as a benchmark and assumes that changes in the underlying ontology correspond to changes in either that part of reality that is covered by the terminology, or the authors’ understanding – if not the ‘state of the art’ in general – thereof. Applied to SNOMED CT over 18 versions, it reveals that at the level of the concepts minimal improvements are obtained and that the second assumption holds for far less changes than one would expect. It is recommended that future versions of SNOMED CT provide more explicit documentation for each introduced change. PMID:21346948

  10. National Drug File - Reference Terminology API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is produced by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration (VHA). NDF-RT is an...

  11. Identification of anatomical terminology in medical text.

    OpenAIRE

    Sneiderman, C. A.; Rindflesch, T. C.; Bean, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    We report on an experiment to use the natural language processing tools being developed in the SPECIALIST system to accurately identify terminology associated with the coronary arteries as expressed in coronary catheterization reports. The ultimate goal is to map from any anatomically-oriented medical text to online images, using the UMLS as an intermediate knowledge source. We describe some of the problems encountered when processing coronary artery terminology and report on the results of a...

  12. INFOTERM – Information Disseminating Centre for Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Albina Auksoriūtė

    2014-01-01

    International Information Centre for Terminology (INFOTERM) was founded in 1971 by contract with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Austrian Standards Institute (ASI). In 1996, INFOTERM was reorganized and established as an independent non-profit organization. INFOTERM promotes and supports the cooperation of existing and the establishment of new terminology centres and networks with the general aim to improve domain communication, knowledge ...

  13. CONFUSION OF ACCOUNTING TERMINOLOGY IN LITHUANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gintaras Černius

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of issues relevant to the science of finances and the practical side of this field related to financial terms. The article is written with the purpose of helping solve terminology problems of accounting which is viewed as a scientific and practical activity field. The goals of this article are to reveal the current problems of financial terminology in the field of accounting, analyze the reasons of their occurrence, determine the possible and existing negativ...

  14. Knowledge Dissemination Based on Terminological Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pram Nielsen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of this PhD dissertation is an eye-tracking experiment examining target-user performance on so-called dual-entry modes representing Danish taxation terminology, to determine whether terminological ontologies should be included in the user interface. The conventional concept-oriented articles of term banks, which describe the meaning of a term by means of text, are combined with concept-oriented diagrams, which represent the meaning of a term by means of a t...

  15. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology. PMID:19108488

  16. 46 CFR 520.5 - Standard tariff terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard tariff terminology. 520.5 Section 520.5... AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.5 Standard tariff terminology. (a) Approved codes. The Standard Terminology Appendix.... They are intended to provide a standard terminology baseline for tariffs to facilitate...

  17. Geoscience terminology for data interchange: the CGI Geoscience Terminology Work Group (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.; Gtwg, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) has formed the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/ geoscience_terminology_ working_group.html) to unify vocabulary development efforts of the Multhes working group of the 1990s, the Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) formed in 2003, and the Concept Definition Task Group formed in 2007. The workgroup charge is to develop, review, adopt, publish, and steward vocabularies and associated documentation for use in geoscience information systems. The group will develop liaisons with other semantic interoperability groups to ensure cross-domain interoperability. The objective is to create vocabularies that bind URIs to geoscience concepts, and allow linking between concepts in the CGI vocabularies and other vocabularies such as SWEET, GEMET, and the GCMD. Representations of the concepts use SKOS RDF/XML and a standardized vocabulary service that to enable navigating links to concepts, accessing definitions, and obtaining language-localized labels for concepts. The SISSvoc service developed by CSIRO Australia has been deployed for CGI vocabulary services. Vocabularies are currently constructed by gathering candidate terms in spreadsheet tables because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Each vocabulary is 'shepherded' by a GTWG member, who is responsible for organizing a team to compile a draft vocabulary, present it for review by appropriate authorities, respond to review comments, and determine when the vocabulary is ready for adoption by a vote of the workgroup. The first meeting of the work group took place, hosted by VSEGEI in St

  18. Terminological Ontologies for Risk and Vulnerability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    , for formulating threat scenarios and for assessing consequences. Terminological ontologies, which are systems of domain specific concepts comprising concept relations and characteristics, are useful, both when describing the central concepts of risk and vulnerability analysis (meta concepts), and for...... further structuring and enriching the taxonomies of society’s critical functions and threats, which form an important part of the model. Creating terminological ontologies is a time consuming work, and therefore there is a need for automatic tools for extraction of terms, concept relations and...... characteristics. Terminological ontologies must adhere to a number of constraints, and therefore tools for automatic validation of these ontologies are also needed. Methods and tools for automatic ontology construction are being developed by researchers at Copenhagen Business School. The tools developed may also...

  19. Standard Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The terms and their definitions given herein represent terminology relating to wear and erosion of solid bodies due to mechanical interactions such as occur with cavitation, impingement by liquid jets or drops or by solid particles, or relative motion against contacting solid surfaces or fluids. This scope interfaces with but generally excludes those processes where material loss is wholly or principally due to chemical action and other related technical fields as, for instance, lubrication. 1.2 This terminology is not exhaustive; the absence of any particular term from this collection does not necessarily imply that its use within this scope is discouraged. However, the terms given herein are the recommended terms for the concepts they represent unless otherwise noted. 1.3 Certain general terms and definitions may be restricted and interpreted, if necessary, to make them particularly applicable to the scope as defined herein. 1.4 The purpose of this terminology is to encourage uniformity and accuracy ...

  20. Nomina anatomica. Anatomic terminology and the old French terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Passos, Luiz Fernando De Souza; Euzébio Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo

    A surprising finding in our seminars in Latin America and Spain was that approximately half of the participants continued to use the old French anatomical nomenclature. The substance of this paper is a table in which we compare the anatomical names for the items reviewed in our seminar, in a Spanish version of the old French nomenclature and in the Spanish, Portuguese, and English versions of the currently employed anatomical terms. PMID:23228528

  1. Calibration of personal dosimeters: Quantities and terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical results obtained in the interpretation of individual monitoring of external radiation depend not only on the accurate calibration of the radiation measurement instruments involved, but also on the definition of the quantities in term of which these instruments are calibrated The absence of uniformity in terminology not only makes it difficult to understand properly the scientific and technical literature but can also lead to incorrect interpretation of particular concepts and recommendations. In this paper, brief consideration is given to definition of radiation quantities and terminology used in calibration procedures. (author)

  2. Variation in terminology: capoeira in Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Nardelli Cambraia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study we analyzed the variation in the terminology of capoeira in Belo Horizonte. The terms referring to 69 videotaped movements of capoeira were collected from 10 informants (5 men and 5 women, aged between 25 and 32 years, capoeira teachers. As a result we obtained 294 different terms whose patterns of variation are distributed among 15 types. We tested the hypothesis that the figurative terms tend to be replaced by non-figurative ones, and it was confirmed by the collected data. This trend was the result of a search for transparency in terminology, making the terms more descriptive in relation to capoeira’s movements.

  3. The Janus Head Article - How Much Terminology Theory Can Practical Terminology Management Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Drewer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The god Janus in Greek mythology was a two-faced god; each face had its own view of the world. Our idea behind the Janus Head article is to give you two different and maybe even contradicting views on a certain topic. This issue’s Janus Head Article, however, features not two but three different views on terminology work, as researchers, professionals and students (the professionals of tomorrow discuss “How Much Terminology Theory Can Practical Terminology Management Use?” at DaimlerChrysler AG. 

  4. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication are discussed.

  5. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Liuzzo; Stefano Bentley; Federica Giacometti; Silvia Piva; Andrea Serraino

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication) are discussed.

  6. Contributions to the History of Library Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Fred R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the historical method in lexicography, the general characteristics of library terminology, and the current state of library lexicography. Presents a glossary which lists quotations supplementing the coverage of library-related vocabulary in the "Oxford English Dictionary" (OED) and the "Dictionary of Americanisms" (DA). (LRW)

  7. 9 CFR 101.4 - Labeling terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Labeling terminology. Terms pertaining to identification and packaging of biological products shall mean: (a) Label. All written, graphic, or printed matter: (1) Upon or attached to a final container of a... other written, printed, or graphic matter accompanying the final container. (c) Final container....

  8. 9 CFR 101.5 - Testing terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing terminology. 101.5 Section 101.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.5...

  9. Building Terminology in the Kadazandusun Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasimbang, Rita; Kinajil, Trixie

    2004-01-01

    In 1995, the Kadazandusun language was created as a standard form of all the Dusunic group of languages so that it might be taught in schools as a language subject. In the planning of Kadazandusun, terminology building involves both the creation of new terms that appropriate present-day categories and artefacts, and the selection of suitable…

  10. A Terminology Data Bank for Translators (TEAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, J.

    1980-01-01

    The TEAM system is a data bank developed in Germany for translators of specialized technical, economic, and scientific texts. The system is described in nontechnical language, with attention to multilingual terminology, multiword terms, phraseology, definitions and contexts, synonyms, grammatical data, and data organization and retrieval. (MSE)

  11. INTELLIGENCE MEASUREMENT TOOLS: DEFINITION OR TERMINOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Sapronov, P.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of proper understanding and using terminology relating intelligence measurement tools remains relevant. The features of the intelligence measurement tool are based on translation and defining the meanings of «smart» and «intelligent», as well as the theory of typical intelligence devices.

  12. Usability evaluation of online terminology database

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos, Mari-Carmen

    2006-01-01

    In the day-to-day work with information retrieval tools, users are faced with systems that are difficult to understand and use. This is the case for linguists and translators, experts in language but not necessarily in the use of reference tools, designed in many cases from the viewpoint of their developers without considering the end-users. This gap between developers and users leads to incorrect use - or at least inefficient use - of electronic dictionaries, terminology databases, and other...

  13. Chairman's Introduction: Some Terminology of Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Flagle, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    As techniques for evaluation of health care technology evolve and the context of evaluation moves from clinical to institutional and societal levels, a terminology associated with the techniques has emerged. The terms formative and summative evaluation are used to recognize the difference in evaluation procedures appropriate to early development and later application. The terms structure, process and outcome distinguish the classes of variables to be identified. Internal and external validity...

  14. Grasping metaphoric and metonymic processes in terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Juan Antonio; Ureña Gomez-Moreno, Jose Manuel; Tercedor Maribel

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor plays an important role in language creativity and knowledge representation in specialised domains, and its role has been studied by scholars in the field (e.g. Temmerman 2000; Faber and Márquez 2004; Tercedor Sánchez 2004; Ureña Gómez Moreno 2011; Vandaele and Lubin 2005). In contrast, metonymy has received little attention in terminology. In this paper, we describe salient features of metaphor and metonymy in specialised domains an...

  15. Standardization of Terminology in Laboratory Medicine II

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kap No; Yoon, Jong-Hyun; Min, Won Ki; Lim, Hwan Sub; Song, Junghan; Chae, Seok Lae; Jang, Seongsoo; Ki, Chang-Seok; Bae, Sook Young; Kim, Jang Su; Kwon, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang Kyu; Yoon, Soo-Young

    2008-01-01

    Standardization of medical terminology is essential in data transmission between health care institutes and in maximizing the benefits of information technology. The purpose of this study was to standardize medical terms for laboratory observations. During the second year of the study, a standard database of concept names for laboratory terms that covered those used in tertiary health care institutes and reference laboratories was developed. The laboratory terms in the Logical Observation Ide...

  16. Cardiac anatomy for the interventional arrhythmologist: I.terminology and fluoroscopic projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Jerónimo; Anderson, Robert H; Cabrera, José A; Sánchez-Quintana, Damián; Rubio, José M; Benezet-Mazuecos, Juan; Del Castillo, Silvia; Macía, Ester

    2010-04-01

    Cardiac anatomy is complex and its understanding is essential for the interventional arrhythmologist. The first difficulty is the terminology used to describe the location of sites of mapping and ablation. For many years, electrophysiologists have named these positions following the conventional electrocardiographical vocabulary, or the terminology used by surgeons performing arrhythmic surgery. This traditional nomenclature, however, failed to take note of the crucial principle of considering the location of the heart in the human body as viewed in its erect position. In other words, it had failed to use an attitudinally appropriate terminology. Almost 10 years ago, a new attitudinal nomenclature was proposed for the right and left atrioventricular junctions. In this first of a series of reviews of cardiac anatomy as seen by the interventional arrhythmologist, we discuss the role of attitudinally appropriate terminology, and relate this to the projections used for cardiac fluoroscopy, fluorography, and angiography. Throughout our series of reviews, we will illustrate the value of The Visible Human Slice and Surface Server in facilitating the understanding of the fluoroscopic anatomy. (PACE 2010; 497-507). PMID:20059709

  17. Hip arthroplasty. Part 1: prosthesis terminology and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hip arthroplasty is an extremely common orthopaedic procedure and there is a wide array of implants that are in current use in the UK. The follow-up of patients who have undergone insertion of a hip prosthesis is shifting from a consultant-lead hospital service towards primary care. As this change in patient care continues it becomes increasingly important that an accurate description of the radiographic features is communicated to the primary-care practitioner so appropriate specialist input can be triggered. This review focuses on the terminology and classification of hip prostheses. This acts as a precursor for Part 2 of this series, which describes the normal and abnormal radiographic findings following hip prosthesis insertion.

  18. Revisiting the Global Software Engineering Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Giuffrida, Rosalba; Shah, Hina

    2013-01-01

    Even though Global Software Engineering (GSE) has been a research topic of interest for many years, some of its ground terminology is still lacking a unified, coherent, and shared definition and/or classification. The purpose of this report is to collect, outline, and relate several fundamental and......, communication, and awareness taken from the Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) tradition. This report represents on the one hand a starting point to help stimulate fruitful discussions in the relevant communities with regards to the more controversial and delicate topics, while on the other hand a...

  19. Transregionalism: Problems of Terminology and Conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kuznetsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world is witnessing the remarkable development of transregional ties between distinct regions and powers within the international system evolving towards multipolarity. However, the essence of transregionalism remains understudied to the extent that there is no clear consensus for which terminology should be used to define this phenomenon. The article compares existing approaches to transregionalism conceptualization, analyzes the differences in the use of terms, and discusses the global impact of transregional relations on world politics and economy. The author advocates a term transregionalism (instead of interregionalism, crossregionalism, macroregionalization etc. and suggests its definition.

  20. Generating a multilingual taxonomy based on multilingual terminology clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengzhi; ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomy denotes the hierarchical structure of a knowledge organization system.It has important applications in knowledge navigation,semantic annotation and semantic search.It is a useful instrument to study the multilingual taxonomy generated automatically under the dynamic information environment in which massive amounts of information are processed and found.Multilingual taxonomy is the core component of the multilingual thesaurus or ontology.This paper presents two methods of bilingual generated taxonomy:Cross-language terminology clustering and mixed-language based terminology clustering.According to our experimental results of terminology clustering related to four specific subject domains,we found that if the parallel corpus is used to cluster multilingual terminologies,the method of using mixed-language based terminology clustering outperforms that of using the cross-language terminology clustering.

  1. Interoperable Archetypes With a Three Folded Terminology Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Rune; Ellingsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The use of openEHR archetypes increases the interoperability of clinical terminology, and in doing so improves upon the availability of clinical terminology for both primary and secondary purposes. Where clinical terminology is employed in the EPR system, research reports conflicting a results for the use of structuring and standardization as measurements of success. In order to elucidate this concept, this paper focuses on the effort to establish a national repository for openEHR based archetypes in Norway where clinical terminology could be included with benefit for interoperability three folded. PMID:26262236

  2. The health terminology project glossaries` structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sátia Marini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Current paper was motivated by a Master´s degree in Translation Studies on one of the glossaries of the Health Terminology Project (PTS of the Ministry of Health (MS inBrazil, by which the products developed by the project were analyzed. The authors would like to forward their experience earned from the development of these instruments and from the evolution of the glossary´s layout and structure. Although within the same institution, each instrument is made suitable to the specific purpose of each area and the terminology project accumulates experience by the constant improvement of previously developed glossaries (adding new terms; providing the equivalent word in other languages for terms already defined and by the establishment of new ones. The evolution of the structure of the glossaries was qualitatively analyzed; remarks on the types of cross references were made; a quantitative survey of their main features was undertaken. Finally, the importance of this type of work should be underscored either within the government, or in the academy or in private companies, for the sharing of intellectual knowledge.

  3. Harmonising Nursing Terminologies Using a Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Kay; Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy; Saba, Virginia; Hardiker, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) and the Clinical Care Classification (CCC) System are standardised nursing terminologies that identify discrete elements of nursing practice, including nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. While CCC uses a conceptual framework or model with 21 Care Components to classify these elements, ICNP, built on a formal Web Ontology Language (OWL) description logic foundation, uses a logical hierarchical framework that is useful for computing and maintenance of ICNP. Since the logical framework of ICNP may not always align with the needs of nursing practice, an informal framework may be a more useful organisational tool to represent nursing content. The purpose of this study was to classify ICNP nursing diagnoses using the 21 Care Components of the CCC as a conceptual framework to facilitate usability and inter-operability of nursing diagnoses in electronic health records. Findings resulted in all 521 ICNP diagnoses being assigned to one of the 21 CCC Care Components. Further research is needed to validate the resulting product of this study with practitioners and develop recommendations for improvement of both terminologies. PMID:27332245

  4. A Comparative Study of Legal Terminologies in French and Romanian. The Translation of International Contract Law Terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana SFERLE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our article is a comparative study investigating the main aspects of legal terminology in French and Romanian. In this context, the analysis aims at translating French - Romanian, Romanian - French, terminologies of international commercial contracts. With this study we intend to improve the knowledge of legal terminology in Romanian. Romania has been faced lately, particularly since January 1st 2007, when it joined the European Union, with a real need for terminological studies, for dictionaries and data bases in all fields relating to translation and interpreting.

  5. Sales promotion effect: concepts and terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Yusupova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sales promotion is a significant part of firm’s marketing activity, especially in the modern state of Ukrainian economy, when prices are growing fast and consumers are becoming more sensitive to the price changes. But firms are becoming more careful about their expenses too. So now it’s exceptionally important for firms to evaluate properly effect of the sales promotion. Nowadays not only total effect of sales promotions is the subject of scientists’ and firms’ interest but factors that contribute to it. Decomposition of sales promotion effect allows us to understand which factor is responsible for sales enhancing and what to expect in future periods. World economists are already developing the issue of decomposition of sales promotion effect. Started by S. Gupta topic is being discussed for more than 20 years. Despite of that, Ukrainian scientific literature remains silent about decomposition of sales promotion effect. There are no strict terms in scientific Ukrainian language for labeling certain basic concepts that are used in articles of foreign colleges. The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to form such terminology in order to bring broad discussion of decomposition of sales promotion effect into both Ukrainian science and practice. Following terms were considered in the paper: primary demand, secondary demand, purchase incidence, purchase quantity, cross-period effect, category-expansion effect, brand switching, store switching and category switching. The results of the analysis show that strict translation into Ukrainian is not always a good choice because of several reasons. There was discovered that some terms are already used in Ukrainian literature in different meaning. For instance, term «secondary demand» is already used in Ukrainian literature for describing demand for a product that depends on demand for other product. The same problem occurs when translating term «category-expansion effect» in Ukrainian

  6. Beyond teaching language: Towards terminological primacy in learners’ geometric conceptualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey U. Atebe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a specific aspect of a broader geometry conceptualisation study that sought to explore and explicate learners’ knowledge of basic geometric terminology in selected Nigerian and South African high schools. It is framed by the notion that students’ acquisition of the correct terminology in school geometry is important for their success in the subject. The original study further aimed to determine the relationship that might exist between a learner’s ability in verbal geometry terminology tasks and his/her ability in visual geometry terminology tasks. A total of 144 learners (72 each from South Africa and Nigeria were selected for the study, using both the stratified and the fish‐bowl sampling techniques. A questionnaire consisting of a sixty‐item multiple‐choice objective test provided the data for the study. An overall percentage mean score of 44,17% obtained in the test indicated that learners in this study had only a limited knowledge of basic geometric terminology. The Nigerian subsample in the study had a weaker understanding of basic geometric terminology than their South African counterparts. Importantly, there were high positive correlations between participants’ ability in verbal geometry terminology tasks and their ability in visual geometry terminology tasks. These results are consistent with those of several earlier studies, and provide a reasonably firm basis for certain recommendations to be made.

  7. Terminology support for development of sharable knowledge modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, M; Ahlfeldt, H; Thurin, A; Wigertz, O

    1996-01-01

    Lack of an agreed infrastructure for terminology is identified as one of the major barriers to interchange of knowledge modules and integration of knowledge bases with other clinical information systems. The goal of the GALEN project is to bridge this gap between different terminology systems through the construction of a terminology server, which is based on a rich conceptual model with mapping facilities to natural language expressions and coding schemas. The long term goal is to support communication between medical information systems. Arden Syntax is a standard format for the creation of knowledge modules, with sharability as one of the main objectives. Since Arden Syntax is based on a data-driven approach, the data items used need to be adapted to locally available terminology. The GALEN approach appears to be complementary to Arden Syntax and to the development of sharable knowledge modules. The major theme of this paper is utilization of the GALEN terminology server for knowledge module authoring. Two systems are presented, a knowledge base manager and a client to the terminology server, allowing the user to navigate in the semantic network and to import concept definitions and terms into the knowledge modules. The benefit of the terminology server, allowing the user to navigate in the semantic network and to import concept definitions and terms into the knowledge modules. The benefit of the terminology services is discussed. PMID:9062883

  8. Measurements and Terminology of Different Measure Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Fang; ZHANG Wei-yuan; ZHANG Wen-bin

    2005-01-01

    Body measuring is very important for garment sizing and pattern making. In this paper, we study the difference of the landmarks between the traditional method and 3D scanner and we also select the 19 circumference measurements,29 height and length measurements, 18 breadth and depth measurements and 3 other measurements, which are quite important in fashion body measuring, to compare the terminology of them in these two measuring method. 3D scanners seem better than the traditional method on these aspects, which are the number of measurements, speed,privacy and data accuracy, but they are limited on measuring posture. And there is no uniform standard for the scanners and the definitions of the measurements in the scanners are diversified.

  9. Metaphor identification in a terminological dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity Siqueira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at demonstrating that metaphor is not simply a literary device, but an integral part of everyday language. The Theory of Conceptual Metaphor suggests that our conceptual system is fundamentally metaphorical. Concepts arise from our everyday interaction with the world and semantic structure reflects the conceptual structure. Metaphor, therefore, is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Based on these assumptions, we analyzed a terminological dictionary on environmental law in order to find metaphorically used lexical items. Then, for every such item we tried to determine its most literal meaning in another context. In order to do so, we applied the method for identifying metaphor developed by the Pragglejaz Group (2007. The results confirm the pervasiveness of metaphor and indicate how polysemy is motivated. Moreover, there seems to be no clear boundaries between literal and figurative language.

  10. Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission Systems: Terminology and Present Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of continuously variable transmission systems in many different areas such as aerospace, robotics, machinery and automotive industries as an alternative to conventional speed changers with constant ratio becomes widely.Especially in the automotive industry, these systems have been used increasingly, since they enable that internal combustion engines in vehicles run at optimal speeds, and consequently provide considerable fuel savings and therefore lower emission values and also they provide powerful acceleration and quiet working. CVT systems have several constructive variants such as belted, chained, balled, toroidal etc. In this paper, toroidal CVT systems based on elastohydrodynamic principles are concerned with, and fundamental works of last two decades in this field are reviewed. However, the relevant terminology and dynamics along with the control of these systems are briefly treated for better understanding of the literature mentioned. Attention is drawn to the lack of some significant issues in present research works, and potential future works are pointed out. This paper, to the authors’ knowledge, will be the first review on toroidal CVT systems in Turkish literature

  11. Let’s Talk about MOFs—Topology and Terminology of Metal-Organic Frameworks and Why We Need Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Öhrström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent IUPAC (The International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry recommendations on the terminology of metal-organic frameworks are reviewed and the background to a proposed topology classification is discussed. The various numerical designators such as point symbols, vertex symbols and transitivity are also explained and their importance elucidated.

  12. A standard for terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doggweiler, Regula; Whitmore, Kristene E; Meijlink, Jane M;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Terms used in the field of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are poorly defined and often confusing. An International Continence Society (ICS) Standard for Terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CPPS) has been developed with the aim of improving diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by...... domain from 1980 to 2014. Existing ICS Standards for terminology were utilized where appropriate to ensure transparency, accessibility, flexibility, and evolution. Consensus was based on majority agreement. RESULTS: The multidisciplinary CPPS Standard reports updated consensus terminology in nine domains...

  13. Hypersensitivity to intravenous iron: classification, terminology, mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebeni, J; Fishbane, S; Hedenus, M; Howaldt, S; Locatelli, F; Patni, S; Rampton, D; Weiss, G; Folkersen, J

    2015-11-01

    Intravenous (IV) iron therapy is widely used in iron deficiency anaemias when oral iron is not tolerated or ineffective. Administration of IV-iron is considered a safe procedure, but severe hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) can occur at a very low frequency. Recently, new guidelines have been published by the European Medicines Agency with the intention of making IV-iron therapy safer; however, the current protocols are still non-specific, non-evidence-based empirical measures which neglect the fact that the majority of IV-iron reactions are not IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions. The field would benefit from new specific and effective methods for the prevention and treatment of these HSRs, and the main goal of this review was to highlight a possible new approach based on the assumption that IV-iron reactions represent complement activation-related pseudo-allergy (CARPA), at least in part. The review compares the features of IV-iron reactions to those of immune and non-immune HSRs caused by a variety of other infused drugs and thus make indirect inferences on IV-iron reactions. The process of comparison highlights many unresolved issues in allergy research, such as the unsettled terminology, multiple redundant classifications and a lack of validated animal models and lege artis clinical studies. Facts and arguments are listed in support of the involvement of CARPA in IV-iron reactions, and the review addresses the mechanism of low reactogenic administration protocols (LRPs) based on slow infusion. It is suggested that consideration of CARPA and the use of LRPs might lead to useful new additions to the management of high-risk IV-iron patients. PMID:26265306

  14. Nomenclature and terminology - standards for materials and processes

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Jeremy; Borkum, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Professor Frey will try and highlight some of the issues around nomenclature and terminology that arise when materials and processes need to be described especially in the context of being computer and human readable and processable.

  15. On the new ISO guide on risk management terminology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aven, Terje, E-mail: terje.aven@uis.n [University of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway)

    2011-07-15

    A new ISO guide on risk management terminology has recently been issued. The guide provides basic vocabulary for developing a common understanding of risk assessment and risk management concepts and terms among organisations and functions, and across different application areas. It provides the foundation of, for example, the ISO 31000 standard on risk management. The guide strongly influences the risk assessment and risk management field, and its quality is thus of utmost importance. In this paper a critical review of the guide is conducted. We argue that the guide fails in several ways in producing consistent and meaningful definitions of many of the key concepts covered. A main focus is placed on the risk concept, which is defined as the effect of uncertainty on objectives, but also many other definitions are looked into, including probability, vulnerability, hazard, risk identification and risk description. Examples are used to illustrate the problems and show how they can be rectified. Although the focus is on the ISO guide, the discussion is to a large extent general. The overall aim of the paper is to contribute to the further development of the area of risk assessment and risk management by strengthening its conceptual basis.

  16. [ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND WORK ENGAGEMENT - THEORETICAL CONCEPTIONS AND TERMINOLOGICAL PROBLEMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaguna, Mariola; Mielniczuk, Emilia; Żaliński, Adam; Wałachowska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Engagement in professional activities and positive attitudes towards an organization are of significant importance to functioning and health of employees. Studies analysing the phenomena of employees' engagement and their relations with an organization undergo a dynamic development in both international and Polish research. Two theoretical conceptions: organizational commitment (by Meyer and Allen) and work engagement (by Schaufeli and Bakker) have become prominent in the field. They capture 2 similar, albeit distinct constructs. In English-language journals academics concentrate on theoretical and empirical analyses of similarities and differences between the 2 concepts, while in Polish publications scholars also have to deal with the issue of the original term translation. The problem lies mostly in Polish nomenclature of the dimensions proposed in both of these conceptions. Lack of common translations for different studies may cause confusion in this area of research. In the paper authors present a review of Polish translations of terms used in the discussed conceptions and a linguistic analysis of terms, both in English and in Polish. Authors provide solutions which could help to clarify terminology in Polish-language publications concerning organizational commitment and work engagement. This allows for further development of research in this field. PMID:26294317

  17. On the new ISO guide on risk management terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ISO guide on risk management terminology has recently been issued. The guide provides basic vocabulary for developing a common understanding of risk assessment and risk management concepts and terms among organisations and functions, and across different application areas. It provides the foundation of, for example, the ISO 31000 standard on risk management. The guide strongly influences the risk assessment and risk management field, and its quality is thus of utmost importance. In this paper a critical review of the guide is conducted. We argue that the guide fails in several ways in producing consistent and meaningful definitions of many of the key concepts covered. A main focus is placed on the risk concept, which is defined as the effect of uncertainty on objectives, but also many other definitions are looked into, including probability, vulnerability, hazard, risk identification and risk description. Examples are used to illustrate the problems and show how they can be rectified. Although the focus is on the ISO guide, the discussion is to a large extent general. The overall aim of the paper is to contribute to the further development of the area of risk assessment and risk management by strengthening its conceptual basis.

  18. An interface terminology for medical imaging ordering purposes.

    OpenAIRE

    GRIFFON, Nicolas; Savoye-Collet, Céline; Massari, Philippe; Daniel, Christel; Darmoni, Stéfan J.

    2012-01-01

    The need for structured data in electronic health records has not been fully addressed by reference terminologies (RT) due to difficulties of use for end-users. Interface terminologies (IT), built for specific usage and users, and linked to RT, may solve this issue. We propose an IT for medical imaging prescription, based on the French nomenclature for procedure (CCAM), and its qualitative evaluation. The creation and evaluation processes were adapted from published guidelines. Prescription I...

  19. A phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of Austronesian sibling terminologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, F.

    2011-01-01

    Social structure in human societies is underpinned by the variable expression of ideas about relatedness between different types of kin. We express these ideas through language in our kin terminology: to delineate who is kin and who is not, and to attach meanings to the types of kin labels associated with different individuals. Cross-culturally, there is a regular and restricted range of patterned variation in kin terminologies, and to date, our understanding of this diversity has been hamper...

  20. Automated Terminology Networks for the Integration of Heterogeneous Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Quek, Hui Nar; Cantor, Michael; Kra, Pauline; Schultz, Aylit; Lussier, Yves A.

    2004-01-01

    As cross-disciplinary research escalates, researchers are facing the challenge of linking disparate biomedical databases that have been developed without common indexes. Manually indexing these large-scale databases is laborious and often impractical. Solutions involving mediating terminologies have been proposed, but coordination of terms from the databases of interest to these mediating terminologies is also laborious, and regular synchronization between indexes is an additional problem. In...

  1. Basic definitions and terminology problems in metal construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The complex program of harmonization of Russian and European systems of technical rate setting in construction presupposes the translation of Eurocode texts to Russian language, their adaptation for use on the Russian territory and creation of terminological dictionaries, which includes dictionaries on metal construction. In the article the author gives examples of inappropriate Russian terms introduced in the process of translation from foreign languages. For the concepts denoted by the proposed terms, there already exist established normative documents, which have passed all the terminological procedure and are introduced in State Standards and regulations. The author demonstrates contradictions and formulates the basic terms, showing the ground state of modern science and engineering practice of cold-resistant steel structures. The basic requirements for the development of quality in construction terminology are stated. Scientific, research, methodic, organizational work on construction databases creation should be executed on minimum two languages: English and Russian before developing terminological standards in the construction sphere. Normative terminological dictionaries, collections of scientific-normative and technical-normative terminology, dictionaries and reference works are the sources for construction databases. Scientific technical translation should undergo qualified scientific editing.

  2. Terminology of the public relations field: corpus — automatic term recognition — terminology database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Logar Berginc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an analysis of automatic term recognition results performed for single- and multi-word terms with the LUIZ term extraction system. The target application of the results is a terminology database of Public Relations and the main resource the KoRP Public Relations Corpus. Our analysis is focused on two segments: (a single-word noun term candidates, which we compare with the frequency list of nouns from KoRP and evaluate termhood on the basis of the judgements of two domain experts, and (b multi-word term candidates with verb and noun as headword. In order to better assess the performance of the system and the soundness of our approach we also performed an analysis of recall. Our results show that the terminological relevance of extracted nouns is indeed higher than that of merely frequent nouns, and that verbal phrases only rarely count as proper terms. The most productive patterns of multi-word terms with noun as a headword have the following structure: [adjective + noun], [adjective + and + adjective + noun] and [adjective + adjective + noun]. The analysis of recall shows low inter-annotator agreement, but nevertheless very satisfactory recall levels.

  3. Linked Heritage: a collaborative terminology management platform for a network of multilingual thesauri and controlled vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Veronique Leroi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminology and multilingualism have been one of the main focuses of the Athena Project. Linked Heritage as a legacy of this project also deals with terminology and bring theory to practice applying the recommendations given in the Athena Project. Linked Heritage as a direct follow-up of these recommendations on terminology and multilingualism is currently working on the development of a Terminology Management Platform (TMP. This platform will allow any cultural institution to register, SKOSify and manage its terminology in a collaborative way. This Terminology Management Platform will provide a network of multilingual and cross-domain terminologies.

  4. Agrosystem Services: An Additional Terminology to Better Understand Ecosystem Services Delivered by Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Wiggering

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To discriminate between the contributions of ecosystems and the human subsidies to agricultural systems, we propose using an additional terminology to bring clarification into the controversial discussion about i ecosystems versus agrosystems and ii ecosystem services versus agrosystem services. A literature review revealed that with the exception of some very recent publications, this has not yet been sufficiently reflected, neither within the scientific nor in the policy discussion. The question remains whether to spoil the discussion with new terms again and again. We reason that it makes sense to underpin the case-specific share of agricultural inputs to the supply of agroecosystem services and to add “agro” to the terminology. We conclude, that there is a need to promote the new terminology of agrosystem services and to strengthen the use of the already established term agroecosystem services within this context. To emphasise the production patterns behind the multiple benefits agricultural systems provide to humans (commodity and non-commodity outputs and to guarantee a reasonable weighting of related externalities in policy processes, we suggest to introduce the term agrosystem services into the discussion on ecosystem services. Agrosystem services in this context describe the anthropogenic share of agroecosystem services’ generation. Agroecosystem services include multiple provisioning, regulating and cultural services from agricultural ecosystems. The inclusion of agrosystem services might accommodate the ecology-based ecosystem services concept to the specificity of managed agricultural ecosystems and therefore could be better implemented by mostly economy-driven agricultural production systems and agricultural policy.

  5. Terminologies and definitions in the use of intelligibility: state-of-the-art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Cesar Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Um aspecto controverso existente na literatura relacionada à inteligibilidade é a falta de consenso entre as terminologias e definições propostas. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão das terminologias e definições sugeridas para inteligibilidade entre o período de 1950 a 2003. Os conceitos e terminologias são discutidos e uma comparação entre eles é apresentada. Possíveis formas de coleta de dados para estudos em inteligibilidade são recomendadas.One controversial aspect found in the literature on intelligibility is the lack of consensus among the terminologies and concepts proposed by several scholars. This article presents a state-of-art review of the terminologies and definitions proposed for intelligibility from 1950 to 2003. The terminologies and definitions are presented and discussed, and a comparison among them, with specifications of the similarities found, is shown. At the end, ways of collecting data for further investigations on language learners' intelligibility are recommended.

  6. Historical perspective on developmental concepts and terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, John M; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    In their ontogeny and phylogeny all living beings are historical entities. The revolution in biology of the 18th and 19th centuries that did away with the scala naturae according to which we humans, the acme of creation, "made a little lower than the angels," also led to the gradual realization that a humble one-celled protist ("protoctist"), such as Entamoeba histolytica of ill repute [Margulis and Chapman, ] has the same 4-billion-year phylogeny as that of Homo sapiens, vivid testimony to common ancestry and the relatedness of all living beings on earth. The group of medical geneticists who assembled at the NIH, Bethesda, MD this January to address terms pertaining to human ontogeny, did so in the long tradition of Sydenham, Linnaeus, Meckel, Geoffroy St-Hilaire père et fils, Wilhelm His and so many others before who had over the previous two centuries wrestled as earnestly as they could with concepts of "classification" and nomenclature of developmental anomalies. The prior massive need for classification per se in medical morphology has diminished over the years in favor of ever more sophisticated understanding of pathogenesis and cause through experimental biology and genetics; however, in the winter of 2013 it was still found prudent to respect terminological precedent on general terms while recognizing recent advances in developmental pathology requiring clarification and definition of special terms. Efforts along similar lines instigated by the German Society of Anatomists at their first meeting in Leipzig in 1887 culminated, after intense years of work by hundreds of experts and consultants under the goad of Wilhelm His, in the Basel Nomina Anatomica [BNA, His (1895)]. His, himself, stated prefatorily that the BNA had no legislative weight, only an evanescent consensus of many to be amended in the future as needed and indicated. Without hubris, no one before or after will do the same. The more substantial the consensus the more permanent the structure

  7. Motivation Terminology in Reading Research: A Conceptual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Kristin; Jang, Bong Gee; McKenna, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of motivation in understanding the development and practices of reading, problems persist in how motivation-related constructs are defined and investigated. This article reports a concept analysis of how 12 terms have been used in current reading research. Selection criteria resulted in the identification of 92 data-based…

  8. Terminology in South Africa Terminologie in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This article deals with terminology and terminography in South Africa. It gives the different meanings attached to the term terminology and describes points of difference between terminology and terminography. It focuses on the dimensions of terminology, namely the cognitive, linguistic and communicative dimension. Since terminologists need to consult with subject specialists, linguists, language users and mother-tongue speakers during different phases of the terminography process, the role of consultation in terminology work is stressed. Various aspects such as cultural differences that need to be taken care of, are discussed. The current South African terminology and terminography situation regarding terminology work undertaken by the National Language Service is examined. Emphasis is placed on the database system being used and the National Termbank. Terminology training also receives attention.

    Keywords: terminology, terminography, terminologist, terminographer, cognitive dimension, linguistic dimension, communicative dimension, technical dictionary, subject specialist, subject field, subject-oriented, concept-oriented, language-oriented, standardisation, primary term formation, secondary term formation, loan words, borrowing, transliteration, neologism, extension of meaning, total embedding, transference

     

    Hierdie artikel handel oor terminologie en terminografie in Suid-Afrika. Dit verskaf die verskillende betekenisse wat aan die term terminologie geheg word en beskryf punte van verskil tussen terminologie en terminografie. Daar word gefokus op die dimensies van terminologie, naamlik die kognitiewe dimensie, die taaldimensie en die kommunikatiewe dimensie. Aangesien terminoloë vakspesialiste, linguiste, taalgebruikers en moedertaalsprekers gedurende verskillende fases van terminologiewerk moet raadpleeg, word die rol van konsultasie in terminologiewerk beklemtoon. Verskeie aspekte waaraan aandag gegee

  9. Doha agreement meeting on terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weir, Adam; Brukner, Peter; Delahunt, Eamonn;

    2015-01-01

    with accompanying definitions. METHODS: A one-day agreement meeting was held on 4 November 2014. Twenty-four international experts from 14 different countries participated. Systematic reviews were performed to give an up-to-date synthesis of the current evidence on major topics concerning groin pain in...... athletes. All members participated in a Delphi questionnaire prior to the meeting. RESULTS: Unanimous agreement was reached on the following terminology. The classification system has three major subheadings of groin pain in athletes: 1. Defined clinical entities for groin pain: Adductor-related, iliopsoas...

