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Sample records for ca1 perforant path

  1. Aging Impairs the Late Phase of Long-Term Potentiation at the Medial Perforant Path-CA3 Synapse in Awake Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dieguez, Dario; Barea-Rodriguez, Edwin J.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aging on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 are well documented, but LTP at the medial perforant path (MPP)-CA3 synapse of aged animals has remained unexplored. Because the MPP-DG and Schaffer-collateral-CA1 synapses account for only about 20% of total hippocampal synapses, global understanding of how aging affects hippocampal plasticity has remained limited. Much is known about LTP induction in the hippocampal formation, whereas the mechanisms that ...

  2. Flow Behavior in Z-Path Fluidized-Moving Bed with Inclined Perforated Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The flow behaviors in a gas-solid contactor with inclined perforated plates that form a zigzag path were experimentally studied. In this contactor solid particles slide down along the inclined perforated plates by the upflowing gas. This structure, called as "z-path-moving bed", has some of the advantages of both moving and fluidized beds. The discharge rate of solid particles, inclination angle of the perforated plate, aperture ratio of the perforated plate, size of particles and gas velocity were chosen as parameters for experimental conditions. The stable operation conditions were certained for the particles and apparatus used. The pressure drop, bed height and residence time distribution of particles were measured versus gas velocity.

  3. Mnemonic discrimination relates to perforant path integrity: An ultra-high resolution diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J; Stark, Craig E L

    2016-03-01

    Pattern separation describes the orthogonalization of similar inputs into unique, non-overlapping representations. This computational process is thought to serve memory by reducing interference and to be mediated by the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Using ultra-high in-plane resolution diffusion tensor imaging (hrDTI) in older adults, we previously demonstrated that integrity of the perforant path, which provides input to the dentate gyrus from entorhinal cortex, was associated with mnemonic discrimination, a behavioral outcome designed to load on pattern separation. The current hrDTI study assessed the specificity of this perforant path integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationship relative to other cognitive constructs (identified using a factor analysis) and white matter tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix, corpus callosum) in 112 healthy adults (20-87 years). Results revealed age-related declines in integrity of the perforant path and other medial temporal lobe (MTL) tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix). Controlling for global effects of brain aging, perforant path integrity related only to the factor that captured mnemonic discrimination performance. Comparable integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationships were also observed for the hippocampal cingulum and fornix. Thus, whereas perforant path integrity specifically relates to mnemonic discrimination, mnemonic discrimination may be mediated by a broader MTL network.

  4. Coincidence detection of convergent perforant path and mossy fibre inputs by CA3 interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Eduardo; Galván, Emilio J; Card, J Patrick; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2008-06-01

    We performed whole-cell recordings from CA3 s. radiatum (R) and s. lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons in hippocampal slices to examine the temporal aspects of summation of converging perforant path (PP) and mossy fibre (MF) inputs. PP EPSPs were evoked from the s. lacunosum-moleculare in area CA1. MF EPSPs were evoked from the medial extent of the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus. Summation was strongly supralinear when examining PP EPSP with MF EPSP in a heterosynaptic pair at the 10 ms ISI, and linear to sublinear at longer ISIs. This pattern of nonlinearities suggests that R and L-M interneurons act as coincidence detectors for input from PP and MF. Summation at all ISIs was linear in voltage clamp mode demonstrating that nonlinearities were generated by postsynaptic voltage-dependent conductances. Supralinearity was not detected when the first EPSP in the pair was replaced by a simulated EPSP injected into the soma, suggesting that the conductances underlying the EPSP boosting were located in distal dendrites. Supralinearity was selectively eliminated with either Ni2+ (30 microm), mibefradil (10 microm) or nimodipine (15 microm), but was unaffected by QX-314. This pharmacological profile indicates that supralinearity is due to recruitment of dendritic T-type Ca2+channels by the first subthreshold EPSP in the pair. Results with the hyperpolarization-activated (Ih) channel blocker ZD 7288 (50 microm) revealed that Ih restricted the time course of supralinearity for coincidently summed EPSPs, and promoted linear to sublinear summation for asynchronous EPSPs. We conclude that coincidence detection results from the counterbalanced activation of T-type Ca2+ channels and inactivation of Ih. PMID:18388134

  5. Priming stimulation modifies synaptic plasticity in the perforant path of hippocampal slice in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian ZHANG; Hong-Mei XIAO; Yan-Xia ZHOU; Xiao-Ping LUO

    2006-01-01

    Objective The potential of all central nervous system synapses to exhibit long term potentiation (LTP) or long term depression (LTD) is subject to modulation by prior synaptic activity, a higher-order form of plasticity that has been termed metaplasticity. This study is designed to examine the plasticity and metaplasticity in the lateral perforant path of rat. Methods Field potential was measured with different priming and conditioning stimulation protocols. Results Ten-hertz priming, which does not affect basal synaptic transmission, caused a dramatic reduction in subsequent LTP at lateral perforant path synapses in vitro, and the reduced LTP lasted for at least 2 h. The LTD was unaffected. The reduction of LTP in the lateral perforant path was also readily induced by applying priming antidromically at the mossy fibers. Conclusion Priming with 10 Hz, which is within a frequency range observed during physiological activity, can cause potent,long-lasting inhibition of LTP, but not LTD. This form of metaplasticity adds a layer of complexity to the activity-dependent modification of synapses within the dentate gyrus.

  6. Effects of gear crack propagation paths on vibration responses of the perforated gear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Pang, Xu; Zeng, Jin; Wang, Qibin; Wen, Bangchun

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic behaviors of a perforated gear system considering effects of the gear crack propagation paths and this study focuses on the effects of a crack propagating through the rim on the time-varying mesh stiffness (TVMS) and vibration responses. Considering the effects of the extended tooth contact, a finite element (FE) model of a gear pair is established based on ANSYS software. TVMS of the perforated gear with crack propagating through tooth and rim are calculated by using the FE model. Furthermore, a lumped mass model is adopted to investigate the vibration responses of the perforated gear system. The results show that there exist three periods related to slots of the gear body in a rotating period of the perforated gear. Gear cracks propagating through tooth and rim both reduce the gear body stiffness and lead to reduction of TVMS besides the crack tooth contact moment, and the TVMS weakening for the former is less than that for the latter. Moreover, the results also show that the gear crack propagating through the rim (CPR) has a greater effect on vibration responses than the gear crack propagating through the tooth (CPT) under the same crack level. Vibration level increases with the increasing crack depth, especially for the gear with CPR.

  7. Investigating the Anticonvulsant Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Perforant Path Kindling Model in Rats

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    Ali Yadollahpour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Almost 20% of epileptics are drug resistant. Studies have shown that low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is with therapeutic effects on epilepsy-affected laboratory models. Anticonvulsant effects of rTMS depend on several parameters among which radiation frequency is the most important one. In this study, the therapeutic impacts of 1 and 2 Hz rTMS on convulsing parameters in epileptic model of electrical kindling stimulation of the perforant path were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 21 rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely ‘1 Hz treatment group’ and ‘2 Hz treatment group’ and ‘kindling group’. The kindling group only received kindling stimulations for seven days. One Hz and 2 Hz frequency treatment groups received maximally 5 min rTMS after termination of kindling stimulation per day for a week. Stimulation and stability electrodes had been placed, in turn, on perforant path and dentate gyrus. For quantifying the duration of the subsequent discharge waves, two-way ANOVA test and Bonferroni post-test were employed. In addition, for quantifying the convulsive behaviors, Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests were used. Results: The results showed that 1 Hz and 2 Hz frequency rTMS have considerable inhibitory impact on the development of convulsive phases. Anticonvulsive effect was observed from the first day after rTMS was undertaken. In addition, the animals did not show fourth and fifth convulsive stages, and a significant reduction was evident in their recorded peak discharge waves compared with kindle group. Conclusion: Low frequency rTMS possesses significant anticonvulsive effects which depend upon sTMS stimulation frequency.

  8. Chronic Fluoxetine Induces the Enlargement of Perforant Path-Granule Cell Synapses in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Yosuke; Ohta, Keisuke; Hasuo, Hiroshi; Shuto, Takahide; Kuroiwa, Mahomi; Sotogaku, Naoki; Togo, Akinobu; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Nishi, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is the most commonly prescribed antidepressant for the treatment of major depression. However, the mechanisms underlying the actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are not fully understood. In the dentate gyrus, chronic fluoxetine treatment induces increased excitability of mature granule cells (GCs) as well as neurogenesis. The major input to the dentate gyrus is the perforant path axons (boutons) from the entorhinal cortex (layer II). Through voltage-sensitive dye imaging, we found that the excitatory neurotransmission of the perforant path synapse onto the GCs in the middle molecular layer of the mouse dentate gyrus (perforant path-GC synapse) is enhanced after chronic fluoxetine treatment (15 mg/kg/day, 14 days). Therefore, we further examined whether chronic fluoxetine treatment affects the morphology of the perforant path-GC synapse, using FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy). A three-dimensional reconstruction of dendritic spines revealed the appearance of extremely large-sized spines after chronic fluoxetine treatment. The large-sized spines had a postsynaptic density with a large volume. However, chronic fluoxetine treatment did not affect spine density. The presynaptic boutons that were in contact with the large-sized spines were large in volume, and the volumes of the mitochondria and synaptic vesicles inside the boutons were correlated with the size of the boutons. Thus, the large-sized perforant path-GC synapse induced by chronic fluoxetine treatment contains synaptic components that correlate with the synapse size and that may be involved in enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:26788851

  9. Chronic Fluoxetine Induces the Enlargement of Perforant Path-Granule Cell Synapses in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Yosuke; Ohta, Keisuke; Hasuo, Hiroshi; Shuto, Takahide; Kuroiwa, Mahomi; Sotogaku, Naoki; Togo, Akinobu; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Nishi, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is the most commonly prescribed antidepressant for the treatment of major depression. However, the mechanisms underlying the actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are not fully understood. In the dentate gyrus, chronic fluoxetine treatment induces increased excitability of mature granule cells (GCs) as well as neurogenesis. The major input to the dentate gyrus is the perforant path axons (boutons) from the entorhinal cortex (layer II). Through voltage-sensitive dye imaging, we found that the excitatory neurotransmission of the perforant path synapse onto the GCs in the middle molecular layer of the mouse dentate gyrus (perforant path-GC synapse) is enhanced after chronic fluoxetine treatment (15 mg/kg/day, 14 days). Therefore, we further examined whether chronic fluoxetine treatment affects the morphology of the perforant path-GC synapse, using FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy). A three-dimensional reconstruction of dendritic spines revealed the appearance of extremely large-sized spines after chronic fluoxetine treatment. The large-sized spines had a postsynaptic density with a large volume. However, chronic fluoxetine treatment did not affect spine density. The presynaptic boutons that were in contact with the large-sized spines were large in volume, and the volumes of the mitochondria and synaptic vesicles inside the boutons were correlated with the size of the boutons. Thus, the large-sized perforant path-GC synapse induced by chronic fluoxetine treatment contains synaptic components that correlate with the synapse size and that may be involved in enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission.

