WorldWideScience

Sample records for cabig terminology review

  1. A Systematic Review of Audiology Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-09-01

    The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels. PMID:27626085

  2. Terminology of Sexuality Expressions that Exclude Penetration: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menn, Mindy; Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, Buzz; Peck-Parrott, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    Precise terminology is paramount in sexuality education. Most sexuality research focuses on the dichotomous concepts of sexual intercourse and virginity, yet there are many expressions of sexuality classified as neither. The purpose of this literature review is to identify and examine the various terms and definitions describing sexuality…

  3. A review on the risk management terminology for the use in standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report describes a result of reviews on the risk management terminology for the use in standards. Experiences in related technical fields and their definitions are reviewed according to the concepts and operational definitions of risk terminologies. It results into a draft standard for KS in the fields of product safety. Quality Assurance, Industrial and Occupational Safety, Financial Management and Risk Management, and others may show many different definitions for their own technical purpose. A draft KS standard for risk terminology must be revised and enhanced to be adopted to the product safety. However, this review does not provide a strict guide for use in the operational definitions of risk terms, but does provide a common base among application areas. The result of this review is submitted to Korea Standard Association in form of a draft KS standards, KS X 0000 : 2001 (ISO TBD : 1999), titled as ' Risk management terminology - Guidelines for use in standards '

  4. A Review of Auditing Methods Applied to the Content of Controlled Biomedical Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinxin; Fan, Jung-Wei; Baorto, David M.; Weng, Chunhua; Cimino, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Although controlled biomedical terminologies have been with us for centuries, it is only in the last couple of decades that close attention has been paid to the quality of these terminologies. The result of this attention has been the development of auditing methods that apply formal methods to assessing whether terminologies are complete and accurate. We have performed an extensive literature review to identify published descriptions of these methods and have created a framework for characterizing them. The framework considers manual, systematic and heuristic methods that use knowledge (within or external to the terminology) to measure quality factors of different aspects of the terminology content (terms, semantic classification, and semantic relationships). The quality factors examined included concept orientation, consistency, non-redundancy, soundness and comprehensive coverage. We reviewed 130 studies that were retrieved based on keyword search on publications in PubMed, and present our assessment of how they fit into our framework. We also identify which terminologies have been audited with the methods and provide examples to illustrate each part of the framework. PMID:19285571

  5. Hydrocephalus caused by unilateral foramen of Monro obstruction: A review on terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Nigri

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In unilateral FM obstruction hydrocephalus, an in-depth review on terminology application is critical to avoid mistakes that may compromise comparisons among different series. This terminology review suggests that Type B hydrocephalus, i.e., the hydrocephalus confined to just one lateral ventricle with no other sites of cerebrospinal fluid circulation blockage, are best described by the terms unilateral hydrocephalus (UH and monoventricular hydrocephalus, the first being by far the most popular. Type A hydrocephalus is best represented in the literature by the terms uniloculated hydrocephalus and loculated ventricle; Type C hydrocephalus by the terms isolated lateral ventricle and isolated UH; and Type D hydrocephalus by the term asymmetric hydrocephalus.

  6. Whither "Peer Review"? Terminology Matters for the Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sonya L; Paulson, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    In two-year college writing classrooms and beyond, peer review is one of the most widely used tools for helping students improve their writing. Despite its widespread usage, however, it is one of the most diffuse, inconsistent, and ambiguous practices associated with writing instruction. This essay aims to explore the widely varying terminology…

  7. Terminology and Reporting Criteria for Radiofrequency Ablation of Tumors in the Scientific Literature: Systematic Review of Compliance with Reporting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Materials and Methods Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure ...

  8. Terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency ablation of tumors in the scientific literature: Systematic review of compliance with reporting standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for

  9. (Terminology standardization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  10. Terminology used for renewable liquid and gaseous fuels based on the conversion of electricity: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    As the transport sector transitions away from fossil fuels and renewable fuels shift into focus, it is important that the terminology around renewable fuels is clarified. A number of terms such as synthetic fuel and electrofuel are used to describe both renewable and alternative fuels. The aim of...

  11. Cross-terminology mapping challenges: A demonstration using medication terminological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Saitwal, Himali; Qing, David; Jones, Stephen; Bernstam, Elmer; Chute, Christopher G.; Johnson, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Standardized terminological systems for biomedical information have provided considerable benefits to biomedical applications and research. However, practical use of this information often requires mapping across terminological systems—a complex and time-consuming process. This paper demonstrates the complexity and challenges of mapping across terminological systems in the context of medication information. It provides a review of medication terminological systems and their linkages, then des...

  12. Clinician Responses to Client Traumas: A Chronological Review of Constructs and Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Jason M; Nelson-Gardell, Debra; MacNeil, Gordon

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a chronologically-organized review of various concepts and constructs in the literature describing professional burnout, compassion fatigue, secondary traumatic stress reactions, as well as other related terms and constructs that have been used to describe these experiences among clinical practitioners and other social service professionals. A timeline will provide a graphic illustration of the historical relationships between the concepts under examination. This paper begins with a review of practitioner-related stress that primarily results from interaction with clients, followed by an examination of professional burnout, which is thought to result largely from environmentally-related issues. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of posttraumatic growth and compassion satisfaction. PMID:25951839

  13. Ethnoveterinary Knowledge of Azarbaijanian People about the Terminology and Pathogenesis of the Animal Infectious Diseases: A Historical and Modern Review of Iranian Native Veterinary Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Shayegh; Peyman Mikaili

    2011-01-01

    This a unique report about the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Azarbaijanian people about the terminology and pathogenesis of the animal infectious diseases in folkloric literature and the part of literature which has prolonged among the villagers and conserved its own existence but its terms have not registered in their written forms. Collecting and reviewing these terms about the animal diseases put an apparent persistence on the long experience among native Azerbaijani people (Iran) in its ve...

  14. Eternal inflation and chaotic terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    ``Eternal inflation'' is often confused with ``chaotic inflation''. Moreover, the term ``chaotic inflation'' is being used in three different meanings (all of them unrelated to eternal inflation). I make some suggestions in an effort to untangle this terminological mess. I also give a brief review of the origins of eternal inflation.

  15. 评《普通术语学和术语词典编纂学导论》(第三版)%Book Review:Introduction in General Terminology and Terminological Edition)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志伟

    2012-01-01

    《普通术语学和术语词典编纂学导论》是术语学的经典著作。介绍了该书的主要内容,评述了其主要创新之处,并指出不足。%Introduction in Genera terminology. This paper introduces shortcomings in this book. Terminology and Terminological Lexicography is a classics of modern main contents and innovation of this book, and points out some

  16. Ethnoveterinary Knowledge of Azarbaijanian People about the Terminology and Pathogenesis of the Animal Infectious Diseases: A Historical and Modern Review of Iranian Native Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shayegh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This a unique report about the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Azarbaijanian people about the terminology and pathogenesis of the animal infectious diseases in folkloric literature and the part of literature which has prolonged among the villagers and conserved its own existence but its terms have not registered in their written forms. Collecting and reviewing these terms about the animal diseases put an apparent persistence on the long experience among native Azerbaijani people (Iran in its veterinarian aspect. We tried our best to have a good clarification over these terms.

  17. ABC3 Part I: a review of the guidelines for terminology, classification and management of cervical cytology in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J H F

    2012-12-01

    The provision of guidance on cytology reporting and evaluation, first outlined in 1995 with the publication of Achievable Standards, Benchmarks for Reporting, and Criteria for Evaluating Cervical Cytopathology (ABC), and subsequently revised and expanded in a second edition in 2000, has been pivotal to the success of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP), ensuring that standards are upheld, and that rigorous evaluation and quality assurance take place. In the last decade, major changes to the NHSCSP, notably the adoption of revised age ranges and screening intervals for all women in England, implementation of liquid-based cytology and, most recently, the decision to introduce high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing for triage of low-grade and borderline (equivalent to 'atypical') cytological abnormalities and test of cure after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) determined that an updated version of ABC was required. The third edition of ABC recommends adoption, with minor modification, of the revised British Society for Clinical Cytology terminology and provides guidance on the management of abnormal cytology results linked to this terminology taking account of HR-HPV testing. To accommodate these changes, expanded result codes, which are electronic codes used to transfer management information to central computers for follow-up, call and recall of individual women, have been developed. Further guidance on specimen adequacy is also provided. Revised performance indicators are described and explained in a separate article by R. Blanks in this issue of Cytopathology. All the changes in ABC3 are designed to support the mission statement of the NHSCSP that 'the objective of cervical screening is to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality by screening with a high sensitivity for the detection of CIN2 or worse, whilst maintaining a high specificity'. PMID:23173804

  18. E-terminology *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article addresses computer applications in terminology and terminography. Terminologists aim at creating source language terms and target language term equivalents for new concepts and thereby enhancing communication in various subject areas and domains. The worldwide market for terminological products is gradually expanding. There is an ever increasing need for the elaboration of terminologies and the distribution of terminologically relevant information, either in computerized form or in printed form, to provide available terminological data to as many users as possible. This article provides various strategies for different users to access multilingual terminology resources. On-line availability of terminological data can empower South African language practitioners and subject specialists. Matters dealing with terminological management systems form a vital part of this article. Outcomes, advantages, constraints and requirements regarding e-terminology are given.

    Keywords: COMPUTER APPLICATION, ELECTRONIC TERMINOLOGY, E-TERMINOLOGY, HUMAN?COMPUTER INTERFACE, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE, KNOWLEDGEBASED SOCIETY, LANGUAGE BARRIER, MACHINE TRANSLATION, MULTILINGUAL TERM EQUIVALENTS, MULTILINGUAL TERMINOLOGY, TERMINOLOGY APPLICATION

    Opsomming: E-terminologie. Hierdie artikel behandel rekenaartoepassings in terminologieen terminografie. Terminoloë stel hul ten doel om brontaalterme en doeltaalekwivalente virnuwe begrippe te skep en daardeur kommunikasie in verskeie vakgebiede en terreine te verbeter.Die wêreldwye mark vir terminologiese produkte brei geleidelik uit. Daar is 'n steeds groter wordendebehoefte aan die uitbouing van terminologieë en die verspreiding van terminologies relevanteinligting, in óf gerekenariseerde óf gedrukte vorm, ten einde die beskikbare terminologieseinligting aan soveel gebruikers moontlik te voorsien. Hierdie artikel bied verskeie strategieë aanverskillende gebruikers om toegang tot

  19. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  20. Morphing Terminology Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Hart, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Calapristi, Augustin J.

    2010-06-28

    This study investigates methods of automatically identifying and characterizing significant transitions in term usage over time. Within scientific literature, the occurrence of terms reflects the use of technologies and techniques as well as the study of specific species and materials. Transitions in terminology usage may be a result of vocabulary standardization or specialization in which terms are replaced with their shorter form. They may also be a result of new applications, combinations, alternatives, or interests that result in the appearance of new or existing terminology in unexpected contexts.

  1. [Terminology concerning intravenous ports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Rafał; Kłosińska, Katarzyna; Cichostępski, Dariusz; Dilling, Monika; Domke, Beata; Duraj, Marian; Fenikowski, Dariusz; Fuss, Julia; Góraj, Elwira; Grudzień, Paweł; Grzegorczyk, Iwona; Grzesiak, Joanna; Hasak, Liudmila; Janc, Jarosław; Kąkol, Michał; Kiluk, Marek; Kłobukowski, Wojciech; Leś, Jarosław; Leśnik, Patrycja; Lukasiewicz, Sergiusz; Małas, Tadeusz; Malczewska, Agnieszka; Mierzejewski, Marek; Misiak, Małgorzata; Nicpoń, Jakub; Pyrek, Beata; Rojek, Elżbieta; Siemiaszko, Anna; Siemiaszko, Grzegorz; Sieracki, Andrzej; Smiatacz, Marek; Sobczyk, Agnieszka; Starzec, Wioletta; Voloboyeva, Anna; Zdyb, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Ports are more and more often applied with patients requiring the permanent intravenous access, not only in the cancer treatment. Very devices, as well as procedures associated with applying them are determined in the heterogeneous way. Therefore during the last conference "Intravenous Port--implantation, care, complications" an attempt to systematize the applied terminology was made. PMID:26094345

  2. Seri Kinship Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Mary B.; Marlett, Stephen A.

    The Seri language contains over 50 kinship terms and represents one of the most highly elaborated kinship systems described to date. This paper discusses Seri kinship terminology and centers around, but is not limited to, the set of obligatory possessed noun stems that are inflected with the following possessive prefixes": "hi-,""ma-," and "a-."…

  3. Biallelic mutations in huntington disease: A new case with just one affected parent, review of the literature and terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Wendy R; Peñaherrera, Maria S; Robinson, Wendy P; Milunsky, Jeff M; Nicholson, Jane M; Albin, Roger L

    2015-05-01

    Patients with biallelic mutations for Huntington disease (HD) are rare. We present a 46-year-old female with two expanded Huntingtin (HTT) alleles with just one known affected parent. This is the first reported patient with molecular studies performed to exclude HTT uniparental disomy (UPD). The proband had biparental inheritance of HTT alleles (42/44 CAG repeats). Given the negative UPD results, the proband's unaffected mother either had a reduced penetrance allele that expanded into the full mutation range during transmission to our patient or an unknown full HTT mutation and died before symptom onset, unlikely given no family history of HD and asymptomatic at age 59. We made the novel observation in our literature review that most patients with biallelic HD did not have two full HTT mutations. Most had one HTT allele that was in the intermediate or reduced penetrance ranges or 40 CAG repeats, the lowest limit of the full mutation range. Although the number of patients is small, when an allele in these size ranges was present, generally the age of HD onset was in the 50s. If the second HTT allele had >45 repeats, then onset was typically 20s-30s. While similar ages of onset have been reported for patients with one or two HTT mutations, patients with biallelic mutations may have later onset if an expanded HTT allele has ≤40 CAG repeats. Finally, we propose that "biallelic mutations" or "compound heterozygosity" are more accurate descriptive terms than "homozygosity" when there are two non-identical expanded HTT alleles.

  4. Coming to terms with the concept of moving species threatened by climate change - a systematic review of the terminology and definitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria H Hällfors

    Full Text Available Intentional moving of species threatened by climate change is actively being discussed as a conservation approach. The debate, empirical studies, and policy development, however, are impeded by an inconsistent articulation of the idea. The discrepancy is demonstrated by the varying use of terms, such as assisted migration, assisted colonisation, or managed relocation, and their multiple definitions. Since this conservation approach is novel, and may for instance lead to legislative changes, it is important to aim for terminological consistency. The objective of this study is to analyse the suitability of terms and definitions used when discussing the moving of organisms as a response to climate change. An extensive literature search and review of the material (868 scientific publications was conducted for finding hitherto used terms (N = 40 and definitions (N = 75, and these were analysed for their suitability. Based on the findings, it is argued that an appropriate term for a conservation approach relating to aiding the movement of organisms harmed by climate change is assisted migration defined as follows: Assisted migration means safeguarding biological diversity through the translocation of representatives of a species or population harmed by climate change to an area outside the indigenous range of that unit where it would be predicted to move as climate changes, were it not for anthropogenic dispersal barriers or lack of time. The differences between assisted migration and other conservation translocations are also discussed. A wide adoption of the clear and distinctive term and definition provided would allow more focused research on the topic and enable consistent implementation as practitioners could have the same understanding of the concept.

  5. Coming to terms with the concept of moving species threatened by climate change - a systematic review of the terminology and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällfors, Maria H; Vaara, Elina M; Hyvärinen, Marko; Oksanen, Markku; Schulman, Leif E; Siipi, Helena; Lehvävirta, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Intentional moving of species threatened by climate change is actively being discussed as a conservation approach. The debate, empirical studies, and policy development, however, are impeded by an inconsistent articulation of the idea. The discrepancy is demonstrated by the varying use of terms, such as assisted migration, assisted colonisation, or managed relocation, and their multiple definitions. Since this conservation approach is novel, and may for instance lead to legislative changes, it is important to aim for terminological consistency. The objective of this study is to analyse the suitability of terms and definitions used when discussing the moving of organisms as a response to climate change. An extensive literature search and review of the material (868 scientific publications) was conducted for finding hitherto used terms (N = 40) and definitions (N = 75), and these were analysed for their suitability. Based on the findings, it is argued that an appropriate term for a conservation approach relating to aiding the movement of organisms harmed by climate change is assisted migration defined as follows: Assisted migration means safeguarding biological diversity through the translocation of representatives of a species or population harmed by climate change to an area outside the indigenous range of that unit where it would be predicted to move as climate changes, were it not for anthropogenic dispersal barriers or lack of time. The differences between assisted migration and other conservation translocations are also discussed. A wide adoption of the clear and distinctive term and definition provided would allow more focused research on the topic and enable consistent implementation as practitioners could have the same understanding of the concept. PMID:25055023

  6. Terminology versus action (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I have heard it said, as many of us have, that evidence based library and information practice is an area dominated and led by librarians in the health sciences. It is a logical leap to say that medical librarians may be more familiar with the evidence based model of practice because of their need to be familiar, on some level, with evidence based medicine. The idea of making a decision based on the appropriate evidence is as familiar to a medical librarianas is how to effectively search PubMed. How pervasive is the influence of the medical profession on this area? Being a librarian looking for quick information, I turned to Google. The results on the first two pages from a Google search for evidence based practice are 100% health/medicine related. Being a good librarian, I refined my search to see how the results would differ, and I added the term library to the search. This time there were 75% health/medicine results and 5% representing evidence based library and information practice (eblip. Note that a high percentage of the health/medicine hits were library webpages on evidence based medicine. Being an obsessive‐compulsive librarian, I changed my search strategy again by replacing library with librarianship. This time there were 30% health/medicine results and 65% eblip. A final search for evidence based information had this journal as the top hit. Being a busy librarian with a lot of work to do, I stopped right there. OK, so the terminology appears to point strongly in one direction and weighs heavily on the health sciences penetration. Let’s leave terminology aside for a moment and look at action. Since Evidence Based Library and Information Practice is the first journal on this topic, the list of contributors and their backgrounds should give an indication on whether or not there is a concentration of medical librarians. Approximately two thirds of the articles that we have published are non‐health/medicine related. Only 29% of our

  7. Terminologia revisitada Terminology revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça KRIEGER

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca situar o panorama atual das reflexões críticas sobre os estudos teóricos e aplicados de terminologia. Caracteriza-se a passagem do paradigma normativo, fundador da teoria clássica da terminologia, para o enfoque pragmático-comunicacional das linguagens especializadas, identificando-se os principais pontos discutidos pelo percurso revisionista. Destacam-se ainda os fundamentos e as proposições para o estabelecimento de uma nova teoria da terminologia articulada à luz do funcionamento da linguagem. Com isso, abre-se a perspectiva para o tratamento textual e discursivo dos termos técnico-científicos, com importantes implicações para a produção de obras de referência temáticas.The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current scenery of critical reflexions on applied and theoretical researches in Terminology. In this respect, the change from the normative paradigm, considered to be the very founder of the classic terminology, to the pragmatic - communicative approach of specialized languages is then caracterized, and also the main items pointed out by the revisionary aspects are identified. At the same time, the assumptions and proppositions to the establishment of a "new" terminology theory in the light of the functioning of language have been discussed. All these questionings lead to the possibility of a textual and discoursive treatment of the techno-scientific terms, with relevant implications to the production of thematic reference works.

  8. Compilation of EMP terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive set of terms and expressions which have appeared in the EMP literature are presented in alphabetical order with some cross-referencing for terms of similar meaning. Multiple definitions or explanations for some of the terms are given, and some definitions have been modified slightly for conciseness or clarity. Such terminology does not yet represent a set of standards for the community, but some consistency of expression is evident. Users should be aware of multiple meanings given to similar terms in common usage

  9. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  10. Terminology matters: a critical exploration of corporate social responsibility terms

    OpenAIRE

    Baden, Denise; Harwood, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance and impact of terminology used to describe Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Through a review of key literature and concepts, we uncover how the economic business case has become the dominant driver behind CSR action. With reference to the literature on semiotics, connotative meaning and social marketing we explore how the terminology itself may have facilitated this co-opting of an ethical concept by economic interests. The broade...

  11. INIS: Terminology charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the INIS Reference Series. It is to be used in conjunction with the INIS indexing manual and the INIS thesaurus for the preparation of input to the INIS database. The thesaurus and terminology charts in their first edition (Rev.0) were produced as the result of an agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Except for minor changes the terminology and the interrelationships between terms are those of the December 1969 edition of the Euratom Thesaurus. The purpose of the terminology harts is to display the descriptors of the thesaurus in the context of their hierarchical and other semantic relationships. Hierarchically related terms are grouped in clusters, each representing one of the principal concepts of a subject field. The descriptors are grouped around or under the broadest term of the clusters which is printed in upper case. The hierarchical relationships within the clusters are shown by the arrangement of the terms in smaller boxes within the larger boxes circumscribing the clusters. The clusters are connected by lines of various thickness, representing the other (mostly non-hierarchical) relationships. These connections are the equivalent to 'see also' and 'related term' cross-references. The thickness of the lines represents the strength of the semantic relations, or, in the practice of a retrieval system the probability that one term replacing a connected term in a query, will still yield pertinent references. The figures accompanying the descriptors represent their frequency of assignment to the first 987,000 documents stored in the Euratom system (May 1970). They are presented in order to show the relative importance of the descriptors within the subject field. The asterisks (*) accompanying descriptors in the charts refer to descriptors, for which a scope note can be found in the INIS: Thesaurus at the time the charts went

  12. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the centenary, and the period of 2004–2008 is the period of numerous already solid jubilees. Thus, the terminology of electronics is not at initial stage of evolution as well – general terms should be already systematized and normalized. However, Lithuanian terms for electronic devices invented before tens of years and terms for old-defined notions associated with these devices are still varying, some are worsened. Especially, the incorrectly motivated terms used for variations of transistors and microcircuits are analyzed in the article. It is motivated which terms are preferable, systematic and exact. The paper is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of monolithic circuit, as well as the 60th anniversary of transistor, the 40th jubilee of microprocessor and centenary of electronics.

  13. Sport supporting act: terminology issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The text deals with terminology issues from an interdisciplinary point of view. It is based on two different disciplines, law and kinanthropology, in an area of their overlap. AIM: The aim of the author is to point out some possible legislative problems, which could arise due to the current reading of the sport supporting act (Act no. 115/2001. The second aim of the author is to contribute to the discussion of kinantropologists (possibly also the educational researchers and lawyers and to stress the importance of the systematic approach to terminology formulation. METHODS: The author uses the method of language interpretation. We also use the basic analytical methods, induction and deduction, while we stress the systematic approach to the term formulation. RESULTS: The analysis of the sport supporting act terminology shows some specific legislative problems, which could arise due to the definition of sport in the sport supporting act. The author discusses a possible alternative solution. CONCLUSION: According to the opinion of the author, clear, obvious and unified terminology of kinantropologists as specialists in their discipline should represent a source, from which other sciences could derive their terminology. Defined and inexpert terminology used in other disciplines should not be used as an argument for its adopting in kinanthropology.

  14. Terminology in Doing Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周樱

    2011-01-01

    Terminology plays an important role in doing business English translation.This paper will try to give tentative definitions of what is terminology,of what is business English translation,and render some examples to exemplify the significant impacts of terminology in doing BET.In author's opinion the scope of "terminology" is quite broad.

  15. The Changes in Architecture Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Tran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this research is to inspire a discussion about the changes in architecture terminologywith the revolution in communication and representation forms as a result of digitalisation.The blurred boundary between the virtual and the analogue worlds, the misunderstandings andthe confusion that appear with the interaction of these two worlds nowadays form the major problems facing architectural design, education and research. The researchers in this field arefocused on the interface, the meeting and the transformation point between the digital and analogue worlds in order to prevent those problems and confusions. One of the main reasonsof this ambiguity is the architectural terminology that changes according to the changing status of architectural representation i.e. new forms of representation; new forms of communicationi.e. the new role of the architect and the researcher.Whenever and wherever information and knowledge specialised is created, communicated ortransformed terminology is involved in a way or another. An absence of terminology is combined with an absence of an understanding of concepts. Therefore with the new information and communication technologies; new and developing subject areas the existence of terminology and its update is indispensable. Thus the changing status of the terminology must be analysed. As architecture terminology is essential to improve today’s challenging, multidisciplinary communication in order to clarify the problems of ambiguity and unawareness (as a result of shift of specific architectural vocabulary it is necessary to analyse the changes in the architectural terminology which will form the discussion point of the following paper.As this paper is the beginning step of a research project which started on the occasion of the conference proposed by EAAE/ARCC we will here present only the objectives of this research,its general problematics, the methods that we wish to develop and some provisional

  16. Functioning of the English tourism terminology in the guides to Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Прима, В. В.

    2015-01-01

    The article outlines main aspects of study of English tourism terminology, in particular, functional. General specific features of English guides and peculiarities of tourism terms functioning in them have been reviewed in the article.Attempted analysis of theoretical and practical aspects of investigating terminology in the works of contemporary scientists made it possible for us to identify a general tendency to consider terminological vocabulary from the points of view of semantics, struct...

  17. eHealth Terminology Management in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seerainer, Carina; Sabutsch, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to establishing and operating a nationwide personal health record (PHR), effective and efficient terminology management including the development, administration, maintenance and publishing of terminologies is a precondition for semantic interoperability. In the Austrian national patient health record "ELGA" all relevant terminologies are provided and distributed by means of a CTS2-conformant terminology server. In the following article, issues and lessons learned from terminology management in a large-scale eHealth project are presented. Experience has proved the necessity of a national authority for medical terminology management in Austria. PMID:27577418

  18. INFOTERM – Information Disseminating Centre for Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Auksoriūtė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available International Information Centre for Terminology (INFOTERM was founded in 1971 by contract with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO and the Austrian Standards Institute (ASI. In 1996, INFOTERM was reorganized and established as an independent non-profit organization. INFOTERM promotes and supports the cooperation of existing and the establishment of new terminology centres and networks with the general aim to improve domain communication, knowledge transfer and provision of content with view to facilitating the participation of all in the global multilingual knowledge society. The article presents not only a history of the foundation of INFOTERM, the tasks and activities of INFOTERM and its members, which are international, regional or national terminology institutions, organizations and networks, as well as specialized public or semi-public or other non-profit institutions engaged in terminological activities, but also analyses “Guidelines for terminology policies”, preparied by INFOTERM, and cooperation between INFOTERM and the Institute of the Lithuanian Language.In conclusion, the experience and sharing expertise of INFOTERM regarding harmonized methods and guidelines for terminology management and policies, the management of terminology centres, terminology standardization, the use of terminological data, methods and tools in all applications etc are very important for all countries and language communities especially for countries and language communities with less mature terminologies. The Institute of the Lithuanian Language as a member of INFOTERM has a possibility to get information on terminology research and training, terminology publications, terminological events and activities all over the world.

  19. Perspectives on Terminology and Conceptual and Professional Issues in Health Education and Health Promotion Credentialing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Alyson; Allegrante, John P.; Barry, Margaret M.; Sakagami, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    This article was prepared to inform the deliberations of the Galway Consensus Conference by providing a common and global reference point for the discussion of terminology and key conceptual and professional issues in the credentialing of health education and health promotion specialists. The article provides a review of the terminology that is…

  20. EFSA Scientific Committee; Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways...... of improving the expression and communication of risk and/or uncertainties in the selected opinions. The Scientific Committee concluded that risk assessment terminology is not fully harmonised within EFSA. In part this is caused by sectoral legislation defining specific terminology and international standards......, the Scientific Committee concludes that particular care must be taken that the principles of CAC, OIE or IPPC are followed strictly. EFSA Scientific Panels should identify which specific approach is most useful in dealing with their individual mandates. The Scientific Committee considered detailed aspects...

  1. Are ISO Terminology Standards Fit for Terminology Management at the NATO?

    OpenAIRE

    Steurs, Frieda; Kockaert, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    NATO Conference on Terminology Management 19-20 November 2015 Are ISO Terminology Standards Fit for Terminology Management at the NATO? Hendrik J. Kockaert1,2 & Frieda Steurs1,2,3 KU Leuven1, University of the Free State2, UCO3 Abstract The NATO Terminology Office (NTO) advocates clear and unambiguous communication among its members and partners, following the NATO Policy for Standardization: "NATO documents must contain NATO agreed terminology." It is the NATO Termino...

  2. Standard terminology in the laboratory and classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlow, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the materials produced by modern technologists is associated with a family of immaterials--all the concepts of substance, process, and purpose. It is concepts that are essential to transfer knowledge. It is concepts that are the stuff of terminology. Terminology is standardized today by companies, standards organizations, governments, and other groups. Simply described, it is the pre-negotiation of the meanings of terms. Terminology has become a key issue in businesses, and terminology knowledge is essential in understanding the modern world. The following is a introductory workshop discussing the concepts of terminology and methods of its standardization.

  3. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis.

  4. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).

  5. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index

  6. Naming the Soft Tissue Layers of the Temporoparietal Region: Unifying Anatomic Terminology Across Surgical Disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Davidge; W.R. van Furth; A. Agur; M. Cusimano

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The complexity of temporoparietal anatomy is compounded by inconsistent nomenclature. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review of the variations in terminology and anatomic descriptions of the temporoparietal soft tissue layers, with the aim of improving learning and communication ac

  7. Complementary/Alternative therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials and a critique of current terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Edzard; Schmidt, Katja; Baum, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study was to evaluate and critically analyze all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of ''alternative cancer cures'' (ACCs) for breast cancer. The electronic databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Scirus, BIOSIS, CancerLit and CINAHL and for ongoing trials the MetaRegister at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ and the National Research Register at http://www.update-software.com/national/ were searched from their inception. Bibliographies of located studies were scanned. Unpublished or ongoing trials were identified through correspondence with experts in the field. Our own files were hand searched for further RCTs. Review methods included a systematic review of RCTs involving breast cancer patients treated with ACCs, survival, parameters indicative of tumor burden, disease progression, cancer recurrence, and cancer cure. Results were tabulated and summarized. Thirteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. In most cases their methodological quality is low, with only two RCTs scoring ''4'' and four RCTs scoring ''3'' out of 5 possible points for methodological quality. The treatments tested included various methods of psychosocial support such as group support therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy cognitive existential group therapy, a combination of muscle relaxation training and guided imagery, the Chinese herbal remedy Shi Quan Da Bu Tang, thymus extract, transfer factor, melatonin, and factor AF2. Encouraging but not fully convincing results emerged for melatonin. PMID:17238981

  8. USED TERMINOLOGY FOR HANDICAPPED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupco AJDINSKI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available For easier and more simply reconcile the position of the terminology, we want to emphasis who are the persons with handicap, or disabled persons for whom we are going to make effort to find the authentic terms.In many different countries exist different definitions for the term: disablement. We use the term “persons with handicap” very often, but is it the right solution? Because this problem is not solved at the world frames, in this presentation we try to gave the authentic and objective use of this terms in the practice, communications and in the legislative here and in the worldwide.In this presentation we are giving the description only for some mentioned terms, which are very important and it also want exceptional treatment (for example: defect, handicap, abnormality, developmental difficulties, difficulties in the social integration, the persons with special needs and etc.With this presentation we want to emphasis just the terminology connected with the handicapped persons, or invalid persons by the existed classifications.

  9. Multilingual Rehabilitation Terminology. A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner. , Elizabeth M.

    In rehabilitation, the team approach demands harmonious communication among practitioners of many professions and occupations at many different levels. Technical terminology needs to be concurrently understood or able to be explained easily. Although rehabilitation terminology is still somewhat in a state of flux, enough terms have been identified…

  10. ON THE TERMINOLOGY OF SPONDYLOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. F. Erdes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, spondyloarthritis studies have accumulated a certain number of terms that are obsolete, but used by physicians in their everyday speech, on the one hand, and a great variety of different definitions, on the other hand. In January 2014, the first organizational meeting of the Expert Group on Spondyloarthritis, Association of Rheumatologists of Russia, decided that its primary task should be to order the terminology used in this area. The authors primarily collected the terms, which had been already used in medical vocabulary, and then divided them into two categories: obsolete definitions and terms to be finalized and unified. This publication gives guidelines for using the medical terms relevant to spondyloarthritis and separately discusses how to correctly write the term sacroiliitis.

  11. The alphabet soup of perfusion CT and MR imaging: terminology revisited and clarified in five questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiva-Salinas, Carlos [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hospital Universitario y Politecnico la Fe, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Valencia (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Provenzale, James M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Departments of Radiology, Oncology and Biomedical Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Division of Ultra-high Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Morioka (Japan); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); University of Virginia Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, 1215 Lee Street-New Hospital, 1st Floor, Room 1011, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The five questions answered in this article revolve around the different parameters resulting from perfusion imaging processing, and this clarifies the frequently confusing terminology used to describe these parameters. More specifically, the article discusses the different imaging techniques and main mathematical models behind perfusion imaging, reviews the perfusion attributes of brain tissue, and proposes a standardized parameter terminology to facilitate understanding and avoid common misinterpretations. (orig.)

  12. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B;

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  13. A new method for extracting domain terminology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Bing-zhen; CHEN Xiao-rong; HU Yi; LU Ru-zhan

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a new general, highly efficient algorithm for extracting domain terminologies.This domain-independent algorithm with multi-layers of filters is a hybrid of statistic-oriented and rule-oriented methods. Utilizing the features of domain terminologies and the characteristics that are unique to Chinese, this algorithm extracts domain terminologies by generating multi-word unit (MWU) candidates at first and then filtering the candidates through multi-strategies. Our test results show that this algorithm is feasible and effective.

  14. Current procedural terminology; a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Joshua A; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Nicola, Gregory N; Barr, Robert M; Bello, Jacqueline A; Donovan, William D; Tu, Raymond; Alson, Mark D; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2015-04-01

    In 1966, The American Medical Association (AMA) working with multiple major medical specialty societies developed an iterative coding system for describing medical procedures and services using uniform language, the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) system. The current code set, CPT IV, forms the basis of reporting most of the services performed by healthcare providers, physicians and non-physicians as well as facilities allowing effective, reliable communication among physician and other providers, third parties and patients. This coding system and its maintenance has evolved significantly since its inception, and now goes well beyond its readily perceived role in reimbursement. Additional roles include administrative management, tracking new and investigational procedures, and evolving aspects of 'pay for performance'. The system also allows for local, regional and national utilization comparisons for medical education and research. Neurointerventional specialists use CPT category I codes regularly--for example, 36,215 for first-order cerebrovascular angiography, 36,216 for second-order vessels, and 37,184 for acute stroke treatment by mechanical means. Additionally, physicians add relevant modifiers to the CPT codes, such as '-26' to indicate 'professional charge only,' or '-59' to indicate a distinct procedural service performed on the same day. PMID:24589819

  15. National Drug File - Reference Terminology API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is produced by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration (VHA). NDF-RT is an...

  16. Applying Evolutionary Terminology Auditing to SNOMED CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceusters, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary Terminology Auditing is a technique designed to measure quality improvements of terminologies over successive versions. It uses the most recent version of a terminology as a benchmark and assumes that changes in the underlying ontology correspond to changes in either that part of reality that is covered by the terminology, or the authors’ understanding – if not the ‘state of the art’ in general – thereof. Applied to SNOMED CT over 18 versions, it reveals that at the level of the concepts minimal improvements are obtained and that the second assumption holds for far less changes than one would expect. It is recommended that future versions of SNOMED CT provide more explicit documentation for each introduced change. PMID:21346948

  17. INFOTERM – Information Disseminating Centre for Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Albina Auksoriūtė

    2014-01-01

    International Information Centre for Terminology (INFOTERM) was founded in 1971 by contract with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Austrian Standards Institute (ASI). In 1996, INFOTERM was reorganized and established as an independent non-profit organization. INFOTERM promotes and supports the cooperation of existing and the establishment of new terminology centres and networks with the general aim to improve domain communication, knowledge ...

  18. CONFUSION OF ACCOUNTING TERMINOLOGY IN LITHUANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gintaras Černius

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of issues relevant to the science of finances and the practical side of this field related to financial terms. The article is written with the purpose of helping solve terminology problems of accounting which is viewed as a scientific and practical activity field. The goals of this article are to reveal the current problems of financial terminology in the field of accounting, analyze the reasons of their occurrence, determine the possible and existing negativ...

  19. Toledo School of Translators and their influence on anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José-L; Raio, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Translation facilitates transmission of knowledge between cultures. The fundamental transfer of anatomic terminology from the Ancient Greek and Islamic Golden Age cultures, to medieval Latin Christendom took place in the so-called Toledo School of Translators in the 12th-13th centuries. Translations made in Toledo circulated widely across Europe. They were the foundation of scientific thinking that was born in the boards of first universities. In Toledo, Gerard of Cremona translated Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, the key work of Islamic Golden Age of medicine. Albertus Magnus, Mondino de Luzzi and Guy de Chauliac, the leading authors of anatomical Latin words in the Middle Ages, founded their books on Gerard's translations. The anatomical terms of the Canon retain auctoritas up to the Renaissance. Thus, terms coined by Gerard such as diaphragm, orbit, pupil or sagittal remain relevant in the current official anatomical terminology. The aim of the present paper is to bring new attention to the highly significant influence that the Toledo School of Translators had in anatomical terminology. For this, we shall review here the onomastic origins of a number of anatomical terms (additamentum; coracoid process; coxal; false ribs; femur; panniculus; spondylus; squamous sutures; thorax; xiphoid process, etc.) which are still used today. PMID:25667112

  20. Geoscience terminology for data interchange: the CGI Geoscience Terminology Work Group (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.; Gtwg, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) has formed the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/ geoscience_terminology_ working_group.html) to unify vocabulary development efforts of the Multhes working group of the 1990s, the Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) formed in 2003, and the Concept Definition Task Group formed in 2007. The workgroup charge is to develop, review, adopt, publish, and steward vocabularies and associated documentation for use in geoscience information systems. The group will develop liaisons with other semantic interoperability groups to ensure cross-domain interoperability. The objective is to create vocabularies that bind URIs to geoscience concepts, and allow linking between concepts in the CGI vocabularies and other vocabularies such as SWEET, GEMET, and the GCMD. Representations of the concepts use SKOS RDF/XML and a standardized vocabulary service that to enable navigating links to concepts, accessing definitions, and obtaining language-localized labels for concepts. The SISSvoc service developed by CSIRO Australia has been deployed for CGI vocabulary services. Vocabularies are currently constructed by gathering candidate terms in spreadsheet tables because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Each vocabulary is 'shepherded' by a GTWG member, who is responsible for organizing a team to compile a draft vocabulary, present it for review by appropriate authorities, respond to review comments, and determine when the vocabulary is ready for adoption by a vote of the workgroup. The first meeting of the work group took place, hosted by VSEGEI in St

  1. Dextrocardia: practical clinical points and comments on terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William N; Acherman, Ruben J; Collazos, Juan C; Castillo, William J; Rollins, Robert C; Kip, Katrinka T; Restrepo, Humberto

    2010-01-01

    Dextrocardia is defined by the authors as a right-sided heart with a base-apex axis directed rightward, resulting from a variation in cardiac development, and not used as a general term indicating any heart in the right chest. Dextrocardia occurs in approximately 0.01% of live births and can be discovered in various clinical settings and at various patient ages. The authors review their experience with dextrocardia, discuss useful clinical points that aid in evaluating complex anatomy, recount the history of dextrocardia terminology, and note the current inconsistent nomenclature.

  2. Biomedical Terminology Mapper for UML projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Julien C; Frey, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    As the biomedical community collects and generates more and more data, the need to describe these datasets for exchange and interoperability becomes crucial. This paper presents a mapping algorithm that can help developers expose local implementations described with UML through standard terminologies. The input UML class or attribute name is first normalized and tokenized, then lookups in a UMLS-based dictionary are performed. For the evaluation of the algorithm 142 UML projects were extracted from caGrid and automatically mapped to National Cancer Institute (NCI) terminology concepts. Resulting mappings at the UML class and attribute levels were compared to the manually curated annotations provided in caGrid. Results are promising and show that this type of algorithm could speed-up the tedious process of mapping local implementations to standard biomedical terminologies.

  3. Standard Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The terms and their definitions given herein represent terminology relating to wear and erosion of solid bodies due to mechanical interactions such as occur with cavitation, impingement by liquid jets or drops or by solid particles, or relative motion against contacting solid surfaces or fluids. This scope interfaces with but generally excludes those processes where material loss is wholly or principally due to chemical action and other related technical fields as, for instance, lubrication. 1.2 This terminology is not exhaustive; the absence of any particular term from this collection does not necessarily imply that its use within this scope is discouraged. However, the terms given herein are the recommended terms for the concepts they represent unless otherwise noted. 1.3 Certain general terms and definitions may be restricted and interpreted, if necessary, to make them particularly applicable to the scope as defined herein. 1.4 The purpose of this terminology is to encourage uniformity and accuracy ...

  4. Information model for learning nursing terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nytun, Jan Pettersen; Fossum, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    Standardized terminologies are introduced in healthcare with the intention of improving information quality, which is important for enhancing the quality of healthcare itself. The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) is a unified language system that presents an ontology for nursing terminology; it is meant for documentation of nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions and patient outcomes. This paper presents an information model and an application for teaching nursing students how to use ICNP to assist in the planning of nursing care. The model is an integration of ICNP and our catalog ontology, patient journal ontology, and ontology defining task sets. The application for learning nursing terminology offers descriptions of patient situations and then prompts the student to supply nursing statements for diagnoses, goals and interventions. The nursing statements may be selected from catalogues containing premade solutions based on ICNP, or they may be constructed directly by selecting terms from ICNP. PMID:25160170

  5. The Janus Head Article - How Much Terminology Theory Can Practical Terminology Management Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Drewer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The god Janus in Greek mythology was a two-faced god; each face had its own view of the world. Our idea behind the Janus Head article is to give you two different and maybe even contradicting views on a certain topic. This issue’s Janus Head Article, however, features not two but three different views on terminology work, as researchers, professionals and students (the professionals of tomorrow discuss “How Much Terminology Theory Can Practical Terminology Management Use?” at DaimlerChrysler AG. 

  6. Magnetism in meteorites. [terminology, principles and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J. M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of this subject is presented. The paper includes a glossary of magnetism terminology and a discussion of magnetic techniques used in meteorite research. These techniques comprise thermomagnetic analysis, alternating field demagnetization, thermal demagnetization, magnetic anisotropy, low-temperature cycling, and coercive forces, with emphasis on the first method. Limitations on the validity of paleointensity determinations are also discussed.

  7. Revisiting the Global Software Engineering Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Giuffrida, Rosalba; Shah, Hina

    2013-01-01

    Even though Global Software Engineering (GSE) has been a research topic of interest for many years, some of its ground terminology is still lacking a unified, coherent, and shared definition and/or classification. The purpose of this report is to collect, outline, and relate several fundamental...

  8. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Liuzzo; Stefano Bentley; Federica Giacometti; Silvia Piva; Andrea Serraino

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication) are discussed.

  9. Contributions to the History of Library Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Fred R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the historical method in lexicography, the general characteristics of library terminology, and the current state of library lexicography. Presents a glossary which lists quotations supplementing the coverage of library-related vocabulary in the "Oxford English Dictionary" (OED) and the "Dictionary of Americanisms" (DA). (LRW)

  10. Different pharmaceutical products need similar terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelin, Daan J A; de Vlieger, Jon S B; Weinstein, Vera; Mühlebach, Stefan; Shah, Vinod P; Schellekens, Huub

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, discussions on the development of the regulatory framework of generic versions of complex drugs such as biologicals and non-biological complex drugs have attracted broad attention. The terminology used is far from harmonized and can lead to multiple interpretations of legal texts

  11. Terminological Ontologies for Risk and Vulnerability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    structuring and enriching the taxonomies of society’s critical functions and threats, which form an important part of the model. Creating terminological ontologies is a time consuming work, and therefore there is a need for automatic tools for extraction of terms, concept relations and characteristics...

  12. 9 CFR 101.2 - Administrative terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative terminology. 101.2 Section 101.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS §...

  13. 9 CFR 101.4 - Labeling terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling terminology. 101.4 Section 101.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS §...

  14. INTERVIEW: Knowledge and Terminology Management at Crisplant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.; Toft, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    for the past 20 years. Today, term bases are used not just for terminology-oriented term management. Recording other types of master data needed by all kinds of professionals in the enterprise is equally important. Within the past year, Crisplant has been acquired by the German BEUMER group, which means...

  15. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication are discussed.

  16. Polysaccharides: Molecular and Supramolecular Structures. Terminology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinze, Thomas; Petzold-Welcke, Katrin; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter summarises important issues
    about the molecular and supramolecular structure
    of polysaccharides. It describes the terminology
    of polysaccharides systematically. The
    polysaccharides are divided regarding the
    molecular structures in glucans, polyoses,
    polysaccharid

  17. INTELLIGENCE MEASUREMENT TOOLS: DEFINITION OR TERMINOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Sapronov, P.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of proper understanding and using terminology relating intelligence measurement tools remains relevant. The features of the intelligence measurement tool are based on translation and defining the meanings of «smart» and «intelligent», as well as the theory of typical intelligence devices.

  18. The impact of EU law on Belgian consumer law terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of EU directives in the field of consumer law distorted the Belgian legal terminology. In particular, consumer law terminology often differs from civil law terminology. The meaning of traditional civil law concepts is no longer respected in the field of consumer law. Moreover, the

  19. Terminology, the importance of defining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mil, J W Foppe; Henman, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Multiple terms and definitions exist to describe specific aspects of pharmacy practice and service provision. This commentary explores the reasons for different interpretations of words and concepts in pharmaceutical care and pharmacy practice research. Reasons for this variation can be found in language, culture, profession and may also depend on developments over time. A list of words is provided where the authors think that currently multiple interpretations are possible. To make sure that the reader understands the essence, it seems imperative that authors include a definition of the topics that they actually study in their papers, and that they clearly cite existing definitions or refer to collections of definitions such as existing glossaries. It is important that presenters, authors and reviewers of pharmacy practice papers pay more attention to this aspect of describing studies. PMID:27073076

  20. On the terminology, origins and functions of caveate pollen in compositae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackmore, S.; Helvoort, H.A.M. van; Punt, W.