  10. Development and evaluation of a clinical note section header terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Joshua C; Miller, Randolph A; Johnson, Kevin B; Spickard, Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Clinical documentation is often expressed in natural language text, yet providers often use common organizations that segment these notes in sections, such as history of present illness or physical examination. We developed a hierarchical section header terminology, supporting mappings to LOINC and other vocabularies; it contained 1109 concepts and 4332 synonyms. Physicians evaluated it compared to LOINC and the Evaluation and Management billing schema using a randomly selected corpus of history and physical notes. Evaluated documents contained a median of 54 sections and 27 major sections. There were 16,196 total sections in the evaluation note corpus. The terminology contained 99.9% of the clinical sections; LOINC matched 77% of section header concepts and 20% of section header strings in those documents. The section terminology may enable better clinical note understanding and interoperability. Future development and integration into natural language processing systems is needed. PMID:18999303

  11. Creation of a local interface terminology to SNOMED CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osornio, Alejandro Lopez; Luna, Daniel; Gambarte, Maria Laura; Gomez, Adrian; Reynoso, Guillermo; de Quirós, Fernán González Bernaldo

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the steps followed in the creation of a local Interface Terminology to SNOMED CT (as reference terminology) with a strong focus on user acceptability. The resulting list of terms is used for clinical data input by physicians and nurses at the Hospital Italiano in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Description includes data model, mappings to SNOMED CT and classifications, subsets definitions and extensibility mechanisms. The Interface Terminology is currently used in the recording of diagnosis and procedures in inpatient discharge summaries and its coverage is improving from user feedback. Its current size is 24,800 concepts, 67% of them needed post-coordination for appropriate semantic representation, due to a very flexible policy that allows the use of any number of modifiers on concepts. PMID:17911820

  12. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities. PMID:18488135

  13. Terminology and definitions on groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weir, Adam; Hölmich, Per; Schache, Anthony G;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Groin pain in athletes occurs frequently and can be difficult to treat, which may partly be due to the lack of agreement on diagnostic terminology. OBJECTIVE: To perform a short Delphi survey on terminology agreement for groin pain in athletes by a group of experts. METHODS: A selected...... number of experts were invited to participate in a Delphi questionnaire. The study coordinator sent a questionnaire, which consisted of demographic questions and two 'real-life' case reports of athletes with groin pain. The experts were asked to complete the questionnaire and to provide the most likely...... taxonomy reflects only a slight agreement between the various diagnostic terms provided by the selected experts. CONCLUSIONS: This short Delphi survey of two 'typical, straightforward' cases demonstrated major inconsistencies in the diagnostic terminology used by experts for groin pain in athletes. These...

  14. Representing lexical components of medical terminologies in OWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Chute, Christopher G; Solbrig, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Medical Terminologies play a vital role in clinical data capture, reporting, information integration, indexing and retrieval. The Web Ontology language (OWL) provides an opportunity for the medical community to leverage the capabilities of OWL semantics and tools to build formal, sound and consistent medical terminologies, and to provide a standard web accessible medium for inter-operability,access and reuse. One of the tasks facing the medical community today is to represent the extensive terminology content that already exists into this new medium. This paper addresses one aspect of this challenge - how to incorporate multilingual, structured lexical information such as definitions, synonyms, usage notes, etc. into the OWL ontology model in a standardized, consistent and useful fashion. PMID:16779134

  15. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  16. Standard terminology relating to fatigue and fracture testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This terminology contains definitions, definitions of terms specific to certain standards, symbols, and abbreviations approved for use in standards on fatigue and fracture testing. The definitions are preceded by two lists. The first is an alphabetical listing of symbols used. (Greek symbols are listed in accordance with their spelling in English.) The second is an alphabetical listing of relevant abbreviations. 1.2 This terminology includes Annex A1 on Units and Annex A2 on Designation Codes for Specimen Configuration, Applied Loading, and Crack or Notch Orientation.

  17. PyMedTermino: an open-source generic API for advanced terminology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Venot, Alain; Duclos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The integration of terminologies is still a challenging problem in medical informatics research and software applications, due to the high number of heterogeneous terminologies. In this paper, we present a generic API (Application Programming Interface) for a multi-terminology multilingual terminology service, and PyMedTermino, its open-source implementation in Python with 5 terminological resources (ICD10, SNOMED CT, MedDRA, CDF, VCM iconic language) and the UMLS compendium. This service has been designed for research and educational purpose. It offers various advanced functionalities rarely present in terminology services. PMID:25991291

  18. Terminology and methodology in modelling for water quality management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Vanrolleghem, P.; Rauch, W.

    1997-01-01

    most widely used terms for characterising models and within the process of model building. It is essential to the ever growing society of researchers within water quality management, that communication is eased by establishing a common terminology. This should not be done by giving broader definitions...

  19. Remote sensing terminology: past experience and recent needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Rumiana

    2013-10-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Terminology accuracy is essential during all phases of international cooperation. It is crucial to keep up with the latest quantitative and qualitative developments and novelties of the terminology in advanced technology fields such as aerospace science and industry. This is especially true in remote sensing and geoinformatics which develop rapidly and have wide and ever extending applications in various domains of human activity. The importance of the correct use of remote sensing terms refers not only to people working in this field but also to experts in many disciplines who handle remote sensing data and information products. The paper is devoted to terminology issues that refer to all aspects of remote sensing research and application areas. The attention is drawn on the recent needs and peculiarities of compiling specialized dictionaries in the subject area of remote sensing. Details are presented about the work in progress on the preparation of an English-Bulgarian dictionary of remote sensing terms focusing on Earth observations and geoinformation science. Our belief is that the elaboration of bilingual and multilingual dictionaries and glossaries in this spreading, most technically advanced and promising field of human expertise is of great practical importance. Any interest in cooperation and initiating of suchlike collaborative multilingual projects is welcome and highly appreciated.

  20. Power Transformers: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol.2, No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to power transformers. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  1. Iron Metallurgy: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to iron metallurgy. Various aspects of iron production are described in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  2. Standard terminology of C26.10 nondestructive assay methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The terminology defined in this document is associated with nondestructive assay of nuclear material. 1.2 All of the definitions are associated with measurement techniques that measure nuclear emissions (that is, neutrons, gamma-rays, or heat) directly or indirectly. 1.3 definitions are relevant to any standards and guides written by subcommittee C26.10.

  3. Historical evolution of anatomical terminology from ancient to modern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2007-06-01

    The historical development of anatomical terminology from the ancient to the modern can be divided into five stages. The initial stage is represented by the oldest extant anatomical treatises by Galen of Pergamon in the Roman Empire. The anatomical descriptions by Galen utilized only a limited number of anatomical terms, which were essentially colloquial words in the Greek of this period. In the second stage, Vesalius in the early 16th century described the anatomical structures in his Fabrica with the help of detailed magnificent illustrations. He coined substantially no anatomical terms, but devised a system that distinguished anatomical structures with ordinal numbers. The third stage of development in the late 16th century was marked by innovation of a large number of specific anatomical terms especially for the muscles, vessels and nerves. The main figures at this stage were Sylvius in Paris and Bauhin in Basel. In the fourth stage between Bauhin and the international anatomical terminology, many anatomical textbooks were written mainly in Latin in the 17th century, and in modern languages in the 18th and 19th centuries. Anatomical terms for the same structure were differently expressed by different authors. The last stage began at the end of the 19th century, when the first international anatomical terminology in Latin was published as Nomina anatomica. The anatomical terminology was revised repeatedly until the current Terminologia anatomica both in Latin and English. PMID:17585563

  4. A Terminology Server for medical language and medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, A L; Solomon, W D; Nowlan, W A; Rush, T W; Zanstra, P E; Claassen, W M

    1995-03-01

    GALEN is developing a Terminology Server to support the development and integration of clinical systems through a range of key terminological services, built around a language-independent, re-usable, shared system of concepts--the CORE model. The focus is on supporting applications for medical records, clinical user interfaces and clinical information systems, but also includes systems for natural language understanding, clinical decision support, management of coding and classification schemes, and bibliographic retrieval. The Terminology Server integrates three modules: the Concept Module which implements the GRAIL formalism and manages the internal representation of concept entities, the Multilingual Module which manages the mapping of concept entities to natural language, and the Code Conversion Module which manages the mapping of concept entities to and from existing coding and classification schemes. The Terminology Server also provides external referencing to concept entities, coercion between data types, and makes its services available through a uniform applications programming interface. Taken together these services represent a new approach to the development of clinical systems and the sharing of medical knowledge. PMID:9082124

  5. Advanced Encoding for Multilingual Access in a Terminological Data Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick; L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Robichaud, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new functionalities implemented in a terminological database (TDB) in order to allow efficient editing of and access to multilingual data. The functionalities are original in the sense that they allow users of the database to retrieve the equivalents not only of headwords...

  6. Latest German-English Terminology in CADCAM & Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    As a technical translator who speaks German fluently, the author would like to study and display the latest bilingual technical terminology in German being used in hardware, software and process technology involved in CADCAM & ROBOTICS. This will greatly help technical translators to correctly translate difficult texts from this area of technology.

  7. Dimensions of Diversity : Terminology in health research

    OpenAIRE

    Bradby, Hannah; Brand, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    This short review considers how ‘ethnicity’ and ‘superdiversity’ are used alongside ‘diversity’ in health research in a sample of recent journal articles. Diversity appears regularly in health inequalities research where the term is used to justify a focus on particular minorities presented as especially vulnerable to ill health or to being in receipt of inadequate services. Given the complexity of what is covered by ‘diversity’ there is a tendency to focus on a single dimension for intervent...

  8. Comparing and evaluating terminology services application programming interfaces: RxNav, UMLSKS and LexBIG

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Peters, Lee; Christopher G Chute; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate the integration of terminologies into applications, various terminology services application programming interfaces (API) have been developed in the recent past. In this study, three publicly available terminology services API, RxNav, UMLSKS and LexBIG, are compared and functionally evaluated with respect to the retrieval of information from one biomedical terminology, RxNorm, to which all three services provide access. A list of queries is established covering a wide spectrum o...

  9. Epilepsy-associated tumours: what epileptologists should know about neuropathology, terminology, and classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthausen, Hans; Blümcke, Ingmar

    2016-09-01

    Brain tumours are an ever-challenging issue in neurology and related medical disciplines. This applies in particular to brain tumours associated with childhood-onset epilepsies, in which seizures are the presenting and only neurological symptom, as our current understanding of the biology and clinical behaviour of an individual tumour is far from being evidence-based. Prospective and randomized clinical trials are lacking in the field of epilepsy-associated tumours and a review of the current literature evokes more questions than provides answers. In this review, current areas of controversy in neuropathology, as well as terminology and classification, are discussed from an epileptologist's perspective. An illustrative case report exemplifies this controversy to further promote interdisciplinary discussion and novel research avenues towards comprehensive patient management in the near future. PMID:27506282

  10. 76 FR 24889 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid® (caBIG®) Support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on February 11, 2011 (76 FR 7867) and... Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG ) Support Service Provider (SSP) Program (NCI) Summary: Under the... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG ) Support...

  11. Ionizing radiation: On why present terminology causes confusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of argot and violation of epistemological impair comprehension of statements of about ionizing radiation. Abolishment of 'becquerel', 'gray' and 'sievert' is one suitable measure for urgently needed improvement. One of the causes of the anxiety and fear evoked by news about the use of radiation or about accidents involving radiation is the terminology used by the authorities addressing the public. Radiological terminology is so strange and alienating to the general public that the result could hardly be other than fear. In what follows, I shall try to show not only that radiological jargon is unnecessary but also that it has to a major extent been established through neglect or misunderstanding of words and of the epistemological principles of measurements. 5 refs

  12. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  13. Technical Note: A proposal for ice nucleation terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, G.; DeMott, P. J.; Möhler, O.; Whale, T. F.

    2015-09-01

    Terminology dealing with ice nucleation in the atmosphere, in biological systems, and in other areas has not kept pace with the growth of empirical evidence and the development of new ideas over recent decades. Ambiguities and misinterpretations could be seen in the literature. This paper offers a set of definitions for various terms in common use, adds some qualifications, and introduces some new ones. Input has been received on the interpretation of various terms from a fair number of researchers; diverse views have been accommodated with some success. It is anticipated that the terminology proposed here will be helpful both to those who adopt it and to those who wish to explain a different perspective.

  14. Leveraging Terminological Resources for Mapping between Rare Disease Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Bastien; Snyder, Michelle; Lewis, Janine; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Background Rare disease information sources are incompletely and inconsistently cross-referenced to one another, making it difficult for information seekers to navigate across them. The development of such cross-references established manually by experts is generally labor intensive and costly. Objectives To develop an automatic mapping between two of the major rare diseases information sources, GARD and Orphanet, by leveraging terminological resources, especially the UMLS. Methods We map the rare disease terms from Orphanet and ORDR to the UMLS. We use the UMLS as a pivot to bridge between the rare disease terminologies. We compare our results to a mapping obtained through manually established cross-references to OMIM. Results Our mapping has a precision of 94%, a recall of 63% and an F1-score of 76%. Our automatic mapping should help facilitate the development of more complete and consistent cross-references between GARD and Orphanet, and is applicable to other rare disease information sources as well. PMID:23920611

  15. Diversity of phage infection types and associated terminology: the problem with 'Lytic or lysogenic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Zack; Abedon, Stephen T

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses of members of domain Bacteria. These viruses play numerous roles in shaping the diversity of microbial communities, with impact differing depending on what infection strategies specific phages employ. From an applied perspective, these especially are communities containing undesired or pathogenic bacteria that can be modified through phage-mediated bacterial biocontrol, that is, through phage therapy. Here we seek to categorize phages in terms of their infection strategies as well as review or suggest more descriptive, accurate or distinguishing terminology. Categories can be differentiated in terms of (1) whether or not virion release occurs (productive infections versus lysogeny, pseudolysogeny and/or the phage carrier state), (2) the means of virion release (lytic versus chronic release) and (3) the degree to which phages are genetically equipped to display lysogenic cycles (temperate versus non-temperate phages). We address in particular the use or overuse of what can be a somewhat equivocal phrase, 'Lytic or lysogenic', especially when employed as a means of distinguishing among phages types. We suggest that the implied dichotomy is inconsistent with both modern as well as historical understanding of phage biology. We consider, therefore, less ambiguous terminology for distinguishing between 'Lytic' versus 'Lysogenic' phage types. PMID:26925588

  16. Terminology Analysis of the Edition of “Autovežimis” (1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Petrėtienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the terminology used in J. Levan‘s book “Autovežimis”, published in 1940 (hereinafter in the text referred to as abbreviation A, particularly the terminology (of both transportation and other terms used in transportation sphere (mainly in physics and chemistry. The authors review simple and complex terms, analyse expression of synonymous terms. The 3rd Chapter of the book presents terms that have not been preserved or their forms have altered over time with the aim of determining the terms that replaced them. Identified current terms in the text are written in quotes, quoted from sources: Kalbos…(2005; Katalynaitė et al. (1995; Keinys et al. (2000; Vaitkevičiūtė (2007; Žitkutė (1996. Terms from the Term Bank of Lithuanian State Language Commission are provided as well (Source: Gaivenis et al. 2000; Geleževičius et al. 2004; Palenskis et al. 2007; Švenčianas et al. 2004; Valiukėnas et al. 2006. Determination of terms meaning is based on the vehicle design and systems schemes and diagrams given in Giedra et al. (2006. The edition presents authentic language.

  17. Ten questions about terminology for children with unexplained language problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, DV

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In domains other than language, there is fairly consistent diagnostic terminology to refer to children's developmental difficulties. For instance, the terms 'dyslexia', 'attention deficit hyperactivity disorder' and 'autistic spectrum disorder' are used for difficulties with reading, attention or social cognition, respectively. There is no agreed label, however, for children with unexplained language problems. AIMS: To consider whether we need labels for unexplained language probl...

  18. International Accounting Standards and Changes in Accounting Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    The language of accounting is subject to continuous change. One of the reasons for a change in terminology is the introduction of new legal requirements that bring about a change in the underlying concepts and therefore the need for new specific terms. Such a situation was created by the Regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 on the application of international accounting standards (IAS). This regulation aims at harmonising ac-counting standards and procedures relating to the preparation and presentat...

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Clinical Note Section Header Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Denny, Joshua C.; Miller, Randolph A; Johnson, Kevin B; Spickard, Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Clinical documentation is often expressed in natural language text, yet providers often use common organizations that segment these notes in sections, such as “history of present illness” or “physical examination.” We developed a hierarchical section header terminology, supporting mappings to LOINC and other vocabularies; it contained 1109 concepts and 4332 synonyms. Physicians evaluated it compared to LOINC and the Evaluation and Management billing schema using a randomly selected corpus of ...

  20. Terminology of pollination biology applied to fruit culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Almeida Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to familiarize a target audience with the terminology of scientific communication in reproductive biology with emphasis on pollination in fruit trees. This is fundamental to the professional who aims to develop and publish technical and scientific writings in this important area of research. To this end, a glossary of the usual terms employed in scientific journals and research institutes is presented.

  1. Multi-perspective enterprise modelling: Background and terminological foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In Information Systems, enterprise modelling has been a pivotal field of research that has evolved over a period of more than 20 years. In recent years, the main research focus was on adapting approaches to enterprise modelling to changing requirements, e.g. provide support for IT management. To develop a better understanding of the motivation, objectives and concepts that are characteristic for enterprise modelling, it is important to study the terminological background. On the one hand, it ...

  2. Basic definitions and terminology problems in metal construction

    OpenAIRE

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    2014-01-01

    The complex program of harmonization of Russian and European systems of technical rate setting in construction presupposes the translation of Eurocode texts to Russian language, their adaptation for use on the Russian territory and creation of terminological dictionaries, which includes dictionaries on metal construction. In the article the author gives examples of inappropriate Russian terms introduced in the process of translation from foreign languages. For the concepts denoted by the prop...

  3. The Book Of Explanation Of Terminology On Noise And Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the book of explanation of terminology on noise and vibration. It has list of committee members of publish for the book explanation of term of noise and vibration. This book contains the glossary of noise like noise pollution and measurement of noise decibel, logarithm, sound pressure, and the number of vibration, and vibration such as whipping, slamming, sloshing, forced vibration analysis high frequency, acoustic enclosure and damping material.

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF TERMINOLOGICAL COMPETENCE DEVELOPING FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH LEARNERS

    OpenAIRE

    Yusukhno, Svitlana; Korets, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to deal with the main issues to the learning terminological collocations in business English. The main emphasis is laid on the importance of collocations for learners of English as a foreign language as well as the actuality importance of their use in the cross cultural business communication. The examples of some frequently used business collocation patterns are provided.

  5. REVISING THE QUESTION OF TERMINOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION OF BRUXISM

    OpenAIRE

    E. I. Boykova; P. N. Geletin; N. V. Ginali; N. N. Maslova; N. V. Yureva

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is no consolidated opinion regarding the terminology and classification of bruxism. The following terms are used for determination of unconscious strong compression teeth: “effect Karolyi”, “stridor dentium”, occlusal neurosis, odonterizm, “bruksomaniya”, “parafunctional activity of masticatory muscles”. Because of the disease nature the polyethiologic symptom group is develops that complicates the disease representation. The authors are recommend the usage “bruxism” term in ev...

  6. Chemical Nomenclature and Terminology in the Light of Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Raos N.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical nomenclature and terminology are not only determined by the development of chemistry, but also by linguistic policies of the nation which uses them. The first modern chemical nomenclature, developed in France at the end of the 18th century, had been intended for international usage, and thus the names of new elements were developed from Greek and Latin roots. Conversely, in Germany the names of elements were coined in strict reference to the German language. In Croatia, both tende...

  7. Terminology Standardization in Education and the Construction of Resources: The Welsh Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegau Andrews

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes developments in Welsh-language terminology within the education system in Wales. Following an outline of historical terminology work, it concentrates on the consolidation of terminology standardization at the Language Technologies Unit, Bangor University, with particular reference to two projects, one concerned with terminology for school-age and further education, the second concerned with higher education. The developments described include the adoption of international standards in terminology standardization and their incorporation in an online terminology standardization environment and dissemination platform that enable access to the centralized terminological dictionaries via a number of sophisticated websites, portals and mobile apps featuring rich dictionary entries. Some of the issues in managing large term collections are explored, and usage statistics are presented for the resources described.

  8. [Big data, medical language and biomedical terminology systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; López-García, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    A variety of rich terminology systems, such as thesauri, classifications, nomenclatures and ontologies support information and knowledge processing in health care and biomedical research. Nevertheless, human language, manifested as individually written texts, persists as the primary carrier of information, in the description of disease courses or treatment episodes in electronic medical records, and in the description of biomedical research in scientific publications. In the context of the discussion about big data in biomedicine, we hypothesize that the abstraction of the individuality of natural language utterances into structured and semantically normalized information facilitates the use of statistical data analytics to distil new knowledge out of textual data from biomedical research and clinical routine. Computerized human language technologies are constantly evolving and are increasingly ready to annotate narratives with codes from biomedical terminology. However, this depends heavily on linguistic and terminological resources. The creation and maintenance of such resources is labor-intensive. Nevertheless, it is sensible to assume that big data methods can be used to support this process. Examples include the learning of hierarchical relationships, the grouping of synonymous terms into concepts and the disambiguation of homonyms. Although clear evidence is still lacking, the combination of natural language technologies, semantic resources, and big data analytics is promising. PMID:26077872

  9. INTERPRETATION OF AYURVEDIC TERMINOLOGIES FROM BIOSTATISTICAL PERSPECTIVE IN RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athikajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Any branch of science demands precision for its development, and so does the medical science. For precision facts, observations or measurements have to be expressed in a figure, which is termed as statistics. Everything in medicine be it a research, diagnosis or treatment, depends on numbers or measurement. Ayurvedic scholars had given due regard to the importance of statistical methods. The mentioning of term ‘sankhya’ and ‘maana’ in the literature of Ayurveda itself indicates the importance given to numbers and measurement. This work aims at interpreting different terminologies of Ayurveda from the Bio-statistical perspective. For this purpose relevant information were collected from the various literatures of Ayurveda and contemporary science and interpretation was done on each statistical terminology. The statistical methods which were used by the ancient Indian seers are in practice for a long time, but it is the need of the hour to explore them with some new terminologies of contemporary science, to standardize the quality of research in Ayurveda. Hence by this work it would be helpful to conclude that Statistical methods which is considered as a recent advancement was in use since ages.

  10. Gyration of the feline brain: localization, terminology and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakozdy, A; Angerer, C; Klang, A; König, E H; Probst, A

    2015-12-01

    The terminology of feline brain gyration is not consistent and individual variability has not been systematically examined. The aim of the study was to identify the gyri and sulci of cat brains and describe them using the current terminology. The brains of 15 cats including 10 European shorthairs, 2 Siamese, 2 Maine coons and one Norvegian forest cat without clinical evidence of brain disease were examined post-mortem and photographed for documentation. For description, the terms of the most recent Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV, 2012) were used, and comparisons with previous anatomical texts were also performed. In addition to the lack of comparative morphology in the NAV, veterinary and human nomenclature are used interchangeably and inconsistently in the literature. This presents a challenge for neurologists and anatomists in localizing gyri and sulci. A comparative analysis of brain gyration showed only minor individual variability among the cats. High-quality labelled figures are provided to facilitate the identification of cat brain gyration. Our work consolidates the current and more consistent gyration terminology for reporting the localization of a cortical lesion based on magnetic resonance imaging or histopathology. This will facilitate not only morphological but also functional research using accurate anatomical reporting. PMID:25308536

  11. Terminology of the sucker-like organs of the scolex of trypanorhynch cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Malcolm K; Beveridge, Ian; Campbell, Ron A; Palm, Harry W

    2004-10-01

    The literature associated with descriptions and definitions of the sucker-like attachment organs in trypanorhynchs, termed either bothria or bothridia, is reviewed. There are descriptions of 14 trypanorhynch species representing 10 families. In none of these trypanorhynchs was a membrane separating the attachment organ from the scolex parenchyma described, one of the definitions used to distinguish bothria from bothridia. Transmission electron microscopy of the bothria of the trypanorhynch species Nybelinia queenslandensis Beveridge & Jones, 1998 (Tentaculariidae) and Otobothrium mugilis Hiscock, 1954 (Otobothriidae) also failed to show any membranous structure separating the surface of the attachment organ from the cestode parenchyma. The sucker-like attachment organs of trypanorhynchan cestodes appear, therefore, to be bothria rather than bothridia. As a result, changes in the terminology of related features of the scolex are proposed here. Henceforth, the pars bothridialis should be referred to as the pars bothrialis and the bothridial pits should be referred to bothrial pits. PMID:15477752

  12. Proposed terminology in fundamental astronomy based on IAU 2000 Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitaine, N.; Andrei, A. H.; Calabretta, M.; Dehant, V.; Fukushima, T.; Guinot, B.; Hohenkerk, C.; Kaplan, G.; Klioner, S.; Kovalevsky, J.; Kumkova, I.; Ma, C.; McCarthy, D. D.; Seidelmann, K.; Wallace, P. T.

    2006-08-01

    We present the proposals of the Division 1 Working Group on "Nomenclature for Fundamental Astronomy" (NFA) that was formed at the 25^th IAU GA in 2003. The NFA Recommendations consist for example of specifying the terminology associated with the new paradigm, defining the celestial and terrestrial "intermediate systems", keeping the classical terminology for "true equator and equinox" and giving the name "equation of the origins" to the distance between the Celestial intermediate origin (CIO) and the equinox along the intermediate equator. The NFA WG has also proposed a re-definition of Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB) through a linear transformation of Barycentric Coordinate Time (TCB). These recommendations have resulted from a detailed discussion within the WG on issues described in a number of Newsletters and documents issued by the WG and posted on the NFA web site at http://syrte.obspm.fr/iauWGnfa/ .A special page of the NFA web site makes available documents with educational purposes relevant to the NFA issue. The NFA explanatory document supplies information on the terminology and guidelines recommended by the WG. The NFA Glossary provides a set of detailed definitions that best explain all the terms required for implementing the IAU 2000 resolutions. The other sections provide complementary and supporting material to facilitate the understanding and implementation of the IAU resolutions, as well as illustrating the Glossary. The NFA WG has submitted two resolution proposals to the IAU 2006 General Assembly; one is a "Supplement to the IAU 2000 Resolutions on reference systems" for harmonizing the name of the pole and origin to `intermediate' and fixing the default orientation of the BCRS and GCRS; the other one is a re-definition of TDB.

  13. Towards a Common Onomastic Terminology? The Next Step

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harvalík, Milan

    Cat alunya: Generalitta de Cat alunya, 2014 - (Tort i Donada, J.; Montagut i Montagut, M.), s. 21-25 ISBN 978-84-393-9162-3. [Congrés Internacional d’ICOS sobre Ciències Onomàstiques /24./. Barcelona (ES), 05.09.2011-09.09.2011] Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : onomastics * terminology * International Council of Onomastic Sciences Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics http://www.gencat. cat /llengua/BTPL/ICOS2011/cercador.html?captasec=1

  14. On cosmic-ray cut-off terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of cosmic-ray access to location within the geomagnetic field has evolved over the past fifty years. Cosmic-ray cut-off terminology, originally developed to describe particle access and cut-off rigidities, has not evolved with the scientific advances in the field, and misunderstandings and misapplications of historical work have occurred. This paper is an attempt to remedy this situation by clarifying the areas in which changes have occurred and by providing a cross reference between the historical terms and those terms now in use for innovative cosmic-ray studies which are underway in several laboratories

  15. The key to technical translation, v.2 terminology/lexicography

    CERN Document Server

    Hann, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This handbook for German/English/German technical translators at all levels from student to professional covers the root terminologies of the spectrum of scientific and engineering fields. The work is designed to give technical translators direct insight into the main error sources occurring in their profession, especially those resulting from a poor understanding of the subject matter and the usage of particular terms to designate different concepts in different branches of technology. The style is easy to read and suitable for nonnative English speakers and translators with no engineering ex

  16. A practical approach to advanced terminology services in health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarte, Maria Laura; Osornio, Alejandro Lopez; Martinez, Marcela; Reynoso, Guillermo; Luna, Daniel; de Quiros, Fernan Gonzlez Bernaldo

    2007-01-01

    As the medical informatics field evolves, new functions appear as the focus of interest; a more advanced management of terminology is one of them. Using comprehensive and detailed terminology to represent clinical rules in computer systems, associated with patient information, would allow clinical software to provide patient specific recommendations or alerts. In order to uniform data collection through our HIS, and lay the foundations for future clinical decision support systems, we decided to move from our previous classification-based medical record into new terminology services built around Snomed CT, Spanish Language Version. This paper describes the characteristics of our Terminology Server. The most important achievements of our new terminology system are the centralization of knowledge representation, using a much more detailed terminology system. Clinical data entered at any place of the institution and level of care, is represented uniformly through the whole health information system. PMID:17911791

  17. Terminology extraction from text to build an ontology in surgical intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moigno, Sophie; Charlet, Jean; Bourigault, Didier; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2002-01-01

    In many medical fields, the maintenance of unabiguous terminologies, the comparison and aggregation of different terminologies go through the building of formal specialized clinical terminologies, the ontologies. In this paper, we describe the building of an ontology in the surgical intensive care medical domain. We considered textual reports as the main source of information and a natural language processing tool, the SYNTEX software, is used to build the ontology. We have tested the possibi...

  18. Are the methods to use historical lexicology (etymology) in contemporary medical terminology teaching reasonable?

    OpenAIRE

    Bujalkova, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Latin medical terminology is an obligatory course in the curricula of the Slovak medical faculties, encompassing history of medicine condensed in origins of medical terms and their current meanings, both in theory and practice. Course lecturers believe that terminology teaching should not be reduced to building supportive grammatical structures serving only the function to use it correctly. at present, we find terminology taught in relation to etymology and definition especially contributi...

  19. The translation of terminology in TV series : the Spanish dubbing of E.R.

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Vives, María Dolores; Matamala, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In this article the authors analyse how medical terminology found in the original version of an episode of the television series E.R. has been translated into the Spanish dubbed version. The translations are analysed in terms of translation techniques. A remarkable number of mistakes have been found in the translation of medical terminology, hence lowering the realism of the dubbed version. The relationship between terminology and audiovisual translation is discussed. Methodological issues co...

  20. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions § 145.9 Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers....

  1. Normalización de la terminología mexicana sobre el agua Standardization of Mexican terminology on water

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Naumis-Peña; Verónica Vargas-Suárez

    2009-01-01

    Se expone el resultado de una investigación llevada acabo para conocer el estado de la normalización terminológica en tesauros especializados que incluyen el agua dentro de sus áreas contratando los términos usados en la literatura mexicana. La documentación que se genera sobre el tema del agua en México crece en forma exponencial en tanto que la problemática del agua exige soluciones integrales. Actualmente no existe un tesauro, ni terminologías relacionadas con el tema del agua en México, n...

  2. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. PMID:22461143

  3. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector. PMID:26394486

  4. Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia terminology in practice: 4-year experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sarah E; Hecht, Jonathan L

    2012-03-01

    An alternative WHO classification system for endometrial precancers and hyperplasia separates a lesion called endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) from diffuse hormonal effects and cancer, resulting in a 3-category system. EIN is a localized lesion with objective histologic criteria, characterized by monoclonal growth of mutated cells, and associated with a 45-fold elevated cancer risk. This study summarizes our department's experience with EIN diagnoses in the 4 years since conversion to the new terminology. We identified all reports from endometrial samples diagnosed as EIN or including the terms "gland crowding" or "atypia" since conversion and obtained follow-up information from subsequent pathology specimens or clinic notes (82%). The diagnoses were reported by a mixture of pathologists, the majority of whom are not subspecialized to gynecologic pathology and the slides were not reviewed. Overall, 17.1% of women with EIN had carcinoma and 34.9% had either carcinoma or persistent EIN. The proportion of women with EIN or cancer on follow-up did not trend with years since adoption of EIN terminology. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 55 years in an overall population of women who underwent sampling at a median age of 47 years. The median follow-up time was 4 months. All cancers were of endometrioid histology; all but 2 were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 1. In comparison with a previous reproducibility study among expert pathologists on a comparable population from our department, these results for general pathologists show a higher false positive rate for subsequent cancer. PMID:22317874

  5. Some systemic criteria of the differentiation between fundamental and applied terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akayeva Kh. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issue of singling out some systemic criteria of differentiation between the fundamental and applied terminologies is considered. The authors point at the fact that each terminology has its own individual peculiarities, which mark it out against a general background of the terminological fund of a certain language. It is asserted that one of the most important and effective criteria that can be the basis of the approach to the study of sublanguages for special purposes is a fundamental or applied character of the sphere of professional or scientific knowledge verbalized by a certain terminology. Such terms, as “fundamental terminology”, “applied terminology” and “terminology of transition type”, are introduced for scientific use. The fundamental terminology is understood as a sublanguage for special purposes that verbalizes the notions, forming the totality of fundamental knowledge, serving for the description of phenomena and processes in reality and in science, in the framework of which the fundamental research is carried out. The applied terminology is the name for the sublanguage for special purposes representing the notions, in which the results of human being’s practical scientific-industrial activity for changing the reality, forming the artificial habitat, are conceptualized. The terminology of transition type is the terminology that verbalizes the fragments of the field of scientific knowledge in which the research can have both a fundamental and applied character. The authors come to the conclusion that pure applied or fundamental terminologies are quite rare, that it is rational to speak about the degree of manifestation of the applied or fundamental character within the limits of this or that terminological system.

  6. 12 CFR 500.6 - General statement concerning gender-related terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General statement concerning gender-related... Supervision § 500.6 General statement concerning gender-related terminology. The statutes administered by the... inadvertently use or contain gender-related terminology are to be interpreted as equally applicable to...

  7. Terminology of European Education and Training Policy: A Selection of 130 Key Terms. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This multilingual glossary defines 130 key terms used in European education and training policy. It is an extended and updated version of "Terminology of European education and training policy" (2008) and "Terminology of vocational training policy" (2004). It considers new priorities of European union policy, mainly in skills…

  8. 9 CFR 145.63 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Ostrich, Emu, Rhea, and Cassowary Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.63 Terminology and classification; flocks and products. Participating flocks, and the eggs and baby...

  9. 9 CFR 145.83 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Primary Meat-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.83 Terminology and classification; flocks and products. Participating flocks, and the eggs and chicks produced...

  10. 9 CFR 146.23 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Commercial Table-Egg Layer Flocks § 146.23 Terminology and classification; flocks and products. Participating flocks which have met the respective requirements specified in...

  11. 9 CFR 145.73 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Primary Egg-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.73 Terminology and classification; flocks and products. Participating flocks, and the eggs and chicks produced...

  12. SUDS, LID, BMPs, WSUD and more - The evolution and application of terminology surrounding urban drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Tim D.; Shuster, William; Hunt, William F.; Ashley, Richard; Butler, David; Arthur, Scott; Trowsdale, Sam; Barraud, Sylvie; Semadeni-Davies, Annette; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Rivard, Gilles; Uhl, Mathias; Dagenais, Danielle; Viklander, Maria

    2015-01-01

    understandings of the principles that are applied locally to address specific problems. Despite the understandable desire to have a 'uniform set of terminology', such a concept is flawed, ignoring the fact that terms reflect locally shared understanding. The local development of terminology thus has an important...

  13. Terminology and definitions on groin pain in athletes: Building agreement using a short Delphi method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Weir (Adam); P. Hölmich (Per); A.G. Schache (Anthony G.); E. Delahunt (Eamonn); R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Groin pain in athletes occurs frequently and can be difficult to treat, which may partly be due to the lack of agreement on diagnostic terminology. Objective: To perform a short Delphi survey on terminology agreement for groin pain in athletes by a group of experts. Methods:

  14. A LEXICON OF CAVE AND KARST TERMINOLOGY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL KARST HYDROLOGY (2002 EDITION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several attempts to classify karst terminology in an organized manner have been attempted in the past. The last few glossaries of karst terminology were organized in the late 1960s and published in the early 1970s. Since that time, many new terms related to karst in general hav...

  15. Product/Service-Systems: Proposal for models and terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; Tan, Adrian; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    environmental impacts of human consumption activity or optimise a company’s ability to cope with the influences arising from the emerging globalisation of economic and business activities. Since there has not been worked on a coherent terminology for the terms and concepts used in PSS research, the area remains...... development models. Furthermore, the models should be able to integrate with the existing models and concepts of new product development....... very blurred and ill defined. This paper will try to identify the fundamental characteristics of PSS and propose a system of concepts that can be used to describe and discuss the phenomenon, for the purpose of developing new PSS solutions. Coming from a tradition of product development research, the...

  16. Metonymies in Medical Terminologies. A SNOMED CT Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Metonymies are language phenomena, in which one expression is used to refer to a related one. Whereas there are many examples in medical discourse, it has been controversially discussed to what extent metonymic phenomena also matter in medical terminologies like SNOMED CT, where they could hamper their proper use. We investigated this by analyzing all SNOMED CT single word fully specified names containing the suffixes “-itis” and “-ectomy”. Using a combination of string and concept matching, we harvested definitional phrases from the Web and contrasted them with the terms and their logical definitions as stated in SNOMED CT. Whereas metonymic phenomena are very rare in the collection of surgical terms (two out of 138), they were found in 16 terms (out of 251) in the collection of inflammation terms. Web mining retrieved useful phrases for 11 of these terms. Most metonymies found corresponded to the “whole for part” and “general for specific” pattern. PMID:23304317

  17. Terminología y Variación Especializada

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Gómez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Con la descripción de los problemas teóricos, metodológicos y prácticos de los lenguajes especializados, este programa tendrá como objetivo iniciar a los alumnos en este reciente ámbito de estudio e investigación que ha cobrado, por su interdisciplinariedad, una extraordinaria vigencia y actualidad en los últimos años, para que éstos adquieran: 1) desde un punto de vista teórico, los conocimientos básicos en Terminología y Variación, fundamentalmente en lo que atañe a los rasgos lingüístic...

  18. INIS, CEA and nuclear terminology; INIS, CEA et terminologie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surmont, J.; Brulet, C.; Constant, A.; Guille, N.; Le Blanc, A.; Mouffron, O.; Anguise, P.; Jouve, J.J

    2007-07-01

    This poster, prepared for the fifth edition of the meetings of scientific and technical information professionals (RPIST, Nancy (France)), presents, first, the INIS information system, its content and coverage, the French participation to this system and the role of the CEA-Saclay as France's official representative for this system. Then it presents the INIS thesaurus with its different levels as a terminological tool for the indexing of documents and for searching documents inside the database. Finally, the very first electronic version of the multilingual thesaurus is introduced. Several national INIS centres, including the CEA-Saclay, have contributed to the translation of lists of new terms and of forbidden terms (synonyms). (J.S.)