  10. Stimulation of Perforant Path Fibers Induces LTP Concurrently in Amygdala and Hippocampus in Awake Freely Behaving Rats

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    J. Harry Blaise

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP which has long been considered a cellular model for learning and memory is defined as a lasting enhancement in synaptic transmission efficacy. This cellular mechanism has been demonstrated reliably in the hippocampus and the amygdala—two limbic structures implicated in learning and memory. Earlier studies reported on the ability of cortical stimulation of the entorhinal cortex to induce LTP simultaneously in the two sites. However, to retain a stable baseline of comparison with the majority of the LTP literature, it is important to investigate the ability of fiber stimulation such as perforant path activation to induce LTP concurrently in both structures. Therefore, in this paper we report on concurrent LTP in the basolateral amygdala (BLA and the dentate gyrus (DG subfield of the hippocampus induced by theta burst stimulation of perforant path fibers in freely behaving Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results indicate that while perforant path-evoked potentials in both sites exhibit similar triphasic waveforms, the latency and amplitude of BLA responses were significantly shorter and smaller than those of DG. In addition, we observed no significant differences in either the peak level or the duration of LTP between DG and BLA.

  11. The temporoammonic input to the hippocampal CA1 region displays distinctly different synaptic plasticity compared to the Schaffer collateral input in vivo: significance for synaptic information processing

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    Ayla eAksoy Aksel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In terms of its sub-regional differentiation, the hippocampal CA1 region receives cortical information directly via the perforant (temporoammonic path (pp-CA1 synapse and indirectly via the tri-synaptic pathway where the last relay station is the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse (Sc-CA1 synapse. Research to date on pp-CA1 synapses has been conducted predominantly in vitro and never in awake animals, but these studies hint that information processing at this synapse might be distinct to processing at the Sc-CA1 synapse. Here, we characterized synaptic properties and synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse of freely behaving adult rats. We established that field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the pp-CA1 have longer onset latencies and a shorter time-to-peak compared to the Sc-CA1 synapse. LTP (> 24h was successfully evoked by tetanic afferent stimulation of pp-CA1 synapses. Low frequency stimulation evoked synaptic depression at Sc-CA1 synapses, but did not elicit LTD at pp-CA1 synapses unless the Schaffer collateral afferents to the CA1 region had been severed. Paired-pulse responses also showed significant differences. Our data suggest that synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse is distinct from the Sc-CA1 synapse and that this may reflect its specific role in hippocampal information processing.

  12. Reduction of rat hippocampal calcium-binding protein following commissural, amygdala, septal, perforant path, and olfactory bulb kindling.

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    Baimbridge, K G; Mody, I; Miller, J J

    1985-01-01

    The calcium-binding protein (CaBP) content of the hippocampal formation was determined by radioimmunoassay in control and kindled rats. Kindling of a number of different sites resulted in a reduction in the CaBP content of the hippocampal formation, which was shown immunohistochemically to be restricted to the dentate granule cells and their processes. The maximum decline in CaBP varied with the different kindling sites: perforant path, 33%; commissural path, 32%; septum, 30%; amygdala, 18%; and olfactory bulbs, 15%. There were no changes in the CaBP content of the stimulated areas themselves. In cases where the kindling stimulus was delivered unilaterally (perforant path and amygdala), the maximum decrease in hippocampal CaBP was observed ipsilateral to the site of stimulation when the criterion for full kindling was established (six consecutive stage 5 motor seizures). Further kindling trials were required to produce a similar magnitude decrease in the CaBP content of the contralateral hippocampus. These observations are discussed both in relation to the possible role of CaBP in the establishment of a seizure response to kindling and also as a potential compensatory mechanism that may serve to overcome the epileptogenic effects of kindling.

  13. Microglial reactivity correlates to the density and the myelination of the anterogradely degenerating axons and terminals following perforant path denervation of the mouse fascia dentata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M B; Hegelund, I V; Rom Poulsen, Frantz;

    1999-01-01

    Transection of the entorhino-dentate perforant path is a well known model for lesion-induced axonal sprouting and glial reactions in the rat. In this study, we have characterized the microglial reaction in the dentate molecular layer of the SJL/J and C57Bl/6 mouse. The morphological transformatio...

  14. Testicular hormones do not regulate sexually dimorphic Pavlovian fear conditioning or perforant-path long-term potentiation in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaras, S G; Maren, S; DeCola, J P; Lane, N I; Gale, G D; Schlinger, B A; Fanselow, M S

    1998-04-01

    We recently reported that Pavlovian fear conditioning and hippocampal perforant-path long-term potentiation (LTP) are sexually dimorphic in rats. Males show greater contextual fear conditioning, which depends on the hippocampus, as well as greater hippocampal LTP. In order to examine the role of circulating gonadal hormones in adult male rats, animals were castrated in two experiments, and Pavlovian fear conditioning and in vivo perforant-path LTP were examined. It was found that sexually-dimorphic LTP and fear conditioning are not regulated by the activational effects of testicular hormones in adult male rats. That is, in every respect, castrated male rats were similar to intact male rats in Pavlovian fear conditioning and hippocampal LTP. It is likely that sexual dimorphism in this system is established earlier in development by the organizational effects of gonadal hormones.

  15. Low-frequency stimulation induces long-term depression and slow onset long-term potentiation at perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Jossina; Isaiah S Morales; Villarreal, Desiree M.; Derrick, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    The expression of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) is thought to mediate a crucial role in sustaining memory function. Our in vivo investigations of LTD expression at lateral (LPP) and medial perforant path (MPP) synapses in the dentate gyrus (DG) corroborate prior demonstrations that PP-DG LTD is difficult to induce in intact animals. In freely moving animals, LTD expression occurred inconsistently among LPP-DG and MPP-DG responses. Interestingly, following acute electrode implantatio...

  16. Effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation parameters on its anticonvulsant action during rapid perforant path kindling in rat.

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    Shahpari, Marzieh; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Firoozabadi, Seyed Mohammad P; Yadollahpour, Ali

    2012-03-01

    Low frequency stimulation (LFS) may be considered as a new potential therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. However, the relation between LFS parameters and its anticonvulsant effects is not completely determined. In this study, the effect of some LFS parameters on its anticonvulsant action was investigated in rats. In all animals, stimulating and recording electrodes were implanted into the perforant path and dentate gyrus, respectively. In one group of animals, kindling stimulations were applied until rats achieved a fully kindled state. In other groups, different patterns of LFS were applied at the end of kindling stimulations during twenty consecutive days. In the first experiment the effect of LFS pulse numbers was investigated on its anticonvulsant action. Animals were divided randomly into three groups and 1, 4, and 8 packages of LFS (each pack contains 200 pulses, 0.1 ms pulse duration at 1 Hz) were applied five minutes after termination of kindling stimulations. Obtained results showed that 4 packages of LFS had the strongest anticonvulsant effects. Therefore, this pattern (4 packages) was used in the next experiment. In the second experiment, 4 packages of LFS were applied at intervals of 30 s and 30 min after termination of kindling stimulations. The strongest anticonvulsant effect was observed in the group received LFS at the interval of 30 s. Therefore, this pattern was selected for the third experiment. In the third experiment the effect of LFS at frequencies of 0.25 Hz and 5 Hz was investigated. The group of animals which received LFS at the frequency of 0.25 Hz showed somehow stronger anticonvulsant effect. The results indicate that different parameters of LFS have important role in induction of LFS anticonvulsant effects. Regarding this view, it seems that the slower LFS frequency and the shorter interval between LFS and kindling stimulations, the stronger anticonvulsant effect will be observed. But there is no direct relation between number of

  17. Metabotropic glutamate receptors modulate synaptic transmission in the perforant path: pharmacology and localization of two distinct receptors.

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    Dietrich, D; Beck, H; Kral, T; Clusmann, H; Elger, C E; Schramm, J

    1997-09-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have emerged as an interesting family of eight different receptor subtypes that can be divided into three groups according to their pharmacology and sequence similarity. In the present study, the specific mGluR agonists (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid ((1S,3R)-ACPD) and L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) depressed field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in the rat dentate gyrus evoked by perforant path stimulation in a concentration-dependent, rapid and reversible manner (EC50: L-AP4 5.9 +/- 1.6 microM, (1S,3R)-ACPD 80 +/- 34 microM). In a 'paired-pulse' stimulation protocol, the first fEPSP showed a stronger reduction, resulting in 'paired-pulse' facilitation. The effects of L-AP4 but not of (1S,3R)-ACPD could be antagonized by the group III mGluR antagonists (S)-2-amino-2-methyl-4-phosphonobutanoic acid (MAP4) and (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG). Moreover, (1S,3R)-ACPD was still potently depressing fEPSPs after preperfusion of near saturating concentrations of L-AP4. Together, the results suggest that both substances act on different mGluRs. The effects of (1S,3R)-ACPD could not be further differentiated by selective group I or group II mGluR agonists. Although (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-carboxycyclopropylglycine (L-CCG-I) blocked fEPSPs at concentrations > 1 microM, these effects, as well as L-AP4 effects, were potently antagonized by MAP4. This suggests that mGluR8 might be responsible for the actions of L-AP4 and L-CCG-I. The two different mGluRs showed a distinct distribution when fEPSPs were recorded simultaneously in the outer and middle molecular layer (OML/MML): The L-AP4 sensitive receptor, possibly mGluR8, seems to be located in the OML while (1S,3R)-ACPD showed its main effect in the MML. PMID:9367251

  18. Distinct behavioral phenotypes in novel "fast" kindling-susceptible and "slow" kindling-resistant rat strains selected by stimulation of the hippocampal perforant path.