    1984-01-01

    The terminology applied to caveate pollen in the Compositae is reviewed. The term cavea (plural: caveae) is recommended in preference to cavus, the plural of which should be cavi although this has not been used in the literature. Caveae are interpreted as being potentially present in all Compositae

  1. Terminology of the Newest Technologies and Computering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelė Kaulakienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The thirty-five-year period of computer terminology has to be considered the initial stage of its evolution where synonymy and variability are characteristic features, which are usually determined by both extra-linguistic and linguistic factors. The choice of borrowed or Lithuanian terms is often determined by the relationship between borrowed and Lithuanian terms. The first stage of the newest dictionaries of computer terms approbated by the Commission of the Lithuanian Language shows that the terminology of the mentioned field is being systematized and normalized. However, the ratio between Lithuanian and borrowed terms is not fully acceptable yet, and it is partially determined by disagreement among specialists on the status of synonymous terms and the choice of them.

  2. Standardization of Terminology in Laboratory Medicine II

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kap No; Yoon, Jong-Hyun; Min, Won Ki; Lim, Hwan Sub; Song, Junghan; Chae, Seok Lae; Jang, Seongsoo; Ki, Chang-Seok; Bae, Sook Young; Kim, Jang Su; Kwon, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang Kyu; Yoon, Soo-Young

    2008-01-01

    Standardization of medical terminology is essential in data transmission between health care institutes and in maximizing the benefits of information technology. The purpose of this study was to standardize medical terms for laboratory observations. During the second year of the study, a standard database of concept names for laboratory terms that covered those used in tertiary health care institutes and reference laboratories was developed. The laboratory terms in the Logical Observation Ide...

  3. Grasping metaphoric and metonymic processes in terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Juan Antonio; Ureña Gomez-Moreno, Jose Manuel; Tercedor Maribel

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor plays an important role in language creativity and knowledge representation in specialised domains, and its role has been studied by scholars in the field (e.g. Temmerman 2000; Faber and Márquez 2004; Tercedor Sánchez 2004; Ureña Gómez Moreno 2011; Vandaele and Lubin 2005). In contrast, metonymy has received little attention in terminology. In this paper, we describe salient features of metaphor and metonymy in specialised domains an...

  4. Hip arthroplasty. Part 1: prosthesis terminology and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hip arthroplasty is an extremely common orthopaedic procedure and there is a wide array of implants that are in current use in the UK. The follow-up of patients who have undergone insertion of a hip prosthesis is shifting from a consultant-lead hospital service towards primary care. As this change in patient care continues it becomes increasingly important that an accurate description of the radiographic features is communicated to the primary-care practitioner so appropriate specialist input can be triggered. This review focuses on the terminology and classification of hip prostheses. This acts as a precursor for Part 2 of this series, which describes the normal and abnormal radiographic findings following hip prosthesis insertion.

  5. Generating a multilingual taxonomy based on multilingual terminology clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengzhi; ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomy denotes the hierarchical structure of a knowledge organization system.It has important applications in knowledge navigation,semantic annotation and semantic search.It is a useful instrument to study the multilingual taxonomy generated automatically under the dynamic information environment in which massive amounts of information are processed and found.Multilingual taxonomy is the core component of the multilingual thesaurus or ontology.This paper presents two methods of bilingual generated taxonomy:Cross-language terminology clustering and mixed-language based terminology clustering.According to our experimental results of terminology clustering related to four specific subject domains,we found that if the parallel corpus is used to cluster multilingual terminologies,the method of using mixed-language based terminology clustering outperforms that of using the cross-language terminology clustering.

  6. Semantic equivalences in Romanian medical terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Lungu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to underline some aspects concerning the presence of synonymy semantic relationship in specialized medical terminology, having as object of study Romanian medical terms. For this study we use a descriptive, conceptual and lexical semantic research method to provide the understanding of different couples, groups or synonymic series where medical terms have several variations: specialized/common terms, syntagms and patronyms of French or different origin. We propose a classification scheme of synonyms of medical lexicon, terms or synonymic syntagms, total and partial, in order to meet the accessibility needs in scientific communication.

  7. Transregionalism: Problems of Terminology and Conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kuznetsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world is witnessing the remarkable development of transregional ties between distinct regions and powers within the international system evolving towards multipolarity. However, the essence of transregionalism remains understudied to the extent that there is no clear consensus for which terminology should be used to define this phenomenon. The article compares existing approaches to transregionalism conceptualization, analyzes the differences in the use of terms, and discusses the global impact of transregional relations on world politics and economy. The author advocates a term transregionalism (instead of interregionalism, crossregionalism, macroregionalization etc. and suggests its definition.

  8. Terminology Guidance to Make Your Work Easier. English, French, Spanish, German, Russian. Terminology Circular No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland). Editorial and Document Services Dept.

    This terminology circular is one of a series issued by the International Labour Office on an irregular basis, designed to facilitate the work of translators, editors, and other staff members. The circular contains official titles of personnel, offices, bureaus, branches, departments, and other organizational units of the ILO. Entries are listed…

  9. Interoperable Archetypes With a Three Folded Terminology Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Rune; Ellingsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The use of openEHR archetypes increases the interoperability of clinical terminology, and in doing so improves upon the availability of clinical terminology for both primary and secondary purposes. Where clinical terminology is employed in the EPR system, research reports conflicting a results for the use of structuring and standardization as measurements of success. In order to elucidate this concept, this paper focuses on the effort to establish a national repository for openEHR based archetypes in Norway where clinical terminology could be included with benefit for interoperability three folded. PMID:26262236

  10. Exploiting parallel corpora to scale up multilingual biomedical terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellrich, Johannes; Hahn, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Creating and maintaining biomedical terminologies for multiple natural languages is a resource-expensive task, typically carried out by human domain experts. We here report on efforts to computationally support this process by treating term acquisition as a machine translation-guided classification problem capitalizing on parallel corpora. We report on experiments for French, German, Spanish and Dutch parts of a UMLS-derived terminology for which we generated 18 k, 23 k, 19 k and 12 k new terms and synonyms, respectively. Based on expert assessments of a novel German terminology segment about 80% of the newly acquired terms were judged as bio-medically reasonable and terminologically valid.

  11. Harmonising Nursing Terminologies Using a Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Kay; Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy; Saba, Virginia; Hardiker, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) and the Clinical Care Classification (CCC) System are standardised nursing terminologies that identify discrete elements of nursing practice, including nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. While CCC uses a conceptual framework or model with 21 Care Components to classify these elements, ICNP, built on a formal Web Ontology Language (OWL) description logic foundation, uses a logical hierarchical framework that is useful for computing and maintenance of ICNP. Since the logical framework of ICNP may not always align with the needs of nursing practice, an informal framework may be a more useful organisational tool to represent nursing content. The purpose of this study was to classify ICNP nursing diagnoses using the 21 Care Components of the CCC as a conceptual framework to facilitate usability and inter-operability of nursing diagnoses in electronic health records. Findings resulted in all 521 ICNP diagnoses being assigned to one of the 21 CCC Care Components. Further research is needed to validate the resulting product of this study with practitioners and develop recommendations for improvement of both terminologies. PMID:27332245

  12. The health terminology project glossaries` structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sátia Marini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Current paper was motivated by a Master´s degree in Translation Studies on one of the glossaries of the Health Terminology Project (PTS of the Ministry of Health (MS inBrazil, by which the products developed by the project were analyzed. The authors would like to forward their experience earned from the development of these instruments and from the evolution of the glossary´s layout and structure. Although within the same institution, each instrument is made suitable to the specific purpose of each area and the terminology project accumulates experience by the constant improvement of previously developed glossaries (adding new terms; providing the equivalent word in other languages for terms already defined and by the establishment of new ones. The evolution of the structure of the glossaries was qualitatively analyzed; remarks on the types of cross references were made; a quantitative survey of their main features was undertaken. Finally, the importance of this type of work should be underscored either within the government, or in the academy or in private companies, for the sharing of intellectual knowledge.

  13. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews seven computer software programs that can be used in science education programs. Describes courseware which deals with muscles and bones, terminology, classifying animals without backbones, molecular structures, drugs, genetics, and shaping the earth's surface. (TW)

  14. Sales promotion effect: concepts and terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Yusupova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sales promotion is a significant part of firm’s marketing activity, especially in the modern state of Ukrainian economy, when prices are growing fast and consumers are becoming more sensitive to the price changes. But firms are becoming more careful about their expenses too. So now it’s exceptionally important for firms to evaluate properly effect of the sales promotion. Nowadays not only total effect of sales promotions is the subject of scientists’ and firms’ interest but factors that contribute to it. Decomposition of sales promotion effect allows us to understand which factor is responsible for sales enhancing and what to expect in future periods. World economists are already developing the issue of decomposition of sales promotion effect. Started by S. Gupta topic is being discussed for more than 20 years. Despite of that, Ukrainian scientific literature remains silent about decomposition of sales promotion effect. There are no strict terms in scientific Ukrainian language for labeling certain basic concepts that are used in articles of foreign colleges. The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to form such terminology in order to bring broad discussion of decomposition of sales promotion effect into both Ukrainian science and practice. Following terms were considered in the paper: primary demand, secondary demand, purchase incidence, purchase quantity, cross-period effect, category-expansion effect, brand switching, store switching and category switching. The results of the analysis show that strict translation into Ukrainian is not always a good choice because of several reasons. There was discovered that some terms are already used in Ukrainian literature in different meaning. For instance, term «secondary demand» is already used in Ukrainian literature for describing demand for a product that depends on demand for other product. The same problem occurs when translating term «category-expansion effect» in Ukrainian

  15. Beyond teaching language: Towards terminological primacy in learners’ geometric conceptualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey U. Atebe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a specific aspect of a broader geometry conceptualisation study that sought to explore and explicate learners’ knowledge of basic geometric terminology in selected Nigerian and South African high schools. It is framed by the notion that students’ acquisition of the correct terminology in school geometry is important for their success in the subject. The original study further aimed to determine the relationship that might exist between a learner’s ability in verbal geometry terminology tasks and his/her ability in visual geometry terminology tasks. A total of 144 learners (72 each from South Africa and Nigeria were selected for the study, using both the stratified and the fish‐bowl sampling techniques. A questionnaire consisting of a sixty‐item multiple‐choice objective test provided the data for the study. An overall percentage mean score of 44,17% obtained in the test indicated that learners in this study had only a limited knowledge of basic geometric terminology. The Nigerian subsample in the study had a weaker understanding of basic geometric terminology than their South African counterparts. Importantly, there were high positive correlations between participants’ ability in verbal geometry terminology tasks and their ability in visual geometry terminology tasks. These results are consistent with those of several earlier studies, and provide a reasonably firm basis for certain recommendations to be made.

  16. E-TIF: An Electronic Terminology Interchange Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of terminology in an age of machine-based translation systems. Discusses differences between lexicography and terminology. Concludes with an argument for a new system based on the Text Encoding Initiative-based notions of elements and attributes. (CFR)

  17. Terminology and definitions on groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weir, Adam; Hölmich, Per; Schache, Anthony G;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Groin pain in athletes occurs frequently and can be difficult to treat, which may partly be due to the lack of agreement on diagnostic terminology. OBJECTIVE: To perform a short Delphi survey on terminology agreement for groin pain in athletes by a group of experts. METHODS: A selecte...

  18. 9 CFR 300.4 - Organizational terminology; personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organizational terminology; personnel... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION AGENCY MISSION AND ORGANIZATION § 300.4 Organizational terminology; personnel.... Inspection program, inspection service, or program means the organizational unit within the Department...

  19. 9 CFR 146.44 - Terminology and classification; States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; States. 146.44 Section 146.44 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.44 Terminology and classification;...

  20. 9 CFR 146.8 - Terminology and classification; slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. 146.8 Section 146.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... General Provisions § 146.8 Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. Participating...

  1. Terminology support for development of sharable knowledge modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, M; Ahlfeldt, H; Thurin, A; Wigertz, O

    1996-01-01

    Lack of an agreed infrastructure for terminology is identified as one of the major barriers to interchange of knowledge modules and integration of knowledge bases with other clinical information systems. The goal of the GALEN project is to bridge this gap between different terminology systems through the construction of a terminology server, which is based on a rich conceptual model with mapping facilities to natural language expressions and coding schemas. The long term goal is to support communication between medical information systems. Arden Syntax is a standard format for the creation of knowledge modules, with sharability as one of the main objectives. Since Arden Syntax is based on a data-driven approach, the data items used need to be adapted to locally available terminology. The GALEN approach appears to be complementary to Arden Syntax and to the development of sharable knowledge modules. The major theme of this paper is utilization of the GALEN terminology server for knowledge module authoring. Two systems are presented, a knowledge base manager and a client to the terminology server, allowing the user to navigate in the semantic network and to import concept definitions and terms into the knowledge modules. The benefit of the terminology server, allowing the user to navigate in the semantic network and to import concept definitions and terms into the knowledge modules. The benefit of the terminology services is discussed. PMID:9062883

  2. Measurements and Terminology of Different Measure Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Fang; ZHANG Wei-yuan; ZHANG Wen-bin

    2005-01-01

    Body measuring is very important for garment sizing and pattern making. In this paper, we study the difference of the landmarks between the traditional method and 3D scanner and we also select the 19 circumference measurements,29 height and length measurements, 18 breadth and depth measurements and 3 other measurements, which are quite important in fashion body measuring, to compare the terminology of them in these two measuring method. 3D scanners seem better than the traditional method on these aspects, which are the number of measurements, speed,privacy and data accuracy, but they are limited on measuring posture. And there is no uniform standard for the scanners and the definitions of the measurements in the scanners are diversified.

  3. Shamanistic and postshamanistic terminologies in Saami (Lappish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Rydving

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the lexicon of a language, of special semantic fields, changes in the meaning of words and comparisons between the lexicon or parts of it in different dialects can provide valuable complements to other types of sources. This is nothing new, and the study of Saami cultural history is in this respect no exception. A number of papers have thus dealt with different parts of the Saami lexicon, central for the understanding of various aspects of Saami culture. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to a problem of source criticism that faces the student of Saami shamanism and is caused by the changes of meaning which words used in the shamanistic context underwent in the period of religious change, i.e. the 17th, 18th and (to some extent 19th centuries. These changes of meaning render our possibilities of understanding the shamanistic aspects of the pre-Christian Saami religion more difficult as they make it hazardous to draw conclusions about shamanism from what we know about the use and meaning of these words in the later terminologies of magic. The sources from the 17th and 18th centuries derive almost exclusively from persons whose mission in life was to replace the Saami religious rites and conceptions with new ones. A special problem with the shamanistic terminology in Saami has to do with the negative connotations by which even the earliest sources are marked. For example, the Saami words have been translated with 'conjure', `enchantemein', 'sorcerer', 'sorcery', 'witchcraft', 'wizard' etc., a tendency that has coloured the general view of the noaidi.

  4. Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission Systems: Terminology and Present Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of continuously variable transmission systems in many different areas such as aerospace, robotics, machinery and automotive industries as an alternative to conventional speed changers with constant ratio becomes widely.Especially in the automotive industry, these systems have been used increasingly, since they enable that internal combustion engines in vehicles run at optimal speeds, and consequently provide considerable fuel savings and therefore lower emission values and also they provide powerful acceleration and quiet working. CVT systems have several constructive variants such as belted, chained, balled, toroidal etc. In this paper, toroidal CVT systems based on elastohydrodynamic principles are concerned with, and fundamental works of last two decades in this field are reviewed. However, the relevant terminology and dynamics along with the control of these systems are briefly treated for better understanding of the literature mentioned. Attention is drawn to the lack of some significant issues in present research works, and potential future works are pointed out. This paper, to the authors’ knowledge, will be the first review on toroidal CVT systems in Turkish literature

  5. A Harmonized Data Quality Assessment Terminology and Framework for the Secondary Use of Electronic Health Record Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michael G.; Callahan, Tiffany J.; Barnard, Juliana; Bauck, Alan E.; Brown, Jeff; Davidson, Bruce N.; Estiri, Hossein; Goerg, Carsten; Holve, Erin; Johnson, Steven G.; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Hamilton-Lopez, Marianne; Meeker, Daniella; Ong, Toan C.; Ryan, Patrick; Shang, Ning; Weiskopf, Nicole G.; Weng, Chunhua; Zozus, Meredith N.; Schilling, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Harmonized data quality (DQ) assessment terms, methods, and reporting practices can establish a common understanding of the strengths and limitations of electronic health record (EHR) data for operational analytics, quality improvement, and research. Existing published DQ terms were harmonized to a comprehensive unified terminology with definitions and examples and organized into a conceptual framework to support a common approach to defining whether EHR data is ‘fit’ for specific uses. Materials and Methods: DQ publications, informatics and analytics experts, managers of established DQ programs, and operational manuals from several mature EHR-based research networks were reviewed to identify potential DQ terms and categories. Two face-to-face stakeholder meetings were used to vet an initial set of DQ terms and definitions that were grouped into an overall conceptual framework. Feedback received from data producers and users was used to construct a draft set of harmonized DQ terms and categories. Multiple rounds of iterative refinement resulted in a set of terms and organizing framework consisting of DQ categories, subcategories, terms, definitions, and examples. The harmonized terminology and logical framework’s inclusiveness was evaluated against ten published DQ terminologies. Results: Existing DQ terms were harmonized and organized into a framework by defining three DQ categories: (1) Conformance (2) Completeness and (3) Plausibility and two DQ assessment contexts: (1) Verification and (2) Validation. Conformance and Plausibility categories were further divided into subcategories. Each category and subcategory was defined with respect to whether the data may be verified with organizational data, or validated against an accepted gold standard, depending on proposed context and uses. The coverage of the harmonized DQ terminology was validated by successfully aligning to multiple published DQ terminologies. Discussion: Existing DQ concepts

  6. Let’s Talk about MOFs—Topology and Terminology of Metal-Organic Frameworks and Why We Need Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Öhrström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent IUPAC (The International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry recommendations on the terminology of metal-organic frameworks are reviewed and the background to a proposed topology classification is discussed. The various numerical designators such as point symbols, vertex symbols and transitivity are also explained and their importance elucidated.

  7. Terminology and methodology in modelling for water quality management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Vanrolleghem, P.; Rauch, W.

    1997-01-01

    of the most widely used terms for characterising models and within the process of model building. It is essential to the ever growing society of researchers within water quality management, that communication is eased by establishing a common terminology. This should not be done by giving broader definitions...... of the terms, but by stressing the use of a stringent terminology. Therefore, the goal of the paper is to advocate the use of such a well defined and clear terminology. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....

  8. Nomenclature and terminology - standards for materials and processes

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Jeremy; Borkum, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Professor Frey will try and highlight some of the issues around nomenclature and terminology that arise when materials and processes need to be described especially in the context of being computer and human readable and processable.

  9. A general method for sifting linguistic knowledge from structured terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar, N; Zweigenbaum, P

    2000-01-01

    Morphological knowledge is useful for medical language processing, information retrieval and terminology or ontology development. We show how a large volume of morphological associations between words can be learnt from existing medical terminologies by taking advantage of the semantic relations already encoded between terms in these terminologies: synonymy, hierarchy and transversal relations. The method proposed relies on no a priori linguistic knowledge. Since it can work with different relations between terms, it can be applied to any structured terminology. Tested on SNOMED and ICD in French and English, it proves to identify fairly reliable morphological relations (precision > 90%) with a good coverage (over 88% compared to the UMLS lexical variant generation program). For English words with a stem longer than 3 characters, recall reaches 98.8% for inflection and 94.7% for derivation.

  10. Similarity-Based Recommendation of New Concepts to a Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Praveen; Yaman, Anil; Hoxha, Julia; He, Zhe; Weng, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Terminologies can suffer from poor concept coverage due to delays in addition of new concepts. This study tests a similarity-based approach to recommending concepts from a text corpus to a terminology. Our approach involves extraction of candidate concepts from a given text corpus, which are represented using a set of features. The model learns the important features to characterize a concept and recommends new concepts to a terminology. Further, we propose a cost-effective evaluation methodology to estimate the effectiveness of terminology enrichment methods. To test our methodology, we use the clinical trial eligibility criteria free-text as an example text corpus to recommend concepts for SNOMED CT. We computed precision at various rank intervals to measure the performance of the methods. Results indicate that our automated algorithm is an effective method for concept recommendation. PMID:26958170

  11. Terminology modeling for an enterprise laboratory orders catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Goldberg, Howard; Pabbathi, Deepika; Wright, Adam; Goldman, Debora S; Van Putten, Cheryl; Barley, Amanda; Rocha, Roberto A

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory test orders are used in a variety of clinical information systems at Partners HealthCare. At present, each site at Partners manages its own set of laboratory orders with locally defined codes. Our current plan is to implement an enterprise catalog, where laboratory test orders are mapped to reference terminologies and codes from different sites are mapped to each other. This paper describes the terminology modeling effort that preceded the implementation of the enterprise laboratory orders catalog. In particular, we present our experience in adapting HL7's "Common Terminology Services 2 - Upper Level Class Model" as a terminology metamodel for guiding the development of fully specified laboratory orders and related services. PMID:20351950

  12. Terminology: A necessary tool for the Specialized Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura E. Navarro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language disciplines, including Terminology and Specialized Translation, have made great strides after the second half of the twentieth century. This development, related to technological growth and international communication that occurred during this period, has resulted in a considerable increase of concepts. Thus, experts have become more and more aware of the importance of naming these new concepts. Specialized translators were among the first language professionals to recognize the need of mastering the terminology of specialized fields in order to perform their duties well (Antia et coll., 2005. In this work, we study the very close relationship between Terminology and Specialized Translation. We also study the theoretical and practical knowledge of Terminology that a specialized translator should have.

  13. [ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND WORK ENGAGEMENT - THEORETICAL CONCEPTIONS AND TERMINOLOGICAL PROBLEMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaguna, Mariola; Mielniczuk, Emilia; Żaliński, Adam; Wałachowska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Engagement in professional activities and positive attitudes towards an organization are of significant importance to functioning and health of employees. Studies analysing the phenomena of employees' engagement and their relations with an organization undergo a dynamic development in both international and Polish research. Two theoretical conceptions: organizational commitment (by Meyer and Allen) and work engagement (by Schaufeli and Bakker) have become prominent in the field. They capture 2 similar, albeit distinct constructs. In English-language journals academics concentrate on theoretical and empirical analyses of similarities and differences between the 2 concepts, while in Polish publications scholars also have to deal with the issue of the original term translation. The problem lies mostly in Polish nomenclature of the dimensions proposed in both of these conceptions. Lack of common translations for different studies may cause confusion in this area of research. In the paper authors present a review of Polish translations of terms used in the discussed conceptions and a linguistic analysis of terms, both in English and in Polish. Authors provide solutions which could help to clarify terminology in Polish-language publications concerning organizational commitment and work engagement. This allows for further development of research in this field. PMID:26294317

  14. An interface terminology for medical imaging ordering purposes.

    OpenAIRE

    GRIFFON, Nicolas; Savoye-Collet, Céline; Massari, Philippe; Daniel, Christel; Darmoni, Stéfan J.

    2012-01-01

    The need for structured data in electronic health records has not been fully addressed by reference terminologies (RT) due to difficulties of use for end-users. Interface terminologies (IT), built for specific usage and users, and linked to RT, may solve this issue. We propose an IT for medical imaging prescription, based on the French nomenclature for procedure (CCAM), and its qualitative evaluation. The creation and evaluation processes were adapted from published guidelines. Prescription I...

  15. The notion of Information Science – A Terminological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Câmara Siqueira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of the identifying characteristics of Information Science is a contemporary necessity observed in the context of postmodernity. The starting point of this study is the terminological analysis of the term Information Science, using the principal procedures for analysis and synthesis in contemporary orientation of the Communicative Theory of Terminology. Analysis of these definitions allows for the main characteristics of the area to be identified, in order to corroborate a better definition of the Information Science field.

  16. A phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of Austronesian sibling terminologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, F.

    2011-01-01

    Social structure in human societies is underpinned by the variable expression of ideas about relatedness between different types of kin. We express these ideas through language in our kin terminology: to delineate who is kin and who is not, and to attach meanings to the types of kin labels associated with different individuals. Cross-culturally, there is a regular and restricted range of patterned variation in kin terminologies, and to date, our understanding of this diversity has been hamper...

  17. Terminology of the public relations field: corpus — automatic term recognition — terminology database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Logar Berginc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an analysis of automatic term recognition results performed for single- and multi-word terms with the LUIZ term extraction system. The target application of the results is a terminology database of Public Relations and the main resource the KoRP Public Relations Corpus. Our analysis is focused on two segments: (a single-word noun term candidates, which we compare with the frequency list of nouns from KoRP and evaluate termhood on the basis of the judgements of two domain experts, and (b multi-word term candidates with verb and noun as headword. In order to better assess the performance of the system and the soundness of our approach we also performed an analysis of recall. Our results show that the terminological relevance of extracted nouns is indeed higher than that of merely frequent nouns, and that verbal phrases only rarely count as proper terms. The most productive patterns of multi-word terms with noun as a headword have the following structure: [adjective + noun], [adjective + and + adjective + noun] and [adjective + adjective + noun]. The analysis of recall shows low inter-annotator agreement, but nevertheless very satisfactory recall levels.

  18. Drug Craving Terminology among Opiate Dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Maarefvand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Drug craving is defined as an urge to continue substance abuse. Drug dependents use different terms to express their subjective feeling of craving. This study was an attempt to generate an understanding of craving terminology among different groups of Persian speaking Iranian opiate dependents.Method:Terms used for the meaning of drug craving were listed by 36 ex-opiate dependents in focus group discussion meetings in the first phase of the study. These terms were composed from Craving Terms Questionnaire. In the second phase, 120 subjects in 3 groups of opiate dependents and a group of Current Opiate Abusers rated usage frequency of each term in the questionnaire under a Twelve-Step Program, Methadone Maintenance, and Other Abstinence-based Programs.Results:Eighty nine terms were categorized in stimulation and triggering, attention bias and obsession, decision making difficulty, information processing impairment, withdrawal induction, drug euphoric experience, mental urge, motor control problem, negative valancing and stigmatizing. Terms for the three categories of mental urge, attention bias and obsession and motor control problem were used more than others. Patients in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT group used different categories of craving terms in comparison to other groups. Abstinent cases reported higher total score for craving terms in comparison to other groups in Twelve-Step Program and other abstinence-based programs.Conclusion:Each craving-related term is associated with some aspects of the multidimensional concept of craving. A drug-craving thesaurus could provide a better understanding of craving nature from a drug dependent point of view. There are differences among abstinence vs. maintenance based treated opiate dependents in using craving terms. Addiction therapists will benefit from accessing drug dependents’ lexicon to assess and create therapeutic alliance with their clients.

  19. Linked Heritage: a collaborative terminology management platform for a network of multilingual thesauri and controlled vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Veronique Leroi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminology and multilingualism have been one of the main focuses of the Athena Project. Linked Heritage as a legacy of this project also deals with terminology and bring theory to practice applying the recommendations given in the Athena Project. Linked Heritage as a direct follow-up of these recommendations on terminology and multilingualism is currently working on the development of a Terminology Management Platform (TMP. This platform will allow any cultural institution to register, SKOSify and manage its terminology in a collaborative way. This Terminology Management Platform will provide a network of multilingual and cross-domain terminologies.

  20. Agrosystem Services: An Additional Terminology to Better Understand Ecosystem Services Delivered by Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Wiggering

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To discriminate between the contributions of ecosystems and the human subsidies to agricultural systems, we propose using an additional terminology to bring clarification into the controversial discussion about i ecosystems versus agrosystems and ii ecosystem services versus agrosystem services. A literature review revealed that with the exception of some very recent publications, this has not yet been sufficiently reflected, neither within the scientific nor in the policy discussion. The question remains whether to spoil the discussion with new terms again and again. We reason that it makes sense to underpin the case-specific share of agricultural inputs to the supply of agroecosystem services and to add “agro” to the terminology. We conclude, that there is a need to promote the new terminology of agrosystem services and to strengthen the use of the already established term agroecosystem services within this context. To emphasise the production patterns behind the multiple benefits agricultural systems provide to humans (commodity and non-commodity outputs and to guarantee a reasonable weighting of related externalities in policy processes, we suggest to introduce the term agrosystem services into the discussion on ecosystem services. Agrosystem services in this context describe the anthropogenic share of agroecosystem services’ generation. Agroecosystem services include multiple provisioning, regulating and cultural services from agricultural ecosystems. The inclusion of agrosystem services might accommodate the ecology-based ecosystem services concept to the specificity of managed agricultural ecosystems and therefore could be better implemented by mostly economy-driven agricultural production systems and agricultural policy.

  1. Historical perspective on developmental concepts and terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, John M; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    In their ontogeny and phylogeny all living beings are historical entities. The revolution in biology of the 18th and 19th centuries that did away with the scala naturae according to which we humans, the acme of creation, "made a little lower than the angels," also led to the gradual realization that a humble one-celled protist ("protoctist"), such as Entamoeba histolytica of ill repute [Margulis and Chapman, ] has the same 4-billion-year phylogeny as that of Homo sapiens, vivid testimony to common ancestry and the relatedness of all living beings on earth. The group of medical geneticists who assembled at the NIH, Bethesda, MD this January to address terms pertaining to human ontogeny, did so in the long tradition of Sydenham, Linnaeus, Meckel, Geoffroy St-Hilaire père et fils, Wilhelm His and so many others before who had over the previous two centuries wrestled as earnestly as they could with concepts of "classification" and nomenclature of developmental anomalies. The prior massive need for classification per se in medical morphology has diminished over the years in favor of ever more sophisticated understanding of pathogenesis and cause through experimental biology and genetics; however, in the winter of 2013 it was still found prudent to respect terminological precedent on general terms while recognizing recent advances in developmental pathology requiring clarification and definition of special terms. Efforts along similar lines instigated by the German Society of Anatomists at their first meeting in Leipzig in 1887 culminated, after intense years of work by hundreds of experts and consultants under the goad of Wilhelm His, in the Basel Nomina Anatomica [BNA, His (1895)]. His, himself, stated prefatorily that the BNA had no legislative weight, only an evanescent consensus of many to be amended in the future as needed and indicated. Without hubris, no one before or after will do the same. The more substantial the consensus the more permanent the structure

  2. Motivation Terminology in Reading Research: A Conceptual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Kristin; Jang, Bong Gee; McKenna, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of motivation in understanding the development and practices of reading, problems persist in how motivation-related constructs are defined and investigated. This article reports a concept analysis of how 12 terms have been used in current reading research. Selection criteria resulted in the identification of 92 data-based…

  3. Terminology in South Africa Terminologie in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This article deals with terminology and terminography in South Africa. It gives the different meanings attached to the term terminology and describes points of difference between terminology and terminography. It focuses on the dimensions of terminology, namely the cognitive, linguistic and communicative dimension. Since terminologists need to consult with subject specialists, linguists, language users and mother-tongue speakers during different phases of the terminography process, the role of consultation in terminology work is stressed. Various aspects such as cultural differences that need to be taken care of, are discussed. The current South African terminology and terminography situation regarding terminology work undertaken by the National Language Service is examined. Emphasis is placed on the database system being used and the National Termbank. Terminology training also receives attention.

    Keywords: terminology, terminography, terminologist, terminographer, cognitive dimension, linguistic dimension, communicative dimension, technical dictionary, subject specialist, subject field, subject-oriented, concept-oriented, language-oriented, standardisation, primary term formation, secondary term formation, loan words, borrowing, transliteration, neologism, extension of meaning, total embedding, transference

     

    Hierdie artikel handel oor terminologie en terminografie in Suid-Afrika. Dit verskaf die verskillende betekenisse wat aan die term terminologie geheg word en beskryf punte van verskil tussen terminologie en terminografie. Daar word gefokus op die dimensies van terminologie, naamlik die kognitiewe dimensie, die taaldimensie en die kommunikatiewe dimensie. Aangesien terminoloë vakspesialiste, linguiste, taalgebruikers en moedertaalsprekers gedurende verskillende fases van terminologiewerk moet raadpleeg, word die rol van konsultasie in terminologiewerk beklemtoon. Verskeie aspekte waaraan aandag gegee

  4. Normalización de la terminología mexicana sobre el agua Standardization of Mexican terminology on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Naumis-Peña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se expone el resultado de una investigación llevada acabo para conocer el estado de la normalización terminológica en tesauros especializados que incluyen el agua dentro de sus áreas contratando los términos usados en la literatura mexicana. La documentación que se genera sobre el tema del agua en México crece en forma exponencial en tanto que la problemática del agua exige soluciones integrales. Actualmente no existe un tesauro, ni terminologías relacionadas con el tema del agua en México, ni tampoco una propuesta terminológica concreta sobre el tema en español. Por eso el presente documento aborda el tema del agua, la terminología que se usa en el español de México y los problemas que encuentra la intermediación terminológica que se realiza a partir de la Bibliotecología para representar estos contenidos en los sistemas de información.The result of a research intended to know about the state of terminological standardization in specialized thesauri which include water within its areas, is exposed contrasting the terms used in Mexican literature of the field. Documentation generated over the theme of water in Mexico grows exponentially, but water problems keep demanding integral solutions. Presently neither a thesaurus nor a terminology over the theme of water exists in Mexico, nor a concrete terminological offer over this theme in Spanish. This paper confronts the water theme, the terminology used in the Mexican Spanish and the problems found in terminological intermediation based on Library Science in order to represent those contents in the information systems.

  5. On Impact Of Jargons And Terminologies On Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-qing; SONG Chang-rong

    2016-01-01

    As one of the major kind of impediments to interpreters, jargons and terminologies are frequently used and many inter-preters regard them as a big challenge. But through a test of 12 subjects on their interpreting performances and impediments and another test of some subjects on their ability to discriminate some so-called technical terms at a mining company in Sierra Le-one, West Africa, it is found that jargons and terminologies are comparatively more difficult to some interpreters while much simple to others with a large enough vocabulary. They are only comparable concepts which are not insurmountable.

  6. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  7. Standard terminology relating to fatigue and fracture testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This terminology contains definitions, definitions of terms specific to certain standards, symbols, and abbreviations approved for use in standards on fatigue and fracture testing. The definitions are preceded by two lists. The first is an alphabetical listing of symbols used. (Greek symbols are listed in accordance with their spelling in English.) The second is an alphabetical listing of relevant abbreviations. 1.2 This terminology includes Annex A1 on Units and Annex A2 on Designation Codes for Specimen Configuration, Applied Loading, and Crack or Notch Orientation.

  8. Terminological Creation and Language Shift in Malaysia's Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Terminology is a central theme of debate about language shift in Malaysia's judicial system--sometimes seen as the last bastion of the colonial language. Advocates of more Malay in courtroom argument and professional practice often point to the Institute of Language and Literature's creation of thousands of terms to equip the national language for…

  9. Iron Metallurgy: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to iron metallurgy. Various aspects of iron production are described in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  10. 9 CFR 145.24 - Terminology and classification; States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY Special Provisions for Multiplier Egg-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.24 Terminology and... found within the preceding 24 months in waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game bird breeding...

  11. 9 CFR 145.34 - Terminology and classification; States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY Special Provisions for Multiplier Meat-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.34 Terminology and... found within the preceding 24 months in waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game bird breeding...

  12. Power Transformers: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol.2, No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to power transformers. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  13. A Terminological Confusion in the Romance Languages: The "Gerund."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leslie Z.

    1992-01-01

    Derivations of the term "gerund" are examined as they pertain to native English speakers learning French, Italian, and/or Spanish. The form's etymology is chronicled from Latin, and its current usage in student textbooks in the three languages is examined. A solution to the terminological confusion surrounding the term is proposed. (41 references)…

  14. A common terminology for the external anatomy of centipedes (Chilopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Bonato

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A common terminology for the external morphological characters of centipedes (Chilopoda is proposed. Terms are selected from the alternatives used in the English literature, preferring those most frequently used or those that have been introduced explicitly. A total of 330 terms are defined and illustrated, and another ca 500 alternatives are listed.

  15. A standard for terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doggweiler, Regula; Whitmore, Kristene E; Meijlink, Jane M;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Terms used in the field of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are poorly defined and often confusing. An International Continence Society (ICS) Standard for Terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CPPS) has been developed with the aim of improving diagnosis and treatment of patients affected b...

  16. Remote sensing terminology: past experience and recent needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Rumiana

    2013-10-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Terminology accuracy is essential during all phases of international cooperation. It is crucial to keep up with the latest quantitative and qualitative developments and novelties of the terminology in advanced technology fields such as aerospace science and industry. This is especially true in remote sensing and geoinformatics which develop rapidly and have wide and ever extending applications in various domains of human activity. The importance of the correct use of remote sensing terms refers not only to people working in this field but also to experts in many disciplines who handle remote sensing data and information products. The paper is devoted to terminology issues that refer to all aspects of remote sensing research and application areas. The attention is drawn on the recent needs and peculiarities of compiling specialized dictionaries in the subject area of remote sensing. Details are presented about the work in progress on the preparation of an English-Bulgarian dictionary of remote sensing terms focusing on Earth observations and geoinformation science. Our belief is that the elaboration of bilingual and multilingual dictionaries and glossaries in this spreading, most technically advanced and promising field of human expertise is of great practical importance. Any interest in cooperation and initiating of suchlike collaborative multilingual projects is welcome and highly appreciated.

  17. Standard terminology of C26.10 nondestructive assay methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The terminology defined in this document is associated with nondestructive assay of nuclear material. 1.2 All of the definitions are associated with measurement techniques that measure nuclear emissions (that is, neutrons, gamma-rays, or heat) directly or indirectly. 1.3 definitions are relevant to any standards and guides written by subcommittee C26.10.

  18. Teaching medical terminology using word-matching games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuetzman, Amy L; Abdullaev, Yalchin

    2012-07-01

    The use of word-matching games for classroom teaching of medical terminology to nursing and other health sciences students is described. Students work in small groups and match cards containing medical terms to cards containing their English translation. This approach encourages student-centered active learning and employs multiple modes of learning, including visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and text-based styles.

  19. Latest German-English Terminology in CADCAM & Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    As a technical translator who speaks German fluently, the author would like to study and display the latest bilingual technical terminology in German being used in hardware, software and process technology involved in CADCAM & ROBOTICS. This will greatly help technical translators to correctly translate difficult texts from this area of technology.

  20. Platerm: la banque de terminologie du systeme Platon (PLATERM: The Terminology Bank of the PLATO System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace; St-Denis, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Describes the elements and functioning of the terminology bank of the PLATO (Programmed Loqic for Automated Teaching Operation) system. Discusses contemporary terminology and lexicography notions on which the bank is based and outlines the tasks performed through PLATERM. (MES)

  1. Dimensions of Diversity : Terminology in health research

    OpenAIRE

    Bradby, Hannah; Brand, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    This short review considers how ‘ethnicity’ and ‘superdiversity’ are used alongside ‘diversity’ in health research in a sample of recent journal articles. Diversity appears regularly in health inequalities research where the term is used to justify a focus on particular minorities presented as especially vulnerable to ill health or to being in receipt of inadequate services. Given the complexity of what is covered by ‘diversity’ there is a tendency to focus on a single dimension for intervent...

  2. Epilepsy-associated tumours: what epileptologists should know about neuropathology, terminology, and classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthausen, Hans; Blümcke, Ingmar

    2016-09-01

    Brain tumours are an ever-challenging issue in neurology and related medical disciplines. This applies in particular to brain tumours associated with childhood-onset epilepsies, in which seizures are the presenting and only neurological symptom, as our current understanding of the biology and clinical behaviour of an individual tumour is far from being evidence-based. Prospective and randomized clinical trials are lacking in the field of epilepsy-associated tumours and a review of the current literature evokes more questions than provides answers. In this review, current areas of controversy in neuropathology, as well as terminology and classification, are discussed from an epileptologist's perspective. An illustrative case report exemplifies this controversy to further promote interdisciplinary discussion and novel research avenues towards comprehensive patient management in the near future. PMID:27506282

  3. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  4. ESPEN guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederholm, T; Barazzoni, R; Austin, P;

    2016-01-01

    risk followed by a complete nutritional assessment. Hospital and care facility catering are the basic organizational forms for providing nutrition. Oral nutritional supplementation is the preferred way of nutrition therapy but if inadequate then other forms of medical nutrition therapy, i.e. enteral......BACKGROUND: A lack of agreement on definitions and terminology used for nutrition-related concepts and procedures limits the development of clinical nutrition practice and research. OBJECTIVE: This initiative aimed to reach a consensus for terminology for core nutritional concepts and procedures....... METHODS: The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) appointed a consensus group of clinical scientists to perform a modified Delphi process that encompassed e-mail communication, face-to-face meetings, in-group ballots and an electronic ESPEN membership Delphi round. RESULTS: Five...

  5. Ionizing radiation: On why present terminology causes confusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of argot and violation of epistemological impair comprehension of statements of about ionizing radiation. Abolishment of 'becquerel', 'gray' and 'sievert' is one suitable measure for urgently needed improvement. One of the causes of the anxiety and fear evoked by news about the use of radiation or about accidents involving radiation is the terminology used by the authorities addressing the public. Radiological terminology is so strange and alienating to the general public that the result could hardly be other than fear. In what follows, I shall try to show not only that radiological jargon is unnecessary but also that it has to a major extent been established through neglect or misunderstanding of words and of the epistemological principles of measurements. 5 refs

  6. Terminology Analysis of the Edition of “Autovežimis” (1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Petrėtienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the terminology used in J. Levan‘s book “Autovežimis”, published in 1940 (hereinafter in the text referred to as abbreviation A, particularly the terminology (of both transportation and other terms used in transportation sphere (mainly in physics and chemistry. The authors review simple and complex terms, analyse expression of synonymous terms. The 3rd Chapter of the book presents terms that have not been preserved or their forms have altered over time with the aim of determining the terms that replaced them. Identified current terms in the text are written in quotes, quoted from sources: Kalbos…(2005; Katalynaitė et al. (1995; Keinys et al. (2000; Vaitkevičiūtė (2007; Žitkutė (1996. Terms from the Term Bank of Lithuanian State Language Commission are provided as well (Source: Gaivenis et al. 2000; Geleževičius et al. 2004; Palenskis et al. 2007; Švenčianas et al. 2004; Valiukėnas et al. 2006. Determination of terms meaning is based on the vehicle design and systems schemes and diagrams given in Giedra et al. (2006. The edition presents authentic language.

  7. Diversity of phage infection types and associated terminology: the problem with 'Lytic or lysogenic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Zack; Abedon, Stephen T

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses of members of domain Bacteria. These viruses play numerous roles in shaping the diversity of microbial communities, with impact differing depending on what infection strategies specific phages employ. From an applied perspective, these especially are communities containing undesired or pathogenic bacteria that can be modified through phage-mediated bacterial biocontrol, that is, through phage therapy. Here we seek to categorize phages in terms of their infection strategies as well as review or suggest more descriptive, accurate or distinguishing terminology. Categories can be differentiated in terms of (1) whether or not virion release occurs (productive infections versus lysogeny, pseudolysogeny and/or the phage carrier state), (2) the means of virion release (lytic versus chronic release) and (3) the degree to which phages are genetically equipped to display lysogenic cycles (temperate versus non-temperate phages). We address in particular the use or overuse of what can be a somewhat equivocal phrase, 'Lytic or lysogenic', especially when employed as a means of distinguishing among phages types. We suggest that the implied dichotomy is inconsistent with both modern as well as historical understanding of phage biology. We consider, therefore, less ambiguous terminology for distinguishing between 'Lytic' versus 'Lysogenic' phage types. PMID:26925588

  8. Multi-perspective enterprise modelling: Background and terminological foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In Information Systems, enterprise modelling has been a pivotal field of research that has evolved over a period of more than 20 years. In recent years, the main research focus was on adapting approaches to enterprise modelling to changing requirements, e.g. provide support for IT management. To develop a better understanding of the motivation, objectives and concepts that are characteristic for enterprise modelling, it is important to study the terminological background. On the one hand, it ...

  9. REVISING THE QUESTION OF TERMINOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION OF BRUXISM

    OpenAIRE

    E. I. Boykova; P. N. Geletin; N. V. Ginali; N. N. Maslova; N. V. Yureva

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is no consolidated opinion regarding the terminology and classification of bruxism. The following terms are used for determination of unconscious strong compression teeth: “effect Karolyi”, “stridor dentium”, occlusal neurosis, odonterizm, “bruksomaniya”, “parafunctional activity of masticatory muscles”. Because of the disease nature the polyethiologic symptom group is develops that complicates the disease representation. The authors are recommend the usage “bruxism” term in ev...

  10. Chemical Nomenclature and Terminology in the Light of Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Raos N.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical nomenclature and terminology are not only determined by the development of chemistry, but also by linguistic policies of the nation which uses them. The first modern chemical nomenclature, developed in France at the end of the 18th century, had been intended for international usage, and thus the names of new elements were developed from Greek and Latin roots. Conversely, in Germany the names of elements were coined in strict reference to the German language. In Croatia, both tende...

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF TERMINOLOGICAL COMPETENCE DEVELOPING FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH LEARNERS

    OpenAIRE

    Yusukhno, Svitlana; Korets, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to deal with the main issues to the learning terminological collocations in business English. The main emphasis is laid on the importance of collocations for learners of English as a foreign language as well as the actuality importance of their use in the cross cultural business communication. The examples of some frequently used business collocation patterns are provided.

  12. International Accounting Standards and Changes in Accounting Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    The language of accounting is subject to continuous change. One of the reasons for a change in terminology is the introduction of new legal requirements that bring about a change in the underlying concepts and therefore the need for new specific terms. Such a situation was created by the Regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 on the application of international accounting standards (IAS). This regulation aims at harmonising ac-counting standards and procedures relating to the preparation and presentat...

  13. The terminology in the study of user information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Kafure

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It an exploratory study of concepts/terms to define an interdisciplinary nomenclature of a research group of Information, Design, and Usability (IDU, of the Postgraduate Program of Information Science (PPGCinf, of the University of Brasilia (UnB. The IDU Group research through collaborative work about users and their interaction with interfaces for communicating and mediating the information. The proposal incorporates interdisciplinary contributions of Information Science, Arts, Design, Communication, Cognitive Psychology, Computer Science, Education and related areas. The terminology is intended to better communication for the user study of information and its interaction with the technological tools in mediation and communication of information. Presents terminology used in studies of information users, users with visual disabilities, early childhood and interfaces of information systems. Concludes with an identification of a common terminology within an interdisciplinary group, which incorporates contributions of Information Science, Arts, Communication, Cognitive Psychology, Education, Computer and related areas, in search of strategies for better communication in the course of joint and collaborative research.