  19. Building a common pediatric research terminology for accelerating child health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michael G; Bailey, L Charles; Forrest, Christopher B; Padula, Michael A; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal observational clinical data on pediatric patients in electronic format is becoming widely available. A new era of multi-institutional data networks that study pediatric diseases and outcomes across disparate health delivery models and care settings are also enabling an innovative collaborative rapid improvement paradigm called the Learning Health System. However, the potential alignment of routine clinical care, observational clinical research, pragmatic clinical trials, and health systems improvement requires a data infrastructure capable of combining information from systems and workflows that historically have been isolated from each other. Removing barriers to integrating and reusing data collected in different settings will permit new opportunities to develop a more complete picture of a patient's care and to leverage data from related research studies. One key barrier is the lack of a common terminology that provides uniform definitions and descriptions of clinical observations and data. A well-characterized terminology ensures a common meaning and supports data reuse and integration. A common terminology allows studies to build upon previous findings and to reuse data collection tools and data management processes. We present the current state of terminology harmonization and describe a governance structure and mechanism for coordinating the development of a common pediatric research terminology that links to clinical terminologies and can be used to align existing terminologies. By reducing the barriers between clinical care and clinical research, a Learning Health System can leverage and reuse not only its own data resources but also broader extant data resources. PMID:24534404

  20. Terminology representation guidelines for biomedical ontologies in the semantic web notations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Cui; Pathak, Jyotishman; Solbrig, Harold R; Wei, Wei-Qi; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-02-01

    Terminologies and ontologies are increasingly prevalent in healthcare and biomedicine. However they suffer from inconsistent renderings, distribution formats, and syntax that make applications through common terminologies services challenging. To address the problem, one could posit a shared representation syntax, associated schema, and tags. We identified a set of commonly-used elements in biomedical ontologies and terminologies based on our experience with the Common Terminology Services 2 (CTS2) Specification as well as the Lexical Grid (LexGrid) project. We propose guidelines for precisely such a shared terminology model, and recommend tags assembled from SKOS, OWL, Dublin Core, RDF Schema, and DCMI meta-terms. We divide these guidelines into lexical information (e.g. synonyms, and definitions) and semantic information (e.g. hierarchies). The latter we distinguish for use by informal terminologies vs. formal ontologies. We then evaluate the guidelines with a spectrum of widely used terminologies and ontologies to examine how the lexical guidelines are implemented, and whether our proposed guidelines would enhance interoperability. PMID:23026232

  1. Problems with peat-electricity stem from terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At the Conference here we have been talking about peat, bio fuel, co-generation of heat and electricity, bioelectricity, the obligation to buy electricity generated from renewable energy resources according to preferential tariffs etc. Sangla Peat Ltd. is an enterprise where these issues are dealt with daily. Still we are unable to sell the peat-produced electricity to Estonian Energy according to preferential tariffs as fixed in the Energy Act (Energiaseadus, 1999), because peat is not listed among the favoured sources of energy. Therefore Sangla Peat Ltd. is enforced to sell its electricity surplus to the national electric network at very low price and only because of lawmakers' contradictory interpretations of fuels. This mess in terminology should be tackled seriously. In The National Long Term Energy Development Programme peat is sometimes treated as a renewable energy source. In the same document peat and even biofuels are not considered as renewable energy sources (however, Energy Act does not include this term). Yet the document emphasizes the preference of heat and electricity cogeneration and states renewable energy sources utilization to be the strategic Estonian energetics objective. The usage of peat is planned to be increasing in heat and electricity co-generation stations. Within cooperation between the department of energetics of the Estonian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Estonian Bio fuel Association the process has already started to diminish contradictions in fuel terminology and in the laws concerning energetics. Also 'Eesti Turvas' (Estonian Peat) magazine has thoroughly treated this subject in its fall 1999 issue (Veski, 1999). On behalf of Sangla Peat Ltd. I hope our authorities of energetics and economy will clear up the the contradictions between Energy Act and The National Long Term Energy Development Programme soon. With the help of laws we need a clear answer to the question: is electric energy, generated in Estonian heat

  2. More terminological clarity in the interprofessional field - a call for reflection on the use of terminologies, in both practice and research, on a national and international level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzkat, Anika; Berger, Sarah; Reeves, Scott; Mahler, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The terminology which has been used up until now within interprofessional healthcare has been characterised by a certain definitional weakness, which, among other factors, has been caused by an uncritical adoption of language conventions and a lack of theoretical reflection. However, as terminological clarity plays a significant role in the development and profiling of a discipline, the clarification and definition of commonly-used terminology has manifested itself as a considerable objective for the interprofessional research community. One of the most important journals for research in the area of interprofessional education and care, the Journal of Interprofessional Care, has expanded its author guidelines relating to terminology, modeled after the conceptual considerations of the research group around Barr et. al and Reeves et al. A German translation of the suggested terms therein has been presented in this contribution, and discussed in light of the challenges to a possible adaptation for the German-speaking world. The objective is to assist communication in practice and research in becoming clearer, while promoting an increasing awareness to and the transparency of determined definitions and terminologies. PMID:27280147

  3. More terminological clarity in the interprofessional field – a call for reflection on the use of terminologies, in both practice and research, on a national and international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzkat, Anika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The terminology which has been used up until now within interprofessional healthcare has been characterised by a certain definitional weakness, which, among other factors, has been caused by an uncritical adoption of language conventions and a lack of theoretical reflection. However, as terminological clarity plays a significant role in the development and profiling of a discipline, the clarification and definition of commonly-used terminology has manifested itself as a considerable objective for the interprofessional research community. One of the most important journals for research in the area of interprofessional education and care, the Journal of Interprofessional Care, has expanded its author guidelines relating to terminology, modeled after the conceptual considerations of the research group around Barr et. al and Reeves et al. A German translation of the suggested terms therein has been presented in this contribution, and discussed in light of the challenges to a possible adaptation for the German-speaking world. The objective is to assist communication in practice and research in becoming clearer, while promoting an increasing awareness to and the transparency of determined definitions and terminologies.

  4. IAEA safety glossary. Terminology used in nuclear safety and radiation protection. 2007 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing and establishing standards of safety for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, clear communication on scientific and technical concepts is essential. The principles, requirements and recommendations that are established and explained in the IAEA's safety standards and elaborated upon in other publications must be clearly expressed. To this end, this Safety Glossary defines and explains technical terms used in IAEA safety standards and other safety related publications, and provides information on their usage. The primary purpose of the Safety Glossary is to harmonize terminology and usage in the IAEA safety standards for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and in their application. Once definitions of terms have been established, they are, in general, intended to be observed in safety standards and other safety related publications and in the work of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security generally. The achievement of consistently high quality in its publications contributes to the authority and credibility of the IAEA, and thus to its influence and effectiveness. High quality in publications and documents is achieved not only by review to ensure that the relevant requirements are met, but also by managing their preparation so as to achieve high quality in their drafting. The Safety Glossary provides guidance primarily for the drafters and reviewers of safety standards, including IAEA technical officers and consultants and bodies for the endorsement of safety standards. The Safety Glossary is also a source of information for users of IAEA safety standards and other safety and security related IAEA publications and for other IAEA staff - notably writers, editors, translators, revisers and interpreters. Users of the Safety Glossary, in particular drafters of national

  5. Terminology for Biorelated Polymers and Applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarm, V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Like most of the materials used by humans, polymeric materials are proposed in the literature and occasionally exploited clinically, as such, as devices or as part of devices, by surgeons, dentists, and pharmacists to treat traumata and diseases. Applications have in common the fact that polymers function in contact with animal and human cells, tissues, and/or organs. More recently, people have realized that polymers that are used as plastics in packaging, as colloidal suspension in paints, and under many other forms in the environment, are also in contact with living systems and raise problems related to sustainability, delivery of chemicals or pollutants, and elimination of wastes. These problems are basically comparable to those found in therapy. Last but not least, biotechnology and renewable resources are regarded as attractive sources of polymers. In all cases, water, ions, biopolymers, cells, and tissues are involved. Polymer scientists, therapists, biologists, and ecologists should thus use the same terminology to reflect similar properties, phenomena, and mechanisms. Of particular interest is the domain of the so-called „degradable or biodegradable polymers” that are aimed at providing materials with specific time-limited applications in medicine and in the environment where the respect of living systems, the elimination, and/or the bio-recycling are mandatory, at least ideally.

  6. Giant cell arteritis. Part I. Terminology, classification, clinical manifestations, diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azamat Makhmudovich Satybaldyev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell arteritis (GCA is a vasculitis affecting mainly large and medium-sized arteries, which the classification of systemic vasculitides refers to as those mainly involving the large vessels. GCA is typified by the involvement of extracranial aortic branches and intracranial vessels, the aorta and its large vessels are being affected most frequently. The paper considers the terminology, classification, prevalence, major pathogenic mechanisms, and morphology of GCA. A broad spectrum of its clinical subtypes is due to target vessel stenosis caused by intimal hyperplasia. In 40% of cases, GCA is shown to be accompanied by polymyalgia rheumatica that may either precede or manifest simultaneously with GCA, or follow this disease. The menacing complications of GCA may be visual loss or ischemic strokes at various sites depending on the location of the occluded vessel. Along with the gold standard verification of the diagnosis of GCA, namely temporal artery biopsy, the author indicates other (noninvasive methods for detection of vascular lesions: color Doppler ultrasonography of the temporal arteries, fluorescein angiography of the retina, mag-netic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography to rule out aortic aneurysm. Dynamic 18F positron emission tomography is demonstrated to play a role in the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness.

  7. Biofield Science and Healing: History, Terminology, and Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubik, Beverly; Muehsam, David; Hammerschlag, Richard; Jain, Shamini

    2015-11-01

    Biofield science is an emerging field of study that aims to provide a scientific foundation for understanding the complex homeodynamic regulation of living systems. By furthering our scientific knowledge of the biofield, we arrive at a better understanding of the foundations of biology as well as the phenomena that have been described as "energy medicine." Energy medicine, the application of extremely low-level signals to the body, including energy healer interventions and bio-electromagnetic device-based therapies, is incomprehensible from the dominant biomedical paradigm of "life as chemistry." The biofield or biological field, a complex organizing energy field engaged in the generation, maintenance, and regulation of biological homeodynamics, is a useful concept that provides the rudiments of a scientific foundation for energy medicine and thereby advances the research and practice of it. An overview on the biofield is presented in this paper, with a focus on the history of the concept, related terminology, key scientific concepts, and the value of the biofield perspective for informing future research. PMID:26665037

  8. REVISING THE QUESTION OF TERMINOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION OF BRUXISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Boykova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there is no consolidated opinion regarding the terminology and classification of bruxism. The following terms are used for determination of unconscious strong compression teeth: “effect Karolyi”, “stridor dentium”, occlusal neurosis, odonterizm, “bruksomaniya”, “parafunctional activity of masticatory muscles”. Because of the disease nature the polyethiologic symptom group is develops that complicates the disease representation. The authors are recommend the usage “bruxism” term in everyday practice and as the most well-established and popular in the medical practice. The primary point of our study was identification of the pathognomonic parameters on electroencephalogram in patients with bruxism. As result of the study it was identified that the border type of EEG was registered statistically higher in pa-tients with parafunctional activity of masticatory muscles than in control group. The results are consistent with global trends, in respect that neuroscientists are systematize bruxism to “parasomnias”, (according to ICD 10 which are characterized by minor changes in the basic rhythm which were identical to findings that we revealed in the study group.

  9. Giant cell arteritis. Part I. Terminology, classification, clinical manifestations, diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azamat Makhmudovich Satybaldyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell arteritis (GCA is a vasculitis affecting mainly large and medium-sized arteries, which the classification of systemic vasculitides refers to as those mainly involving the large vessels. GCA is typified by the involvement of extracranial aortic branches and intracranial vessels, the aorta and its large vessels are being affected most frequently. The paper considers the terminology, classification, prevalence, major pathogenic mechanisms, and morphology of GCA. A broad spectrum of its clinical subtypes is due to target vessel stenosis caused by intimal hyperplasia. In 40% of cases, GCA is shown to be accompanied by polymyalgia rheumatica that may either precede or manifest simultaneously with GCA, or follow this disease. The menacing complications of GCA may be visual loss or ischemic strokes at various sites depending on the location of the occluded vessel. Along with the gold standard verification of the diagnosis of GCA, namely temporal artery biopsy, the author indicates other (noninvasive methods for detection of vascular lesions: color Doppler ultrasonography of the temporal arteries, fluorescein angiography of the retina, mag-netic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography to rule out aortic aneurysm. Dynamic 18F positron emission tomography is demonstrated to play a role in the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness.

  10. Chemical Nomenclature and Terminology in the Light of Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical nomenclature and terminology are not only determined by the development of chemistry, but also by linguistic policies of the nation which uses them. The first modern chemical nomenclature, developed in France at the end of the 18th century, had been intended for international usage, and thus the names of new elements were developed from Greek and Latin roots. Conversely, in Germany the names of elements were coined in strict reference to the German language. In Croatia, both tendencies were present. In the 19th century, when Croatia was part of the Austro- Hungarian Empire, the chemical language was established on the basis of purism, but many new words were actually bohemianisms and literal translations of German terms. In both Yugoslav states (Kingdom of Yugoslavia, 1918–1941, and Communist Yugoslavia, 1945–1991, unitaristic strivings were dominant, culminating in the Unified Yugoslav Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, published in 1966. As it is impossible to make one nomenclature out of terms in two languages (Croatian and Serbian, the “Yugoslav” nomenclature was actually a strange mixture of Serbian and “international” terms. The new nomenclature however was never fully developed, even less generally accepted. Eventually it became obsolete in 1991 by establishment of the independent Croatian state, the Republic of Croatia.

  11. The caBIG annotation and image Markup project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channin, David S; Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Sepukar, Kastubh; Rubin, Daniel L

    2010-04-01

    Image annotation and markup are at the core of medical interpretation in both the clinical and the research setting. Digital medical images are managed with the DICOM standard format. While DICOM contains a large amount of meta-data about whom, where, and how the image was acquired, DICOM says little about the content or meaning of the pixel data. An image annotation is the explanatory or descriptive information about the pixel data of an image that is generated by a human or machine observer. An image markup is the graphical symbols placed over the image to depict an annotation. While DICOM is the standard for medical image acquisition, manipulation, transmission, storage, and display, there are no standards for image annotation and markup. Many systems expect annotation to be reported verbally, while markups are stored in graphical overlays or proprietary formats. This makes it difficult to extract and compute with both of them. The goal of the Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) project is to develop a mechanism, for modeling, capturing, and serializing image annotation and markup data that can be adopted as a standard by the medical imaging community. The AIM project produces both human- and machine-readable artifacts. This paper describes the AIM information model, schemas, software libraries, and tools so as to prepare researchers and developers for their use of AIM. PMID:19294468

  12. There Is No Knowledge Without Terminology. How Terminological Methods and Tools Can Help to Manage Monolingual and Multilingual Knowledge and Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Sauberer

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents “10 good reasons for terminology” in any expert field and any language(s) by discussing the areas of application in the public and the private sector as well as in science and education. After a short introduction on the history of terminology, the term “ontology” will be discussed, as one of the key terms in current knowledge engineering and terminology. The paper gives an overview on means and methods of assuring and improving the quality of knowledge generation, communic...

  13. Notes on Agricultural Terminology in Aristotle (Sens. 441a10-17)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This article examines Aristotle's terminology in a much debated passage of the De Sensu et Sensibilibus. Based on this examination, the text itself and the conjectures that have so far been proposed are discussed....

  14. SUDS, LID, BMPs, WSUD and more - The evolution and application of terminology surrounding urban drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Tim D.; Shuster, William; Hunt, William F.;

    2015-01-01

    The management of urban stormwater has become increasingly complex over recent decades. Consequently, terminology describing the principles and practices of urban drainage has become increasingly diverse, increasing the potential for confusion and miscommunication. This paper documents the histor...

  15. Terminologías consensuadas en Terapia Ocupacional: marco para el entendimiento = Occupational Therapy consensus terminology: framwork to understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brea Rivero, Miguel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizaciones de terapia ocupacional de diversa naturaleza y origen han intentado a lo largo del pasado encontrar uniformidad al lenguaje profesional empleado por todos los terapeutas ocupacionales sobre el planeta. El éxito es altamente cuestionable, tomando en consideración que el procedimiento para alcanzar esta uniformidad se ha centrado fundamentalmente en la mera traducción lingüística de textos o términos sin atender a la gran diversidad conceptual, cultural y contextual, entre los países del universo que conforma la terapia ocupacional. El resultado final ha mostrado un uso parcial y sectorial de esa terminología uniforme. Con el mismo propósito pero mediante un enfoque muy diverso, un grupo de trabajo constituido por miembros de diferentes países europeos ha promovido, en el ámbito de la Red Europea de Terapia Ocupacional en Educación Superior (European Network of Occupational Therapy in Higher Education, ENOTHE en sus siglas en inglés y para el resto del documento una nueva metodología para alcanzar el fin perseguido. El énfasis se ha puesto en el concepto que subyace más allá del término y no en la mera traducción de la palabra.De igual modo, se ha considerado la diversidad cultural entre países y su variedad en el desarrollo disciplinar, y se ha tomado toda la literatura internacional como punto de referencia con el fin de realizar una búsqueda apropiada del término adecuado a cada caso. El resultado final se traduce en la producción de una base de datos que muestra definiciones consensuadas de términos considerados esenciales en terapia ocupacional. La conclusión más relevante que se puede extraer es que el uso uniforme de nuestro lenguaje profesional es posible, incluso más allá de nuestras fronteras, en la medida que seamos capaces de consensuar las raíces profundas de cada término empleado, esto es, su concepto, y no apliquemos la traducción fácil de la palabra y sin razonamiento previo. Este art

  16. Terminology for Neuroscience Data Discovery: Multi-tree Syntax and Investigator-Derived Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Daniel; Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Robert, Adrian; Gardner, Esther P.

    2008-01-01

    The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), developed for the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research and available at http://nif.nih.gov and http://neurogateway.org, is built upon a set of coordinated terminology components enabling data and web-resource description and selection. Core NIF terminologies use a straightforward syntax designed for ease of use and for navigation by familiar web interfaces, and readily exportable to aid development of relational-model databases for neuroscience...

  17. Subsumptive reflection in SNOMED CT: a large description logic-based terminology for diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, A. M. Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Description logic (DL) based biomedical terminology (SNOMED CT) is used routinely in medical practice. However, diagnostic inference using such terminology is precluded by its complexity. Here we propose a model that simplifies these inferential components. We propose three concepts that classify clinical features and examined their effect on inference using SNOMED CT. We used PAIRS (Physician Assistant Artificial Intelligence Reference System) database (1964 findings for 485 disorders, 18 39...

  18. An Ontology-Based Methodology for the Migration of Biomedical Terminologies to Electronic Health Records

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Barry; Ceusters, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Biomedical terminologies are focused on what is general, Electronic Health Records (EHRs) on what is particular, and it is commonly assumed that the step from the one to the other is unproblematic. We argue that this is not so, and that, if the EHR of the future is to fulfill its promise, then the foundations of both EHR architectures and biomedical terminologies need to be reconceived. We accordingly describe a new framework for the treatment of both generals and particular...

  19. Preliminary study of technical terminology for the retrieval of scientific book metadata records

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Birger; Lioma, Christina; Frommholz, Ingo; Schütze, Hinrich

    2012-01-01

    Books only represented by brief metadata (book records) are particularly hard to retrieve. One way of improving their retrieval is by extracting retrieval enhancing features from them. This work focusses on scientific (physics) book records. We ask if their technical terminology can be used as a retrieval enhancing feature. A study of 18,443 book records shows a strong correlation between their technical terminology and their likelihood of relevance. Using this finding for retrieval yields &g...

  20. Applying terminological methods and description logic for creating and implementing and ontology on inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2009-01-01

    By applying formal terminological methods to model an ontology within the domain of enzyme inhibition, we aim to clarify concepts and to obtain consistency. Additionally, we propose a procedure for implementing this ontology in OWL with the aim of obtaining a strict structure which can form the...... basis for reasoning and further processing, and we compare a semi-formal terminological concept modeling approach with a formal Description Logic approach in OWL-DL....

  1. Teaching neuroanatomical terminology in english as part of the language of medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Goranova, Vanya; Tacheva, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is the study of the structural organization of the nervous system. Its terminology is closely related to the origin and development of medical terminology. Understanding linguistic phenomena such as etymology, synonyms, antonyms, paronyms, acronyms etc. helps the students in achieving a higher medical competence. The specific terms could be distributed into several categories related to: 1. geometric objects (pyramid, uncus, fornix); 2. colours (red nucleus, white matter, gray ma...

  2. Terminology and definitions on groin pain in athletes: building agreement using a short Delphi method

    OpenAIRE

    Weir, Adam; Hölmich, Per; Schache, Anthony G.; Delahunt, Eamonn; de Vos, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Groin pain in athletes occurs frequently and can be difficult to treat, which may partly be due to the lack of agreement on diagnostic terminology. Objective: To perform a short Delphi survey on terminology agreement for groin pain in athletes by a group of experts. Methods: A selected number of experts were invited to participate in a Delphi questionnaire. The study coordinator sent a questionnaire, which consisted of demographic questions and two 'real-life' case rep...

  3. Terminology standardization strategies towards the consolidation of the European Higher Education Area

    OpenAIRE

    Candel-Mora, Miguel Ángel; Carrió Pastor, Mª Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the measures taken places special emphasis on the role of key documents within this process such as degree descriptions and course catalogues. However, previous studies on course catalogues from several European universities have revealed numerous weaknesses in the users input of information and terminology inconsistencies which confirm the need to develop and implement terminology standardization strategies. This p...

  4. Reliability of SNOMED-CT Coding by Three Physicians using Two Terminology Browsers

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Michael F.; Hwang, John C.; Yu, Alexander C.; Casper, Daniel S.; Cimino, James J.; Starren, Justin

    2006-01-01

    SNOMED-CT has been promoted as a reference terminology for electronic health record (EHR) systems. Many important EHR functions are based on the assumption that medical concepts will be coded consistently by different users. This study is designed to measure agreement among three physicians using two SNOMED-CT terminology browsers to encode 242 concepts from five ophthalmology case presentations in a publicly-available clinical journal. Inter-coder reliability, based on exact coding match by ...

  5. GRISP: A Massive Multilingual Terminological Database for Scientific and Technical Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Patrice; Romary, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    The development of a multilingual terminology is a very long and costly process. We present the creation of a multilingual terminological database called GRISP covering multiple technical and scientific fields from various open resources. A crucial aspect is the merging of the different resources which is based in our proposal on the definition of a sound conceptual model, different domain mapping and the use of structural constraints and machine learning techniques for controlling the fusion pr...

  6. The Dynamics Of English Terminological Compound Lexemes And Their Serbian Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimković-Telebaković Gordana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the conceptual dynamicity of English compound lexemes and their Serbian equivalents as reflected in compound lexemes in traffic engineering. The morphological structure and semantics of compound lexemes are considered, as well as strategies for translating English metaphorical compound lexemes into Serbian. The analysis reveals that Serbian cannot cope with the dynamic nature of traffic engineering terminology in English, and that Anglicisms, synonyms of different polysemous terms and vague conceptual determinations are characteristic of Serbian terminological equivalents

  7. The smallest divisions of time: terminological and lexicographical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Sánchez Martín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study of the ancient divisible units of the hours of day (the terms borrowed from latin: átomo, cuadrante, momento, punto and uncia use the principal sources of the medieval and Renaissance works. With regard to the former, an example of the cultural transmission of this specialized lexicon can be seen in its reception in The Etymologies of Saint Isidore (c. 560-636 and in the Libro de las propiedades de las cosas of Bartolomé Ánglico (1240, an encyclopaedia that had an extraordinary reception in Western Europe until the sixteenth century. Amongst the Renaissance sources several studies stand out: Chronographía or Reportorio de los tiempos (1545 by Jerónimo de Chaves, the anonymous book Repertorio de los tiempos (1554 and Chronographía y Repertorio de los tiempos (1585 by Francisco Vicente de Tornamira, a set of treatises which includes the knowledge compiled in the medieval encyclopaedias mentioned above. These works allow us to verify the transmission of this lexicon, in a stage marked by the growing interest in metrological issues. The analysis of this terminology reflects the semantic connections established between the various dimensions (weight, space and time as its semantic reference moves from the spatial domain to the that of time and relationships are attested in the earliest dictionaries of the Spanish language.

  8. Eliminating "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) terminology in clinical breast practice: The cognitive psychology point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Yoder, Whitney R; Riva, Silvia; Mazzocco, Ketti; Arnaboldi, Paola; Galimberti, Viviana

    2016-02-01

    There is evidence from the literature that the terms "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) should be eliminated in clinical breast cancer practice and replaced with the new "ductal intraepithelial neoplasia" (DIN) and "lobular intraepithelial neoplasia" (LIN) terminology. The main purpose of the present article is to expand on this argument from a cognitive psychology perspective and offer suggestions for further research, emphasizing how the elimination of the term "carcinoma" in "in situ" breast cancer diagnoses has the potential to reduce both patient and health care professional confusion and misperceptions that are often associated with the DCIS and LCIS diagnoses, as well as limit the adverse psychological effects of women receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis. We comment on the recent peer-reviewed literature on the clinical implications and psychological consequences for breast cancer patients receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis and we use a cognitive perspective to offer new insight into the benefits of embracing the new DIN and LIN terminology. Using cognitive psychology and cognitive science in general, as a foundation, further research is advocated in order to yield data in support of changing the terminology and therefore, offer a chance to significantly improve the lives and psychological sequelae of women facing such a diagnosis. Typology: Controversies/Short Commentary. PMID:26614547

  9. IAEA safety glossary. Terminology used in nuclear, radiation, radioactive waste and transport safety. Version 1.0. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA safety standards for nuclear installations, radiation protection, radioactive waste management and the transport of radioactive materials have been historically developed in four separate programmes, each of them developing its own terminology. The purpose was to explain the meaning of technical terms that might be unfamiliar to a reader; to explain any special meanings assigned to common words or terms and to define precisely how terms are used in particular publications to avoid ambiguity concerning some important aspects of their meaning. It is intended primarily to provide guidance to the drafters and reviewers of Agency safety related publications, including IAEA Technical officers, consultants and members of Technical Committees, Advisory Groups and safety standards advisory bodies. It is also likely to be a useful source of information for other Agency staff, notably editors and translators, and for external users of IAEA safety related publications

  10. Unsustaineble pseudo-urban consequences of legal and urban terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćerimović Velimir Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City planning is a complex task and through this work we face the space and natural resources that expose the exploitation (that are to be exploited and prone to unsustainable change. Often without environmental responsibility and the imperative of creating certain measures we make superstructure no matter how much the environment may be disrupted, and whether such relationships create a better society, better network of urban settlements and a better man. At that may also affect our knowledge which is often due to a variety of doctrines and legislative regulations that are applied in the planning and management space. From this it can be seen that modern architecture did not contribute to the creation of better cities. Also, urban planning is mainly restricted to the regulation and it neglected the creative action, regional-planning is lost in theoretical research, while the consideration of the whole problem is abandoned. In addition to this, in today’s transitional terms and the domineering (dominant urban crisis unsustainable combination and identification of the “2D” and the “3D” terminology is recognizable, which is only indicators that in the field of urban planning some transitional trends are prevailing. This unsustainable state of affairs in the transitional planning of urban areas can be applied in the most suitable way to pseudo-urbanization, sub-urbanization, unbalanced eco-reciprocity, non-standard construction of the urban tissue, discontinuity inherited and newly constructed urban substance. In this regard, consequently expressed negative environmental legacy of reproduction and the increased effect of the negative consequences of greenhouse gases from the threatening climate change, only shows that urban planners are not sinless and, they more or less (unconsciously complicit and participate in the contamination of urban and environment. In the end, it definitely guides us to the need to leave or transformation of the

  11. A Simple Strategy for Implementing Standard Reference Terminologies in a Distributed Healthcare Delivery System with Minimal Impact to Existing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bouhaddou, Omar; Lincoln, Michael J; Maulden, Sarah; Murphy, Holli; Warnekar, Pradnya; Nguyen, Viet; Lam, Siew; Brown, Steven H.; Frankson, Ferdinand J.; Crandall, Glen; Hughes, Carla; Sigley, Roger; Insley, Marcia; Graham, Gail

    2006-01-01

    The Veterans Administration (VA) has adopted an ambitious program to standardize its clinical terminology to comply with industry-wide standards. The VA is using commercially available tools and in-house software to create a high-quality reference terminology system. The terminology will be used by current and future applications with no planned disruption to operational systems. The first large customer of the group is the national VA Health Data Repository (HDR). Unique enterprise identifie...

  12. INTERVIEW: Knowledge and Terminology Management at the Danish National Board of Social Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrethe H. Møller

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Margrethe H. Møller interviews David Rosendahl(translator/coauthor: Birthe Toft“We need to do more than simply create classifications” The concept secretariat of the Danish National Board of Social Services carries out terminology and classification work in connection with IT projects, among others, in the field of social services. This work is interesting for several reasons. On the one hand, terminology work obviously contributes to enhanced efficiency and transparency from the points of view of all types of users. On the other hand, some social services professionals are skeptical vis-à-vis the terminology projects because they fear unification and standardization of their professionalism and working procedures in connection with the introduction of new IT systems. And finally, a number of ethical issues have to be taken into consideration when deciding on terminology in the social services field. All in all, target group and communicative aspects become central to the effort.David Rosendahl Terminology consultant at the Danish National Board of Social ServicesThe Danish National Board of Social Services(“Socialstyrelsen” is an independent subdivision of The Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration. The Board aims to promote new development and initiatives in social services while also supporting and counselling local authorities in providing services to citizens, i.e. children, young people, socially marginalised groups, elderly and disabled.

  13. Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology for Non-Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Christian M.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several geologic concepts applicable to lunar geology with particular interest in creating lunar regolith simulant. Fundamental ways in which the Moon differs from the Earth. Concepts that are described in detail are: minerals, glass, and rocks.

  14. Progress in the standardization of DSM terminology, reporting formats, and evaluation protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L.

    1994-10-01

    Evaluations of demand-side management programs are numerous and serve many purposes: assessing effectiveness, promoting program improvements, guiding planning processes, and determining the level of shareholder incentives. Although many program evaluations are available, it is difficult to combine or compare results because of inconsistencies in definitions, reporting formats, and evaluation methods. The increased use of explicit and standardized definitions of terms, consistent data reporting formats, and comparable methods is needed to make combining and comparing results across a range of programs, utilities, and state jurisdictional boundaries possible. Producing consistent and accurate comparisons of program experience is an important, although challenging and, therefore, under utilized, means of identifying the key elements of effective programs and of improving future programs. In spite of the importance of arriving at standard terminology and data reporting conventions, progress is slow. The purpose of this report is to assess progress toward standardization by reviewing attempts to promote standardization and by determining the degree of consistency in various sources. There are a number of efforts to promote standardization including regional utility efforts such as Northeast Regional DSM Data Exchange and NU-Trak in the Pacific Northwest, state regulatory commission requirements, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory databases and publications, which are national in scope. A variety of other organizations such as the Association of Demand-Side Management Professionals, the Electric Power Research Institute, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, the Energy Information Administration, the Synergic Resources Corporation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Association of Energy Service Companies have publications and/or training courses designed to promote greater standardization.

  15. INTERVIEW: Knowledge and Terminology Management at the Danish National Board of Social Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.; Toft, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    social services field. All in all, target group and communicative aspects become central to the effort. David Rosendahl Terminology consultant at the Danish National Board of Social Services The Danish National Board of Social Services (“Socialstyrelsen”) is an independent subdivision of The Ministry of......Abstract Margrethe H. Møller interviews David Rosendahl (translator/coauthor: Birthe Toft) “We need to do more than simply create classifications” The concept secretariat of the Danish National Board of Social Services carries out terminology and classification work in connection with IT projects......, among others, in the field of social services. This work is interesting for several reasons. On the one hand, terminology work obviously contributes to enhanced efficiency and transparency from the points of view of all types of users. On the other hand, some social services professionals are skeptical...

  16. Preliminary study of technical terminology for the retrieval of scientific book metadata records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birger; Lioma, Christina; Frommholz, Ingo;

    2012-01-01

    Books only represented by brief metadata (book records) are particularly hard to retrieve. One way of improving their retrieval is by extracting retrieval enhancing features from them. This work focusses on scientific (physics) book records. We ask if their technical terminology can be used as a...... retrieval enhancing feature. A study of 18,443 book records shows a strong correlation between their technical terminology and their likelihood of relevance. Using this finding for retrieval yields >+5% precision and recall gains. © 2012 Authors....

  17. Non-specific terminology: Moderating shame and guilt in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Mary E; Henkel, Kristin E

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of terminology on affect, 110 women with eating disorders were randomly assigned to read a manufactured discussion thread with uses of the term "acting out," a thread with clinical terms, or were assigned to a no-reading control. An interaction effect was found in which participants who were treated at a day or inpatient level and were in the "acting out" condition experienced reductions in shame and guilt, while those in the clinical term condition experienced increases in shame and guilt, relative to control participants. The ability of terminology to moderate shame and guilt in this population has implications for clinical practice. PMID:25826200

  18. New power plant terminology (KKS) from the view of information psychology and ergonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohr, E.; Becker, G.; Wildberg, D.

    1982-01-01

    The operating staff of power plants have to deal daily with coded designations of devices and plants. Two factors determine the simple and reliable compilation, processing and reproduction of such designations: first, the formal-logical and technological consistency of the terminological system, and secondly, its compatibility with the human faculties of taking in and processing alphanumerically coded information. The KKS is investigated from both points of view and the problems of its structure and its utilization by human beings are pointed out. Some requirements to a logically consistent terminological system which is closely related to the technical way of thinking and talking and to practical usage result from this analysis.

  19. In Quest of Sufficient Equivalence. Polish and English Insolvency Terminology in Translation. a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matulewska Aleksandra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of translating selected insolvency terminology from Polish into English and from English into Polish. The re- search corpora encompassed the Insolvency Act 1986 (England and Wales as amended and Ustawa z dnia 28 lutego 2003. Prawo upadłościowe i naprawcze [the Act on Polish Insolvency and Rehabilitation Law of 28th February 2003 as amended]. The research methods included: (i the comparison of parallel texts, (ii the method of axiomatisation of the legal linguistic reality, (iii the termino- logical analysis of the corpus material, (iv the concept of adjusting the target text to the communicative needs and requirements of the community of recipients and (v the techniques of providing equivalents for non-equivalent terminology. The research hypothesis has been so formulated that the parametrisation of legal reality may assist in finding more adequate equivalents and determine differences in meaning of compared source and target language terms, which in turn facilitates the choice of a more adequate technique of providing equivalents for non-equivalent or partially equivalent legal terminology meeting the com- municative needs of translation recipients. The research results revealed that insolvency terminology is highly system-bound and available equivalents may often be misleading for the community of target text recipients

  20. Machine-Aided Translation: From Terminology Banks to Interactive Translation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Concetta C.; Serain, Daniel

    The rapid growth of the need for technical translations in recent years has led specialists to utilize computer technology to improve the efficiency and quality of translation. The two approaches considered were automatic translation and terminology banks. Since the results of fully automatic translation were considered unsatisfactory by various…

  1. Hydraulic Turbines: The Francis Turbine. Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the Francis turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. An explanatory illustration is appended. (JB)

  2. Falls prevention within the Australian general practice data model: methodology, information model, and terminology issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Sulaiman, Nabil; Pearce, Christopher; Sims, Jane; Hill, Keith; Grain, Heather; Tse, Justin; Ng, Choon-Kiat

    2003-01-01

    The iterative development of the Falls Risk Assessment and Management System (FRAMS) drew upon research evidence and early consumer and clinician input through focus groups, interviews, direct observations, and an online questionnaire. Clinical vignettes were used to validate the clinical model and program logic, input, and output. The information model was developed within the Australian General Practice Data Model (GPDM) framework. The online FRAMS implementation used available Internet (TCP/IP), messaging (HL7, XML), knowledge representation (Arden Syntax), and classification (ICD10-AM, ICPC2) standards. Although it could accommodate most of the falls prevention information elements, the GPDM required extension for prevention and prescribing risk management. Existing classifications could not classify all falls prevention concepts. The lack of explicit rules for terminology and data definitions allowed multiple concept representations across the terminology-architecture interface. Patients were more enthusiastic than clinicians. A usable standards-based online-distributed decision support system for falls prevention can be implemented within the GPDM, but a comprehensive terminology is required. The conceptual interface between terminology and architecture requires standardization, preferably within a reference information model. Developments in electronic decision support must be guided by evidence-based clinical and information models and knowledge ontologies. The safety and quality of knowledge-based decision support systems must be monitored. Further examination of falls and other clinical domains within the GPDM is needed. PMID:12807809

  3. Terminology Evolution and Translation: Specificity of Referent & User’s Epistemic Continuum Exemplified in Islamic Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. S. Al-Shabab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dynamics of environmental context, the referent of a linguistic sign changes, but the sign persists as a verbal symbol. Since a technical term strictly evokes one referent, it may lack in specificity due to the ever-changing reality, resulting in homonymy, overlap, and a semantic continuum based on designating by necessity. In addition to the elements of reference theory, the criteria for technical terms postulate the user, whose authority and responsibility are necessary for the term to function as a specific designator. The centrality of the user, translator or otherwise, has hermeneutic and linguistic implications for the evolution of terminology, because it stipulates that terminological meaning and usage are dependent on the user’s conscious knowledge, a condition that leads to the recognition of a user epistemic continuum parallel to the semantic necessity continuum. Ideally, a term should be universally specific in reference, and its user should be epistemologically empowered and ethically responsible. Keyword: Terminology, technical terms, Translation, Islamic terminology, semantic continuum

  4. The Use of Non-linguistic Data in a Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    to base it on some kind of systematization, e.g. a taxonomy, specifying main groups and various levels of subgroups. However, ISOcat presents terminological data categories in alphabetic order, which means that one may end up with an incomplete and/or inconsistent set of data categories that is very...

  5. The Use of Legal Terminology in Student Conduct Codes: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Janice E.; Janosik, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    A content analysis of 20 student conduct codes identified through stratified random sampling was performed to determine the extent to which legal terminology had been eliminated, as suggested by judicial affairs experts. The results showed that 80% of the codes selected in this study still contained some legal terms. These words and phrases are…

  6. Cost-benefit analysis of the introduction and implementation of a Terminology Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Annelise; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    language is not an obvious distinctive competence, i.e. a strategic element to be incorporated into products so as to increase the penetration into the desired markets. For communicators it is clear that terminology work is useful and necessary - in this relation both quality and price would be clear...

  7. Hydraulic Turbines: The Pelton Turbine. Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the Pelton turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  8. The Steam Turbine: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the steam turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  9. The Gas Turbine: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the gas turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  10. 9 CFR 145.53 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 0579-0007) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 145.53, see the List of CFR... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Waterfowl, Exhibition Poultry, and Game Bird Breeding Flocks and...

  11. 9 CFR 145.23 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 0579-0007) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 145.23, see the List of CFR... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Multiplier Egg-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products §...

  12. 9 CFR 145.33 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 145.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Multiplier Meat-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products §...