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    Langberg, Tomer; Dashek, Ryan; Mulvey, Bernard; Miller, Kimberly A; Osting, Susan; Stafstrom, Carl E; Sutula, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Kindling is a phenomenon of activity-dependent neural circuit plasticity induced by repeated seizures that results in progressive permanent increases in susceptibility to epilepsy. As the permanent structural and functional modifications induced by kindling include a diverse range of molecular, cellular, and functional alterations in neural circuits, it is of interest to determine if genetic background associated with seizure-induced plasticity might also influence plasticity in neural circuitry underlying other behaviors. Outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected and bred for ~15 generations for "fast' or "slow" rates of kindling development in response to stimulation of the perforant path input to the hippocampus. After 7-8 generations of selection and breeding, consistent phenotypes of "fast" and "slow" kindling rates were observed. By the 15th generation "fast" kindling rats referred to as Perforant Path Kindling Susceptible (PPKS) rats demonstrated a kindling rate of 10.7 ± 1.1 afterdischarges (ADs) to the milestone of the first secondary generalized (Class V) seizure, which differed significantly from "slow" kindling Perforant Path Kindling Resistant (PPKR) rats requiring 25.5 ± 2.0 ADs, and outbred SD rats requiring 16.8 ± 2.5 ADs (pkindling) strain with increased susceptibility to seizure-induced plasticity demonstrated statistically significant increases in motor exploratory activity in the open field test and reduced spatial learning the Morris water maze, but demonstrated normal fear conditioned learning comparable to outbred SD rats and the "slow" kindling-resistant PPKR strain. These results confirm that selection and breeding on the basis of responses to repeated pathway activation by stimulation can produce enduring modification of genetic background influencing behavior. These observations also suggest that genetic background underlying susceptibility or resistance to seizure-induced plasticity in hippocampal circuitry also differentially

  19. Pharmacological antagonism of the actions of group II and III mGluR agonists in the lateral perforant path of rat hippocampal slices.

    OpenAIRE

    Bushell, T.J.; Jane, D. E.; Tse, H. W.; Watkins, J C; Garthwaite, J.; Collingridge, G L

    1996-01-01

    1. An understanding of the physiological and pathological roles of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) is currently hampered by the lack of selective antagonists. Standard extracellular recording techniques were used to investigate the activity of recently reported mGluR antagonists on agonist-induced depressions of synaptic transmission in the lateral perforant path of hippocampal slices obtained from 12-16 day-old rats. 2. The group III specific mGluR agonist, (S)-2-amino-4-phosphonob...

  20. Hippocampal long-term potentiation that is elicited by perforant path stimulation or that occurs in conjunction with spatial learning is tightly controlled by beta-adrenoreceptors and the locus coeruleus.

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    Hansen, Niels; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2015-11-01

    The noradrenergic system, driven by locus coeruleus (LC) activation, plays a key role in the regulating and directing of changes in hippocampal synaptic efficacy. The LC releases noradrenaline in response to novel experience and LC activation leads to an enhancement of hippocampus-based learning, and facilitates synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) that occur in association with spatial learning. The predominant receptor for mediating these effects is the β-adrenoreceptor. Interestingly, the dependency of synaptic plasticity on this receptor is different in the hippocampal subfields whereby in the CA1 in vivo, LTP, but not LTD requires β-adrenoreceptor activation, whereas in the mossy fiber synapse LTP and LTD do not depend on this receptor. By contrast, synaptic plasticity that is facilitated by spatial learning is highly dependent on β-adrenoreceptor activation in both hippocampal subfields. Here, we explored whether LTP induced by perforant-path (pp) stimulation in vivo or that is facilitated by spatial learning depends on β-adrenoreceptors. We found that under both LTP conditions, antagonising the receptors disabled the persistence of LTP. β-adrenoreceptor-antagonism also prevented spatial learning. Strikingly, activation of the LC before high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the pp prevented short-term potentiation but not LTP, and LC stimulation after pp-HFS-induced depotentiation of LTP. This depotentiation was prevented by β-adrenoreceptor-antagonism. These data suggest that β-adrenoreceptor-activation, resulting from noradrenaline release from the LC during enhanced arousal and learning, comprises a mechanism whereby the duration and degree of LTP is regulated and fine tuned. This may serve to optimize the creation of a spatial memory engram by means of LTP and LTD. This process can be expected to support the special role of the dentate gyrus as a crucial subregional locus for detecting and

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion delays amygdala and perforant path kindling without affecting paired-pulse measures of neuronal inhibition in adult rats.

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    Osehobo, P; Adams, B; Sazgar, M; Xu, Y; Racine, R J; Fahnestock, M

    1999-01-01

    Kindling is an animal model of human temporal lobe epilepsy in which excitability in limbic structures is permanently enhanced by repeated stimulations. Kindling also increases the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor messenger RNAs in both the hippocampus and cerebral cortex and causes structural changes in the hippocampus including hilar hypertrophy. We have recently shown that intraventricular nerve growth factor infusion enhances the development of kindling, whereas blocking nerve growth factor activity retards amygdaloid kindling. Furthermore, we have shown that nerve growth factor protects against kindling-induced hilar hypertrophy. The physiological role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in kindling is not as clear. Acute injection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor increases neuronal excitability and causes seizures, whereas chronic brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion in rats slows hippocampal kindling. In agreement with the latter, we show here that intrahilar brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion delays amygdala and perforant path kindling. In addition, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor, unlike nerve growth factor, does not protect against kindling-induced increases in hilar area. To test the hypothesis that brain-derived neurotrophic factor suppresses kindling by increasing inhibition above normal levels, we performed paired-pulse measures in the perforant path-dentate gyrus pathway. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor infused into the hippocampus had no effect on the stimulus intensity function (input/output curves); there was also no significant effect on paired-pulse inhibition. We then kindled the perforant path 10 days after the end of brain-derived neurotrophic factor treatment. Once again, kindling was retarded, showing that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor effect is long-lasting. These results indicate that prolonged in vivo infusion

  2. Long-term fluoxetine treatment induces input-specific LTP and LTD impairment and structural plasticity in the CA1 hippocampal subfield.

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    Francisco J Rubio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressant drugs are usually administered for long time for the treatment of major depressive disorder. However, they are also prescribed in several additional psychiatric conditions as well as during long term maintenance treatments. Antidepressants induce adaptive changes in several forebrain structures which include modifications at glutamatergic synapses. We recently found that repetitive administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine to naϊve adult male rats induced an increase of mature, mushroom-type dendritic spines in several forebrain regions. This was associated with an increase of GluA2-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPA-Rs in telencephalic postsynaptic densities. To unravel the functional significance of such a synaptic re-arrangement, we focused on glutamate neurotransmission in the hippocampus. We evaluated the effect of four weeks of treatment with 0.7 mg/kg of fluoxetine on long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses and the perforant path-CA1 synapses. Recordings in hippocampal slices revealed profound deficits in LTP and LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses associated to increased spine density and enhanced presence of mushroom-type spines, as revealed by Golgi staining. However, the same treatment had neither an effect on spine morphology, nor on LTP and LTD at perforant path-CA1 synapses. Cobalt staining experiments revealed decreased AMPA-R Ca2+ permeability in the stratum radiatum together with increased GluA2-containing, Ca2+-impermeable AMPA-Rs. Therefore, 4 weeks of fluoxetine treatment promoted structural and functional adaptations in CA1 neurons in a pathway-specific manner that were selectively associated with impairment of activity-dependent plasticity at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses.

  3. [Oroantral perforations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Some risk factors in relation to the occurrence of an oroantral perforation are discussed in the light of the existing literature. Factors relevant for the diagnosis and the treatment of an oroantral perforation, are discussed. Small perforations probably heal without problems, provided that the alv

  4. Midbrain dopamine neurons bidirectionally regulate CA3-CA1 synaptic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Zev B; Cheung, Stephanie; Siegelbaum, Steven A

    2015-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) is required for hippocampal-dependent memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA1 Schaffer collateral (SC) synapses. It is therefore surprising that exogenously applied DA has little effect on SC synapses, but suppresses CA1 perforant path (PP) inputs. To examine DA actions under more physiological conditions, we used optogenetics to release DA from ventral tegmental area inputs to hippocampus. Unlike exogenous DA application, optogenetic release of DA caused a bidirectional, activity-dependent modulation of SC synapses, with no effect on PP inputs. Low levels of DA release, simulating tonic DA neuron firing, depressed the SC response through a D4 receptor-dependent enhancement of feedforward inhibition mediated by parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Higher levels of DA release, simulating phasic firing, increased SC responses through a D1 receptor-dependent enhancement of excitatory transmission. Thus, tonic-phasic transitions in DA neuron firing in response to motivational demands may cause a modulatory switch from inhibition to enhancement of hippocampal information flow.

  5. Pharmacological antagonism of the actions of group II and III mGluR agonists in the lateral perforant path of rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, T J; Jane, D E; Tse, H W; Watkins, J C; Garthwaite, J; Collingridge, G L

    1996-04-01

    1. An understanding of the physiological and pathological roles of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) is currently hampered by the lack of selective antagonists. Standard extracellular recording techniques were used to investigate the activity of recently reported mGluR antagonists on agonist-induced depressions of synaptic transmission in the lateral perforant path of hippocampal slices obtained from 12-16 day-old rats. 2. The group III specific mGluR agonist, (S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (L-AP4) depressed basal synaptic transmission in a reversible and dose-dependent manner. The mean (+/-s.e. mean) depression obtained with 100 microM L-AP4 (the maximum concentration tested) was 74 +/- 3% and the IC50 value was 3 +/- 1 microM (n = 5). 3. The selective group II mGluR agonists, (1S,3S)-1-aminocyclopentane-1, 3-dicarboxylate ((1S,3s)-ACPD) and (2S, 1'R, 2'R, 3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) also depressed basal synaptic transmission in a reversible and dose-dependent manner. The mean depression obtained with 200 microM (1S,3S)-ACPD was 83 +/- 8% and the IC50 value was 12 +/- 3 microM (n = 5). The mean depression obtained with 1 microM DCG-IV was 73 +/- 7% and the IC50 value was 88 +/- 15 nM (n = 4). 4. Synaptic depressions induced by the actions of 20 microM (1S,3S)-ACPD and 10 microM L-AP4 were antagonized by the mGluR antagonists (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine ((+)-MCPG), (S)-2-methyl-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (MAP4), (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-methyl-2(2'-carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (MCCG), (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-tetrazolylphenylglycine (MTPG), (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-sulphonophenylglycine (MSPG) and (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) (all tested at 500 microM). 5. (+)-MCPG was a weak antagonist of both L-AP4 and (1S,3S)-ACPD-induced depressions. MCCG was selective towards (1S,3S)-ACPD, but analysis of its effects were complicated by apparent partial agonist activity. MAP4 showed good selectivity for L-AP4-induced effects. 6