  14. INTERPRETATION OF AYURVEDIC TERMINOLOGIES FROM BIOSTATISTICAL PERSPECTIVE IN RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athikajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Any branch of science demands precision for its development, and so does the medical science. For precision facts, observations or measurements have to be expressed in a figure, which is termed as statistics. Everything in medicine be it a research, diagnosis or treatment, depends on numbers or measurement. Ayurvedic scholars had given due regard to the importance of statistical methods. The mentioning of term ‘sankhya’ and ‘maana’ in the literature of Ayurveda itself indicates the importance given to numbers and measurement. This work aims at interpreting different terminologies of Ayurveda from the Bio-statistical perspective. For this purpose relevant information were collected from the various literatures of Ayurveda and contemporary science and interpretation was done on each statistical terminology. The statistical methods which were used by the ancient Indian seers are in practice for a long time, but it is the need of the hour to explore them with some new terminologies of contemporary science, to standardize the quality of research in Ayurveda. Hence by this work it would be helpful to conclude that Statistical methods which is considered as a recent advancement was in use since ages.

  15. Gyration of the feline brain: localization, terminology and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakozdy, A; Angerer, C; Klang, A; König, E H; Probst, A

    2015-12-01

    The terminology of feline brain gyration is not consistent and individual variability has not been systematically examined. The aim of the study was to identify the gyri and sulci of cat brains and describe them using the current terminology. The brains of 15 cats including 10 European shorthairs, 2 Siamese, 2 Maine coons and one Norvegian forest cat without clinical evidence of brain disease were examined post-mortem and photographed for documentation. For description, the terms of the most recent Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV, 2012) were used, and comparisons with previous anatomical texts were also performed. In addition to the lack of comparative morphology in the NAV, veterinary and human nomenclature are used interchangeably and inconsistently in the literature. This presents a challenge for neurologists and anatomists in localizing gyri and sulci. A comparative analysis of brain gyration showed only minor individual variability among the cats. High-quality labelled figures are provided to facilitate the identification of cat brain gyration. Our work consolidates the current and more consistent gyration terminology for reporting the localization of a cortical lesion based on magnetic resonance imaging or histopathology. This will facilitate not only morphological but also functional research using accurate anatomical reporting.

  16. [Big data, medical language and biomedical terminology systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; López-García, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    A variety of rich terminology systems, such as thesauri, classifications, nomenclatures and ontologies support information and knowledge processing in health care and biomedical research. Nevertheless, human language, manifested as individually written texts, persists as the primary carrier of information, in the description of disease courses or treatment episodes in electronic medical records, and in the description of biomedical research in scientific publications. In the context of the discussion about big data in biomedicine, we hypothesize that the abstraction of the individuality of natural language utterances into structured and semantically normalized information facilitates the use of statistical data analytics to distil new knowledge out of textual data from biomedical research and clinical routine. Computerized human language technologies are constantly evolving and are increasingly ready to annotate narratives with codes from biomedical terminology. However, this depends heavily on linguistic and terminological resources. The creation and maintenance of such resources is labor-intensive. Nevertheless, it is sensible to assume that big data methods can be used to support this process. Examples include the learning of hierarchical relationships, the grouping of synonymous terms into concepts and the disambiguation of homonyms. Although clear evidence is still lacking, the combination of natural language technologies, semantic resources, and big data analytics is promising. PMID:26077872

  17. Terminology of the sucker-like organs of the scolex of trypanorhynch cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Malcolm K; Beveridge, Ian; Campbell, Ron A; Palm, Harry W

    2004-10-01

    The literature associated with descriptions and definitions of the sucker-like attachment organs in trypanorhynchs, termed either bothria or bothridia, is reviewed. There are descriptions of 14 trypanorhynch species representing 10 families. In none of these trypanorhynchs was a membrane separating the attachment organ from the scolex parenchyma described, one of the definitions used to distinguish bothria from bothridia. Transmission electron microscopy of the bothria of the trypanorhynch species Nybelinia queenslandensis Beveridge & Jones, 1998 (Tentaculariidae) and Otobothrium mugilis Hiscock, 1954 (Otobothriidae) also failed to show any membranous structure separating the surface of the attachment organ from the cestode parenchyma. The sucker-like attachment organs of trypanorhynchan cestodes appear, therefore, to be bothria rather than bothridia. As a result, changes in the terminology of related features of the scolex are proposed here. Henceforth, the pars bothridialis should be referred to as the pars bothrialis and the bothridial pits should be referred to bothrial pits. PMID:15477752

  18. Terminology Guideline for Classifying Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to establish a clear and consistent vocabulary for conveying offshore wind resource potential and to interpret this vocabulary in terms that are familiar to the oil and gas (O&G) industry. This involves clarifying and refining existing definitions of offshore wind energy resource classes. The terminology developed in this guideline represents one of several possible sets of vocabulary that may differ with respect to their purpose, data availability, and comprehensiveness. It was customized to correspond with established offshore wind practices and existing renewable energy industry terminology (e.g. DOE 2013, Brown et al. 2015) while conforming to established fossil resource classification as best as possible. The developers of the guideline recognize the fundamental differences that exist between fossil and renewable energy resources with respect to availability, accessibility, lifetime, and quality. Any quantitative comparison between fossil and renewable energy resources, including offshore wind, is therefore limited. For instance, O&G resources are finite and there may be significant uncertainty associated with the amount of the resource. In contrast, aboveground renewable resources, such as offshore wind, do not generally deplete over time but can vary significantly subhourly, daily, seasonally, and annually. The intent of this guideline is to make these differences transparent and develop an offshore wind resource classification that conforms to established fossil resource classifications where possible. This guideline also provides methods to quantitatively compare certain offshore wind energy resources to O&G resource classes for specific applications. Finally, this guideline identifies areas where analogies to established O&G terminology may be inappropriate or subject to misinterpretation.

  19. Advanced Encoding for Multilingual Access in a Terminological Data Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick; L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Robichaud, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new functionalities implemented in a terminological database (TDB) in order to allow efficient editing of and access to multilingual data. The functionalities are original in the sense that they allow users of the database to retrieve the equivalents not only of headwords...... between equivalents can be established automatically. Examples are taken from the fields of computing and the Internet and focus on English and French. However, the model can easily be extended to other fields and languages provided that the data is available and encoded properly....

  20. The key to technical translation, v.2 terminology/lexicography

    CERN Document Server

    Hann, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This handbook for German/English/German technical translators at all levels from student to professional covers the root terminologies of the spectrum of scientific and engineering fields. The work is designed to give technical translators direct insight into the main error sources occurring in their profession, especially those resulting from a poor understanding of the subject matter and the usage of particular terms to designate different concepts in different branches of technology. The style is easy to read and suitable for nonnative English speakers and translators with no engineering ex

  1. Using terminology extraction techniques for improving traceability from formal models to textual requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Cerbah, Farid; Euzenat, Jérôme

    2000-01-01

    cerbah2000a International audience This article deals with traceability in sotfware engineering. More precisely, we concentrate on the role of terminological knowledge the mapping between (informal) textual requirements and (formal) object models. We show that terminological knowledge facilitates production of traceability links, provided that language processing technologies allow to elaborate semi-automatically the required terminological resources. The presented system is one step to...

  2. Terminology extraction from text to build an ontology in surgical intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moigno, Sophie; Charlet, Jean; Bourigault, Didier; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2002-01-01

    In many medical fields, the maintenance of unabiguous terminologies, the comparison and aggregation of different terminologies go through the building of formal specialized clinical terminologies, the ontologies. In this paper, we describe the building of an ontology in the surgical intensive care medical domain. We considered textual reports as the main source of information and a natural language processing tool, the SYNTEX software, is used to build the ontology. We have tested the possibi...

  3. The translation of terminology in TV series : the Spanish dubbing of E.R.

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Vives, María Dolores; Matamala, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In this article the authors analyse how medical terminology found in the original version of an episode of the television series E.R. has been translated into the Spanish dubbed version. The translations are analysed in terms of translation techniques. A remarkable number of mistakes have been found in the translation of medical terminology, hence lowering the realism of the dubbed version. The relationship between terminology and audiovisual translation is discussed. Methodological issues co...

  4. Information retrieval and terminology extraction in online resources for patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljan, Sanja; Baretić, Maja; Kucis, Vlasta

    2014-06-01

    Terminology use, as a mean for information retrieval or document indexing, plays an important role in health literacy. Specific types of users, i.e. patients with diabetes need access to various online resources (on foreign and/or native language) searching for information on self-education of basic diabetic knowledge, on self-care activities regarding importance of dietetic food, medications, physical exercises and on self-management of insulin pumps. Automatic extraction of corpus-based terminology from online texts, manuals or professional papers, can help in building terminology lists or list of "browsing phrases" useful in information retrieval or in document indexing. Specific terminology lists represent an intermediate step between free text search and controlled vocabulary, between user's demands and existing online resources in native and foreign language. The research aiming to detect the role of terminology in online resources, is conducted on English and Croatian manuals and Croatian online texts, and divided into three interrelated parts: i) comparison of professional and popular terminology use ii) evaluation of automatic statistically-based terminology extraction on English and Croatian texts iii) comparison and evaluation of extracted terminology performed on English manual using statistical and hybrid approaches. Extracted terminology candidates are evaluated by comparison with three types of reference lists: list created by professional medical person, list of highly professional vocabulary contained in MeSH and list created by non-medical persons, made as intersection of 15 lists. Results report on use of popular and professional terminology in online diabetes resources, on evaluation of automatically extracted terminology candidates in English and Croatian texts and on comparison of statistical and hybrid extraction methods in English text. Evaluation of automatic and semi-automatic terminology extraction methods is performed by recall

  5. Normalización de la terminología mexicana sobre el agua Standardization of Mexican terminology on water

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Naumis-Peña; Verónica Vargas-Suárez

    2009-01-01

    Se expone el resultado de una investigación llevada acabo para conocer el estado de la normalización terminológica en tesauros especializados que incluyen el agua dentro de sus áreas contratando los términos usados en la literatura mexicana. La documentación que se genera sobre el tema del agua en México crece en forma exponencial en tanto que la problemática del agua exige soluciones integrales. Actualmente no existe un tesauro, ni terminologías relacionadas con el tema del agua en México, n...

  6. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector.

  7. SECT: SCIENTIFIC TERMINOLOGY OR COMPROMISE OF NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Nikolaevich Artyuhov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious studies specialists do not have consensus on the terminology of new religious movements (NRM, because this term covers a wide range of movements - from those based on new approaches to religion to community organizations. Some researchers have an idea of NRM as sects that use illegal methods to attract new members. Besides, objective study of the term "sect" is impeded by its negative perception on everyday level and in a number of publications. In this article the author, analyzing the features of "sects", shows partiality of the use of the term with regard to all the NRMs, as it does not reflect their quality characteristics. The lack of the terminological apparatus has caused the situation when all people interpret these concepts at their own discretion, based on their own ideological positions. However, what is considered as a sect from religious point of view does not always lead to destabilization of secular public life, as many nontraditional religious groups make a significant contribution to the moral condition of modern society. Therefore, studying the non-traditional faiths, the author suggests to use neutral terms: "non-traditional religions" or "new religious organizations".

  8. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector. PMID:26394486

  9. Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia terminology in practice: 4-year experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sarah E; Hecht, Jonathan L

    2012-03-01

    An alternative WHO classification system for endometrial precancers and hyperplasia separates a lesion called endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) from diffuse hormonal effects and cancer, resulting in a 3-category system. EIN is a localized lesion with objective histologic criteria, characterized by monoclonal growth of mutated cells, and associated with a 45-fold elevated cancer risk. This study summarizes our department's experience with EIN diagnoses in the 4 years since conversion to the new terminology. We identified all reports from endometrial samples diagnosed as EIN or including the terms "gland crowding" or "atypia" since conversion and obtained follow-up information from subsequent pathology specimens or clinic notes (82%). The diagnoses were reported by a mixture of pathologists, the majority of whom are not subspecialized to gynecologic pathology and the slides were not reviewed. Overall, 17.1% of women with EIN had carcinoma and 34.9% had either carcinoma or persistent EIN. The proportion of women with EIN or cancer on follow-up did not trend with years since adoption of EIN terminology. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 55 years in an overall population of women who underwent sampling at a median age of 47 years. The median follow-up time was 4 months. All cancers were of endometrioid histology; all but 2 were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 1. In comparison with a previous reproducibility study among expert pathologists on a comparable population from our department, these results for general pathologists show a higher false positive rate for subsequent cancer. PMID:22317874

  10. Some systemic criteria of the differentiation between fundamental and applied terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akayeva Kh. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issue of singling out some systemic criteria of differentiation between the fundamental and applied terminologies is considered. The authors point at the fact that each terminology has its own individual peculiarities, which mark it out against a general background of the terminological fund of a certain language. It is asserted that one of the most important and effective criteria that can be the basis of the approach to the study of sublanguages for special purposes is a fundamental or applied character of the sphere of professional or scientific knowledge verbalized by a certain terminology. Such terms, as “fundamental terminology”, “applied terminology” and “terminology of transition type”, are introduced for scientific use. The fundamental terminology is understood as a sublanguage for special purposes that verbalizes the notions, forming the totality of fundamental knowledge, serving for the description of phenomena and processes in reality and in science, in the framework of which the fundamental research is carried out. The applied terminology is the name for the sublanguage for special purposes representing the notions, in which the results of human being’s practical scientific-industrial activity for changing the reality, forming the artificial habitat, are conceptualized. The terminology of transition type is the terminology that verbalizes the fragments of the field of scientific knowledge in which the research can have both a fundamental and applied character. The authors come to the conclusion that pure applied or fundamental terminologies are quite rare, that it is rational to speak about the degree of manifestation of the applied or fundamental character within the limits of this or that terminological system.

  11. 9 CFR 145.63 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Ostrich, Emu, Rhea, and Cassowary Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.63 Terminology and classification; flocks and products. Participating flocks, and the eggs and baby...

  12. 9 CFR 146.23 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Commercial Table-Egg Layer Flocks § 146.23 Terminology and classification; flocks and products. Participating flocks which have met the respective requirements specified in...

  13. A LEXICON OF CAVE AND KARST TERMINOLOGY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL KARST HYDROLOGY (2002 EDITION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several attempts to classify karst terminology in an organized manner have been attempted in the past. The last few glossaries of karst terminology were organized in the late 1960s and published in the early 1970s. Since that time, many new terms related to karst in general hav...

  14. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section 146.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology...

  15. Terminology of European Education and Training Policy: A Selection of 130 Key Terms. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This multilingual glossary defines 130 key terms used in European education and training policy. It is an extended and updated version of "Terminology of European education and training policy" (2008) and "Terminology of vocational training policy" (2004). It considers new priorities of European union policy, mainly in skills…

  16. Terminology and definitions on groin pain in athletes: Building agreement using a short Delphi method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Weir (Adam); P. Hölmich (Per); A.G. Schache (Anthony G.); E. Delahunt (Eamonn); R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Groin pain in athletes occurs frequently and can be difficult to treat, which may partly be due to the lack of agreement on diagnostic terminology. Objective: To perform a short Delphi survey on terminology agreement for groin pain in athletes by a group of experts. Methods:

  17. Metonymies in Medical Terminologies. A SNOMED CT Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Metonymies are language phenomena, in which one expression is used to refer to a related one. Whereas there are many examples in medical discourse, it has been controversially discussed to what extent metonymic phenomena also matter in medical terminologies like SNOMED CT, where they could hamper their proper use. We investigated this by analyzing all SNOMED CT single word fully specified names containing the suffixes “-itis” and “-ectomy”. Using a combination of string and concept matching, we harvested definitional phrases from the Web and contrasted them with the terms and their logical definitions as stated in SNOMED CT. Whereas metonymic phenomena are very rare in the collection of surgical terms (two out of 138), they were found in 16 terms (out of 251) in the collection of inflammation terms. Web mining retrieved useful phrases for 11 of these terms. Most metonymies found corresponded to the “whole for part” and “general for specific” pattern. PMID:23304317

  18. Product/Service-Systems: Proposal for models and terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; Tan, Adrian; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    very blurred and ill defined. This paper will try to identify the fundamental characteristics of PSS and propose a system of concepts that can be used to describe and discuss the phenomenon, for the purpose of developing new PSS solutions. Coming from a tradition of product development research......Over recent years a growing number of studies and research programmes have been conducted on the issue of product/service-systems (PSS) [1, 2] and results have been presented at this row of symposia [3, 4]. These studies usually analyse the potential of integrated solutions to reduce...... the environmental impacts of human consumption activity or optimise a company’s ability to cope with the influences arising from the emerging globalisation of economic and business activities. Since there has not been worked on a coherent terminology for the terms and concepts used in PSS research, the area remains...

  19. Terminología y Variación Especializada

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Gómez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Con la descripción de los problemas teóricos, metodológicos y prácticos de los lenguajes especializados, este programa tendrá como objetivo iniciar a los alumnos en este reciente ámbito de estudio e investigación que ha cobrado, por su interdisciplinariedad, una extraordinaria vigencia y actualidad en los últimos años, para que éstos adquieran: 1) desde un punto de vista teórico, los conocimientos básicos en Terminología y Variación, fundamentalmente en lo que atañe a los rasgos lingüístic...

  20. INIS, CEA and nuclear terminology; INIS, CEA et terminologie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surmont, J.; Brulet, C.; Constant, A.; Guille, N.; Le Blanc, A.; Mouffron, O.; Anguise, P.; Jouve, J.J

    2007-07-01

    This poster, prepared for the fifth edition of the meetings of scientific and technical information professionals (RPIST, Nancy (France)), presents, first, the INIS information system, its content and coverage, the French participation to this system and the role of the CEA-Saclay as France's official representative for this system. Then it presents the INIS thesaurus with its different levels as a terminological tool for the indexing of documents and for searching documents inside the database. Finally, the very first electronic version of the multilingual thesaurus is introduced. Several national INIS centres, including the CEA-Saclay, have contributed to the translation of lists of new terms and of forbidden terms (synonyms). (J.S.)

  1. LANGUAGE AS ART, ART AS LANGUAGE: TERMINOLOGICAL AND CONCEPTUAL TRANSFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Feshchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes terminological complexes where the concepts of “language” and “art” act as components and thus convey particular ideas of language (“visions of language” in terms of art, and, vice versa, visions of art in terms of language. We address a number of contexts from the history of linguistics and aesthetics, where the concepts of “language” and “art” act as operators in various combinations according to particular conceptions. In Antiquity and the Middle Ages, language did not relate to categories of art, apart from the contexts of the art of eloquency (rhetorics; the concepts of techne and ars had only to do with grammatical art. The idea of creativity, expressed in the concepts of poiesis and creatio, for its part, did not go beyond the theory of literary genres (lyric, drama, epic and in Medieval aethetics beyond theological visions of divine creation. The concept of language began to play an active part starting from German Romanticism, which introduced the formula Sprache der Kunst. Later on in literature studies, this expression transformed into the idea of “language as creativity” and “language as art” (in Neohumboldtianism and, in Avant-Garde poetics, language became the carrier of synesthesia. The formalist notion of “poetic language”, being itself an offspring of avant-garde literary experiments, underwent a transfer to the field of arts and transformed into semiotical notions of “languages of art” and “art as language”. Finally, the linguistic turn of the early 20th century provided for the tranfer of “language-art” terminological complex into the area of artistic activism. Conceptual art based its principles on language games and linguistic premises. 

  2. Building a common pediatric research terminology for accelerating child health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michael G; Bailey, L Charles; Forrest, Christopher B; Padula, Michael A; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal observational clinical data on pediatric patients in electronic format is becoming widely available. A new era of multi-institutional data networks that study pediatric diseases and outcomes across disparate health delivery models and care settings are also enabling an innovative collaborative rapid improvement paradigm called the Learning Health System. However, the potential alignment of routine clinical care, observational clinical research, pragmatic clinical trials, and health systems improvement requires a data infrastructure capable of combining information from systems and workflows that historically have been isolated from each other. Removing barriers to integrating and reusing data collected in different settings will permit new opportunities to develop a more complete picture of a patient's care and to leverage data from related research studies. One key barrier is the lack of a common terminology that provides uniform definitions and descriptions of clinical observations and data. A well-characterized terminology ensures a common meaning and supports data reuse and integration. A common terminology allows studies to build upon previous findings and to reuse data collection tools and data management processes. We present the current state of terminology harmonization and describe a governance structure and mechanism for coordinating the development of a common pediatric research terminology that links to clinical terminologies and can be used to align existing terminologies. By reducing the barriers between clinical care and clinical research, a Learning Health System can leverage and reuse not only its own data resources but also broader extant data resources. PMID:24534404

  3. Problems with peat-electricity stem from terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At the Conference here we have been talking about peat, bio fuel, co-generation of heat and electricity, bioelectricity, the obligation to buy electricity generated from renewable energy resources according to preferential tariffs etc. Sangla Peat Ltd. is an enterprise where these issues are dealt with daily. Still we are unable to sell the peat-produced electricity to Estonian Energy according to preferential tariffs as fixed in the Energy Act (Energiaseadus, 1999), because peat is not listed among the favoured sources of energy. Therefore Sangla Peat Ltd. is enforced to sell its electricity surplus to the national electric network at very low price and only because of lawmakers' contradictory interpretations of fuels. This mess in terminology should be tackled seriously. In The National Long Term Energy Development Programme peat is sometimes treated as a renewable energy source. In the same document peat and even biofuels are not considered as renewable energy sources (however, Energy Act does not include this term). Yet the document emphasizes the preference of heat and electricity cogeneration and states renewable energy sources utilization to be the strategic Estonian energetics objective. The usage of peat is planned to be increasing in heat and electricity co-generation stations. Within cooperation between the department of energetics of the Estonian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Estonian Bio fuel Association the process has already started to diminish contradictions in fuel terminology and in the laws concerning energetics. Also 'Eesti Turvas' (Estonian Peat) magazine has thoroughly treated this subject in its fall 1999 issue (Veski, 1999). On behalf of Sangla Peat Ltd. I hope our authorities of energetics and economy will clear up the the contradictions between Energy Act and The National Long Term Energy Development Programme soon. With the help of laws we need a clear answer to the question: is electric energy, generated in Estonian heat

  4. More terminological clarity in the interprofessional field - a call for reflection on the use of terminologies, in both practice and research, on a national and international level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzkat, Anika; Berger, Sarah; Reeves, Scott; Mahler, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The terminology which has been used up until now within interprofessional healthcare has been characterised by a certain definitional weakness, which, among other factors, has been caused by an uncritical adoption of language conventions and a lack of theoretical reflection. However, as terminological clarity plays a significant role in the development and profiling of a discipline, the clarification and definition of commonly-used terminology has manifested itself as a considerable objective for the interprofessional research community. One of the most important journals for research in the area of interprofessional education and care, the Journal of Interprofessional Care, has expanded its author guidelines relating to terminology, modeled after the conceptual considerations of the research group around Barr et. al and Reeves et al. A German translation of the suggested terms therein has been presented in this contribution, and discussed in light of the challenges to a possible adaptation for the German-speaking world. The objective is to assist communication in practice and research in becoming clearer, while promoting an increasing awareness to and the transparency of determined definitions and terminologies. PMID:27280147

  5. More terminological clarity in the interprofessional field – a call for reflection on the use of terminologies, in both practice and research, on a national and international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzkat, Anika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The terminology which has been used up until now within interprofessional healthcare has been characterised by a certain definitional weakness, which, among other factors, has been caused by an uncritical adoption of language conventions and a lack of theoretical reflection. However, as terminological clarity plays a significant role in the development and profiling of a discipline, the clarification and definition of commonly-used terminology has manifested itself as a considerable objective for the interprofessional research community. One of the most important journals for research in the area of interprofessional education and care, the Journal of Interprofessional Care, has expanded its author guidelines relating to terminology, modeled after the conceptual considerations of the research group around Barr et. al and Reeves et al. A German translation of the suggested terms therein has been presented in this contribution, and discussed in light of the challenges to a possible adaptation for the German-speaking world. The objective is to assist communication in practice and research in becoming clearer, while promoting an increasing awareness to and the transparency of determined definitions and terminologies.

  6. The Use of Non-linguistic Data in a Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    to the structure of ISOcat, the first printed standard comprising data categories for terminology management, ISO 12620:1999, and other standards from ISO TC 37. Finally some examples of linguistic and non-linguistic representations of concepts which we plan to introduce into the DanTermBank will be presented.......This paper will discuss definitions and give examples of linguistic and non -linguistic representation of concepts in a terminology and knowledge bank, and it will be argued that there is a need for a taxonomy of terminological data categories. As a background the DanTermBank project, which...

  7. A BioPortal-Based Terminology Service for Health Data Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Lim Choi Keung, Sarah N; Arvanitis, Theodoros N

    2016-01-01

    A terminology service makes diverse terminologies/ontologies accessible under a uniform interface. The EUTRANSFoRm project built an online terminology service for European primary care research. The service experienced performance limitations during its operation. Based on community feedback, we evaluated alternative solutions and developed a new version of the service. Based on BioPortal's scalable infrastructure, the new service delivers more features with improved performance and reduced maintenance cost. We plan to extend the service to meet Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources specifications.

  8. Biofield Science and Healing: History, Terminology, and Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubik, Beverly; Muehsam, David; Hammerschlag, Richard; Jain, Shamini

    2015-11-01

    Biofield science is an emerging field of study that aims to provide a scientific foundation for understanding the complex homeodynamic regulation of living systems. By furthering our scientific knowledge of the biofield, we arrive at a better understanding of the foundations of biology as well as the phenomena that have been described as "energy medicine." Energy medicine, the application of extremely low-level signals to the body, including energy healer interventions and bio-electromagnetic device-based therapies, is incomprehensible from the dominant biomedical paradigm of "life as chemistry." The biofield or biological field, a complex organizing energy field engaged in the generation, maintenance, and regulation of biological homeodynamics, is a useful concept that provides the rudiments of a scientific foundation for energy medicine and thereby advances the research and practice of it. An overview on the biofield is presented in this paper, with a focus on the history of the concept, related terminology, key scientific concepts, and the value of the biofield perspective for informing future research.

  9. Giant cell arteritis. Part I. Terminology, classification, clinical manifestations, diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azamat Makhmudovich Satybaldyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell arteritis (GCA is a vasculitis affecting mainly large and medium-sized arteries, which the classification of systemic vasculitides refers to as those mainly involving the large vessels. GCA is typified by the involvement of extracranial aortic branches and intracranial vessels, the aorta and its large vessels are being affected most frequently. The paper considers the terminology, classification, prevalence, major pathogenic mechanisms, and morphology of GCA. A broad spectrum of its clinical subtypes is due to target vessel stenosis caused by intimal hyperplasia. In 40% of cases, GCA is shown to be accompanied by polymyalgia rheumatica that may either precede or manifest simultaneously with GCA, or follow this disease. The menacing complications of GCA may be visual loss or ischemic strokes at various sites depending on the location of the occluded vessel. Along with the gold standard verification of the diagnosis of GCA, namely temporal artery biopsy, the author indicates other (noninvasive methods for detection of vascular lesions: color Doppler ultrasonography of the temporal arteries, fluorescein angiography of the retina, mag-netic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography to rule out aortic aneurysm. Dynamic 18F positron emission tomography is demonstrated to play a role in the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness.

  10. REVISING THE QUESTION OF TERMINOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION OF BRUXISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Boykova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there is no consolidated opinion regarding the terminology and classification of bruxism. The following terms are used for determination of unconscious strong compression teeth: “effect Karolyi”, “stridor dentium”, occlusal neurosis, odonterizm, “bruksomaniya”, “parafunctional activity of masticatory muscles”. Because of the disease nature the polyethiologic symptom group is develops that complicates the disease representation. The authors are recommend the usage “bruxism” term in everyday practice and as the most well-established and popular in the medical practice. The primary point of our study was identification of the pathognomonic parameters on electroencephalogram in patients with bruxism. As result of the study it was identified that the border type of EEG was registered statistically higher in pa-tients with parafunctional activity of masticatory muscles than in control group. The results are consistent with global trends, in respect that neuroscientists are systematize bruxism to “parasomnias”, (according to ICD 10 which are characterized by minor changes in the basic rhythm which were identical to findings that we revealed in the study group.

  11. Chemical Nomenclature and Terminology in the Light of Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical nomenclature and terminology are not only determined by the development of chemistry, but also by linguistic policies of the nation which uses them. The first modern chemical nomenclature, developed in France at the end of the 18th century, had been intended for international usage, and thus the names of new elements were developed from Greek and Latin roots. Conversely, in Germany the names of elements were coined in strict reference to the German language. In Croatia, both tendencies were present. In the 19th century, when Croatia was part of the Austro- Hungarian Empire, the chemical language was established on the basis of purism, but many new words were actually bohemianisms and literal translations of German terms. In both Yugoslav states (Kingdom of Yugoslavia, 1918–1941, and Communist Yugoslavia, 1945–1991, unitaristic strivings were dominant, culminating in the Unified Yugoslav Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, published in 1966. As it is impossible to make one nomenclature out of terms in two languages (Croatian and Serbian, the “Yugoslav” nomenclature was actually a strange mixture of Serbian and “international” terms. The new nomenclature however was never fully developed, even less generally accepted. Eventually it became obsolete in 1991 by establishment of the independent Croatian state, the Republic of Croatia.

  12. Terminology for Biorelated Polymers and Applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarm, V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Like most of the materials used by humans, polymeric materials are proposed in the literature and occasionally exploited clinically, as such, as devices or as part of devices, by surgeons, dentists, and pharmacists to treat traumata and diseases. Applications have in common the fact that polymers function in contact with animal and human cells, tissues, and/or organs. More recently, people have realized that polymers that are used as plastics in packaging, as colloidal suspension in paints, and under many other forms in the environment, are also in contact with living systems and raise problems related to sustainability, delivery of chemicals or pollutants, and elimination of wastes. These problems are basically comparable to those found in therapy. Last but not least, biotechnology and renewable resources are regarded as attractive sources of polymers. In all cases, water, ions, biopolymers, cells, and tissues are involved. Polymer scientists, therapists, biologists, and ecologists should thus use the same terminology to reflect similar properties, phenomena, and mechanisms. Of particular interest is the domain of the so-called „degradable or biodegradable polymers” that are aimed at providing materials with specific time-limited applications in medicine and in the environment where the respect of living systems, the elimination, and/or the bio-recycling are mandatory, at least ideally.

  13. Biofield Science and Healing: History, Terminology, and Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubik, Beverly; Muehsam, David; Hammerschlag, Richard; Jain, Shamini

    2015-11-01

    Biofield science is an emerging field of study that aims to provide a scientific foundation for understanding the complex homeodynamic regulation of living systems. By furthering our scientific knowledge of the biofield, we arrive at a better understanding of the foundations of biology as well as the phenomena that have been described as "energy medicine." Energy medicine, the application of extremely low-level signals to the body, including energy healer interventions and bio-electromagnetic device-based therapies, is incomprehensible from the dominant biomedical paradigm of "life as chemistry." The biofield or biological field, a complex organizing energy field engaged in the generation, maintenance, and regulation of biological homeodynamics, is a useful concept that provides the rudiments of a scientific foundation for energy medicine and thereby advances the research and practice of it. An overview on the biofield is presented in this paper, with a focus on the history of the concept, related terminology, key scientific concepts, and the value of the biofield perspective for informing future research. PMID:26665037

  14. There Is No Knowledge Without Terminology. How Terminological Methods and Tools Can Help to Manage Monolingual and Multilingual Knowledge and Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Sauberer

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents “10 good reasons for terminology” in any expert field and any language(s) by discussing the areas of application in the public and the private sector as well as in science and education. After a short introduction on the history of terminology, the term “ontology” will be discussed, as one of the key terms in current knowledge engineering and terminology. The paper gives an overview on means and methods of assuring and improving the quality of knowledge generation, communic...

  15. INTERVIEW: Knowledge and Terminology Management at the Danish National Board of Social Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.; Toft, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Margrethe H. Møller interviews David Rosendahl (translator/coauthor: Birthe Toft) “We need to do more than simply create classifications” The concept secretariat of the Danish National Board of Social Services carries out terminology and classification work in connection with IT projects......, among others, in the field of social services. This work is interesting for several reasons. On the one hand, terminology work obviously contributes to enhanced efficiency and transparency from the points of view of all types of users. On the other hand, some social services professionals are skeptical...... vis-à-vis the terminology projects because they fear unification and standardization of their professionalism and working procedures in connection with the introduction of new IT systems. And finally, a number of ethical issues have to be taken into consideration when deciding on terminology...

  16. The Phenomenon of Synonymy: A Comparison of the French and Macedonian Legal Terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Jakimovska

    2013-12-01

    Pointing out the different meaning nuances and the proper ways of use of the terms can be of crucial importance for the translator, especially for the legal texts translator. Key words: terminology, law, synonyms, French language, Macedonian language.

  17. SUDS, LID, BMPs, WSUD and more - The evolution and application of terminology surrounding urban drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Tim D.; Shuster, William; Hunt, William F.;

    2015-01-01

    , scope, application and underlying principles of terms used in urban drainage and provides recommendations for clear communication of these principles. Terminology evolves locally and thus has an important role in establishing awareness and credibility of new approaches and contains nuanced...

  18. On the terminology and metrics of airgun sounds and their use in regulation and criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.; Dekeling, R.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for and ongoing development towards an International Standard for underwater acoustical terminology are described in the context of airguns, with particular attention to the implications of recent European legislation.

  19. Terminologías consensuadas en Terapia Ocupacional: marco para el entendimiento = Occupational Therapy consensus terminology: framwork to understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brea Rivero, Miguel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizaciones de terapia ocupacional de diversa naturaleza y origen han intentado a lo largo del pasado encontrar uniformidad al lenguaje profesional empleado por todos los terapeutas ocupacionales sobre el planeta. El éxito es altamente cuestionable, tomando en consideración que el procedimiento para alcanzar esta uniformidad se ha centrado fundamentalmente en la mera traducción lingüística de textos o términos sin atender a la gran diversidad conceptual, cultural y contextual, entre los países del universo que conforma la terapia ocupacional. El resultado final ha mostrado un uso parcial y sectorial de esa terminología uniforme. Con el mismo propósito pero mediante un enfoque muy diverso, un grupo de trabajo constituido por miembros de diferentes países europeos ha promovido, en el ámbito de la Red Europea de Terapia Ocupacional en Educación Superior (European Network of Occupational Therapy in Higher Education, ENOTHE en sus siglas en inglés y para el resto del documento una nueva metodología para alcanzar el fin perseguido. El énfasis se ha puesto en el concepto que subyace más allá del término y no en la mera traducción de la palabra.De igual modo, se ha considerado la diversidad cultural entre países y su variedad en el desarrollo disciplinar, y se ha tomado toda la literatura internacional como punto de referencia con el fin de realizar una búsqueda apropiada del término adecuado a cada caso. El resultado final se traduce en la producción de una base de datos que muestra definiciones consensuadas de términos considerados esenciales en terapia ocupacional. La conclusión más relevante que se puede extraer es que el uso uniforme de nuestro lenguaje profesional es posible, incluso más allá de nuestras fronteras, en la medida que seamos capaces de consensuar las raíces profundas de cada término empleado, esto es, su concepto, y no apliquemos la traducción fácil de la palabra y sin razonamiento previo. Este art

  20. Reliability of SNOMED-CT Coding by Three Physicians using Two Terminology Browsers

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Michael F.; Hwang, John C.; Yu, Alexander C.; Casper, Daniel S.; Cimino, James J.; Starren, Justin

    2006-01-01

    SNOMED-CT has been promoted as a reference terminology for electronic health record (EHR) systems. Many important EHR functions are based on the assumption that medical concepts will be coded consistently by different users. This study is designed to measure agreement among three physicians using two SNOMED-CT terminology browsers to encode 242 concepts from five ophthalmology case presentations in a publicly-available clinical journal. Inter-coder reliability, based on exact coding match by ...

  1. Linguistic and Statistical Analysis of the Terminology for Constructing the Thesaurus of a Specified Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Karyaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the analysis of the body of terms and terminological sources for further automation of constructing the thesaurus of a subject area, which is regarded as poetics in our work. Preliminary systematization of terminology with a linguistic and statistical approach forms the body of semantically related concepts to automate extraction of semantic relationships between terms that define the structure of the thesaurus of the specified field.

  2. Terminology for Neuroscience Data Discovery: Multi-tree Syntax and Investigator-Derived Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Daniel; Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Robert, Adrian; Gardner, Esther P.

    2008-01-01

    The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), developed for the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research and available at http://nif.nih.gov and http://neurogateway.org, is built upon a set of coordinated terminology components enabling data and web-resource description and selection. Core NIF terminologies use a straightforward syntax designed for ease of use and for navigation by familiar web interfaces, and readily exportable to aid development of relational-model databases for neuroscience...

  3. Terminology and definitions on groin pain in athletes: building agreement using a short Delphi method

    OpenAIRE

    Weir, Adam; Hölmich, Per; Schache, Anthony G.; Delahunt, Eamonn; de Vos, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Groin pain in athletes occurs frequently and can be difficult to treat, which may partly be due to the lack of agreement on diagnostic terminology. Objective: To perform a short Delphi survey on terminology agreement for groin pain in athletes by a group of experts. Methods: A selected number of experts were invited to participate in a Delphi questionnaire. The study coordinator sent a questionnaire, which consisted of demographic questions and two 'real-life' case rep...

  4. Terminology standardization strategies towards the consolidation of the European Higher Education Area

    OpenAIRE

    Candel-Mora, Miguel Ángel; Carrió Pastor, Mª Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the measures taken places special emphasis on the role of key documents within this process such as degree descriptions and course catalogues. However, previous studies on course catalogues from several European universities have revealed numerous weaknesses in the users input of information and terminology inconsistencies which confirm the need to develop and implement terminology standardization strategies. This p...

  5. Notes on Agricultural Terminology in Aristotle (Sens. 441a10-17)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This article examines Aristotle's terminology in a much debated passage of the De Sensu et Sensibilibus. Based on this examination, the text itself and the conjectures that have so far been proposed are discussed.......This article examines Aristotle's terminology in a much debated passage of the De Sensu et Sensibilibus. Based on this examination, the text itself and the conjectures that have so far been proposed are discussed....

  6. Preliminary study of technical terminology for the retrieval of scientific book metadata records

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Birger; Lioma, Christina; Frommholz, Ingo; Schütze, Hinrich

    2012-01-01

    Books only represented by brief metadata (book records) are particularly hard to retrieve. One way of improving their retrieval is by extracting retrieval enhancing features from them. This work focusses on scientific (physics) book records. We ask if their technical terminology can be used as a retrieval enhancing feature. A study of 18,443 book records shows a strong correlation between their technical terminology and their likelihood of relevance. Using this finding for retrieval yields &g...

  7. Applying terminological methods and description logic for creating and implementing and ontology on inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2009-01-01

    By applying formal terminological methods to model an ontology within the domain of enzyme inhibition, we aim to clarify concepts and to obtain consistency. Additionally, we propose a procedure for implementing this ontology in OWL with the aim of obtaining a strict structure which can form the b...... the basis for reasoning and further processing, and we compare a semi-formal terminological concept modeling approach with a formal Description Logic approach in OWL-DL....

  8. The smallest divisions of time: terminological and lexicographical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Sánchez Martín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study of the ancient divisible units of the hours of day (the terms borrowed from latin: átomo, cuadrante, momento, punto and uncia use the principal sources of the medieval and Renaissance works. With regard to the former, an example of the cultural transmission of this specialized lexicon can be seen in its reception in The Etymologies of Saint Isidore (c. 560-636 and in the Libro de las propiedades de las cosas of Bartolomé Ánglico (1240, an encyclopaedia that had an extraordinary reception in Western Europe until the sixteenth century. Amongst the Renaissance sources several studies stand out: Chronographía or Reportorio de los tiempos (1545 by Jerónimo de Chaves, the anonymous book Repertorio de los tiempos (1554 and Chronographía y Repertorio de los tiempos (1585 by Francisco Vicente de Tornamira, a set of treatises which includes the knowledge compiled in the medieval encyclopaedias mentioned above. These works allow us to verify the transmission of this lexicon, in a stage marked by the growing interest in metrological issues. The analysis of this terminology reflects the semantic connections established between the various dimensions (weight, space and time as its semantic reference moves from the spatial domain to the that of time and relationships are attested in the earliest dictionaries of the Spanish language.

  9. Eliminating "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) terminology in clinical breast practice: The cognitive psychology point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Yoder, Whitney R; Riva, Silvia; Mazzocco, Ketti; Arnaboldi, Paola; Galimberti, Viviana

    2016-02-01

    There is evidence from the literature that the terms "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) should be eliminated in clinical breast cancer practice and replaced with the new "ductal intraepithelial neoplasia" (DIN) and "lobular intraepithelial neoplasia" (LIN) terminology. The main purpose of the present article is to expand on this argument from a cognitive psychology perspective and offer suggestions for further research, emphasizing how the elimination of the term "carcinoma" in "in situ" breast cancer diagnoses has the potential to reduce both patient and health care professional confusion and misperceptions that are often associated with the DCIS and LCIS diagnoses, as well as limit the adverse psychological effects of women receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis. We comment on the recent peer-reviewed literature on the clinical implications and psychological consequences for breast cancer patients receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis and we use a cognitive perspective to offer new insight into the benefits of embracing the new DIN and LIN terminology. Using cognitive psychology and cognitive science in general, as a foundation, further research is advocated in order to yield data in support of changing the terminology and therefore, offer a chance to significantly improve the lives and psychological sequelae of women facing such a diagnosis. Typology: Controversies/Short Commentary.

  10. Development of Synonymy of French Linguistic Terms (Case Study of F. de Saussure’s Terminological System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Sergeevich Zolotukhin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of synchronic and diachronic analysis of linguistic terminological synonymy in the French language on the inter-system and intra-system levels exemplified by Ferdinand de Saussure's terminological system. Based on the analysis of modern epistemological sources, the movement forms of scientific knowledge are determined, and they correspond to the certain forms of scientific theories reflection. The key stages of synonymy development are correlated with the evolution stages of linguistic theories and corresponding terminological systems. The method of component analysis of context definitions of terms let reveal a set of integral and distinctive features of the elements in the semantic field "signifié" of F. de Saussure's linguistic terminological system. On the basis of the tectological theory by A.A. Bogdanov and its interpretation for language systems by I.V. Kharitonova, the author studies the mechanisms causing the movement of a terminological systems and the change in the synonymous relations of its elements. The place and particular features of terminological synonymy are also determined – it can be considered as an operator taking a terminological system from one state to another: from terminology to an organized terminological system, and, conversely, to the disintegration (disjunction of existing systems. The results of this research highlight the importance of the comprehensive linguistic and epistemological approach to the synchronic and diachronic study of terminological systems in French linguistics.

  11. IAEA safety glossary. Terminology used in nuclear, radiation, radioactive waste and transport safety. Version 1.0. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA safety standards for nuclear installations, radiation protection, radioactive waste management and the transport of radioactive materials have been historically developed in four separate programmes, each of them developing its own terminology. The purpose was to explain the meaning of technical terms that might be unfamiliar to a reader; to explain any special meanings assigned to common words or terms and to define precisely how terms are used in particular publications to avoid ambiguity concerning some important aspects of their meaning. It is intended primarily to provide guidance to the drafters and reviewers of Agency safety related publications, including IAEA Technical officers, consultants and members of Technical Committees, Advisory Groups and safety standards advisory bodies. It is also likely to be a useful source of information for other Agency staff, notably editors and translators, and for external users of IAEA safety related publications

  12. Unsustaineble pseudo-urban consequences of legal and urban terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćerimović Velimir Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City planning is a complex task and through this work we face the space and natural resources that expose the exploitation (that are to be exploited and prone to unsustainable change. Often without environmental responsibility and the imperative of creating certain measures we make superstructure no matter how much the environment may be disrupted, and whether such relationships create a better society, better network of urban settlements and a better man. At that may also affect our knowledge which is often due to a variety of doctrines and legislative regulations that are applied in the planning and management space. From this it can be seen that modern architecture did not contribute to the creation of better cities. Also, urban planning is mainly restricted to the regulation and it neglected the creative action, regional-planning is lost in theoretical research, while the consideration of the whole problem is abandoned. In addition to this, in today’s transitional terms and the domineering (dominant urban crisis unsustainable combination and identification of the “2D” and the “3D” terminology is recognizable, which is only indicators that in the field of urban planning some transitional trends are prevailing. This unsustainable state of affairs in the transitional planning of urban areas can be applied in the most suitable way to pseudo-urbanization, sub-urbanization, unbalanced eco-reciprocity, non-standard construction of the urban tissue, discontinuity inherited and newly constructed urban substance. In this regard, consequently expressed negative environmental legacy of reproduction and the increased effect of the negative consequences of greenhouse gases from the threatening climate change, only shows that urban planners are not sinless and, they more or less (unconsciously complicit and participate in the contamination of urban and environment. In the end, it definitely guides us to the need to leave or transformation of the

  13. Terminology of gonadal anomalies in fish and amphibians resulting from chemical exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Murphy, Margaret B; Coady, Katherine K; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Jones, Paul D; Carr, James A; Solomon, Keith R; Smith, Ernest E; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Gross, Timothy; Du Preez, Louis; Kendall, Ronald J; Giesy, John P

    2006-01-01

    Given the recent increase in the number of studies describing the ability of chemicals to exert endocrine-disrupting effects, not only in fish but in a variety of other oviparous groups such as amphibians and reptiles, there is an urgent need to harmonize the terminology currently used in describing pathological changes of the gonads. In addition to difficulties in comparing results from different studies, there is also the risk of miscommunication by using terms that imply a certain clinical relevance which may not be true for the species examined. Especially in the case of the recent and controversial issue about potential effects of the triazine herbicide atrazine on amphibians, clinical terminology has been utilized beyond its true meaning by using terms such as "chemical castration" to describe occurrence of TOs or ovarian tissue in the testis of male frogs exposed to environmental chemicals (Hayes 2004). In clinical terminology, castration is defined as the removal of the gonads or their destruction by an external influence, resulting in a nonfertile organism. However, Hayes (2004) did not investigate any possible effects on the fertility of the test animals and thus did not know if these animals were truly castrated. Similarly, terms such as intersex, hermaphrodite, and sex reversal have been used in ways that appear inappropriate with regard to their clinical meaning in a series of different studies with fish or frogs (see previous sections for a detailed discussion). To ensure the appropriate use of certain terminology in a field as controversial and complex as the study of endocrine disruption, we have attempted, in this chapter, to harmonize the terminology used to describe changes in gonadal development of vertebrates such as fish and amphibians, especially frogs (see Table 3). Where appropriate, the terminology suggested was adopted directly from the clinical terminology. However, as outlined here there are substantial differences between the

  14. INTERVIEW: Knowledge and Terminology Management at the Danish National Board of Social Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrethe H. Møller

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Margrethe H. Møller interviews David Rosendahl(translator/coauthor: Birthe Toft“We need to do more than simply create classifications” The concept secretariat of the Danish National Board of Social Services carries out terminology and classification work in connection with IT projects, among others, in the field of social services. This work is interesting for several reasons. On the one hand, terminology work obviously contributes to enhanced efficiency and transparency from the points of view of all types of users. On the other hand, some social services professionals are skeptical vis-à-vis the terminology projects because they fear unification and standardization of their professionalism and working procedures in connection with the introduction of new IT systems. And finally, a number of ethical issues have to be taken into consideration when deciding on terminology in the social services field. All in all, target group and communicative aspects become central to the effort.David Rosendahl Terminology consultant at the Danish National Board of Social ServicesThe Danish National Board of Social Services(“Socialstyrelsen” is an independent subdivision of The Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration. The Board aims to promote new development and initiatives in social services while also supporting and counselling local authorities in providing services to citizens, i.e. children, young people, socially marginalised groups, elderly and disabled.