  13. Terminology's Impact on Expectations about and Intentions to Seek Psychological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Brigette M.; Waehler, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that psychologists could reframe counseling services as coaching in order to increase the use of psychological services by the general public. This study explored the differential impact of the terminology suggested by replacing the term counseling with the term coaching when assessing college students' expectations…

  14. Circuit-Breakers: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 1, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to circuit breakers. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  15. Transnational health care: from a global terminology towards transnational health region development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainil, Tomas; Van Loon, Francis; Dinnie, Keith; Botterill, David; Platenkamp, Vincent; Meulemans, Herman

    2012-11-01

    Within European cross-border health care, recent studies have identified several types of international patients. Within the Anglo-Saxon setting, the specific terminology of medical tourism is used. The analytical purpose of the paper is to resolve this semantic difference by suggesting an alternative terminology, 'transnational health care' that is understood as a 'context-controlled and coordinated network of health services'. For demand-driven trans-border access seekers and cross-border access searchers, there is a need to opt for regional health-policy strategies. For supply-driven sending context actors and receiving context actors, there would be organizational benefits to these strategies. Applying the terminology of trans-border access seekers, cross-border access searchers, sending context and receiving context actors results in a transnational patient mobility typology of twelve types of international patients, based on the criteria of geographical distance, cultural distance and searching efforts, public/private/no cover and private/public provision of health services. Finally, the normative purpose of the paper is to encourage the use of this terminology to promote a policy route for transnational health regions. It is suggested that the development of transnational health regions, each with their own medical and supportive service characteristics, could enhance governmental context-controlled decision power in applying sustainable health destination management. PMID:22939046

  16. Terminologia Anatômica em Ortopedia Anatomic Terminology in Orthopedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Murilo Novak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Há grande variação com relação à ortografia de termos científicos em artigos e textos médicos. Visando padronizar esses termos, vigora atualmente a Terminologia Anatômica, publicada pelo Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology e traduzida pela Comissão de Terminologia Anatômica da Sociedade Brasileira de Anatomia. Este trabalho correlaciona alguns termos usados na linguagem cotidiana com aqueles preconizados pela Nomina Anatomica. Também, discute a necessidade e a possibilidade de essa lista vir a tornar-se referência para escrita de assuntos ortopédicos.The spelling of scientific words in medical papers and textbooks varies a lot. In order to standardize such spelling, we now have the Anatomical Terminology, published by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, which has been translated into Portuguese by the Terminology Committee of the Brazilian Anatomy Society. This paper correlates some of the words used in daily language to some of the words suggested by the Nomina Anatomica. The paper also discusses the need and the prospects of having such list become the reference of the spelling in orthopedic matters.

  17. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the total number of birds tested during the operating month is equivalent to testing 11 birds per... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  18. Showercap Mindmap: A Spatial Activity for Learning Physiology Terminology and Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanags, Thea; Budimlic, Mira; Herbert, Elissa; Montgomery, Melena M.; Vickers, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Students struggle with the volume and complexity of physiology terminology. We compared first-year undergraduate psychology students' learning of physiological terms using two teaching methods: one verbal (control group; n = 16) and one spatial and multisensory (experimental group; n = 19). The experimental group used clear plastic shower caps to…

  19. 42 CFR 405.512 - Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a basis for coverage and payment determinations. (b) Modification of terminology and/or coding... short-run and long-run impact on the cost of the health insurance program, other medical care costs... requirements and with the historical data in the carrier's processing system; and (8) Compatibility of...

  20. 9 CFR 145.10 - Terminology and classification; flocks, products, and States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions § 145.10 Terminology and classification; flocks, products, and...

  1. Terminological aspects of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Charles

    2014-08-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) provided for the first time an international consensus on how to approach the widespread difficulties associated with conveying information about how reliable the value resulting from a measurement is thought to be. This paper examines the evolution in thinking and its impact on the terminology that accompanied the development of the GUM. Particular emphasis is put on the very clear distinction in the GUM between measurement uncertainty and measurement error, and on the reasons that even though ‘true value’ and ‘error’ are considered in the GUM to be ‘unknowable’ and, sometimes by implication, of little (or even no) use in measurement analysis, they remain as key concepts, especially when considering the objective of measurement. While probability theory in measurement analysis from a frequentist perspective was in widespread use prior to the publication of the GUM, a key underpinning principle of the GUM was to instead consider probability as a ‘degree of belief.’ The terminological changes necessary to make this transition are also covered. Even twenty years after the publication of the GUM, the scientific and metrology literatures sometimes contain uncertainty analyses, or discussions of measurement uncertainty, that are not terminologically consistent with the GUM, leading to the inability of readers to fully understand what has been done and what is intended in the associated measurements. This paper concludes with a discussion of the importance of using proper methodology and terminology for reporting measurement results.

  2. FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology) Users: Summary and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixter, Jeffrey; Childress, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past ten years, various organizations, both public and private, have expressed interest in implementing the Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (FAST) in their cataloging workflows. As interest in FAST has grown, so too has interest in knowing how FAST is being used and by whom. Since 2002 eighteen institutions in six countries…

  3. Experts’ opinions on terminology for complementary and integrative medicine – a qualitative study with leading experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmberg Christine

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrative medicine (IM is currently the most commonly used term to describe the integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM into conventional medicine. In the definitions of IM the most important feature is the focus on evidence as crucial factor for therapeutic decision-making. However, there are discussions on the term “integrative medicine” with the most notable critique from within CAM that it describes the integration of complementary methods into conventional institutions and into a “conventional framework of thinking”. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand the thoughts of leading experts on IM and on the scientific debate in the field as well as their personal opinions about terminology in general. Methods We have conducted semi-standardized interviews with ten leading experts in the field of CAM and integrative medicine in the USA, England, and Germany, who have had leading positions at medical schools or the NIH in 2010 and 2011. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis with the qualitative analysis software maxqda. Results Overall the current terminology was seen as a problem, although most experts agreed that the term “integrative medicine” (IM described well what they do or they think is useful for medical care. The terminology debate was discussed from four perspectives: 1 from the perspective of medical practice, 2 from the perspective of research, 3 from the perspective of public relations, and 4 from the perspective of health care delivery. These perspectives may be used to evaluate the appropriateness of different terms in use in the field. When interviewees discussed the terminology question, they also discussed the type of health care system they envisioned. Such reflections led the interviewees to caution about too narrow a focus on the terminology question. The question of naming was one about influencing and changing medicine

  4. Chronic aspergillosis of the lungs: Unravelling the terminology and radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R.; Hedayati, V.; Patel, K. [King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, The Department of Radiology, King' s Health Partners, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Hansell, D.M. [The Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    The propensity for Aspergillus spp. to cause lung disease has long been recognised but the satisfactory classification of these disorders is challenging. The problems caused by invasive disease in severely neutropenic patients, saprophytic infection of pre-existing fibrotic cavities and allergic reactions to Aspergillus are well documented. In contrast, a more chronic form of Aspergillus-related lung disease that has the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality is under-reported. The symptoms of this form of Aspergillus infection may be non-specific and the radiologist may be the first to suspect a diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. The current review considers the classification conundrums in diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. and discusses the typical clinical and radiological profile of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. (orig.)

  5. Shoulder arthroplasty. Part 1: Prosthesis terminology and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheridan, B.D., E-mail: bdsheridan@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); Ahearn, N.; Tasker, A.; Wakeley, C.; Sarangi, P. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Shoulder arthroplasty is the third most common joint replacement procedure in the UK, and there are a number of different implant options available to surgeons to treat a variety of shoulder disorders. With an increasing burden placed on clinical follow-up, more patients are remaining under the care of their general practitioners and musculoskeletal triage assessment services and are not necessarily being seen by specialists. Referrals to orthopaedic specialists are therefore often prompted by radiological reports describing evidence of implant failure. This article is the first of two reviews on shoulder arthroplasty, concentrating on implant features and the indications for their use. The second article will address the modes of failure of shoulder arthroplasty and describe the relevant associated radiological features.

  6. Shoulder arthroplasty. Part 1: Prosthesis terminology and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoulder arthroplasty is the third most common joint replacement procedure in the UK, and there are a number of different implant options available to surgeons to treat a variety of shoulder disorders. With an increasing burden placed on clinical follow-up, more patients are remaining under the care of their general practitioners and musculoskeletal triage assessment services and are not necessarily being seen by specialists. Referrals to orthopaedic specialists are therefore often prompted by radiological reports describing evidence of implant failure. This article is the first of two reviews on shoulder arthroplasty, concentrating on implant features and the indications for their use. The second article will address the modes of failure of shoulder arthroplasty and describe the relevant associated radiological features.

  7. A Phylogenetic Comparative Study of Bantu Kinship Terminology Finds Limited Support for Its Co-Evolution with Social Organisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrtille Guillon

    Full Text Available The classification of kin into structured groups is a diverse phenomenon which is ubiquitous in human culture. For populations which are organized into large agropastoral groupings of sedentary residence but not governed within the context of a centralised state, such as our study sample of 83 historical Bantu-speaking groups of sub-Saharan Africa, cultural kinship norms guide all aspects of everyday life and social organization. Such rules operate in part through the use of differing terminological referential systems of familial organization. Although the cross-cultural study of kinship terminology was foundational in Anthropology, few modern studies have made use of statistical advances to further our sparse understanding of the structuring and diversification of terminological systems of kinship over time. In this study we use Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods of phylogenetic comparison to investigate the evolution of Bantu kinship terminology and reconstruct the ancestral state and diversification of cousin terminology in this family of sub-Saharan ethnolinguistic groups. Using a phylogenetic tree of Bantu languages, we then test the prominent hypothesis that structured variation in systems of cousin terminology has co-evolved alongside adaptive change in patterns of descent organization, as well as rules of residence. We find limited support for this hypothesis, and argue that the shaping of systems of kinship terminology is a multifactorial process, concluding with possible avenues of future research.

  8. A review of terminology for equine juvenile osteochondral conditions (JOCC) based on anatomical and functional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoix, J-M; Jeffcott, L B; McIlwraith, C W; van Weeren, P R

    2013-07-01

    This manuscript describes a new classification of the various joint-related lesions that can be seen in the young, growing horse based on their anatomical and functional aetiopathogenesis. Juvenile osteochondral conditions (JOCC) is a term that brings together specific disorders according to their location in the joint and their biomechanical origin. When a biomechanical insult affects the process of endochondral ossification different types of osteochondrosis (OC) lesions may occur, including osteochondral fragmentation of the articular surface or of the periarticular margins, or the formation of juvenile subchondral bone cysts. In severe cases, osteochondral collapse of the articular surface or the epiphysis or even an entire small bone may occur. Tension on ligament attachments may cause avulsion fractures of epiphyseal (or metaphyseal) ossifying bone, which are classified as JOCC, but do not result from a disturbance of the process of endochondral ossification and are not therefore classified as a form of OC. The same applies to 'physitis' which can result from damage to the physeal growth plate. PMID:23683533

  9. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (269) The Science of Imaging - An Introduction Northern Lights Vacuum Bazookas, Electric Rainbow Jelly, and 27 other Saturday Science Projects Physics and Engineering in Medicine in the New Millennium CD-ROM REVIEWS (272) I fell in love with a STARBase trooper Aber - greatest hits... WEB WATCH (273) 'Here is the guess of their true strength and forces' Gary Williams EDITOR'S NOTE (275) Reviews of Christopher Bishop's Astrophysics (John Murray, 2000) PHYSICS TEASER (276) Why or How, Sophistry and Guestimation

  10. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J;

    2015-01-01

    Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management. A number of classification proposals for canine epilepsy have been published during the...... years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human...... neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing to the...

  11. The Creative Activity of National Intelligencia in the Creation of Kazakh Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shara Mazhitayeva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues relating to the creating, formation, systematizing and putting in good order the terminology as a phenomenon is of vital importance for full-blended functioning of the Kazakh language in various fields of science. The present article focuses on the studying of factures that display the formation of scientific style and terminology at the beginning of XX century. It also emphasizes the rule of translation, first course book, and the usage of terms; characteristic features of scientific style, their special nature stage of formation and their development peculiarities. The study of Kazakh progressive-mind scholars’ heritage who unsparingly contributed the functioning of the Kazakh language in science is very significant both for science and society.

  12. What's in a name? Variations in terminology of third-party reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Diane; Darnovsky, Marcy; Lippman, Abby

    2015-12-01

    The terminology used to discuss third-party reproduction, as with other new biomedical processes, can ease or impede communication and even influence behaviour. In an effort to sensitize analysts and stakeholders to variations in terminology and to facilitate communication on issues arising from international surrogacy arrangements, this paper examines variations in terms used. We introduce some of the issues previously raised by scholars concerned with analysis of discourse related to third-party reproduction. We then survey the terms used in English-language discussions to denote specific actors, including 'surrogates,' 'intended parents,' gamete providers and children, as well as terms used to describe 'surrogacy arrangements.' We conclude with a discussion on navigating and negotiating the use of these various and value-laden terms. PMID:26526414

  13. Creation and evaluation of a terminology server for the interactive coding of discharge summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Hernán; Osornio, Alejandro Lopez; Baum, Analía; Gomez, Adrian; Luna, Daniel; de Quiros, Fernan Gonzalez Bernaldo

    2007-01-01

    Free text entry versus structured data has been proposed as models in data entry in health information systems. A new user interface was developed with the objective of improving data capture. It also implemented a modification of the discharge summary data entry user interface that allowed the selection of already coded terms from a local terminology in the context of an inpatient electronic medical record. This software interacts online with a terminology server to provide feedback on data entry to clinical users in order to automatically code data. To evaluate the impact of this new software, we measured user satisfaction and the impact on autocodification rate. The new system had good acceptance from the users who ranked it high using QUIS (Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction) and the auto codification rate improved from 61.5% to 88.39%. PMID:17911797

  14. Strategy for Extensible, Evolving Terminology for the Materials Genome Initiative Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Talapady N.; Bartolo, Laura M.; Kattner, Ursula R.; Campbell, Carelyn E.; Elliott, John T.

    2015-08-01

    Intuitive, flexible, and evolving terminology plays a significant role in capitalizing on recommended knowledge representation models for materials engineering applications. In this article, we present a proposed rules-based approach with initial examples from a growing corpus of materials terms in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Materials Data Repository. Our method aims to establish a common, consistent, and evolving set of rules for creating or extending terminology as needed to describe materials data. The rules are intended to be simple and generalizable for users to understand and extend as well as for groups to apply to their own repositories. The rules generate terms that facilitate machine processing and decision making.

  15. Acquisition of data for plasma simulation by automated extraction of terminology from article abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer simulation of burning plasmas as well as computational plasma modeling in image processing requires a number of accurate data, in addition to a relevant model framework. To this aim, it is very important to recognize, obtain and evaluate data relevant for such a simulation from the literature. This work focuses on the simultaneous search of relevant data across various online databases, extraction of cataloguing and numerical information, and automatic recognition of specific terminology in the text retrieved. The concept is illustrated on the particular terminology of Atomic and Molecular data relevant to edge plasma simulation. The IAEA search engine GENIE and the NIFS search engine Joint Search 2 are compared and discussed. Accurate modeling of the imaged object is considered to be the ultimate challenge in improving the resolution limits of plasma imaging. (author)

  16. The Specificity of the Term - Concept Relationship in the Terminology of Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORA GHIVIRIGĂ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminology - the interdisciplinary study of specialised linguistic units used in a defined area of knowledge - lays at the basis of its approach the univocal relation between the term and the concept it names, so that one term names one concept. The special nature of the concept in economics makes room for mutations in this univocal relation, due to two reasons: a. given the status of economics as a science placed at the crossroads between the exact sciences and the social sciences, the concept can be culturally / ideologically loaded, which is conducive to ambiguity; b. the concept may be subject to mutations due to the advancement of knowledge, the change of the paradigm or even the economic theory / model it is a part of. A good understanding of the term-concept relation can provide a basis for unification and maximise the use of terminology for disseminating economic ideas.

  17. Chondrocutaneous Branchial Remnants or Cartilaginous Choristoma: Terminology, Biological Behavior and Salience of Bilateral Cervical Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal CHANDER

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present and critically examine the spectrum of chondrocutaneous branchial remnants or accessory pinna, including rare case of bilateral cervical lesions, and to explain the basis of the biological behavior. Material and Method: Five cases of pediatric chondrocutaneous branchial remnants or accessory pinna were included. The ratios of the longest dimensions of the external ear to that of the accessory tragus/chondrocutaneous branchial remnants were calculated. Results: The size and rate of growth of chondrocutaneous branchial remnants or accessory pinna were found to be inversely proportional to the distance between the lesions and the normal pinna. Conclusion: The current literature and norms of terminology dictate that two different terminologies for lesions that are essentially histologically identical should be avoided. Chondrocutaneous branchial remnants, accessory pinna/tragus and chondroid/ cartilaginous choristomas are identical lesions with similar pathogeneses and should be referred to as choristomas.

  18. Overcoming terminology barrier using Web resources for cross-language medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Hsiang; Lin, Ray Shih-Jui; Chan, Yi-Che; Chen, Kuan-Hsi

    2006-01-01

    A number of authoritative medical websites, such as PubMed and MedlinePlus, provide consumers with the most up-to-date health information. However, non-English speakers often encounter not only language barriers (from other languages to English) but also terminology barriers (from laypersons inverted exclamation mark| terms to professional medical terms) when retrieving information from these websites. Our previous work address language barriers by developing a multilingual medical thesaurus, Chinese-English MeSH, while this study presents an approach to overcome terminology barriers based on Web resources. Two techniques were utilized in our approach: monolingual concept mapping using approximate string matching and crosslingual concept mapping using Web resources. The evaluation shows that our approach can significantly improve the performance on MeSH concept mapping and cross-language medical information retrieval. PMID:17238395

  19. The Search for Cognitive Terminology: An Analysis of Comparative Psychology Journal Titles

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Whissell; Charles I. Abramson; Kelsey R. Barber

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the employment of cognitive or mentalist words in the titles of articles from three comparative psychology journals (Journal of Comparative Psychology, International Journal of Comparative Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes; 8,572 titles, >100,000 words). The Dictionary of Affect in Language, coupled with a word search of titles, was employed to demonstrate cognitive creep. The use of cognitive terminology increased over time (1940...

  20. The Translation Ideology Of Nias Cultural Terminology In Famato Harimao Into Bahasa Indonesia Ritus Patung Harimau

    OpenAIRE

    Waoma, Demetrius; Sinar, T. Silvana

    2015-01-01

    This study is entitled "The Translation Ideology of Nias Cultural Terminology in Famato Harimao into Bahasa Indonesia Ritus Patung Harimau". It is a product oriented study, aimed at investigating: (1) the cultural category of the Nias cultural terms in "Famato Harimao" into Bahasa Indonesia "Ritus Patung Harimau" (2) the translation procedures applied in the translation; and (3) the tendency of the translation ideology. The source of the data is the text book 'Famata Harimao' a...

  1. Image-guided Tumor Ablation: Standardization of Terminology and Reporting Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, S. Nahum; Grassi, Clement J.; Cardella, John F.; Charboneau, J. William; Dodd, Gerald D.; Dupuy, Damian E.; Gervais, Debra A.; Gillams, Alice R.; Kane, Robert A.; Lee, Fred. T.; Livraghi, Tito; McGahan, John; Phillips, David A.; Rhim, Hyunchul; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2005-01-01

    The field of interventional oncology with use of image-guided tumor ablation requires standardization of terminology and reporting criteria to facilitate effective communication of ideas and appropriate comparison between treatments that use different technologies, such as chemical (ethanol or acetic acid) ablation, and thermal therapies, such as radiofrequency (RF), laser, microwave, ultrasound, and cryoablation. This document provides a framework that will hopefully facilitate the clearest ...

  2. Intraductal Proliferative Lesions of the Breast—Terminology and Biology Matter: Premalignant Lesions or Preinvasive Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Mauri; Lucio Fortunato; Leopoldo Costarelli; Domenico Campagna

    2012-01-01

    Morphological criteria for the diagnosis of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast have been an object of research and much controversy, and its terminology is rather confusing. Knowledge of the molecular aspects of this disease probably necessitates further research to clarify if these entities can be identified as breast cancer precursors or as a malignant preinvasive disease. These issues are of great interest not only for their biological implications, but also to the clinician w...

  3. Girus and Sulcus of the Lateral Occipital Lobe: Anatomical Description and Terminological Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    García Aguirre, Jhonny Fernando; Quintero Giraldo, Lina Paola; Moncada Aguirre, Jonathan David

    2013-01-01

    The anatomy of the lateral surface of the occipital lobe, presents a big variability in the descriptions of the classical texts of neuroanatomy, so much that the current International Anatomical Terminology does not include nominations about the morphologic structures of this region, except for the lunate sulcus, the pre-occipital notch and the transverse occipital sulcus.The macroscopic morphology of this region was examined in this study, in 19 right brain hemispheres and 8 left brain hemis...

  4. Lexicological and Terminological Research in the Field of Law and European Union Law

    OpenAIRE

    Gačić, Milica

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Different points of departure in lexicology (starting from a word/lexeme/lexical unit meaning) and in terminology (starting from concepts) entail different research procedures. We could speak of the intersection of these procedures in specialised lexicology which takes into account both points of view and, in addition, deals with semi-technical words/lexemes/ lexical units. Research procedures differ depending on the nature of the units to be identified, the features to ...

  5. La terminología de la documentación médica

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Díaz Rojo

    2000-01-01

    Este diccionario tiene como objetivo recoger, por primera vez en español, la terminología de la documentación médica, disciplina que se ocupa de la producción, organización, recuperación, al-macenamiento y difusión de de documentos relativos tanto a la medicina asistencial y hospitalaria como a la investigación científico-médica.

  6. Mining the Minefield : An exploratory study of website evaluation during the translator's terminology work

    OpenAIRE

    Karjel, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Internet – when defined as a massive, uncontrolled database of information – is not a reliable source of information. Despite this, it has developed into the default terminology tool for most translators today. This study explores what criteria are used by translators to define website credibility and whether translation experience affects the criteria used. Three groups of differently experienced translators were asked to translate two technical texts from English to Swedish and document...

  7. The Terminology of the Public Relations Field in the Slovenian Language

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Kalin Golob; Dejan Verčič; Nataša Logar Berginc

    2013-01-01

    This article includes two starting points: (a) the development of the Slovenian (and Croatian) language in science and professions is being increasingly limited by the narrow comprehension of internationalised higher education and science; (b) in the digital age, the fields of usage being lost in those languages are those not supported enough in terms of language technology. With the case of the Slovenian public relations terminology, we reveal that it is possible to confront both: on the bas...

  8. Contemporary Ukrainian terminology of textile art and textile art-design

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, A.

    2016-01-01

    A short analysis of contemporary textiles, especially of textile art and textile art-design and analysis of its terminology, used in the world and Ukrainian practice, is given in the article. Due to this analysis the disparities of terms, used in the world and in Ukraine, were found. Terms, most clearly designating of the textile art works and most precisely meet international terms, are proposed.

  9. The architecture of an English-Portuguese glossary in the field of Electrical Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Bonqueves Fadanelli Bonqueves Fadanelli; Maria José Bocorny Finatto

    2015-01-01

    This article describes some of the procedures for the execution of an online English-Portuguese glossary prototype in Eletrical Engineering / Eletrotechnical Field terminology – aimed mainly at beginner students from technical and graduation courses in Electrical Engineering. The methodology is comprised of a corpus of datasheets, documents often used by professionals of the Electrical Engineering area, and the comparison of data obtained from these datasheets with the data gathered from 108 ...

  10. Representation of the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Minimal Standard Terminology in the SNOMED DICOM microglossary.

    OpenAIRE

    Korman, L.Y.; Bidgood, W. D.

    1997-01-01

    In Gastroenterology, endoscopic images and interpretation reports are essential elements of the patient record. The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Visible Light and Structured Reporting Standards provide a standard representation of images and reports. However, the message standards are not sufficient in themselves. Controlled terminology is needed to enable interchange of patient records and to facilitate the pooling of multi-center data for large-scale outcomes studi...

  11. Extraction of terminology and phraseology towards the design of instructional resources for legal translation

    OpenAIRE

    RUBIO DONAT, TAMARA MARÍA; Candel-Mora, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted translation (CAT) technology has experienced a dramatic growth in recent years and its use has spread to specialties like legal translation, not so much for their performance and productivity but for their quality control functions. The aim of this work is to propose a protocol to extract frequent terminology and phraseology in order to increase CAT tools performance, improve quality control features and help to produce resources with teaching purposes in the translation of ...

  12. Development of a Model for the Representation of Nanotechnology-Specific Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, LeeAnn O.; Kennedy, Christopher H.; Fritts, Martin J.; Hartel, Francis W.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an important, rapidly-evolving, multidisciplinary field [1]. The tremendous growth in this area necessitates the establishment of a common, open-source terminology to support the diverse biomedical applications of nanotechnology. Currently, the consensus process to define and categorize conceptual entities pertaining to nanotechnology is in a rudimentary stage. We have constructed a nanotechnology-specific conceptual hierarchy that can be utilized by end users to retrieve ac...

  13. Overcoming Terminology Barrier Using Web Resources for Cross-Language Medical Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wen-Hsiang; Lin, Ray Shih-Jui; Chan, Yi-Che; Chen, Kuan-Hsi

    2006-01-01

    A number of authoritative medical websites, such as PubMed and MedlinePlus, provide consumers with the most up-to-date health information. However, non-English speakers often encounter not only language barriers (from other languages to English) but also terminology barriers (from laypersons’ terms to professional medical terms) when retrieving information from these websites. Our previous work addresses language barriers by developing a multilingual medical thesaurus, Chinese-English MeSH, w...

  14. CLIR-Based Collaborative Construction of Multilingual Terminological Dictionary for Cultural Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Daoud, Mohammad; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Boitet, Christian; Mangeot, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    We will describe ongoing work in developing a collaborative environment to construct a CLIR-based multilingual terminological dictionary dedicated to the Digital Silk Road project and web site launched and managed by NII (National institute of Informatics, Japan-Tokyo). A considerable amount of cultural resources has been digitized, including 95 rare books written in 10 different languages. In order to make them searchable and accessible easily by the visitors of the site, themselves multilin...

  15. The Phenomenon of Synonymy: A Comparison of the French and Macedonian Legal Terminologies

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Jakimovska

    2013-01-01

    The Phenomenon of Synonymy: A Comparison of the French and Macedonian Legal TerminologiesSynonymy is a language phenomenon that is viewed in a different way by the lexicologists and the terminologists. For the lexicologists synonymy contributes to the diversity of the language, whereas for the terminologists it leads to the imprecision of the specialized communication. The aim of this paper is to compare the manifestations of this phenomenon in both French and Macedonian language of law, spec...

  16. Meaningful Use of a Standardized Terminology to Support the Electronic Health Record in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, K.; Honey, M.; Wilson, S.

    2010-01-01

    Meaningful use is a multidimensional concept that incorporates complex processes; workflow; interoperability; decision support; performance evaluation; and quality improvement. Meaningful use is congruent with the overall vision for information management in New Zealand. Health practitioners interface with patient information at many levels, and are pivotal to meaningful use at the interface between service providers, patients, and the electronic health record. Advancing towards meaningful use depends on implementing a meaningful interface terminology within the electronic health record. The Omaha System is an interface terminology that is integrated within Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine – Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT®), and has the capacity to disseminate and capture information at the point of care because its codes are simple defined terms. Two community nursing and allied health providers who are considering using the Omaha System in clinical systems for gathering intervention and outcomes data within the personal EHR include Nurse Maude and the Royal New Zealand Plunket Society. Help4U is investigating using the Omaha System as a way to standardise health terminology for consumer use. The Omaha System is also a good fit with the Midwifery and Maternity Providers Organisation (MMPO) existing clinical information system to describe and capture data about interventions currently recorded as free text. As a country that promotes access to affordable primary care and free hospital care, within an environment constrained by resource limitations, maximizing the use of data is key to demonstrating health outcomes for the population. PMID:23616847

  17. Terminología de los ejercicios de fuerza con sobrecargas (y IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Cos Morera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ciencias aplicadas a la actividad física y el deporte son relativamente recientes y deben estandarizar todavía su vocabulario en algunas áreas de conocimiento. Establecer una terminología de consenso y unívoca en relación con los ejercicios de fuerza con sobrecargas es fundamental para los profesionales que trabajan en las ciencias del ejercicio físico y el cuerpo humano. Es imprescindible articular una terminología vehicular en este sector de intervención social de gran repercusión. El derecho a la libre circulación de personas por los países de la Unión Europea y, en general, la globalización, hace necesario también el conocimiento de la terminología de la musculación en otras lenguas vehiculares. El siguiente artículo es el último de una serie de cuatro y presenta los ejercicios más representativos de extremidad inferior como, abductores, aductores, extensores y flexores de la cadera, extensores y flexores de la rodilla, flexores del pie y levantamientos olímpicos, en versiones castellana, catalana e inglesa, con el objetivo de que conformen una base de gran alcance que permita definir otros ejercicios

  18. Terminología de los ejercicios de fuerza con sobrecargas (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Cos Morera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ciencias aplicadas a la actividad física y el deporte son relativamente recientes y deben de estandarizar todavía su vocabulario en algunas áreas de conocimiento. Establecer una terminología de consenso y unívoca en relación a los ejercicios de fuerza es fundamental para los profesionales que trabajan en las ciencias del ejercicio físico y el cuerpo humano. Es imprescindible articular una terminología unívoca en este sector de intervención social de gran repercusión. El derecho a la libre circulación de personas por los países de la Unión Europea y, en general, la globalización, hace necesario también el conocimiento de la terminología de la musculación en otras lenguas vehiculares. El siguiente artículo es el primero de una serie de cuatro y presenta los ejercicios más representativos de pecho y hombro en versiones castellana, catalana e inglesa, con el objetivo que conformen una base de gran alcance que permita definir otros ejercicios.

  19. Legal terminology at arm's length - the multiple dimensions of legal terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at shedding new light on the multiple dimensions of legal terms which can be unearthed in the process of terminology mining as a crucial stage in translation. It proposes to view legal terminology from a sociocognitive perspective, according to which terms are perceived as expressing units of understanding based oncognitive frames rather than rendering concepts in their traditional definition. Upon closer scrutiny most of these units reveal significant information regarding their verbal and extra-verbal dimensions. We therefore suggest analysing units of understanding expressed by simple terms, multiple elements terms and phraseology as depositories of knowledge providing information on the text type in which they occur, as well as on there levant area of law, the legal system and the wider culture underlying the text. In this context, terminology mining is not intended merely as extraction of terms, but rather as their analysis, comparison and structuring which reveals aspects such as their multiple embeddedness, as well as their historical, ideological, metaphorical, status-conferringand common Latin dimension.

  20. TERMINOLOGICAL ISSUES ON FOREIGN LANGUAGES LEARNING AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS TO PERFORMANCE OF THE SECRETARY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida Oliveira Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate specific linguistic issues of the technical language in French and English languages starting from the selection and analysis of newspapers articles about the financial area. The objective was to present examples of authentic texts in the referred languages for those who work at the secretarial area as well as for professionals who need to deal with technical foreign language. This research, which is qualitative-based, started from the exploitation and analysis of articles taken from newspapers written in French and English. The articles were analyzed taking into account theoretical basis from Terminology studies. The investigation was done in three phases: (a investigation of theoretical aspects concerning the terminology and its applications, (b a brief characterization of newspaper texts organization. (c selection and analysis of terms and expressions of the selected texts. The results showed lexical and semantic equivalences of terms as well as writing features of both languages, besides specific terminological issues, which permitted a better understanding of the language used in the financial area.

  1. Terminology Standardization in Chinese Medicine:The Perspective from UCLA Center for East-West Medicine(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka-Kit Hui; Sonya Pritzker

    2007-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTlON by Ka-kit Hui,M.D. Because we recognize the clinical,educational,and cultural importance of translation and terminology in Chinese medicine,we feel that it is imperative to understand the perspectives of all concerned parties.This article thus addresses the issue of terminology standardization in English language Chinese medical Publications from the Point of View of multiple stakeholders in this field at the UCLA Center for East-West Medicine.

  2. Evaluation of the Quality of Information Retrieval of Clinical Findings from a Computerized Patient Database Using a Semantic Terminological Model

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Philip J. B.; Sönksen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the strength of agreement between the concepts and records retrieved from a computerized patient database, in response to physician-derived questions, using a semantic terminological model for clinical findings with those concepts and records excerpted clinically by manual identification. The performance of the semantic terminological model is also compared with the more established retrieval methods of free-text search, ICD-10, and hierarchic re...

  3. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations. In...

  4. Multilingual Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    This chapter gives a translation of English words used in particle characterization into French, German, Spanish and Dutch. The reader is warned that, sometimes, special words or different definitions are used in different countries and fields of application (see Chap. 18).

  5. ClueConnect: a word array game to promote student comprehension of key terminology in an introductory anatomy and physiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Kathryn M; Olimpo, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    The sheer amount of terminology and conceptual knowledge required for anatomy and physiology can be overwhelming for students. Educational games are one approach to reinforce such knowledge. In this activity, students worked collaboratively to review anatomy and physiology concepts by creating arrays of descriptive tiles to define a term. Once guessed, students located the structure or process within diagrams of the body. The game challenged students to think about course vocabulary in novel ways and to use their collective knowledge to get their classmates to guess the terms. Comparison of pretest/posttest/delayed posttest data revealed that students achieved statistically significant learning gains for each unit after playing the game, and a survey of student perceptions demonstrated that the game was helpful for learning vocabulary as well as fun to play. The game is easily adaptable for a variety of lower- and upper-division courses. PMID:27105741

  6. IAEA safety glossary. Terminology used in nuclear safety and radiation protection, multilingual 2007 edition, including the IAEA safety fundamentals [no. SF-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Safety Glossary defines and explains technical terms used in the IAEA Safety Standards and other safety related IAEA publications, and provides information on their usage.The publication is multilingual and covers the six official IAEA languages,, Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. It has been in use since April 2000. The 2007 Edition is a revised and updated version. The primary purpose of the publication is to harmonize terminology and usage in the IAEA Safety Standards. It is a source of information for users of the IAEA Safety Standards and other safety related IAEA publications and provides guidance for the drafters and reviewers of publications, including IAEA technical officers and consultants, and members of technical committees, advisory groups, working groups and bodies for the endorsement of safety standards

  7. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption & Fostering, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 17 publications covering a variety of topics including abused disabled children; child placement; helping attachment disordered children; open adoption; family empowerment; teenage fostering; the Children Act of 1989 (Great Britain); family law; social services and child care law; and challenging racism in the early years. (TJQ)

  8. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (353) Dr Dyer's Academy Further Advanced Physics Physics 11-14, with Biology 11-14 and Chemistry 11-14 Nelson Modular Science: Books 1 and 2 Key Science: Physics, 3rd Edition Nelson Science: Physics, 2nd Edition Physics for AQA: Separate Award, Coordinated Award Physical Processes: A Visual Approach WEB WATCH (359) Physics Favourites: John Miller's selection

  9. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The two published parts of the Desmid Flora of Austria are well-illustrated review volumes on a group of precious freshwater microalgae. Volume 1 contains a pretty, visual key to the genera, completed by figures of one or more characteristic species. In all keys of the separate genera many visual ai

  10. Indigenous Knowledge Organization: A Study of Concepts, Terminology, Structure and (Mostly Indigenous Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of published information (especially in Canada on modified classification systems and thesauri for describing and organizing Aboriginal materials, I set out to conduct a survey on this topic. The surveys were distributed at five Indigenous-related conferences and gatherings in Canada and the United States between the Fall, 2009, and the Fall, 2010, and more than 50 completed surveys were collected. Research findings included preferred changes in terminology from Library of Congress subject headings (which were seen to be outdated and inappropriate but there was no resounding consensus on a “one-size fits all” terminology for thesauri terminology. However, this was not seen to be problematic given the diverse range of participants who took part in the survey. Respondents also commented on a survey question inquiring about the use of the “Medicine Wheel” concept as a way to organize Aboriginal-related materials, as well as other possible structures that might prove more culturally relevant for organizing these materials. There was both support for and strong opposition to the use of the Medicine Wheel for this purpose, for a variety of reasons. Participants indicated a preference for non-hierarchical and less linear structures than what current mainstream classification systems provide. There also seemed to be support for “landscape-based” structures. Although research findings were not conclusive, some valuable insights were gained from this study. The exploratory nature of this research project suggests more research (and more in-depth research in this area is required.

  11. Satisfiability and reasoning mechanism of terminological cycles in description logic νL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ju; JIANG YunCheng; SHEN YuMing

    2008-01-01

    The current research works and the existing problems of terminological cycles in description logics are analyzed in this paper. Referring to the works of Baader F and Nebel B, we aim in a new direction. Firstly, description logic vL, is defined, and the description graphs GT and GJ are redefined. A syntax condition for the satisfi-ability of membership relation is given. By using this syntax condition, we prove the following: The subsumption reasoning in vL with respect to gfp-model, Ifp-model and descriptive model is polynomial.

  12. Research brief: using a Wiki to support student nurses learning discipline specific health terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Michelle; Doherty, Iain

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify whether a collaborative exercise using a Wiki to teach nursing students health-specific terminology resulted in better learning. In one New Zealand School of Nursing a list of health-related and discipline-specific terms was created, first-year nursing students were expected to learn these before their initial clinical practice. However, students found the terms difficult to learn. The use of a collaborative Wiki exercise to create a glossary of health terms was seen as a way to aid student learning, while also providing a learning environment where students would develop collaborative skills. PMID:24839746

  13. Remote Sensing Terminology in a Global and Knowledge-Based World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Rumiana

    The paper is devoted to terminology issues related to all aspects of remote sensing research and applications. Terminology is the basis for a better understanding among people. It is crucial to keep up with the latest developments and novelties of the terminology in advanced technology fields such as aerospace science and industry. This is especially true in remote sensing and geoinformatics which develop rapidly and have ever extending applications in various domains of science and human activities. Remote sensing terminology issues are directly relevant to the contemporary worldwide policies on information accessibility, dissemination and utilization of research results in support of solutions to global environmental challenges and sustainable development goals. Remote sensing and spatial information technologies are an integral part of the international strategies for cooperation in scientific, research and application areas with a particular accent on environmental monitoring, ecological problems natural resources management, climate modeling, weather forecasts, disaster mitigation and many others to which remote sensing data can be put. Remote sensing researchers, professionals, students and decision makers of different counties and nationalities should fully understand, interpret and translate into their native language any term, definition or acronym found in papers, books, proceedings, specifications, documentation, and etc. The importance of the correct use, precise definition and unification of remote sensing terms refers not only to people working in this field but also to experts in a variety of disciplines who handle remote sensing data and information products. In this paper, we draw the attention on the specifics, peculiarities and recent needs of compiling specialized dictionaries in the area of remote sensing focusing on Earth observations and the integration of remote sensing with other geoinformation technologies such as photogrammetry, geodesy

  14. Terminología internacional sobre la educación inclusiva

    OpenAIRE

    García Cedillo, Ismael; Romero Contreras, Silvia; Aguilar Orozco, Claudia Lucía; Lomeli Hernández, Karla Abril; Rodríguez Ugalde, Diana Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Gradualmente, la educación inclusiva se ha colocado en la agenda de los sistemas educativos en el mundo como una prioridad. Sin embargo, a pesar de utilizar una terminología común, no parece haber mucho acuerdo con respecto al significado de conceptos centrales. En el presente artículo se identificaron dos perspectivas teóricas en relación con la educación inclusiva, una con objetivos moderados, que toma en cuenta las condiciones locales, y otra con objetivos más ambiciosos, que busca la tran...

  15. Study on the Similarities and Differences of Body Measurement Terminology between ASTM and China GB Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方方; 张渭源; 张文斌

    2003-01-01

    The similarities and differences of ASTM and China GB standard are studied in three aspects:measure instrument,terminology and applicable field.They are similar on the measuring apparatus and GB has less measurements,such as girth,length and width measurements than ASTM and it lack across chest width,back width,total crotch length and shoulder slope which are important measurements in pattern making.ASTM classifies its standards according to the customers' size,gender and age.So we think GB standard could make some modifications from these fields to satisfy the users.