  6. Low-frequency stimulation induces long-term depression and slow onset long-term potentiation at perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jossina; Morales, Isaiah S; Villarreal, Desiree M; Derrick, Brian E

    2014-03-01

    The expression of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) is thought to mediate a crucial role in sustaining memory function. Our in vivo investigations of LTD expression at lateral (LPP) and medial perforant path (MPP) synapses in the dentate gyrus (DG) corroborate prior demonstrations that PP-DG LTD is difficult to induce in intact animals. In freely moving animals, LTD expression occurred inconsistently among LPP-DG and MPP-DG responses. Interestingly, following acute electrode implantation in anesthetized rats, low-frequency stimulation (LFS; 900 pulses, 1 Hz) promotes slow-onset LTP at both MPP-DG and LPP-DG synapses that utilize distinct induction mechanisms. Systemic administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (+/-)-cyclopiperidine-6-piperiperenzine (CPP; 10 mg/kg) 90 min before LFS selectively blocked MPP-DG but not LPP-DG slow onset LTP, suggesting MPP-DG synapses express a NMDA receptor-dependent slow onset LTP whereas LPP-DG slow onset LTP induction is NMDA receptor independent. In experiments where paired-pulse LFS (900 paired pulses, 200-ms paired-pulse interval) was used to induce LTD, paired-pulse LFS of the LPP resulted in rapid onset LTP of DG responses, whereas paired-pulse LFS of the MPP induced slow onset LTP of DG responses. Although LTD observations were very rare following acute electrode implantation in anesthetized rats, LPP-DG LTD was demonstrated in some anesthetized rats with previously implanted electrodes. Together, our data indicate in vivo PP-DG LTD expression is an inconsistent phenomenon that is primarily observed in recovered animals, suggesting perturbation of the dentate through surgery-related tissue trauma influences both LTD incidence and LTP induction at PP-DG synapses in vivo. PMID:24335215

  7. Endocannabinoids differentially modulate synaptic plasticity in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Yi Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons receive two excitatory glutamatergic synaptic inputs: their most distal dendritic regions in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM are innervated by the perforant path (PP, originating from layer III of the entorhinal cortex, while their more proximal regions of the apical dendrites in the stratum radiatum (SR are innervated by the Schaffer-collaterals (SC, originating from hippocampal CA3 neurons. Endocannabinoids (eCBs are naturally occurring mediators capable of modulating both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity via the CB1 receptor. Previous work on eCB modulation of excitatory synapses in the CA1 region largely focuses on the SC pathway. However, little information is available on whether and how eCBs modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity at PP synapses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By employing somatic and dendritic patch-clamp recordings, Ca(2+ uncaging, and immunostaining, we demonstrate that there are significant differences in low-frequency stimulation (LFS- or DHPG-, an agonist of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs, induced long-term depression (LTD of excitatory synaptic transmission between SC and PP synapses in the same pyramidal neurons. These differences are eliminated by pharmacological inhibition with selective CB1 receptor antagonists or genetic deletion of the CB1 receptor, indicating that these differences likely result from differential modulation via a CB1 receptor-dependent mechanism. We also revealed that depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE, a form of short-term synaptic plasticity, and photolysis of caged Ca(2+-induced suppression of Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs were less at the PP than that at the SC. In addition, application of WIN55212 (WIN induced a more pronounced inhibition of EPSCs at the SC when compared to that at the PP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest

  8. Perforated monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regen, S.L.

    1992-12-01

    Goal of this research program is to create ultrathin organic membranes that possess uniform and adjustable pores ( < 7[angstrom] diameter). Such membranes are expected to possess high permeation selectivity (permselectivity) and high permeability, and to provide the basis for energy-efficient methods of molecular separation. Work carried out has demonstrated feasibility of using perforated monolayer''-based composites as molecular sieve membranes. Specifically, composite membranes derived from Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers of the calix[6]arene-based surfactant shown below plus poly[l-(trimethylsilyl)-l-propyne] (PTMSP) were found to exhibit sieving behavior towards He, N[sub 2] and SF[sub 6]. Results of derivative studies that have also been completed are also described in this report.

  9. Reactive perforating collagenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav Mukesh; Sangal B; Bhargav Puneet; Jai P; Goyal Mukul

    2009-01-01

    Reactive perforating collagenosis is a rare cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology. We hereby describe a case of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis in a patient of diabetes and chronic renal failure.

  10. Reactive perforating collagenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Mukesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive perforating collagenosis is a rare cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology. We hereby describe a case of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis in a patient of diabetes and chronic renal failure.

  11. Perforated Plates as Passive Mitigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Langdon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests on fully-clamped circular plates subjected to blastloading directed down a tube. Four series of tests were performed. In one set of experiments,the blast wave was allowed to progress unhindered down the tube to impinge upon the plate,and in the other tests, perforated plates were placed in the path of the blast wave to hinderprogression down the tube, disrupting the blast and absorbing some of the kinetic energy.Results of the tests indicate that the perforated plates can be used as a form of passive mitigation.

  12. Hippocampal CA1 Ripples as Inhibitory Transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Paola; Krishnan, Giri P; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    Memories are stored and consolidated as a result of a dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep. Neurons active during behavior reactivate in both structures during sleep, in conjunction with characteristic brain oscillations that may form the neural substrate of memory consolidation. In the hippocampus, replay occurs within sharp wave-ripples: short bouts of high-frequency activity in area CA1 caused by excitatory activation from area CA3. In this work, we develop a computational model of ripple generation, motivated by in vivo rat data showing that ripples have a broad frequency distribution, exponential inter-arrival times and yet highly non-variable durations. Our study predicts that ripples are not persistent oscillations but result from a transient network behavior, induced by input from CA3, in which the high frequency synchronous firing of perisomatic interneurons does not depend on the time scale of synaptic inhibition. We found that noise-induced loss of synchrony among CA1 interneurons dynamically constrains individual ripple duration. Our study proposes a novel mechanism of hippocampal ripple generation consistent with a broad range of experimental data, and highlights the role of noise in regulating the duration of input-driven oscillatory spiking in an inhibitory network. PMID:27093059

  13. Hippocampal CA1 Ripples as Inhibitory Transients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Malerba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Memories are stored and consolidated as a result of a dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep. Neurons active during behavior reactivate in both structures during sleep, in conjunction with characteristic brain oscillations that may form the neural substrate of memory consolidation. In the hippocampus, replay occurs within sharp wave-ripples: short bouts of high-frequency activity in area CA1 caused by excitatory activation from area CA3. In this work, we develop a computational model of ripple generation, motivated by in vivo rat data showing that ripples have a broad frequency distribution, exponential inter-arrival times and yet highly non-variable durations. Our study predicts that ripples are not persistent oscillations but result from a transient network behavior, induced by input from CA3, in which the high frequency synchronous firing of perisomatic interneurons does not depend on the time scale of synaptic inhibition. We found that noise-induced loss of synchrony among CA1 interneurons dynamically constrains individual ripple duration. Our study proposes a novel mechanism of hippocampal ripple generation consistent with a broad range of experimental data, and highlights the role of noise in regulating the duration of input-driven oscillatory spiking in an inhibitory network.

  14. Strategies in Perforated Diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vermeulen (Jefrey)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAlthough diverticulitis is a common disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract, few is known about the optimal surgical treatment of its most severe form: perforated diverticulitis. Regardless of the selected operation, perforated diverticulitis is associated with mortality rates up to

  15. Iatrogenic neonatal bladder perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Trigui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal bladder rupture is rare as a complication of bladder obstruction due to abnormal anatomy or iatrogenic causes. The present study describes the case of a 3-day-old infant with ascites due to bladder perforation secondary probably to manual decompression of the bladder. The infant underwent successful surgical repair of the perforation.

  16. Pedicled perforator flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirtas, Yener; Ozturk, Nuray; Kelahmetoglu, Osman;

    2009-01-01

    Described in this study is a surgical concept that supports the "consider and use a pedicled perforator flap whenever possible and indicated" approach to reconstruct a particular skin defect. The operation is entirely free-style; the only principle is to obtain a pedicled perforator flap to recon......Described in this study is a surgical concept that supports the "consider and use a pedicled perforator flap whenever possible and indicated" approach to reconstruct a particular skin defect. The operation is entirely free-style; the only principle is to obtain a pedicled perforator flap...... more practical and creative to use a free-style manner during pedicled perforator flap surgery, instead of being obliged to predefined templates for this type of procedure....

  17. Perforating Thin Metal Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Sheets only few mils thick bonded together, punched, then debonded. Three-step process yields perforated sheets of metal. (1): Individual sheets bonded together to form laminate. (2): laminate perforated in desired geometric pattern. (3): After baking, laminate separates into individual sheets. Developed for fabricating conductive layer on blankets that collect and remove ions; however, perforated foils have other applications - as conductive surfaces on insulating materials; stiffeners and conductors in plastic laminates; reflectors in antenna dishes; supports for thermal blankets; lightweight grille cover materials; and material for mockup of components.

  18. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nalini; Singh, Ahanthem Santa; Bhaphiralyne, Wankhar

    2016-04-01

    Pyometra is collection of purulent material which occurs when there is interference with its normal drainage. It is an uncommon condition with incidence of 0.1 to 0.5% of all gynecological patients. Spontaneous rupture of uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. A 65-year-old lady presented with pain abdomen and purulent vaginal discharge. Preoperative diagnosis of pyometra was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Laparotomy followed by peritoneal lavage and repair of perforation was performed. Although spontaneously perforated pyometra is rare, the condition must be borne in mind with regard to elderly women with acute abdominal pain. Preoperative diagnosis of perforated pyometra is absolutely essential. Computed tomography (CT) and MRI are diagnostic tools. In selected cases conservative approach at surgery can be opted. PMID:27152313

  19. Perforated peptic ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søreide, Kjetil; Thorsen, Kenneth; Harrison, Ewen M;

    2015-01-01

    Perforated peptic ulcer is a common emergency condition worldwide, with associated mortality rates of up to 30%. A scarcity of high-quality studies about the condition limits the knowledge base for clinical decision making, but a few published randomised trials are available. Although Helicobacter...... pylori and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are common causes, demographic differences in age, sex, perforation location, and underlying causes exist between countries, and mortality rates also vary. Clinical prediction rules are used, but accuracy varies with study population. Early surgery...... need further assessment. Adequate trials with low risk of bias are urgently needed to provide better evidence. We summarise the evidence for perforated peptic ulcer management and identify directions for future clinical research....