  15. Terms and terminological combinations as a source of image in M. Sholokhov’s works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamedganova Alina Mikhailovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the sources of imagery and expressiveness in the works of M. Sholokhov, as the terms and terminological combinations. The texts of the writer shaped the function of terminological linguistic units in its implementation, as a rule, when they are used as a comparison, as well as their figurative metaphorical and metonymic use. However, M. Sholokhov as a true master of literary work uses non- traditional methods of realization of terminological linguistic unit in the art-works of pictorial means, giving it a completely new meaning, which, however, is not portable because acquired value of terminological linguistic unit does not depend on the direct meaning of the defining reality of a special sphere of human activity. So, the new meaning of the terms may not be motivated to direct meaning, and the phonetic structure of the units. In other words, these meanings are motivated by individual associations of the hero of the novel, which cause a phonetic structure of terminological units. Also it is analyzed example, when the term of the military sector in the speech of a character realized the function, however, in this example, the term itself is not important, only the essential fact that the unit is a military term.

  16. Progress in the standardization of DSM terminology, reporting formats, and evaluation protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L.

    1994-10-01

    Evaluations of demand-side management programs are numerous and serve many purposes: assessing effectiveness, promoting program improvements, guiding planning processes, and determining the level of shareholder incentives. Although many program evaluations are available, it is difficult to combine or compare results because of inconsistencies in definitions, reporting formats, and evaluation methods. The increased use of explicit and standardized definitions of terms, consistent data reporting formats, and comparable methods is needed to make combining and comparing results across a range of programs, utilities, and state jurisdictional boundaries possible. Producing consistent and accurate comparisons of program experience is an important, although challenging and, therefore, under utilized, means of identifying the key elements of effective programs and of improving future programs. In spite of the importance of arriving at standard terminology and data reporting conventions, progress is slow. The purpose of this report is to assess progress toward standardization by reviewing attempts to promote standardization and by determining the degree of consistency in various sources. There are a number of efforts to promote standardization including regional utility efforts such as Northeast Regional DSM Data Exchange and NU-Trak in the Pacific Northwest, state regulatory commission requirements, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory databases and publications, which are national in scope. A variety of other organizations such as the Association of Demand-Side Management Professionals, the Electric Power Research Institute, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, the Energy Information Administration, the Synergic Resources Corporation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Association of Energy Service Companies have publications and/or training courses designed to promote greater standardization.

  17. The Use of Non-linguistic Data in a Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    The aim of the DanTermBank project (www.dantermbank.dk) is to establish the foundation for a national terminology and knowledge bank. In order to organize and present data suitable for diff erent user groups it is important to describe data categories (metadata) of the future term bank...... unambiguously, and in order to ensure interoperability with other term banks, one should choose a set of terminological data categories which are compatible with the ISO TC 37 Data Category Registry (DCR), www.isocat.org (here referred to as ISOcat). When defining a set of metadata categories, it is very useful...... cult to use and to extend. Therefore, the DanTermBank project group decided to propose a taxonomy for terminological data categories, which will help users and designers of term banks get an overview and identify individual data categories. In this connection we came across the problems of defi ning...

  18. Cross-concordances: terminology mapping and its effectiveness for information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Mayr, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    The German Federal Ministry for Education and Research funded a major terminology mapping initiative, which found its conclusion in 2007. The task of this terminology mapping initiative was to organize, create and manage 'cross-concordances' between controlled vocabularies (thesauri, classification systems, subject heading lists) centred around the social sciences but quickly extending to other subject areas. 64 crosswalks with more than 500,000 relations were established. In the final phase of the project, a major evaluation effort to test and measure the effectiveness of the vocabulary mappings in an information system environment was conducted. The paper reports on the cross-concordance work and evaluation results.

  19. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    WEB WATCH (204) Try unearthing some interesting information about archaeology BOOK REVIEWS (206) Teaching and assessing practical skills Book Review: Learn to drive with Sir Isaac Newton DVD REVIEW (207) Bring some sunshine into the classroom EQUIPMENT REVIEWS (208) Robust air puck takes a kicking Flowlog offers sensing options plus multimode datalogging Mastering Chladni figures takes practice but it offers surprises

  20. Preliminary study of technical terminology for the retrieval of scientific book metadata records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birger; Lioma, Christina; Frommholz, Ingo;

    2012-01-01

    Books only represented by brief metadata (book records) are particularly hard to retrieve. One way of improving their retrieval is by extracting retrieval enhancing features from them. This work focusses on scientific (physics) book records. We ask if their technical terminology can be used...

  1. Usefulness of Crossword Puzzles in Helping First-Year BVSc Students Learn Veterinary Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina; May, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate terminology is essential for successful communication among health professionals. However, students have traditionally been encouraged to learn terminology by rote memorization and recall, strategies that students try to avoid. The use of crossword puzzles as a learning tool has been evaluated in other education disciplines, but not for terminology related to veterinary science. Hence, the objective of this study was to test whether crossword puzzles might be an effective aid to learning veterinary terminology. Forty-two first-year students enrolled in a Bachelor of Veterinary Science program were randomly divided into two groups and their previous knowledge of veterinary terms tested. One group received a list of 30 terms with their definitions. The other group received the same list plus six specially designed puzzles incorporating these 30 terms. After 50 minutes, both groups completed a post-intervention test and the results were compared statistically. The results showed that the students using the crossword puzzles performed better in the post-intervention test, correctly retaining more terms than the students using only rote learning. In addition, qualitative data, gathered through an electronic survey and focus group discussions, revealed a positive attitude among students toward the use of crossword puzzles. PMID:27111003

  2. Synonymy of medical terminology from the point of view of comparative linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackova, G

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to look at the medical terminology in three different languages--English, Russian and Slovak and to estimate the trends of synonym formation as well as their emphasizes role in communication. The author that the problem of synonymy is peculiar especially to clinical medicine terminology, i.e. it relates only to a small extent anatomical nomenclature. According to motivative signs of terms, synonyms are divided into 2 groups: equivalent and interpretative synonyms. In keeping with criteria determined by basic characteristics of a term in medical terminology there are often preferred international expressions. In recent years a great number of English expressions have entered into medical terminology due to the fact that English had became a language of international communication. From the practical point view undoubtedly, it is a positive tendency, because it facilitates international communication. In this respect Russian orthography is considered to be an exception, since Cyrillic alphabet often makes international communication more complicated. (Ref. 10.).

  3. Heterogeneous Synonymy: a Regular Stage in the Process of Standardisation of Lithuanian Computer Science Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilija Celiešienė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the least negotiable group of the synonymy of terms – heterogeneous synonyms, i.e. the synonymy of Lithuanian terms and loanwords used in the field of computer science. Specifically, the focus is on the synonymy characteristic of the primary stages of terminology subsystems formation. The aim of the research is to examine the structure of heterogeneous synonymous terms and to analyse the changes of the synonymy in the computer science. In terms of origins, two groups of synonymous terms emerge in the “Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Computer Science”: those of single origins, i.e. purely Lithuanian or exclusively international synonymous terms, and those of various origins, i.e. Lithuanian and international synonymous terms. The terminology of computer science is mostly based on the heterogeneous synonymy. In terms of structure, heterogeneous synonymy in computer science is not uniform and can be divided into three subgroups: 1 lines of single-word synonymous terms; 2 lines of compound synonymous terms; 3 lines of mixed (single-word, two-word and three-word synonymous terms. The results of the analysis carried out show that heterogeneous synonymy is a regular stage in the process of standardization of Lithuanian terminology of computer science. This stage is incomplete and the terminology is still being developed, therefore it is not fully formed and established.

  4. The Use of Legal Terminology in Student Conduct Codes: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Janice E.; Janosik, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    A content analysis of 20 student conduct codes identified through stratified random sampling was performed to determine the extent to which legal terminology had been eliminated, as suggested by judicial affairs experts. The results showed that 80% of the codes selected in this study still contained some legal terms. These words and phrases are…

  5. Hydraulic Turbines: The Pelton Turbine. Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the Pelton turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  6. 9 CFR 145.53 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 0579-0007) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 145.53, see the List of CFR... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; flocks... POULTRY Special Provisions for Waterfowl, Exhibition Poultry, and Game Bird Breeding Flocks and...

  7. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  8. Transnational health care: from a global terminology towards transnational health region development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainil, Tomas; Van Loon, Francis; Dinnie, Keith; Botterill, David; Platenkamp, Vincent; Meulemans, Herman

    2012-11-01

    Within European cross-border health care, recent studies have identified several types of international patients. Within the Anglo-Saxon setting, the specific terminology of medical tourism is used. The analytical purpose of the paper is to resolve this semantic difference by suggesting an alternative terminology, 'transnational health care' that is understood as a 'context-controlled and coordinated network of health services'. For demand-driven trans-border access seekers and cross-border access searchers, there is a need to opt for regional health-policy strategies. For supply-driven sending context actors and receiving context actors, there would be organizational benefits to these strategies. Applying the terminology of trans-border access seekers, cross-border access searchers, sending context and receiving context actors results in a transnational patient mobility typology of twelve types of international patients, based on the criteria of geographical distance, cultural distance and searching efforts, public/private/no cover and private/public provision of health services. Finally, the normative purpose of the paper is to encourage the use of this terminology to promote a policy route for transnational health regions. It is suggested that the development of transnational health regions, each with their own medical and supportive service characteristics, could enhance governmental context-controlled decision power in applying sustainable health destination management.

  9. Usefulness of Crossword Puzzles in Helping First-Year BVSc Students Learn Veterinary Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina; May, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate terminology is essential for successful communication among health professionals. However, students have traditionally been encouraged to learn terminology by rote memorization and recall, strategies that students try to avoid. The use of crossword puzzles as a learning tool has been evaluated in other education disciplines, but not for terminology related to veterinary science. Hence, the objective of this study was to test whether crossword puzzles might be an effective aid to learning veterinary terminology. Forty-two first-year students enrolled in a Bachelor of Veterinary Science program were randomly divided into two groups and their previous knowledge of veterinary terms tested. One group received a list of 30 terms with their definitions. The other group received the same list plus six specially designed puzzles incorporating these 30 terms. After 50 minutes, both groups completed a post-intervention test and the results were compared statistically. The results showed that the students using the crossword puzzles performed better in the post-intervention test, correctly retaining more terms than the students using only rote learning. In addition, qualitative data, gathered through an electronic survey and focus group discussions, revealed a positive attitude among students toward the use of crossword puzzles.

  10. [Remarks on the systematization and terminology of smell and taste disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrebovski, A; Pruszewicz, A; Löbe, L P; Fikentscher, R

    1991-01-01

    Based on the experience of the Olfactogustometry Laboratories in Halle and in Poznan, a proposal of clinical terminology and systematization of smell and taste disorders has been presented. Individual interpretation of the data from anamnesis in relation to the findings of the olfactogustometric investigations were stressed as indispensable.

  11. Integrating the mind - an analysis of the metaphorical terminology in autism research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, this article suggests how an integrationist could approach and help facilitate a new me...... on metaphorical terminology, which presupposes that the mind is an impersonal decoding machine....

  12. Hydraulic Turbines: The Francis Turbine. Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the Francis turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. An explanatory illustration is appended. (JB)

  13. 9 CFR 146.53 - Terminology and classification; slaughter plants and premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants and premises. 146.53 Section 146.53 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...; slaughter plants and premises. Participating flocks which have met the respective requirements specified...

  14. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J; Pakozdy, Akos; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Pumarola, Martí Batlle; Rusbridge, Clare; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-08-28

    Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management. A number of classification proposals for canine epilepsy have been published during the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing to the readers and influence the definition and diagnosis of epilepsy in first line practice and research studies.In this document the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) discusses current understanding of canine epilepsy and presents our 2015 proposal for terminology and classification of epilepsy and epileptic seizures. We propose a classification system which reflects new thoughts from the human ILAE but also roots in former well accepted terminology. We think that this classification system can be used by all stakeholders.

  15. The Moving-Coil Ammeter: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the moving-coil ammeter. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. A English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  16. Falls prevention within the Australian general practice data model: methodology, information model, and terminology issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Sulaiman, Nabil; Pearce, Christopher; Sims, Jane; Hill, Keith; Grain, Heather; Tse, Justin; Ng, Choon-Kiat

    2003-01-01

    The iterative development of the Falls Risk Assessment and Management System (FRAMS) drew upon research evidence and early consumer and clinician input through focus groups, interviews, direct observations, and an online questionnaire. Clinical vignettes were used to validate the clinical model and program logic, input, and output. The information model was developed within the Australian General Practice Data Model (GPDM) framework. The online FRAMS implementation used available Internet (TCP/IP), messaging (HL7, XML), knowledge representation (Arden Syntax), and classification (ICD10-AM, ICPC2) standards. Although it could accommodate most of the falls prevention information elements, the GPDM required extension for prevention and prescribing risk management. Existing classifications could not classify all falls prevention concepts. The lack of explicit rules for terminology and data definitions allowed multiple concept representations across the terminology-architecture interface. Patients were more enthusiastic than clinicians. A usable standards-based online-distributed decision support system for falls prevention can be implemented within the GPDM, but a comprehensive terminology is required. The conceptual interface between terminology and architecture requires standardization, preferably within a reference information model. Developments in electronic decision support must be guided by evidence-based clinical and information models and knowledge ontologies. The safety and quality of knowledge-based decision support systems must be monitored. Further examination of falls and other clinical domains within the GPDM is needed. PMID:12807809

  17. Semi-Automated Annotation of Biobank Data Using Standard Medical Terminologies in a Graph Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Philipp; Neururer, Sabrina; Goebel, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Data describing biobank resources frequently contains unstructured free-text information or insufficient coding standards. (Bio-) medical ontologies like Orphanet Rare Diseases Ontology (ORDO) or the Human Disease Ontology (DOID) provide a high number of concepts, synonyms and entity relationship properties. Such standard terminologies increase quality and granularity of input data by adding comprehensive semantic background knowledge from validated entity relationships. Moreover, cross-references between terminology concepts facilitate data integration across databases using different coding standards. In order to encourage the use of standard terminologies, our aim is to identify and link relevant concepts with free-text diagnosis inputs within a biobank registry. Relevant concepts are selected automatically by lexical matching and SPARQL queries against a RDF triplestore. To ensure correctness of annotations, proposed concepts have to be confirmed by medical data administration experts before they are entered into the registry database. Relevant (bio-) medical terminologies describing diseases and phenotypes were identified and stored in a graph database which was tied to a local biobank registry. Concept recommendations during data input trigger a structured description of medical data and facilitate data linkage between heterogeneous systems. PMID:27577487

  18. The Gas Turbine: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the gas turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  19. Terminology Evolution and Translation: Specificity of Referent & User’s Epistemic Continuum Exemplified in Islamic Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. S. Al-Shabab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dynamics of environmental context, the referent of a linguistic sign changes, but the sign persists as a verbal symbol. Since a technical term strictly evokes one referent, it may lack in specificity due to the ever-changing reality, resulting in homonymy, overlap, and a semantic continuum based on designating by necessity. In addition to the elements of reference theory, the criteria for technical terms postulate the user, whose authority and responsibility are necessary for the term to function as a specific designator. The centrality of the user, translator or otherwise, has hermeneutic and linguistic implications for the evolution of terminology, because it stipulates that terminological meaning and usage are dependent on the user’s conscious knowledge, a condition that leads to the recognition of a user epistemic continuum parallel to the semantic necessity continuum. Ideally, a term should be universally specific in reference, and its user should be epistemologically empowered and ethically responsible.  Keyword: Terminology, technical terms, Translation, Islamic terminology, semantic continuum

  20. The Steam Turbine: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the steam turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  1. FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology) Users: Summary and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixter, Jeffrey; Childress, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past ten years, various organizations, both public and private, have expressed interest in implementing the Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (FAST) in their cataloging workflows. As interest in FAST has grown, so too has interest in knowing how FAST is being used and by whom. Since 2002 eighteen institutions in six countries…

  2. Assessing use of a standardized dental diagnostic terminology in an electronic health record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Tokede; J. White; P.C. Stark; R. Vaderhobli; M.F. Walji; R. Ramoni; M. Schoonheim-Klein; N. Kimmes; A. Tavares; E. Kalenderian

    2013-01-01

    Although standardized terminologies such as the International Classification of Diseases have been in use in medicine for over a century, efforts in the dental profession to standardize dental diagnostic terms have not achieved widespread acceptance. To address this gap, a standardized dental diagno

  3. Experts’ opinions on terminology for complementary and integrative medicine – a qualitative study with leading experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmberg Christine

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrative medicine (IM is currently the most commonly used term to describe the integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM into conventional medicine. In the definitions of IM the most important feature is the focus on evidence as crucial factor for therapeutic decision-making. However, there are discussions on the term “integrative medicine” with the most notable critique from within CAM that it describes the integration of complementary methods into conventional institutions and into a “conventional framework of thinking”. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand the thoughts of leading experts on IM and on the scientific debate in the field as well as their personal opinions about terminology in general. Methods We have conducted semi-standardized interviews with ten leading experts in the field of CAM and integrative medicine in the USA, England, and Germany, who have had leading positions at medical schools or the NIH in 2010 and 2011. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis with the qualitative analysis software maxqda. Results Overall the current terminology was seen as a problem, although most experts agreed that the term “integrative medicine” (IM described well what they do or they think is useful for medical care. The terminology debate was discussed from four perspectives: 1 from the perspective of medical practice, 2 from the perspective of research, 3 from the perspective of public relations, and 4 from the perspective of health care delivery. These perspectives may be used to evaluate the appropriateness of different terms in use in the field. When interviewees discussed the terminology question, they also discussed the type of health care system they envisioned. Such reflections led the interviewees to caution about too narrow a focus on the terminology question. The question of naming was one about influencing and changing medicine

  4. EULAR recommendations for terminology and research in individuals at risk of rheumatoid arthritis: report from the Study Group for Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlag, Danielle M; Raza, Karim; van Baarsen, Lisa G M; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Buckley, Christopher D; Burmester, Gerd R; Gabay, Cem; Catrina, Anca I; Cope, Andrew P; Cornelis, François; Dahlqvist, Solbritt Rantapää; Emery, Paul; Eyre, Stephen; Finckh, Axel; Gay, Steffen; Hazes, Johanna M; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette; Huizinga, Tom W J; Klareskog, Lars; Kvien, Tore K; Lewis, Cathryn; Machold, Klaus P; Rönnelid, Johan; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Schett, Georg; Smolen, Josef S; Thomas, Sue; Worthington, Jane; Tak, Paul P

    2012-01-01

    The Study Group for Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis was established by the EULAR Standing Committee on Investigative Rheumatology to facilitate research into the preclinical and earliest clinically apparent phases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This report describes the recommendation for terminology to be used to define specific subgroups during different phases of disease, and defines the priorities for research in this area. Terminology was discussed by way of a three-stage structured process: A provisional list of descriptors for each of the possible phases preceding the diagnosis of RA were circulated to members of the study group for review and feedback. Anonymised comments from the members on this list were fed back to participants before a 2-day meeting. 18 participants met to discuss these data, agree terminologies and prioritise important research questions. The study group recommended that, in prospective studies, individuals without RA are described as having: genetic risk factors for RA; environmental risk factors for RA; systemic autoimmunity associated with RA; symptoms without clinical arthritis; unclassified arthritis; which may be used in a combinatorial manner. It was recommended that the prefix ‘pre-RA with:’ could be used before any/any combination of the five points above but only to describe retrospectively a phase that an individual had progressed through once it was known that they have developed RA. An approach to dating disease onset was recommended. In addition, important areas for research were proposed, including research of other tissues in which an adaptive immune response may be initiated, and the identification of additional risk factors and biomarkers for the development of RA, its progression and the development of extra-articular features. These recommendations provide guidance on approaches to describe phases before the development of RA that will facilitate communication between researchers and comparisons between

  5. Chronic aspergillosis of the lungs: Unravelling the terminology and radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R.; Hedayati, V.; Patel, K. [King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, The Department of Radiology, King' s Health Partners, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Hansell, D.M. [The Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    The propensity for Aspergillus spp. to cause lung disease has long been recognised but the satisfactory classification of these disorders is challenging. The problems caused by invasive disease in severely neutropenic patients, saprophytic infection of pre-existing fibrotic cavities and allergic reactions to Aspergillus are well documented. In contrast, a more chronic form of Aspergillus-related lung disease that has the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality is under-reported. The symptoms of this form of Aspergillus infection may be non-specific and the radiologist may be the first to suspect a diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. The current review considers the classification conundrums in diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. and discusses the typical clinical and radiological profile of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. (orig.)

  6. Shoulder arthroplasty. Part 1: Prosthesis terminology and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheridan, B.D., E-mail: bdsheridan@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); Ahearn, N.; Tasker, A.; Wakeley, C.; Sarangi, P. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Shoulder arthroplasty is the third most common joint replacement procedure in the UK, and there are a number of different implant options available to surgeons to treat a variety of shoulder disorders. With an increasing burden placed on clinical follow-up, more patients are remaining under the care of their general practitioners and musculoskeletal triage assessment services and are not necessarily being seen by specialists. Referrals to orthopaedic specialists are therefore often prompted by radiological reports describing evidence of implant failure. This article is the first of two reviews on shoulder arthroplasty, concentrating on implant features and the indications for their use. The second article will address the modes of failure of shoulder arthroplasty and describe the relevant associated radiological features.

  7. A Phylogenetic Comparative Study of Bantu Kinship Terminology Finds Limited Support for Its Co-Evolution with Social Organisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrtille Guillon

    Full Text Available The classification of kin into structured groups is a diverse phenomenon which is ubiquitous in human culture. For populations which are organized into large agropastoral groupings of sedentary residence but not governed within the context of a centralised state, such as our study sample of 83 historical Bantu-speaking groups of sub-Saharan Africa, cultural kinship norms guide all aspects of everyday life and social organization. Such rules operate in part through the use of differing terminological referential systems of familial organization. Although the cross-cultural study of kinship terminology was foundational in Anthropology, few modern studies have made use of statistical advances to further our sparse understanding of the structuring and diversification of terminological systems of kinship over time. In this study we use Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods of phylogenetic comparison to investigate the evolution of Bantu kinship terminology and reconstruct the ancestral state and diversification of cousin terminology in this family of sub-Saharan ethnolinguistic groups. Using a phylogenetic tree of Bantu languages, we then test the prominent hypothesis that structured variation in systems of cousin terminology has co-evolved alongside adaptive change in patterns of descent organization, as well as rules of residence. We find limited support for this hypothesis, and argue that the shaping of systems of kinship terminology is a multifactorial process, concluding with possible avenues of future research.

  8. A Phylogenetic Comparative Study of Bantu Kinship Terminology Finds Limited Support for Its Co-Evolution with Social Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Myrtille; Mace, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The classification of kin into structured groups is a diverse phenomenon which is ubiquitous in human culture. For populations which are organized into large agropastoral groupings of sedentary residence but not governed within the context of a centralised state, such as our study sample of 83 historical Bantu-speaking groups of sub-Saharan Africa, cultural kinship norms guide all aspects of everyday life and social organization. Such rules operate in part through the use of differing terminological referential systems of familial organization. Although the cross-cultural study of kinship terminology was foundational in Anthropology, few modern studies have made use of statistical advances to further our sparse understanding of the structuring and diversification of terminological systems of kinship over time. In this study we use Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods of phylogenetic comparison to investigate the evolution of Bantu kinship terminology and reconstruct the ancestral state and diversification of cousin terminology in this family of sub-Saharan ethnolinguistic groups. Using a phylogenetic tree of Bantu languages, we then test the prominent hypothesis that structured variation in systems of cousin terminology has co-evolved alongside adaptive change in patterns of descent organization, as well as rules of residence. We find limited support for this hypothesis, and argue that the shaping of systems of kinship terminology is a multifactorial process, concluding with possible avenues of future research.

  9. A review of terminology for equine juvenile osteochondral conditions (JOCC) based on anatomical and functional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoix, J-M; Jeffcott, L B; McIlwraith, C W; van Weeren, P R

    2013-07-01

    This manuscript describes a new classification of the various joint-related lesions that can be seen in the young, growing horse based on their anatomical and functional aetiopathogenesis. Juvenile osteochondral conditions (JOCC) is a term that brings together specific disorders according to their location in the joint and their biomechanical origin. When a biomechanical insult affects the process of endochondral ossification different types of osteochondrosis (OC) lesions may occur, including osteochondral fragmentation of the articular surface or of the periarticular margins, or the formation of juvenile subchondral bone cysts. In severe cases, osteochondral collapse of the articular surface or the epiphysis or even an entire small bone may occur. Tension on ligament attachments may cause avulsion fractures of epiphyseal (or metaphyseal) ossifying bone, which are classified as JOCC, but do not result from a disturbance of the process of endochondral ossification and are not therefore classified as a form of OC. The same applies to 'physitis' which can result from damage to the physeal growth plate. PMID:23683533

  10. [English and Russian terminology for the thoracic skeletal structures of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae): a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalin, A V; Aĭbulatov, S V

    2013-01-01

    The authors analyze different names of thoracic skeletal structures in mosquitoes (Dip- tera: Culicidae), used by various authors (Kirkpatrick, 1925; Edwards, 1932; Stackelberg, 1937; Sazonova, 1958; Belkin, 1962a, b: Maslov, 1967: Gutsevich et al., 1970; Knight, Laffoon, 1970; McAlpine, 1981; Becker et al., 2010). In the abovementioned publications, a small number of skeletal structures, morphologically very important for the identification of species and genera of the family Culicidae, are denoted by multiple synonymic names, while certain completely different skeletal structures are represented under a single homonymous name. Duplicated synonymic names for thoracic sclerites, setae, and scales on sclerites considerably hamper the work of specialists determining species of the family Culicidae. In some cases, this fact results in erroneous diagnostics of species. We provide a detailed description of the thoracic morphology of mosquitoes, pointing to existing synonymic Russian and English names for each skeletal structure and also recommend the use of a single Russian term for each structure.

  11. [Terminology and classification of condylar hyperplasia: Two case reports and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılancı, Hümeyra Özge; Akkaya, Nursel; Özbek, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is characterized by the growth of mandibular condyle. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain controversial. It often occurs unilaterally and leads to facial asymmetry and malocclusion. In the literature, it was also classified according to anomalies accompanied by the growth of other components of the mandible. Differential diagnosis of condylar hyperplasia usually includes tumors of temporomandibular joint. In this article, we discuss the term "condylar hyperplasia" and its classification considering two patients with condylar growth. PMID:26572183

  12. What's in a name? Variations in terminology of third-party reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Diane; Darnovsky, Marcy; Lippman, Abby

    2015-12-01

    The terminology used to discuss third-party reproduction, as with other new biomedical processes, can ease or impede communication and even influence behaviour. In an effort to sensitize analysts and stakeholders to variations in terminology and to facilitate communication on issues arising from international surrogacy arrangements, this paper examines variations in terms used. We introduce some of the issues previously raised by scholars concerned with analysis of discourse related to third-party reproduction. We then survey the terms used in English-language discussions to denote specific actors, including 'surrogates,' 'intended parents,' gamete providers and children, as well as terms used to describe 'surrogacy arrangements.' We conclude with a discussion on navigating and negotiating the use of these various and value-laden terms. PMID:26526414

  13. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J;

    2015-01-01

    Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management. A number of classification proposals for canine epilepsy have been published during...... the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human...... neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing...

  14. [Health at work: harmonization of terminology, laws and practice with international standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The terminology, laws and practice of workers' health protection in Russian Federation are considered in the light of harmonization with documents of WHO, ILO, EU as well as good foreign practice. The proposals are put forward as to functions, structure and staff of workers' health protection units taking into account the new problems and risk factors. Instead of notion "labour protection" the term "health and safety at work" is proposed. PMID:23088017

  15. The Search for Cognitive Terminology: An Analysis of Comparative Psychology Journal Titles

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Whissell; Charles I. Abramson; Kelsey R. Barber

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the employment of cognitive or mentalist words in the titles of articles from three comparative psychology journals (Journal of Comparative Psychology, International Journal of Comparative Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes; 8,572 titles, >100,000 words). The Dictionary of Affect in Language, coupled with a word search of titles, was employed to demonstrate cognitive creep. The use of cognitive terminology increased over time (1940...

  16. Girus and Sulcus of the Lateral Occipital Lobe: Anatomical Description and Terminological Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    García Aguirre, Jhonny Fernando; Quintero Giraldo, Lina Paola; Moncada Aguirre, Jonathan David

    2013-01-01

    The anatomy of the lateral surface of the occipital lobe, presents a big variability in the descriptions of the classical texts of neuroanatomy, so much that the current International Anatomical Terminology does not include nominations about the morphologic structures of this region, except for the lunate sulcus, the pre-occipital notch and the transverse occipital sulcus.The macroscopic morphology of this region was examined in this study, in 19 right brain hemispheres and 8 left brain hemis...

  17. The Terminology of the Public Relations Field in the Slovenian Language

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Kalin Golob; Dejan Verčič; Nataša Logar Berginc

    2013-01-01

    This article includes two starting points: (a) the development of the Slovenian (and Croatian) language in science and professions is being increasingly limited by the narrow comprehension of internationalised higher education and science; (b) in the digital age, the fields of usage being lost in those languages are those not supported enough in terms of language technology. With the case of the Slovenian public relations terminology, we reveal that it is possible to confront both: on the bas...

  18. Image-guided Tumor Ablation: Standardization of Terminology and Reporting Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, S. Nahum; Grassi, Clement J.; Cardella, John F.; Charboneau, J. William; Dodd, Gerald D.; Dupuy, Damian E.; Gervais, Debra A.; Gillams, Alice R.; Kane, Robert A.; Lee, Fred. T.; Livraghi, Tito; McGahan, John; Phillips, David A.; Rhim, Hyunchul; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2005-01-01

    The field of interventional oncology with use of image-guided tumor ablation requires standardization of terminology and reporting criteria to facilitate effective communication of ideas and appropriate comparison between treatments that use different technologies, such as chemical (ethanol or acetic acid) ablation, and thermal therapies, such as radiofrequency (RF), laser, microwave, ultrasound, and cryoablation. This document provides a framework that will hopefully facilitate the clearest ...

  19. La terminología de la documentación médica

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Díaz Rojo

    2000-01-01

    Este diccionario tiene como objetivo recoger, por primera vez en español, la terminología de la documentación médica, disciplina que se ocupa de la producción, organización, recuperación, al-macenamiento y difusión de de documentos relativos tanto a la medicina asistencial y hospitalaria como a la investigación científico-médica.

  20. Intraductal Proliferative Lesions of the Breast—Terminology and Biology Matter: Premalignant Lesions or Preinvasive Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Mauri; Lucio Fortunato; Leopoldo Costarelli; Domenico Campagna

    2012-01-01

    Morphological criteria for the diagnosis of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast have been an object of research and much controversy, and its terminology is rather confusing. Knowledge of the molecular aspects of this disease probably necessitates further research to clarify if these entities can be identified as breast cancer precursors or as a malignant preinvasive disease. These issues are of great interest not only for their biological implications, but also to the clinician w...

  1. Extraction of terminology and phraseology towards the design of instructional resources for legal translation

    OpenAIRE

    RUBIO DONAT, TAMARA MARÍA; Candel-Mora, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted translation (CAT) technology has experienced a dramatic growth in recent years and its use has spread to specialties like legal translation, not so much for their performance and productivity but for their quality control functions. The aim of this work is to propose a protocol to extract frequent terminology and phraseology in order to increase CAT tools performance, improve quality control features and help to produce resources with teaching purposes in the translation of ...

  2. Development of a Model for the Representation of Nanotechnology-Specific Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, LeeAnn O.; Kennedy, Christopher H.; Fritts, Martin J.; Hartel, Francis W.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an important, rapidly-evolving, multidisciplinary field [1]. The tremendous growth in this area necessitates the establishment of a common, open-source terminology to support the diverse biomedical applications of nanotechnology. Currently, the consensus process to define and categorize conceptual entities pertaining to nanotechnology is in a rudimentary stage. We have constructed a nanotechnology-specific conceptual hierarchy that can be utilized by end users to retrieve ac...

  3. The architecture of an English-Portuguese glossary in the field of Electrical Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Bonqueves Fadanelli Bonqueves Fadanelli; Maria José Bocorny Finatto

    2015-01-01

    This article describes some of the procedures for the execution of an online English-Portuguese glossary prototype in Eletrical Engineering / Eletrotechnical Field terminology – aimed mainly at beginner students from technical and graduation courses in Electrical Engineering. The methodology is comprised of a corpus of datasheets, documents often used by professionals of the Electrical Engineering area, and the comparison of data obtained from these datasheets with the data gathered from 108 ...

  4. Building a terminology network for search: the KoMoHe project

    CERN Document Server

    Mayr, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports about results on the GESIS-IZ project "Competence Center Modeling and Treatment of Semantic Heterogeneity" (KoMoHe). KoMoHe supervised a terminology mapping effort, in which 'cross-concordances' between major controlled vocabularies were organized, created and managed. In this paper we describe the establishment and implementation of cross-concordances for search in a digital library (DL).

  5. Legal terminology at arm's length - the multiple dimensions of legal terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at shedding new light on the multiple dimensions of legal terms which can be unearthed in the process of terminology mining as a crucial stage in translation. It proposes to view legal terminology from a sociocognitive perspective, according to which terms are perceived as expressing units of understanding based oncognitive frames rather than rendering concepts in their traditional definition. Upon closer scrutiny most of these units reveal significant information regarding their verbal and extra-verbal dimensions. We therefore suggest analysing units of understanding expressed by simple terms, multiple elements terms and phraseology as depositories of knowledge providing information on the text type in which they occur, as well as on there levant area of law, the legal system and the wider culture underlying the text. In this context, terminology mining is not intended merely as extraction of terms, but rather as their analysis, comparison and structuring which reveals aspects such as their multiple embeddedness, as well as their historical, ideological, metaphorical, status-conferringand common Latin dimension.

  6. Terminología de los ejercicios de fuerza con sobrecargas (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Cos Morera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las ciencias aplicadas a la actividad física y el deporte son relativamente recientes y deben estandarizar todavía su vocabulario en algunas áreas de conocimiento. Establecer una terminología de consenso y unívoca en relación con los ejercicios de fuerza es fundamental para los profesionales que trabajan en las ciencias del ejercicio físico y el cuerpo humano. Es imprescindible articular una terminología unívoca en este sector de intervención social de gran repercusión. El derecho a la libre circulación de personas por los países de la Unión Europea y, en general, la globalización, hace necesario también el conocimiento de la terminología de la musculación en otras lenguas vehiculares. El siguiente artículo es el segundo de una serie de cuatro y presenta los ejercicios más representativos de rotadores internos y externos del hombro, elevadores del hombro, flexores del codo, extensores del codo y flexores y extensores de la muñeca en versiones castellana, catalana e inglesa, con el objetivo de que conformen una base de gran alcance que permita definir otros ejercicios.

  7. Terminología de los ejercicios de fuerza con sobrecargas (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Cos Morera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ciencias aplicadas a la actividad física y el deporte son relativamente recientes y deben de estandarizar todavía su vocabulario en algunas áreas de conocimiento. Establecer una terminología de consenso y unívoca en relación a los ejercicios de fuerza es fundamental para los profesionales que trabajan en las ciencias del ejercicio físico y el cuerpo humano. Es imprescindible articular una terminología unívoca en este sector de intervención social de gran repercusión. El derecho a la libre circulación de personas por los países de la Unión Europea y, en general, la globalización, hace necesario también el conocimiento de la terminología de la musculación en otras lenguas vehiculares. El siguiente artículo es el primero de una serie de cuatro y presenta los ejercicios más representativos de pecho y hombro en versiones castellana, catalana e inglesa, con el objetivo que conformen una base de gran alcance que permita definir otros ejercicios.

  8. Proposed entry of organization in bilingual glossaries terminology - sign language and brazilian portuguese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tuxi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work, which is inserted in the research line of Translation and Terminology, presented as an object of study the basic terms used in political and educational discourses that permeate national conference events. In respect to the Law 10436/2002 and Decree 5626/2005 is right for the Deaf have access to information in Brazilian Sign Language - Libras. One way to ensure this right is the presence of translator and interpreter to act in areas with specialized subjects should retain the knowledge of the specific terminology used in different contexts. The current study is based on the methodology for the preparation of dictionaries and glossaries Faulstich (1995. The research follows the approach of Socioterminology and as following: i recognition and identification of the target audience; ii delimitation of the surveyed area; iii collection and organization of data; iv organization glossary and validity test. The search result is the presentation of a proposal for entry of organizing a Terminology Glossary Bilingual facing the conference area that can serve as a reference source and training of translators and interpreters who work in the national conference events.

  9. TERMINOLOGICAL ISSUES ON FOREIGN LANGUAGES LEARNING AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS TO PERFORMANCE OF THE SECRETARY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida Oliveira Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate specific linguistic issues of the technical language in French and English languages starting from the selection and analysis of newspapers articles about the financial area. The objective was to present examples of authentic texts in the referred languages for those who work at the secretarial area as well as for professionals who need to deal with technical foreign language. This research, which is qualitative-based, started from the exploitation and analysis of articles taken from newspapers written in French and English. The articles were analyzed taking into account theoretical basis from Terminology studies. The investigation was done in three phases: (a investigation of theoretical aspects concerning the terminology and its applications, (b a brief characterization of newspaper texts organization. (c selection and analysis of terms and expressions of the selected texts. The results showed lexical and semantic equivalences of terms as well as writing features of both languages, besides specific terminological issues, which permitted a better understanding of the language used in the financial area.

  10. Terminología de los ejercicios de fuerza con sobrecargas (y IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Cos Morera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ciencias aplicadas a la actividad física y el deporte son relativamente recientes y deben estandarizar todavía su vocabulario en algunas áreas de conocimiento. Establecer una terminología de consenso y unívoca en relación con los ejercicios de fuerza con sobrecargas es fundamental para los profesionales que trabajan en las ciencias del ejercicio físico y el cuerpo humano. Es imprescindible articular una terminología vehicular en este sector de intervención social de gran repercusión. El derecho a la libre circulación de personas por los países de la Unión Europea y, en general, la globalización, hace necesario también el conocimiento de la terminología de la musculación en otras lenguas vehiculares. El siguiente artículo es el último de una serie de cuatro y presenta los ejercicios más representativos de extremidad inferior como, abductores, aductores, extensores y flexores de la cadera, extensores y flexores de la rodilla, flexores del pie y levantamientos olímpicos, en versiones castellana, catalana e inglesa, con el objetivo de que conformen una base de gran alcance que permita definir otros ejercicios

  11. Terminología de los ejercicios de fuerza con sobrecargas (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Cos Morera

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las ciencias aplicadas a la actividad física y el deporte son relativamente recientes y deben estandarizar todavía su vocabulario en algunas áreas de conocimiento. Establecer una terminología de consenso y unívoca en relación con los ejercicios de fuerza es fundamental para los profesionales que trabajan en las ciencias del ejercicio físico y el cuerpo humano. Es imprescindible articular una terminología vehicular en este sector de intervención social de gran repercusión. El derecho a la libre circulación de personas por los países de la Unión Europea y, en general, la globalización, hace necesario también el conocimiento de la terminología de la musculación en otras lenguas vehiculares. El siguiente artículo es el tercero de una serie de cuatro y presenta los ejercicios más representativos de espalda, abdominales y estabilizadores, en versiones castellana, catalana e inglesa, con el objetivo de que conformen una base de gran alcance que permita definir otros ejercicios.

  12. Aulacogens, the Donets Basin (Eastern Ukraine, Southwestern Russia, and the new classification of rifts: Towards a proper terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some intra-cratonic basins are traditionally called “aulacogens”. This term has persisted in the geoscience literature since its invention by Soviet geologists in the mid-20th century before the triumph of the plate tectonics, but its meaning has evolved. Attempts to change its meaning from descriptive to genetic have led to a broad spectrum of opinions on the definition of aulacogens. Some specialists related them to continental rifts, while others have restricted aulacogens to the only particular rift systems or peculiar stages in the evolution of young cratons. The Donets Basin is a typical aulacogen stretching across the southern margin of the East European Craton. A brief review of present knowledge of this basin shows that its nature is rather incompatible with the present understanding of aulacogens. Instead, the new classification of rifts offers a more precise terminology for its exact characteristics. It is suggested that the term “aulacogen” should only be restricted to those basins for which it has been applied historically.

  13. Development of Synonymy of French Linguistic Terms (Case Study of F. de Saussure’s Terminological System)

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Sergeevich Zolotukhin

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the features of synchronic and diachronic analysis of linguistic terminological synonymy in the French language on the inter-system and intra-system levels exemplified by Ferdinand de Saussure's terminological system. Based on the analysis of modern epistemological sources, the movement forms of scientific knowledge are determined, and they correspond to the certain forms of scientific theories reflection. The key stages of synonymy development are correlated with the e...

  14. Terminology Standardization in Chinese Medicine:The Perspective from UCLA Center for East-West Medicine(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka-Kit Hui; Sonya Pritzker

    2007-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTlON by Ka-kit Hui,M.D. Because we recognize the clinical,educational,and cultural importance of translation and terminology in Chinese medicine,we feel that it is imperative to understand the perspectives of all concerned parties.This article thus addresses the issue of terminology standardization in English language Chinese medical Publications from the Point of View of multiple stakeholders in this field at the UCLA Center for East-West Medicine.

  15. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  16. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides reviews of four computer software packages designed for use in science education. Describes courseware dealing with a variety of tips for teaching physics concepts, chemical reactions in an aqueous solution, mitosis and meiosis, and photosynthesis. (TW)

  17. Multilingual Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    This chapter gives a translation of English words used in particle characterization into French, German, Spanish and Dutch. The reader is warned that, sometimes, special words or different definitions are used in different countries and fields of application (see Chap. 18).

  18. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations...

  19. ClueConnect: a word array game to promote student comprehension of key terminology in an introductory anatomy and physiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Kathryn M; Olimpo, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    The sheer amount of terminology and conceptual knowledge required for anatomy and physiology can be overwhelming for students. Educational games are one approach to reinforce such knowledge. In this activity, students worked collaboratively to review anatomy and physiology concepts by creating arrays of descriptive tiles to define a term. Once guessed, students located the structure or process within diagrams of the body. The game challenged students to think about course vocabulary in novel ways and to use their collective knowledge to get their classmates to guess the terms. Comparison of pretest/posttest/delayed posttest data revealed that students achieved statistically significant learning gains for each unit after playing the game, and a survey of student perceptions demonstrated that the game was helpful for learning vocabulary as well as fun to play. The game is easily adaptable for a variety of lower- and upper-division courses. PMID:27105741

  20. ClueConnect: a word array game to promote student comprehension of key terminology in an introductory anatomy and physiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Kathryn M; Olimpo, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    The sheer amount of terminology and conceptual knowledge required for anatomy and physiology can be overwhelming for students. Educational games are one approach to reinforce such knowledge. In this activity, students worked collaboratively to review anatomy and physiology concepts by creating arrays of descriptive tiles to define a term. Once guessed, students located the structure or process within diagrams of the body. The game challenged students to think about course vocabulary in novel ways and to use their collective knowledge to get their classmates to guess the terms. Comparison of pretest/posttest/delayed posttest data revealed that students achieved statistically significant learning gains for each unit after playing the game, and a survey of student perceptions demonstrated that the game was helpful for learning vocabulary as well as fun to play. The game is easily adaptable for a variety of lower- and upper-division courses.

  1. 76 FR 24889 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid® (caBIG®) Support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Business or other for-profits and not- for-profit organizations and institutions. Type of Respondents... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on February 11, 2011 (76 FR 7867) and... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG ) Support...

  2. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.; Adema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This book intends (according to the preface) to afford at once a review, a general outline of what has been accomplished, and a set of signposts for the future. It attempts to do so in three sections on Origin and Diversification of Primitive Land Plants (4 papers), Origin and Diversification of Ang

  3. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  4. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (353) Dr Dyer's Academy Further Advanced Physics Physics 11-14, with Biology 11-14 and Chemistry 11-14 Nelson Modular Science: Books 1 and 2 Key Science: Physics, 3rd Edition Nelson Science: Physics, 2nd Edition Physics for AQA: Separate Award, Coordinated Award Physical Processes: A Visual Approach WEB WATCH (359) Physics Favourites: John Miller's selection

  5. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1966-01-01

    An exhaustive Flora of Delhi, compiled by J. K. Maheshwari, was published by C.S.I.R. in 1963 (for a review see Blumea 13, 1965, p. 174). During the compilation of that flora, 278 line-drawings, illustrating the habits and chief features of the plants found in Delhi, were prepared; they form a welco

  6. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The two published parts of the Desmid Flora of Austria are well-illustrated review volumes on a group of precious freshwater microalgae. Volume 1 contains a pretty, visual key to the genera, completed by figures of one or more characteristic species. In all keys of the separate genera many visual ai

  7. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38 (

  8. The 19th Century Style of Art in the Context of Contemporary Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Krastiņš, J

    2011-01-01

    The 19th century style is mostly referred to as Eclecticism. In some countries, mostly in Germany, the term “Historicism” is also used. At the same time it never found wider application in Anglo-American or French art-historical studies. The term Eclecticism was introduced in Latvian in 1980ies, later “Historicism” was used as well. One of the purposes of this article is to resolve these terminological inconsistencies. “Historicism” should be understood as general method and not only as disti...

  9. Terminología internacional sobre la educación inclusiva

    OpenAIRE

    García Cedillo, Ismael; Romero Contreras, Silvia; Aguilar Orozco, Claudia Lucía; Lomeli Hernández, Karla Abril; Rodríguez Ugalde, Diana Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Gradualmente, la educación inclusiva se ha colocado en la agenda de los sistemas educativos en el mundo como una prioridad. Sin embargo, a pesar de utilizar una terminología común, no parece haber mucho acuerdo con respecto al significado de conceptos centrales. En el presente artículo se identificaron dos perspectivas teóricas en relación con la educación inclusiva, una con objetivos moderados, que toma en cuenta las condiciones locales, y otra con objetivos más ambiciosos, que busca la tran...