  16. The 19th Century Style of Art in the Context of Contemporary Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Krastiņš, J

    2011-01-01

    The 19th century style is mostly referred to as Eclecticism. In some countries, mostly in Germany, the term “Historicism” is also used. At the same time it never found wider application in Anglo-American or French art-historical studies. The term Eclecticism was introduced in Latvian in 1980ies, later “Historicism” was used as well. One of the purposes of this article is to resolve these terminological inconsistencies. “Historicism” should be understood as general method and not only as disti...

  17. Clasificación de características en Terminología

    OpenAIRE

    Estellés Palanca, Anna; Alcina Caudet, Amparo

    2007-01-01

    Tretzenes Jornades de Foment de la Investigació de la FCHS (Any 2007-2008) En Terminología, las características constituyen conceptos en sí mismos y también sirven para describir conceptos. Para describir una característica debemos conocer su naturaleza, la clase de conceptos a la que pertenece, el campo temático donde aparece, su importancia en la descripción de conceptos, su relación con otros conceptos, etc. En el presente artículo analizamos distintas clasificaciones de característi...

  18. Modern Hebrew Conflict and Military Terminology : The Language of the Israel Defense Forces

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is examining Modern Hebrew conflict and military terminology – the language of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). Described by many Israelis as “a language within the language”, it must necessarily possess an identity of its own through special characteristics. On this basis, the major ambition of this thesis has been to identify the special “fingerprint” of the army speak in Israel – both in regard to technical or grammatical aspects, as well as the practical use of the language. T...

  19. Recursos terminológicos en biomedicina. Tratando la terminología con criterio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antònia Julià Berruezo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo recoge, convenientemente adaptada, la aportación esencial de la comunicación presentada por TERMCAT en las Jornadas Científicas y Profesionales de Traducción Médica, organizadas por APTIC y TREMÉDICA en Barcelona en setiembre de 2012. El propósito del texto es exponer y caracterizar los recursos de libre acceso que se pueden obtener en la web de TERMCAT. Se inicia con una breve presentación del centro, que sirve para contextualizar el trabajo terminológico que se lleva a cabo, de acuerdo con unos principios metodológicos establecidos y con un enfoque multilingüe, mediante la colaboración entre terminólogos y expertos. El cuerpo del artículo se plantea como un recorrido virtual por esa web, estructurado a partir de los ejes de actividad y de las líneas de trabajo del centro. A medida que se van presentando, a modo de inventario, se detallan los recursos terminológicos y los servicios asociados a cada una de las secciones y las páginas. En todos los casos, se introduce la explicación ilustrándola mediante un dato destacado y se completa mediante ejemplos relevantes en el ámbito de la medicina. Al final del artículo se incluye un recopilatorio de todos los enlaces citados en el texto. -------------------------------------------------- Terminology resources in biomedicine. Using criteria to deal with terminology. This article presents an adapted version of the main points of the TERMCAT presentation at the September 2012 Scientific and Technical Symposium on Medical Translation, hosted by APTIC and TREMÉDICA in Barcelona. The purpose of this text is to explain and characterize the open access resources available on the TERMCAT website. It begins with a brief presentation of the Centre that contextualizes its terminology work, which follows established methodological principles with a multilingual focus through collaboration between terminologists and experts. The body of the article is a type of virtual tour

  20. Plants from Abroad: Botanical Terminology in 18th-century British Encyclopaedias

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Lonati

    2013-01-01

    During the 18th century British encyclopaedias included in their lemmata an increasing number of botanical lexis, that is the terminology pertaining to “that branch of natural history which treats of the uses, characters, classes, orders, genera, and species of plants. […] and what useful and ornamental purposes may be expected from the cultivation of it [i.e. botany]” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1768-1771, s.v. Botany). More often than not, these terms represented migrating plants coming from...

  1. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  2. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments of the...... vacuolar proteolysis are described. Substrates of the vacuolar proteases are mostly imported via endocytosis or autophagocytosis, and vacuolar proteolysis appears to be mainly important under nutritional stress conditions and sporulation....

  3. Medical terminology and phraseology and fate of the Journal Serbian archives for the whole medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Brana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbian Archives for the Whole Medicine (Archivum Serbicum pro universa scientia et arte medica recipienda is one of the oldest Serbian journals still being published - the first issue came out in 1874 - next to Matica Srpska Chronicle which is the oldest one. It played an extremely significant role in the creation of Serbian medical terminology and phraseology, but only during the first decades of its existence. Later on, after the First World War and particularly after the Second World War, this very role was gradually losing its importance, to be finally lost. So, in recent times, partly under the pressure of higher instances, a proposal was made for the total abandonment of Serbian language and printing this journal only in English. Presenting historical facts - how and for whom Serbian Archives had been made and what followed afterwards - and using statistical calculations of the participation index, indicating the average annual number of authors ie. participants in writing works, unjustifiably increased in the recent decades (1950 = 1.3; 2012= 5.0, in this work we answered the question whether indeed Serbian Archives should not be printed in the Cyrillic script and in Serbian language anymore. The conclusion is: the further survival of Serbian Archives is tightly related to the revival of the work on Serbian medical terminology and phraseology, even if it means starting from the beginning to a great extent at this moment. Otherwise, Serbian Archives will be suspended, after 140 years of existence.

  4. The Terminology of the Public Relations Field in the Slovenian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kalin Golob

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes two starting points: (a the development of the Slovenian (and Croatian language in science and professions is being increasingly limited by the narrow comprehension of internationalised higher education and science; (b in the digital age, the fields of usage being lost in those languages are those not supported enough in terms of language technology. With the case of the Slovenian public relations terminology, we reveal that it is possible to confront both: on the basis of the previously formed corpus of professional texts, KoRP, which is linguistically earmarked and freely available online, and in the TERMIS project. We initially inferred one- or multi-word term candidates with the LUIZ programme, and then acquired the typical text environment and best dictionary examples automatically by means of the Sketch Engine tool and its application Word Sketches together with the GDEX tool. The infrastructure formed during the project will be freely available after the conclusion of the project (June 2013, and the dictionary, which will include 2,000 terms regarding public relations, may be understood as a model for the creation of modern terminology dictionaries of other professions as well.

  5. Ecopsychosocial Interventions in Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A New Terminology and a New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, John; Reisberg, Barry; Whitehouse, Peter; Woods, Robert; Verheul, Ad

    2016-09-01

    Dementia is a major medical and social scourge. Neither pharmacological nor nonpharmacological interventions and treatments have received sufficient funding to be meaningful in combatting this tsunami. Because the term-"nonpharmacological"-refers to what these interventions are not, rather than what they are, nonpharmacological treatments face a special set of challenges to be recognized, accepted, funded, and implemented. In some ways, the current situation is analogous to using the term "nonhate" to mean "love." This article presents a carefully reasoned argument for using the terminology "ecopsychosocial" to describe the full range of approaches and interventions that fall into this category. These include interventions such as educational efforts with care partners, social support programs for individuals with various levels of dementia, efforts to improve community awareness of dementia, an intergenerational school where persons with dementia teach young children, and the design of residential and community settings that improve functioning and can reduce behavioral symptoms of dementia. The proposed terminology relates to the nature of the interventions themselves, rather than their outcomes, and reflects the broadest range of interventions possible under the present rubric-nonpharmacological. The goal of this new label is to be better able to compare interventions and their outcomes and to be able to see the connections between data sets presently not seen as fitting together, thereby encouraging greater focus on developing new ecopsychosocial interventions and approaches that can improve the lives of those with dementia, their care partners, and the broader society. PMID:27284206

  6. Terminology of chronic pain: the need to "level the playing field"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppin JF

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available John F Peppin,1 Michael E Schatman2 1Center for Bioethics, Pain Management and Medicine, St Louis, MO, 2US Pain Foundation, Middletown, CT, USAPain medicine as a separate subspecialty is in its infancy, only fairly recently being recognized as such by the American Board of Medical Specialities.1 As it continues to find its way in the ever-changing world of medicine, terminology becomes an important consideration. Terms carry tremendous impact: for example, when a patient is told he or she has “cancer”, the impact emotionally will undoubtedly make further explanation difficult. To patients and their families, the word “cancer” has the effect of being hit with an emotional baseball bat. In the pain world, there was a recent, albeit failed, attempt to change the name of pain specialists to “algiatrists”.2 It was thought this would help define what such specialists did as opposed to other specialties. Accordingly, terminology matters, yet little attention has been paid to the terms we use to categorize and diagnose our patients. “Chronic cancer pain” and “chronic noncancer pain” are replete in the literature; however, the distinction here is actually obscure. A patient with pain from a cancer etiology has no different physiology than a patient with pain of noncancer etiologies.

  7. New classification of donation after circulatory death donors definitions and terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuong, Marie; Ruiz, Angel; Evrard, Patrick; Kuiper, Michael; Boffa, Catherine; Akhtar, Mohammed Z; Neuberger, James; Ploeg, Rutger

    2016-07-01

    In the face of a crisis in organ donation, the transplant community are increasingly utilizing donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Over the last 10 years, with the increasing usage of DCD donors, we have seen the introduction in a number of new terms and definitions. We report the results of the 6th International Conference in Organ Donation held in Paris in 2013 and report a consensus agreement of an established expert European Working Group on the definitions and terminology regarding DCD donation, including refinement of the Maastricht definitions. This document forms part of a special series where recommendations are presented for uncontrolled and controlled DCD donation and organ specific guidelines for kidney, pancreas, liver and lung transplantation. An expert panel formed a consensus on definitions and terms aiming to establish consistent usage of terms in DCD donation. PMID:26991858

  8. Production of an English/Russian glossary of terminology for nuclear materials control and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program plans for Former Soviet Union National Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems Enhancements call for the development of an English/Russian Glossary of MC and A terminology. This glossary was envisioned as an outgrowth of the many interactions, training sessions, and other talking and writing exercises that would transpire in the course of carrying out these programs. This report summarizes the status of the production of this glossary, the most recent copy of which is attached to this report. The glossary contains over 950 terms and acronyms associated with nuclear material control and accounting for safeguards and nonproliferation. This document is organized as follows: English/Russian glossary of terms and acronyms; Russian/English glossary of terms and acronyms; English/Russian glossary of acronyms; and Russian/English glossary of acronyms

  9. Asociación Española de Terminología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Municio, Ángel

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La terminología puede tener, de un lado, una consideración objetiva independientemente de la lengua utilizada. Pero, puede contemplarse, además, desde el ángulo particular de una lengua dada, y ser de consideración, no por adicionales menos importantes, asuntos pertenecientes a los ámbitos de las políticas lingüística y técnica de una nación, del tipo de la armonización y la difusión de los recursos terminológicos, la coordinación de las acciones y las relaciones internacionales.…

  10. Projective goals - concepts and pragmatic aspects based on the terminology and methodology of safety science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective goals set the line of orientation of tasks and activities in the field of accident prevention. They have to be based on safety-science methods in order to develop from the conceptual idea to the practically feasible solution, while using the scientific methods to take into account the facts and the capabilities of a situation and, proceeding from them, finding an efficient and rational, optimal pragmatic approach by way of various strategies or tactics. In this process, the activities of defining, informing, thinking and developing need the proper terminology. Safety is absence of danger, protection is limitation of danger and prevention of damage. So it is protection what is needed with danger being given, and risks have to be minimized. Riskology is a novel method of safety science, combining risk analysis and risk control into a systematic concept which is practice-oriented. Applying this to the field of nuclear engineering, the hitherto achieved should receive new impulses. (orig.)

  11. Estudio de la terminología de la danza académica

    OpenAIRE

    Barri Almenar, Ana

    2015-01-01

    En la terminología de la danza académica existe una estrecha relación entre la lengua, el concepto y la ejecución del movimiento. La integración de estos conocimientos en la didáctica de la danza es un factor fundamental en el proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje de esta disciplina. Sin embargo, el desconocimiento de su soporte lingüístico, la lengua francesa, la particular forma de transmisión oral de las enseñanzas a lo largo de generaciones, y la escasez de trabajos teóricos hacen difícil el ...

  12. Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Guillaume; Athanasopoulos, Panos; Wiggett, Alison; Dering, Benjamin; Kuipers, Jan-Rouke

    2009-03-17

    It is now established that native language affects one's perception of the world. However, it is unknown whether this effect is merely driven by conscious, language-based evaluation of the environment or whether it reflects fundamental differences in perceptual processing between individuals speaking different languages. Using brain potentials, we demonstrate that the existence in Greek of 2 color terms--ghalazio and ble--distinguishing light and dark blue leads to greater and faster perceptual discrimination of these colors in native speakers of Greek than in native speakers of English. The visual mismatch negativity, an index of automatic and preattentive change detection, was similar for blue and green deviant stimuli during a color oddball detection task in English participants, but it was significantly larger for blue than green deviant stimuli in native speakers of Greek. These findings establish an implicit effect of language-specific terminology on human color perception. PMID:19240215

  13. Production of an English/Russian glossary of terminology for nuclear materials control and accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachowskoj, S.; Smith, H.A. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    The program plans for Former Soviet Union National Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems Enhancements call for the development of an English/Russian Glossary of MC and A terminology. This glossary was envisioned as an outgrowth of the many interactions, training sessions, and other talking and writing exercises that would transpire in the course of carrying out these programs. This report summarizes the status of the production of this glossary, the most recent copy of which is attached to this report. The glossary contains over 950 terms and acronyms associated with nuclear material control and accounting for safeguards and nonproliferation. This document is organized as follows: English/Russian glossary of terms and acronyms; Russian/English glossary of terms and acronyms; English/Russian glossary of acronyms; and Russian/English glossary of acronyms.

  14. The @neurIST ontology of intracranial aneurysms: providing terminological services for an integrated IT infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeker, Martin; Stenzhorn, Holger; Kumpf, Kai; Bijlenga, Philippe; Schulz, Stefan; Hanser, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The @neurIST ontology is currently under development within the scope of the European project @neurIST intended to serve as a module in a complex architecture aiming at providing a better understanding and management of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhages. Due to the integrative structure of the project the ontology needs to represent entities from various disciplines on a large spatial and temporal scale. Initial term acquisition was performed by exploiting a database scaffold, literature analysis and communications with domain experts. The ontology design is based on the DOLCE upper ontology and other existing domain ontologies were linked or partly included whenever appropriate (e.g., the FMA for anatomical entities and the UMLS for definitions and lexical information). About 2300 predominantly medical entities were represented but also a multitude of biomolecular, epidemiological, and hemodynamic entities. The usage of the ontology in the project comprises terminological control, text mining, annotation, and data mediation. PMID:18693797

  15. The Romanian Ethnological Terminology in the Works of B. P. Hasdeu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Ruxandra Fruntelată

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hasdeu’s polyvalent contribution to the bases of Romanian ethnology is decisive as he has set up the national ethnological tradition and the reference point for all the following ethnological contributions. A list of the ethnological terms used in Hasdeu’s works reflects at the same time the pioneering ways of the founder of the Romanian ethnology (he doubles terms or uses terminological variants for the same object, sometimes he fails to clarify the meaning of some concepts that he introduces and his exceptional erudition proved by the impressive number of data that he assimilates and analyses in order to build original theories. Hasdeu uses and imposes a series of specialized terms such as variant, type, prototype, archetype (with subdivisions like subtype, subvariant, subarchetype, trying to define and refine the object that was called popular literature or folklore in the second half of the 19th century.

  16. When Five Words Are Not Enough: A Conceptual and Terminological Discussion of English as a Lingua Franca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Patricia; Matsuda, Aya

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to (re)define key terminology in the study of English as a lingua franca (ELF). Although the diverse perspectives and ideological standpoints represented in competing definitions of terms is appreciated, a critical conversation on definition and interpretation of ELF and other related concepts is crucial in providing a…

  17. Contrast in Usage of FCAT-Approved Anatomical Terminology between Members of Two Anatomy Associations in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bradford D.; Thorpe, Donna; Merenda, Victoria; Finch, Brian; Anderson-Smith, Wendy; Consiglio-Lahti, Zane

    2010-01-01

    Almost 12 years since the publishing of Terminologia Anatomica (TA) by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT), there has yet to be a unified adoption of FCAT-recommended anatomical terms by North American anatomists. A survey was sent to members of the Human Anatomy & Physiology Society (HAPS) to compare the frequency of FCAT…

  18. A computer-aided collection and construction system of terminology based on a statistically built knowledge base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since a terminology is a system of concepts to which terms should be assigned, automatic processings of such concepts seem to be difficult to be realized. In this paper, we propose a computer-aided collection and construction system of terminology which creates automatically a knowledge base using the technical terms and their frequency of appearance information extracted from a bibliographic database and selects the terminologies based on the knowledge base. The experts in specialized fields can be offered a set of candidates for the technical terms with the system and determined needed terminologies through the following important procedures: 1) the relations among important concepts in a specified field can be extracted; 2) the concepts in the lower classes can be searched by specifying those in the upper classes; 3) the important terms can be distinguished from the basic terms and then the most important terms can be selected. An application of the present system to nuclear fusion research is described in detail. (author)

  19. The Problematic Relationship between Institutionalised Irish Terminology Development and the Gaeltacht Speech Community: Dynamics of Acceptance and Estrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Ghearain, Helena

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the findings of a study which investigated the hypothesis--based thus far on anecdotal evidence--that Irish speakers in traditional Gaeltacht areas do not accept official terminology planning, both in terms of their language practices and beliefs. While the findings provide some qualitative support for the hypothesis, in…

  20. NUTRACEUTICALS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Rajat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The term "nutraceutical" was coined from "nutrition" and "pharmaceutical" in 1989 by Stephen DeFelice. Drugs shows various side effects and adverse effects due to which consumers are generally moves to take food supplements to improve health. Such products may range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and diets to genetically engineered"designer" foods, herbal products and processed foods such as cereals, soups and beverages. Nutraceuticals used in various diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, obesity disease, cancer etc. This review focus on definition, history, comparing with various other terminologies, classification and various marketed products.

  1. Conference Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Annelise

    The European Association for Terminology held its Third Summit in Brussels on the 13th and 14th of November 2006. It was a special summit in that the 10th anniversary of the European Association for Terminology was also to be celebrated....

  2. Analyzing rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies Analizzare la terminologia biomedica sulle malattie rare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pasceri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rare disease patients too often face common problems, including the lack of access to correct diagnosis, lack of quality information on the disease, lack of scientific knowledge of the disease, inequities and difficulties in access to treatment and care. These things could be changed by implementing a comprehensive approach to rare diseases, increasing international cooperation in scientific research, by gaining and sharing scientific knowledge about and by developing tools for extracting and sharing knowledge. A significant aspect to analyze is the organization of knowledge in the biomedical field for the proper management and recovery of health information. For these purposes, the sources needed have been acquired from the Office of Rare Diseases Research, the National Organization of Rare Disorders and Orphanet, organizations that provide information to patients and physicians and facilitate the exchange of information among different actors involved in this field. The present paper shows the representation of rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies such as MeSH, ICD-10, SNOMED CT and OMIM, leveraging the fact that these terminologies are integrated in the UMLS. At the first level, it was analyzed the overlap among sources and at a second level, the presence of rare diseases terms in target sources included in UMLS, working at the term and concept level. We found that MeSH has the best representation of rare diseases terms.Pazienti affetti da malattie rare molto spesso affrontano problemi comuni, tra cui la mancanza di accesso alla diagnosi corretta, la mancanza di informazioni di qualità sulla malattia, la mancanza di conoscenze scientifiche, e le difficoltà di accesso al trattamento e cura. Inadempienze e lacune che potrebbero essere colmate mediante l'attuazione di un approccio globale alle malattie rare, aumentando la cooperazione internazionale nella ricerca scientifica e lo sviluppo di strumenti per l'estrazione e la

  3. Natural Science and Technology Terminology in the Sesotho sa Leboa Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Mojapelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural sci-ence and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called, which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolin-gual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicogra-phy Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolin-gual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation defini-tion' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.

    Keywords: TRANSLITERATION, COINAGE, COINED LEXICAL ITEM, LOAN WORD, ADOPTIVE, FOREIGN WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SOTHOIZED WORD, INDIGENOUS WORD, NATURAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, COMPOUND WORD, AMBIGUITY

    Opsomming: Natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie in die Sesotho sa Leboa eentalige woordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n ver-gelykende ontleding te maak van die strukturele en die leksikale verskille tussen nuutskepping en transliterasie as metodes vir die verwerwing van vreemde natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese leksikale items wat bedoel is vir insluiting in die Sesotho sa Leboa omvattende eentalige woorde-boek Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Met die uitsondering van die meertalige woordelyste ("woordeboeke" soos hulle genoem word wat deur die Nasionale Taaldiens van die

  4. Knowledge representation in the semantic web for Earth and environmental terminology (SWEET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Robert G.; Pan, Michael J.

    2005-11-01

    The semantic web for Earth and environmental terminology (SWEET) is an investigation in improving discovery and use of Earth science data, through software understanding of the semantics of web resources. Semantic understanding is enabled through the use of ontologies, or formal representations of technical concepts and their interrelations in a form that supports domain knowledge. The ultimate vision of the semantic web consists of web pages with XML namespace tags around terms, enabling search tools to ascertain their meanings by following the link to the defining ontologies. Such a scenario both reduces the number of false hits (where a search returns alternative, unintended meanings of a term) and increases the number of successful hits (where searcher and information provider have a syntax mismatch of the same concept). For SWEET, we developed a collection of ontologies using the web ontology language (OWL) that include both orthogonal concepts (space, time, Earth realms, physical quantities, etc.) and integrative science knowledge concepts (phenomena, events, etc.). This paper describes the development of a knowledge space for Earth system science and related concepts (such as data properties). Some of the ontology contents are "virtual" by means of an OWL wrapper associated with terms in large external databases (including gazetteers and Earthquake databases). We developed a search tool that finds alternative search terms (based on the semantics) and redirects the expanded set of terms to a search engine.

  5. From Closet Talk to PC Terminology : Gay Speech and the Politics of Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Smorag

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Depuis l’époque où l’homosexualité était synonyme de perversion, voire de délit, jusqu’aux actuelles gay prides, la communauté gay, lesbienne, bisexuelle et transgenre n’a cessé de développer un langage distinctif, le gayspeak. Transgressant les normes sociales, ce parler, davantage glossaire qu’idiome, permet aujourd’hui à la communauté LGBT de reconstruire sa propre réalité tout en ouvrant vers de nouvelles perceptions identitaires. Militant tout autant que ludique, ce langage se veut également le défenseur d’un certain style de vie, cherchant à exprimer, de manière la plus visible, politiquement correcte et efficace qui soit, la richesse des comportements et des cultures du monde gay.This paper examines the extraordinary complexity of sexual orientations and subcultures as expressed by “gay speech,” an idiom the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community has developed for itself. Since the times when homosexuality was a perversion to today’s vibrant Prides, gayspeak has been used to express the needs of a group which, feeling socially repressed, reinvented and subverted language. Whereas some activists are using it as a means to keep politics in the language, notably by reclaiming all discriminatory terminology, others rely upon this rich lexicon to assert the diversity of their specific lifestyles and subcultures.

  6. Confusing dinosaurs with mammals: tetrapod phylogenetics and anatomical terminology in the world of homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jerald D

    2004-12-01

    At present, three different systems of anatomical nomenclature are available to researchers describing new tetrapod taxa: a nonstandardized traditional system erected in part by Sir Richard Owen and subsequently elaborated by Alfred Romer; a standardized system created for avians, the Nomina Anatomica Avium (NAA); and a standardized system for extant (crown-group) mammals, the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). Conserved homologous structures widely distributed within the Tetrapoda are often granted different names in each system. The recent shift toward a phylogenetic system based on homology requires a concomitant shift toward a single nomenclatural system also based on both evolutionary and functional morphological homology. Standardized terms employed in the NAA and NAV should be perpetuated as far as possible basally in their respective phylogenies. Thus, NAA terms apply to nonavian archosaurs (or even all diapsids) and NAV terms apply to noncrown-group mammals and more basal synapsids. Taxa equally distant from both avians and crown-group mammals may maintain the traditional nonstandardized terminology until a universal anatomical nomenclature for all tetrapods is constructed. PMID:15384041

  7. Reaching a Consensus: Terminology and Concepts Used in Coordination and Decision-Making Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyritz, Lennart W; King, Andrew J; Sueur, Cédric; Fichtel, Claudia

    2011-12-01

    Research on coordination and decision-making in humans and nonhuman primates has increased considerably throughout the last decade. However, terminology has been used inconsistently, hampering the broader integration of results from different studies. In this short article, we provide a glossary containing the central terms of coordination and decision-making research. The glossary is based on previous definitions that have been critically revised and annotated by the participants of the symposium "Where next? Coordination and decision-making in primate groups" at the XXIIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society (IPS) in Kyoto, Japan. We discuss a number of conceptual and methodological issues and highlight consequences for their implementation. In summary, we recommend that future studies on coordination and decision-making in animal groups do not use the terms "combined decision" and "democratic/despotic decision-making." This will avoid ambiguity as well as anthropocentric connotations. Further, we demonstrate the importance of 1) taxon-specific definitions of coordination parameters (initiation, leadership, followership, termination), 2) differentiation between coordination research on individual-level process and group-level outcome, 3) analyses of collective action processes including initiation and termination, and 4) operationalization of successful group movements in the field to collect meaningful and comparable data across different species. PMID:22207769

  8. Plants from Abroad: Botanical Terminology in 18th-century British Encyclopaedias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Lonati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the 18th century British encyclopaedias included in their lemmata an increasing number of botanical lexis, that is the terminology pertaining to “that branch of natural history which treats of the uses, characters, classes, orders, genera, and species of plants. […] and what useful and ornamental purposes may be expected from the cultivation of it [i.e. botany]” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1768-1771, s.v. Botany. More often than not, these terms represented migrating plants coming from exotic places, new geographical areas, whether eastwards or westwards.The general aim of this survey is to investigate the representation of the botanical science in 18th-century universal and specialized encyclopaedias, starting from prefaces and going on with the micro-texts of the single entries s.v. Botany. The starting point is thus theoretical botany. A further point in the analysis focuses on applied botany and discusses those plants such as Camellia Sinensis, Coffea Arabica, Theobroma Cacao, Saccharum Officinarum and Cinchona Officinalis which were mostly exploited for commercial and/or medical reasons.The individual entries include the most tiny details on the single headwords-topics and also display an acceptable plurality of beliefs, viewpoints and perspectives, focussing on botanical descriptions, historical information, socio-cultural issues, legal, political and commercial considerations.

  9. Multiple family member visits to family physicians. Terminology, classification, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knishkowy, B; Furst, A; Fassberg, Y; Anor, E; Matthews, S; Paz, Y

    1991-01-01

    A study was designed to investigate "the family as the unit of care" in family medicine consultations from the patient's end of the physician-patient axis, unlike most previous related studies, which have concentrated on it from the physician's perspective. During 2 separate weeks in November 1987 and February 1988, nine Israeli family physicians collected demographic and family-related data concerning the spontaneous visiting patterns generated by 1156 persons (899 patients and 257 nonpatients) who attended 796 separate consultations at their clinics during this time. More than one patient attended 12% of the consultations, and more than one person, patient or nonpatient, was present at 36%. At 31% of the consultations children alone or children and adults were recorded as patients (child consultations), and at 69% only adult patients were present (adult consultations). Adults were recorded as second or third patients at 19% of the child consultations but at only 5% of the adult consultations. The child consultations alone yielded 86% of all the nonpatients documented. Basic terminology and methodology for investigating such multiple family member visits to family physicians is discussed as well as the composition of the different family units encountered and their possible significance. PMID:1985136

  10. A Review of the Research on Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien; Condron, Linda; Belland, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that maladaptive patterns of Internet use constitute behavioral addiction. This article explores the research on the social effects of Internet addiction. There are four major sections. The Introduction section overviews the field and introduces definitions, terminology, and assessments. The second section reviews research…

  11. [The alteration of Japanese anatomical terminology in the early Showa period and the Japanese language reform campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-03-01

    In the second decade of the Showa period, great changes were made in the Japanese anatomical terms. It has been proposed that the presentation of JNA (Jenaer nomina anatomica) was one of the factors leading to the change. The Japanese language reform campaign, however, played an important role. The party kokugoaigo doumei and its successor kokugo kyokai required concise and unified technical terms. The anatomical nomenclature committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists worked to satisfy this requirement. The committee consulted with nomenclature committees of other medical associations and took account of their opinions. The anatomical nomenclature committee abandoned the literal translation from Latin to Japanese and shaped a succinct Japanese terminology. Modern Japanese anatomical terms are based on this terminology. PMID:20614732

  12. Towards a Common Terminology to Describe Voice Quality in Western Lyrical Singing: Contribution of a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    OpenAIRE

    Henrich, Nathalie; Bezard, Pascal; Expert, Robert; Garnier, Maëva; Guerin, Christian; Pillot, Claire; Quattrocchi, Sophie; Roubeau, Bernard; Terk, Boris

    2008-01-01

    This paper can be downloaded at http://www.musicstudies.org/Henrich_JIMS_0821205.html - direct link: http://www.musicstudies.org/JIMS2008/articles/Henrich_JIMS_0821205.pdf International audience Background in performance. In the field of lyrical singing, an extensive terminology is dedicated to voice quality description. Among the many terms, some are used with consistent meaning by virtually all voice specialists, whereas others, which are more metaphorical or aesthetic, have multiple ...

  13. Terminologia anatomica in the past and the future from perspective of 110th anniversary of Polish Anatomical Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielecki, J; Zurada, A; Osman, N

    2008-05-01

    Professional terminology is commonplace, particularly in the fields of mathematics, medicine, veterinary and natural sciences. The use of the terminology can be international, as it is with Anatomical Terminology (AT). In the early age of modern education, anatomists adopted Latin as the international language for AT. However, at the end of the 20th century, the English language became more predominant around the world. It can be said that the AT is a specific collection of scientific terms. One of the major flaws in early AT was that body structures were described by varying names, while some of the terms was irrational in nature, and confusing. At this time, different international committees were working on preparing a unified final version of the AT, which in the end consisted of 5,640 terms (4,286 originally from the Basle Nomina Anatomica, BNA). Also, each country wanted to have its own nomenclature. In order to accomplish this, each country based their nomenclature on the international AT, and then translated it into their own language. The history of the Polish Anatomical Terminology (PAT) is unique, and follows the events of history. It was first published in 1898, at a time when its neighbours partitioned the territory of Poland. During 150 years, the Polish culture and language was under the Russification and Germanization policy. It is important to note, that even with such difficult circumstances, the PAT was the first national AT in the world. The PAT was a union of the accepted first BNA in Latin and the original Polish anatomical equivalents. This union formed the basis for theoretical and clinical medicine in Poland. PMID:18521806

  14. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology's Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1-4.6%), respectively (P<0.001). Overall, 62% of all statements addressing research integrity/ethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805

  15. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Komić

    Full Text Available Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology's Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23% used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%, mental health (71%, sciences (61%, other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate or a few of them (management, media, engineering. A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5% on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1-4.6%, respectively (P<0.001. Overall, 62% of all statements addressing research integrity/ethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities.

  16. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology’s Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1–4.6%), respectively (P<0.001). Overall, 62% of all statements addressing research integrity/ethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805

  17. Lean manufacturing and Toyota Production System terminology applied to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bucourt, Maximilian; Busse, Reinhard; Güttler, Felix; Wintzer, Christian; Collettini, Federico; Kloeters, Christian; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgräber, Ulf K

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVES: To apply the economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology. METHODS: The economic- and process-driven terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System is first presented, including information and product flow as well as value stream mapping (VSM), and then applied to an interdisciplinary setting of physicians, nurses and technicians from different medical departments to identify wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology. RESULTS: Using the so-called seven wastes approach of the Toyota Production System (waste of overproducing, waiting, transport, processing, inventory, motion and waste of defects and spoilage) as well as further waste characteristics (gross waste, process and method waste, and micro waste), wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology were identified and eliminated to create an overall smoother process from the procurement as well as from the medical perspective. CONCLUSION: Economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System, especially VSM, can be used to visualise and better understand processes in the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology from an economic point of view. PMID:22347963

  18. Grupos na enfermagem: classificação, terminologias e formas de abordagem Grupos en enfermería: classificación, terminología y formas de enfoque Workgroups in nursing: classification, terminologies and approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Verdan Simões

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo retrata as diversas terminologias utilizadas para os trabalhos de grupos realizados por enfermeiros e contextualiza as formas de abordagens utilizadas em estudos de enfermeiros sobre as atividades grupais. Aborda as seguintes terminologias: grupos operativos e seus campos de atuação, grupos com pacientes somáticos, grupos interdisciplinares homogêneos, grupos de convivência, grupos focais e grupos de convergência. As terminologias existentes são pautadas de acordo com objetivos mais definidos de atuação do grupo, onde, na verdade, todas se encaixam no conceito de grupo operativo, como uma classificação dessas atividades grupais. Sobre as formas de abordagem relacionadas a essas atividades, são descritas: grupos como processo educativo em saúde, grupos como tecnologia e como estratégia. Entre as citadas, a visão do grupo como estratégia, segundo os autores, permite ampliar o significado de atuação do trabalho de grupo e sua importância como ferramenta de trabalho para o profissional enfermeiro.Este artículo trata de las variadas terminologías utilizadas para los trabajos de grupos realizados por enfermeros y contextualiza las formas de enfoques empleadas en estudos de enfermeros sobre las actividades grupales. Enfoca las siguientes terminologías: grupos operativos y sus campos de actuación, grupos con pacientes somáticos, grupos interdisciplinarios homogéneos, grupos de convivir, grupos focales y grupos de convergencia. Las terminologías que hay son pautadas de acuerdo con objetivos más definidos de actuación del grupo, donde, en verdad, todas se encajan en el concepto de grupo operativo, como una clasificación de actividades grupales. Sobre las formas de abordaje que tienen relación con esas actividades, son descriptas: grupos como proceso educativo en salud, grupos como tecnología y como estrategía. A lo mejor, la visión del grupo como estrategía, de acuerdo con los autores, puede crecer su

  19. THE FUNCTIONS OF IDIOMS WITH MAGICAL TERMINOLOGY IN BUILDING THE STORY OF J. K. ROWLING’S “HARRY POTTER AND THE ORDER OF THE PHOENIX”

    OpenAIRE

    Haris Fadhillah; J. Bismoko

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the functions of idioms with magical terminology in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix in building the story. This study analyzed the novel from the linguistics perspective. The idioms with magical terminology found in the novel were compared to real English idioms. Comparison was done word by word and also to the context of the story. The analysis was also done by comparing words’ meaning and the semantic features. Finally the data were analyzed with related theor...

  20. Terminological confusions and problems at the interface between the crystal field Hamiltonians and the zero-field splitting Hamiltonians—Survey of the CF=ZFS confusion in recent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Al. Piastów 17, 70-310 Szczecin (Poland); Karbowiak, Mirosław [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, ul. F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland)

    2014-10-15

    The single transition ions in various crystals or molecules as well as the exchange coupled systems (ECS) of transition ions, especially the single molecule magnets (SMM) or molecular nanomagnets (MNM), have been extensively studied in recent decades using electron magnetic resonance (EMR), optical spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. Interpretation of magnetic and spectroscopic properties of transition ions is based on two physically distinct types of Hamiltonians: the physical crystal field (CF), or equivalently ligand field (LF), Hamiltonians and the effective spin Hamiltonians (SH), which include the zero-field splitting (ZFS) Hamiltonians. Survey of recent literature has revealed a number of terminological confusions and specific problems occurring at the interface between these Hamiltonians (denoted CF (LF)↔SH (ZFS)). Elucidation of sloppy or incorrect usage of crucial notions, especially those describing or parameterizing crystal fields and zero field splittings, is a very challenging task that requires several reviews. Here we focus on the prevailing confusion between the CF (LF) and SH (ZFS) quantities, denoted as the CF=ZFS confusion, which consists in referring to the parameters (or Hamiltonians), which are the true ZFS (or SH) quantities, as purportedly the CF (LF) quantities. The inverse ZFS=CF confusion, which pertains to the cases of labeling the true CF (LF) quantities as purportedly the ZFS quantities, is considered in a follow-up paper. The two reviews prepare grounds for a systematization of nomenclature aimed at bringing order to the zoo of different Hamiltonians. Specific cases of the CF=ZFS confusion identified in the recent textbooks, review articles, and SMM (MNM)- and EMR-related papers are surveyed and the pertinent misconceptions are outlined. The consequences of the terminological confusions go far beyond simple semantic issues or misleading keyword classifications of papers in journals and scientific databases. Serious

  1. Terminología internacional sobre la educación inclusiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Cedillo, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Gradualmente, la educación inclusiva se ha colocado en la agenda de los sistemas educativos en el mundo como una prioridad. Sin embargo, a pesar de utilizar una terminología común, no parece haber mucho acuerdo con respecto al significado de conceptos centrales. En el presente artículo se identificaron dos perspectivas teóricas en relación con la educación inclusiva, una con objetivos moderados, que toma en cuenta las condiciones locales, y otra con objetivos más ambiciosos, que busca la transformación del sistema escolar. Se reportan las respuestas de 37 profesionales de quince países a una encuesta en la que se preguntó por el significado de conceptos como discapacidad, educación inclusiva, necesidades educativas especiales y barreras para el aprendizaje y la participación. También, se pidió que valoraran la utilidad y la relación entre los conceptos de necesidades educativas especiales y barreras para el aprendizaje y la participación. La encuesta se envió por correo electrónico y los expertos la contestaron por el mismo medio. Los resultados muestran una gran variación en el significado de los conceptos de discapacidad, necesidades educativas especiales y educación inclusiva, que en algunos casos parecen conformar patrones organizados de acuerdo con la región de los sujetos: Latinoamérica, Estados Unidos y Canadá, Oceanía y Europa-Asia-Sudáfrica. Asimismo, existen grandes diferencias en la valoración de los conceptos de necesidades educativas especiales y de barreras para el aprendizaje y la participación. Los resultados aportan elementos para la discusión con respecto al tipo de educación inclusiva que conviene implementar en los países en desarrollo. Abstract: Inclusive education has gradually become a priority in most educational systems in the world. Even though there is a common terminology, there seems to be little agreement regarding the meaning of core terms. The present study identified two

  2. Fundamental concepts used in national regulation: is the terminology sufficiently clear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    following us who must bear the burden of duty to complete the implementation of projects we start today. Clarity and transparency of terminology can play an important role in meeting this challenge

  3. Tabacosis, un cambio de terminología para un aumento de conciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Rodríguez-Madrigal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ante la ausencia de definición categórica de la Real Academia Española, tenemos que la Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC es prevenible y tratable, con afectación sistémica extrapulmonar, donde el componente pulmonar se caracteriza por limitación al flujo del aire que no es completamente reversible y es progresiva.¹ Esta es probablemente una de las definiciones médicas con mayor cantidad de posiciones e intereses encontrados y es que, indudable y lastimosamente, las siglas EPOC, fuera del gremio médico, no tienen mayor significancia, pues diariamente se encuentra gran cantidad de pacientes portadores de esta patología, que no tienen noción real de su padecimiento, el cual con mucho costo es aclarado por el médico tratante, debido a lo engorroso de su significado, variedad de síntomas y múltiples patologías causales. Estas vicisitudes, en cuanto a la patología causal de EPOC, son las que la han convertido en el “cajón” donde se colocan diversas neumopatías que no tienen un origen específico, sin importar si presentan o no obstrucción al flujo aéreo; además, estos inconvenientes sobre terminología, hacen dificultosa la realización de búsquedas bibliográficas, por la poca acogida que ha tenido el término.²

  4. Apples and oranges in disguised advertising: differentiation and terminological determination of brand usage in program content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Muškinja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Disguised advertising is a modern marketing instrument that is seeing an increase in Croatian business practice but whose application is prohibited by Croatian law. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to understand whether Croatian businesses really do use disguised advertising, how they do it either in accordance or in contradiction with Croatian law, and whether there is a need to distinguish among several similar but different manifestations and to terminologically determine each one of these. For the purpose of this study, we explored the theoretical, legal and ethnographic conceptualizations of the term disguised advertising in the scientific literature, Croatian legislation and applied communication in business practice. The results of our research show that: a marketing literature uses various terms for describing brand usage in program content, among which disguised advertising (prikriveno oglašavanje dominates, whereas product placement (plasman proizvoda is not mentioned once; b the law distinguishes between disguised advertising that is prohibited and product placement, as a practise allowed under certain conditions and the one that is by definition identical with disguised advertising in the manner defined by marketing literature; c business entities in their communication make a distinction between disguised advertising and product placement, and they are trying to move product placement away from disguised advertising by being mentioned as sponsors/partners of the program. The analysis also indicates three different situations in which brands are used in the program content: contracted and correctly indicated brand usage; contracted but not indicated; and not-contracted brand usage. Only the first situation is considered to be a recommended marketing tool; therefore, it is necessary to differentiate it from the other two by its definition and name. It is suggested that this marketing tool be named: brand placement in both

  5. Personalized medicine using DNA biomarkers: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Andreas; Koch, Armin; Krockenberger, Katja; Großhennig, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers are of increasing importance for personalized medicine, with applications including diagnosis, prognosis, and selection of targeted therapies. Their use is extremely diverse, ranging from pharmacodynamics to treatment monitoring. Following a concise review of terminology, we provide examples and current applications of three broad categories of biomarkers—DNA biomarkers, DNA tumor biomarkers, and other general biomarkers. We outline clinical trial phases for identifying and validat...