  20. The Versatile Modiolus Perforator Flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Thomsen, Jorn Bo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perforator flaps are well established, and their usefulness as freestyle island flaps is recognized. The whereabouts of vascular perforators and classification of perforator flaps in the face are a debated subject, despite several anatomical studies showing similar consistency. In our...

  1. Rat Endovascular Perforation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sehba, Fatima A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental animal models of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have provided a wealth of information on the mechanisms of brain injury. The Rat endovascular perforation model (EVP) replicates the early pathophysiology of SAH and hence is frequently used to study early brain injury following SAH.

  2. Signal Propagation in Oblique Dendrites of CA1 Pyramidal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Migliore, Michele; Ferrante, Michele; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2005-01-01

    The electrophysiological properties of the oblique branches of CA1 pyramidal neurons are largely unknown and very difficult to investigate experimentally. These relatively thin dendrites make up the majority of the apical tree surface area and constitute the main target of Schaffer collateral axons from CA3. Their electrogenic properties might have an important role in defining the computational functions of CA1 neurons. It is thus important to determine if and to what extent the back- and fo...

  3. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nalini; Singh, Ahanthem Santa; Bhaphiralyne, Wankhar

    2016-01-01

    Pyometra is collection of purulent material which occurs when there is interference with its normal drainage. It is an uncommon condition with incidence of 0.1 to 0.5% of all gynecological patients. Spontaneous rupture of uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. A 65-year-old lady presented with pain abdomen and purulent vaginal discharge. Preoperative diagnosis of pyometra was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Laparotomy followed by peritoneal lavage and repair of perfor...

  4. Perforated Plates as Passive Mitigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    G.S. Langdon; G. N. Nurick; V. H. Balden; R. B. Timmis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of tests on fully-clamped circular plates subjected to blastloading directed down a tube. Four series of tests were performed. In one set of experiments,the blast wave was allowed to progress unhindered down the tube to impinge upon the plate,and in the other tests, perforated plates were placed in the path of the blast wave to hinderprogression down the tube, disrupting the blast and absorbing some of the kinetic energy.Results of the tests indicate that the p...

  5. Gastric conduit perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2014-08-16

    As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized.

  6. Dynamic underbalance perforating with the PURE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Andy

    2004-07-01

    Canadian Natural Resources International (CNR) recently performed successful completions on two wells in the Ninian field of the United Kingdom North Sea using the PURE (Mark of Schlumberger) perforating system for clean perforations. PURE perforating is a patented method developed by Schlumberger employing a dynamic underbalance to remove perforating debris, minimise crushed zone damage within the perforations and enhance well performance. Both of these jobs at Ninian employed tubing-conveyed perforating (TCP). (author)

  7. Post Stamp Perforation Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Koníček, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Rozpoznávání zoubkování poštovních známek je důležitým faktorem při posuzování pravosti poštovní známky. Typ a rozměr zoubkování mají výrazný vliv na cenu poštovní známky. Tato práce se zabývá navrhem detektoru zoubkování poštovních známek. Cílem práce je vytvořit aplikaci, která z fotografie určí zoubkování zobrazené poštovní známky. Aplikace pro práci s obrazy využívá knihovnu OpenCV. Post stamp perforation recognition is important factor in authentication of post stamps. Type and perfor...

  8. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm Yildizhan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  9. CT findings of exophageal perforation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jeong Nam; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Ki; Hahm, Chang Kok [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-01

    To determine which CT findings are useful for the early disgnosis of esophageal perforation, and on the basis of these findings, to assess the accuracy of prediction of the perforation site. A review of medical records indicated that between January 1995 and December 2001, 36 patients with esophageal perforation were admitted to our hospital. Thirteen of these [M:F=8:5, age; 28-69 (mean, 52.4) years], who had undergone CT chest scanning, were included in this study. The causes of esophageal perforation were trauma (n=5), infectious diseases (n=4), Boerhaave syndrome (n=1), lung cancer (n=1), esophageal cancer (n=1), and idiopathic. Two chest radiologists unaware of the clinical findings reviewed the CT scans and predicted whether the upper or lower esophagus was perforated. The most common CT finding was extraluminal air at the posterior mediastinum (n=11), while other findings included pulmonary consolidation (n=10), pleural effusion (n=7), discontinuity of the esophageal wall (n=6) and subcutaneous emphysema (n=4), fluid collection around the esophagus (n-4), esophageal wall thickening (n=4), pneumothorax (n=2), and lung abscess (n=2). The perforation site was accurately predicted in 76.9% of cases (10/13). The CT findings which help the diagnosis of esophageal perforation, and prediction of the sites at which it occurs, are extraluminal air of fluid collection, focal defect of the esophageal wall, and esophageal wall thickening.

  10. Leptin protects hippocampal CA1 neurons against ischemic injury

    OpenAIRE

    Feng ZHANG; Chen, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose hormone with well characterized roles in regulating food intake and energy balance. A novel neuroprotective role for leptin has recently been discovered; however, the underlying mechanisms are not clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether leptin protects against delayed neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 following transient global cerebral ischemia in rats and to study the signaling mechanism responsible for the neuroprotective effects of lep...

  11. CLINICAL STUDY OF DUODENAL PERFORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasiva Rao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The duodenal injury can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly may have devastating results. Over the centuries, there was little to offer the patient of acute abdomen beyond cupping, purgation and enemas, all of which did more harm than good. It was not until 1884 that Mikulicz made an attempt to repair a perforation. Recent statistics indicate roughly 10% of population develop gastric or duodenal ulcer in life time. Roughly 1-3% of population above the age of 20 years have some degree of peptic ulcer activity during any annual period. A detailed history with regards to the signs and symptoms of the patient, a meticulous examination, radiological and biochemical investigations help to arrive at a correct preoperative diagnosis. In this study, a sincere effort has been put to understand the demographic patterns, to understand the underlying aetiology and to understand the effectiveness of the standard methods of investigation and treatment in use today. METHODS This is a 24 months prospective study i.e., from September 2011 to September 2013 carried out at Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Foundation. The study included the patients presenting to Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Foundation to emergency ward with signs and symptoms of hollow viscus perforation. The sample size included 30 cases of duodenal perforation. RESULTS Duodenal ulcer perforation commonly occurs in the age group of 30-60 years, but it can occur in any age group. Majority of the patients were male. Smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors in most cases (53.3% for the causation of duodenal ulcer perforation. Sudden onset of abdominal pain, situated at epigastrium and right hypochondrium was a constant symptom (100%. Vomiting, constipation and fever were not so common. CONCLUSION The emergency surgical management for perforated duodenal ulcer is by

  12. Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernard Taylor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (PelvicolTM CR Bard Covington, GA USA. The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of patients (21/127 who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71 of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078. Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively. There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20. CONCLUSION: Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.

  13. Perforator Flaps for Perineal Reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Niranjan, Niri S.

    2006-01-01

    Whenever there is soft tissue loss from the perineum there are many options for reconstruction. These include allowing the wound to heal by secondary intention and the use of local random or axial pattern flaps, regional flaps, or free flaps. The axial skin flap can be defined as a flap based on known constant vessels of the subcutaneous tissue and its vena comitantes. The perforator flap on the other hand is a randomly selected perforator consisting of an artery with vena comitantes, which p...

  14. Triple gastric peptic ulcer perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojkovic, Milan; Mihajlovic, Suncica; Stojanovic, Miroslav; Stanojevic, Goran; Damnjanovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Patients with advanced or metastatic cancer have compromised nutritional, metabolic, and immune conditions. Nevertheless, little is known about gastroduodenal perforation in cancer patients. Described in the present report is the case of a 41-year old woman with stage IV recurrent laryngeal cancer, who used homeopathic anticancer therapy and who had triple peptic ulcer perforation (PUP) that required surgical repair. Triple gastric PUP is a rare complication. Self-administration of homeopathic anticancer medication should be strongly discouraged when evidence-based data regarding efficacy and toxicity is lacking.

  15. Early Management Experience of Perforation after ERCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is a rare complication, but it is associated with significant mortality. This study evaluated the early management experience of these perforations. Patients and Methods. Between November 2003 and December 2011, a total of 8504 ERCPs were performed at our regional endoscopy center. Sixteen perforations (0.45% were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Results. Nine of these 16 patients with perforations were periampullary, 3 duodenal, 1 gastric fundus, and 3 patients had a perforation of an afferent limb of a Billroth II anastomosis. All patients with perforations were recognized during ERCP by X-ray and managed immediately. One patient with duodenal perforation and three patients with afferent limb perforation received surgery, others received medical conservative treatment which included suturing lesion, endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD, endoscopic retrograde pancreatic duct drainage (ERPD, gastrointestinal decompression, fasting, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and so on. All patients with perforation recovered successfully. Conclusions. We found that: (1 the diagnosis of perforation during ERCP may be easy, but you must pay attention to it. (2 Most retroperitoneal perforations can recover with only medical conservative treatment in early phase. (3 Most peritoneal perforations need surgery unless you can close the lesion up under endoscopy in early phase.

  16. A perforated diverticulum in Cushing's disease

    OpenAIRE

    de Havenon, Adam; Ehrenkranz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of perforated colonic diverticulum in Cushing's disease. Although perforated diverticuli have been described in patients with Cushing's syndrome secondary to exogenous glucocorticoids, this complication has not been described in patients with Cushing's disease. Patients with hypercortisolism, from either exogenous or endogenous sources, should be monitored for diverticular perforation.

  17. Hyperbilirubinemia as a predictor for appendiceal perforation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, J; Pommergaard, H C; Rosenberg, J;

    2013-01-01

    Delayed or wrong diagnosis in patients with appendicitis can result in perforation and consequently increased morbidity and mortality. Serum bilirubin may be a useful marker for appendiceal perforation. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate studies investigating elevated serum...... bilirubin as a predictor for appendiceal perforation....