  10. Clasificación de características en Terminología

    OpenAIRE

    Estellés Palanca, Anna; Alcina Caudet, Amparo

    2007-01-01

    Tretzenes Jornades de Foment de la Investigació de la FCHS (Any 2007-2008) En Terminología, las características constituyen conceptos en sí mismos y también sirven para describir conceptos. Para describir una característica debemos conocer su naturaleza, la clase de conceptos a la que pertenece, el campo temático donde aparece, su importancia en la descripción de conceptos, su relación con otros conceptos, etc. En el presente artículo analizamos distintas clasificaciones de característi...

  11. Study on the Similarities and Differences of Body Measurement Terminology between ASTM and China GB Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方方; 张渭源; 张文斌

    2003-01-01

    The similarities and differences of ASTM and China GB standard are studied in three aspects:measure instrument,terminology and applicable field.They are similar on the measuring apparatus and GB has less measurements,such as girth,length and width measurements than ASTM and it lack across chest width,back width,total crotch length and shoulder slope which are important measurements in pattern making.ASTM classifies its standards according to the customers' size,gender and age.So we think GB standard could make some modifications from these fields to satisfy the users.

  12. Remote Sensing Terminology in a Global and Knowledge-Based World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Rumiana

    The paper is devoted to terminology issues related to all aspects of remote sensing research and applications. Terminology is the basis for a better understanding among people. It is crucial to keep up with the latest developments and novelties of the terminology in advanced technology fields such as aerospace science and industry. This is especially true in remote sensing and geoinformatics which develop rapidly and have ever extending applications in various domains of science and human activities. Remote sensing terminology issues are directly relevant to the contemporary worldwide policies on information accessibility, dissemination and utilization of research results in support of solutions to global environmental challenges and sustainable development goals. Remote sensing and spatial information technologies are an integral part of the international strategies for cooperation in scientific, research and application areas with a particular accent on environmental monitoring, ecological problems natural resources management, climate modeling, weather forecasts, disaster mitigation and many others to which remote sensing data can be put. Remote sensing researchers, professionals, students and decision makers of different counties and nationalities should fully understand, interpret and translate into their native language any term, definition or acronym found in papers, books, proceedings, specifications, documentation, and etc. The importance of the correct use, precise definition and unification of remote sensing terms refers not only to people working in this field but also to experts in a variety of disciplines who handle remote sensing data and information products. In this paper, we draw the attention on the specifics, peculiarities and recent needs of compiling specialized dictionaries in the area of remote sensing focusing on Earth observations and the integration of remote sensing with other geoinformation technologies such as photogrammetry, geodesy

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of the introduction and implementation of a Terminology Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Annelise; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    if language is not an obvious distinctive competence, i.e. a strategic element to be incorporated into products so as to increase the penetration into the desired markets. For communicators it is clear that terminology work is useful and necessary - in this relation both quality and price would be clear...... distinctive competences. However, management in private and public organizations (most often) requires concrete figures and numbers to document the arguments before allocating resources. Cost/benefit-analysis supports the arguments through a comparison between benefits and costs of a given new initiative...

  14. Recursos terminológicos en biomedicina. Tratando la terminología con criterio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antònia Julià Berruezo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo recoge, convenientemente adaptada, la aportación esencial de la comunicación presentada por TERMCAT en las Jornadas Científicas y Profesionales de Traducción Médica, organizadas por APTIC y TREMÉDICA en Barcelona en setiembre de 2012. El propósito del texto es exponer y caracterizar los recursos de libre acceso que se pueden obtener en la web de TERMCAT. Se inicia con una breve presentación del centro, que sirve para contextualizar el trabajo terminológico que se lleva a cabo, de acuerdo con unos principios metodológicos establecidos y con un enfoque multilingüe, mediante la colaboración entre terminólogos y expertos. El cuerpo del artículo se plantea como un recorrido virtual por esa web, estructurado a partir de los ejes de actividad y de las líneas de trabajo del centro. A medida que se van presentando, a modo de inventario, se detallan los recursos terminológicos y los servicios asociados a cada una de las secciones y las páginas. En todos los casos, se introduce la explicación ilustrándola mediante un dato destacado y se completa mediante ejemplos relevantes en el ámbito de la medicina. Al final del artículo se incluye un recopilatorio de todos los enlaces citados en el texto. -------------------------------------------------- Terminology resources in biomedicine. Using criteria to deal with terminology. This article presents an adapted version of the main points of the TERMCAT presentation at the September 2012 Scientific and Technical Symposium on Medical Translation, hosted by APTIC and TREMÉDICA in Barcelona. The purpose of this text is to explain and characterize the open access resources available on the TERMCAT website. It begins with a brief presentation of the Centre that contextualizes its terminology work, which follows established methodological principles with a multilingual focus through collaboration between terminologists and experts. The body of the article is a type of virtual tour

  15. Satisfiability and reasoning mechanism of terminological cycles in description logic νL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ju; JIANG YunCheng; SHEN YuMing

    2008-01-01

    The current research works and the existing problems of terminological cycles in description logics are analyzed in this paper. Referring to the works of Baader F and Nebel B, we aim in a new direction. Firstly, description logic vL, is defined, and the description graphs GT and GJ are redefined. A syntax condition for the satisfi-ability of membership relation is given. By using this syntax condition, we prove the following: The subsumption reasoning in vL with respect to gfp-model, Ifp-model and descriptive model is polynomial.

  16. Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology.

  17. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  18. The Terminology of the Public Relations Field in the Slovenian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kalin Golob

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes two starting points: (a the development of the Slovenian (and Croatian language in science and professions is being increasingly limited by the narrow comprehension of internationalised higher education and science; (b in the digital age, the fields of usage being lost in those languages are those not supported enough in terms of language technology. With the case of the Slovenian public relations terminology, we reveal that it is possible to confront both: on the basis of the previously formed corpus of professional texts, KoRP, which is linguistically earmarked and freely available online, and in the TERMIS project. We initially inferred one- or multi-word term candidates with the LUIZ programme, and then acquired the typical text environment and best dictionary examples automatically by means of the Sketch Engine tool and its application Word Sketches together with the GDEX tool. The infrastructure formed during the project will be freely available after the conclusion of the project (June 2013, and the dictionary, which will include 2,000 terms regarding public relations, may be understood as a model for the creation of modern terminology dictionaries of other professions as well.

  19. Medical terminology and phraseology and fate of the Journal Serbian archives for the whole medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Brana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbian Archives for the Whole Medicine (Archivum Serbicum pro universa scientia et arte medica recipienda is one of the oldest Serbian journals still being published - the first issue came out in 1874 - next to Matica Srpska Chronicle which is the oldest one. It played an extremely significant role in the creation of Serbian medical terminology and phraseology, but only during the first decades of its existence. Later on, after the First World War and particularly after the Second World War, this very role was gradually losing its importance, to be finally lost. So, in recent times, partly under the pressure of higher instances, a proposal was made for the total abandonment of Serbian language and printing this journal only in English. Presenting historical facts - how and for whom Serbian Archives had been made and what followed afterwards - and using statistical calculations of the participation index, indicating the average annual number of authors ie. participants in writing works, unjustifiably increased in the recent decades (1950 = 1.3; 2012= 5.0, in this work we answered the question whether indeed Serbian Archives should not be printed in the Cyrillic script and in Serbian language anymore. The conclusion is: the further survival of Serbian Archives is tightly related to the revival of the work on Serbian medical terminology and phraseology, even if it means starting from the beginning to a great extent at this moment. Otherwise, Serbian Archives will be suspended, after 140 years of existence.

  20. Ecopsychosocial Interventions in Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A New Terminology and a New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, John; Reisberg, Barry; Whitehouse, Peter; Woods, Robert; Verheul, Ad

    2016-09-01

    Dementia is a major medical and social scourge. Neither pharmacological nor nonpharmacological interventions and treatments have received sufficient funding to be meaningful in combatting this tsunami. Because the term-"nonpharmacological"-refers to what these interventions are not, rather than what they are, nonpharmacological treatments face a special set of challenges to be recognized, accepted, funded, and implemented. In some ways, the current situation is analogous to using the term "nonhate" to mean "love." This article presents a carefully reasoned argument for using the terminology "ecopsychosocial" to describe the full range of approaches and interventions that fall into this category. These include interventions such as educational efforts with care partners, social support programs for individuals with various levels of dementia, efforts to improve community awareness of dementia, an intergenerational school where persons with dementia teach young children, and the design of residential and community settings that improve functioning and can reduce behavioral symptoms of dementia. The proposed terminology relates to the nature of the interventions themselves, rather than their outcomes, and reflects the broadest range of interventions possible under the present rubric-nonpharmacological. The goal of this new label is to be better able to compare interventions and their outcomes and to be able to see the connections between data sets presently not seen as fitting together, thereby encouraging greater focus on developing new ecopsychosocial interventions and approaches that can improve the lives of those with dementia, their care partners, and the broader society. PMID:27284206

  1. Historic Gardens and Parks: Challenges of Development in the Context of Relevant Regulations, Definitions and Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristīne Dreija

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The title and contents of this article have emerged after trying to summarize international scientific knowledge and theory, regulations by relevant international organizations, as well as several national legislative provisions issued in the area of development of historical landscapes, environment and sites. Various definitions related to the subject, changing and newly introduced terminology have originally caused some embarrassment and provoked a series of questions, such as: who is who and what is the difference? In this respect, a historical garden or park as a significant area is defined as a ‘Living Monument’, ‘Tangible Heritage’ or even ‘Intangible Heritage’, because there is no doubt that the garden is a dynamic and ever changing environment. The applied terminology and definitions on historical gardens and parks are also undoubtedly related to the issues of heritage awareness. Differences in the national legislations are significant too, whereas historical gardens and parks are classified both, as architecture and natural monuments and heritage immovable property. An analysis at the theoretical level of the legislation and scientific statements provided in conclusion gives a certain insight into the significance of each projective aspect in the planning development of the historical gardens and parks and forms the base for further relevant issue researches.

  2. Terminology of chronic pain: the need to "level the playing field"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppin JF

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available John F Peppin,1 Michael E Schatman2 1Center for Bioethics, Pain Management and Medicine, St Louis, MO, 2US Pain Foundation, Middletown, CT, USAPain medicine as a separate subspecialty is in its infancy, only fairly recently being recognized as such by the American Board of Medical Specialities.1 As it continues to find its way in the ever-changing world of medicine, terminology becomes an important consideration. Terms carry tremendous impact: for example, when a patient is told he or she has “cancer”, the impact emotionally will undoubtedly make further explanation difficult. To patients and their families, the word “cancer” has the effect of being hit with an emotional baseball bat. In the pain world, there was a recent, albeit failed, attempt to change the name of pain specialists to “algiatrists”.2 It was thought this would help define what such specialists did as opposed to other specialties. Accordingly, terminology matters, yet little attention has been paid to the terms we use to categorize and diagnose our patients. “Chronic cancer pain” and “chronic noncancer pain” are replete in the literature; however, the distinction here is actually obscure. A patient with pain from a cancer etiology has no different physiology than a patient with pain of noncancer etiologies.

  3. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkman, C.

    1996-01-01

    The first volume of this series was published in 1991, and reviewed in Blumea 38, p. 216. The treatments of volumes 2 and 3 are each based on a doctor’s thesis by the first author, elaborated under supervision of Dr. Panigrahi. Volume 2 contains regional revisions of six genera: Prunus, Prinsepia, Maddenia, Rosa, Malus, and Pyrus. Prunus is taken in the inclusive sense and has 38 species in India, including a number of non-indigenous but cultivated and sometimes naturalized species. Prinsepia...

  4. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available For a variety of different reasons, increasing use is now being made of the Internet for the delivery of course materials and/or for the support of teaching and learning activities. The details of the mechanisms used will obviously vary from one situation to another, depending upon the types of problem to be addressed. These may involve mentoring, teaching, monitoring, recording, tutoring, assessing, and so on. In this book, the author attempts to review the educational and administrative considerations of offering courses, course materials or course delivery via the Internet.

  5. REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Bugay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Study Guide: «KUBAN STUDIES. KUBAN IN THE XX CENTURY – THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY. HISTORY. PEOPLE SOCIETY.» Study Guide (electronic version to grade 11 of educational institutions. A.A. Zaitsev, E.V. Morozova, N.V. Plotichkina and O.A. Borisko, M.A. Egupova, A.B. Sazantovich, I.S. Bashkakov, T.I. Belyaeva. Krasnodar: Perspectives on Education, 2015.In a review of a thorough analysis of all the component parts of the book that will surely attract the attention first of all history teachers and students in 11 classes of educational institutions of the region. A comprehensive presentation of the material significantly adds to the course of modern history of Russia and enrich its specific material about the life of the Russian Cossacks and as part of the – of the Kuban Cossacks. Along with the reference materials of pure nature that is needed for this kind of research are presented and informative sections on the socio-economic condition of the region, the interests of different strata of the population, the multinational factor and the religious beliefs of the population. Cossacks in its warlike mentality, and this trait is passed from generation to generation. But the aspirations of the Cossacks in this respect are transparent – protecting the integrity of the Fatherland, faithful service to him, boundless devotion to the Orthodox faith. The important story is linked with the identity of the Russian Cossacks, its mentality, "Kuban" specificity, especially for the rule on different sections of history, to various of its exponents, both military and civilians. As is known from the Cossacks received a development institute of judging for each Ataman smoking, working village judge. Cossacks series comply with the law as applied his own family, and chic plan – in the state, fought against offenders, it is considered in relation to the Cossacks and representatives of different ethnic communities living with the Cossacks, and

  6. Las terminologías de enfermería y su representación en SNOMED CT

    OpenAIRE

    Romá Ferri, María Teresa

    2010-01-01

    En los sistemas de información, y en concreto en las historias clínicas electrónicas, las terminologías actúan como una forma de entrada y de almacenamiento de datos estandarizados. Las terminologías normalizadas de enfermería (NANDA, NIC y NOC) son importantes y necesarias para fijar la práctica, hacer explícito el papel jugado por estos profesionales en el sistema sanitario y determinar el coste de los servicios realizados. Sin embargo, no son suficientes para compartir la información y reu...

  7. Production of an English/Russian glossary of terminology for nuclear materials control and accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachowskoj, S.; Smith, H.A. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    The program plans for Former Soviet Union National Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems Enhancements call for the development of an English/Russian Glossary of MC and A terminology. This glossary was envisioned as an outgrowth of the many interactions, training sessions, and other talking and writing exercises that would transpire in the course of carrying out these programs. This report summarizes the status of the production of this glossary, the most recent copy of which is attached to this report. The glossary contains over 950 terms and acronyms associated with nuclear material control and accounting for safeguards and nonproliferation. This document is organized as follows: English/Russian glossary of terms and acronyms; Russian/English glossary of terms and acronyms; English/Russian glossary of acronyms; and Russian/English glossary of acronyms.

  8. Projective goals - concepts and pragmatic aspects based on the terminology and methodology of safety science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective goals set the line of orientation of tasks and activities in the field of accident prevention. They have to be based on safety-science methods in order to develop from the conceptual idea to the practically feasible solution, while using the scientific methods to take into account the facts and the capabilities of a situation and, proceeding from them, finding an efficient and rational, optimal pragmatic approach by way of various strategies or tactics. In this process, the activities of defining, informing, thinking and developing need the proper terminology. Safety is absence of danger, protection is limitation of danger and prevention of damage. So it is protection what is needed with danger being given, and risks have to be minimized. Riskology is a novel method of safety science, combining risk analysis and risk control into a systematic concept which is practice-oriented. Applying this to the field of nuclear engineering, the hitherto achieved should receive new impulses. (orig.)

  9. New classification of donation after circulatory death donors definitions and terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuong, Marie; Ruiz, Angel; Evrard, Patrick; Kuiper, Michael; Boffa, Catherine; Akhtar, Mohammed Z; Neuberger, James; Ploeg, Rutger

    2016-07-01

    In the face of a crisis in organ donation, the transplant community are increasingly utilizing donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Over the last 10 years, with the increasing usage of DCD donors, we have seen the introduction in a number of new terms and definitions. We report the results of the 6th International Conference in Organ Donation held in Paris in 2013 and report a consensus agreement of an established expert European Working Group on the definitions and terminology regarding DCD donation, including refinement of the Maastricht definitions. This document forms part of a special series where recommendations are presented for uncontrolled and controlled DCD donation and organ specific guidelines for kidney, pancreas, liver and lung transplantation. An expert panel formed a consensus on definitions and terms aiming to establish consistent usage of terms in DCD donation. PMID:26991858

  10. Amerindian handicraft and notion of tradition in french Guyana: Toward a new terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Davy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current context of modernity which lives the Amerindian societies of French Guyana infers indisputably a change in their handicraft practice. Few techniques disappear others persist but almost the marketing of objects, initially used for domestic purposes, increases a lot. Collectively, this craft production supports more and more an ethnic identity that it is claimed by the peoples himself either recognized outside of their community. The vague desires of valuation of a "traditional" handicraft, of "ancestral" knowledge are daylight. So, we shall discuss the contemporary marketing of this handicraft by pressing our examples on the activity of basketwork. Through examples drawn to diverse Amerindian communities living in French Guiana we shall approach the ambiguous notions of "traditional" and " modern" item. Finally, we shall propose a new terminology to dread better the contemporary reality of the Amerindian handicraft.

  11. Fluoroscopic "heart chamber" anatomy - the case for imaging modality-independent terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Nicolo; Mylotte, Darren; Theriault Lauzier, Pascal

    2016-09-18

    Interventional cardiologists have traditionally relied upon fluoro-scopic imaging for percutaneous coronary interventions. Transcatheter structural heart interventions, however, require additional imaging modalities such as echocardiography and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) for pre-, intra- and post-procedural assistance. MSCT has emerged as the critical imaging modality for patient and device selection prior to transcatheter structural heart interventions. MSCT is unique as it provides a complete 3-dimensional (3D) dataset of the heart and vasculature that is amenable to multiplanar reconstruction for 2-dimensional (2D) or volume-rendered interpretations. Herein, we present a modality-independent terminology for understanding volumetric images in the context of transcatheter heart valve therapies. The goal of this system is to allow physicians to readily interpret the orientation of fluoroscopic, MSCT, echocardiographic and MRI images, thus generalising their understanding of cardiac anatomy to all imaging modalities. PMID:27640046

  12. Asociación Española de Terminología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Municio, Ángel

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La terminología puede tener, de un lado, una consideración objetiva independientemente de la lengua utilizada. Pero, puede contemplarse, además, desde el ángulo particular de una lengua dada, y ser de consideración, no por adicionales menos importantes, asuntos pertenecientes a los ámbitos de las políticas lingüística y técnica de una nación, del tipo de la armonización y la difusión de los recursos terminológicos, la coordinación de las acciones y las relaciones internacionales.…

  13. Production of an English/Russian glossary of terminology for nuclear materials control and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program plans for Former Soviet Union National Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems Enhancements call for the development of an English/Russian Glossary of MC and A terminology. This glossary was envisioned as an outgrowth of the many interactions, training sessions, and other talking and writing exercises that would transpire in the course of carrying out these programs. This report summarizes the status of the production of this glossary, the most recent copy of which is attached to this report. The glossary contains over 950 terms and acronyms associated with nuclear material control and accounting for safeguards and nonproliferation. This document is organized as follows: English/Russian glossary of terms and acronyms; Russian/English glossary of terms and acronyms; English/Russian glossary of acronyms; and Russian/English glossary of acronyms

  14. Fishes and other aquatic species in the Byzantine literature. Classification, terminology and scientific names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CHRONE-VAKALOPOULOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishes and other aquatic species were substantial food in the every day life of Byzantine people. The predomination of Christianity contributed to the increased consumption of fishes and other seafood compared to the meat of land animals and chicken. More than a hundred ten names of fishes and about thirty names of other aquatic organisms are found in the sources of the Byzantine literature. Most frequent references are found in the medical texts of the Byzantine doctors, where, fishes are classified in categories depending on their physiology and origin, because, according to the writers, these are determining factors for the evaluation of the nutritional value of each species.The purpose of this study is to present the terminology of the fishes and the various aquatic species that are found in the Byzantine sources and to identify, in parallel, each species with its current scientific name.  

  15. Estudio de la terminología de la danza académica

    OpenAIRE

    Barri Almenar, Ana

    2015-01-01

    En la terminología de la danza académica existe una estrecha relación entre la lengua, el concepto y la ejecución del movimiento. La integración de estos conocimientos en la didáctica de la danza es un factor fundamental en el proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje de esta disciplina. Sin embargo, el desconocimiento de su soporte lingüístico, la lengua francesa, la particular forma de transmisión oral de las enseñanzas a lo largo de generaciones, y la escasez de trabajos teóricos hacen difícil el ...

  16. Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Guillaume; Athanasopoulos, Panos; Wiggett, Alison; Dering, Benjamin; Kuipers, Jan-Rouke

    2009-03-17

    It is now established that native language affects one's perception of the world. However, it is unknown whether this effect is merely driven by conscious, language-based evaluation of the environment or whether it reflects fundamental differences in perceptual processing between individuals speaking different languages. Using brain potentials, we demonstrate that the existence in Greek of 2 color terms--ghalazio and ble--distinguishing light and dark blue leads to greater and faster perceptual discrimination of these colors in native speakers of Greek than in native speakers of English. The visual mismatch negativity, an index of automatic and preattentive change detection, was similar for blue and green deviant stimuli during a color oddball detection task in English participants, but it was significantly larger for blue than green deviant stimuli in native speakers of Greek. These findings establish an implicit effect of language-specific terminology on human color perception. PMID:19240215

  17. Even free radicals should follow some rules: a guide to free radical research terminology and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Henry Jay; Augusto, Ohara; Brigelius-Flohe, Regina; Dennery, Phyllis A; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Mann, Giovanni E; Radi, Rafael; Roberts, L Jackson; Vina, Jose; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals and oxidants are now implicated in physiological responses and in several diseases. Given the wide range of expertise of free radical researchers, application of the greater understanding of chemistry has not been uniformly applied to biological studies. We suggest that some widely used methodologies and terminologies hamper progress and need to be addressed. We make the case for abandonment and judicious use of several methods and terms and suggest practical and viable alternatives. These changes are suggested in four areas: use of fluorescent dyes to identify and quantify reactive species, methods for measurement of lipid peroxidation in complex biological systems, claims of antioxidants as radical scavengers, and use of the terms for reactive species.

  18. Mapping Phenotypic Information in Heterogeneous Textual Sources to a Domain-Specific Terminological Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnazzawi, Noha; Thompson, Paul; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical literature articles and narrative content from Electronic Health Records (EHRs) both constitute rich sources of disease-phenotype information. Phenotype concepts may be mentioned in text in multiple ways, using phrases with a variety of structures. This variability stems partly from the different backgrounds of the authors, but also from the different writing styles typically used in each text type. Since EHR narrative reports and literature articles contain different but complementary types of valuable information, combining details from each text type can help to uncover new disease-phenotype associations. However, the alternative ways in which the same concept may be mentioned in each source constitutes a barrier to the automatic integration of information. Accordingly, identification of the unique concepts represented by phrases in text can help to bridge the gap between text types. We describe our development of a novel method, PhenoNorm, which integrates a number of different similarity measures to allow automatic linking of phenotype concept mentions to known concepts in the UMLS Metathesaurus, a biomedical terminological resource. PhenoNorm was developed using the PhenoCHF corpus-a collection of literature articles and narratives in EHRs, annotated for phenotypic information relating to congestive heart failure (CHF). We evaluate the performance of PhenoNorm in linking CHF-related phenotype mentions to Metathesaurus concepts, using a newly enriched version of PhenoCHF, in which each phenotype mention has an expert-verified link to a concept in the UMLS Metathesaurus. We show that PhenoNorm outperforms a number of alternative methods applied to the same task. Furthermore, we demonstrate PhenoNorm's wider utility, by evaluating its ability to link mentions of various other types of medically-related information, occurring in texts covering wider subject areas, to concepts in different terminological resources. We show that PhenoNorm can maintain

  19. Mapping Phenotypic Information in Heterogeneous Textual Sources to a Domain-Specific Terminological Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnazzawi, Noha; Thompson, Paul; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical literature articles and narrative content from Electronic Health Records (EHRs) both constitute rich sources of disease-phenotype information. Phenotype concepts may be mentioned in text in multiple ways, using phrases with a variety of structures. This variability stems partly from the different backgrounds of the authors, but also from the different writing styles typically used in each text type. Since EHR narrative reports and literature articles contain different but complementary types of valuable information, combining details from each text type can help to uncover new disease-phenotype associations. However, the alternative ways in which the same concept may be mentioned in each source constitutes a barrier to the automatic integration of information. Accordingly, identification of the unique concepts represented by phrases in text can help to bridge the gap between text types. We describe our development of a novel method, PhenoNorm, which integrates a number of different similarity measures to allow automatic linking of phenotype concept mentions to known concepts in the UMLS Metathesaurus, a biomedical terminological resource. PhenoNorm was developed using the PhenoCHF corpus-a collection of literature articles and narratives in EHRs, annotated for phenotypic information relating to congestive heart failure (CHF). We evaluate the performance of PhenoNorm in linking CHF-related phenotype mentions to Metathesaurus concepts, using a newly enriched version of PhenoCHF, in which each phenotype mention has an expert-verified link to a concept in the UMLS Metathesaurus. We show that PhenoNorm outperforms a number of alternative methods applied to the same task. Furthermore, we demonstrate PhenoNorm's wider utility, by evaluating its ability to link mentions of various other types of medically-related information, occurring in texts covering wider subject areas, to concepts in different terminological resources. We show that PhenoNorm can maintain

  20. When Five Words Are Not Enough: A Conceptual and Terminological Discussion of English as a Lingua Franca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Patricia; Matsuda, Aya

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to (re)define key terminology in the study of English as a lingua franca (ELF). Although the diverse perspectives and ideological standpoints represented in competing definitions of terms is appreciated, a critical conversation on definition and interpretation of ELF and other related concepts is crucial in providing a…

  1. Understanding international differences in terminology for delirium and other types of acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morandi, A; Pandharipande, P; Trabucchi, M; Rozzini, R; Mistraletti, G; Trompeo, A C; Gregoretti, C; Gattinoni, L; Ranieri, M V; Brochard, L; Annane, D; Putensen, C; Guenther, U; Fuentes, P; Tobar, E; Anzueto, A R; Esteban, A; Skrobik, Y; Salluh, J I F; Soares, M; Granja, C; Stubhaug, A; de Rooij, S E; Ely, E Wesley

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delirium (acute brain dysfunction) is a potentially life threatening disturbance in brain function that frequently occurs in critically ill patients. While this area of brain dysfunction in critical care is rapidly advancing, striking limitations in use of terminology related to delirium

  2. The Problematic Relationship between Institutionalised Irish Terminology Development and the Gaeltacht Speech Community: Dynamics of Acceptance and Estrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Ghearain, Helena

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the findings of a study which investigated the hypothesis--based thus far on anecdotal evidence--that Irish speakers in traditional Gaeltacht areas do not accept official terminology planning, both in terms of their language practices and beliefs. While the findings provide some qualitative support for the hypothesis, in…

  3. Terminology of Adult Education. Terminologia de la Educacion de Adultos. Terminologie de l'Education des Adultes. Ibedata Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titmus, Colin; And Others

    This international glossary of adult education, its full text in English, Spanish, and French, is intended to establish generally acceptable international terminology in three major world languages to facilitate cooperation in the field of adult education. The alphabetical definition of terms, according to their spelling in each language, is…

  4. NUTRACEUTICALS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Rajat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The term "nutraceutical" was coined from "nutrition" and "pharmaceutical" in 1989 by Stephen DeFelice. Drugs shows various side effects and adverse effects due to which consumers are generally moves to take food supplements to improve health. Such products may range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and diets to genetically engineered"designer" foods, herbal products and processed foods such as cereals, soups and beverages. Nutraceuticals used in various diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, obesity disease, cancer etc. This review focus on definition, history, comparing with various other terminologies, classification and various marketed products.

  5. Analyzing rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies Analizzare la terminologia biomedica sulle malattie rare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pasceri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rare disease patients too often face common problems, including the lack of access to correct diagnosis, lack of quality information on the disease, lack of scientific knowledge of the disease, inequities and difficulties in access to treatment and care. These things could be changed by implementing a comprehensive approach to rare diseases, increasing international cooperation in scientific research, by gaining and sharing scientific knowledge about and by developing tools for extracting and sharing knowledge. A significant aspect to analyze is the organization of knowledge in the biomedical field for the proper management and recovery of health information. For these purposes, the sources needed have been acquired from the Office of Rare Diseases Research, the National Organization of Rare Disorders and Orphanet, organizations that provide information to patients and physicians and facilitate the exchange of information among different actors involved in this field. The present paper shows the representation of rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies such as MeSH, ICD-10, SNOMED CT and OMIM, leveraging the fact that these terminologies are integrated in the UMLS. At the first level, it was analyzed the overlap among sources and at a second level, the presence of rare diseases terms in target sources included in UMLS, working at the term and concept level. We found that MeSH has the best representation of rare diseases terms.Pazienti affetti da malattie rare molto spesso affrontano problemi comuni, tra cui la mancanza di accesso alla diagnosi corretta, la mancanza di informazioni di qualità sulla malattia, la mancanza di conoscenze scientifiche, e le difficoltà di accesso al trattamento e cura. Inadempienze e lacune che potrebbero essere colmate mediante l'attuazione di un approccio globale alle malattie rare, aumentando la cooperazione internazionale nella ricerca scientifica e lo sviluppo di strumenti per l'estrazione e la

  6. Access to planetary science for the broad public: a more familiar planetary nomenclature and terminology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    The Planetary Sciences in the last decades has accumulated an amount of knowledge that is comparable to other Earth Sciences. The study of planets is not any more a computation of orbital data, but the investigation and description of surface features of dozens of planetary bodies, including our own Earth. This way, it is only an extention of the present Earth sciences like geography, geology, geophisics, meteorolgy etc. In Hungary, Planetary Science studies has been made for decades, but especially today, numerous popular scientific works are published, and the subject of planetology (and also exobiology linked to it) is taught in more and more secondary schools and universities. This ma kes a demand for a Hungarian language terminology and nomenclature in the relatively new discipline of Planetology. It is needed because the present terminology of geosciences is not adequeate for the description of the surface conditions and structures in other planetary bodies. In the mean time it has to be in accord with the Earth-based system. Since this is areal discipline in its subject, it is of high importance that the areas studied be identifiable easily, unambiguously and descriptively. This make s the translation/transcription of IAU's nomenclature our second goal. This is not a simple transliteration of the proper names used in planetary body nomenclatures, but the task is also the setting of the basic rules used in the making of Hungarian nomenclature system. It would be useful, if the system would be useable for any body of the solar system. It has to fit into the system of both the IAU's nomenlcature and the Hungarian geographic name system [1]. This makes a double task: to make a system that is appropriate both linguistically and scientifically. At the same time, in popular science and elementary education, the planetary features' common names and some basic terms should be in the mother languages of the readers, and not in latin or English (outside the anglophone

  7. Natural Science and Technology Terminology in the Sesotho sa Leboa Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Mojapelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural sci-ence and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called, which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolin-gual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicogra-phy Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolin-gual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation defini-tion' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.

    Keywords: TRANSLITERATION, COINAGE, COINED LEXICAL ITEM, LOAN WORD, ADOPTIVE, FOREIGN WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SOTHOIZED WORD, INDIGENOUS WORD, NATURAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, COMPOUND WORD, AMBIGUITY

    Opsomming: Natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie in die Sesotho sa Leboa eentalige woordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n ver-gelykende ontleding te maak van die strukturele en die leksikale verskille tussen nuutskepping en transliterasie as metodes vir die verwerwing van vreemde natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese leksikale items wat bedoel is vir insluiting in die Sesotho sa Leboa omvattende eentalige woorde-boek Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Met die uitsondering van die meertalige woordelyste ("woordeboeke" soos hulle genoem word wat deur die Nasionale Taaldiens van die

  8. A Review of the Research on Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien; Condron, Linda; Belland, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that maladaptive patterns of Internet use constitute behavioral addiction. This article explores the research on the social effects of Internet addiction. There are four major sections. The Introduction section overviews the field and introduces definitions, terminology, and assessments. The second section reviews research…

  9. The Relationship of Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Self-Efficacy with Medical English and Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Huei; Kao, Pan-Fu; Liao, Hung-Chang

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between the use of vocabulary learning strategies and self-efficacy in medical English learning, and whether after an initial six-week course to master the basics of medical terminology, those with higher use of vocabulary learning strategies and those with a higher degree of self-efficacy would have significant score improvements in the medical English proficiency. Second-year medical students (N = 115; M age = 19.6, SD = 0.5; 82 men, 33 women) participated in the study. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. Measures included medical English tests, the English Vocabulary Learning Strategies Survey (EVLSS), and the English Learning Self-Efficacy Scale (ELSES). Results showed that there was no significant correlation between vocabulary learning strategies and English learning self-efficacy. In addition, as a whole, vocabulary learning strategies and self-efficacy significantly predicted students' score improvements in medical English proficiency.

  10. Is the 2003 ISSVD terminology and classification of vulvodynia up-to-date? A neurobiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, L; Radici, G; Lynch, P J

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to determine if the 2003 International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) terminology and classification of vulval pain is up-to-date, according to a current and widely accepted neurobiological pain classification, which divides pain into nociceptive, inflammatory and pathological pain with the latter subdivided into neuropathic and dysfunctional pain. Nociceptive pain is protective, adaptive, high-threshold pain provoked by noxious stimuli. Inflammatory pain is protective, adaptive, low-threshold pain associated with peripheral tissue damage and inflammation. Pathological pain is non-protective, maladaptive, low-threshold pain caused by structural damage to the nervous system (neuropathic pain) or by its abnormal function (dysfunctional pain). The 2003 ISSVD vulval pain classification should be revised in terms of current neurobiological pain information. Inflammatory vulval pain occurs as a result of specific infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. Neuropathic vulval pain arises following a specific neurological disorder, responsible for structural damage to the nervous system. Vulvodynia is dysfunctional vulval pain, caused by abnormal function of the nervous system itself.

  11. From Closet Talk to PC Terminology : Gay Speech and the Politics of Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Smorag

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Depuis l’époque où l’homosexualité était synonyme de perversion, voire de délit, jusqu’aux actuelles gay prides, la communauté gay, lesbienne, bisexuelle et transgenre n’a cessé de développer un langage distinctif, le gayspeak. Transgressant les normes sociales, ce parler, davantage glossaire qu’idiome, permet aujourd’hui à la communauté LGBT de reconstruire sa propre réalité tout en ouvrant vers de nouvelles perceptions identitaires. Militant tout autant que ludique, ce langage se veut également le défenseur d’un certain style de vie, cherchant à exprimer, de manière la plus visible, politiquement correcte et efficace qui soit, la richesse des comportements et des cultures du monde gay.This paper examines the extraordinary complexity of sexual orientations and subcultures as expressed by “gay speech,” an idiom the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community has developed for itself. Since the times when homosexuality was a perversion to today’s vibrant Prides, gayspeak has been used to express the needs of a group which, feeling socially repressed, reinvented and subverted language. Whereas some activists are using it as a means to keep politics in the language, notably by reclaiming all discriminatory terminology, others rely upon this rich lexicon to assert the diversity of their specific lifestyles and subcultures.

  12. Nomenclature and Terminology of Organic Chemistry. I. Sixty Years of Croatian Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapić, V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history and development of the Croatian nomenclature of organic chemistry from the publication of the first translation of international nomenclature recommendations to the present age. In the Introduction, trivial, common, systematic (rational, and semisystematic names are defined, and the etymology and meaning of terms nomenclature and terminology are clarified.At the beginning of the central part of this article, attention is focused on the need to create our national nomenclature. The very first such project, initiated by the Croatian Chemical Society (CCS, was the translation of the Geneva (1892 and Lie`ge rules (1930 published in 1954. In 1979 comprehensive general IUPAC rules appeared, and the Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers (CSCE in two volumes printed the Croatian edition of this important document, known as the Blue Book, in 1985 and 1988. A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (1993 expanded the main principles and rules from the Blue Book, and introduced a higher degree of organic nomenclature systematization. The Croatian translation of the Guide was published in 2002. In the last six decades, almost fifty translations of international rules have been issued, and almost all of them represented the official recommendations of the CCS/CSCE. Finally, the nomenclature in the translations of five comprehensive textbooks fororganic chemistry is analysed.In conclusion, readers are informed that the Croatian version of IUPAC rules is applied in our secondary school and university education, in Croatian encyclopaedism and mass media, as well.

  13. Knowledge representation in the semantic web for Earth and environmental terminology (SWEET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Robert G.; Pan, Michael J.

    2005-11-01

    The semantic web for Earth and environmental terminology (SWEET) is an investigation in improving discovery and use of Earth science data, through software understanding of the semantics of web resources. Semantic understanding is enabled through the use of ontologies, or formal representations of technical concepts and their interrelations in a form that supports domain knowledge. The ultimate vision of the semantic web consists of web pages with XML namespace tags around terms, enabling search tools to ascertain their meanings by following the link to the defining ontologies. Such a scenario both reduces the number of false hits (where a search returns alternative, unintended meanings of a term) and increases the number of successful hits (where searcher and information provider have a syntax mismatch of the same concept). For SWEET, we developed a collection of ontologies using the web ontology language (OWL) that include both orthogonal concepts (space, time, Earth realms, physical quantities, etc.) and integrative science knowledge concepts (phenomena, events, etc.). This paper describes the development of a knowledge space for Earth system science and related concepts (such as data properties). Some of the ontology contents are "virtual" by means of an OWL wrapper associated with terms in large external databases (including gazetteers and Earthquake databases). We developed a search tool that finds alternative search terms (based on the semantics) and redirects the expanded set of terms to a search engine.

  14. Confusing dinosaurs with mammals: tetrapod phylogenetics and anatomical terminology in the world of homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jerald D

    2004-12-01

    At present, three different systems of anatomical nomenclature are available to researchers describing new tetrapod taxa: a nonstandardized traditional system erected in part by Sir Richard Owen and subsequently elaborated by Alfred Romer; a standardized system created for avians, the Nomina Anatomica Avium (NAA); and a standardized system for extant (crown-group) mammals, the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). Conserved homologous structures widely distributed within the Tetrapoda are often granted different names in each system. The recent shift toward a phylogenetic system based on homology requires a concomitant shift toward a single nomenclatural system also based on both evolutionary and functional morphological homology. Standardized terms employed in the NAA and NAV should be perpetuated as far as possible basally in their respective phylogenies. Thus, NAA terms apply to nonavian archosaurs (or even all diapsids) and NAV terms apply to noncrown-group mammals and more basal synapsids. Taxa equally distant from both avians and crown-group mammals may maintain the traditional nonstandardized terminology until a universal anatomical nomenclature for all tetrapods is constructed.

  15. Canadian perspectives on the nutrition care process and international dietetics and nutrition terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marlis; Basualdo-Hammond, Carlota; Hotson, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline benefits of adoption of the Nutrition Care Process (NCP) and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) by Canadian dietitians, discuss implementation considerations for broad-based action and change, and determine future directions. The NCP and IDNT are recommended by the International Confederation of Dietetic Associations for international adoption as a framework for dietetic practice. The NCP uses a client-centred framework to clarify the role of registered dietitians (RDs), nutrition practice elements and skills, and the environments in which RDs practice. It also incorporates an evaluation framework, including identification of specific goals and monitoring of clinical and behavioural outcomes, to improve the quality and effectiveness of nutrition care. The process helps RDs to identify interventions that are more likely to improve nutrition outcomes by providing a systematic approach that encourages critical thinking and problem-solving. IDNT provides a standard set of core nutrition care terms and definitions for the four steps of the nutrition care process: assessment, nutrition diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring/evaluation. Use of IDNT promotes uniform documentation of nutrition care, enables differentiation of the type and amount of nutrition care provided, and provides a basis for linking nutrition care activities with actual or predicted outcomes. To continue to advance the dietetic profession in the Canadian health system, RDs must demonstrate their value by highlighting population, group, and individual health outcomes that are most influenced by the RD. The NCP and IDNT will help dietitians achieve these goals.

  16. The Linguistics of Keyboard - to - screen Communication: A New Terminological Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea s H. Jucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New forms of communication that have recently developed in the context of Web 2.0 make it necessary to reconsider some of the analytical tools of linguistic analysis. In the context of keyboard-to-screen communication (KSC, as we shall call it, a range of old dichotomies have become blurred or cease to be useful altogether, e. g. "asynchronous" versus "synchronous", "written" versus "spoken", "monologic" versus "dialogic", and in particular "text" versus "utterance". We propose alternative terminologies ("communicative act" and "communicative act sequence" that are more adequate to describe the new realities of online communication and can usefully be applied to such diverse entities as weblog entries, tweets, status updates on social network sites, comments on other postings and to sequences of such entities. Furthermore, in the context of social network sites, different forms of communication traditionally separated (i. e. blog, chat, email and so on seem to converge. We illustrate and discuss these phenomena with data from Twitter and Facebook.

  17. Multiple family member visits to family physicians. Terminology, classification, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knishkowy, B; Furst, A; Fassberg, Y; Anor, E; Matthews, S; Paz, Y

    1991-01-01

    A study was designed to investigate "the family as the unit of care" in family medicine consultations from the patient's end of the physician-patient axis, unlike most previous related studies, which have concentrated on it from the physician's perspective. During 2 separate weeks in November 1987 and February 1988, nine Israeli family physicians collected demographic and family-related data concerning the spontaneous visiting patterns generated by 1156 persons (899 patients and 257 nonpatients) who attended 796 separate consultations at their clinics during this time. More than one patient attended 12% of the consultations, and more than one person, patient or nonpatient, was present at 36%. At 31% of the consultations children alone or children and adults were recorded as patients (child consultations), and at 69% only adult patients were present (adult consultations). Adults were recorded as second or third patients at 19% of the child consultations but at only 5% of the adult consultations. The child consultations alone yielded 86% of all the nonpatients documented. Basic terminology and methodology for investigating such multiple family member visits to family physicians is discussed as well as the composition of the different family units encountered and their possible significance. PMID:1985136

  18. Synonymy and search synonymy in an IR system (on the basis of linguistic terminology and the iSybislaw system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Banasiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Synonymy and search synonymy in an IR system (on the basis of linguistic terminology and the iSybislaw systemThe paper focuses on some problems of synonymy in the linguistic terminology and solutions for the optimal representation of information in the structure of an IR language. Linguistic terms in addition to metalinguistic meaning also carry some meta-scientific information (e.g. on the methodological school. It is thus possible that two different terms refer to the same linguistic phenomenon within various research trends. The issue of usage is also addressed here (including idiolectal preferences. The above phenomena on the one hand and various user information needs on the other result in some significant difficulties in the work on the optimization of IR in iSybislaw.

  19. [Discussion on strengthening yin of chinese herbs with bitter-flavor clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Mei; Bao; Zhaorigetu; Zhuang, Xin-Ying; Que, Ling; Tian, Chang-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is the subject that study of basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, property of Chinese materia medica and clinical application. The study on the standardization research of the terminology of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is an important premise and foundation to standardization, modernization and internationalization, informationization construction of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology and is also the important content of the subject construction. To provide some exploring ideas for clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization, this article elaborates the concept of strengthening Yin with bitter-flavor herbs in several aspects, such as connotation and the historical origin, the clinical application in the traditional, modern clinic application, and the modern basic research and so on.

  20. Mapping VIPS concepts for nursing interventions to the ISO reference terminology model for nursing actions: A collaborative Scandinavian analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehnfors, Margareta; Angermo, Lilly Marit; Berring, Lene;

    2006-01-01

    . In most cases, the recipient of care is implicit. Expressions for the aim of an action are absent from the ISO model. By this mapping we identified areas for future development of the VIPS model and the experience from nursing terminology work in Scandinavia can contribute to the international......The aims of this study were to analyze the coherence between the concepts for nursing interventions in the Swedish VIPS model for nursing recording and the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Actions and to identify areas in the two models for further development. Seven Scandinavian experts...... analyzed the VIPS model's concepts for nursing interventions using prototypical examples of nursing actions, involving 233 units of analyses, and collaborated in mapping the two models. All nursing interventions in the VIPS model comprise actions and targets, but a few lack explicit expressions of means...

  1. [Discussion on strengthening yin of chinese herbs with bitter-flavor clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Mei; Bao; Zhaorigetu; Zhuang, Xin-Ying; Que, Ling; Tian, Chang-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is the subject that study of basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, property of Chinese materia medica and clinical application. The study on the standardization research of the terminology of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is an important premise and foundation to standardization, modernization and internationalization, informationization construction of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology and is also the important content of the subject construction. To provide some exploring ideas for clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization, this article elaborates the concept of strengthening Yin with bitter-flavor herbs in several aspects, such as connotation and the historical origin, the clinical application in the traditional, modern clinic application, and the modern basic research and so on. PMID:24490579

  2. Towards a Common Terminology to Describe Voice Quality in Western Lyrical Singing: Contribution of a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    OpenAIRE

    Henrich, Nathalie; Bezard, Pascal; Expert, Robert; Garnier, Maëva; Guerin, Christian; Pillot, Claire; Quattrocchi, Sophie; Roubeau, Bernard; Terk, Boris

    2008-01-01

    This paper can be downloaded at http://www.musicstudies.org/Henrich_JIMS_0821205.html - direct link: http://www.musicstudies.org/JIMS2008/articles/Henrich_JIMS_0821205.pdf International audience Background in performance. In the field of lyrical singing, an extensive terminology is dedicated to voice quality description. Among the many terms, some are used with consistent meaning by virtually all voice specialists, whereas others, which are more metaphorical or aesthetic, have multiple ...