  6. A Review of Terminological, Conceptual, and Methodological Issues in the Developmental Risk Factor Literature for Antisocial and Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, David M.; Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Yessine, Annie K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study of risk factors for antisocial and delinquent behavior has flourished in the past 20 years, as great strides have been made in understanding the developmental pathways that give rise to the onset, course, and desistance of the behavior. However, as a body of literature, risk factor research (RFR) is characterized by…

  7. Girus and Sulcus of the Lateral Occipital Lobe: Anatomical Description and Terminological Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Aguirre, Jhonny Fernando

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the lateral surface of the occipital lobe, presents a big variability in the descriptions of the classical texts of neuroanatomy, so much that the current International Anatomical Terminology does not include nominations about the morphologic structures of this region, except for the lunate sulcus, the pre-occipital notch and the transverse occipital sulcus.The macroscopic morphology of this region was examined in this study, in 19 right brain hemispheres and 8 left brain hemispheres post-mortem, fixed in formalin fixed, where it is described the presence, shape and orientation of the gyri and sulci, and the interhemispheric differences in on the lateral surface of the occipital lobe, identifying the most characteristic and constant patterns.Occipital sulci: We found a significant constancy of four occipital sulci: 1-Lunate Sulcus: Frequency: 81,48%, located behind the occipital lobe convexity, with a vertical or oblique orientation and arcuate form, usually presenting a concavity directed towards the occipital pole. 2-Lateral Occipital Sulcus: Frequency: 96,29%, located immediately forward to the lunate sulcus and coincides with its middle part, with a horizontal orientation; this sulcus is presented as a continuation from the temporal lobe, and it is the most constant of all of them. 3-Transverse Occipital Sulcus: Frequency: 92,6%, located at the top superior part of the lateral surface of the occipital lobe, with a horizontal orientation toward the occipital pole, forming a continuation of the intra-parietal sulcus; 4-Prepolar sulcus: Frequency: 62,96%; located behind the lunate sulcus, with a vertical or oblique orientation and arcuate form, is the shortest and less constant of all of them. Occipital Gyri: We have found the presence of four gyri: 1-Upper Occipital Gyrus: Frequency: 92,6%, located above the transverse occipital sulcus, reaching the upper edge of the lateral occipital surface; 2 – Middle Occipital Gyrus

  8. Putting Order into Our Universe: The Concept of Blended Learning—A Methodology within the Concept-based Terminology Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Fernandes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the advantages of a methodology design grounded on a concept-based approach to Terminology applied to the most prominent scenario of current Higher Education: blended learning. Terminology is a discipline that aims at representing, describing and defining specialized knowledge through language, putting order into our universe (Nuopponen, 2011. Concepts, as elements of the structure of knowledge (Sager, 1990 emerge as a complex research object. Can they be found in language? A concept-based approach to Terminology implies a clear-cut view of the role of language in terminological work: though language is postulated as being a fundamental tool to grasp, describe and organize knowledge, an isomorphic relationship between language and knowledge cannot be taken for granted. In other words, the foundational premise of a concept-based approach is that there is no one-to-one correspondence between atomic elements of knowledge and atomic elements of linguistic expression. This is why a methodological approach to Terminology merely based upon specialized text research is regarded as biased (Costa, 2013. As a consequence, we argue that interactional strategies between terminologist and domain expert deserve particular research attention. To our mind, the key to concept-based terminological work is to carry out a concept analysis of data gathered from a specialised text corpora combined with an elicitation process of the tacit knowledge and concept-oriented discursive negotiation. Following such view, we put forward a methodology to answer the question: how is blended learning defined in the Post-Bologna scenario? Even though there are numerous high-quality models and practical descriptions for its implementation (similarly to other concepts related to distance learning, the need to understand, demarcate and harmonize the concept of blended learning against the current Higher Education background results from the premise that

  9. El turismo rural en España: terminología y problemas de traducción

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Luque, Adrián

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo pretendemos ofrecer una visión introductoria de la diversa terminología presente en el sector del turismo rural, y más concretamente en lo referente a los diversos tipos de alojamientos, poniendo énfasis en la gran variedad de denominaciones y en los potenciales problemas que dichas nomenclaturas pueden suponer en la promoción y desarrollo turísticos a nivel nacional e internacional. G.I. HUM 767 (ayudas a Grupos de Investigación de la Junta de Andalucía) / Editorial Comar...

  10. El grupo de terminología del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones científicas (TermEsp)

    OpenAIRE

    Irazazábal Nerpell, Amelia de

    1987-01-01

    TermEsp es un grupo formado por cientificos que trabajan en terminología en el Instituto de Información y Documentación en Ciencia y Tecnología (ICYT) del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. El grupo consta de seis terminólogos, dos informáticos especialistas en lingüística computacional, un administrativo y cuatro operadores-grabadores. Dispone, además, de la asesoría permanente de los centros de investigación del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científi...

  11. La terminología en las instituciones de la UE: de la fragmentación a la convergencia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Martín, Javier; Valdivieso Blanco, María

    2009-01-01

    En una época de convergencia terminológica en la UE, este artículo pretende ofrecer un panorama de conjunto de la terminología en la UE. Para ello, en primer lugar se describe desde una perspectiva general el funcionamiento y estructura de la unidad de traducción del Consejo de la UE, a continuación se ofrecen algunos aspectos significativos en las instituciones de la UE y por último, se presenta la principal materialización de esta investigación terminológica en la UE: la b...

  12. Mapping VIPS concepts for nursing interventions to the ISO reference terminology model for nursing actions: A collaborative Scandinavian analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehnfors, Margareta; Angermo, Lilly Marit; Berring, Lene;

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the coherence between the concepts for nursing interventions in the Swedish VIPS model for nursing recording and the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Actions and to identify areas in the two models for further development. Seven Scandinavian experts...... analyzed the VIPS model's concepts for nursing interventions using prototypical examples of nursing actions, involving 233 units of analyses, and collaborated in mapping the two models. All nursing interventions in the VIPS model comprise actions and targets, but a few lack explicit expressions of means...

  13. Acclimation, adaptation, traits and trade-offs in plankton functional type models: reconciling terminology for biology and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Kevin J.; St. John, Michael; Raven, John A.;

    2015-01-01

    ideally only be considered for describing intra-generational interactions; in applications between generations, and certainly between unrelated species, such concepts should be avoided. We suggest that systems biology approaches, through to complex adaptive/acclimative systems modelling, with explicit......We propose definitions in terminology to enhance ongoing collaborations between biologists and modellers on plankton ecology. Organism “functional type” should refer to commonality in ecology not biogeochemistry; the latter is largely an emergent property of the former, while alignment with ecology...

  14. Terminología y traducción económica francés-español: evaluación de recursos terminológicos en el ámbito contable

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Hernández, Daniel; Herrero Díaz, Susi (trans.)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate a series of terminology resources and determine their suitability to the practice of French-Spanish translation of accounting documents. First we identify the terminology needs of a specific group of translator trainees when facing business translation, as well as the resources they use particularly when translating annual accounts. Then, we select various terminology resources used in this context and evaluate them according to their needs. The results su...

  15. Speak Clearly, If You Speak at All; Carve Every Word Before You Let It Fall: Problems of Ambiguous Terminology in eLearning System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses issues associated with the development of eLearning software systems. The development of software systems in general is a highly complex process, and a number of methodologies and models have been developed to help address some of these complexities. Generally the first stage in most development processes is the gathering of requirements which involves elicitation from end-users. This process is made more complex by problems associated with ambiguous terminology. Types of ambiguous terminology include homonymous, polysemous and inaccurate terms. This range of ambiguous terminology can cause significant misunderstandings in the requirements gathering process, which in turn can lead to software systems that do not meet the requirements of the end-users. This research seeks to explore some of the more common terms that can be ambiguously interpreted in the development of eLearning systems, and suggests software engineering approaches to help alleviate the potentially erroneous outcomes of these ambiguities.

  16. Resistencias, novedades y negociaciones : la terminología química durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX en España

    OpenAIRE

    Bertomeu Sánchez, José Ramón; Muñoz Bello, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la nueva terminología química en España durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX. Pretendemos mostrar que el estudio de la historia de la terminología permite conocer mejor los mecanismos de negociación, apropiación y resistencia de las comunidades locales, y ofrece nuevas claves para repensar las relaciones entre centro y periferias científicas. Las fuentes principales del estudio son los manuales de química publicados entre 1788 y 1845 en España. Estructuraremos la...

  17. Lenguaje, ciencia e historia: una introducción histórica a la terminología química

    OpenAIRE

    García Belmar, Antonio; Bertomeu Sánchez, José Ramón

    1998-01-01

    El presente trabajo se enmarca dentro de las investigaciones sobre las aplicaciones de la historia de la ciencia a la enseñanza de las ciencias. Su objetivo principal consiste en ofrecer algunas sugerencias acerca del modo en que puede renovarse la enseñanza de la terminología química mediante el empleo de las conclusiones de diversos estudios históricos sobre el tema. Se pretende además mostrar que la terminología química puede ser también empleada como ventana desde la que asomarse a la his...

  18. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines

  19. Modeling a Nursing Guideline with Standard Terminology and Unified Modeling Language for a Nursing Decision Support System: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Jansen, Kay; Coenen, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been developed and used to achieve "meaningful use". One approach to developing DSSs is to translate clinical guidelines into a computer-interpretable format. However, there is no specific guideline modeling approach to translate nursing guidelines to computer-interpretable guidelines. This results in limited use of DSSs in nursing. Unified modeling language (UML) is a software writing language known to accurately represent the end-users' perspective, due to its expressive characteristics. Furthermore, standard terminology enabled DSSs have been shown to smoothly integrate into existing health information systems. In order to facilitate development of nursing DSSs, the UML was used to represent a guideline for medication management for older adults encode with the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®). The UML was found to be a useful and sufficient tool to model a nursing guideline for a DSS. PMID:26958174

  20. La terminología enológica del español en el S.XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Bajo Santiago, Francisca

    2003-01-01

    El vino es un producto milenario que particpa activamente en los más diversos aspectos: religión, economía, comercio, medicina, gastronomía. Pero además a finales del siglo XVIII la ciencia y la técnica modernas se ponen al servicio de la elaboración del vino. Nace así la enología. Los cambios que vive la disciplina enológica en España durante el siglo XIX influyen en la configuración de la terminología de esta ciencia. El mejor ejemplo lo constituye el nutrido número de términos nuevos que s...

  1. Financial Accounting: Classifications and Standard Terminology for Local and State School Systems. State Educational Records and Reports Series: Handbook II, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Charles T., Comp.; Lichtenberger, Allan R., Comp.

    This handbook has been prepared as a vehicle or mechanism for program cost accounting and as a guide to standard school accounting terminology for use in all types of local and intermediate education agencies. In addition to classification descriptions, program accounting definitions, and proration of cost procedures, some units of measure and…

  2. Bayesian Modelling in Machine Learning: A Tutorial Review

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Many facets of Bayesian Modelling are firmly established in Machine Learning and give rise to state-of-the-art solutions to application problems. The sheer number of techniques, ideas and models which have been proposed, and the terminology, can be bewildering. With this tutorial review, we aim to give a wide high-level overview over this important field, concentrating on central ideas and methods, and on their interconnections. The reader will gain a basic understanding of the topics and the...

  3. Conceptual Knowledge Acquisition in Biomedicine: A Methodological Review

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Philip R.O.; Mendonça, Eneida A.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Starren, Justin B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of conceptual knowledge collections or structures within the biomedical domain is pervasive, spanning a variety of applications including controlled terminologies, semantic networks, ontologies, and database schemas. A number of theoretical constructs and practical methods or techniques support the development and evaluation of conceptual knowledge collections. This review will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge concerning conceptual knowledge acquisition, drawing f...

  4. Of apples and oranges: Lessons learned from the preparation of research protocols for systematic reviews exploring the effectiveness of Specialist Palliative Care

    OpenAIRE

    Gaertner, Jan; Siemens, Waldemar; Daveson, Barbara A.; Smith, Melinda; Evans, Catherine J.; Higginson, Irene J; Becker, Gerhild

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Agreed terminology used in systematic reviews of the effectiveness of specialist palliative care ((S)PC)) is required to ensure consistency and usability and to help guide future similar reviews and the design of clinical trials. During the preparation of protocols for two separate systematic reviews that aimed to assess the effectiveness of SPC, two international research groups collaborated to ensure a high degree of methodological consensus and clarity between reviews. During t...

  5. Of apples and oranges:Lessons learned from the preparation of research protocols for systematic reviews exploring the effectiveness of Specialist Palliative Care

    OpenAIRE

    Gaertner, Jan; Siemens, Waldemar; Daveson, Barbara A; Smith, Melinda; Evans, Catherine J; Higginson, Irene J.; Becker, Gerhild

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Agreed terminology used in systematic reviews of the effectiveness of specialist palliative care ((S)PC)) is required to ensure consistency and usability and to help guide future similar reviews and the design of clinical trials. During the preparation of protocols for two separate systematic reviews that aimed to assess the effectiveness of SPC, two international research groups collaborated to ensure a high degree of methodological consensus and clarity between reviews. During t...

  6. [Fatigue syndromes--an overview of terminology, definitions and classificatory concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Johanna; Nater, Urs

    2013-02-01

    This article aims at giving a general view of fatigue syndromes, their description, and their differentiation. The syndromes neurasthenia, chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), and burnout are discussed. First, the historical background of fatigue classification is shortly reviewed. Each syndrome is introduced in terms of definition and classification as well as differentiation from each other. The article discusses the differentiation of the syndromes from each other as well as differentiation of CFS/ME and burnout from depression. We conclude that it is difficult to differentiate criteria due to insufficient empirical evidence. More research is needed concerning integration of the diagnoses in classification systems as well as differentiation between syndromes. High comorbidity of depression with CFS and Burnout can be shown, but diagnoses also comprise distinct symptoms. PMID:23408301

  7. Análisis de terminologías de salud para su utilización como ontologías computacionales en los sistemas de información clínicos Analysis of health terminologies for use as ontologies in healthcare information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Romá-Ferri; Manuel Palomar

    2008-01-01

    Objetivos: Las ontologías son un recurso que permite trabajar informáticamente con la conceptualización del significado y evitar la limitación impuesta por los términos normalizados. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer el grado de usabilidad de las terminologías para el diseño de ontologías, que contribuyan a resolver los problemas de interoperabilidad semántica, y de reutilización de conocimiento en los sistemas de información clínicos. Métodos: Se han analizado 6 de las terminologías ...

  8. Congenital absence of the nose: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of congenital absence of the nose is presented. The etiology of this rare condition is unknown. A review of the literature reveals that the previously applied terms, e. g. 'arhinia', are unclear. In the reviewed cases there seems to be a pattern of facial anomalies associated with nasal absence. In most cases, one could probably expect a lack of the olfactory bulbs and tracts. We suggest a new terminology and summarize the aims of the radiological evaluation of this condition. (orig.)

  9. La terminología anatómica en español, inglés y francés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Echeverría Pereda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de la traducción de textos biosanitarios se manifiesta en el gran número de estudios dedicados a identificar las principales dificultades planteadas por este tipo de traducción y, en especial, por la terminología biosanitaria. Los compendios terminológicos normalizados (las nomenclaturas permiten construir un discurso especializado preciso y facilitan la comunicación entre las diversas comunidades científicas: el mejor ejemplo lo constituyen las nomenclaturas anatómicas. Sin embargo, también en estas nomenclaturas son frecuentes los fenómenos de variación terminológica (sinonimia, polisemia, eponimia, etc., lo que, desde nuestro punto de vista, supone un obstáculo añadido para la traducción de textos médicos. En este artículo nos proponemos analizar, a través de un corpus terminológico representativo, diversos tipos de variación que se producen en las nomenclaturas anatómicas en español, en inglés y en francés con respecto a la nomenclatura anatómica internacional. ------------------------------------------ Anatomical Terminology in Spanish, English and French. The importance of translation of medical texts is reflected in the great number of studies which have been carried out in order to identify the main difficulties concerning this type of translation, and, specially, those arising from medical terminology. Standardized terminological compilations (nomenclatures allow the creation of a precise specialized discourse, and contribute to the communication among the different scientific communities, being anatomical nomenclatures the best example of this. However, even in these nomenclatures, the terminological variation phenomena are frequent (synonymy, polysemy, eponymy, etc., something that, in our point of view, constitute an added obstacle to the translation of medical texts. In this article we intend to analyze, by means of a representative terminological corpus, the different types of variations

  10. Clearing the standards landscape: the semantics of terminology and their impact on toxicogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Lyle D

    2007-10-01

    The emergence of the microarray data standards, especially the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME), has spurred several organizations to develop their own standards for a myriad of technologies, including proteomics and metabolomics. These efforts have facilitated the creation of several large-scale gene expression repositories, including the toxicology-focused Chemical Effects in Biological Systems Knowledgebase at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Recently, efforts have been moved toward developing toxicogenomic data standards (e.g., MIAME-Tox), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency either have developed or are developing regulatory guidance with respect to pharmaco- and toxicogenomics. However, for the toxicology community to be engaged in the process of standards development and approval, there needs to be a more thorough understanding of the terms associated with electronic data sharing and communication, especially with respect to defining the terms "standard," "controlled vocabulary," "object model," "markup language," and "ontology." This review will discuss these terms, especially as they pertain to toxicogenomics, how they relate to one-another, and what current efforts exist that may impact toxicology. PMID:17483496

  11. Snake venoms: A brief treatise on etymology, origins of terminology, and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    The ancient perceptions of "venomous" and "poisonous snakes", as well as the Indo-European (IE) etymological origins of the term "venom" specifically associated with snakes are considered. Although several ancient cultures perceived snakes as symbols of fecundity and renewal, concurrent beliefs also associated venomous snakes with undesirable human characteristics or as portending non-propitious events. The respective IE roots of the terms "venom" and "poison", "wen" and "poi" refer to desire or the act of ingesting liquids. The origin of the term, "venom", is associated with polytheistic cults that emphasized attainment of desires sometimes assisted by "love potions", a term later interpolated with the word, "poison". Specific interpretation of the term, venom, has varied since its first probable use in the mid-Thirteenth Century. The definition of snake venom has long been contended, and interpretations have often reflected emphasis on the pharmacological or experimental toxicity of medically relevant snake venoms with less regard for the basic biological bases of these venoms, as well as those from snakes with no known medical significance. Several definitions of "snake venom" and their defining criteria are reviewed, and critical consideration is given to traditional criteria that might facilitate the future establishment of a biologically accurate definition. PMID:26166305

  12. THE CONCEPT OF “TESTATE SUCCESSION” IN THE ROMANIAN AND GEORGIAN LEGAL SYSTEMS (TERMINOLOGICAL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA GVELESIANI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The death of an individual never causes an automatic termination of his (her rights and obligations. They are transferred to his (her descendants. The permanent connection of generations has inspired the world civilizations to create rules of succession for establishing people’s obedience to them. In the old times, the transmission of property of the Romanian people was governed by the legislation, which had been created under the influence of the Roman law. According to the conception of this legislation, a deceased person’s property had to stay with his blood relatives i.e. within the same family. On the background of these circumstances, a surviving spouse suffered disadvantages. A widow’s rights were limited in accordance with the old Georgian legislation too – the hereditary property was mainly divided between the male issue, while females owned only wedding gifts (dowry. However, the area of family law has suffered crucial changes throughout the centuries. Nowadays, during the times of globalization, these changes are directed towards the internationalization of legal systems of the world. Juridical differences are becoming irrelevant and females’ rights are equalized with the males’ ones. The given paper is dedicated to the precise study of the Romanian and Georgian “testate successions”. It singles out major terminological units and discusses women’s rights vis-à-vis men’s ones.

  13. Continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies in developmental toxicology: Report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity, 14-16 May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Roland; Rauch, Martina; Gall, Andrea; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Fuchs, Antje; Kan, Haidong; Heinrich, Verena; Kellner, Rupert; Knudsen, Thomas B; Li, Weihua; Makris, Susan L; Ooshima, Yojiro; Paumgartten, Francisco; Piersma, Aldert H; Schönfelder, Gilbert; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Schaefer, Christof; Shiota, Kohei; Ulbrich, Beate; Ding, Xuncheng; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article is a report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity held in May 2014. The main aim of the workshop was the continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies used in the assessment of embryo- and fetotoxic findings. The following main topics were discussed: harmonized categorization of external, skeletal, visceral and materno-fetal findings into malformations, variations and grey zone anomalies, aspects of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals, and innovations for new methodologies in developmental toxicology. The application of Version 2 terminology in the DevTox database was considered as a useful improvement in the categorization of developmental anomalies. Participants concluded that initiation of a project for comparative assessments of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals could support regulatory risk assessment and university-based training. Improvement of new methodological approaches for alternatives to animal testing should be triggered for a better understanding of developmental outcomes. PMID:26073002

  14. [The Significance of Terminology for the Idea of a Historical Period--Considerations on Frühe Neuzeit/Early Modern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipperdey, Justus

    2015-06-01

    The Significance of Terminology for the Idea of a Historical Period - Considerations on Frühe Neuzeit/Early Modern. This article focuses on the relationship between the names given to historical periods and the attributed substance of that period. It argues that the possibility of a neutralisation in terms of substantive meaning depends on the terminology used to delineate a historical period. Considering the example of 'early modern history' the article sketches the usage of that term in twentieth century historiography. While it is clear that the concept cannot escape the inherent teleology of modernity succeeding pre-modern ages, the analysis shows that historians have used 'early modern' in surprisingly divers ways trying to overcome the semantic meaning of the term itself. PMID:26140628

  15. THE FUNCTIONS OF IDIOMS WITH MAGICAL TERMINOLOGY IN BUILDING THE STORY OF J. K. ROWLING’S “HARRY POTTER AND THE ORDER OF THE PHOENIX”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Fadhillah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the functions of idioms with magical terminology in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix in building the story. This study analyzed the novel from the linguistics perspective. The idioms with magical terminology found in the novel were compared to real English idioms. Comparison was done word by word and also to the context of the story. The analysis was also done by comparing words’ meaning and the semantic features. Finally the data were analyzed with related theories of linguistics and discourse analysis. The results of this study can be used as a consideration in teaching cultural relevancy in language teaching from the linguistic point of view in a novel. Keywords: functions of idioms, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, cultural relevancy in language teaching

  16. A collaborative approach to building a terminology for medical procedures using a Web-based application: from specifications to daily use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgun, A; Bodenreider, O; Denier, P; Delamarre, D; Botti, G; Oberlin, P; Lévêque, J M; Brémond, M; Fieschi, M; Le Beux, P

    1998-01-01

    The MAOUSSC (Model for Assistance in the Orientation of a User within Coding Systems) Web server supports a collaborative work on the description of medical procedures. The specifications for the MAOUSSC application are conceptual modeling, definition of semantically fully described procedures, re-use of an existing vocabulary, the UMLS, and sharability. This paper reports on some difficulties in applying those principles in a networked building and updating of the terminology. The users are physicians who have to represent procedure terms in the MAOUSSC formalism. They must apply the constraints of the underlying model, and re-use the representation of the UMLS knowledge base. In our experience, we found that the implementation of syntactic and semantic constraints was not sufficient. Guidelines for pragmatical aspects in representation are required to make a collaborative approach in terminology building more operational. PMID:10384524

  17. Korleis kan/bør vi ivareta terminologi og fagspråk i norsk industri og næringsliv

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Magnar

    2006-01-01

    It is argued here that the challenge posed by globalization, with English as its principal communication medium, requires decisive and defensive action on behalf of Norwegian special language and terminology, and that such action should be coordinated by the new Language Council and financed at governmental level. The presentation aims to pinpoint specific initiatives required to meet the challenge, starting from the consolidation and further development of textual and lexical lan...

  18. Creating medical terminology: from Latin and Greek influence to the influence of English as the current lingua franca of medical communication

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrić, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The language of medicine is a broad research field, so broad that there ought to be a special field of linguistics called medical linguistics. its development, especially the development of medical terminology, is interesting both to medical historians and to linguists. Hippocratic writings dating from the 5th and the 4th century Bc contain many medical terms which were the foundation of the language of medicine in the greek era. At the beginning of the first century ad greek medical te...

  19. Analysis of Terms Translation from the Terminology Point of View%从术语学角度看WiFi和WiMax中文译名之争——兼论确立术语翻译原则的迫切性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙寰; 陈岩

    2015-01-01

    Accuracy and normalization of terminology translation directly affect the terminology standardization work. This paper discusses the translation of two terms"Wifi"and"WiMax"from the terminology point of view, and then analyzes the positive influence of terminology translation on terminology standardization, and discusses how to promote standardization of terminology translation from the perspective of terminology construction.%术语翻译的准确与规范直接影响到术语的标准化工作.本文从术语学角度探讨与Wifi和WiMax两个术语翻译相关的问题,进而分析术语翻译对术语标准化的积极影响,又从术语学建设的角度,探讨如何促进术语标准化翻译问题.

  20. Common usage of cardiologic anatomical terminology: critical analysis and a trilingual discussion proposal Uso comum da terminologia anatômica cardiológica: análise crítica e proposta de discussão trilingue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lins Werneck

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Terminology and Lexicography have been especially addressed to the Allied Health Sciences regarding discussion of case reports or concerning publication of scientific articles. The knowledge of Human Anatomy enables the understanding of medical terms and the refinement of Medical Terminology makes possible a better anatomicomedical communication in a highly technical level. Most of the scientific publications in both Anatomy and Medicine are found only in English and most of dictionaries or search resources available do not have specificity enough to explain anatomicomedical, terminological, or lexicographical occurrences. OBJECTIVE: To design and produce a multilingual terminological dictionary (Latim-English-Portuguese-Spanish containing a list of English anatomicomedical terms in common usage in cardiology subspecialties addressed to medical students and professionals, to other allied health sciences professionals, and to translators working in this specific field. METHODS: Terms, semantical and grammatical components were selected to compose an anatomicocardiological corpus. The adequacy to the thematic terminological research requests and the translation reliability level will be settled from the terminology specificity in contrast to the semantics, as well as from a peer survey of the main terms used by national and international experts in specialized journals, Internet sites, and from text-books on Anatomy and Cardiology. The inclusion criteria will be the terms included in the English, Portuguese, and Spanish Terminologia Anatomica - the official terminology of the anatomical sciences; nonofficial technical commonly used terms which lead to terminology or translation misunderstanding often being a source of confusion. RESULTS: A table with a sample of the 508 most used anatomical cardiologic terms in English language peer-reviewed journals of cardiology and (pediatric and adult thoracic surgery is shown. CONCLUSIONS: The

  1. The phallus in Tettigoniidae (Insecta: Orthoptera: Ensifera): revision of morphology and terminology, and discussion on its taxonomic importance and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    The phallus in Tettigoniidae (katydids) is a structure informative relative to the systematics of the group. Despite this, it is often not considered in descriptions of taxa. The lack of adequate descriptions of phalli is not only a gap for sytematic and morphological studies, but postpones works on the evolution of copula. Here we study the exoskeletal morphology of the phallus in katydids, its components, and revised the terminology for them. We carried out dissections for morphological comparisons, and complement the observational information with published data. We stained phalli of katydids with chlorazol black, to better contrast membranous versus sclerotized components. We demonstrate that phallic components vary at specific, generic and suprageneric levels, and that internal and external components vary in number, shape, size and position. Currently there is little comparative data to support hypotheses on the evolution of this structure, but possibly the possession of a titillator is an ancestral condition. We identify additional sclerotized components, the sclerites of the ventral fold of the dorsal lobe, which can modify the shape and function of the titillator, being also important for understanding the evolution of the phallus. Potential functional relationships based on hypothetical morphological correlations between the shape of titillator and cerci are proposed, categorized in three main groups: (i) phallus devoid of titillator and cerci simple, (ii) titillator with bifurcated or paired sclerites, and cerci adapted for grasping, and (iii) titillator with single process and/or sclerite and cerci simple, sometimes with a pointed tip. Two explanations for these hypothetical morphological correlations and morphological variation are proposed: first, species with similar structures at the postabdomen would share similar copulatory behaviour, and second, more than one selective pressure would have acted over the structures of the postabdomen. PMID

  2. State of Digital Education Options in the areas of Medical Terminology and the History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochow, Maximilian; Steger, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Institutes of the history of medicine, the theory of medicine, and medical ethics at German institutions of higher learning have created various e-learning options that are based on different learning platforms and tailored to the specific curricular needs of individual teaching. Up to now no valid data has been available about the types of such e-learning options as well as possibilities of future developments thanks to coordinated cooperation among the different institutes. Methods: Of 31 German institutes of the history and theory of medicine and medical ethics that were asked to fill out a questionnaire, 30 answered, which equals a return rate of 97 per cent. The questionnaire was completed between July and August 2012 using a telephone survey. Results: Available to students online, digitally interactive teaching tools have boomed in the course of the last few years at German institutes of the history of medicine, the theory of medicine, and medical ethics. This trend is also reflected in a willingness of more than half of the respective departments (67 per cent) to expand their e-learning options on the basis of previous experience. The offered e-learning systems are accepted very well by the students. 57 per cent of the institutes stated, that 90-100 per cent of the students use the offered systems regularly. E-learning courses for terminology are offered particularly often, this is also reflected in the intended extension of these courses by the majority of institutes which plan to expand their e-learning systems. Conclusions: This article discusses the results of a comprehensive empirical survey about e-learning. It illustrates ways in which individual German institutes plan to expand their e-learning options in the future. Finally, specific proposals for cooperation among institutions (not just online) are introduced, the purpose of which is to produce synergy in e-learning. PMID:26038682

  3. Tourism websites in English as a source for the autonomous learning of specialized terminology: A CALL application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Felices Lago

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For years now, it has been an unquestioned fact that a large majority of textbooks available in English for Tourism, either in book format, CD-Rom or web site access are based on situations and professional contexts connected with the Anglo-Saxon environment, even though the vast majority of graduates in Tourism in Spain (and other countries end up working in the region (autonomous community of origin or in the province of reference for studies. There is, therefore, a clear dysfunction between the textbooks available in the market and the materials and situations that the students will face in their professional future. However, the Internet now allows us to exploit the availability of vast quantities of local resources (websites, blogs, etc. with their corresponding versions in English, which include tourist information referring to, for example, hotels, restaurants, historical and artistic heritage sites, tour operators, travel agencies, trade fairs or specialized services at the national, regional or communal levels. All these sites offer a special showcase of all the linguistic resources available (be they lexical, syntactic or terminological that the learners must acquire for their professional development. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to offer the results of the computer-assisted language learning (CALL project entitled Autonomous Learning of Specialized Vocabulary in English for Tourism (http://wdb.ugr.es/~afelices/, which takes into consideration the previous premises in order to promote, as its title indicates, autonomous learning in a more realistic professional context and to serve as a model for the development of similar e-learning platforms in other regions or countries.

  4. Congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities in adults detected by gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: Clefts, aneurysms, diverticula and terminology problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities (clefts, aneurysms and diverticula), describe and illustrate imaging features, discuss terminology problems and determine their prevalence detected by cardiac CT in a single center. Materials and methods: Coronary CT angiography images of 2093 adult patients were evaluated retrospectively in order to determine congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities. Results: The incidence of left ventricular clefts (LVC) was 6.7% (141 patients) and statistically significant difference was not detected between the sexes regarding LVC (P = 0.5). LVCs were single in 65.2% and multiple in 34.8% of patients. They were located at the basal to mid inferoseptal segment of the left ventricle in 55.4%, the basal to mid anteroseptal segment in 24.1%, basal to mid inferior segment in 17% and septal–apical septal segment in 3.5% of cases. The cleft length ranged from 5 to 22 mm (mean 10.5 mm) and they had a narrow connection with the left ventricle (mean 2.5 mm). They were contractile with the left ventricle and obliterated during systole. Congenital left ventricular septal aneurysm that was located just under the aortic valve was detected in two patients (0.1%). No case of congenital left ventricular diverticulum was detected. Conclusion: Cardiac CT allows us to recognize congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities which have been previously overlooked in adults. LVC is a congenital structural variant of the myocardium, is seen more frequently than previously reported and should be differentiated from aneurysm and diverticulum for possible catastrophic complications of the latter two.

  5. Student Teachers' Understanding of the Terminology, Distribution, and Loss of Biodiversity: Perspectives from a Biodiversity Hotspot and an Industrialized Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebelkorn, Florian; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-08-01

    The loss of biodiversity is one of the most urgent global environmental problems of our time. Public education and awareness building is key to successful biodiversity protection. Knowledgeable and skilled student teachers are a key component for the successful implementation of biodiversity education in schools. Yet, little empirical evidence exists on teachers' detailed understanding of biodiversity. This study aimed to assess student teachers' conceptions of the terminology as well as their understanding of the distribution and loss of biodiversity. Data were collected from a qualitative in-depth interview study of student biology teachers from Costa Rica and Germany ( n = 24). Both verbal and visual methods were used to elicit responses. The results show that participants from both countries equated biodiversity with species diversity and had misconceptions about genetic diversity. Costa Rican student teachers seemed to have a more local perspective on biodiversity and unanimously described their local biodiversity as high, and under threat. In contrast, German teachers showed a more global view and were mostly uncertain about the level and threat status of local biodiversity. Prevailing associations explaining the global distribution and loss of biodiversity were heavily based on everyday assumptions, such as the presence/absence of humans, cities, and industries. Additionally, the transnational character of many of the socioeconomic drivers causing biodiversity loss was largely neglected. Although most participants were unfamiliar with the scientific concept of biodiversity hotspots, they implicitly used a naive biodiversity hotspots concept to explain the distribution and loss of global biodiversity. The results are discussed in terms of the educational implications.

  6. Ontario electricity bill review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findings of an independent review of charges to electricity bills and recommendations to assist in the development of a standard, province-wide residential electricity bill for Ontario are discussed. The review was requested by the province's Minister of Energy in an effort to dispel growing confusion about the variations in customer billing practices used by the province's 90+ local distribution companies. Key recommendations and findings were as follows: (1)Consumer bill formats issued by local distribution companies should be more consumer-friendly, adhere to minimum design standards, adapt uniform terminology and common line charges; (2) charges on customer bills should be grouped into four standard line items, with full details available to customers: the four line items should be a basic service charge, a charge for delivering electricity to the customer, a charge for the electricity itself, and a separate charge for retiring the outstanding debt of the former Ontario Hydro; (3) bills should take advantage of opportunities for promoting province-wide energy conservation, such as encouraging the long-term use of interval meters, presenting historical consumption data on residential bills on a period-to-period basis, and education and communications initiatives. Details of the recommendations, including the calculation of the fixed and variable components of usage charges, an explanation of the concept of electricity system loss adjustments, a method for phasing in the recommendations, and the anticipated benefits to consumers are provided

  7. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-01-01

    It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the cen...

  8. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  9. CET Terminology change

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    During 2009, an interdepartmental team composed of members of the accounting and central / departmental planning & controlling services revised the CET glossary with the aim of adapting the existing CET fields and columns labels to the new vocabulary recently employed in the CERN financial rules (following the implementation of IPSAS1) recommendations at CERN), annual accounts and, in general, in the accounting. The AIS team in charge of CET has finalized the implementation of this glossary change. As of 13 April 2010, a standard pop-up message (CET news) appears on opening the CET session, informing users about the planned modifications. As of 3rd May 2010, a new version of CET, that will contain modifications of certain fields and columns labels will be deployed. The main changes apply to the following terms: “CHARGED TO BUDGET CODE” replaces “PAID TO BUDGET CODE”, “ACCRUALS” replaces “PROVISIONS” and “PAID TO SU...

  10. Sea ice terminology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A group of definitions of terms related to sea ice is presented, as well as a graphic representation of late winter ice zonation of the Beaufort Sea Coast. Terms included in the definition list are belt, bergy bit, bight, brash ice, calving, close pack ice, compacting, compact pack ice, concentration, consolidated pack ice, crack, diffuse ice edge, fast ice, fast-ice boundary, fast-ice edge, first-year ice, flaw, flaw lead, floe, flooded ice, fractured, fractured zone, fracturing, glacier, grey ice, grey-white ice, growler, hummock, iceberg, iceberg tongue, ice blink, ice boundary, ice cake, ice edge, ice foot, ice free, ice island, ice shelf, large fracture, lead, medium fracture, multiyear ice, nilas, old ice, open pack ice, open water, pack ice, polar ice, polynya, puddle, rafted ice, rafting, ram, ridge, rotten ice, second-year ice, shearing, shore lead, shore polynya, small fracture, strip, tabular berg, thaw holes, very close pack ice, very open pack ice, water sky, young coastal ice, and young ice.

  11. Terminology of carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, G.N.; Nagornyi, V.G.; Ostrovskii, V.S.

    1986-07-01

    The need is discussed to standardize definition of carbonaceous material. Terms related to carbonaceous materials and their products are selected and analyzed. Diagramatic representation is given of relationships between carbonaceous materials. Carbon has two forms of structure, cubic and hexagonal, characterized by sp/sup 3/-hybrid groups of atoms forming spatial system of tetrahedral bonds. Hexagonal form of carbon is represented by natural materials such as graphite, shungite, anthracite and a number of artificial materials obtained during thermal treatment of organic substances at temperatures above carbonization temperature. 4 references.