  18. Changes in rat hippocampal CA1 synapses following imipramine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Madsen, Torsten M; Wegener, Gregers;

    2008-01-01

    synapses) in subregions of the hippocampus by quantifying number of neurons and synapses. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with imipramine or saline (i.p.) daily for 14 days. Unbiased stereological methods were used to quantify the number of neurons and synapses. No differences in the volume...... and number of neurons of hippocampal subregions following imipramine treatment were found. However, the number and percentage of CA1 asymmetric spine synapses increased significantly and, conversely, the percentage of asymmetric shaft synapses significantly decreased in the imipramine treated group....... Our results indicate that administration of imipramine for 14 days in normal rats could significantly increase the excitatory spine synapses, and change the relative distribution of spine and shaft synapses. We speculate that the present findings may be explained by the establishment of new synaptic...

  19. Perforated Peptic Ulcer: new insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.O.E. Bertleff (Marietta)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMuch has been written on perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) during the last hundred years. In 1500, when necropsies were first allowed, often a small hole was found in the anterior wall of the stomach, giving an explanation for symptoms of acute abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting which often le

  20. Local-moment formation and metal–nonmetal transition in Ca1-YVO3 and Ca1-YTiO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Nishihara; H Kawanaka; H Bando

    2002-05-01

    Electron-doped metallic states of Ca1-YVO3 and Ca1-YTiO3 change into nonmetallic states around ∼ 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. The residual resistivity in the metallic states increases with increasing effective magnetic moment or coefficient of 2 term of resistivity. The effective moment reaches ∼ 0.5 B/molecule in Ca1-YVO3 and also in Ca1-YTiO3 near the metal–nonmetal phase boundary. In these metallic states, ∼ 10% of 3 atoms seem to have large localized magnetic moments. In electron-doped metallic sample of Ca1-YVO3, the temperature dependence of resistance shows no resistance-minimum. However, weak negative magneto-resistance is observed for the sample with = 0.2 up to 50 Tesla at 4.2 K.

  1. [Cocaine-related gastric perforation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, A; Stein, E; Stern, J

    2010-06-01

    Since the 1980s the abuse of cocaine has been -associated with gastroduodenal perforations in the United States. Here, we report the case of a 28-year-old man who came to our hospital with severe abdominal pain after smoking cocaine. Physical examination revealed generalised abdominal guarding. His X-ray did not show any free intraperitoneal air. However, there was a slightly elevated white blood cell count. Upon laparoscopic exploration of the abdomen, the -patient was found to have a generalised peritonitis secondary to a perforation of the prepyloric anterior wall. The operative procedure consisted of ulcer excision and primary closure with a pyloroplasty as well as an extensive abdominal irrigation after laparotomy.

  2. Colonic perforation in Behcet's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine M Dowling; Arnold DK Hill; Carmel Malone; John J Sheehan; Shona Tormey; Kieran Sheahan; Enda McDermott; Niall J O'Higgins

    2008-01-01

    A 17-year-old gentleman was admitted to our hospital for headache, the differential diagnosis of which included Behcet's syndrome (BS). He developed an acute abdomen and was found to have air under the diaphragm on erect chest X-ray. Subsequent laparotomy revealed multiple perforations throughout the colon. This report describes an unusual complication of Behcets syndrome occurring at the time of presentation and a review of the current literature of reported cases.

  3. The Evolution of Perforator Flaps

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Farah N.; Spiegel, Aldona J.

    2006-01-01

    Perforator flaps have recently become ubiquitous in the field of plastic surgery. To understand and appreciate their unique nature, it is necessary to compare and contrast them with the development of other types of flaps. A complete yet abridged version of the history of flap surgery is presented in this article. Beginning with Sushruta's Indian cheek flap method for nasal reconstruction, a trip through time and space is taken to highlight the milestones leading to the evolution of the perfo...

  4. CT in acute perforated sigmoid diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrmann, Christian [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: lohrmann@mrs1.ukl.uni-freiburg.de; Ghanem, Nadir [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Pache, Gregor [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Makowiec, Frank [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Kotter, Elmar [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Langer, Mathias [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    Background: To assess the value of computed tomography (CT) in patients with acute perforated sigmoid diverticulitis in correlation with the Hinchey classification of perforated diverticular disease. Methods: Thirty patients with acute perforated sigmoid diverticulitis underwent computed tomography prior to surgery. Computed tomography scans were compared with the surgical and histopathological reports, utilizing the Hinchey classification. Results: In 28 of the 30 (93%) patients examined, the Hinchey stage was correctly determined by means of computed tomography. One patient with Hinchey stage IV was falsely classified as Hinchey stage III, and one patient with Hinchey stage III as Hinchey stage II. Computed tomography revealed 12 out of 14 (86%) patients with perforation sites and 3 out of 3 (100%) patients with contained perforation. In one of 17 (6%) patients with surgically or histopathologically proven perforation or contained perforation, a bowel wall discontinuity was revealed by computed tomography. In 6 of the 17 (35%) patients with surgical or histopathological perforation or contained perforation, extraluminal contrast material was detected by computed tomography. Conclusions: Computed tomography is a valuable imaging tool for determining the degree of acute perforated sigmoid diverticulitis, by means of which patients can be stratified according to the severity of the disease; furthermore, this tool is of assistance in surgical planning.

  5. CT in acute perforated sigmoid diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: To assess the value of computed tomography (CT) in patients with acute perforated sigmoid diverticulitis in correlation with the Hinchey classification of perforated diverticular disease. Methods: Thirty patients with acute perforated sigmoid diverticulitis underwent computed tomography prior to surgery. Computed tomography scans were compared with the surgical and histopathological reports, utilizing the Hinchey classification. Results: In 28 of the 30 (93%) patients examined, the Hinchey stage was correctly determined by means of computed tomography. One patient with Hinchey stage IV was falsely classified as Hinchey stage III, and one patient with Hinchey stage III as Hinchey stage II. Computed tomography revealed 12 out of 14 (86%) patients with perforation sites and 3 out of 3 (100%) patients with contained perforation. In one of 17 (6%) patients with surgically or histopathologically proven perforation or contained perforation, a bowel wall discontinuity was revealed by computed tomography. In 6 of the 17 (35%) patients with surgical or histopathological perforation or contained perforation, extraluminal contrast material was detected by computed tomography. Conclusions: Computed tomography is a valuable imaging tool for determining the degree of acute perforated sigmoid diverticulitis, by means of which patients can be stratified according to the severity of the disease; furthermore, this tool is of assistance in surgical planning

  6. Combining rhinoplasty with septal perforation repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T; Magdy, Emad A

    2006-11-01

    A combined septal perforation repair and rhinoplasty was performed in 80 patients presenting with septal perforations (size 1 to 5 cm) and external nasal deformities. The external rhinoplasty approach was used for all cases and the perforation was repaired using bilateral intranasal mucosal advancement flaps with a connective tissue interposition graft in between. Complete closure of the perforation was achieved in 90% of perforations of size up to 3.5 cm and in only 70% of perforations that were larger than 3.5 cm. Cosmetically, 95% were very satisfied with their aesthetic result. The external rhinoplasty approach proved to be very helpful in the process of septal perforation repair especially in large and posteriorly located perforations and in cases where the caudal septal cartilage was previously resected. Our results show that septal perforation repair can be safely combined with rhinoplasty and that some of the routine rhinoplasty maneuvers, such as medial osteotomies and dorsal lowering, could even facilitate the process of septal perforation repair. PMID:17131270

  7. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  8. Diagnosis of perforated gastric ulcers by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstabe, L; Veitt, R; Körner, T

    2002-10-01

    Patients with a perforation of the gastrointestinal tract need fast confirmation of diagnosis and early treatment to improve outcome. Plain abdominal x-ray does not always prove the perforation particularly at early stage. We report about a 62 year-old woman complaining of consistent abdominal pain with sudden onset. Ultrasound was taken as first diagnostic measure, revealing a perforation. The leakage was located in the stomach. Radiography confirmed the pneumoperitoneum without indicating the perforated location. During operation the perforated gastric ulcer was found and sutured. This case report points out the reliability of ultrasound in diagnosing a pneumoperitoneum. Additionally it provides a summary of ultrasound signs seen in perforated gastric and duodenal ulcers and a review of literature.

  9. Repeating firing fields of CA1 neurons shift forward in response to increasing angular velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Stephen L; Nitz, Douglas A

    2014-01-01

    Self-motion information influences spatially-specific firing patterns exhibited by hippocampal neurons. Moreover, these firing patterns can repeat across similar subsegments of an environment, provided that there is similarity of path shape and head orientations across subsegments. The influence of self-motion variables on repeating fields remains to be determined. To investigate the role of path shape and angular rotation on hippocampal activity, we recorded the activity of CA1 neurons from rats trained to run on spiral-shaped tracks. During inbound traversals of circular-spiral tracks, angular velocity increases continuously. Under this condition, most neurons (74%) exhibited repeating fields across at least three adjacent loops. Of these neurons, 86% exhibited forward shifts in the angles of field centers relative to centers on preceding loops. Shifts were absent on squared-spiral tracks, minimal and less reliable on concentric-circle tracks, and absent on outward-bound runs on circular-spiral tracks. However, outward-bound runs on the circular-spiral track in the dark were associated with backward shifts. Together, the most parsimonious interpretation of the results is that continuous increases or decreases in angular velocity are particularly effective at shifting the center of mass of repeating fields, although it is also possible that a nonlinear integration of step counts contributes to the shift. Furthermore, the unexpected absence of field shifts during outward journeys in light (but not darkness) suggests visual cues around the goal location anchored the map of space to an allocentric reference frame. PMID:24381284

  10. Stercoral colonic diverticulum perforation with jejunal diverticulitis mimicking upper gastrointestinal perforation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Jing-tao; GUO Yan-tong; ZHAO Jing-ming; ZHANG Zhong-tao

    2012-01-01

    Stercoral perforation of the colon is an unusual pathological condition with fewer than 150 cases reported in the literature to date.We present a case of stercoral colonic perforation mimicking upper gastrointestinal perforation,which was diagnosed by computed tomography preoperatively.However,at laparotomy,stercoral colonic diverticulum perforation with jejunal diverticulitis became the most appropriate diagnosis.Colonic perforation is a severe complication in surgery.It is a rather uncommon event usually caused by malignancy,diverticular disease,trauma or ulcerative colitis.Stercoral perforation of the colon was reported by Berry1 in 1894.Fewer than 150 cases have been reported in the literature to date.2,3 We present a rare case of stercoral diverticulum colonic perforation with jejunal diverticulitis mimicking upper gastrointestinal (GI) perforation,which was correctly diagnosed at laparotomy.