  3. 商务英语词语翻译的术语意识%Terminology Awareness in Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何后蒋

    2011-01-01

    This article takes a brief study on the importance of translator's terminology awareness in business translation based on the fields involved in international trade.%本文以商务英语所涉及相关领域的术语翻译为例对商务英语词语翻译中术语意识的重性做出阐述。

  4. Lean manufacturing and Toyota Production System terminology applied to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bucourt, Maximilian; Busse, Reinhard; Güttler, Felix; Wintzer, Christian; Collettini, Federico; Kloeters, Christian; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgräber, Ulf K

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVES: To apply the economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology. METHODS: The economic- and process-driven terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System is first presented, including information and product flow as well as value stream mapping (VSM), and then applied to an interdisciplinary setting of physicians, nurses and technicians from different medical departments to identify wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology. RESULTS: Using the so-called seven wastes approach of the Toyota Production System (waste of overproducing, waiting, transport, processing, inventory, motion and waste of defects and spoilage) as well as further waste characteristics (gross waste, process and method waste, and micro waste), wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology were identified and eliminated to create an overall smoother process from the procurement as well as from the medical perspective. CONCLUSION: Economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System, especially VSM, can be used to visualise and better understand processes in the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology from an economic point of view. PMID:22347963

  5. 认知视角下的应用术语研究%Applied Terminology on the Cognitive Dimension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾

    2015-01-01

    Terminology on the cognitive dimension deals mainly with the cognitive potential, which arises from the multidimensional nature of terms. A contextualized representation of terms in turn becomes necessary. Sociocognitive Terminology and Frame-based Terminology differs in that different cognitive models are applied for knowledge representation, but they both emphasize contextualized representations for better connection with cognitive potential of terms.%认知潜势是认知维度上术语学研究的核心内容,与术语的心理表征、多维性和认知语境密切关联。对目前最有影响的认知术语理论,包括社会认知术语学和基于框架的术语学进行综述,提出它们只是采用了不同的认知模型作为基本框架,但是其对于术语的根本看法是一致的,即通过对术语的情境化表征,充分展现术语的认知潜势。

  6. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology's Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1-4.6%), respectively (Pethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities.

  7. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology's Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1-4.6%), respectively (P<0.001). Overall, 62% of all statements addressing research integrity/ethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805

  8. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Komić

    Full Text Available Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology's Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23% used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%, mental health (71%, sciences (61%, other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate or a few of them (management, media, engineering. A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5% on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1-4.6%, respectively (P<0.001. Overall, 62% of all statements addressing research integrity/ethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities.

  9. Terminología y derecho: neología y bancos de datos terminológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Álvarez Catalá, Mario Barité

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En la certeza de que la Terminología es una disciplina con aplicaciones específicas en los procesos de elaboración de lenguajes documentales y en la colecta, normalización, almacenamiento y recuperación de información en cualquier área del conocimiento, se discurre sobre los caracteres y las problemáticas particulares de la terminología jurídica. En especial, se analizan los procesos de formación y fijación de neologismos jurídicos, y se proponen pautas metodológicas para su incorporación a los lenguajes documentales en uso. Se resalta la potencialidad de los bancos de datos terminológicos (BDT como depósitos y surtidores maestros de terminología. Se narra la experiencia del Proyecto Legisterm que desarrolla un BDT en Derecho en Uruguay.

  10. Lean manufacturing and Toyota Production System terminology applied to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bucourt, Maximilian; Busse, Reinhard; Güttler, Felix; Wintzer, Christian; Collettini, Federico; Kloeters, Christian; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgräber, Ulf K

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVES: To apply the economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology. METHODS: The economic- and process-driven terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System is first presented, including information and product flow as well as value stream mapping (VSM), and then applied to an interdisciplinary setting of physicians, nurses and technicians from different medical departments to identify wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology. RESULTS: Using the so-called seven wastes approach of the Toyota Production System (waste of overproducing, waiting, transport, processing, inventory, motion and waste of defects and spoilage) as well as further waste characteristics (gross waste, process and method waste, and micro waste), wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology were identified and eliminated to create an overall smoother process from the procurement as well as from the medical perspective. CONCLUSION: Economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System, especially VSM, can be used to visualise and better understand processes in the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology from an economic point of view.

  11. Glosario explicativo ingles-castellano de terminos de Gramatica Generativa Transformacional (An English-Spanish Explanatory Glossary of Terminology in Transformational Generative Grammar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Diaz, Anibal; Zierer, Ernesto

    This glossary provides Spanish translations for English technical terminology used in work connected with transformational generative grammar and theory. Approximately 300 terms are listed alphabetically in English with Spanish equivalents, Spanish explanations, and examples where necessary. (VM)

  12. Grupos na enfermagem: classificação, terminologias e formas de abordagem Grupos en enfermería: classificación, terminología y formas de enfoque Workgroups in nursing: classification, terminologies and approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Verdan Simões

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo retrata as diversas terminologias utilizadas para os trabalhos de grupos realizados por enfermeiros e contextualiza as formas de abordagens utilizadas em estudos de enfermeiros sobre as atividades grupais. Aborda as seguintes terminologias: grupos operativos e seus campos de atuação, grupos com pacientes somáticos, grupos interdisciplinares homogêneos, grupos de convivência, grupos focais e grupos de convergência. As terminologias existentes são pautadas de acordo com objetivos mais definidos de atuação do grupo, onde, na verdade, todas se encaixam no conceito de grupo operativo, como uma classificação dessas atividades grupais. Sobre as formas de abordagem relacionadas a essas atividades, são descritas: grupos como processo educativo em saúde, grupos como tecnologia e como estratégia. Entre as citadas, a visão do grupo como estratégia, segundo os autores, permite ampliar o significado de atuação do trabalho de grupo e sua importância como ferramenta de trabalho para o profissional enfermeiro.Este artículo trata de las variadas terminologías utilizadas para los trabajos de grupos realizados por enfermeros y contextualiza las formas de enfoques empleadas en estudos de enfermeros sobre las actividades grupales. Enfoca las siguientes terminologías: grupos operativos y sus campos de actuación, grupos con pacientes somáticos, grupos interdisciplinarios homogéneos, grupos de convivir, grupos focales y grupos de convergencia. Las terminologías que hay son pautadas de acuerdo con objetivos más definidos de actuación del grupo, donde, en verdad, todas se encajan en el concepto de grupo operativo, como una clasificación de actividades grupales. Sobre las formas de abordaje que tienen relación con esas actividades, son descriptas: grupos como proceso educativo en salud, grupos como tecnología y como estrategía. A lo mejor, la visión del grupo como estrategía, de acuerdo con los autores, puede crecer su

  13. THE FUNCTIONS OF IDIOMS WITH MAGICAL TERMINOLOGY IN BUILDING THE STORY OF J. K. ROWLING’S “HARRY POTTER AND THE ORDER OF THE PHOENIX”

    OpenAIRE

    Haris Fadhillah; J. Bismoko

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the functions of idioms with magical terminology in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix in building the story. This study analyzed the novel from the linguistics perspective. The idioms with magical terminology found in the novel were compared to real English idioms. Comparison was done word by word and also to the context of the story. The analysis was also done by comparing words’ meaning and the semantic features. Finally the data were analyzed with related theor...

  14. Terminological confusions and problems at the interface between the crystal field Hamiltonians and the zero-field splitting Hamiltonians—Survey of the CF=ZFS confusion in recent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Al. Piastów 17, 70-310 Szczecin (Poland); Karbowiak, Mirosław [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, ul. F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland)

    2014-10-15

    The single transition ions in various crystals or molecules as well as the exchange coupled systems (ECS) of transition ions, especially the single molecule magnets (SMM) or molecular nanomagnets (MNM), have been extensively studied in recent decades using electron magnetic resonance (EMR), optical spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. Interpretation of magnetic and spectroscopic properties of transition ions is based on two physically distinct types of Hamiltonians: the physical crystal field (CF), or equivalently ligand field (LF), Hamiltonians and the effective spin Hamiltonians (SH), which include the zero-field splitting (ZFS) Hamiltonians. Survey of recent literature has revealed a number of terminological confusions and specific problems occurring at the interface between these Hamiltonians (denoted CF (LF)↔SH (ZFS)). Elucidation of sloppy or incorrect usage of crucial notions, especially those describing or parameterizing crystal fields and zero field splittings, is a very challenging task that requires several reviews. Here we focus on the prevailing confusion between the CF (LF) and SH (ZFS) quantities, denoted as the CF=ZFS confusion, which consists in referring to the parameters (or Hamiltonians), which are the true ZFS (or SH) quantities, as purportedly the CF (LF) quantities. The inverse ZFS=CF confusion, which pertains to the cases of labeling the true CF (LF) quantities as purportedly the ZFS quantities, is considered in a follow-up paper. The two reviews prepare grounds for a systematization of nomenclature aimed at bringing order to the zoo of different Hamiltonians. Specific cases of the CF=ZFS confusion identified in the recent textbooks, review articles, and SMM (MNM)- and EMR-related papers are surveyed and the pertinent misconceptions are outlined. The consequences of the terminological confusions go far beyond simple semantic issues or misleading keyword classifications of papers in journals and scientific databases. Serious

  15. Terminología internacional sobre la educación inclusiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Cedillo, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Gradualmente, la educación inclusiva se ha colocado en la agenda de los sistemas educativos en el mundo como una prioridad. Sin embargo, a pesar de utilizar una terminología común, no parece haber mucho acuerdo con respecto al significado de conceptos centrales. En el presente artículo se identificaron dos perspectivas teóricas en relación con la educación inclusiva, una con objetivos moderados, que toma en cuenta las condiciones locales, y otra con objetivos más ambiciosos, que busca la transformación del sistema escolar. Se reportan las respuestas de 37 profesionales de quince países a una encuesta en la que se preguntó por el significado de conceptos como discapacidad, educación inclusiva, necesidades educativas especiales y barreras para el aprendizaje y la participación. También, se pidió que valoraran la utilidad y la relación entre los conceptos de necesidades educativas especiales y barreras para el aprendizaje y la participación. La encuesta se envió por correo electrónico y los expertos la contestaron por el mismo medio. Los resultados muestran una gran variación en el significado de los conceptos de discapacidad, necesidades educativas especiales y educación inclusiva, que en algunos casos parecen conformar patrones organizados de acuerdo con la región de los sujetos: Latinoamérica, Estados Unidos y Canadá, Oceanía y Europa-Asia-Sudáfrica. Asimismo, existen grandes diferencias en la valoración de los conceptos de necesidades educativas especiales y de barreras para el aprendizaje y la participación. Los resultados aportan elementos para la discusión con respecto al tipo de educación inclusiva que conviene implementar en los países en desarrollo. Abstract: Inclusive education has gradually become a priority in most educational systems in the world. Even though there is a common terminology, there seems to be little agreement regarding the meaning of core terms. The present study identified two

  16. Fundamental concepts used in national regulation: is the terminology sufficiently clear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    following us who must bear the burden of duty to complete the implementation of projects we start today. Clarity and transparency of terminology can play an important role in meeting this challenge

  17. Apples and oranges in disguised advertising: differentiation and terminological determination of brand usage in program content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Muškinja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Disguised advertising is a modern marketing instrument that is seeing an increase in Croatian business practice but whose application is prohibited by Croatian law. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to understand whether Croatian businesses really do use disguised advertising, how they do it either in accordance or in contradiction with Croatian law, and whether there is a need to distinguish among several similar but different manifestations and to terminologically determine each one of these. For the purpose of this study, we explored the theoretical, legal and ethnographic conceptualizations of the term disguised advertising in the scientific literature, Croatian legislation and applied communication in business practice. The results of our research show that: a marketing literature uses various terms for describing brand usage in program content, among which disguised advertising (prikriveno oglašavanje dominates, whereas product placement (plasman proizvoda is not mentioned once; b the law distinguishes between disguised advertising that is prohibited and product placement, as a practise allowed under certain conditions and the one that is by definition identical with disguised advertising in the manner defined by marketing literature; c business entities in their communication make a distinction between disguised advertising and product placement, and they are trying to move product placement away from disguised advertising by being mentioned as sponsors/partners of the program. The analysis also indicates three different situations in which brands are used in the program content: contracted and correctly indicated brand usage; contracted but not indicated; and not-contracted brand usage. Only the first situation is considered to be a recommended marketing tool; therefore, it is necessary to differentiate it from the other two by its definition and name. It is suggested that this marketing tool be named: brand placement in both

  18. ROMANIAN “FIDUCIA” AND GEORGIAN “TRUST” (MAJOR TERMINOLOGICAL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA GVELESIANI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Globalization - a complex system of innovation, internationalization and rapidly growing interdependence – plays the greatest role in the formation of today’s world. It enters different spheres of human life and stipulates the uniformity of economy, law, business and even, political life. In the framework of global processes, a lot of changes can be seen in the legal systems of European countries. The given paper discusses the formation of the Romanian “fiducia” and the Georgian “საკუთრების მინდობა” (sakutrebis mindoba – means “trust” under the influence of Anglo-American “trust”. The term “trust” generally nominates an institution of Anglo-American law, which is irreplaceable in the cases when the real owner of the property must be substituted by the nominal one (trustee for carrying out civil relationships. This concept originated in the English Common law, but has been constantly rejected by the European continental legal systems (Civil law. The main obstacle laid in the fact, that Anglo-American legal system was based on the duality of ownership, which was almost unacceptable for the continental law-governed countries. However, in the recent years, the growing importance of the American capital markets popularized the utilization of “trust” and stipulated its insertion in some “rigid” European jurisdictions. Moreover, some world countries have already indirectly allowed mechanisms similar to the “trust”. Among them are Romania and Georgia. The given research is dedicated to the precise description of the Romanian and Georgian “trust instruments”. It singles out major terminological units and underlines the fact that newly-established mechanisms have to undergo several stages for turning into faithful reflections of the original model of “trust”.

  19. Tabacosis, un cambio de terminología para un aumento de conciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Rodríguez-Madrigal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ante la ausencia de definición categórica de la Real Academia Española, tenemos que la Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC es prevenible y tratable, con afectación sistémica extrapulmonar, donde el componente pulmonar se caracteriza por limitación al flujo del aire que no es completamente reversible y es progresiva.¹ Esta es probablemente una de las definiciones médicas con mayor cantidad de posiciones e intereses encontrados y es que, indudable y lastimosamente, las siglas EPOC, fuera del gremio médico, no tienen mayor significancia, pues diariamente se encuentra gran cantidad de pacientes portadores de esta patología, que no tienen noción real de su padecimiento, el cual con mucho costo es aclarado por el médico tratante, debido a lo engorroso de su significado, variedad de síntomas y múltiples patologías causales. Estas vicisitudes, en cuanto a la patología causal de EPOC, son las que la han convertido en el “cajón” donde se colocan diversas neumopatías que no tienen un origen específico, sin importar si presentan o no obstrucción al flujo aéreo; además, estos inconvenientes sobre terminología, hacen dificultosa la realización de búsquedas bibliográficas, por la poca acogida que ha tenido el término.²

  20. ROMANIAN “FIDUCIA” AND GEORGIAN “TRUST” (MAJOR TERMINOLOGICAL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina GVELESIANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization - a complex system of innovation, internationalization and rapidly growing interdependence - plays the greatest role in the formation of today's world. It enters different spheres of human life and stipulates the uniformity of economy, law, business and even, political life. In the framework of global processes, a lot of changes can be seen in the legal systems of European countries. The given paper discusses the formation of the Romanian 'fiducia' and the Georgian 'საკუთრების მინდობა' (sakutrebis mindoba - means 'trust' under the influence of Anglo-American 'trust'. The term 'trust' generally nominates an institution of Anglo-American law, which is irreplaceable in the cases when the real owner of the property must be substituted by the nominal one (trustee for carrying out civil relationships. This concept originated in the English Common law, but has been constantly rejected by the European continental legal systems (Civil law. The main obstacle laid in the fact, that Anglo-American legal system was based on the duality of ownership, which was almost unacceptable for the continental law-governed countries. However, in the recent years, the growing importance of the American capital markets popularized the utilization of 'trust' and stipulated its insertion in some 'rigid' European jurisdictions. Moreover, some world countries have already indirectly allowed mechanisms similar to the 'trust'. Among them are Romania and Georgia. The given research is dedicated to the precise description of the Romanian and Georgian 'trust instruments'. It singles out major terminological units and underlines the fact that newly-established mechanisms have to undergo several stages for turning into faithful reflections of the original model of 'trust'.

  1. 42 CFR 405.512 - Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... & Medicaid Services will approve such a revision if it determines that the potential advantages of the... guidelines are taken into account in evaluating a carrier's proposal to change its system of procedural... Review Organizations' review needs and such other review needs as may be appropriate; (7)...

  2. Personalized medicine using DNA biomarkers: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Andreas; Koch, Armin; Krockenberger, Katja; Großhennig, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers are of increasing importance for personalized medicine, with applications including diagnosis, prognosis, and selection of targeted therapies. Their use is extremely diverse, ranging from pharmacodynamics to treatment monitoring. Following a concise review of terminology, we provide examples and current applications of three broad categories of biomarkers—DNA biomarkers, DNA tumor biomarkers, and other general biomarkers. We outline clinical trial phases for identifying and validat...

  3. A Review of Terminological, Conceptual, and Methodological Issues in the Developmental Risk Factor Literature for Antisocial and Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, David M.; Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Yessine, Annie K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study of risk factors for antisocial and delinquent behavior has flourished in the past 20 years, as great strides have been made in understanding the developmental pathways that give rise to the onset, course, and desistance of the behavior. However, as a body of literature, risk factor research (RFR) is characterized by…

  4. Merging validation and evaluation of ecological models to evaluation': a review of terminology and a practical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augusiak, J.A.; Brink, van den P.J.; Grimm, V.

    2014-01-01

    Confusion about model validation is one of the main challenges in using ecological models for decision support, such as the regulation of pesticides. Decision makers need to know whether a model is a sufficiently good representation of its real counterpart and what criteria can be used to answer thi

  5. Putting Order into Our Universe: The Concept of Blended Learning—A Methodology within the Concept-based Terminology Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Fernandes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the advantages of a methodology design grounded on a concept-based approach to Terminology applied to the most prominent scenario of current Higher Education: blended learning. Terminology is a discipline that aims at representing, describing and defining specialized knowledge through language, putting order into our universe (Nuopponen, 2011. Concepts, as elements of the structure of knowledge (Sager, 1990 emerge as a complex research object. Can they be found in language? A concept-based approach to Terminology implies a clear-cut view of the role of language in terminological work: though language is postulated as being a fundamental tool to grasp, describe and organize knowledge, an isomorphic relationship between language and knowledge cannot be taken for granted. In other words, the foundational premise of a concept-based approach is that there is no one-to-one correspondence between atomic elements of knowledge and atomic elements of linguistic expression. This is why a methodological approach to Terminology merely based upon specialized text research is regarded as biased (Costa, 2013. As a consequence, we argue that interactional strategies between terminologist and domain expert deserve particular research attention. To our mind, the key to concept-based terminological work is to carry out a concept analysis of data gathered from a specialised text corpora combined with an elicitation process of the tacit knowledge and concept-oriented discursive negotiation. Following such view, we put forward a methodology to answer the question: how is blended learning defined in the Post-Bologna scenario? Even though there are numerous high-quality models and practical descriptions for its implementation (similarly to other concepts related to distance learning, the need to understand, demarcate and harmonize the concept of blended learning against the current Higher Education background results from the premise that

  6. New Terminology for the High-Latitude Field-Aligned Current Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papitashvili, V.; Weimer, D.

    2003-12-01

    hours. We will discuss new terms that might be needed for the existing lexicon - to extend its old terminology in describing the modern understanding of morphology and evolution of the high-latitude field-aligned current systems.

  7. Kinship Terminology: Problems in Some English-Tshivenḓa Bilingual Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munzhedzi James Mafela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: With the introduction of a new political dispensation in South Africa; bilingual dictionaries have become a necessary part of daily life. The main function of a bilingual dictionary is to provide one or more equivalents in the target language for the entry words in the source language. Not all bilingual dictionaries realize this objective satisfactorily; Tshivenḓa bilingual dictionaries included. Some bilingual dictionaries in Tshivenḓa provide one equivalent instead of all equivalents associated with the entry word of the source language; especially if Tshivenḓa is the target language. Not providing all equivalents renders a bilingual dictionary inadequate; because users do not always find what they look for. By focusing on kinship terms in some English–Tshivenḓa bilingual dictionaries; this article discusses examples of inadequate treatment. The article further advocates the inclusion of all possible equivalents under such entry words.

    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY; CROSS-RELATIONSHIP; DICTIONARY USER; EQUIVALENT; INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE; KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY; ORTHO-RELATION-SHIP; SOURCE LANGUAGE; LEXICAL UNIT; LEXICOGRAPHER; RELATIVES; TARGET LANGUAGE; TRANSLATION

    Opsomming: Verwantskapsterminologie: Probleme in sommige Engels–Tshivenḓa tweetalige woordeboeke. Met die invoering van 'n nuwe politieke bedeling in Suid-Afrika het tweetalige woordeboeke 'n noodsaaklike deel van die daaglikse lewe geword. Die hooffunksie van 'n tweetalige woordeboek is om een of meer ekwivalente in die doeltaal vir die trefwoorde in die brontaal te verskaf. Nie alle tweetalige woordeboeke verwesenlik hierdie doel bevredigend nie; Tshivenḓa tweetalige woordeboeke ingesluit. Sommige tweetalige woordeboeke in Tshivenḓa verskaf een ekwivalent in plaas van al die ekwivalente wat in verband staan met die trefwoord van die brontaal; veral as Tshivenḓa die doeltaal is. Deur nie alle ekwivalente te

  8. The BioLexicon: a large-scale terminological resource for biomedical text mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Paul

    2011-10-01

    modelled using the Lexical Markup Framework, an ISO standard. Conclusions The BioLexicon contains over 2.2 M lexical entries and over 1.8 M terminological variants, as well as over 3.3 M semantic relations, including over 2 M synonymy relations. Its exploitation can benefit both application developers and users. We demonstrate some such benefits by describing integration of the resource into a number of different tools, and evaluating improvements in performance that this can bring.

  9. El turismo rural en España: terminología y problemas de traducción

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Luque, Adrián

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo pretendemos ofrecer una visión introductoria de la diversa terminología presente en el sector del turismo rural, y más concretamente en lo referente a los diversos tipos de alojamientos, poniendo énfasis en la gran variedad de denominaciones y en los potenciales problemas que dichas nomenclaturas pueden suponer en la promoción y desarrollo turísticos a nivel nacional e internacional. G.I. HUM 767 (ayudas a Grupos de Investigación de la Junta de Andalucía) / Editorial Comar...

  10. El grupo de terminología del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones científicas (TermEsp)

    OpenAIRE

    Irazazábal Nerpell, Amelia de

    1987-01-01

    TermEsp es un grupo formado por cientificos que trabajan en terminología en el Instituto de Información y Documentación en Ciencia y Tecnología (ICYT) del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. El grupo consta de seis terminólogos, dos informáticos especialistas en lingüística computacional, un administrativo y cuatro operadores-grabadores. Dispone, además, de la asesoría permanente de los centros de investigación del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científi...

  11. La terminología en las instituciones de la UE: de la fragmentación a la convergencia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Martín, Javier; Valdivieso Blanco, María

    2009-01-01

    En una época de convergencia terminológica en la UE, este artículo pretende ofrecer un panorama de conjunto de la terminología en la UE. Para ello, en primer lugar se describe desde una perspectiva general el funcionamiento y estructura de la unidad de traducción del Consejo de la UE, a continuación se ofrecen algunos aspectos significativos en las instituciones de la UE y por último, se presenta la principal materialización de esta investigación terminológica en la UE: la b...

  12. Harmonization of terminology in developmental toxicology: the quest for a more precise description and a harmonized classification of fetal observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumgartten, Francisco; Solecki, Roland; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Grote, Konstanze; Rauch, Martina; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Harmonization of terminology in developmental toxicology is a prerequisite to ensure a better risk assessment of chemicals. As part of an international effort of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) to harmonize terminology in developmental toxicology, workshops have taken place in Berlin since 1995. This publication reports the main outcomes of the Fifth and Sixth Berlin Workshops held in 2005 and 2007, respectively. The objective of the Fifth workshop was to discuss a draft international proposal for updating the glossary of descriptive terms for fetal abnormalities put forward by Wise et al. [Wise LD, et al. Terminology of developmental abnormalities in common laboratory mammals (version 1). Teratology 1997;55:249-92]. The participants were asked to classify the new external, visceral and skeletal observations included within this new version 2 of Terminology of Developmental Abnormalities in common Laboratory Mammals according to the two-category scheme (malformation and variation) agreed at previous Berlin workshops. The discussions held during the Sixth Workshop were mainly focused on the causes of uncertainty and low agreement regarding classification of some fetal observations as malformations or variations. Lack of precision in descriptive terms and insufficient knowledge of the postnatal consequences of fetal observations had been identified as major causes of uncertainty and lower agreement among evaluators regarding the classification of "grey zone anomalies", i.e. abnormalities that do not fit readily into one of the two categories (malformation or variation). Imprecise anatomical terms, observation terms that are too broad, lack of information on severity and the use of different terms for the same change or different severities of the same change, were found to be the main reasons that descriptive terms are often not sufficiently precise to allow accurate classification of findings. It was agreed that provision of additional

  13. Terminología y traducción económica francés-español: evaluación de recursos terminológicos en el ámbito contable

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Hernández, Daniel; Herrero Díaz, Susi (trans.)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate a series of terminology resources and determine their suitability to the practice of French-Spanish translation of accounting documents. First we identify the terminology needs of a specific group of translator trainees when facing business translation, as well as the resources they use particularly when translating annual accounts. Then, we select various terminology resources used in this context and evaluate them according to their needs. The results su...

  14. Does use of an electronic health record with dental diagnostic system terminology promote dental students' critical thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Susan G; Adibi, Shawn S; Coover, Mullen; Gellin, Robert G; Wahlquist, Amy E; AbdulRahiman, Anitha; Hamil, Lindsey H; Walji, Muhammad F; O'Neill, Paula; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2015-06-01

    The Consortium for Oral Health Research and Informatics (COHRI) is leading the way in use of the Dental Diagnostic System (DDS) terminology in the axiUm electronic health record (EHR). This collaborative pilot study had two aims: 1) to investigate whether use of the DDS terms positively impacted predoctoral dental students' critical thinking skills measured by the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT), and 2) to refine study protocols. The study design was a natural experiment with cross-sectional data collection using the HSRT for 15 classes (2013-17) of students at three dental schools. Characteristics of students who had been exposed to the DDS terms were compared with students who had not, and the differences were tested by t-tests or chi-square tests. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship between exposure and outcome on the overall critical thinking score. The results showed that exposure was significantly related to overall score (p=0.01), with not-exposed students having lower mean overall scores. This study thus demonstrated a positive impact of using the DDS terminology in an EHR on the critical thinking skills of predoctoral dental students in three COHRI schools as measured by their overall score on the HSRT. These preliminary findings support future research to further evaluate a proposed model of critical thinking in clinical dentistry.

  15. Speak Clearly, If You Speak at All; Carve Every Word Before You Let It Fall: Problems of Ambiguous Terminology in eLearning System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses issues associated with the development of eLearning software systems. The development of software systems in general is a highly complex process, and a number of methodologies and models have been developed to help address some of these complexities. Generally the first stage in most development processes is the gathering of requirements which involves elicitation from end-users. This process is made more complex by problems associated with ambiguous terminology. Types of ambiguous terminology include homonymous, polysemous and inaccurate terms. This range of ambiguous terminology can cause significant misunderstandings in the requirements gathering process, which in turn can lead to software systems that do not meet the requirements of the end-users. This research seeks to explore some of the more common terms that can be ambiguously interpreted in the development of eLearning systems, and suggests software engineering approaches to help alleviate the potentially erroneous outcomes of these ambiguities.

  16. Resistencias, novedades y negociaciones : la terminología química durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX en España

    OpenAIRE

    Bertomeu Sánchez, José Ramón; Muñoz Bello, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la nueva terminología química en España durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX. Pretendemos mostrar que el estudio de la historia de la terminología permite conocer mejor los mecanismos de negociación, apropiación y resistencia de las comunidades locales, y ofrece nuevas claves para repensar las relaciones entre centro y periferias científicas. Las fuentes principales del estudio son los manuales de química publicados entre 1788 y 1845 en España. Estructuraremos la...

  17. Lenguaje, ciencia e historia: una introducción histórica a la terminología química

    OpenAIRE

    García Belmar, Antonio; Bertomeu Sánchez, José Ramón

    1998-01-01

    El presente trabajo se enmarca dentro de las investigaciones sobre las aplicaciones de la historia de la ciencia a la enseñanza de las ciencias. Su objetivo principal consiste en ofrecer algunas sugerencias acerca del modo en que puede renovarse la enseñanza de la terminología química mediante el empleo de las conclusiones de diversos estudios históricos sobre el tema. Se pretende además mostrar que la terminología química puede ser también empleada como ventana desde la que asomarse a la his...

  18. Doha agreement meeting on terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weir, Adam; Brukner, Peter; Delahunt, Eamonn;

    2015-01-01

    with accompanying definitions. METHODS: A one-day agreement meeting was held on 4 November 2014. Twenty-four international experts from 14 different countries participated. Systematic reviews were performed to give an up-to-date synthesis of the current evidence on major topics concerning groin pain in athletes...

  19. Harmonization of description and classification of fetal observations: Achievements and problems still unresolved. Report of the 7th Workshop on the Terminology in Developmental Toxicology Berlin, 4-6 May 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solecki, R.; Barbellion, S.; Bergmann, B.; Bürgin, H.; Buschmann, J.; Clark, R.; Comotto, L.; Fuchs, A.; Faqi, A.S.; Gerspach, R.; Grote, K.; Hakansson, H.; Heinrich, V.; Heinrich-Hirsch, B.; Hofmann, T.; Hübel, U.; Inazaki, T.H.; Khalil, S.; Knudsen, T.B.; Kudicke, S.; Lingk, W.; Makris, S.; Müller, S.; Paumgartten, F.; Pfeil, R.; Rama, E.M.; Schneider, S.; Shiota, K.; Tamborini, E.; Tegelenbosch, M.; Ulbrich, B.; Duijnhoven, E.A.J. van; Wise, D.; Chahoud, I.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the 7th Workshop on the Terminology in Developmental Toxicology held in Berlin, May 4-6, 2011. The series of Berlin Workshops has been mainly concerned with the harmonization of terminology and classification of fetal anomalies in developmental toxicity studies. The main topi

  20. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J; Bachmann, Kenneth A; Bailer, A John; Bolger, P Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M George; Chiueh, Chuang C; Clarkson, Thomas W; Cook, Ralph R; Diamond, David M; Doolittle, David J; Dorato, Michael A; Duke, Stephen O; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E; Hart, Ronald W; Hastings, Kenneth L; Hayes, A Wallace; Hoffmann, George R; Ives, John A; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E; Jonas, Wayne B; Kaminski, Norbert E; Keller, John G; Klaunig, James E; Knudsen, Thomas B; Kozumbo, Walter J; Lettieri, Teresa; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Maisseu, Andre; Maynard, Kenneth I; Masoro, Edward J; McClellan, Roger O; Mehendale, Harihara M; Mothersill, Carmel; Newlin, David B; Nigg, Herbert N; Oehme, Frederick W; Phalen, Robert F; Philbert, Martin A; Rattan, Suresh I S; Riviere, Jim E; Rodricks, Joseph; Sapolsky, Robert M; Scott, Bobby R; Seymour, Colin; Sinclair, David A; Smith-Sonneborn, Joan; Snow, Elizabeth T; Spear, Linda; Stevenson, Donald E; Thomas, Yolene; Tubiana, Maurice; Williams, Gary M; Mattson, Mark P

    2007-07-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

  1. IAA Space Terminological Multilingual Data Bank Towards an On- Line Dictionary with Definitions in French and in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaid, R.

    2002-01-01

    It has been emphasized in previous papers that the bilingual "basic list" of the IAA multilingual terminological data bank (MTDB) needed improvement before beginning works on definitions. In this communication, in a first part, we report, on the works (corrections and additions) done to improve the scope of the "basic list" . These works have yet to be done by coordinators for the others twelve languages concerned by the IAA MTBD. In a second part, according to the decision of the IAA MTDB committee to complete the MTDB with definitions in French and in English, we describe the methodology adopted and the problems encountered to elaborate a mock-up of a space dictionary, including in a first step definitions in English and in French, of the English terms and expressions beginning by the letter "A" in the basic list.

  2. La terminología enológica del español en el S.XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Bajo Santiago, Francisca

    2003-01-01

    El vino es un producto milenario que particpa activamente en los más diversos aspectos: religión, economía, comercio, medicina, gastronomía. Pero además a finales del siglo XVIII la ciencia y la técnica modernas se ponen al servicio de la elaboración del vino. Nace así la enología. Los cambios que vive la disciplina enológica en España durante el siglo XIX influyen en la configuración de la terminología de esta ciencia. El mejor ejemplo lo constituye el nutrido número de términos nuevos que s...

  3. Using the EC decision on case definitions for communicable diseases as a terminology source--lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkanyi, Laszlo; Heja, Gergely; Nagy, Attlia

    2014-01-01

    Extracting scientifically accurate terminology from an EU public health regulation is part of the knowledge engineering work at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). ECDC operates information systems at the crossroads of many areas - posing a challenge for transparency and consistency. Semantic interoperability is based on the Terminology Server (TS). TS value sets (structured vocabularies) describe shared domains as "diseases", "organisms", "public health terms", "geo-entities" "organizations" and "administrative terms" and others. We extracted information from the relevant EC Implementing Decision on case definitions for reporting communicable diseases, listing 53 notifiable infectious diseases, containing clinical, diagnostic, laboratory and epidemiological criteria. We performed a consistency check; a simplification - abstraction; we represented lab criteria in triplets: as 'y' procedural result /of 'x' organism-substance/on 'z' specimen and identified negations. The resulting new case definition value set represents the various formalized criteria, meanwhile the existing disease value set has been extended, new signs and symptoms were added. New organisms enriched the organism value set. Other new categories have been added to the public health value set, as transmission modes; substances; specimens and procedures. We identified problem areas, as (a) some classification error(s); (b) inconsistent granularity of conditions; (c) seemingly nonsense criteria, medical trivialities; (d) possible logical errors, (e) seemingly factual errors that might be phrasing errors. We think our hypothesis regarding room for possible improvements is valid: there are some open issues and a further improved legal text might lead to more precise epidemiologic data collection. It has to be noted that formal representation for automatic classification of cases was out of scope, such a task would require other formalism, as e.g. those used by rule

  4. Shakespeare Redux, or Romeo and Juliet Revisited: Embedding a Terminology and Name Change in a New Agenda for the Field of Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Rud; Turnbull, Ann; Warren, Steve; Eidelman, Steve; Marchand, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This commentary discusses whether the American Association on Mental Retardation should change its name. It argues that changing the name would not change the stigma, and would harm advocacy efforts by allowing legislators to use a terminology change to narrow eligibility for supports. (Contains one reference.) (CR)

  5. Financial Accounting: Classifications and Standard Terminology for Local and State School Systems. State Educational Records and Reports Series: Handbook II, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Charles T., Comp.; Lichtenberger, Allan R., Comp.

    This handbook has been prepared as a vehicle or mechanism for program cost accounting and as a guide to standard school accounting terminology for use in all types of local and intermediate education agencies. In addition to classification descriptions, program accounting definitions, and proration of cost procedures, some units of measure and…

  6. Problems with the Use of Terminology in Genetics Education: 2, Some Examples from Published Materials and Suggestions for Rectifying the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. T.; Hughes, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a detailed look at some published materials showing the widespread nature of the misuse of genetics terminology. Suggests that similar problems can be found in any genetics text. Concludes with a plan for urgent action and suggestions for improvement. (Author/CW)

  7. Longitudinal Errors and Its Extension on Terminology Standardization%术语标准化中的纵向错误及其延伸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘富铀; 蔡晓晴; 张榕; 孟洁; 白杨; 周庆伟; 汪小勇; 杜敏; 丁杰; 石勇

    2015-01-01

    研究和解决标准化中存在的问题是做好标准文献知识管理与服务工作的基本保证。以海洋能资源术语标准化为例,比较与分析了国内外相关领域中相关术语的使用与差异,指出了目前我国海洋能资源术语在英文翻译和使用方面的概念混乱和错误,不符合我国相关领域常用术语的惯用法。说明了相关术语标准颁布不及时仅是术语使用产生混乱的原因之一,翻译者从字面上大致领会进行的“意译”所导致术语内涵和外延的变迁是术语使用混乱的一个重要原因。术语及其定义的规范和正确使用对于保证标准文献知识管理与服务的质量,促进国内外技术交流具有重要的理论意义和实用价值。%Researching and solving some problems in the standardization is a basic guarantee for the management and service of standards literature knowledge. Taking the terminology standardization of ocean energy resources as an example, this paper compares and analyzes the use of terminologies and their differences in the related fields of ocean energy resources at home and abroad, and points out the confusions and errors of concepts in translation and use of ocean energy resource terminologies, which is also inconsistent with our common terminology usage in China. And it explains the not timely promulgation of related terminology standards is one of reasons for the confusions, but the most important reason is the change of terminology meaning and extension caused by the"free translation"of the translators after having a literal comprehension roughly. The specification and proper use of terminologies and their definitions have an important theoretical significance and practical value for guaranteeing the quality of standards literature knowledge management and service, and promoting domestic and foreign technical communication.

  8. Conceptual Knowledge Acquisition in Biomedicine: A Methodological Review

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Philip R.O.; Mendonça, Eneida A.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Starren, Justin B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of conceptual knowledge collections or structures within the biomedical domain is pervasive, spanning a variety of applications including controlled terminologies, semantic networks, ontologies, and database schemas. A number of theoretical constructs and practical methods or techniques support the development and evaluation of conceptual knowledge collections. This review will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge concerning conceptual knowledge acquisition, drawing f...

  9. [Fatigue syndromes--an overview of terminology, definitions and classificatory concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Johanna; Nater, Urs

    2013-02-01

    This article aims at giving a general view of fatigue syndromes, their description, and their differentiation. The syndromes neurasthenia, chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), and burnout are discussed. First, the historical background of fatigue classification is shortly reviewed. Each syndrome is introduced in terms of definition and classification as well as differentiation from each other. The article discusses the differentiation of the syndromes from each other as well as differentiation of CFS/ME and burnout from depression. We conclude that it is difficult to differentiate criteria due to insufficient empirical evidence. More research is needed concerning integration of the diagnoses in classification systems as well as differentiation between syndromes. High comorbidity of depression with CFS and Burnout can be shown, but diagnoses also comprise distinct symptoms. PMID:23408301

  10. Congenital absence of the nose: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of congenital absence of the nose is presented. The etiology of this rare condition is unknown. A review of the literature reveals that the previously applied terms, e. g. 'arhinia', are unclear. In the reviewed cases there seems to be a pattern of facial anomalies associated with nasal absence. In most cases, one could probably expect a lack of the olfactory bulbs and tracts. We suggest a new terminology and summarize the aims of the radiological evaluation of this condition. (orig.)

  11. Análisis de terminologías de salud para su utilización como ontologías computacionales en los sistemas de información clínicos Analysis of health terminologies for use as ontologies in healthcare information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Romá-Ferri; Manuel Palomar

    2008-01-01

    Objetivos: Las ontologías son un recurso que permite trabajar informáticamente con la conceptualización del significado y evitar la limitación impuesta por los términos normalizados. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer el grado de usabilidad de las terminologías para el diseño de ontologías, que contribuyan a resolver los problemas de interoperabilidad semántica, y de reutilización de conocimiento en los sistemas de información clínicos. Métodos: Se han analizado 6 de las terminologías ...

  12. THE BETHESDA SYSTEM FOR REPORTING THYROID CYTOLOGY - UNIFORM TERMINOLOGY TO AID IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THYROID LESIONS: STUDY IN KMCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fine needle aspiration has been widely accepted as diagnostic procedure of choice in assessment of non-toxic thyroid nodule. Despite thyroid cytology being widely used as a first-line investigation to guide clinical management, until recently there was no standardized terminology for FNAC reporting. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytology (TBSRTC has attempted to standardize reporting in aspiration smears. AIMS The objective of the present study was to report thyroid cytology smears by TBSRTC into various categories, analyse their cytological features using TBSRTC monograph, conveying brief management plan to clinicians and correlated with histopathology specimens whenever they are available. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 138 patients who presented with thyroid swelling were subjected to thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC and the smears were made followed by H and E staining. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytology was followed on aspiration smears using criteria published in the atlas and related literature. The clinicians were communicated implied risk of malignancy and recommended clinical management along with report. Histopathology specimens whenever received were processed as per standard methods. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated using histopathology diagnosis as gold standard results: Distribution of 138 cases as per Bethesda system of reporting was done. Benign category was the largest (75.4% followed by ND/UNS category (8.7%, malignant and SFM constitutes 2.9% and 4.3% total 7.2%, AUS/FLUS constitutes 5.8%, while FN/SFN constitutes 2.9%. If FN/SFN is included in malignant group the sensitivity increases, but the specificity decreases. There is marked decrease in positive predictive value. CONCLUSION Our findings were consistent with others, who used the Bethesda cytopathology reporting system. Applying a standard terminology

  13. Clearing the standards landscape: the semantics of terminology and their impact on toxicogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Lyle D

    2007-10-01

    The emergence of the microarray data standards, especially the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME), has spurred several organizations to develop their own standards for a myriad of technologies, including proteomics and metabolomics. These efforts have facilitated the creation of several large-scale gene expression repositories, including the toxicology-focused Chemical Effects in Biological Systems Knowledgebase at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Recently, efforts have been moved toward developing toxicogenomic data standards (e.g., MIAME-Tox), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency either have developed or are developing regulatory guidance with respect to pharmaco- and toxicogenomics. However, for the toxicology community to be engaged in the process of standards development and approval, there needs to be a more thorough understanding of the terms associated with electronic data sharing and communication, especially with respect to defining the terms "standard," "controlled vocabulary," "object model," "markup language," and "ontology." This review will discuss these terms, especially as they pertain to toxicogenomics, how they relate to one-another, and what current efforts exist that may impact toxicology. PMID:17483496

  14. The Standardization of the Terminologies Used in the Reporting of Degenerative Disc Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barzin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different groups have expressed the need to standardize the terms and classifications used in the reporting of spine MRI, particularly in the lumbar spine."nSeveral studies have shown "moderate" (17-20% ob-server variations in MRI lumbar spine reporting. The main discrepancies occur when deciding what consti-tutes a bulging or herniated disc and this represents more than 50% of all inter-observer disagreement. A variety of different terms are used to describe disc pathology on the preference of the reporting individ-ual."nRecently, there is a universal consensus of terms and a nomenclature framework for degenerative disc dis-ease which using of them are encouraged by the American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR."nIn this presentation, first some inter-observer varia-tions of MRI reporting in our center will be shown. "nThen a review of articles about standard MRI report-ing nomenclature with some relevant interesting cases from our MRI center will be presented.

  15. Ground-Based Facilities for Simulation of Microgravity: Organism-Specific Recommendations for Their Use, and Recommended Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, Ralf; Boonstra, Johannes; Braun, Markus; Christianen, Peter C.M.; de Geest, Maarten; Hauslage, Jens; Hilbig, Reinhard; Hill, Richard J.A.; Lebert, Michael; Medina, F. Javier; Vagt, Nicole; Ullrich, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research in microgravity is indispensable to disclose the impact of gravity on biological processes and organisms. However, research in the near-Earth orbit is severely constrained by the limited number of flight opportunities. Ground-based simulators of microgravity are valuable tools for preparing spaceflight experiments, but they also facilitate stand-alone studies and thus provide additional and cost-efficient platforms for gravitational research. The various microgravity simulators that are frequently used by gravitational biologists are based on different physical principles. This comparative study gives an overview of the most frequently used microgravity simulators and demonstrates their individual capacities and limitations. The range of applicability of the various ground-based microgravity simulators for biological specimens was carefully evaluated by using organisms that have been studied extensively under the conditions of real microgravity in space. In addition, current heterogeneous terminology is discussed critically, and recommendations are given for appropriate selection of adequate simulators and consistent use of nomenclature. Key Words: 2-D clinostat—3-D clinostat—Gravity—Magnetic levitation—Random positioning machine—Simulated microgravity—Space biology. Astrobiology 13, 1–17. PMID:23252378

  16. THE CONCEPT OF “TESTATE SUCCESSION” IN THE ROMANIAN AND GEORGIAN LEGAL SYSTEMS (TERMINOLOGICAL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA GVELESIANI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The death of an individual never causes an automatic termination of his (her rights and obligations. They are transferred to his (her descendants. The permanent connection of generations has inspired the world civilizations to create rules of succession for establishing people’s obedience to them. In the old times, the transmission of property of the Romanian people was governed by the legislation, which had been created under the influence of the Roman law. According to the conception of this legislation, a deceased person’s property had to stay with his blood relatives i.e. within the same family. On the background of these circumstances, a surviving spouse suffered disadvantages. A widow’s rights were limited in accordance with the old Georgian legislation too – the hereditary property was mainly divided between the male issue, while females owned only wedding gifts (dowry. However, the area of family law has suffered crucial changes throughout the centuries. Nowadays, during the times of globalization, these changes are directed towards the internationalization of legal systems of the world. Juridical differences are becoming irrelevant and females’ rights are equalized with the males’ ones. The given paper is dedicated to the precise study of the Romanian and Georgian “testate successions”. It singles out major terminological units and discusses women’s rights vis-à-vis men’s ones.