  12. [Fouling: terminology and definitions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaman, V V

    2009-01-01

    Current classification of principal ecological groups of hydrobionts is an eclectic one as it confuses two fundamentals, one dealing with organismic ecomorphology and another with water body's topology. This leads to difficulties in determination of interrelations between benthos and fouling communities. The littoral fouling communities cannot be considered as an independent ecological group of the same rank as plankton or benthos because it lacks a unique species composition. The fouling is always a derivate of the benthos, so it could be defined as a community formed by benthic organisms during succession on a solid substrate more or less remote from the water body's bottom. All peculiarities of the fouling communities distinguishing them from similar benthic communities are determined by topology and other properties of the substrate, by relatively short period of the latter's exposition and by hydrological conditions under which the fouling is developing. There is continual transitions between benthic and fouling communities both in space (along gradients of abiotic environmental factors) and in time (along successional series). Such a continuum becomes most frequently broken due to both significant remoteness of the substrate, on which a fouling develops, from the bottom and permanent extreme factors disturbing or retarding fouling communities development. Thus, littoral foulings are just benthos being formed under specific conditions. At the same time, oceanic foulings are connected both evolutionary and ecologically with littoral foulings and benthos. PMID:20063771

  13. Understanding Population Health Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Kindig, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Population health is a relatively new term, with no agreement about whether it refers to a concept of health or a field of study of health determinants. There is debate, sometimes heated, about whether population health and public health are identical or different. Discussions of population health involve many terms, such as outcomes, disparities, determinants, and risk factors, which may be used imprecisely, particularly across different disciplines, such as medicine, epidemiology, economics...

  14. Ice nucleation terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, G.; DeMott, P.; Möhler, O.; Whale, T. F.

    2014-08-01

    Progress in the understanding of ice nucleation is being hampered by the lack of uniformity in how some terms are used in the literature. This even extends to some ambiguity of meanings attached to some terms. Suggestions are put forward here for common use of terms. Some are already well established and clear of ambiguities. Others are less engrained and will need a conscious effort in adoption. Evolution in the range of systems where ice nucleation is being studied enhances the need for a clear nomenclature. The ultimate limit in the clarity of definitions is, of course, the limited degree to which ice nucleation processes are understood.

  15. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-01-01

    Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals...

  16. [Terminology in clinical bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, Benjamín; Moreno-Milán, Beatriz; Pacho-Jiménez, Eloy; Real de Asua, Diego; Roa-Castellanos, Ricardo Andrés; Valentia, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    In this article some of the most relevant terms in clinical bioethics are defined. The terms were chosen based on three criteria: impact on the most important problems in clinical bioethics, difficulty in understanding, and need to clarify their meaning. For a better understanding, the terms were grouped into 5 areas: general concepts (conflict of values, deliberation, conflict of interest, conscientious objection); justice (justice, distributive justice, models of justice, triage); clinical matters (information, competency, capability, informed consent, mature minor, coercion, secrecy, privacy, confidentiality, professional secrecy); end of life (prior instructions, limitation of therapeutic efforts, professional obstinacy, futility, palliative care, palliative sedation, principle of double effect, euthanasia, assisted suicide, persistent vegetative state, minimally conscious state, locked-in syndrome, brain death), and beginning of life (assisted reproduction, genetic counseling, preimplantation genetic diagnosis). PMID:26506495

  17. Terminología basada en el conocimiento para la traducción y la divulgación médicas: el caso de ONCOTERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés López Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Oncoterm es un proyecto de investigación interdisciplinar sobre terminología médica cuyo objetivo principal es la elaboración de un sistema de información sobre el subdominio biomédico de la oncología en el que los conceptos están vinculados a una ontología. Dicha estructura conceptual subyace a los demás componentes del sistema y constituye el vínculo entre términos en diferentes lenguas (inglés, español y alemán. Asimismo, la identificación de un marco conceptual facilita la comprensión de textos sobre el cáncer en diferentes lenguas, no sólo por parte de los profesionales de la salud, sino también por parte de los traductores, los periodistas y los pacientes. ------------------------------------------- Knowledge-based terminology for medical translation and journalism: the interdisciplinary Oncoterm project. Oncoterm is an interdisciplinary research project on medical terminology whose main objective is the elaboration of an information system on the biomedical subdomain of oncology in which the concepts are linked to an ontology or a hierarchy of concepts. This conceptual structure underlies the other components of the system and is the link between terms in different languages (English, Spanish, and German. Accordingly, the identification of the conceptual framework facilitates the comprehension of oncology texts in different languages not only for health professionals, but also for translators, journalists, and patients.

  18. A TERMINOLOGICAL APPROACH TO STORY / “HİKÂYE”YE TERMİNOLOJİK BİR YAKLAŞIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Necati TONGA

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Narration is one of the outstanding needs of humankind. The activity of narration is encountered in two ways in social life as oral and written narration.Novel, theater, letter, essay, travel critic, biography, autobiography, recollection… are some of the literary types appeared as the result of the need for narration. Story is one of these literary types. Story and its kinds are characterized with different word or words both in the west and east.In this study, we will try to discuss the word story which has various categories in terms of meanings with a terminological approach.

  19. La formación de la terminología anatómica en español (1493-1604)

    OpenAIRE

    García Jáuregui, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    [ES] En nuestra tesis doctoral trataremos de probar la hipótesis de la Dra. Gutiérrez Rodilla, según la cual la terminología médica romance usada desde el Quinientos no parte de los tratados en vernáculo tardo-medievales, sino que debería situarse en el marco latino del lenguaje científico, con los recursos y tendencias propios del Renacimiento. Estos consistían fundamentalmente en encontrar en el latín y en el griego caminos diferentes a los que se habían recorrido en los últimos siglos medi...

  20. Evaluación inductiva de la estructura de una terminología enfermera de interfase: conceptualización del proceso enfermero

    OpenAIRE

    Juvé Udina, Eulàlia

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este artículo es presentar los resultados del análisis interpretativo de los elementos del proceso de atención de enfermería como bases que sustentan la estructura de una nueva terminología de interfase denominada ATIC. En la primera sección se describe el marco fundacional para el desarrollo de conocimiento enfermero en relación con los sistemas de información asistenciales: datos, información, conocimiento y pericia. La segunda sección revisa la conceptualización ge...

  1. Fascia: a morphological description and classification system based on a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Kumka, Myroslava; Bonar, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Fascia is virtually inseparable from all structures in the body and acts to create continuity amongst tissues to enhance function and support. In the past fascia has been difficult to study leading to ambiguities in nomenclature, which have only recently been addressed. Through review of the available literature, advances in fascia research were compiled, and issues related to terminology, descriptions, and clinical relevance of fascia were addressed. Our multimodal search strategy was conduc...

  2. The Need for International Terminology and Definitions for Texture-Modified Foods and Thickened Liquids Used in Dysphagia Management: Foundations of a Global Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Julie A Y; Steele, Catriona; Duivestein, Janice; Clavé, Pere; Chen, Jianshe; Kayashita, Jun; Dantas, Roberto; Lecko, Caroline; Speyer, Renee; Lam, Peter; Murray, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Conservative estimates suggest that dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) affects approximately 8 % of the world's population. Dysphagia is associated with malnutrition, dehydration, chest infection and potentially death. While promising treatments are being developed to improve function, the modification of food texture and liquid thickness has become a cornerstone of dysphagia management. Foods are chopped, mashed or puréed to compensate for chewing difficulties or fatigue, improve swallowing safety and avoid asphyxiation. Liquids are typically thickened to slow their speed of transit through the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing, to avoid aspiration of material into the airway and improve transit to the esophagus. Food texture and liquid modification for dysphagia management occurs throughout the world. However, the names, the number of levels of modification and characteristics vary within and across countries. Multiple labels increase the risk to patient safety. National standardization of terminology and definitions has been promoted as a means to improve patient safety and inter-professional communication. This article documents the need for international standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and liquids for individuals with dysphagia. Furthermore, it documents the research plan and foundations of a global initiative dedicated to this purpose. PMID:24392282

  3. An Invitation to Behavior Analysts: Review of in Search of Memory: The Emergence of A New Science of Mind by Eric R. Kandel

    OpenAIRE

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-01-01

    This fascinating autobiography and multifaceted case history in neuroscience research is accessible to laymen and potentially instructive to working scientists. Kandel takes the reader through his thought processes as he describes experiments that led to some of the past decades' major neuroscience discoveries (some highlights of which are summarized in the review's Appendix), and eventually to his Nobel Prize. The review analyzes some of the terminological and conceptual issues that have oft...

  4. A Review of the “Open” and “Closed” Circulatory Systems: New Terminology for Complex Invertebrate Circulatory Systems in Light of Current Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Reiber, Carl L.; Iain J. McGaw

    2009-01-01

    Invertebrate cardiovascular systems have historically been viewed as sluggish, poorly regulated, and “open”, where blood bathes the tissues directly as it moves through a system of ill-defined sinuses and/or lacunae without an endothelial boundary. When examining cardiovascular/circulatory morphology and physiology in a broader evolutionary context, one can question the very nature of the definition of a “closed” versus “open” circulatory system. Viewed in ...

  5. Review of the Historical Evolution of Anatomical Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri, Rubén D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medical terms of Greek origin are traditionally attributed to Hippocrates (460-370 BC. Claudius Galen of Pergamum (130-200 BC developed a classification of bones and joints and described different brain areas. His teachings have remained unchanged for over a thousand years. Andreas Vesalius of Brussels (1514-1564, through the systematic study of human body structure, changed many concepts. He published his work in his production "De humani corporis fabrica libri septem", where a special attention is evident to the discovery and description of new anatomical facts. From here there is a revolution in the morphological sciences, where the same anatomical structure passed to receive different names. In the nineteenth century, the different anatomists in the world decide to meet in order to unify criteria regarding the anatomical structures and determine a only one universal language in the anatomical sciences. In 1895, in Basel (Switzerland it’s approved a list of 5.573 terms, called Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA and was written in Latin. Eponyms were deleted. In 1903, he founded the International Federation of Associations of anatomists (IFAA. In 1935, in Jena (Germany, approving the Jena Nomina Anatomica (JNA. In 1950, in Oxford, formed the Committee of the International Anatomical Nomenclature (IANC. In 1955, in Paris (France it is agreed to adopt a Latin nomenclature based on the BNA, the Paris Nomina Anatomica (PNA. In 1980, for the first time in Latin America, takes place on the 11th International Congress of Anatomists, Mexico. In 1989, the International Committee of Anatomical Nomenclature, published the sixth edition of the Nomina Anatomica, without review by the IFAA. The same year, the latter established a Federative International Committee of Anatomical Terminology (FICAT. In 1998, he published a new list FICAT: International Anatomical Terminology (TAI, with the structures named in Latin language and their equivalence in

  6. Coming to Terms With Risk Factors for Eating Disorders: Application of Risk Terminology and Suggestions for a General Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  7. Phantom phenomena and body scheme after limb amputation: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirowska, Aneta; Wloch, Tomasz; Nowobilski, Roman; Plaszewski, Maciej; Hocini, Abdellah; Ménager, Doménico

    2014-01-01

    Phantom phenomena are subject of various, often inconsistent, descriptions, and new concepts and treatment approaches emerge. The aim of the study is to describe contemporary terminology and developments in the field, and to share personal experience. A review of English and French language literature, published prior to 27th February, 2012, extracted from PubMed/MEDLINE, Google.fr, GoogleScholar databases, and by hand searching of selected full text papers and textbooks with correspondence to personal clinical experience was performed. The terminology and classification of phantom phenomena sensations, relations between intensity and character of phantom pain to the etiology and level of amputations, as well as the influence of presence and intensity of pre-operative limb pain and post-operative stump pain on phantom phenomena are described. The benefits of mirror therapy and early introduction of prosthesis and applying functional prosthesis are also presented, with a glance at other conservative and surgical treatment approaches. PMID:24636771

  8. Terminología basada en el conocimiento para la traducción y la divulgación médicas: el caso de ONCOTERM

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Inés López Rodríguez; Pamela Faber Benítez; Maribel Tercedor Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Oncoterm es un proyecto de investigación interdisciplinar sobre terminología médica cuyo objetivo principal es la elaboración de un sistema de información sobre el subdominio biomédico de la oncología en el que los conceptos están vinculados a una ontología. Dicha estructura conceptual subyace a los demás componentes del sistema y constituye el vínculo entre términos en diferentes lenguas (inglés, español y alemán). Asimismo, la identificación de un marco conceptual facilita la comprensión de...

  9. Repertorio bibliográfico sobre terminología jurídica en lenguas francesa y española

    OpenAIRE

    Mira Rueda, Concepción

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo pretende ser una guía útil para todos los traductores, juristas y personas interesadas por la terminología jurídica. Se trata de un artículo en el que se ha recogido una selección representativa de obras lexicográficas publicadas a día de hoy sobre Derecho restringiéndolo a las lenguas francesa (de Francia) y española (de España). Las obras recogidas en este artículo tienen tanto formato papel como electrónico. G.I. HUM 767 (ayudas a Grupos de Investigac...

  10. Coordinación y seguimiento de las competencias de terminología en el Grado de Traducción e Interpretación

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaría-Pérez, Isabel; Gallego Hernández, Daniel; Serrano Bertos, Elena; VARGAS SIERRA, CHELO

    2015-01-01

    Como red de investigación en docencia universitaria, nuestro proyecto se implementa en el área de conocimiento de la terminología aplicada a la traducción con el fin de incrementar su calidad. Con este fin se ha llevado a cabo una revisión del funcionamiento de asignaturas que integran este bloque a lo largo del Grado de Traducción e Interpretación y su secuenciación. Nuestro objetivo principal es realizar un seguimiento y gestión de las guías docentes revisando los contenidos teóricos y prác...

  11. Estudio de las peculiaridades de la terminología en el entorno académico del EEES en ruso y en español

    OpenAIRE

    POLYAKOVA NESTERENKO, OKSANA

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación se ha centrado en el estudio de las peculiaridades de la terminología en el entorno académico del Espacio Europeo de Enseñanza Superior en ruso y en español. El Proceso de Bolonia ha cobrado un protagonismo especial desde la apuesta de la Unión Europea por la unificación del estándar educativo junto con la incorporación al mismo de los países extracomunitarios. La Federación Rusa se ha integrado en la plataforma común en el año 2003, pero pocas soluciones se han apor...

  12. Implicaciones intelectuales y metodológicas en la selección de los autores y la terminología traductora castellana del siglo XV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allés Torrent, Susanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Translations were a crucial channel for the reception of Italian Humanism in the Iberian Peninsula. This intellectual activity not only led to the recuperation of a significant part of the classical Greco-Roman legacy, but also fomented engagement with the works and ideas of contemporary Italian authors. On the one hand, this article underscores the critical role of translation in cultural transfers between both peninsulas and shows the change in authors selected to translate over the course of fifteenth century. On the other hand, it analyzes the implications of these author selections, arguing that they reveal at once an ideological transformation, a change in the conception of the very act of translation, and the adoption of new terminology.Las traducciones constituyeron uno de los canales prioritarios en la recepción del humanismo italiano en la Península Ibérica. A través de esta actividad intelectual, no sólo se recuperó una parte considerable del legado clásico grecolatino, sino que propició un acercamiento a la obra y a las ideas de los autores italianos contemporáneos. Por un lado, el presente trabajo insiste en el papel central de la traducción en el marco de la transferencia cultural entre ambas penínsulas y evidencia el cambio en la selección de los autores traducidos a lo largo del siglo XV; por otro lado, se analizan las implicaciones de dichas elecciones que, además de constituir una transformación a nivel ideológico, supusieron un cambio en la concepción de la actividad de la traducción y en la adopción de una nueva terminología.

  13. Plasma medicine: an introductory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This introductory review on plasma health care is intended to provide the interested reader with a summary of the current status of this emerging field, its scope, and its broad interdisciplinary approach, ranging from plasma physics, chemistry and technology, to microbiology, biochemistry, biophysics, medicine and hygiene. Apart from the basic plasma processes and the restrictions and requirements set by international health standards, the review focuses on plasma interaction with prokaryotic cells (bacteria), eukaryotic cells (mammalian cells), cell membranes, DNA etc. In so doing, some of the unfamiliar terminology-an unavoidable by-product of interdisciplinary research-is covered and explained. Plasma health care may provide a fast and efficient new path for effective hospital (and other public buildings) hygiene-helping to prevent and contain diseases that are continuously gaining ground as resistance of pathogens to antibiotics grows. The delivery of medically active 'substances' at the molecular or ionic level is another exciting topic of research through effects on cell walls (permeabilization), cell excitation (paracrine action) and the introduction of reactive species into cell cytoplasm. Electric fields, charging of surfaces, current flows etc can also affect tissue in a controlled way. The field is young and hopes are high. It is fitting to cover the beginnings in New Journal of Physics, since it is the physics (and non-equilibrium chemistry) of room temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas that have made this development of plasma health care possible.

  14. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD. PMID:26059704

  15. HIGH DEFINITON TECHNOLOGY:A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIRENDRA MISHRA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a review paper describing the characteristics and benefits of high definition (HD technology. Digital techniques offer greater accuracy and stability, with better signal to noise ratios than analogue method. Here the overview of High Definition is presented; basic terminology, working, fundamentals, applications and future ofthis technology are listed. The scanning methods have been explained also software and hardware architecture is mentioned. The analysis of the current HD market and a commercial survey of the HD services and its providers have been carried out. Then the future of High Definition is considered with new research directions. If we narrow down the issue to a single parameter, that of resolution, aside from possible future displays that are integer multiples of 1920 x 1080 serving to diminish pixel structure then, claims of “live- the-picture” and “feelthe- picture” would become a reality.

  16. Tabacosis, un cambio de terminología para un aumento de conciencia Tabacosis, a change in therminology for an increase in consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Rodríguez-Madrigal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ante la ausencia de definición categórica de la Real Academia Española, tenemos que la Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC es prevenible y tratable, con afectación sistémica extrapulmonar, donde el componente pulmonar se caracteriza por limitación al flujo del aire que no es completamente reversible y es progresiva.¹ Esta es probablemente una de las definiciones médicas con mayor cantidad de posiciones e intereses encontrados y es que, indudable y lastimosamente, las siglas EPOC, fuera del gremio médico, no tienen mayor significancia, pues diariamente se encuentra gran cantidad de pacientes portadores de esta patología, que no tienen noción real de su padecimiento, el cual con mucho costo es aclarado por el médico tratante, debido a lo engorroso de su significado, variedad de síntomas y múltiples patologías causales. Estas vicisitudes, en cuanto a la patología causal de EPOC, son las que la han convertido en el “cajón” donde se colocan diversas neumopatías que no tienen un origen específico, sin importar si presentan o no obstrucción al flujo aéreo; además, estos inconvenientes sobre terminología, hacen dificultosa la realización de búsquedas bibliográficas, por la poca acogida que ha tenido el término.²In the absence of categorical definition of the Real Spanish Academy, we have to Lung Disease Obstructive Disease (COPD is a preventable and treatable, with extra-pulmonary systemic disease, where pulmonary component is characterized by flow limitation Air that is not fully reversible and is progressive.¹ This is probably one of the medical definitions with greater number of positions and interests and is found which is undoubtedly and unfortunately, COPD stands outside the medical community have no greater significance because find large numbers of patients daily carriers of this disease that have no real notion of suffering, doubt that many costs are clarified by the physician because of the

  17. A Review on Mixing in Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmo Kang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale mixing is of uttermost importance in bio- and chemical analyses using micro TAS (total analysis systems or lab-on-chips. Many microfluidic applications involve chemical reactions where, most often, the fluid diffusivity is very low so that without the help of chaotic advection the reaction time can be extremely long. In this article, we will review various kinds of mixers developed for use in microfluidic devices. Our review starts by defining the terminology necessary to understand the fundamental concept of mixing and by introducing quantities for evaluating the mixing performance, such as mixing index and residence time. In particular, we will review the concept of chaotic advection and the mathematical terms, Poincare section and Lyapunov exponent. Since these concepts are developed from nonlinear dynamical systems, they should play important roles in devising microfluidic devices with enhanced mixing performance. Following, we review the various designs of mixers that are employed in applications. We will classify the designs in terms of the driving forces, including mechanical, electrical and magnetic forces, used to control fluid flow upon mixing. The advantages and disadvantages of each design will also be addressed. Finally, we will briefly touch on the expected future development regarding mixer design and related issues for the further enhancement of mixing performance.

  18. Towards a Clinical Decision Support System for Drug Allergy Management: Are Existing Drug Reference Terminologies Sufficient for Identifying Substitutes and Cross-Reactants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogallo, William; Kanter, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    Drug allergy cross-reactivity checking is an important component of electronic health record systems. Currently, a single, open-source medication dictionary that can provide this function does not exist. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using RxNorm and NDF-RT (National Drug File--Reference Terminology) for allergy management decision support. We evaluated the performance of using the Pharmacological Class, Mechanism of Action and Chemical Structure NDF-RT classifications in discriminating between safe and cross-reactive alternatives to a sample of common drug allergens. The positive predictive values for the three approaches were 96.3%, 99.3% and 96.2% respectively. The negative predictive values were 94.7%, 56.8% and 92.6%. Our findings suggest that in the absence of an established medication allergy classification system, using the Pharmacologic Class and Chemical Structure classifications in NDF-RT may still be effective for discriminating between safe and cross-reactive alternatives to potential allergens. PMID:26262387

  19. 建议加强几个衡器术语的理解%Recommendations to strengthen the understanding of some terminologies of weighing instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈立人

    2015-01-01

    国家标准GB/T 14250-2008《衡器术语》自2008年12月30日发布,2009年9月1日实施以来,由于没有组织有效的宣贯,在一些杂志的论文上、企业的上报材料上、签订的产品销售合同上、甚至专业标准上不能准确使用与衡器有关的名词。%Articleabstract:The national standard GB/T 14250-2008 terminology of weighing instrument is released in the December 30, 2008, and implementation in September 1, 2009. Because there is no effective organization of publicizing, it cannot be accurately use nouns about weighing in the contract signed sales product materials submitted some magazine paper, and even on the professional standards.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative descriptions of temperature: a study of the terminology used by local television weather forecasters to describe thermal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, Jeffrey C

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the relationship between quantitative and qualitative descriptions of temperature. Online weather forecast narratives produced by local television forecasters were collected from affiliates in 23 cities throughout the northeastern, central and southern portions of the United States from August 2007 to July 2008. The narratives were collected to study the terminology and reference frames that local forecasters use to describe predicted temperatures for the following day. The main objectives were to explore the adjectives used to describe thermal conditions and the impact that geographical and seasonal variations in thermal conditions have on these descriptions. The results of this empirical study offer some insights into the structure of weather narratives and suggest that spatiotemporal variations in the weather impact how forecasters describe the temperature to their local audiences. In a broader sense, this investigation builds upon research in biometeorology, urban planning and linguistics that has explored the physiological and psychological factors that influence subjective assessments of thermal sensation and comfort. The results of this study provide a basis to reason about how thermal comfort is conveyed in meteorological communications and how experiential knowledge derived from daily observations of the weather influence how we think about and discuss the weather. PMID:19876657

  1. Critical assessment of the current state of scientific knowledge, terminology, and research needs concerning the role of organic aerosols in the atmosphere, climate, and global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuzzi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of impressive advances in recent years, our present understanding of organic aerosol (OA composition, physical and chemical properties, sources and transformation characteristics is still rather limited, and their environmental effects remain highly uncertain. Therefore, the three atmosphere-related projects of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP – IGAC (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, iLEAPS (Integrated Land Ecosystem Atmosphere Process Study and SOLAS (Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study – organised a workshop with the specific goal of discussing and prioritizing issues related to organic aerosol and their effects on atmospheric processes and climate, providing a basis for future collaborative activities at the international level. Four main topical areas were addressed: (a sources of OA; (b formation and transformation of OA; (c physical and chemical state of OA; (d atmospheric modelling of OA. Key questions and research priorities regarding these four areas have been synthesized in this paper, and outstanding issues for future research are presented for each topical area. In addition, an effort is made to formulate a basic set of consistent and universally applicable terms and definitions for coherent description of atmospheric OA across different scientific scales and disciplines. In fact, the terminologies used in the past and present scientific literature are not always consistent, and this may lead to misunderstandings and confusion in the communication between specialists from different disciplines and potentially inhibit or retard scientific progress.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative descriptions of temperature: a study of the terminology used by local television weather forecasters to describe thermal sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, Jeffrey C.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the relationship between quantitative and qualitative descriptions of temperature. Online weather forecast narratives produced by local television forecasters were collected from affiliates in 23 cities throughout the northeastern, central and southern portions of the United States from August 2007 to July 2008. The narratives were collected to study the terminology and reference frames that local forecasters use to describe predicted temperatures for the following day. The main objectives were to explore the adjectives used to describe thermal conditions and the impact that geographical and seasonal variations in thermal conditions have on these descriptions. The results of this empirical study offer some insights into the structure of weather narratives and suggest that spatiotemporal variations in the weather impact how forecasters describe the temperature to their local audiences. In a broader sense, this investigation builds upon research in biometeorology, urban planning and linguistics that has explored the physiological and psychological factors that influence subjective assessments of thermal sensation and comfort. The results of this study provide a basis to reason about how thermal comfort is conveyed in meteorological communications and how experiential knowledge derived from daily observations of the weather influence how we think about and discuss the weather.

  3. A round-robin test with thermal simulation of the welding HAZ to draw CCT diagrams: a need for harmonized procedures and microconstituent terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Scotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal simulations of heat affected zone (HAZ have been widely used. This is an economic expedite process for phase transformation evaluations in steels when subjected to weld thermal cycles as well as to draw continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams. Different approaches for the simulation and parameter settings have been used by several researchers, yet leading to not always even results. Thus, it was proposed a round-robin test trial performed by different laboratories, aiming to evidence potential sources of error or inadequacy of the approaches. A High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA steel was used as a case study. Despite the limited number of tests, the results show low robustness when comparing the outcomes from the different laboratories and point out for the need to take three actions. The first one is to implement a cooperative and multi-institutional program to assess the effect of relevant simulation parameters, such as the heating rate and holding time at peak temperature, on the final microstructure and transformation temperatures as well as on the hardness for a given cooling rate. The second is to propose calibration procedures for the simulation and measurement systems. The third action is to stimulate experts in this area to develop a guideline of terminology for constituents in the heat affected zone of ferritic steels.

  4. Rhinitis and pregnancy: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Azevedo Caparroz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: There is a controversy concerning the terminology and definition of rhinitis in pregnancy. Gestational rhinitis is a relatively common condition, which has drawn increasing interest in recent years due to a possible association with maternal obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and unfavorable fetal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To review the current knowledge on gestacional rhinitis, and to assess its evidence. METHODS: Structured literature search. RESULTS: Gestational rhinitis and rhinitis "during pregnancy" are somewhat similar conditions regarding their physiopathology and treatment, but differ regarding definition and prognosis. Hormonal changes have a presumed etiological role, but knowledge about the physiopathology of gestational rhinitis is still lacking. Management of rhinitis during pregnancy focuses on the minimal intervention required for symptom relief. CONCLUSION: As it has a great impact on maternal quality of life, both the otorhinolaryngologist and the obstetrician must be careful concerning the early diagnosis and treatment of gestational rhinitis, considering the safety of treatment measures and drugs and their current level of evidence.

  5. Nanotechnology blooms, at last (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Erlinda M; Hall, Frederick L

    2005-06-01

    Clinical trials for deadly pancreatic cancer have recently opened on two continents to evaluate the safety and efficacy of engineered nanoparticles guided by a targeted delivery system (TDS) to overcome the daunting barriers of turbulence, dilution, filtration, and inactivation encountered in the human circulatory system to deliver a killing designer gene to metastatic tumors that are refractory to conventional chemotherapy. The first patients receiving multiple intravenous infusions of the TDS-encapsulated genetic bullets have all responded favorably, prompting the FDA to grant orphan drug status for the nanobiotic medicine, Rexin-G, to assist in the development of this new cancer treatment. This review/commentary is an effort to translate the arcane terminology of physiology, biochemistry, and molecular genetics into the more generally accessible language of nanotechnology and medical delivery. While the text is somewhat erudite and laden at times with inconspicuous literary allusions, descriptions of the elegant bioengineering of nano-scale gene delivery vehicles are clear and the numerous references to classical mechanics of the Industrial Age are helpful. PMID:15870914

  6. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  7. Contribución al estudio de la terminología de la gestión del patrimonio cultural y del turismo cultural a través de los datos del proyecto ESLEE

    OpenAIRE

    Abejón Peña, Teresa; Maldonado Martínez, Ángeles; Florián, Loreto

    2006-01-01

    [ES] Este trabajo analiza la terminología especializada en Gestión del Patrimonio Cultural extraída del corpus diseñado y creado para el proyecto ESLEE (Estudio de los Lenguajes Especializados del Español (I). Elaboración y Desarrollo de Vocabularios Científicos y Técnicos) (www.eslee.org). El estudio se realizó a partir de 221 documentos digitalizados.

  8. La extracción de conocimiento y terminología a partir de corpus ad hoc : el uso de documentos digitales de la web pública

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Gijón, Pilar

    2004-01-01

    Electronic communication accelerates the exchange of knowledge and information in areas of specialized knowledge. This state of affairs forces anyone involved in such communication (e.g. technical writers, technical translators) to remain up to date with new developments. Not only do professionals belonging to this group of people have to master the standard terminology of each specialized domain, they must also assimilate and understand the subject matter within which they are working. This ...

  9. Necrotizing Pancreatitis: A Review of Multidisciplinary Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sabo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to summarize the current state of the art of the management of necrotizing pancreatitis, and to clarify some confusing points regarding the terminology and diagnosis of necrotizing pancreatitis, as these points are essential for management decisions and communication between providers and within the literature. Acute pancreatitis varies widely in its clinical presentation. Despite the publication of the Atlanta guidelines, misuse of pancreatitis terminology continues in the literature and in clinical practice, especially regarding the local complications associated with severe acute pancreatitis. Necrotizing pancreatitis is a manifestation of severe acute pancreatitis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is aided by pancreas-protocol computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, ideally 72 h after onset of symptoms to achieve the most accurate characterization of pancreatic necrosis. The extent of necrosis correlates well with the incidence of infected necrosis, organ failure, need for debridement, and morbidity and mortality. Having established the diagnosis of pancreatic necrosis, goals of appropriately aggressive resuscitation should be established and adhered to in a multidisciplinary approach, ideally at a high-volume pancreatic center. The role of antibiotics is determined by the presence of infected necrosis. Early enteral feeds improve outcomes compared with parenteral nutrition. Pancreatic necrosis is associated with a multitude of complications which can lead to long-term morbidity or mortality. Interventional therapy should be guided by available resources and the principle of a minimally invasive approach. When open debridement is necessary, it should be delayed at least 3-6 weeks to allow demarcation of necrotic from viable tissue

  10. Re-Viewing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits her essay, "Students as Readers of Their Classmates' Writing," by providing a review of the literature on peer review over the past three decades and comments on patterns she sees in waves of peer review research and theorizing. She describes her subsequent experience with peer review in her own classes, and…

  11. Standard Terminologies for Photoplethysmogram Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Elgendi, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Photoplethysmography is one of the optical techniques has been developed for experimental use in vascular disease. It has several advantages over other traditional experimental approaches. Because of its non-invasive, safe, costeffective and easy-to-use properties, it is considered as a useful diagnostic tool. The further developments in the Photoplethysmograph may replace it among other tools used in the assessment of vascular diseases such as blood test and ultrasound. This overview discuss...

  12. Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This section is largely a compilation of defining geological terms concepts. Broader topics, such as the ramifications for simulant design and in situ resource utilization, are included as necessary for context.

  13. Rhizoctonia solani: Understanding the Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani can cause seedling damping-off and root rot in dry bean and a number of other major crops including sugarbeet, soybean, cotton, potato, etc. There appears to be an increase in reported incidence in both temperate regions and in tropical areas. As well as a root rot, some stains ca...

  14. Terminological recommendations for software localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Dirk Schmitz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available After an explosive growth of data processing and software starting at the beginning of the 1980s, the software industry shifted toward a strong orientation in non-US markets at the beginning of the 1990s. Today we see the global marketing of software in almost all regions of the world. Since software is no longer used by IT experts only, and since European and national regulations require user interfaces, manuals and documentation to be provided in the language of the customer, the market for software translation, i.e. for software localization, is the fastest growing market in the translation business.

  15. Book Review: Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    The subject of the theory of vibrations has carried an aesthetic appeal to generations of engineering students for its richness of ideas, and for the intellectual challenges it offers. Also, the diverse range of its applications (covering civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures) has provided obvious motivations for its study. For most students, the subject provides, perhaps, the first encounter in substantial application of mathematical tools (differential equations, calculus of variations, Fourier/Laplace transforms, and matrix algebra) to engineering problems. The intimate relationship that the subject of mechanics has with mathematics strikes home probably for the first time. While teaching this subject, the instructor is spoilt for choice in selecting a text book and so are the students who wish to pursue a self-study of the subject. Many luminaries in the field have offered their own exposition of the subject: starting from the classics of Rayleigh, Timoshenko, Den Hartog, Bishop and Johnson, and the works of more recent vintage (e.g., the books by Meirovich, Clough, and Penzien, and works with computational flavour, such as, those by Bathe and Petyt), several works easily come to one's mind. Given this milieu, it requires a distinctive conviction to write a new book on this subject. And, here we have a book, written by a practitioner, which aims to deal with fundamental aspects of vibrations of engineering systems. The scepticism that this reviewer had on the need for having one more such book vanished as he browsed through the book and read selectively a few sections. The author's gift for elegant explanations is immediately noticeable even in such a preliminary reading. After a more careful reading, the reviewer has found this book to be insightful and he considers the book to be a welcome addition to the family of books on vibration engineering. The author has struck a fine balance between physical explanations, mathematical niceties

  16. Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions: Part 1 – general equations, parameters, and terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Rudich

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols and clouds play central roles in atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, air pollution, and public health. The mechanistic understanding and predictability of aerosol and cloud properties, interactions, transformations, and effects are, however, still very limited. This is due not only to the limited availability of measurement data, but also to the limited applicability and compatibility of model formalisms used for the analysis, interpretation, and description of heterogeneous and multiphase processes. To support the investigation and elucidation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions, we present a comprehensive kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters. It allows to describe mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface and to link aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes in systems with multiple chemical components and competing physicochemical processes. The key elements and essential aspects of the presented framework are: a simple and descriptive double-layer surface model (sorption layer and quasi-static layer; straightforward flux-based mass balance and rate equations; clear separation of mass transport and chemical reactions; well-defined rate parameters (uptake and accommodation coefficients, reaction and transport rate coefficients; clear distinction between gas phase, gas-surface, and surface-bulk transport (gas phase diffusion correction, surface and bulk accommodation; clear distinction between gas-surface, surface layer, and surface-bulk reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms; mechanistic description of concentration and time dependencies; flexible inclusion/omission of chemical species and physicochemical processes; flexible convolution/deconvolution of species and processes; and full compatibility with traditional

  17. Stakeholder perspectives on implementing the National Cancer Institute's patient-reported outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Hanisch, Laura J; Reeve, Bryce B; Trotti, Andy M; Schrag, Deborah; Sit, Laura; Mendoza, Tito R; Minasian, Lori; O'Mara, Ann; Denicoff, Andrea M; Rowland, Julia H; Montello, Michael; Geoghegan, Cindy; Abernethy, Amy P; Clauser, Steven B; Castro, Kathleen; Mitchell, Sandra A; Burke, Laurie; Trentacosti, Ann Marie; Basch, Ethan M

    2011-03-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing a patient-reported version of its Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, called the "PRO-CTCAE." The PRO-CTCAE consists of a library of patient-reported items which can be administered in clinical trials to directly capture the patient experience of adverse events during cancer treatment, as well as a software platform for administering these items via computer or telephone. In order to better understand the impressions of stakeholders involved in cancer clinical research about the potential value of the PRO-CTCAE approach to capturing adverse event information in clinical research, as well as their perspectives about barriers and strategies for implementing the PRO-CTCAE in NCI-sponsored cancer trials, a survey was conducted. A survey including structured and open-ended questions was developed to elicit perceptions about the use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for adverse event reporting, and to explore logistical considerations for implementing the PRO-CTCAE in cancer trials. The survey was distributed electronically and by paper to a convenience sample of leadership and committee members in the NCI's cooperative group network, including principal investigators, clinical investigators, research nurses, data managers, patient advocates, and representatives of the NCI and Food and Drug Administration. Between October, 2008 through February, 2009, 727 surveys were collected. Most respondents (93%) agreed that patient reporting of adverse symptoms would be useful for improving understanding of the patient experience with treatment in cancer trials, and 88%, 80%, and 76%, respectively, endorsed that administration of PRO-CTCAE items in clinical trials would improve the completeness, accuracy, and efficiency of symptom data collection. More than three fourths believed that patient reports would be useful for informing treatment dose modifications and towards FDA regulatory evaluation of drugs. Eighty

  18. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Mattijs Vandezande

    2010-01-01

    BOOK REVIEW Migrants and Urban Change: Newcomers to Antwerp, 1760-1860, Perspectives in Economic and Social History by Anne Winter REVIEWED BY MATTIJS VANDEZANDE London, Pickering & Chatto, 2009, ISBN 978-18-5196-646-2, 318 pp.

  19. Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Ferguson; Griffin, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review seems to have had its origins in 18th century England to combat plagiarism. But today, the objectives of peer review are to provide evaluations of the quality of scientific or editorial material submitted. Peer review provides a check on the validity of manuscripts and sets standards for scientific merit. Peer review should help editors in making decisions about the manuscripts by offering second and third opinions. It lifts the quality of published articles to a higher standard. ...

  20. Book reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Redactie KITLV

    2012-01-01

    The African Diaspora: A History Through Culture, by Patrick Manning (reviewed by Joseph C. Miller) Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, by David Eltis & David Richardson (reviewed by Ted Maris-Wolf) Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery, by Seymour Drescher (reviewed by Gregory E. O’Malley) Paths to Freedom: Manumission in the Atlantic World, edited by Rosemary Brana-Shute & Randy J. Sparks (reviewed by Matthew Mason) You Ar...