  11. Spontaneous ileal perforation complicating low anorectal malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TiJesuni Olatunji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorectal malformation is a common anomaly in neonates. Although colorectal perforations have been reported as a complication, ileal perforation is rarely encountered. This is a report of a 2-day-old boy presenting with a low anorectal malformation, complicated with ileal perforation, necessitating laparotomy and ileal repair. Anoplasty was done for the low anomaly. Early presentation and prompt treatment of anorectal malformations is important to prevent such potential life threatening complication.

  12. Management of biliary perforation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Bilal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the aetiology, management and outcome of biliary perforations in paediatric age group. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective study, the records of patients presented with biliary peritonitis due to biliary perforations, managed from March 2006 to July 2009, are reviewed. Results: Eight male patients with biliary peritonitis due to biliary perforation were managed. These patients were divided in two groups, A and B. Group A, (n = 3 patients, had common bile duct (CBD perforation, and Group B (n=5 patients had gallbladder perforation. The presenting features were abdominal pain, fever, abdominal distension, vomiting, constipation, jaundice and signs of peritonism. The management of CBD perforations in Group A was by draining the site of perforation and biliary diversion (tube cholecystostomy. In Group B, the gallbladder perforations were managed by tube cholecystostomy in four patients and cholecystectomy in one patient, however, one patient had to be re-explored and cholecystectomy performed due to complete necrosis of gall bladder. There was no mortality in our series. All patients were asymptomatic on regular follow-up. Conclusion: Early optimal management of biliary perforations remarkably improved the very high mortality and morbidity that characterised this condition in the past.

  13. Perforation Peritonitis: A Two Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Kumar Gupta, Rajan Gupta, Gurdev Singh, Sunil Gupta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred patients who presented in the emergency of GMC Jammu as a case of perforation peritonitisover a period of two years were studied. In most of the cases diagnosis was made by clinical examinationsupplemented by investigations in the form of standing X-ray chest PA view with domes of diaphragm,Ultrasound abdomen and abdominal paracentesis. Contrast enhanced CT scans of abdomen wereconducted on patients where the diagnosis of perforation peritonitis was doubtful. After resuscitation,Laparotomy was done in all the patients and thorough peritoneal lavage was done. A note of the site,size, type, number of perforations was made and biopsy was taken from the edge of the perforationwhenever indicated. The most common cause of gastrointestinal perforation in our study was duodenalulcer perforation, followed by appendicitis, typhoid perforation, blunt/penetrating trauma, gastric perforation,obstruction, iatrogenic, malignancy, and recurrent perforation. Primary closure of the perforation wasmost commonly done procedure, followed by appendectomy, resection anastomosis of the gut andexteriorization of the gut. The overall mortality was 6 % and morbidity in the form of wound infection,fever, respiratory complications, residual abscess, dyselectrolytemia, burst abdomen, jaundice, sepsis,cardiac complications, anastomotic disruption was present

  14. Input-to-output transformation in a model of the rat hippocampal CA1 network

    OpenAIRE

    Olypher, Andrey V; Lytton, William W; Prinz, Astrid A.

    2012-01-01

    Here we use computational modeling to gain new insights into the transformation of inputs in hippocampal field CA1. We considered input-output transformation in CA1 principal cells of the rat hippocampus, with activity synchronized by population gamma oscillations. Prior experiments have shown that such synchronization is especially strong for cells within one millimeter of each other. We therefore simulated a one-millimeter patch of CA1 with 23,500 principal cells. We used morphologically an...

  15. Evaluation of the Ca 1 antibody in the diagnosis of invasive breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Clough, D G; Coghill, G R; Holley, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of Ca 1 antibody staining was performed on paraffin sections from 136 breast lesions (64 benign and 72 malignant). Although cytoplasmic staining was encountered significantly more often in malignant lesions, the false negative rate was 6.9% and the false positive rate 56.2%. Benign lesions which showed positive staining included gynaecomastia, cystic mastopathy and fibroadenomata. Various other monoclonal antibodies showed staining similar to Ca 1 antibody. Ca 1 antibody was obs...

  16. Analysis of bowel perforation in necrotizing enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, E.E.; Smith, W.; Franken, E.A. Jr.; Wintermeyer, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    The most severe complication of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is bowel perforation. Identification of neonates at high risk for perforation and optimization of radiologic imaging to identify bowel perforation are necessary to reduce the high mortality rate associated with this catastrophic event. One hundred 55 cases of NEC were seen at our institution during a 5.5 year period. Nineteen (12%) progressed to perforation. A review of surgical findings, autopsy results and radiographs from these patients shows only 63% had radiographic evidence of free air in the peritoneal cavity at the time of perforation. Twenty-one percent had radiographic evidence of ascites but no pneumoperitoneum, and 16 percent had neither free air nor ascites. Thus purely radiographic criteria for bowel perforation in NEC are imprecise, and paracentesis is mandatory in NEC patients with ascites or clinical findings indicative of peritonitis. Timing of radiographic studies and site of bowel involvement are also important. Seventy-nine percent of perforations occurred by 30 h from confirmation of diagnosis (by clinical or radiographic criteria). Surgery or autopsy revealed involvement of the ileo-cecal region in 89% of cases with the actual site of perforation occurring in this area in 58% of patients.

  17. Jejunal atresia associated with idiopathic ileal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jejunoileal atresia is one of the common causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Intestinal perforation with meconium peritonitis in the neonatal period, which carries a high mortality rate, is also common. The association of jejunal atresia with idiopathic ileal perforation is very rare.

  18. Bowel perforation detection using metabolic fluorescent chlorophylls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Hyun; Jo, Young Goun; Kim, Jung Chul; Choi, Sujeong; Kang, Hoonsoo; Kim, Yong-Chul; Hwang, In-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Thus far, there have been tries of detection of disease using fluorescent materials. We introduce the chlorophyll derivatives from food plants, which have longer-wavelength emissions (at >650 nm) than those of fluorescence of tissues and organs, for detection of bowel perforation. To figure out the possibility of fluorescence spectroscopy as a monitoring sensor of bowel perforation, fluorescence from organs of rodent models, intestinal and peritoneal fluids of rodent models and human were analyzed. In IVIS fluorescence image of rodent abdominal organ, visualization of perforated area only was possible when threshold of image is extremely finely controlled. Generally, both perforated area of bowel and normal bowel which filled with large amount of chlorophyll derivatives were visualized with fluorescence. The fluorescence from chlorophyll derivatives penetrated through the normal bowel wall makes difficult to distinguish perforation area from normal bowel with direct visualization of fluorescence. However, intestinal fluids containing chlorophyll derivatives from food contents can leak from perforation sites in situation of bowel perforation. It may show brighter and longer-wavelength regime emissions of chlorophyll derivatives than those of pure peritoneal fluid or bioorgans. Peritoneal fluid mixed with intestinal fluids show much brighter emissions in longer wavelength (at>650 nm) than those of pure peritoneal fluid. In addition, irrigation fluid, which is used for the cleansing of organ and peritoneal cavity, made of mixed intestinal and peritoneal fluid diluted with physiologic saline also can be monitored bowel perforation during surgery.

  19. Iatrogenic esophageal perforation in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Park, Won Soon; Choi, Jung Hwan [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Esophagus and pharyngeal structures of newborn are very week and so vulnerable. When a parallel longitudinal tubular structure around (especially behind) the esophagus is seen, traumatic esophageal perforation must be differentiated. We report a case of esophageal perforation in a premature twin baby by nasogastric tube insertion.

  20. Barrett's ulcer: cause of spontaneous oesophageal perforation.

    OpenAIRE

    Limburg, A. J.; Hesselink, E. J.; Kleibeuker, J H

    1989-01-01

    We report two patients, who presented within six months with the classic clinical picture of 'spontaneous' oesophageal perforation, which was caused by a perforated Barrett's ulcer. These two cases underline the importance of postoperative endoscopy in ruling out intrinsic oesophageal disease as the cause of the rupture in every patient, who survives this life threatening condition.

  1. High power laser perforating tools and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-04-22

    ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

  2. Intestinal perforation secondary to metastasic lung carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Álvarez Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary symptomatic gastrointestinal metastases from lung primary tumor are rare. They can cause a variety of clinical conditions such as perforation, obstruction and bleeding. Intestinal perforations of intestinal metastases have a very poor prognosis. We present a case of a patient with metastatic lung cancer who presents with intestinal perforation and pneumoperitoneum. A 67 year old male, immunosuppressed and smoker is diagnosed with acute abdomen secondary to perforation of a tumor of the terminal ileum, as well as three other similar injuries. Resection and anastomosis. The patient died two months after surgery. The final pathological diagnosis supports epidermoidide poorly differentiated lung carcinoma. It was concluded that given an intestinal perforation in a patient diagnosed with lung carcinoma, it shouldn´t be excluded the metastases origen . Surgery is a purely palliative procedure.

  3. SPONTANEOUS ESOPHAGEAL PERFORATION: WHEN NOT TO OPERATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenthil Prabhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous Oesophageal perforation is lethal unless managed appropriately. Oesophageal perforation can be spontaneous (Boerhaeve, post traumatic, malignant or foreign body induced. Appropriate treatment depends on the size of perforation, time of presentation between rupture and diagnosis and general condition of the patient. Not all patients need surgical management and when carefully selected there are subset of patients who can be managed medically. CASE REPORT: A case of spontaneous oesophageal perforation due to intense retching following alcohol intake in a 35year old male is described here with a review of pertinent literature. The patient had presented with intense retching followed by vomiting which contained undigested food particles initially only to be followed by hematemesis, chest pain, fever with left sided pleural effusion. Computed tomographic scan demonstrated a pneumomediastinum, and left sided pleural effusion. The patient was managed successfully by conservative treatment. CONCLUSION:Spontaneous oesophageal perforation can be managed conservatively in a selected set of patients .

  4. [Gastric perforation associated with Candida infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollo, Jesús; Carrilo, Elena; Lupu, Ion; Caballero, Ferran; Trias, Manel

    2009-01-01

    Notable causes of gastroduodenal ulcer are Helicobacter pylori infection, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, neoplastic disease, acid hypersecretory states and secondary peptic ulcer disease. There are case reports of healthy patients or those with risk factors for fungal infection who develop gastroduodenal ulcer perforation associated with the presence of fungi in ascitic fluid or gastroduodenal ulcer tissue but without the above-mentioned etiological factors. Thus, other factors and pathogens may be involved in the pathogenesis of perforation. The use of antifungal agents in patients following surgery for a perforated gastroduodenal ulcer is controversial. We report two cases of healthy patients who underwent surgery for perforated gastroduodenal ulcer, in whom the most frequent causes of perforation were excluded. Only the presence of Candida in the ulcer was found.