  17. Continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies in developmental toxicology: Report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity, 14-16 May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Roland; Rauch, Martina; Gall, Andrea; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Fuchs, Antje; Kan, Haidong; Heinrich, Verena; Kellner, Rupert; Knudsen, Thomas B; Li, Weihua; Makris, Susan L; Ooshima, Yojiro; Paumgartten, Francisco; Piersma, Aldert H; Schönfelder, Gilbert; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Schaefer, Christof; Shiota, Kohei; Ulbrich, Beate; Ding, Xuncheng; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article is a report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity held in May 2014. The main aim of the workshop was the continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies used in the assessment of embryo- and fetotoxic findings. The following main topics were discussed: harmonized categorization of external, skeletal, visceral and materno-fetal findings into malformations, variations and grey zone anomalies, aspects of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals, and innovations for new methodologies in developmental toxicology. The application of Version 2 terminology in the DevTox database was considered as a useful improvement in the categorization of developmental anomalies. Participants concluded that initiation of a project for comparative assessments of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals could support regulatory risk assessment and university-based training. Improvement of new methodological approaches for alternatives to animal testing should be triggered for a better understanding of developmental outcomes. PMID:26073002

  18. THE FUNCTIONS OF IDIOMS WITH MAGICAL TERMINOLOGY IN BUILDING THE STORY OF J. K. ROWLING’S “HARRY POTTER AND THE ORDER OF THE PHOENIX”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Fadhillah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the functions of idioms with magical terminology in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix in building the story. This study analyzed the novel from the linguistics perspective. The idioms with magical terminology found in the novel were compared to real English idioms. Comparison was done word by word and also to the context of the story. The analysis was also done by comparing words’ meaning and the semantic features. Finally the data were analyzed with related theories of linguistics and discourse analysis. The results of this study can be used as a consideration in teaching cultural relevancy in language teaching from the linguistic point of view in a novel. Keywords: functions of idioms, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, cultural relevancy in language teaching

  19. [The Significance of Terminology for the Idea of a Historical Period--Considerations on Frühe Neuzeit/Early Modern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipperdey, Justus

    2015-06-01

    The Significance of Terminology for the Idea of a Historical Period - Considerations on Frühe Neuzeit/Early Modern. This article focuses on the relationship between the names given to historical periods and the attributed substance of that period. It argues that the possibility of a neutralisation in terms of substantive meaning depends on the terminology used to delineate a historical period. Considering the example of 'early modern history' the article sketches the usage of that term in twentieth century historiography. While it is clear that the concept cannot escape the inherent teleology of modernity succeeding pre-modern ages, the analysis shows that historians have used 'early modern' in surprisingly divers ways trying to overcome the semantic meaning of the term itself. PMID:26140628

  20. Korleis kan/bør vi ivareta terminologi og fagspråk i norsk industri og næringsliv

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Magnar

    2006-01-01

    It is argued here that the challenge posed by globalization, with English as its principal communication medium, requires decisive and defensive action on behalf of Norwegian special language and terminology, and that such action should be coordinated by the new Language Council and financed at governmental level. The presentation aims to pinpoint specific initiatives required to meet the challenge, starting from the consolidation and further development of textual and lexical lan...

  1. Creating medical terminology: from Latin and Greek influence to the influence of English as the current lingua franca of medical communication

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrić, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The language of medicine is a broad research field, so broad that there ought to be a special field of linguistics called medical linguistics. its development, especially the development of medical terminology, is interesting both to medical historians and to linguists. Hippocratic writings dating from the 5th and the 4th century Bc contain many medical terms which were the foundation of the language of medicine in the greek era. At the beginning of the first century ad greek medical te...

  2. Analysis of Terms Translation from the Terminology Point of View%从术语学角度看WiFi和WiMax中文译名之争——兼论确立术语翻译原则的迫切性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙寰; 陈岩

    2015-01-01

    Accuracy and normalization of terminology translation directly affect the terminology standardization work. This paper discusses the translation of two terms"Wifi"and"WiMax"from the terminology point of view, and then analyzes the positive influence of terminology translation on terminology standardization, and discusses how to promote standardization of terminology translation from the perspective of terminology construction.%术语翻译的准确与规范直接影响到术语的标准化工作.本文从术语学角度探讨与Wifi和WiMax两个术语翻译相关的问题,进而分析术语翻译对术语标准化的积极影响,又从术语学建设的角度,探讨如何促进术语标准化翻译问题.

  3. A Milestone in Codifying the Wisdom of Traditional Oriental Medicine: TCM, Kampo, TKM, TVM—WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hoon Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHO published a dictionary-type book entitled ‘WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region’ which has a total of 3259 technical terms which have been commonly used in traditional Chinese (TCM, Japanese (Kampo, Korean (TKM and Vietnamese (TVM medicines. In this comprehensive guide, each term has the English expression, the original Chinese character and a concise English definition. The book covers 3106 terms from basic theories, diagnostics, diseases, various therapeutics including acupuncture and moxibustion and even the English wording of 153 titles which are considered the most important traditional medical classics published in these four countries. A prominent feature of the compilation is the codification format that assigns numbers in hundred decimal units for each category of the section. This type of coding system provides the flexibility for adding more terminologies in the future and is useful for constructing a database for the retrieval of various published scientific articles. Overall, the usage of these standard terminologies is highly desirable to deliver accurate meanings, and ultimately to avoid a variety of expressions for a single term in different scientific manuscripts on Oriental medicine.

  4. Common usage of cardiologic anatomical terminology: critical analysis and a trilingual discussion proposal Uso comum da terminologia anatômica cardiológica: análise crítica e proposta de discussão trilingue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lins Werneck

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Terminology and Lexicography have been especially addressed to the Allied Health Sciences regarding discussion of case reports or concerning publication of scientific articles. The knowledge of Human Anatomy enables the understanding of medical terms and the refinement of Medical Terminology makes possible a better anatomicomedical communication in a highly technical level. Most of the scientific publications in both Anatomy and Medicine are found only in English and most of dictionaries or search resources available do not have specificity enough to explain anatomicomedical, terminological, or lexicographical occurrences. OBJECTIVE: To design and produce a multilingual terminological dictionary (Latim-English-Portuguese-Spanish containing a list of English anatomicomedical terms in common usage in cardiology subspecialties addressed to medical students and professionals, to other allied health sciences professionals, and to translators working in this specific field. METHODS: Terms, semantical and grammatical components were selected to compose an anatomicocardiological corpus. The adequacy to the thematic terminological research requests and the translation reliability level will be settled from the terminology specificity in contrast to the semantics, as well as from a peer survey of the main terms used by national and international experts in specialized journals, Internet sites, and from text-books on Anatomy and Cardiology. The inclusion criteria will be the terms included in the English, Portuguese, and Spanish Terminologia Anatomica - the official terminology of the anatomical sciences; nonofficial technical commonly used terms which lead to terminology or translation misunderstanding often being a source of confusion. RESULTS: A table with a sample of the 508 most used anatomical cardiologic terms in English language peer-reviewed journals of cardiology and (pediatric and adult thoracic surgery is shown. CONCLUSIONS: The

  5. Reviewing the literature, how systematic is systematic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLure, Katie; Paudyal, Vibhu; Stewart, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Professor Archibald Cochrane, after whom the Cochrane Collaboration is named, was influential in promoting evidence-based clinical practice. He called for "relevant, valid research" to underpin all aspects of healthcare. Systematic reviews of the literature are regarded as a high quality source of cumulative evidence but it is unclear how truly systematic they, or other review articles, are or 'how systematic is systematic?' Today's evidence-based review industry is a burgeoning mix of specialist terminology, collaborations and foundations, databases, portals, handbooks, tools, criteria and training courses. Aim of the review This study aims to identify uses and types of reviews, key issues in planning, conducting, reporting and critiquing reviews, and factors which limit claims to be systematic. Method A rapid review of review articles published in IJCP. Results This rapid review identified 17 review articles published in IJCP between 2010 and 2015 inclusive. It explored the use of different types of review article, the variation and widely available range of guidelines, checklists and criteria which, through systematic application, aim to promote best practice. It also identified common pitfalls in endeavouring to conduct reviews of the literature systematically. Discussion Although a limited set of IJCP reviews were identified, there is clear evidence of the variation in adoption and application of systematic methods. The burgeoning evidence industry offers the tools and guidelines required to conduct systematic reviews, and other types of review, systematically. This rapid review was limited to the database of one journal over a period of 6 years. Although this review was conducted systematically, it is not presented as a systematic review. Conclusion As a research community we have yet to fully engage with readily available guidelines and tools which would help to avoid the common pitfalls. Therefore the question remains, of not just IJCP but

  6. Congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities in adults detected by gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: Clefts, aneurysms, diverticula and terminology problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erol, Cengiz, E-mail: drcengizerol@yahoo.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Koplay, Mustafa, E-mail: koplaymustafa@hotmail.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Olcay, Ayhan, E-mail: drayhanolcay@gmail.com [29 May Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Vatan Street, Fatih, 34150 Istanbul (Turkey); Kivrak, Ali Sami, E-mail: alisamikivrak@hotmail.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Ozbek, Seda, E-mail: dsadr@hotmail.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey); Seker, Mehmet, E-mail: hikmet.irfan@hotmail.com [29 May Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vatan Street, Fatih, 34150 Istanbul (Turkey); Paksoy, Yahya, E-mail: yahyapaksoy@yahoo.com [Selcuk University, Selcuklu Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Alaeddin Keykubat Central Campus, Selcuklu, 42250 Konya (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities (clefts, aneurysms and diverticula), describe and illustrate imaging features, discuss terminology problems and determine their prevalence detected by cardiac CT in a single center. Materials and methods: Coronary CT angiography images of 2093 adult patients were evaluated retrospectively in order to determine congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities. Results: The incidence of left ventricular clefts (LVC) was 6.7% (141 patients) and statistically significant difference was not detected between the sexes regarding LVC (P = 0.5). LVCs were single in 65.2% and multiple in 34.8% of patients. They were located at the basal to mid inferoseptal segment of the left ventricle in 55.4%, the basal to mid anteroseptal segment in 24.1%, basal to mid inferior segment in 17% and septal-apical septal segment in 3.5% of cases. The cleft length ranged from 5 to 22 mm (mean 10.5 mm) and they had a narrow connection with the left ventricle (mean 2.5 mm). They were contractile with the left ventricle and obliterated during systole. Congenital left ventricular septal aneurysm that was located just under the aortic valve was detected in two patients (0.1%). No case of congenital left ventricular diverticulum was detected. Conclusion: Cardiac CT allows us to recognize congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities which have been previously overlooked in adults. LVC is a congenital structural variant of the myocardium, is seen more frequently than previously reported and should be differentiated from aneurysm and diverticulum for possible catastrophic complications of the latter two.

  7. State of Digital Education Options in the areas of Medical Terminology and the History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochow, Maximilian; Steger, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Institutes of the history of medicine, the theory of medicine, and medical ethics at German institutions of higher learning have created various e-learning options that are based on different learning platforms and tailored to the specific curricular needs of individual teaching. Up to now no valid data has been available about the types of such e-learning options as well as possibilities of future developments thanks to coordinated cooperation among the different institutes. Methods: Of 31 German institutes of the history and theory of medicine and medical ethics that were asked to fill out a questionnaire, 30 answered, which equals a return rate of 97 per cent. The questionnaire was completed between July and August 2012 using a telephone survey. Results: Available to students online, digitally interactive teaching tools have boomed in the course of the last few years at German institutes of the history of medicine, the theory of medicine, and medical ethics. This trend is also reflected in a willingness of more than half of the respective departments (67 per cent) to expand their e-learning options on the basis of previous experience. The offered e-learning systems are accepted very well by the students. 57 per cent of the institutes stated, that 90-100 per cent of the students use the offered systems regularly. E-learning courses for terminology are offered particularly often, this is also reflected in the intended extension of these courses by the majority of institutes which plan to expand their e-learning systems. Conclusions: This article discusses the results of a comprehensive empirical survey about e-learning. It illustrates ways in which individual German institutes plan to expand their e-learning options in the future. Finally, specific proposals for cooperation among institutions (not just online) are introduced, the purpose of which is to produce synergy in e-learning. PMID:26038682

  8. Tourism websites in English as a source for the autonomous learning of specialized terminology: A CALL application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Felices Lago

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For years now, it has been an unquestioned fact that a large majority of textbooks available in English for Tourism, either in book format, CD-Rom or web site access are based on situations and professional contexts connected with the Anglo-Saxon environment, even though the vast majority of graduates in Tourism in Spain (and other countries end up working in the region (autonomous community of origin or in the province of reference for studies. There is, therefore, a clear dysfunction between the textbooks available in the market and the materials and situations that the students will face in their professional future. However, the Internet now allows us to exploit the availability of vast quantities of local resources (websites, blogs, etc. with their corresponding versions in English, which include tourist information referring to, for example, hotels, restaurants, historical and artistic heritage sites, tour operators, travel agencies, trade fairs or specialized services at the national, regional or communal levels. All these sites offer a special showcase of all the linguistic resources available (be they lexical, syntactic or terminological that the learners must acquire for their professional development. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to offer the results of the computer-assisted language learning (CALL project entitled Autonomous Learning of Specialized Vocabulary in English for Tourism (http://wdb.ugr.es/~afelices/, which takes into consideration the previous premises in order to promote, as its title indicates, autonomous learning in a more realistic professional context and to serve as a model for the development of similar e-learning platforms in other regions or countries.

  9. The Terminology of Machismo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, Marcela Trujillo

    The term "macho" has been increasingly incorporated into the English language with various connotations and definitions, i.e., male cheuvinist, superman, and hyper-manliness Yet these words are not substitutions for "macho" which has an intrinsic value of its own. For English speakers, the most prevalent definition is "virile". While this is a…

  10. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-01-01

    Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals...

  11. Terminology of carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, G.N.; Nagornyi, V.G.; Ostrovskii, V.S.

    1986-07-01

    The need is discussed to standardize definition of carbonaceous material. Terms related to carbonaceous materials and their products are selected and analyzed. Diagramatic representation is given of relationships between carbonaceous materials. Carbon has two forms of structure, cubic and hexagonal, characterized by sp/sup 3/-hybrid groups of atoms forming spatial system of tetrahedral bonds. Hexagonal form of carbon is represented by natural materials such as graphite, shungite, anthracite and a number of artificial materials obtained during thermal treatment of organic substances at temperatures above carbonization temperature. 4 references.

  12. Sea ice terminology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A group of definitions of terms related to sea ice is presented, as well as a graphic representation of late winter ice zonation of the Beaufort Sea Coast. Terms included in the definition list are belt, bergy bit, bight, brash ice, calving, close pack ice, compacting, compact pack ice, concentration, consolidated pack ice, crack, diffuse ice edge, fast ice, fast-ice boundary, fast-ice edge, first-year ice, flaw, flaw lead, floe, flooded ice, fractured, fractured zone, fracturing, glacier, grey ice, grey-white ice, growler, hummock, iceberg, iceberg tongue, ice blink, ice boundary, ice cake, ice edge, ice foot, ice free, ice island, ice shelf, large fracture, lead, medium fracture, multiyear ice, nilas, old ice, open pack ice, open water, pack ice, polar ice, polynya, puddle, rafted ice, rafting, ram, ridge, rotten ice, second-year ice, shearing, shore lead, shore polynya, small fracture, strip, tabular berg, thaw holes, very close pack ice, very open pack ice, water sky, young coastal ice, and young ice.

  13. Clarifying Behavior Management Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justen, Joseph E., III; Howerton, D. Lynn

    1993-01-01

    Eight behavioral management terms/concepts commonly encountered in the special education literature are defined and discussed in terms of commonly occurring confusions. They are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, extinction, differential reinforcement of other behavior, timeout, response cost, and overcorrection. (DB)

  14. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-01-01

    It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the cen...

  15. [Fouling: terminology and definitions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaman, V V

    2009-01-01

    Current classification of principal ecological groups of hydrobionts is an eclectic one as it confuses two fundamentals, one dealing with organismic ecomorphology and another with water body's topology. This leads to difficulties in determination of interrelations between benthos and fouling communities. The littoral fouling communities cannot be considered as an independent ecological group of the same rank as plankton or benthos because it lacks a unique species composition. The fouling is always a derivate of the benthos, so it could be defined as a community formed by benthic organisms during succession on a solid substrate more or less remote from the water body's bottom. All peculiarities of the fouling communities distinguishing them from similar benthic communities are determined by topology and other properties of the substrate, by relatively short period of the latter's exposition and by hydrological conditions under which the fouling is developing. There is continual transitions between benthic and fouling communities both in space (along gradients of abiotic environmental factors) and in time (along successional series). Such a continuum becomes most frequently broken due to both significant remoteness of the substrate, on which a fouling develops, from the bottom and permanent extreme factors disturbing or retarding fouling communities development. Thus, littoral foulings are just benthos being formed under specific conditions. At the same time, oceanic foulings are connected both evolutionary and ecologically with littoral foulings and benthos. PMID:20063771

  16. Ice nucleation terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the understanding of ice nucleation is being hampered by the lack of uniformity in how some terms are used in the literature. This even extends to some ambiguity of meanings attached to some terms. Suggestions are put forward here for common use of terms. Some are already well established and clear of ambiguities. Others are less engrained and will need a conscious effort in adoption. Evolution in the range of systems where ice nucleation is being studied enhances the need for a clear nomenclature. The ultimate limit in the clarity of definitions is, of course, the limited degree to which ice nucleation processes are understood.

  17. Understanding Population Health Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Kindig, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Population health is a relatively new term, with no agreement about whether it refers to a concept of health or a field of study of health determinants. There is debate, sometimes heated, about whether population health and public health are identical or different. Discussions of population health involve many terms, such as outcomes, disparities, determinants, and risk factors, which may be used imprecisely, particularly across different disciplines, such as medicine, epidemiology, economics...

  18. CET Terminology change

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    During 2009, an interdepartmental team composed of members of the accounting and central / departmental planning & controlling services revised the CET glossary with the aim of adapting the existing CET fields and columns labels to the new vocabulary recently employed in the CERN financial rules (following the implementation of IPSAS1) recommendations at CERN), annual accounts and, in general, in the accounting. The AIS team in charge of CET has finalized the implementation of this glossary change. As of 13 April 2010, a standard pop-up message (CET news) appears on opening the CET session, informing users about the planned modifications. As of 3rd May 2010, a new version of CET, that will contain modifications of certain fields and columns labels will be deployed. The main changes apply to the following terms: “CHARGED TO BUDGET CODE” replaces “PAID TO BUDGET CODE”, “ACCRUALS” replaces “PROVISIONS” and “PAID TO SU...

  19. 药品招标采购活动中相关质量术语解读%Interpretation of the Quality Related Terminology in Pharmaceutical Bidding Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱杰; 付加雷

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a monographic study and analysis on the issues of varied interpretations of the related terminology of drug quality in the pharmaceutical bidding schemes of various provinces and cities . Methods:The drug-related quality terminology used in each provincial pharmaceutical bidding scheme was summarized and ana-lyzed . Results:The new interpretations of the quality terms were worked out with more scientific explanations and sug-gestions as well . Conclusion: The standardization and unification of quality related terminology are not only conducive to the country ’ s pharmaceutical bidding activities , but also benefit to the level classification of pharmaceutical quality .%目的:针对目前各省市药品招标采购方案中药品相关的质量术语的解释存在不同的问题,进行专题研究和分析。方法:对各省药品招标采购方案中药品相关的质量术语进行总结、归纳与分析。结果:对各术语进行了新的解读,并给出了更为科学的解释和建议。结论:各个质量术语的规范与统一,不仅有利于全国的药品招标采购活动,更有利于药品的质量层次划分。

  20. A TERMINOLOGICAL APPROACH TO STORY / “HİKÂYE”YE TERMİNOLOJİK BİR YAKLAŞIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Necati TONGA

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Narration is one of the outstanding needs of humankind. The activity of narration is encountered in two ways in social life as oral and written narration.Novel, theater, letter, essay, travel critic, biography, autobiography, recollection… are some of the literary types appeared as the result of the need for narration. Story is one of these literary types. Story and its kinds are characterized with different word or words both in the west and east.In this study, we will try to discuss the word story which has various categories in terms of meanings with a terminological approach.

  1. ROMANIAN TERMINOLOGY IN THE METEOROLOGY OF SEVERE WEATHER – CASE STUDY OF THE SUPERCELL FROM ARAD COUNTRY ON THE 14TH OF JUNE 2010

    OpenAIRE

    O. SCRIDONESI; C. BUŢIU; C. NUCUŢĂ; S. LEAHU

    2011-01-01

    Romanian terminology in the meteorology of severe weather – Case study of the supercell from the 14th of June 2010. Using the ingredients-based methodology, the low precipitation supercell storm from the 14th of June 2010 in the Arad county is analyzed in terms of conditions of development, evolution and structure. To address such a topic an important issue is the lack of meteorological terms in the Romanian language to enable the completion of such analysis of supercell storms or other sever...

  2. Fascia: a morphological description and classification system based on a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Kumka, Myroslava; Bonar, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Fascia is virtually inseparable from all structures in the body and acts to create continuity amongst tissues to enhance function and support. In the past fascia has been difficult to study leading to ambiguities in nomenclature, which have only recently been addressed. Through review of the available literature, advances in fascia research were compiled, and issues related to terminology, descriptions, and clinical relevance of fascia were addressed. Our multimodal search strategy was conduc...

  3. The Need for International Terminology and Definitions for Texture-Modified Foods and Thickened Liquids Used in Dysphagia Management: Foundations of a Global Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Julie A Y; Steele, Catriona; Duivestein, Janice; Clavé, Pere; Chen, Jianshe; Kayashita, Jun; Dantas, Roberto; Lecko, Caroline; Speyer, Renee; Lam, Peter; Murray, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Conservative estimates suggest that dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) affects approximately 8 % of the world's population. Dysphagia is associated with malnutrition, dehydration, chest infection and potentially death. While promising treatments are being developed to improve function, the modification of food texture and liquid thickness has become a cornerstone of dysphagia management. Foods are chopped, mashed or puréed to compensate for chewing difficulties or fatigue, improve swallowing safety and avoid asphyxiation. Liquids are typically thickened to slow their speed of transit through the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing, to avoid aspiration of material into the airway and improve transit to the esophagus. Food texture and liquid modification for dysphagia management occurs throughout the world. However, the names, the number of levels of modification and characteristics vary within and across countries. Multiple labels increase the risk to patient safety. National standardization of terminology and definitions has been promoted as a means to improve patient safety and inter-professional communication. This article documents the need for international standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and liquids for individuals with dysphagia. Furthermore, it documents the research plan and foundations of a global initiative dedicated to this purpose. PMID:24392282

  4. 论俄语科技术语的有效翻译%Effective Translation of Scientific and Technical Terminology in Russian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2011-01-01

    俄语、英语是表音文字,词与词的关系主要依靠词本身的形态变化来表现,表音文字互译时可以采用仿造、借用等一些形态手段构词的方法.汉语是表意文字,由表音文字译为表意文字时无法通过形态手段构成新词术语.本文以俄语为基准语阐述科技术语由表音文字之间互译和表音文字到表意文字的翻译方法.%Russian and English are phonetic, and the relationship between words expresses by the morphological change of word itself. The translation of phonetic writing can use morphology of form means, such as imitation, borrow etc. Chinese is ideographic. Form means can not be used to constitute the new terminology when phonetic writing is translated to ideographic writing. This paper describes the approaches to translation of scientific and technical terminology when phonetic writing is translated to ideographic writing, and the translation between phonetic writing, taking Russian language as an example.

  5. An Extraction Method for Chinese Terminology Based on Statistical Technology%一种基于统计技术的中文术语抽取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑; 唐慧丰; 刘伍颖

    2014-01-01

    中文术语识别与抽取是中文文本信息处理的基础,对于提高中文文本索引与检索、文本挖掘、本体构建、潜在语义分析等的处理精度有着重要的意义。文章以互信息和信息熵理论为基础,提出一种基于统计技术的中文术语半自动抽取方法,并且以互联网新闻话题数据为对象进行了实验验证,结果表明所提方法能够有效支持中文术语的抽取。%Chinese terminology extraction is a fundamental issue in Chinese text information processing. It has been applied in many other fields, such as Chinese text indexing and retrieval, text mining, ontology construction, and latent semantic analysis. Based on mutual information and information entropy theory, we proposed a semi-automatic Chinese terminology extraction method by statistical technology, and experimental y verified this method using internet news topic data. Our results show that proposed method can effectively support Chinese term extraction.

  6. Search and Retrieval Strategies in the Systematic Literature Search. Terminologies and Taxonomies in Information and Library Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Merz, Anne-Kathrin; Knüttel, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Background Systematic literature searches (SLS) are a core element of systematic reviews (SR) in the Evidence Based Medicine. For reasons of quality assurance, they ideally follow a strict methodology: they have not only to be comprehensive, exhaustive and error-robust, but also documented by protocol. Main sources for systematic reviews are original works, usually published in journals and referenced in bibliographic databases. Due to systematic distortions of the literary landscape (1), ...

  7. Análisis de terminologías de salud para su utilización como ontologías computacionales en los sistemas de información clínicos Analysis of health terminologies for use as ontologies in healthcare information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Romá-Ferri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Las ontologías son un recurso que permite trabajar informáticamente con la conceptualización del significado y evitar la limitación impuesta por los términos normalizados. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer el grado de usabilidad de las terminologías para el diseño de ontologías, que contribuyan a resolver los problemas de interoperabilidad semántica, y de reutilización de conocimiento en los sistemas de información clínicos. Métodos: Se han analizado 6 de las terminologías más relevantes para el ámbito clínico, epidemiológico, documental y administrativo-económico. Se valoraron las siguientes cualidades: cobertura conceptual, estructura jerárquica, granularidad conceptual, relaciones conceptuales y grado de formalismo utilizado en la representación conceptual, para establecer el grado de usabilidad. Resultados: Se consideran como ontologías ligeras los MeSH, los DeCS y el UMLS, aunque con diferencias entre ellas, al explicitar los conceptos, el tipo de relación y las restricciones entre los conceptos asociados. SNOMED y GALEN, con su formalismo declarativo basado en descripciones lógicas, incluyen la explicitación de las cualidades, una mayor restricción para relacionar conceptos y las reglas de combinación entre ellos, por lo que se consideran como ontologías pesadas. Conclusiones: El análisis de la representación declarada de las terminologías muestra las posibilidades de su reutilización como ontologías. Su grado de usabilidad dependerá de si se pretende que los sistemas de información clínicos resuelvan los problemas de interoperabilidad semántica (ontologías ligeras o además reutilizar su conocimiento para sistemas de ayuda a la toma de decisiones (ontologías pesadas y para tareas de recuperación, extracción y clasificación de información no estructurada.Objectives: Ontologies are a resource that allow the concept of meaning to be represented informatically, thus avoiding the

  8. Desarrollo de un módulo de gestión y consulta de pequeñas terminologías clínicas conforme con ISO 21090

    OpenAIRE

    RODRÍGUEZ MUÑOZ, SERGIO

    2012-01-01

    En la metodología de modelo dual para el modelado de la historia clínica electrónica los arquetipos definen los potencialmente numerosos conceptos del dominio como problema, hoja de interconsulta, presión sanguínea, etc. En la definición de arquetipos, a parte de las terminologías de propósito puramente clínico, se hace uso de una gran cantidad de pequeñas terminologías que sirven para definir el contexto clínico de la información. Este proyecto tiene como objetivo el desarroll...

  9. Review of the Historical Evolution of Anatomical Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri, Rubén D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medical terms of Greek origin are traditionally attributed to Hippocrates (460-370 BC. Claudius Galen of Pergamum (130-200 BC developed a classification of bones and joints and described different brain areas. His teachings have remained unchanged for over a thousand years. Andreas Vesalius of Brussels (1514-1564, through the systematic study of human body structure, changed many concepts. He published his work in his production "De humani corporis fabrica libri septem", where a special attention is evident to the discovery and description of new anatomical facts. From here there is a revolution in the morphological sciences, where the same anatomical structure passed to receive different names. In the nineteenth century, the different anatomists in the world decide to meet in order to unify criteria regarding the anatomical structures and determine a only one universal language in the anatomical sciences. In 1895, in Basel (Switzerland it’s approved a list of 5.573 terms, called Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA and was written in Latin. Eponyms were deleted. In 1903, he founded the International Federation of Associations of anatomists (IFAA. In 1935, in Jena (Germany, approving the Jena Nomina Anatomica (JNA. In 1950, in Oxford, formed the Committee of the International Anatomical Nomenclature (IANC. In 1955, in Paris (France it is agreed to adopt a Latin nomenclature based on the BNA, the Paris Nomina Anatomica (PNA. In 1980, for the first time in Latin America, takes place on the 11th International Congress of Anatomists, Mexico. In 1989, the International Committee of Anatomical Nomenclature, published the sixth edition of the Nomina Anatomica, without review by the IFAA. The same year, the latter established a Federative International Committee of Anatomical Terminology (FICAT. In 1998, he published a new list FICAT: International Anatomical Terminology (TAI, with the structures named in Latin language and their equivalence in

  10. Coming to Terms With Risk Factors for Eating Disorders: Application of Risk Terminology and Suggestions for a General Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  11. ROMANIAN TERMINOLOGY IN THE METEOROLOGY OF SEVERE WEATHER – CASE STUDY OF THE SUPERCELL FROM ARAD COUNTRY ON THE 14TH OF JUNE 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. SCRIDONESI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Romanian terminology in the meteorology of severe weather – Case study of the supercell from the 14th of June 2010. Using the ingredients-based methodology, the low precipitation supercell storm from the 14th of June 2010 in the Arad county is analyzed in terms of conditions of development, evolution and structure. To address such a topic an important issue is the lack of meteorological terms in the Romanian language to enable the completion of such analysis of supercell storms or other severe weather phenomena. Finding terms that correspond to the best of the English language during the analysis is performed either by direct translation into romanian, either by replacing the terms that best fit the context and the use of each term is motivated.

  12. Terminología basada en el conocimiento para la traducción y la divulgación médicas: el caso de ONCOTERM

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Inés López Rodríguez; Pamela Faber Benítez; Maribel Tercedor Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Oncoterm es un proyecto de investigación interdisciplinar sobre terminología médica cuyo objetivo principal es la elaboración de un sistema de información sobre el subdominio biomédico de la oncología en el que los conceptos están vinculados a una ontología. Dicha estructura conceptual subyace a los demás componentes del sistema y constituye el vínculo entre términos en diferentes lenguas (inglés, español y alemán). Asimismo, la identificación de un marco conceptual facilita la comprensión de...

  13. Repertorio bibliográfico sobre terminología jurídica en lenguas francesa y española

    OpenAIRE

    Mira Rueda, Concepción

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo pretende ser una guía útil para todos los traductores, juristas y personas interesadas por la terminología jurídica. Se trata de un artículo en el que se ha recogido una selección representativa de obras lexicográficas publicadas a día de hoy sobre Derecho restringiéndolo a las lenguas francesa (de Francia) y española (de España). Las obras recogidas en este artículo tienen tanto formato papel como electrónico. G.I. HUM 767 (ayudas a Grupos de Investigac...

  14. Coordinación y seguimiento de las competencias de terminología en el Grado de Traducción e Interpretación

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaría-Pérez, Isabel; Gallego Hernández, Daniel; Serrano Bertos, Elena; VARGAS SIERRA, CHELO

    2015-01-01

    Como red de investigación en docencia universitaria, nuestro proyecto se implementa en el área de conocimiento de la terminología aplicada a la traducción con el fin de incrementar su calidad. Con este fin se ha llevado a cabo una revisión del funcionamiento de asignaturas que integran este bloque a lo largo del Grado de Traducción e Interpretación y su secuenciación. Nuestro objetivo principal es realizar un seguimiento y gestión de las guías docentes revisando los contenidos teóricos y prác...

  15. Estudio de las peculiaridades de la terminología en el entorno académico del EEES en ruso y en español

    OpenAIRE

    POLYAKOVA NESTERENKO, OKSANA

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación se ha centrado en el estudio de las peculiaridades de la terminología en el entorno académico del Espacio Europeo de Enseñanza Superior en ruso y en español. El Proceso de Bolonia ha cobrado un protagonismo especial desde la apuesta de la Unión Europea por la unificación del estándar educativo junto con la incorporación al mismo de los países extracomunitarios. La Federación Rusa se ha integrado en la plataforma común en el año 2003, pero pocas soluciones se han apor...

  16. Implicaciones intelectuales y metodológicas en la selección de los autores y la terminología traductora castellana del siglo XV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allés Torrent, Susanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Translations were a crucial channel for the reception of Italian Humanism in the Iberian Peninsula. This intellectual activity not only led to the recuperation of a significant part of the classical Greco-Roman legacy, but also fomented engagement with the works and ideas of contemporary Italian authors. On the one hand, this article underscores the critical role of translation in cultural transfers between both peninsulas and shows the change in authors selected to translate over the course of fifteenth century. On the other hand, it analyzes the implications of these author selections, arguing that they reveal at once an ideological transformation, a change in the conception of the very act of translation, and the adoption of new terminology.Las traducciones constituyeron uno de los canales prioritarios en la recepción del humanismo italiano en la Península Ibérica. A través de esta actividad intelectual, no sólo se recuperó una parte considerable del legado clásico grecolatino, sino que propició un acercamiento a la obra y a las ideas de los autores italianos contemporáneos. Por un lado, el presente trabajo insiste en el papel central de la traducción en el marco de la transferencia cultural entre ambas penínsulas y evidencia el cambio en la selección de los autores traducidos a lo largo del siglo XV; por otro lado, se analizan las implicaciones de dichas elecciones que, además de constituir una transformación a nivel ideológico, supusieron un cambio en la concepción de la actividad de la traducción y en la adopción de una nueva terminología.

  17. Harmonization of description and classification of fetal observations: achievements and problems still unresolved: report of the 7th Workshop on the Terminology in Developmental Toxicology Berlin, 4-6 May 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Roland; Barbellion, Stephane; Bergmann, Brigitte; Bürgin, Heinrich; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Comotto, Laura; Fuchs, Antje; Faqi, Ali Said; Gerspach, Ralph; Grote, Konstanze; Hakansson, Helen; Heinrich, Verena; Heinrich-Hirsch, Barbara; Hofmann, Thomas; Hübel, Ulrich; Inazaki, Thelma Helena; Khalil, Samia; Knudsen, Thomas B; Kudicke, Sabine; Lingk, Wolfgang; Makris, Susan; Müller, Simone; Paumgartten, Francisco; Pfeil, Rudolf; Rama, Elkiane Macedo; Schneider, Steffen; Shiota, Kohei; Tamborini, Eva; Tegelenbosch, Mariska; Ulbrich, Beate; van Duijnhoven, E A J; Wise, David; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the 7th Workshop on the Terminology in Developmental Toxicology held in Berlin, May 4-6, 2011. The series of Berlin Workshops has been mainly concerned with the harmonization of terminology and classification of fetal anomalies in developmental toxicity studies. The main topics of the 7th Workshop were knowledge on the fate of anomalies after birth, use of Version 2 terminology for maternal-fetal observations and non-routinely used species, reclassification of "grey zone" anomalies and categorization of fetal observations for human health risk assessment. The paucity of data on health consequences of the postnatal permanence of fetal anomalies is relevant and further studies are needed. The Version 2 terminology is an important step forward and the terms listed in this glossary are considered also to be appropriate for most observations in non-routinely used species. Continuation of the Berlin Workshops was recommended. Topics suggested for the next Workshop were grouping of fetal observations for reporting and statistical analysis. PMID:22781580

  18. Terminology inaccuracies in the interpretation of imaging results in detection of cervical lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mulla, Mubashir; Schulte, Klaus-Martin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) are the most common site of metastases in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Ultrasound scan (US) is the most commonly used imaging modality in the evaluation of CLNs in PTC. Computerised tomography (CT) and 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET–CT) are used less commonly. It is widely believed that the above imaging techniques should guide the surgical approach to the patient with PTC. Methods We performed a systematic review of imaging studies...

  19. Plasma medicine: an introductory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This introductory review on plasma health care is intended to provide the interested reader with a summary of the current status of this emerging field, its scope, and its broad interdisciplinary approach, ranging from plasma physics, chemistry and technology, to microbiology, biochemistry, biophysics, medicine and hygiene. Apart from the basic plasma processes and the restrictions and requirements set by international health standards, the review focuses on plasma interaction with prokaryotic cells (bacteria), eukaryotic cells (mammalian cells), cell membranes, DNA etc. In so doing, some of the unfamiliar terminology-an unavoidable by-product of interdisciplinary research-is covered and explained. Plasma health care may provide a fast and efficient new path for effective hospital (and other public buildings) hygiene-helping to prevent and contain diseases that are continuously gaining ground as resistance of pathogens to antibiotics grows. The delivery of medically active 'substances' at the molecular or ionic level is another exciting topic of research through effects on cell walls (permeabilization), cell excitation (paracrine action) and the introduction of reactive species into cell cytoplasm. Electric fields, charging of surfaces, current flows etc can also affect tissue in a controlled way. The field is young and hopes are high. It is fitting to cover the beginnings in New Journal of Physics, since it is the physics (and non-equilibrium chemistry) of room temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas that have made this development of plasma health care possible.

  20. Review of approaches to the recording of background lesions in toxicologic pathology studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, E F; Scudamore, C L

    2014-08-17

    Pathological evaluation of lesions caused directly by xenobiotic treatment must always take into account the recognition of background (incidental) findings. Background lesions can be congenital or hereditary, histological variations, changes related to trauma or normal aging and physiologic or hormonal changes. This review focuses on the importance and correct approach to recording of background changes and includes discussion on sources of variability in background changes, the correct use of terminology, the concept of thresholds, historical control data, diagnostic drift, blind reading of slides, scoring and artifacts. The review is illustrated with background lesions in Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats.

  1. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD.

  2. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD. PMID:26059704

  3. Tabacosis, un cambio de terminología para un aumento de conciencia Tabacosis, a change in therminology for an increase in consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Rodríguez-Madrigal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ante la ausencia de definición categórica de la Real Academia Española, tenemos que la Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC es prevenible y tratable, con afectación sistémica extrapulmonar, donde el componente pulmonar se caracteriza por limitación al flujo del aire que no es completamente reversible y es progresiva.¹ Esta es probablemente una de las definiciones médicas con mayor cantidad de posiciones e intereses encontrados y es que, indudable y lastimosamente, las siglas EPOC, fuera del gremio médico, no tienen mayor significancia, pues diariamente se encuentra gran cantidad de pacientes portadores de esta patología, que no tienen noción real de su padecimiento, el cual con mucho costo es aclarado por el médico tratante, debido a lo engorroso de su significado, variedad de síntomas y múltiples patologías causales. Estas vicisitudes, en cuanto a la patología causal de EPOC, son las que la han convertido en el “cajón” donde se colocan diversas neumopatías que no tienen un origen específico, sin importar si presentan o no obstrucción al flujo aéreo; además, estos inconvenientes sobre terminología, hacen dificultosa la realización de búsquedas bibliográficas, por la poca acogida que ha tenido el término.²In the absence of categorical definition of the Real Spanish Academy, we have to Lung Disease Obstructive Disease (COPD is a preventable and treatable, with extra-pulmonary systemic disease, where pulmonary component is characterized by flow limitation Air that is not fully reversible and is progressive.¹ This is probably one of the medical definitions with greater number of positions and interests and is found which is undoubtedly and unfortunately, COPD stands outside the medical community have no greater significance because find large numbers of patients daily carriers of this disease that have no real notion of suffering, doubt that many costs are clarified by the physician because of the

  4. 基于本体的中风病康复古今术语库构建方法研究%Method of Constructing Ancient and Modern Terminology Database of Stroke Rehabilitation Based on Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓华; 林丹红; 陶静

    2012-01-01

    目的 尝试解决中医药领域存在的古今概念差异、词义模糊、同义词、一词多义的问题,为利用古籍知识提供便利,进一步为中风病康复学科发展提供术语支撑.方法 以中风病康复为切入点,收集中风病康复古今的概念、术语、词串等,确定领域的关键概念,解析概念并分析领域中存在的语义关系,将分散的中风病康复知识有序组织起来,采用本体技术探索中风病康复术语库的构建方法.结果 通过收集中风病康复古今的概念、术语、词串等,应用本体构建工具尝试性建立小型古今术语库并可以对术语库进行查询与图形化显示.结论 本体作为形式化的知识表示体系,是构建领域知识的有效方法,有利于中风病康复领域古今概念的沟通,对中医药领域隐性知识的挖掘、发现与利用具有重要的意义.%Objective To resolve the problem of this field including differences between ancient and modern concept, fuzzy meaning, synonyms, polysemy, then can use the knowledge in ancient book better and provide terminology support for development of stroke rehabilitation. Methods Explore on the method of constructing ancient and modern terminology database of stroke rehabilitation based on ontology, through collecting concepts, terminologys, strings in domin of stroke rehabilitation, defining the core concepts and analyzing the relationshop between concepts, then using software of ontology to construct the terminology database of stroke rehabilitation. Results Through collecting concepts, terminologys, strings in domin of stroke rehabilitation, we try to constructe a small ancient and modern terminology database of stroke rehabilitation with the technology of ontology, then query and graphical display this database. Conclusion Ontology is an effective way to construct field knowledge and communicate the ancient and modern concept of rehabilitation of stroke.

  5. A Review on Mixing in Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmo Kang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale mixing is of uttermost importance in bio- and chemical analyses using micro TAS (total analysis systems or lab-on-chips. Many microfluidic applications involve chemical reactions where, most often, the fluid diffusivity is very low so that without the help of chaotic advection the reaction time can be extremely long. In this article, we will review various kinds of mixers developed for use in microfluidic devices. Our review starts by defining the terminology necessary to understand the fundamental concept of mixing and by introducing quantities for evaluating the mixing performance, such as mixing index and residence time. In particular, we will review the concept of chaotic advection and the mathematical terms, Poincare section and Lyapunov exponent. Since these concepts are developed from nonlinear dynamical systems, they should play important roles in devising microfluidic devices with enhanced mixing performance. Following, we review the various designs of mixers that are employed in applications. We will classify the designs in terms of the driving forces, including mechanical, electrical and magnetic forces, used to control fluid flow upon mixing. The advantages and disadvantages of each design will also be addressed. Finally, we will briefly touch on the expected future development regarding mixer design and related issues for the further enhancement of mixing performance.

  6. The caCORE Software Development Kit: Streamlining construction of interoperable biomedical information services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warzel Denise

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robust, programmatically accessible biomedical information services that syntactically and semantically interoperate with other resources are challenging to construct. Such systems require the adoption of common information models, data representations and terminology standards as well as documented application programming interfaces (APIs. The National Cancer Institute (NCI developed the cancer common ontologic representation environment (caCORE to provide the infrastructure necessary to achieve interoperability across the systems it develops or sponsors. The caCORE Software Development Kit (SDK was designed to provide developers both within and outside the NCI with the tools needed to construct such interoperable software systems. Results The caCORE SDK requires a Unified Modeling Language (UML tool to begin the development workflow with the construction of a domain information model in the form of a UML Class Diagram. Models are annotated with concepts and definitions from a description logic terminology source using the Semantic Connector component. The annotated model is registered in the Cancer Data Standards Repository (caDSR using the UML Loader component. System software is automatically generated using the Codegen component, which produces middleware that runs on an application server. The caCORE SDK was initially tested and validated using a seven-class UML model, and has been used to generate the caCORE production system, which includes models with dozens of classes. The deployed system supports access through object-oriented APIs with consistent syntax for retrieval of any type of data object across all classes in the original UML model. The caCORE SDK is currently being used by several development teams, including by participants in the cancer biomedical informatics grid (caBIG program, to create compatible data services. caBIG compatibility standards are based upon caCORE resources, and thus the caCORE SDK has

  7. Towards a Clinical Decision Support System for Drug Allergy Management: Are Existing Drug Reference Terminologies Sufficient for Identifying Substitutes and Cross-Reactants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogallo, William; Kanter, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    Drug allergy cross-reactivity checking is an important component of electronic health record systems. Currently, a single, open-source medication dictionary that can provide this function does not exist. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using RxNorm and NDF-RT (National Drug File--Reference Terminology) for allergy management decision support. We evaluated the performance of using the Pharmacological Class, Mechanism of Action and Chemical Structure NDF-RT classifications in discriminating between safe and cross-reactive alternatives to a sample of common drug allergens. The positive predictive values for the three approaches were 96.3%, 99.3% and 96.2% respectively. The negative predictive values were 94.7%, 56.8% and 92.6%. Our findings suggest that in the absence of an established medication allergy classification system, using the Pharmacologic Class and Chemical Structure classifications in NDF-RT may still be effective for discriminating between safe and cross-reactive alternatives to potential allergens. PMID:26262387

  8. 建议加强几个衡器术语的理解%Recommendations to strengthen the understanding of some terminologies of weighing instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈立人

    2015-01-01

    国家标准GB/T 14250-2008《衡器术语》自2008年12月30日发布,2009年9月1日实施以来,由于没有组织有效的宣贯,在一些杂志的论文上、企业的上报材料上、签订的产品销售合同上、甚至专业标准上不能准确使用与衡器有关的名词。%Articleabstract:The national standard GB/T 14250-2008 terminology of weighing instrument is released in the December 30, 2008, and implementation in September 1, 2009. Because there is no effective organization of publicizing, it cannot be accurately use nouns about weighing in the contract signed sales product materials submitted some magazine paper, and even on the professional standards.

  9. A round-robin test with thermal simulation of the welding HAZ to draw CCT diagrams: a need for harmonized procedures and microconstituent terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Scotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal simulations of heat affected zone (HAZ have been widely used. This is an economic expedite process for phase transformation evaluations in steels when subjected to weld thermal cycles as well as to draw continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams. Different approaches for the simulation and parameter settings have been used by several researchers, yet leading to not always even results. Thus, it was proposed a round-robin test trial performed by different laboratories, aiming to evidence potential sources of error or inadequacy of the approaches. A High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA steel was used as a case study. Despite the limited number of tests, the results show low robustness when comparing the outcomes from the different laboratories and point out for the need to take three actions. The first one is to implement a cooperative and multi-institutional program to assess the effect of relevant simulation parameters, such as the heating rate and holding time at peak temperature, on the final microstructure and transformation temperatures as well as on the hardness for a given cooling rate. The second is to propose calibration procedures for the simulation and measurement systems. The third action is to stimulate experts in this area to develop a guideline of terminology for constituents in the heat affected zone of ferritic steels.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative descriptions of temperature: a study of the terminology used by local television weather forecasters to describe thermal sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, Jeffrey C.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the relationship between quantitative and qualitative descriptions of temperature. Online weather forecast narratives produced by local television forecasters were collected from affiliates in 23 cities throughout the northeastern, central and southern portions of the United States from August 2007 to July 2008. The narratives were collected to study the terminology and reference frames that local forecasters use to describe predicted temperatures for the following day. The main objectives were to explore the adjectives used to describe thermal conditions and the impact that geographical and seasonal variations in thermal conditions have on these descriptions. The results of this empirical study offer some insights into the structure of weather narratives and suggest that spatiotemporal variations in the weather impact how forecasters describe the temperature to their local audiences. In a broader sense, this investigation builds upon research in biometeorology, urban planning and linguistics that has explored the physiological and psychological factors that influence subjective assessments of thermal sensation and comfort. The results of this study provide a basis to reason about how thermal comfort is conveyed in meteorological communications and how experiential knowledge derived from daily observations of the weather influence how we think about and discuss the weather.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative descriptions of temperature: a study of the terminology used by local television weather forecasters to describe thermal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, Jeffrey C

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the relationship between quantitative and qualitative descriptions of temperature. Online weather forecast narratives produced by local television forecasters were collected from affiliates in 23 cities throughout the northeastern, central and southern portions of the United States from August 2007 to July 2008. The narratives were collected to study the terminology and reference frames that local forecasters use to describe predicted temperatures for the following day. The main objectives were to explore the adjectives used to describe thermal conditions and the impact that geographical and seasonal variations in thermal conditions have on these descriptions. The results of this empirical study offer some insights into the structure of weather narratives and suggest that spatiotemporal variations in the weather impact how forecasters describe the temperature to their local audiences. In a broader sense, this investigation builds upon research in biometeorology, urban planning and linguistics that has explored the physiological and psychological factors that influence subjective assessments of thermal sensation and comfort. The results of this study provide a basis to reason about how thermal comfort is conveyed in meteorological communications and how experiential knowledge derived from daily observations of the weather influence how we think about and discuss the weather. PMID:19876657

  12. Comparative Difficulties with Non-Scientific General Vocabulary and Scientific/Medical Terminology in English as a Second Language (ESL Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Heming

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Medical education requires student comprehension of both technical (scientific/ medical and non-technical (general vocabulary. Our experience with “English as a second language” (ESL Arab students suggested they often have problems comprehending scientific statements because of weaknesses in their understanding of non-scientific vocabulary. This study aimed to determine whether ESL students have difficulties with general vocabulary that could hinder their understanding of scientific/medical texts. Methods: A surveycontaining English text was given to ESL students in the premedical years of an English-medium medical school in an Arabic country. The survey consisted of sample questions from the Medical College Admission Test (USA. Students were instructed to identify all unknown words in the text. Results: ESL students commenced premedical studies with substantial deficiencies in English vocabulary. Students from English-medium secondary schools had a selective deficiency in scientific/medical terminology which disappeared with time. Students from Arabicmedium secondary schools had equal difficulty with general and scientific/medical vocabulary. Deficiencies in both areas diminished with time but remained even after three years of English-medium higher education. Conclusion: Typically, when teaching technical subjects to ESL students, attention is focused on subject-unique vocabulary and associated modifiers. This study highlights that ESL students also face difficulties with the general vocabulary used to construct statements employing technical words. Such students would benefit from increases in general vocabulary knowledge.