  1. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Create Dangerously: The Immigrant Artist at Work, by Edwidge Danticat (reviewed by Colin Dayan Gordon K. Lewis on Race, Class and Ideology in the Caribbean, edited by Anthony P. Maingot (reviewed by Bridget Brereton Freedom and Constraint in Caribbean Migration and Diaspora, edited by Elizabeth Thomas-Hope (reviewed by Mary Chamberlain Black Europe and the African Diaspora, edited by Darlene Clark Hine, Trica Danielle Keaton & Stephen Small (reviewed by Gert Oostindie Caribbean Middlebrow: Leisure Culture and the Middle Class, by Belinda E dmondson (reviewed by Karla Slocum Global Change and Caribbean Vulnerability: Environment, Economy and Society at Risk, edited by Duncan McGregor, David Dodman & David Barker (reviewed by Bonham C. Richardson Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic, by Ashli White (reviewed by Matt Clavin Red and Black in Haiti: Radicalism, Conflict, and Political Change, 1934-1957, by Matthew J. Smith (reviewed by Robert Fatton Jr. Cuba in the American Imagination: Metaphor and the Imperial Ethos, by Louis A. Pérez Jr. (reviewed by Camillia Cowling Seeds of Insurrection: Domination and Resistance on Western Cuban Plantations, 1808-1848, by Manuel Barcia (reviewed by Matt D. Childs Epidemic Invasions: Yellow Fever and the Limits of Cuban Independence, 1878-1930, by Mariola Espinosa (reviewed by Cruz Maria Nazario The Cuban Connection: Drug Trafficking, Smuggling, and Gambling in Cuba from the 1920s to the Revolution, by Eduardo Sáenz Rovner (reviewed by Ivelaw Lloyd Griffith Before Fidel: The Cuba I Remember, by Francisco José Moreno, and The Boys from Dolores: Fidel Castro’s Schoolmates from Revolution to Exile, by Patrick Symmes (reviewed by Pedro Pérez Sarduy Lam, by Jacques Leenhardt & Jean-Louis Paudrat (reviewed by Sally Price Healing Dramas: Divination and Magic in Modern Puerto Rico, by Raquel Romberg (reviewed by Grant Jewell

  2. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The African Diaspora: A History Through Culture, by Patrick Manning (reviewed by Joseph C. Miller Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, by David Eltis & David Richardson (reviewed by Ted Maris-Wolf Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery, by Seymour Drescher (reviewed by Gregory E. O’Malley Paths to Freedom: Manumission in the Atlantic World, edited by Rosemary Brana-Shute & Randy J. Sparks (reviewed by Matthew Mason You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery, by Jeremy D. Popkin (reviewed by Philippe R. Girard Fighting for Honor: The History of African Martial Arts in the Atlantic World, by T .J. Desch Obi (reviewed by Flávio Gomes & Antonio Liberac Cardoso Simões Pires Working the Diaspora: The Impact of African Labor on the Anglo-American World, 1650-1850, by Frederick C. Knight (reviewed by Walter Hawthorne The Akan Diaspora in the Americas, by Kwasi Konadu (reviewed by Ray Kea Tradition and the Black Atlantic: Critical Theory in the African Diaspora, by Henry Louis Gates Jr. (reviewed by Deborah A. Thomas From Africa to Jamaica: The Making of an Atlantic Slave Society, 1775-1807, by Audra A. Diptee (reviewed by D.A. Dunkley Elections, Violence and the Democratic Process in Jamaica 1944-2007, by Amanda Sives (reviewed by Douglas Midgett Caciques and Cemi Idols: The Web Spun by Taino Rulers between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, by José R. Oliver (reviewed by Brian D. Bates The Latin American Identity and the African Diaspora: Ethnogenesis in Context, by Antonio Olliz Boyd (reviewed by Dawn F. Stinchcomb Reconstructing Racial Identity and the African Past in the Dominican Republic, by Kimberly Eison Simmons (reviewed by Ginetta E.B. Candelario Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora in the Wider Caribbean, edited by Philippe Zacaïr (reviewed by Catherine Benoît Duvalier’s Ghosts: Race, Diaspora, and U.S. Imperialism in Haitian Literatures, by Jana

  3. The diagnosis and management of Morton's neuroma: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sameer; Mannan, Ken

    2013-08-01

    Morton's neuroma is a common condition mainly affecting middle aged women, and there are many proposed etiological theories involving chronic repetitive trauma, ischemia, entrapment, and intermetatarsal bursitis. Incorrect terminology suggests that the underlying pathological process is a nerve tumor, although histological examination reveals the presence of inflammatory tissue-that is, perineural fibrosis. The common digital nerve and its branches in the third planter webspace are most commonly affected. Diagnosis is usually made through history taking and clinical examination but may be aided by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Current nonoperative treatment strategies include shoe-wear modifications, custom made orthoses, and injections of local anesthetic agents, sclerosing agents, and steroids. Operative management options primarily involve either nerve decompression or neurectomy. We have reviewed the published literature to evaluate the outcomes of the available diagnostic modalities and treatment options and present an algorithm for clinical practice. PMID:23811947

  4. An introduction to descriptive statistics: A review and practical guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, the first of two, demonstrates why it is necessary for radiographers to understand basic statistical concepts both to assimilate the work of others and also in their own research work. As the emphasis on evidence-based practice increases, it will become more pressing for radiographers to be able to dissect other people's research and to contribute to research themselves. The different types of data that one can come across are covered here, as well as different ways to describe data. Furthermore, the statistical terminology and methods used that comprise descriptive statistics are explained, including levels of measurement, measures of central tendency (average), and dispersion (spread) and the concept of normal distribution. This paper reviews relevant literature, provides a checklist of points to consider before progressing with the application of appropriate statistical methods to a data set, and provides a glossary of relevant terms for reference.

  5. The Recent Review of the Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Kang, So-Yeon; Chung, Youn-Jee; Kim, Jang-Heub; Kim, Mee-Ran

    2015-08-01

    The genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) is a new term that describes various menopausal symptoms and signs including not only genital symptoms (dryness, burning, and irritation), and sexual symptoms (lack of lubrication, discomfort or pain, and impaired function, but also urinary symptoms (urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infections). The terms vulvovaginal atrophy and atrophic vaginitis, which were generally used until recently, had a limitation because they did not cover the full spectrum of symptoms and did not imply that the symptoms are related to a decreased estrogen level in menopause. Since the GSM may have a profound negative impact on the quality of life of postmenopausal women, women should be made aware of these problems and treated with an appropriate effective therapy. Thus, in this review we introduce new terminology and discuss the importance of comprehension of GSM and the necessity of active treatment of this syndrome in postmenopausal women. PMID:26357643

  6. ASME code safety valve rules - a review and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety valve rules, i.e., rules for overpressure protection by the use of various pressure relieving devices, vary somewhat among the five book sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code which require such protection. This paper reviews those rules by discussing the following topics: Pressure relief device terminology and function. The problem of overpressure protection. Code rules for overpressure protection: rules for determining required relieving capacity; for allowable overpressure, for set pressure and set pressure tolerance; for blowdown. The various pressure relief devices permitted by the Code. Design of pressure relief valves. How relieving capacities are established and certified. The qualification of pressure relief device manufacturers. Installation guidelines. Concluding remarks. (orig.)

  7. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic World, 1450-2000, edited by Toyin Falola & Kevin D. Roberts (reviewed by Aaron Spencer Fogleman The Slave Ship: A Human History, by Marcus Rediker (reviewed by Justin Roberts Extending the Frontiers: Essays on the New Transatlantic Slave Trade Database, edited by David Eltis & David Richardson (reviewed by Joseph C. Miller "New Negroes from Africa": Slave Trade Abolition and Free African Settlement in the Nineteenth-Century Caribbean, by Rosanne Marion Adderley (reviewed by Nicolette Bethel Atlantic Diasporas: Jews, Conversos, and Crypto-Jews in the Age of Mercantilism, 1500-1800, edited by Richard L. Kagan & Philip D. Morgan (reviewed by Jonathan Schorsch Brother’s Keeper: The United States, Race, and Empire in the British Caribbean, 1937-1962, by Jason C. Parker (reviewed by Charlie Whitham Labour and the Multiracial Project in the Caribbean: Its History and Promise, by Sara Abraham (reviewed by Douglas Midgett Envisioning Caribbean Futures: Jamaican Perspectives, by Brian Meeks (reviewed by Gina Athena Ulysse Archibald Monteath: Igbo, Jamaican, Moravian, by Maureen Warner-Lewis (reviewed by Jon Sensbach Left of Karl Marx: The Political Life of Black Communist Claudia Jones, by Carole Boyce Davies (reviewed by Linden Lewis Displacements and Transformations in Caribbean Cultures, edited by Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert & Ivette Romero-Cesareo (reviewed by Bill Maurer Caribbean Migration to Western Europe and the United States: Essays on Incorporation, Identity, and Citizenship, edited by Margarita Cervantes-Rodríguez, Ramón Grosfoguel & Eric Mielants (reviewed by Gert Oostindie Home Cooking in the Global Village: Caribbean Food from Buccaneers to Ecotourists, by Richard Wilk (reviewed by William H. Fisher Dead Man in Paradise: Unraveling a Murder from a Time of Revolution, by J.B. MacKinnon (reviewed by Edward Paulino Tropical Zion: General Trujillo, FDR, and the Jews of Sos

  8. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and the Po st-Creole Imagination: Notes on Fleeing the Plantation,by Michaeline A. Crichlow with Patricia Northover (reviewed by Raquel Romberg Afro-Caribbean Religions: An Introduction to their Historical, Cultural, and Sacred Traditions, by Nathaniel Samuel Murrell (reviewed by James Houk Africas of the Americas: Beyond the Search for Origins in the Study of Afro-Atlantic Religions, edited by Stephan Palmié (reviewed by Aisha Khan Òrì?à Devotion as World Religion: The Globalization of Yorùbá Religious Culture, edited by Jacob K. Olupona & Terry Rey (reviewed by Brian Brazeal Sacred Spaces and Religious Traditions in Oriente Cuba, by Jualynne E. Dodson (reviewed by Kristina Wirtz The Coolie Speaks: Chinese Indentured Laborers and African Slaves of Cuba, by Lisa Yun (reviewed by W. Look Lai Cuba and Western Intellectuals since 1959, by Kepa Artaraz (reviewed by Anthony P. Maingot Inside El Barrio: A Bottom-Up View of Neighborhood Life in Castro’s Cuba, by Henry Louis Taylor, Jr. (reviewed by Mona Rosendahl On Location in Cuba: Street Filmmaking During Times of Transition, by Ann Marie Stock (reviewed by Cristina Venegas Cuba in The Special Period: Culture and Ideology in the 1990s, edited by Ariana Hernandez-Reguant (reviewed by Myrna García-Calderón The Cubans of Union City: Immigrants and Exiles in a New Jersey Community. Yolanda Prieto (reviewed by Jorge Duany Target Culebra: How 743 Islanders Took On the Entire U.S. Navy and Won, by Richard D. Copaken (reviewed by Jorge Rodríguez Beruff The World of the Haitian Revolution, edited by David Patrick Geggus & Norman Fiering (reviewed by Yvonne Fabella Bon Papa: Haiti’s Golden Years, by Bernard Diederich (reviewed by Robert Fatton, Jr. 1959: The Year that Inflamed the Caribbean, by Bernard Diederich (reviewed by Landon Yarrington Dominican Cultures: The Making of a Caribbean Society, edited by Bernardo Vega

  9. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza G. Kashani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR systems also record “intensity”, loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of “normalization”, “correction”, or “calibration” techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration.

  10. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Alireza G; Olsen, Michael J; Parrish, Christopher E; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record "intensity", loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of "normalization", "correction", or "calibration" techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration. PMID:26561813

  11. In search of a consensus terminology in the field of platelet concentrates for surgical use: platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), fibrin gel polymerization and leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Bielecki, Tomasz; Mishra, Allan; Borzini, Piero; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Rasmusson, Lars; Evert, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    In the field of platelet concentrates for surgical use, most products are termed Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP). Unfortunately, this term is very general and incomplete, leading to many confusions in the scientific database. In this article, a panel of experts discusses this issue and proposes an accurate and simple terminology system for platelet concentrates for surgical use. Four main categories of products can be easily defined, depending on their leukocyte content and fibrin architecture: Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP), such as cell separator PRP, Vivostat PRF or Anitua's PRGF; Leukocyteand Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-PRP), such as Curasan, Regen, Plateltex, SmartPReP, PCCS, Magellan, Angel or GPS PRP; Pure Plaletet-Rich Fibrin (P-PRF), such as Fibrinet; and Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF), such as Choukroun's PRF. P-PRP and L-PRP refer to the unactivated liquid form of these products, their activated versions being respectively named P-PRP gels and L-PRP gels. The purpose of this search for a terminology consensus is to plead for a more serious characterization of these products. Researchers have to be aware of the complex nature of these living biomaterials, in order to avoid misunderstandings and erroneous conclusions. Understanding the biomaterials or believing in the magic of growth factors ? From this choice depends the future of the field. PMID:21740379

  12. Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions - Part 1: General equations, parameters, and terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U.; Rudich, Y.; Ammann, M.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosols and clouds play central roles in atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, air pollution, and public health. The mechanistic understanding and predictability of aerosol and cloud properties, interactions, transformations, and effects are, however, still very limited. This is due not only to the limited availability of measurement data, but also to the limited applicability and compatibility of model formalisms used for the analysis, interpretation, and description of heterogeneous and multiphase processes. To support the investigation and elucidation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions, we present a comprehensive kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters. It enables a detailed description of mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface, and it allows linking aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes in systems with multiple chemical components and competing physicochemical processes. The key elements and essential aspects of the presented framework are: a simple and descriptive double-layer surface model (sorption layer and quasi-static layer); straightforward flux-based mass balance and rate equations; clear separation of mass transport and chemical reactions; well-defined and consistent rate parameters (uptake and accommodation coefficients, reaction and transport rate coefficients); clear distinction between gas phase, gas-surface, and surface-bulk transport (gas phase diffusion, surface and bulk accommodation); clear distinction between gas-surface, surface layer, and surface-bulk reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms); mechanistic description of concentration and time dependences (transient and steady-state conditions); flexible addition of unlimited numbers of chemical species and physicochemical processes; optional aggregation or resolution

  13. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Book Review Editor, Christien Klaufus

    2015-01-01

    Rebel Mexico: Student Unrest and Authoritarian Political Culture During the Long Sixties, by Jaime M. Pensado, 2013, and Specters of Revolution: Peasant Guerrillas in the Cold War Mexican Countryside, by Alexander Aviña, 2014; reviewed by Wil G. PanstersWe are the face of Oaxaca: Testimony and Social Movements, by Lynn Stephen, 2013; reviewed by Jaime HoogestegerMaya Exodus: Indigenous struggle for citizenship in Chiapas, by Heidi Moksnes, 2012; reviewed by Gemma van der HaarLand and Freedom:...

  14. Book reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-01-01

    The Atlantic World, 1450-2000, edited by Toyin Falola & Kevin D. Roberts (reviewed by Aaron Spencer Fogleman) The Slave Ship: A Human History, by Marcus Rediker (reviewed by Justin Roberts) Extending the Frontiers: Essays on the New Transatlantic Slave Trade Database, edited by David Eltis & David Richardson (reviewed by Joseph C. Miller) "New Negroes from Africa": Slave Trade Abolition and Free African Settlement in the Nineteenth-Century Caribbean...

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Goor

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available - Peter Boomgaard, Christine Dobbin, Asian entrepreneurial minorities; Conjoint communities in the making of the world economy, 1570-1940. Richmond: Curzon Press, 1996, xiii + 246 pp. [Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Monograph Series 71.] - Ian Brown, Fukuda Shozo, With sweat and abacus; Economic roles of Southeast Asian Chinese on the eve of World War II, edited by George Hicks. Singapore: Select Books, 1995, xii + 246 pp. - Ian Brown, George Hicks, Chinese organisations in Southeast Asia in the 1930s. Singapore: Select Books, 1996, xv + 168 pp. - Matthew I. Cohen, Laurie J. Sears, Shadows of empire; Colonial discourse and Javanese tales. Durham/London: Duke University Press, 1996, xxi + 349 pp. - J. van Goor, Anthony Reid, Southeast Asia in the age of commerce 1450-1680. Vol. II: Expansion and crisis. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1993, xv + 390 pp. - J. van Goor, Anthony Reid, Southeast Asia in the age of commerce 1450-1680. Vol. I: The lands below the winds. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1988, xvi + 275 pp. - David Henley, Saya S. Shiraishi, Young heroes; The Indnesian family in politics. Ithaca/New York: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, Southeast Asia Program Publications, 1997, 183 pp. [Studies on Southeast Asia 22.] - Gerrit Knaap, P. Jobse, Bronnen betreffende de Midden-Molukken 1900-1942. Den Haag: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis, 1997. 4 volumes. Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën, Kleine Serie, 81, 82, 83, 84. Volume 1 bewerkt door P. Jobse, 2 en 3 door Ch.F. van Fraassen, 4 door Ch.F van Fraassen en P. Jobse. xii + 578, xii + 578, xii + 711, x + 655, xi + 261 pp., Ch. F. van Fraassen (eds. - Indro Nugroho-Heins, Clara Brakel-Papenhuyzen, Classical Javanese dance; The Surakarta tradition and its terminology. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1995, xi + 252 pp. [Verhandelingen 155.] - László Sluimers, Shigeru Sato, War, nationalism and peasants; Java under the Japanese occupation, 1942-1945. Armonk, New

  16. Research Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1981-01-01

    Research Reviewed: "Global Modeling After Its First Decade"; "Monthly Food Price Forecasts"; "Costs of Marketing Slaughter Cattle: Computerized versus Conventional Auction Systems"; "Survival Strategies for Agricultural Cooperatives"

  17. The caCORE Software Development Kit: Streamlining construction of interoperable biomedical information services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warzel Denise

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robust, programmatically accessible biomedical information services that syntactically and semantically interoperate with other resources are challenging to construct. Such systems require the adoption of common information models, data representations and terminology standards as well as documented application programming interfaces (APIs. The National Cancer Institute (NCI developed the cancer common ontologic representation environment (caCORE to provide the infrastructure necessary to achieve interoperability across the systems it develops or sponsors. The caCORE Software Development Kit (SDK was designed to provide developers both within and outside the NCI with the tools needed to construct such interoperable software systems. Results The caCORE SDK requires a Unified Modeling Language (UML tool to begin the development workflow with the construction of a domain information model in the form of a UML Class Diagram. Models are annotated with concepts and definitions from a description logic terminology source using the Semantic Connector component. The annotated model is registered in the Cancer Data Standards Repository (caDSR using the UML Loader component. System software is automatically generated using the Codegen component, which produces middleware that runs on an application server. The caCORE SDK was initially tested and validated using a seven-class UML model, and has been used to generate the caCORE production system, which includes models with dozens of classes. The deployed system supports access through object-oriented APIs with consistent syntax for retrieval of any type of data object across all classes in the original UML model. The caCORE SDK is currently being used by several development teams, including by participants in the cancer biomedical informatics grid (caBIG program, to create compatible data services. caBIG compatibility standards are based upon caCORE resources, and thus the caCORE SDK has

  18. Application of Text Mining Methods in the Work of Terminology ——Terminology Standardization of Information & Knowledge Management%术语工作中文本挖掘方法的应用探索——信息管理与知识管理科技名词审定工作方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于娟; 党延忠

    2011-01-01

    研究了信息管理与知识管理科技名词术语的审定工作方法。该工作由全国科学技术名词审定委员会主管并委托国家自然科学基金委员会管理科学部完成。工作内容主要包括三个连续的阶段:(1)确定领域的收词范围,(2)确定术语定义,(3)确定术语的英文名称。介绍了在每一阶段所使用的工作方法、发现的问题与解决办法。目的是向从事术语审定工作的专家汇报工作,总结工作经验,并征求意见。%This paper presents the work undertaken for the project of terminology standardization of the information management and knowledge management domain.The project is sponsored by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies(CNCTST).It consists of three stages:(a) collecting the domain-specific terms,(b) defining the terms,(c) determining the English name of each term.This paper describes the working methods applied in each phase,introduces problems emerging in the work and suggests the solutions.

  19. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Reviews two textbooks: "Principles of Biochemistry" by Albert L. Lehninger and "Inorganic Chemistry, A Modern Introduction" by Therald Moeller. Also reviews text, study guide, and laboratory manual for Morris Hein's "Foundations of College Chemistry, Fifth Edition" and text/study guide for David A. Ucko's "Basics for Chemistry." (JN)

  20. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powicke, J. C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews of 10 recent books and one new journal ("Catalyst: A Journal of Policy Debate") are provided. Topics of the books reviewed include: economics in modern Britain, world economics, the mixed economy, Milton Friedman's thought, British industry, economic issues, and London as a financial center. (JDH)

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Book Review Editor, Christien Klaufus

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rebel Mexico: Student Unrest and Authoritarian Political Culture During the Long Sixties, by Jaime M. Pensado, 2013, and Specters of Revolution: Peasant Guerrillas in the Cold War Mexican Countryside, by Alexander Aviña, 2014; reviewed by Wil G. PanstersWe are the face of Oaxaca: Testimony and Social Movements, by Lynn Stephen, 2013; reviewed by Jaime HoogestegerMaya Exodus: Indigenous struggle for citizenship in Chiapas, by Heidi Moksnes, 2012; reviewed by Gemma van der HaarLand and Freedom: The MST, the Zapatistas and Peasant Alternatives to Neoliberalism, by Leandro Vergara-Camus, 2014; reviewed by Jonathan DeVoreIndigenous Movements and Building the Plurinational State in Bolivia: Organisation and Identity in the Trajectory of the CSUTCB and CONAMAQ, by Radosław Powęska, 2013; reviewed by Ton SalmanMovimientos estudiantiles en la historia de América Latina IV, coordinado por Renate Marsiske, 2015; reseñado por Andrés Donoso RomoEl corazón de los libros, Alzate y Bartolache: Lectores y escritores novohispanos (S. XVIII, by Mauricio Sánchez Menchero, 2012; reviewed by Helge WendtAurality: Listening and Knowledge in Nineteenth-Century Colombia, por Ana María Ochoa Gautier, 2014; reseñado por Mercedes López RodríguezThe Vanguard of the Atlantic World: Creating Modernity, Nation, and Democracy in Nineteenth-Century Latin America, by James E. Sanders, 2014; reviewed by Michiel BaudMexico’s Once and Future Revolution: Social Upheaval and the Challenge of Rule since the Late Nineteenth Century, by Gilbert M. Joseph and Jürgen Buchenau, 2013; reviewed by Dirk KruijtThe Great Depression in Latin America, coordinado por Paulo Drinot and Alan Knight, 2014; reseñado por Juan Carlos KorolEnhancing Democracy. Public Policies and Citizen Participation in Chile, by Gonzalo Delamaza, 2014; reviewed by Camila Jara IbarraCritical Interventions in Caribbean Politics and Theory, by Brian Meeks, 2014; reviewed by Hebe VerrestBlack Power in the

  2. LAVANA VARGA IN AYURVEDA – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanathan.R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasashastra can be described as Ayurvedic Pharmaceutics, which deals with the drugs of metal and mineral origin, their varieties, characteristics, processing techniques, Properties and their therapeutic uses. The basic concepts of Rasa Shastra are explained under ‘Paribasha’ (terminology. Lavana Varga is explained under Paribasha prakarana in Rasa Shastra. Lavana is an essential element in the diet of not only human but of animals and even of many plants. Human needs salt to live. When man developed agriculture, salt was added to supplement the vegetable and cereal diet and the quest for salt become a primary motivation in history. Indian history recalls the prominent role of salt and salt making.In medieval times for medicinal purposes, people of various regions were using lavanas according to their local name. So the name of one lavana was different in one region from other.A number of salts are described in various ancient texts and out of which, some are not available in present day, but pancha lavana are mainly used in medicinal purposes. The names of five varieties of lavana included in Pancha lavana group, varies from text to text.As we go through Ayurvedic texts we find different opinions regarding the contents of Pancha lavana group referring. The order differs from one to other, but they all recommended five varieties of lavanas that are included in Pancha lavana.The present work aims at the review of Lavana Varga as explained in Ayurveda.

  3. Household hazardous waste management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglezakis, Vassilis J; Moustakas, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    This paper deals with the waste stream of household hazardous waste (HHW) presenting existing management systems, legislation overview and other relevant quantitative and qualitative information. European Union legislation and international management schemes are summarized and presented in a concise manner by the use of diagrams in order to provide crucial information on HHW. Furthermore, sources and types, numerical figures about generation, collection and relevant management costs are within the scope of the present paper. The review shows that the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in households is not clearly defined in legislation, while there is absence of specific acts regulating the management of HHW. The lack of obligation to segregate HHW from the household waste and the different terminology used makes it difficult to determine the quantities and composition of this waste stream, while its generation amount is relatively small and, therefore, is commonly overlooked in waste statistics. The paper aims to cover the gap in the related literature on a subject that is included within the crucial waste management challenges at world level, considering that HHW can also have impact on other waste streams by altering the redox conditions or causing direct reactions with other non hazardous waste substances. PMID:25528172

  4. The Problem of Non-standardized Terminologies in Evidence Law Research and Study%证据法学研究用语不规范问题初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万毅

    2014-01-01

    The conscientiousness of logic and the standardization of terminologies are very important in the legal research and studies, and of course to evidence law, a sub-discipline of legal research. However, evidence law as a sub-discipline, is relatively new in China, and on the discipline level, there are confusions between evidence law and traditional evidence research. Therefore the academic system has not been setup yet, and consensus even failed to be reached regarding basic concepts. The problem of non-standardized terminology has existed for a long period of time in the ifeld, and there are confusions and mistakes in basic concepts and terminologies. Such dilemma not only affects the conscientiousness of theoretical research, but also disturbs the effectiveness of judicial practice.%法学研究强调逻辑的严谨性以及语言的规范性,作为法学分支学科的证据法学当然亦莫能外。但是,近年来方兴起的证据法学科,在我国开展的时日尚短,且一直与传统的证据学学科之间纠缠不清,以至于我国证据法学的学科体系迟迟不能建立,甚至连作为学科基础的基本概念都未能达成共识,缺乏统一性和规范性,理论研究和证据实务中用语不规范的问题一直存在,混用、误用基本概念和术语的现象较为普遍。这不仅影响到理论研究的严谨性,甚至干扰到实务操作的实效性。

  5. A preparação de material terminológico em língua inglesa por meio de ferramentas linguístico-computacionais Preparation of terminological material in english by means of computational linguistic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Batista da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é demonstrar, por meio de análise quantitativa e qualitativa, a eficácia de ferramentas linguístico-computacionais na seleção de terminologia para a produção de material terminológico. Serão apresentadas duas ferramentas linguístico-computacionais (WordSmith Tools e VocabProfile e, também, sugestões para que o ensino de termos ofereça resultados práticos. A fundamentação teórico-metodológica recorreu a Barros (2004; Berber Sardinha (2000; 2005; Biderman (2001; Cabré (2007; Cobb (2007; Nation, (2003 e Sinclair (2004. O corpus da pesquisa foi constituído exclusivamente de material escrito na língua inglesa em diversas áreas de especialidade. Os procedimentos de preparação de material terminológico são exemplificados a partir de uma das áreas de especialidades utilizadas nos corpora de pesquisa, as Redes Neurais Artificiais. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a utilização do Wordsmith Tools juntamente com o VocabProfile pode fornecer dados importantes para a pesquisa linguistica.This paper aims to demonstrate by means of quantitative and qualitative analyses the effectiveness of the linguistic computational tools in selecting terminology for the production of terminological material. Two linguistic computational tools will be introduced (WordSmith Tools e VocabProfile and also suggestions so as the teaching of terms may offer practical results. The theoretical-methodological approach relies on Barros (2004; Berber Sardinha (2000; 2005; Biderman (2001; Cabré (2007; Cobb (2007; Nation (2003 and Sinclair (2004. The research corpus was made solely of written material in English in several specialty languages. The procedures regarding terminological material preparation are exemplified with one of the specialty fields used in the research corpus, the Artificial Neural Networks. The obtained results indicate that the use of Wordsmith Tools in conjunction with VocabProfile might provide useful data for

  6. High Levels of Physical Activity in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümmer, Ricarda; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schag, Kathrin; Resmark, Gaby; Junne, Florian Philipp; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2015-09-01

    High level physical activity is a frequent symptom in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), influencing the development, maintenance, complications, treatment success, relapse rate and severity of the disease. Accelerometry is assumed to be an objective method to assess physical activity (PA) in AN. We aimed to review objectively measured levels of PA in AN and to give an overview for clinical practice and future research. Data were searched in PubMed and PsychINFO until April 2015 following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement. Twenty studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A notable heterogeneity of measurements, outcomes, participants and settings was found. Overall, HLPA is not adressed enough by current evidence. A common valid terminology of HLPA is not available, and accurate criteria of different levels of PA must be defined to create comparability of future studies. Further objective PA assessments are needed to improve treatment outcome and relapse rate. PMID:26087044

  7. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience and...... resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience with...

  8. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shelly J., Ed.; Knaupp, Jon, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed is computer software on: (1) classification of living things, a tutorial program for grades 5-10; and (2) polynomial practice using tiles, a drill-and-practice program for algebra students. (MNS)

  9. Proactive Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will explore how to learn from working experience through the use of an educational approach called Proactive Review. From 2005 to 2012, Proactive Review was developed and implemented in a world-class IT company based in more than 40 countries across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa....... This chapter will include some of the theoretical considerations as well as the final educational design for a Proactive Review, as exemplified in a case study from the IT company. The aim of this chapter is to provide a theoretically based and proven educational design for Lessons Learned, including...... recommendations for successful Proactive Reviews. The theory section will explore theories regarding the following two topics: first, how an organization may understand the term “learning”; and second, the starting point of learning and how an organization may maintain a learning environment. The research...

  10. Research Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1985-01-01

    Research Reviewed: "Future Agricultural Technology and Resource Conservation"; "Economies of Scale, Competitiveness, and Trade Patterns within the European Community"; "Federal Price Programs for the American Dairy Industry: Issues and Alternatives"

  11. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  12. Graphic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Introduktion til 'graphic review' som en metode til at føre forståelse fra en undervisngsgang til den næste i læreruddannelse og grundskole.......Introduktion til 'graphic review' som en metode til at føre forståelse fra en undervisngsgang til den næste i læreruddannelse og grundskole....

  13. Presencia y adecuación de la terminología sobre desórdenes nutricionales y trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en las ediciones española e inglesa de la Wikipedia Presence and adequacy of the nutritional and eating disorders terminology in the Spanish and English editions of the Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sanz-Valero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la presencia y analizar la adecuación de los descriptores sobre los desordenes nutricionales y trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en la Wikipedia en español e inglés. Método: Los términos se obtuvieron de los Thesauros: Medical Subject Headings (MeSH y APA-Terms. Se constató la existencia de la terminología accediendo, vía Internet, a las ediciones española e inglesa de la Wikipedia (http://es.wikipedia.org/. La fecha final de la consulta y cálculos fue el 8 de junio de 2012. Resultado: Se identificaron un total de 89 Descriptores, encontrándose 56 (62,92% de ellos como términos en la Wikipedia: 42 (47,19% en la edición española y 56 (62,92% en la inglesa. Existiendo diferencias significativas entre las dos ediciones (chi-cuadrado = 9,41; gl = 1; p Objective: To determine the presence and to assess the adequacy of the nutritional and eating disorders descriptors in the English and Spanish Wikipedia. Method: The terms were obtained from the thesaurus: Medical Subject Headings (MeSH and APA-Terms. The existence of the terms was confirmed accessing to the Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia via the Internet (http://es.wikipedia.org/. The last date for consultation and calculations was June 8, 2012. Results: A total of 89 descriptors were identified, being 56 (62.92% of them as terms in the Wikipedia: 42 (47.19% in the Spanish edition and 56 (62.92% in English. Significant differences between the two editions were assessed (chi-square = 9.41, df = 1, P <0.001. At the same time, differences between both editions according to the number of references in each term were observed (t-Student = -2,43; gl = 84,87; p = 0,017. However, there were not differences in the status of information being update/obsolete, neither in the number of queries. Conclusions: the entries related to nutritional and eating disorders terms have not yet reached an optimum level. Differences between english and spanish Wikipedia editions

  14. SimplevisGrid: grid services for visualization of diverse biomedical knowledge and molecular systems data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Todd H; Wang, May D

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical data visualization is a great challenge due to the scale, complexity, and diversity of systems, system component interactions and experimental data. Standards for interoperable data are a good start to addressing these problems, but standardization of visualization technologies is an emerging topic. SimpleVisGrid builds on Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) common infrastructure for cancer research, and clearly specifies and extends three standard data formats for inputs and outputs to grid services: comma-separated values (CSV), Portable Network Graphics (PNG), and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG). Four prototype visualizations are available: 2D array data quality visualization, correlation heatmaps between high-dimensional data and associated meta-data, feature landscapes, and biochemical or semantic network graphs. The services and data model are prepared for submission for caBIG Silver-level compatibility review and for integration into automated research workflows. Making these tools available to caBIG developers and ultimately to biomedical researchers can (1) help with biomedical communication, discovery, and decision-making, (2) encourage more research on standardization of visualization formats, and (3) improve the efficiency of large data transfers across the grid. PMID:19964624

  15. La sinonimia y la polisemia en la terminología anatómica: términos de ubicación y de relación de estructuras anatómicas

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Gutiérrez, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Con frecuencia se afirma que la terminología anatómica es unívoca, precisa y concisa; sin embargo, esta afirmación no se corresponde con la realidad, ya que la sinonimia y la polisemia son fenómenos frecuentes en este ámbito, lo que supone un importante obstáculo para la traducción especializada. En este artículo analizamos el caso concreto de la sinonimia y de la polisemia en relación con los términos empleados en las nomenclaturas anatómicas española, anglosajona y francesa para ubicar l...

  16. GUÍA DE DIAGNÓSTICO CLÍNICO PARA PATOLOGÍAS PULPARES Y PERIAPICALES. VERSIÓN ADAPTADA Y ACTUALIZADA DEL "CONSENSUS CONFERENCE RECOMMENDED DIAGNOSTIC TERMINOLOGY", PUBLICADO POR LA ASOCIACIÓN AMERICANA DE ENDODONCIA (2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Talía Y Marroquín Peñaloza; Claudia C García Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN:el correcto diagnóstico en endodoncia permite la selección de un tratamiento endodóntico adecuado. Los términos utilizados para la nominación de cada patología, deben asociarse a las condiciones clínicas particulares. La unificación de la terminología diagnóstica en endodoncia ha sido un tema ampliamente discutido en el ámbito clínico y académico. El objetivo de esta investigación fue desarrollar la adaptación y actualización de la Guía de diagnóstico clínico, para patologías pul...

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus, Book Review Editor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Improbable Conquest: Sixteenth Century Letters from the Rio de la Plata, por Pablo García Loaeza y Victoria L. Garrett, 2015; reseñado por Judith Farberman Urban Space as Heritage in Late Colonial Cuba: Classicism and Dissonance on the Plaza de Armas of Havana: 1754-1828, by Paul Niell, 2015; reviewed by Joseph L. Scarpaci El Jefe Político. Un dominio negociando en el mundo rural del Estado de México. 1856-1911, por Romana Falcón, 2015; reseñado por Raymond Buve Miedo negro, poder blanco en la Cuba colonial, por Jorge Camacho, 2015; reseñado por Oleski Miranda Navarro Revolutionary Parks: Conservation, Social Justice, and Mexico’s National Parks, 1910-1940, by Emily Wakild, 2011; reviewed by Grant Burrier Sandino’s Nation: Ernesto Cardenal and Sergio Ramírez Writing Nicaragua, 1940-2012, by Stephen Henighan, 2014; reviewed by Grace A. Gomashie La cancha peronista. Fútbol y política (1946-1955, edited by Raanan Rein, 2015; reviewed by Alexis Sossa Rojas Chile y la Guerra Fría global, edited by Tanya Harmer and Alfredo Riquelme Segovia, 2014; reviewed by Ángela Vergara Challenging Social Inequality: The Landless Rural Workers Movement and Agrarian Reform in Brazil, edited by M. Carter, 2015; reviewed by Rebecca Tarlau Brazil: Reversal of Fortune, by Alfred P. Montero, 2014; reviewed by Edgar J. Marcolin Latin American Documentary Filmmaking – Major works, by David William Foster, 2013; reviewed by Leontien Cremers Telling and Being told: Storytelling and Cultural Control in Contemporary Yucatec Maya Literatures, por Paul Worley, 2013; reseñado por Ana Ugarte Bachata and Dominican Identity/La bachata y la identidad dominicana, by Julie Sellers, 2014; reviewed by Grant D. Moss Entrepreneurial Selves: Neoliberal Respectability and the Making of a Caribbean Middle Class, by Carla Freeman, 2014; reviewed by Emiel Martens

  18. Impact of Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology on the Etymology of Medical Terminology%探索古希腊罗马神话对医学英语术语的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云茜

    2016-01-01

    Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology is the origin of western civilization, which has an important influence on every field of western culture especially on medicine. Language is the carrier of culture and vocabulary is the basic unit of language. Therefore, vocabulary is the most direct tool to support culture. The title, image, name, and story of the Gods of Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology are directly used to name the medical terminology or indirectly deduced the roots, prefixes and suffixes to form the medical terminology. By exploring the origin of medical terms in ancient Greek and Roman mythology, it is helpful to understand the deep meaning of words, grasp the connotation of the words, and stimulate the students’ learning interest.%古希腊罗马神话是西方文明的起源,对西方文化的各个领域,尤其是医学方面影响颇深。语言是文化的载体,词语是语言的基本组成单位,因而词语是承载文化最直接的工具。古希腊罗马神话中神的职能、形象、称谓和典故往往被直接用来命名医学术语或者从中衍生出词根和词缀来构成医学术语。通过古希腊罗马神话探索医学英语术语词源的由来,有助于理解词语的深层意义,准确把握词语的内涵,激发学生的学习兴趣。

  19. Biomarker-Guided Adaptive Trial Designs in Phase II and Phase III: A Methodological Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranta Antoniou

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine is a growing area of research which aims to tailor the treatment given to a patient according to one or more personal characteristics. These characteristics can be demographic such as age or gender, or biological such as a genetic or other biomarker. Prior to utilizing a patient's biomarker information in clinical practice, robust testing in terms of analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility is necessary. A number of clinical trial designs have been proposed for testing a biomarker's clinical utility, including Phase II and Phase III clinical trials which aim to test the effectiveness of a biomarker-guided approach to treatment; these designs can be broadly classified into adaptive and non-adaptive. While adaptive designs allow planned modifications based on accumulating information during a trial, non-adaptive designs are typically simpler but less flexible.We have undertaken a comprehensive review of biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs proposed in the past decade. We have identified eight distinct biomarker-guided adaptive designs and nine variations from 107 studies. Substantial variability has been observed in terms of how trial designs are described and particularly in the terminology used by different authors. We have graphically displayed the current biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs and summarised the characteristics of each design.Our in-depth overview provides future researchers with clarity in definition, methodology and terminology for biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs.

  20. 从"漏斗"到"天坑"看岩溶学术语的演变%An example of karst terminology evolution: from "Dolina" to "Tiankeng"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KRANJC Andrej

    2009-01-01

    书,按照英语的命名原则,漏斗(dolines/sinkholes)有15种:冲积漏斗、埋藏漏斗、塌陷漏斗、覆盖沉降漏斗、充填漏斗、层间塌陷漏斗、古岩溶漏斗、破裂漏斗、落水洞、溶蚀漏斗、溶蚀沉降漏斗、深部塌陷漏斗、沉降漏斗和潜蚀漏斗.此外,在某种程度上,与漏斗有关的形态还有蓝湖(blue-holes)、陷井(cenotes,)和特涝(turloughs).值得一提的是,随着中国地球科学的发展,中国与西方岩溶学家交流的深入、中国岩溶研究的深入,在表述中国岩溶地貌以及更大范围热带和亚热带岩溶地貌时,汉语词汇如石林、峰丛和峰林也被引入到岩溶学术语中;而且随着中国岩溶地区可进入性的增强,新的岩溶地貌也随之被发现,如上个世纪末,在中国南方发现了许多大型的塌陷漏斗,有的直径和深度均超过500 m,朱学稳依据这些漏斗的形态、成因和演化过程,将它们命名为天坑.未来,我们也许还会找出其它词汇用来形容塌陷漏斗或者用某个新词来形容极其特殊的塌陷漏斗.%Karstology is a living science and the terminology has to follow its evolution. An example is the term doline. The first scientific descriptions (1848) of the region Kras (Karst, Slovenia) introduced the term, taken from the local language. It meant what we now call a solution doline. Under the same name a collapse doline was included. For quite a long time geologists used the term doline for a collapse doline. They called other types of dolines "Trichter" (funnel). In Cviji c′'s "Karst phnomen" the chapter Doline covers all smaller depressions, except uvalas and poljes. This means not only solution dolines and collapse dolines but also shafts, ponors, some karst springs and some entrances to the caves. Precision related to the term dolina in other languages is often lacking too. From American literature we got the word sinkhole. It also has several meanings. Few years ago Chinese