  13. Critical assessment of the current state of scientific knowledge, terminology, and research needs concerning the role of organic aerosols in the atmosphere, climate, and global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuzzi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of impressive advances in recent years, our present understanding of organic aerosol (OA composition, physical and chemical properties, sources and transformation characteristics is still rather limited, and their environmental effects remain highly uncertain. Therefore, the three atmosphere-related projects of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP – IGAC (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, iLEAPS (Integrated Land Ecosystem Atmosphere Process Study and SOLAS (Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study – organised a workshop with the specific goal of discussing and prioritizing issues related to organic aerosol and their effects on atmospheric processes and climate, providing a basis for future collaborative activities at the international level. Four main topical areas were addressed: (a sources of OA; (b formation and transformation of OA; (c physical and chemical state of OA; (d atmospheric modelling of OA. Key questions and research priorities regarding these four areas have been synthesized in this paper, and outstanding issues for future research are presented for each topical area. In addition, an effort is made to formulate a basic set of consistent and universally applicable terms and definitions for coherent description of atmospheric OA across different scientific scales and disciplines. In fact, the terminologies used in the past and present scientific literature are not always consistent, and this may lead to misunderstandings and confusion in the communication between specialists from different disciplines and potentially inhibit or retard scientific progress.

  14. Implementation of the Nutrition Care Process and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology in a single-center hemodialysis unit: comparing paper vs electronic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Megan; Campbell, Katrina Louise; Ferguson, Maree

    2014-01-01

    There is little doubt surrounding the benefits of the Nutrition Care Process and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) to dietetics practice; however, evidence to support the most efficient method of incorporating these into practice is lacking. The main objective of our study was to compare the efficiency and effectiveness of an electronic and a manual paper-based system for capturing the Nutrition Care Process and IDNT in a single in-center hemodialysis unit. A cohort of 56 adult patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis were followed for 12 months. During the first 6 months, patients received the usual standard care, with documentation via a manual paper-based system. During the following 6-month period (Months 7 to 12), nutrition care was documented by an electronic system. Workload efficiency, number of IDNT codes used related to nutrition-related diagnoses, interventions, monitoring and evaluation using IDNT, nutritional status using the scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment Tool of Quality of Life were the main outcome measures. Compared with paper-based documentation of nutrition care, our study demonstrated that an electronic system improved the efficiency of total time spent by the dietitian by 13 minutes per consultation. There were also a greater number of nutrition-related diagnoses resolved using the electronic system compared with the paper-based documentation (Pbased system in a population receiving hemodialysis resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency of nutrition care and effectiveness related to patient outcomes. PMID:24161368

  15. Rhinitis and pregnancy: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Azevedo Caparroz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: There is a controversy concerning the terminology and definition of rhinitis in pregnancy. Gestational rhinitis is a relatively common condition, which has drawn increasing interest in recent years due to a possible association with maternal obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and unfavorable fetal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To review the current knowledge on gestacional rhinitis, and to assess its evidence. METHODS: Structured literature search. RESULTS: Gestational rhinitis and rhinitis "during pregnancy" are somewhat similar conditions regarding their physiopathology and treatment, but differ regarding definition and prognosis. Hormonal changes have a presumed etiological role, but knowledge about the physiopathology of gestational rhinitis is still lacking. Management of rhinitis during pregnancy focuses on the minimal intervention required for symptom relief. CONCLUSION: As it has a great impact on maternal quality of life, both the otorhinolaryngologist and the obstetrician must be careful concerning the early diagnosis and treatment of gestational rhinitis, considering the safety of treatment measures and drugs and their current level of evidence.

  16. Contribución al estudio de la terminología de la gestión del patrimonio cultural y del turismo cultural a través de los datos del proyecto ESLEE

    OpenAIRE

    Abejón Peña, Teresa; Maldonado Martínez, Ángeles; Florián, Loreto

    2006-01-01

    [ES] Este trabajo analiza la terminología especializada en Gestión del Patrimonio Cultural extraída del corpus diseñado y creado para el proyecto ESLEE (Estudio de los Lenguajes Especializados del Español (I). Elaboración y Desarrollo de Vocabularios Científicos y Técnicos) (www.eslee.org). El estudio se realizó a partir de 221 documentos digitalizados.

  17. La extracción de conocimiento y terminología a partir de corpus ad hoc : el uso de documentos digitales de la web pública

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Gijón, Pilar

    2004-01-01

    Electronic communication accelerates the exchange of knowledge and information in areas of specialized knowledge. This state of affairs forces anyone involved in such communication (e.g. technical writers, technical translators) to remain up to date with new developments. Not only do professionals belonging to this group of people have to master the standard terminology of each specialized domain, they must also assimilate and understand the subject matter within which they are working. This ...

  18. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  19. Historical Research in the Atmospheric Sciences: The Value of Literature Reviews, Libraries, and Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David M.

    2004-07-01

    Based on a talk given at the sixth annual meeting of the Atmospheric Science Librarians International, this paper explores the author's experiences performing reviews of the scientific literature as a tool to advancing meteorology and studying the history of science. Three phases of performing literature searches with varying degrees of interaction with a research librarian are considered: do it yourself, librarian assisted, and librarian as collaborator. Examples are given for each phase: occluded fronts, conditional symmetric instability, and static instability terminology, respectively. Electronic availability of information is changing the relationship between scientists and librarians. Yet, despite these changes, books on library shelves and knowledgeable human librarians remain essential to the scientific enterprise.

  20. Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp., the largest terrestrial predator from Europe, and a proposed terminology of the maxilla anatomy in nonavian theropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Hendrickx

    Full Text Available The Lourinhã Formation (Kimmeridgian-Tithonian of Central West Portugal is well known for its diversified dinosaur fauna similar to that of the Morrison Formation of North America; both areas share dinosaur taxa including the top predator Torvosaurus, reported in Portugal. The material assigned to the Portuguese T. tanneri, consisting of a right maxilla and an incomplete caudal centrum, was briefly described in the literature and a thorough description of these bones is here given for the first time. A comparison with material referred to Torvosaurus tanneri allows us to highlight some important differences justifying the creation of a distinct Eastern species. Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp. displays two autapomorphies among Megalosauroidea, a maxilla possessing fewer than eleven teeth and an interdental wall nearly coincidental with the lateral wall of the maxillary body. In addition, it differs from T. tanneri by a reduced number of maxillary teeth, the absence of interdental plates terminating ventrally by broad V-shaped points and falling short relative to the lateral maxillary wall, and the absence of a protuberant ridge on the anterior part of the medial shelf, posterior to the anteromedial process. T. gurneyi is the largest theropod from the Lourinhã Formation of Portugal and the largest land predator discovered in Europe hitherto. This taxon supports the mechanism of vicariance that occurred in the Iberian Meseta during the Late Jurassic when the proto-Atlantic was already well formed. A fragment of maxilla from the Lourinhã Formation referred to Torvosaurus sp. is ascribed to this new species, and several other bones, including a femur, a tibia and embryonic material all from the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian of Portugal, are tentatively assigned to T. gurneyi. A standard terminology and notation of the theropod maxilla is also proposed and a record of the Torvosaurus material from Portugal is given.

  1. Implementation of the Nutrition Care Process and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology in a single-center hemodialysis unit: comparing paper vs electronic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Megan; Campbell, Katrina Louise; Ferguson, Maree

    2014-01-01

    There is little doubt surrounding the benefits of the Nutrition Care Process and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) to dietetics practice; however, evidence to support the most efficient method of incorporating these into practice is lacking. The main objective of our study was to compare the efficiency and effectiveness of an electronic and a manual paper-based system for capturing the Nutrition Care Process and IDNT in a single in-center hemodialysis unit. A cohort of 56 adult patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis were followed for 12 months. During the first 6 months, patients received the usual standard care, with documentation via a manual paper-based system. During the following 6-month period (Months 7 to 12), nutrition care was documented by an electronic system. Workload efficiency, number of IDNT codes used related to nutrition-related diagnoses, interventions, monitoring and evaluation using IDNT, nutritional status using the scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment Tool of Quality of Life were the main outcome measures. Compared with paper-based documentation of nutrition care, our study demonstrated that an electronic system improved the efficiency of total time spent by the dietitian by 13 minutes per consultation. There were also a greater number of nutrition-related diagnoses resolved using the electronic system compared with the paper-based documentation (P<0.001). In conclusion, the implementation of an electronic system compared with a paper-based system in a population receiving hemodialysis resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency of nutrition care and effectiveness related to patient outcomes.

  2. Re-Viewing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits her essay, "Students as Readers of Their Classmates' Writing," by providing a review of the literature on peer review over the past three decades and comments on patterns she sees in waves of peer review research and theorizing. She describes her subsequent experience with peer review in her own classes, and…

  3. Standard Terminologies for Photoplethysmogram Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Elgendi, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Photoplethysmography is one of the optical techniques has been developed for experimental use in vascular disease. It has several advantages over other traditional experimental approaches. Because of its non-invasive, safe, costeffective and easy-to-use properties, it is considered as a useful diagnostic tool. The further developments in the Photoplethysmograph may replace it among other tools used in the assessment of vascular diseases such as blood test and ultrasound. This overview discuss...

  4. Terminology gap in hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Water is central to life on Earth. People have been trying to understand how water moves in the hydrosphere throughout the human history. In the 9th century BC, the famous Greek poet Homer described the hydrological cycle in Iliad as "okeanos whose stream bends back in a circle" with a belief that rivers are ocean-fed from subterranean seas. Later, Aristotle (4th century BC) claimed that most of the water came from underground caverns in which air was transformed into water. It was only until 1674, French scientist Perrault developed the correct concept of the water cycle. In modern times, scientists are interested in understanding the individual processes of the hydrological cycle with a keen focus on runoff which supplies water to rivers, lakes, and oceans. Currently, the prevailing concepts on runoff processes include 'infiltration excess runoff' and 'saturation excess runoff'. However, there is no term to describe another major runoff due to the excess beyond the soil water holding capacity (i.e., the field capacity). We argue that a new term should be introduced to fill this gap, and it could be called 'holding excess runoff' which is compatible with the convention. This new term is significant in correcting a half-century misnomer where 'holding excess runoff' has been incorrectly named as 'saturation excess runoff', which was introduced by the Xinanjiang model in China in 1960s. Similar concept has been adopted in many well-known hydrological models such as PDM and HBV in which the saturation refers to the field capacity. The term 'holding excess runoff' resolves such a common confusion in the hydrological community.

  5. Terminological recommendations for software localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Dirk Schmitz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available After an explosive growth of data processing and software starting at the beginning of the 1980s, the software industry shifted toward a strong orientation in non-US markets at the beginning of the 1990s. Today we see the global marketing of software in almost all regions of the world. Since software is no longer used by IT experts only, and since European and national regulations require user interfaces, manuals and documentation to be provided in the language of the customer, the market for software translation, i.e. for software localization, is the fastest growing market in the translation business.

  6. Book Review: Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    The subject of the theory of vibrations has carried an aesthetic appeal to generations of engineering students for its richness of ideas, and for the intellectual challenges it offers. Also, the diverse range of its applications (covering civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures) has provided obvious motivations for its study. For most students, the subject provides, perhaps, the first encounter in substantial application of mathematical tools (differential equations, calculus of variations, Fourier/Laplace transforms, and matrix algebra) to engineering problems. The intimate relationship that the subject of mechanics has with mathematics strikes home probably for the first time. While teaching this subject, the instructor is spoilt for choice in selecting a text book and so are the students who wish to pursue a self-study of the subject. Many luminaries in the field have offered their own exposition of the subject: starting from the classics of Rayleigh, Timoshenko, Den Hartog, Bishop and Johnson, and the works of more recent vintage (e.g., the books by Meirovich, Clough, and Penzien, and works with computational flavour, such as, those by Bathe and Petyt), several works easily come to one's mind. Given this milieu, it requires a distinctive conviction to write a new book on this subject. And, here we have a book, written by a practitioner, which aims to deal with fundamental aspects of vibrations of engineering systems. The scepticism that this reviewer had on the need for having one more such book vanished as he browsed through the book and read selectively a few sections. The author's gift for elegant explanations is immediately noticeable even in such a preliminary reading. After a more careful reading, the reviewer has found this book to be insightful and he considers the book to be a welcome addition to the family of books on vibration engineering. The author has struck a fine balance between physical explanations, mathematical niceties

  7. Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions: Part 1 – general equations, parameters, and terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Rudich

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols and clouds play central roles in atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, air pollution, and public health. The mechanistic understanding and predictability of aerosol and cloud properties, interactions, transformations, and effects are, however, still very limited. This is due not only to the limited availability of measurement data, but also to the limited applicability and compatibility of model formalisms used for the analysis, interpretation, and description of heterogeneous and multiphase processes. To support the investigation and elucidation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions, we present a comprehensive kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters. It allows to describe mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface and to link aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes in systems with multiple chemical components and competing physicochemical processes. The key elements and essential aspects of the presented framework are: a simple and descriptive double-layer surface model (sorption layer and quasi-static layer; straightforward flux-based mass balance and rate equations; clear separation of mass transport and chemical reactions; well-defined rate parameters (uptake and accommodation coefficients, reaction and transport rate coefficients; clear distinction between gas phase, gas-surface, and surface-bulk transport (gas phase diffusion correction, surface and bulk accommodation; clear distinction between gas-surface, surface layer, and surface-bulk reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms; mechanistic description of concentration and time dependencies; flexible inclusion/omission of chemical species and physicochemical processes; flexible convolution/deconvolution of species and processes; and full compatibility with traditional

  8. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews software packages by providing extensive descriptions and discussions of their strengths and weaknesses. Software reviewed include (1) "VISIFROG: Vertebrate Anatomy" (grade seven-adult); (2) "Fraction Bars Computer Program" (grades three to six) and (3) four telecommunications utilities. (JN)

  9. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Mattijs Vandezande

    2010-01-01

    BOOK REVIEW Migrants and Urban Change: Newcomers to Antwerp, 1760-1860, Perspectives in Economic and Social History by Anne Winter REVIEWED BY MATTIJS VANDEZANDE London, Pickering & Chatto, 2009, ISBN 978-18-5196-646-2, 318 pp.

  10. Curriculum Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Joseph P.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews "Earthquakes and Volcanoes" (grades 3-6), "Metric Football" (a game), and "Happy Metrics I and II" (grades 4-6). Includes format, nature of activities, source, price, and reviewer's comments. (JN)

  11. Book reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Redactie KITLV

    2012-01-01

    The African Diaspora: A History Through Culture, by Patrick Manning (reviewed by Joseph C. Miller) Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, by David Eltis & David Richardson (reviewed by Ted Maris-Wolf) Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery, by Seymour Drescher (reviewed by Gregory E. O’Malley) Paths to Freedom: Manumission in the Atlantic World, edited by Rosemary Brana-Shute & Randy J. Sparks (reviewed by Matthew Mason) You Ar...

  12. Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Ferguson; Griffin, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review seems to have had its origins in 18th century England to combat plagiarism. But today, the objectives of peer review are to provide evaluations of the quality of scientific or editorial material submitted. Peer review provides a check on the validity of manuscripts and sets standards for scientific merit. Peer review should help editors in making decisions about the manuscripts by offering second and third opinions. It lifts the quality of published articles to a higher standard. ...

  13. The diagnosis and management of Morton's neuroma: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sameer; Mannan, Ken

    2013-08-01

    Morton's neuroma is a common condition mainly affecting middle aged women, and there are many proposed etiological theories involving chronic repetitive trauma, ischemia, entrapment, and intermetatarsal bursitis. Incorrect terminology suggests that the underlying pathological process is a nerve tumor, although histological examination reveals the presence of inflammatory tissue-that is, perineural fibrosis. The common digital nerve and its branches in the third planter webspace are most commonly affected. Diagnosis is usually made through history taking and clinical examination but may be aided by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Current nonoperative treatment strategies include shoe-wear modifications, custom made orthoses, and injections of local anesthetic agents, sclerosing agents, and steroids. Operative management options primarily involve either nerve decompression or neurectomy. We have reviewed the published literature to evaluate the outcomes of the available diagnostic modalities and treatment options and present an algorithm for clinical practice. PMID:23811947

  14. Challenges in developing a methodology for reviewing Nordic research on media and technology in MTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elf, Nikolaj Frydensbjerg; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a methodological framework for a research project, which aims at reviewing Nordic research of mother tongue education with a particular focus on media and technology (M&T). Relevant national context During the last decade, several research projects have had an explicit focus......, Sweden and Norway, hence applying a ‘transnational’, regional perspective. Research question Using Danish research on M&T in MTE as a case study, how should a valid methodology for the review of research on M&T in MTE be designed and applied? Method Inspired by the Campbell method, the research...... methodology comprises the following steps: 1) establishing valid criteria for research on M&T in MTE; 2) searching systematically for this kind of research; 3) evaluating the found studies considering the criteria for inclusion; 4) analyzing/reviewing the studies. Results The question of terminology is highly...

  15. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Create Dangerously: The Immigrant Artist at Work, by Edwidge Danticat (reviewed by Colin Dayan Gordon K. Lewis on Race, Class and Ideology in the Caribbean, edited by Anthony P. Maingot (reviewed by Bridget Brereton Freedom and Constraint in Caribbean Migration and Diaspora, edited by Elizabeth Thomas-Hope (reviewed by Mary Chamberlain Black Europe and the African Diaspora, edited by Darlene Clark Hine, Trica Danielle Keaton & Stephen Small (reviewed by Gert Oostindie Caribbean Middlebrow: Leisure Culture and the Middle Class, by Belinda E dmondson (reviewed by Karla Slocum Global Change and Caribbean Vulnerability: Environment, Economy and Society at Risk, edited by Duncan McGregor, David Dodman & David Barker (reviewed by Bonham C. Richardson Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic, by Ashli White (reviewed by Matt Clavin Red and Black in Haiti: Radicalism, Conflict, and Political Change, 1934-1957, by Matthew J. Smith (reviewed by Robert Fatton Jr. Cuba in the American Imagination: Metaphor and the Imperial Ethos, by Louis A. Pérez Jr. (reviewed by Camillia Cowling Seeds of Insurrection: Domination and Resistance on Western Cuban Plantations, 1808-1848, by Manuel Barcia (reviewed by Matt D. Childs Epidemic Invasions: Yellow Fever and the Limits of Cuban Independence, 1878-1930, by Mariola Espinosa (reviewed by Cruz Maria Nazario The Cuban Connection: Drug Trafficking, Smuggling, and Gambling in Cuba from the 1920s to the Revolution, by Eduardo Sáenz Rovner (reviewed by Ivelaw Lloyd Griffith Before Fidel: The Cuba I Remember, by Francisco José Moreno, and The Boys from Dolores: Fidel Castro’s Schoolmates from Revolution to Exile, by Patrick Symmes (reviewed by Pedro Pérez Sarduy Lam, by Jacques Leenhardt & Jean-Louis Paudrat (reviewed by Sally Price Healing Dramas: Divination and Magic in Modern Puerto Rico, by Raquel Romberg (reviewed by Grant Jewell

  16. Zum Problem der terminologisch-konzeptuellen Äquivalenz zwischen zwei Sprach- und Kulturgemeinschaften: die sogenannten „differenzen“ zwischen den Sachen. On the problem of the terminological-conceptual equivalence between two language and culture communities: the so called "differences in the matter"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Harry Drößiger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses issues concerning terminological-conceptual equivalence between so called “systems of concepts” of two language and culture communities in the context of the work of a translator or the translatability of terminologies. Based on several studies (mostly concerning legal terminology carried out in the last few years in MA papers of students of the study program Interpreting/Translation of Vilnius University some of the general questions of terminology work can be pointed out that are connected to the problem of the so called terminological “gap” and need to be reassessed. On the basis of the studies concerning the language combination German-Lithuanian not only “pure” linguistic differences between those two languages but also “differences in the matter” (i.e. differences between the language and culture communities always were identifiable. The examples presented in this article should demonstrate how those gaps in “systems of concepts” can be dealt with so that it can be useful in the work of an interpreter or a translator who stands between those two languages and cultures.

  17. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Alireza G; Olsen, Michael J; Parrish, Christopher E; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record "intensity", loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of "normalization", "correction", or "calibration" techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration. PMID:26561813

  18. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza G. Kashani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR systems also record “intensity”, loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of “normalization”, “correction”, or “calibration” techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration.

  19. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and the Po st-Creole Imagination: Notes on Fleeing the Plantation,by Michaeline A. Crichlow with Patricia Northover (reviewed by Raquel Romberg Afro-Caribbean Religions: An Introduction to their Historical, Cultural, and Sacred Traditions, by Nathaniel Samuel Murrell (reviewed by James Houk Africas of the Americas: Beyond the Search for Origins in the Study of Afro-Atlantic Religions, edited by Stephan Palmié (reviewed by Aisha Khan Òrì?à Devotion as World Religion: The Globalization of Yorùbá Religious Culture, edited by Jacob K. Olupona & Terry Rey (reviewed by Brian Brazeal Sacred Spaces and Religious Traditions in Oriente Cuba, by Jualynne E. Dodson (reviewed by Kristina Wirtz The Coolie Speaks: Chinese Indentured Laborers and African Slaves of Cuba, by Lisa Yun (reviewed by W. Look Lai Cuba and Western Intellectuals since 1959, by Kepa Artaraz (reviewed by Anthony P. Maingot Inside El Barrio: A Bottom-Up View of Neighborhood Life in Castro’s Cuba, by Henry Louis Taylor, Jr. (reviewed by Mona Rosendahl On Location in Cuba: Street Filmmaking During Times of Transition, by Ann Marie Stock (reviewed by Cristina Venegas Cuba in The Special Period: Culture and Ideology in the 1990s, edited by Ariana Hernandez-Reguant (reviewed by Myrna García-Calderón The Cubans of Union City: Immigrants and Exiles in a New Jersey Community. Yolanda Prieto (reviewed by Jorge Duany Target Culebra: How 743 Islanders Took On the Entire U.S. Navy and Won, by Richard D. Copaken (reviewed by Jorge Rodríguez Beruff The World of the Haitian Revolution, edited by David Patrick Geggus & Norman Fiering (reviewed by Yvonne Fabella Bon Papa: Haiti’s Golden Years, by Bernard Diederich (reviewed by Robert Fatton, Jr. 1959: The Year that Inflamed the Caribbean, by Bernard Diederich (reviewed by Landon Yarrington Dominican Cultures: The Making of a Caribbean Society, edited by Bernardo Vega

  20. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic World, 1450-2000, edited by Toyin Falola & Kevin D. Roberts (reviewed by Aaron Spencer Fogleman The Slave Ship: A Human History, by Marcus Rediker (reviewed by Justin Roberts Extending the Frontiers: Essays on the New Transatlantic Slave Trade Database, edited by David Eltis & David Richardson (reviewed by Joseph C. Miller "New Negroes from Africa": Slave Trade Abolition and Free African Settlement in the Nineteenth-Century Caribbean, by Rosanne Marion Adderley (reviewed by Nicolette Bethel Atlantic Diasporas: Jews, Conversos, and Crypto-Jews in the Age of Mercantilism, 1500-1800, edited by Richard L. Kagan & Philip D. Morgan (reviewed by Jonathan Schorsch Brother’s Keeper: The United States, Race, and Empire in the British Caribbean, 1937-1962, by Jason C. Parker (reviewed by Charlie Whitham Labour and the Multiracial Project in the Caribbean: Its History and Promise, by Sara Abraham (reviewed by Douglas Midgett Envisioning Caribbean Futures: Jamaican Perspectives, by Brian Meeks (reviewed by Gina Athena Ulysse Archibald Monteath: Igbo, Jamaican, Moravian, by Maureen Warner-Lewis (reviewed by Jon Sensbach Left of Karl Marx: The Political Life of Black Communist Claudia Jones, by Carole Boyce Davies (reviewed by Linden Lewis Displacements and Transformations in Caribbean Cultures, edited by Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert & Ivette Romero-Cesareo (reviewed by Bill Maurer Caribbean Migration to Western Europe and the United States: Essays on Incorporation, Identity, and Citizenship, edited by Margarita Cervantes-Rodríguez, Ramón Grosfoguel & Eric Mielants (reviewed by Gert Oostindie Home Cooking in the Global Village: Caribbean Food from Buccaneers to Ecotourists, by Richard Wilk (reviewed by William H. Fisher Dead Man in Paradise: Unraveling a Murder from a Time of Revolution, by J.B. MacKinnon (reviewed by Edward Paulino Tropical Zion: General Trujillo, FDR, and the Jews of Sos

  1. Yelp Reviews Of Hospital Care Can Supplement And Inform Traditional Surveys Of The Patient Experience Of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranard, Benjamin L; Werner, Rachel M; Antanavicius, Tadas; Schwartz, H Andrew; Smith, Robert J; Meisel, Zachary F; Asch, David A; Ungar, Lyle H; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about how real-time online rating platforms such as Yelp may complement the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey, which is the US standard for evaluating patients' experiences after hospitalization. We compared the content of Yelp narrative reviews of hospitals to the topics in the HCAHPS survey, called domains in HCAHPS terminology. While the domains included in Yelp reviews covered the majority of HCAHPS domains, Yelp reviews covered an additional twelve domains not found in HCAHPS. The majority of Yelp topics that most strongly correlate with positive or negative reviews are not measured or reported by HCAHPS. The large collection of patient- and caregiver-centered experiences found on Yelp can be analyzed with natural language processing methods, identifying for policy makers the measures of hospital quality that matter most to patients and caregivers. The Yelp measures and analysis can also provide actionable feedback for hospitals.

  2. In search of a consensus terminology in the field of platelet concentrates for surgical use: platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), fibrin gel polymerization and leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Bielecki, Tomasz; Mishra, Allan; Borzini, Piero; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Rasmusson, Lars; Evert, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    In the field of platelet concentrates for surgical use, most products are termed Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP). Unfortunately, this term is very general and incomplete, leading to many confusions in the scientific database. In this article, a panel of experts discusses this issue and proposes an accurate and simple terminology system for platelet concentrates for surgical use. Four main categories of products can be easily defined, depending on their leukocyte content and fibrin architecture: Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP), such as cell separator PRP, Vivostat PRF or Anitua's PRGF; Leukocyteand Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-PRP), such as Curasan, Regen, Plateltex, SmartPReP, PCCS, Magellan, Angel or GPS PRP; Pure Plaletet-Rich Fibrin (P-PRF), such as Fibrinet; and Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF), such as Choukroun's PRF. P-PRP and L-PRP refer to the unactivated liquid form of these products, their activated versions being respectively named P-PRP gels and L-PRP gels. The purpose of this search for a terminology consensus is to plead for a more serious characterization of these products. Researchers have to be aware of the complex nature of these living biomaterials, in order to avoid misunderstandings and erroneous conclusions. Understanding the biomaterials or believing in the magic of growth factors ? From this choice depends the future of the field.

  3. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Goor

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available - Peter Boomgaard, Christine Dobbin, Asian entrepreneurial minorities; Conjoint communities in the making of the world economy, 1570-1940. Richmond: Curzon Press, 1996, xiii + 246 pp. [Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Monograph Series 71.] - Ian Brown, Fukuda Shozo, With sweat and abacus; Economic roles of Southeast Asian Chinese on the eve of World War II, edited by George Hicks. Singapore: Select Books, 1995, xii + 246 pp. - Ian Brown, George Hicks, Chinese organisations in Southeast Asia in the 1930s. Singapore: Select Books, 1996, xv + 168 pp. - Matthew I. Cohen, Laurie J. Sears, Shadows of empire; Colonial discourse and Javanese tales. Durham/London: Duke University Press, 1996, xxi + 349 pp. - J. van Goor, Anthony Reid, Southeast Asia in the age of commerce 1450-1680. Vol. II: Expansion and crisis. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1993, xv + 390 pp. - J. van Goor, Anthony Reid, Southeast Asia in the age of commerce 1450-1680. Vol. I: The lands below the winds. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1988, xvi + 275 pp. - David Henley, Saya S. Shiraishi, Young heroes; The Indnesian family in politics. Ithaca/New York: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, Southeast Asia Program Publications, 1997, 183 pp. [Studies on Southeast Asia 22.] - Gerrit Knaap, P. Jobse, Bronnen betreffende de Midden-Molukken 1900-1942. Den Haag: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis, 1997. 4 volumes. Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën, Kleine Serie, 81, 82, 83, 84. Volume 1 bewerkt door P. Jobse, 2 en 3 door Ch.F. van Fraassen, 4 door Ch.F van Fraassen en P. Jobse. xii + 578, xii + 578, xii + 711, x + 655, xi + 261 pp., Ch. F. van Fraassen (eds. - Indro Nugroho-Heins, Clara Brakel-Papenhuyzen, Classical Javanese dance; The Surakarta tradition and its terminology. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1995, xi + 252 pp. [Verhandelingen 155.] - László Sluimers, Shigeru Sato, War, nationalism and peasants; Java under the Japanese occupation, 1942-1945. Armonk, New

  4. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Book Review Editor, Christien Klaufus

    2015-01-01

    Rebel Mexico: Student Unrest and Authoritarian Political Culture During the Long Sixties, by Jaime M. Pensado, 2013, and Specters of Revolution: Peasant Guerrillas in the Cold War Mexican Countryside, by Alexander Aviña, 2014; reviewed by Wil G. PanstersWe are the face of Oaxaca: Testimony and Social Movements, by Lynn Stephen, 2013; reviewed by Jaime HoogestegerMaya Exodus: Indigenous struggle for citizenship in Chiapas, by Heidi Moksnes, 2012; reviewed by Gemma van der HaarLand and Freedom:...

  5. Application of Text Mining Methods in the Work of Terminology ——Terminology Standardization of Information & Knowledge Management%术语工作中文本挖掘方法的应用探索——信息管理与知识管理科技名词审定工作方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于娟; 党延忠

    2011-01-01

    研究了信息管理与知识管理科技名词术语的审定工作方法。该工作由全国科学技术名词审定委员会主管并委托国家自然科学基金委员会管理科学部完成。工作内容主要包括三个连续的阶段:(1)确定领域的收词范围,(2)确定术语定义,(3)确定术语的英文名称。介绍了在每一阶段所使用的工作方法、发现的问题与解决办法。目的是向从事术语审定工作的专家汇报工作,总结工作经验,并征求意见。%This paper presents the work undertaken for the project of terminology standardization of the information management and knowledge management domain.The project is sponsored by the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies(CNCTST).It consists of three stages:(a) collecting the domain-specific terms,(b) defining the terms,(c) determining the English name of each term.This paper describes the working methods applied in each phase,introduces problems emerging in the work and suggests the solutions.

  6. Comparative study on WHO Western Pacific Region and World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies international standard terminologies on traditional medicine: an analysis of the Mechanism of Diseases (Part 2)%WHO西太区与世界中医药学会联合会中医名词术语国际标准比较研究: 病机部分(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李照国; 潘淑兰

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the previous issue, we have, according to the book entitled International Standardization of English Translation of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Study of Theory, Summarization of Practice and Exploration of Methods[1], briefly introduced and analyzed, the first part of the terminologies concerning pathogenesis included in WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region[2] (abbreviated as WPRO Standard instead of WHO Standard according to the present development of international standardization of traditional medicine maintained by WHO) and the International Standard Chinese-English Basic Nomenclature of Chinese Medicine compiled by World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies[3] (abbreviated as WFCMS Standard). In this essay, we will try to introduce and analyze the second part of the terminologies concerning pathogenesis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

  7. Research Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1981-01-01

    Research Reviewed: "Global Modeling After Its First Decade"; "Monthly Food Price Forecasts"; "Costs of Marketing Slaughter Cattle: Computerized versus Conventional Auction Systems"; "Survival Strategies for Agricultural Cooperatives"

  8. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The African Diaspora: A History Through Culture, by Patrick Manning (reviewed by Joseph C. Miller Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, by David Eltis & David Richardson (reviewed by Ted Maris-Wolf Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery, by Seymour Drescher (reviewed by Gregory E. O’Malley Paths to Freedom: Manumission in the Atlantic World, edited by Rosemary Brana-Shute & Randy J. Sparks (reviewed by Matthew Mason You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery, by Jeremy D. Popkin (reviewed by Philippe R. Girard Fighting for Honor: The History of African Martial Arts in the Atlantic World, by T .J. Desch Obi (reviewed by Flávio Gomes & Antonio Liberac Cardoso Simões Pires Working the Diaspora: The Impact of African Labor on the Anglo-American World, 1650-1850, by Frederick C. Knight (reviewed by Walter Hawthorne The Akan Diaspora in the Americas, by Kwasi Konadu (reviewed by Ray Kea Tradition and the Black Atlantic: Critical Theory in the African Diaspora, by Henry Louis Gates Jr. (reviewed by Deborah A. Thomas From Africa to Jamaica: The Making of an Atlantic Slave Society, 1775-1807, by Audra A. Diptee (reviewed by D.A. Dunkley Elections, Violence and the Democratic Process in Jamaica 1944-2007, by Amanda Sives (reviewed by Douglas Midgett Caciques and Cemi Idols: The Web Spun by Taino Rulers between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, by José R. Oliver (reviewed by Brian D. Bates The Latin American Identity and the African Diaspora: Ethnogenesis in Context, by Antonio Olliz Boyd (reviewed by Dawn F. Stinchcomb Reconstructing Racial Identity and the African Past in the Dominican Republic, by Kimberly Eison Simmons (reviewed by Ginetta E.B. Candelario Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora in the Wider Caribbean, edited by Philippe Zacaïr (reviewed by Catherine Benoît Duvalier’s Ghosts: Race, Diaspora, and U.S. Imperialism in Haitian Literatures, by Jana

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus, Book Review Editor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available American Crossings: Border Politics in the Western Hemisphere, edited by Maiah Jaskoski, Arturo C. Sotomayor & Harold A. Trinkunas, 2015; reviewed by Olivier Thomas Kramsch The Remittance Landscape: Spaces of Migration in Rural Mexico and Urban USA, by Sarah Lynn Lopez, 2015; reviewed by Christien Klaufus Latin America’s Emerging Middle Classes; Economic Perspectives, editado por Jeff Dayton-Johnson, 2015; reseñado por Ludolfo Paramio Cities, Business and the Politics of Urban Violence in Latin America, by Eduardo Moncada,2016; reviewed by Gerard Martin Who Counts? The Mathematics of Death and Life after Genocide, by Diane Nelson, 2015; reviewed by Finn Stepputat Owners of the Sidewalk: Security and Survival in the Informal City, by Daniel Goldstein, 2015; reviewed by Griet Steel Beyond Tradition, Beyond Invention: Cosmic Technologies and Creativity in Contemporary Afro-Cuban Religions, edited by Diana Espírito Santo and Anastasios Panagiotopoulos, 2015; reviewed by Ken Chitwood Cuba and the U.S. Empire. A Chronological History, by Jane Franklin, 2016; reviewed by Edgar Göll Haydée Santamaría, Cuban Revolutionary: She Led by Transgression, by Margaret Randall, 2015; Vilma Espín Guillois: el fuego de la libertad, by Yolanda Ferrer Gómez and Carolina Aguilar Ayerra, 2015; reviewed by Dirk Kruijt Revolutionary Ideology and Political Destiny in Mexico, 1928-1934: Lázaro Cárdenas and Adalberto Tejeda, by Eitan Ginzberg, 2015; reviewed by Heather Fowler-Salamini Political Landscapes: Forest, Conservation and Community in Mexico, by Christopher R. Boyer, 2015; reviewed by Mariel Aguilar-Støen A Sentimental Education for the Working Man. The Mexico City Penny Press, 1900-1910, por Robert M. Buffington, 2015; reseñado por Lucas Poy Pesos and Politics: Business, Elites, Foreigners and Government in Mexico, 1854-1940, by Mark Wasserman, 2015; reviewed by Benedicte Bull State Theory and Andean Politics: New Approaches to the Study

  10. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Book Review Editor, Barbara Hogenboom

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rethinking Latin America: Development, Hegemony, and Social Transformation, by Ronaldo Munck (2013; reviewed by Peadar Kirby The Long, Lingering Shadow. Slavery, Race and Law in the American Hemisphere, by Robert J. Cottrol (2013; reviewed by Guno Jones Centering Animals in Latin American History, edited by Martha Few and Zeb Tortorici (2013; reviewed by Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger and Dannieli Firme Herbst River of Hope. Forging Identity and Nation in the Rio Grande Borderlands, by Omar S. Valério-Jiménez (2013; reviewed by Raymond Buve Enabling Peace in Guatemala: The Story of MINUGUA, by William Stanley (2013; reviewed by Dirk Kruijt Governing Indigenous Territories: Enacting Sovereignty in the Ecuadorian Amazon, by Juliet Erazo (2013; reviewed by Veronica Davidov Transnational Activism and National Movements in Latin America: Bridging the Divide, edited by Eduardo Silva (2013; reviewed by Roberta Rice Haiti’s New Dictatorship: The Coup, the Earthquake and the UN Occupation, by Justin Podur (2012; reviewed by Talitha Stam Cuba under Raúl Castro: Assessing the Reforms, por Carmelo Mesa-Lago y Jorge Pérez-López (2013; Cuban Economists on the Cuban Economy, editado por Al Campbell (2013; reseñado por Pablo Ospina Peralta Trumpets in the Mountains: Theater and the Politics of National Culture in Cuba, by Laurie A. Frederik (2012; reviewed by Jacqueline Loss Devoted to Death: Santa Muerte, the Skeleton Saint, by R. Andrew Chesnut (2012; reviewed by José Carlos G. Aguiar Foodscapes, Foodfields and Identities in Yucatán, by Steffan Igor Ayora-Diaz (2012; reviewed by Ester Katz

  11. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T.; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510

  12. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research.

  13. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Reviews two textbooks: "Principles of Biochemistry" by Albert L. Lehninger and "Inorganic Chemistry, A Modern Introduction" by Therald Moeller. Also reviews text, study guide, and laboratory manual for Morris Hein's "Foundations of College Chemistry, Fifth Edition" and text/study guide for David A. Ucko's "Basics for Chemistry." (JN)

  14. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powicke, J. C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews of 10 recent books and one new journal ("Catalyst: A Journal of Policy Debate") are provided. Topics of the books reviewed include: economics in modern Britain, world economics, the mixed economy, Milton Friedman's thought, British industry, economic issues, and London as a financial center. (JDH)

  15. BOOK REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Review article:Alain SCHNAPP et al.(eds.).2014.World Antiquarianism.Comparative Perspectives.Los Angeles:Getty Research Institute.ISBN:978-1-60606-148-0,pp.464,23 color and 81 b/w illustrations,4 maps,$60.Reviewed by Sven Günther,Institute for the History of Ancient Civilizations,

  16. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics and Computer Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presented are reviews of several microcomputer software programs. Included are reviews of: (1) Microstat (Zenith); (2) MathCAD (MathSoft); (3) Discrete Mathematics (True Basic); (4) CALCULUS (True Basic); (5) Linear-Kit (John Wiley); and (6) Geometry Sensei (Broderbund). (RH)

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Book Review Editor, Christien Klaufus

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rebel Mexico: Student Unrest and Authoritarian Political Culture During the Long Sixties, by Jaime M. Pensado, 2013, and Specters of Revolution: Peasant Guerrillas in the Cold War Mexican Countryside, by Alexander Aviña, 2014; reviewed by Wil G. PanstersWe are the face of Oaxaca: Testimony and Social Movements, by Lynn Stephen, 2013; reviewed by Jaime HoogestegerMaya Exodus: Indigenous struggle for citizenship in Chiapas, by Heidi Moksnes, 2012; reviewed by Gemma van der HaarLand and Freedom: The MST, the Zapatistas and Peasant Alternatives to Neoliberalism, by Leandro Vergara-Camus, 2014; reviewed by Jonathan DeVoreIndigenous Movements and Building the Plurinational State in Bolivia: Organisation and Identity in the Trajectory of the CSUTCB and CONAMAQ, by Radosław Powęska, 2013; reviewed by Ton SalmanMovimientos estudiantiles en la historia de América Latina IV, coordinado por Renate Marsiske, 2015; reseñado por Andrés Donoso RomoEl corazón de los libros, Alzate y Bartolache: Lectores y escritores novohispanos (S. XVIII, by Mauricio Sánchez Menchero, 2012; reviewed by Helge WendtAurality: Listening and Knowledge in Nineteenth-Century Colombia, por Ana María Ochoa Gautier, 2014; reseñado por Mercedes López RodríguezThe Vanguard of the Atlantic World: Creating Modernity, Nation, and Democracy in Nineteenth-Century Latin America, by James E. Sanders, 2014; reviewed by Michiel BaudMexico’s Once and Future Revolution: Social Upheaval and the Challenge of Rule since the Late Nineteenth Century, by Gilbert M. Joseph and Jürgen Buchenau, 2013; reviewed by Dirk KruijtThe Great Depression in Latin America, coordinado por Paulo Drinot and Alan Knight, 2014; reseñado por Juan Carlos KorolEnhancing Democracy. Public Policies and Citizen Participation in Chile, by Gonzalo Delamaza, 2014; reviewed by Camila Jara IbarraCritical Interventions in Caribbean Politics and Theory, by Brian Meeks, 2014; reviewed by Hebe VerrestBlack Power in the

  18. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle

    2016-01-01

    and resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience...... with systematic review is used to develop didactic practice end evidence based teaching in different part of the education. Findings: The poster will present how teacher’s training and experiences with systematic review contribute to the nursing education in relation to didactic, research methodology and patient...

  19. A preparação de material terminológico em língua inglesa por meio de ferramentas linguístico-computacionais Preparation of terminological material in english by means of computational linguistic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Batista da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é demonstrar, por meio de análise quantitativa e qualitativa, a eficácia de ferramentas linguístico-computacionais na seleção de terminologia para a produção de material terminológico. Serão apresentadas duas ferramentas linguístico-computacionais (WordSmith Tools e VocabProfile e, também, sugestões para que o ensino de termos ofereça resultados práticos. A fundamentação teórico-metodológica recorreu a Barros (2004; Berber Sardinha (2000; 2005; Biderman (2001; Cabré (2007; Cobb (2007; Nation, (2003 e Sinclair (2004. O corpus da pesquisa foi constituído exclusivamente de material escrito na língua inglesa em diversas áreas de especialidade. Os procedimentos de preparação de material terminológico são exemplificados a partir de uma das áreas de especialidades utilizadas nos corpora de pesquisa, as Redes Neurais Artificiais. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a utilização do Wordsmith Tools juntamente com o VocabProfile pode fornecer dados importantes para a pesquisa linguistica.This paper aims to demonstrate by means of quantitative and qualitative analyses the effectiveness of the linguistic computational tools in selecting terminology for the production of terminological material. Two linguistic computational tools will be introduced (WordSmith Tools e VocabProfile and also suggestions so as the teaching of terms may offer practical results. The theoretical-methodological approach relies on Barros (2004; Berber Sardinha (2000; 2005; Biderman (2001; Cabré (2007; Cobb (2007; Nation (2003 and Sinclair (2004. The research corpus was made solely of written material in English in several specialty languages. The procedures regarding terminological material preparation are exemplified with one of the specialty fields used in the research corpus, the Artificial Neural Networks. The obtained results indicate that the use of Wordsmith Tools in conjunction with VocabProfile might provide useful data for

  20. 基于条件随机场的《伤寒论》中医术语自动识别%Automatic identification of TCM terminology in Shanghan Lun based on conditional random field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟洪宇; 谢晴宇; 常虹; 孟庆刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the methods of automatic identification of TCM terminology and to ex-pand the forms of natural language processing in TCM documents.Methods Based on the methods of conditional random field( CRF) , annotation and automatic identification on terms of symptoms, diseases, pulse-types and prescriptions recorded in Shanghan Lun as the research subjects, the effects of different combinations of the features, such as Chinese character itself, part of speech, word boundary and term category label, on identification of terminology were analyzed and the most effective combination was selected.Results The TCM terminology automatic identification model, combining with the features of Chinese character itself, part of speech, word boundary and term category label, had the precision of 85.00%, recall of 68.00%and F score of 75.56%.Conclusion The multi-features model of combi-nation of Chinese character itself, part of speech, word boundary and the term category label achieved the best identifying result in all combinations.%目的:探索中医术语的自动识别方法,扩充中医文本的自然语言处理形式。方法采用基于条件随机场( CRF)的方法,针对《伤寒论》文本中的症状、病名、脉象、方剂等中医术语的自动识别标注问题,通过结合字本身、词性、词边界、术语类别标注的特征,分析不同特征组合对术语识别的影响,并探讨最具有效性的组合。结果以字本身、词边界、词性、类别标签为特征组合的中医术语识别模型准确率为85.00%,召回率为68.00%,F值为75.56%。结论字本身、词性、词边界、术语类别标注的多特征融合的模型识别效果最优。