  5. CHEMICAL CAUTERISATION OF TYMPANIC MEMBRANE PERFORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikramjit Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cauterisation of 144 ear perforations ( R ight and L eft with 20 percent TCA ( T richloracetic acid was tried in patients having 2 to 6mm perforations . Per forations were dry for 3 weeks - 3 months or more. 30 patients were having traumatic perforations such as slap on face, blast injuries or associated with head injuries. Most of the patients were having perforations due to inflammation. Few of them had recent attack of otitis media which were effectively treated by suitable antibiotics, anti - histamines and subs equently taken for cauterization of perforation. Site of perforation was mostly on the anteroinferior quadrant, next the inferior quadrants. Still less number in the entire four quadrant, least no. in P. S. quadrant. Traumatic perforations were irr egular i n shape varying from 2 - 6 mm in size and were elliptical in shape. Hearing loss ranged from 15dB - 45dB ( D epending upon size and site of perforation. Main presenting symptoms in inflammation cases were intermittent discharge as well as deafness. In traumatic case history of pain and deafness was the main symptom. We did wait for 1 month in traumatic cases to achieve spontaneous closure. In inflammatory cases cautery was considered first line of treatment. It has to be done several times at 10 days interval. Mo st of the times closure of perforation was achieved with 3 attempts, inflammatory cases 5 th or 6 th attempt. In one case as many as 23 attempts. In 6 cases of perforation after partial take of graft in myringoplasty occurred after 3 months cauterization was attempted and we got closure in 5 of them. In one case re myringoplasty had to be done.

  6. Optimization of geometrical characteristics of perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Perforated plate are tested against 12.7 mm API projectile. ► Perforations similar to the projectile diameter offer more efficient core fracture. ► Larger perforations gave a more efficient core fragmentation. ► SEM microscopy analysis has shown a ductile fracture mode at impact point. - Abstract: In this paper, an attempt was made to design effective non-homogenous armor in form of perforated plate mounted at close distance from basic armor plate. Perforated plate with three perforation diameters: 9, 10 and 11 mm, two ligaments length: 3.5 and 4.5 mm ligaments, set at 0° and 28° angles, were combined to 13 mm basic plate and tested against 12.7 mm API ammunition. It has been shown that larger perforations gave a more efficient core fragmentation, while angled specimens were the only ones that offer full protection against five API shots when the perforated plate was placed at 100 mm from the basic plate. Perforations that are similar in size to the penetrating core diameter offer a more efficient core fracture, leading to a faster fragment separation. This may enable a smaller distance between the add-on perforated and basic plate to be used. Scanning electron microscopy analysis has shown a ductile fracture mode at impact point, with hardness values on plate basic level. On the other hand, a brittle fracture mode with a rise in local hardness measured near impact point is a result of intensive high speed plastic deformation produced by bending stresses. A drop in local hardness measured near impact point, may be the result of intensive cracking that occur due to repeated projectile impact

  7. Imidacloprid toxicity impairs spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chun-Jen; Lin, Ching-Lung; Lin, Tian-Yu; Wang, Sheue-Er; Wu, Chung-Hsin

    2016-04-13

    It has been reported that the decimation of honey bees was because of pesticides of imidacloprid. The imidacloprid is a wildly used neonicotinoid insecticide. However, whether imidacloprid toxicity interferes with the spatial memory of echolocation bats is still unclear. Thus, we compared the spatial memory of Formosan leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros terasensis, before and after chronic treatment with a low dose of imidacloprid. We observed that stereotyped flight patterns of echolocation bats that received chronic imidacloprid treatment were quite different from their originally learned paths. We further found that neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas of echolocation bats that received imidacloprid treatment was significantly enhanced in comparison with echolocation bats that received sham treatment. Thus, we suggest that imidacloprid toxicity may interfere with the spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas. The results provide direct evidence that pesticide toxicity causes a spatial memory disorder in echolocation bats. This implies that agricultural pesticides may pose severe threats to the survival of echolocation bats. PMID:26966783

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of gallbladder perforation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hayrullah Derici; Cemal Kara; Ali Dogan Bozdag; Okay Nazli; Tugrul Tansug; Esra Akca

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To present our clinical experience with gallbladder perforation cases.METHODS: Records of 332 patients who received medical and/or surgical treatment with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in our clinic between 1997 and 2006 were reviewed retrospectively. Sixteen (4.8%) of those patients had gallbladder perforation. The parameters including age, gender, time from the onset of symptoms to the time of surgery, diagnostic procedures, surgical treatment, morbidity, and mortality were evaluated.RESULTS: Seven patients had type Ⅰ gallbladder perforation, 7 type Ⅱ gallbladder perforation, and 2 type Ⅲ gallbladder perforation according to Niemeier's classification. The patients underwent surgery after administration of intravenous electrolyte solutions, and were treated with analgesics and antibiotics within the first 36 h (mean 9 h) after admission. Two patients died of sepsis and multiple organ failure in the early postoperative period. Subhepatic abscess, pelvic abscess,pneumonia, pancreatitis, and acute renal failure were found in 6 patients.CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and emergency surgical treatment of gallbladder perforation are of crucial importance. Upper abdominal computerized tomography for acute cholecystitis patients may contribute to the preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder perforation.

  9. Inferior Gluteal Perforator Flaps for Breast Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Robert J.; LoTempio, Maria M.; Granzow, Jay W.

    2006-01-01

    Perforator flaps represent the latest in the evolution of soft tissue flaps. They allow the transfer of the patient's own skin and fat in a reliable manner with minimal donor-site morbidity. The powerful perforator flap concept allows transfer of tissue from numerous, well-described donor sites to almost any distant site with suitable recipient vessels. The inferior gluteal artery perforator (I-GAP) flap is one option that allows a large volume of tissue to be used for breast reconstruction w...

  10. Daqing Perforation Charges Enjoy Good Market Reputation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Founded in 1965, Daqing Perforation Charge Plant is the earliest oil perforation charge factory in China. The products,which are branded as "Qingmao" and enjoy good market reputation, are now sold to more than 20 domestic oil fields and 11 countries in the world. To meet the different demands by customers, the plant has developed some new products for market expansion with the penetration capability boosted 1130mm from 700mm five years ago. The large-calibration perforation charge filled a blank in the country.

  11. Modelling of acoustic transmission through perforated layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukeš V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modeling the acoustic transmission through a perforated interface plane separating two halfspaces occupied by the acoustic medium. We considered the two-scale homogenization limit of the standard acoustic problem imposed in the layer with the perforated periodic structure embedded inside. The homogenized transmission conditions govern the interface discontinuity of the acoustic pressure associated with the two halfspaces and the magnitude of the fictitious transversal acoustic velocity. By numerical examples we illustrate this novel approach of modeling the acoustic impedance of perforated interfaces.

  12. Nasal Septum Perforation due to Methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bakhshaee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous Perforation of the nasal septum is an uncommon condition. Nasal inhalation of substances such as cocaine has long been linked to this Perforation. Case Report: This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who was addicted to methamphetamine and who presented with perforation of the nasal septum.This is the first reported case of nasal septal necrosis linked to nasal inhalation of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Patient history and assurance regardingillegal drug consumption and abuse is a key point for fast and accurate diagnosis. The pathophysiology of drug-induced sinunasal disease and a review of the literature are also presented.

  13. Effect of Perforation Area and Arrangement Pattern on Structural Behaviour of Nature Inspired Perforated Hollow Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Yian Peen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cholla cactus skeleton has been the inspiration source for this study, in our effort to search forlight and more structural effective structures. This woody skeleton of Cholla with oval shaped perforationsarranged in spiral pattern is found strong enough to support the cactus self weight. This research has beencarried out to investigate the effects of percentage of perforations and perforations arrangements on structuralbehaviour of cylindrical hollow section. A total of eleven models consisting of one cylindrical hollow sectionwithout perforation as the control model and ten simplified perforated cylindrical hollow sections have beenconstructed using a finite element method software. The perforated models have been assigned with 10 to 50percent of perforations area by fixing the number of perforations to twenty and altering the perforation size toachieve the percentage variable. Computational analyses have been carried out for three loading conditions:compressive, flexural and torsional. Findings have shown that the increment in percentage of perforationsproduces higher stresses to the cylindrical hollow section. This has effects on the structural capacity of thecylindrical hollow section. Array arrangement of the perforations shows better structural performance incompression and flexural loading conditions while spiral arrangement exhibits better structural performanceunder torsional loading condition.

  14. Stercoral perforation in a 17-year old.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stercoral perforation is a rare cause of perforation. This is the first reported case where a partial eating disorder (ED) is the primary causative differential. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented to her local Emergency Department with a 24-h history of left-sided abdominal pain. She subsequently deteriorated and a computed tomography scan of her abdomen showed gross distension of the large bowel with a sigmoid perforation. She underwent total colectomy with end ileostomy. Histology reported stercoral perforation but normal bowel ganglia. While an inpatient she was reviewed by the Psychiatric team who were concerned she was suffering from a partial ED. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in optimally treating patients such as these. Aggressive medical management with involvement of a psychiatric team and dietetics addresses any underlying causative psychiatric issues and helps prevent recurrence.

  15. Stercoral perforation in a 17-year old.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S

    2009-04-02

    INTRODUCTION: Stercoral perforation is a rare cause of perforation. This is the first reported case where a partial eating disorder (ED) is the primary causative differential. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented to her local Emergency Department with a 24-h history of left-sided abdominal pain. She subsequently deteriorated and a computed tomography scan of her abdomen showed gross distension of the large bowel with a sigmoid perforation. She underwent total colectomy with end ileostomy. Histology reported stercoral perforation but normal bowel ganglia. While an inpatient she was reviewed by the Psychiatric team who were concerned she was suffering from a partial ED. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in optimally treating patients such as these. Aggressive medical management with involvement of a psychiatric team and dietetics addresses any underlying causative psychiatric issues and helps prevent recurrence.

  16. Perforated peptic ulcer: How to improve outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten Hylander; Adamsen, Sven; Wøjdemann, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    Despite the introduction of histamine H(2)-receptor antagonists, proton-pump inhibitors and the discovery of Helicobacter pylori, both the incidence of emergency surgery for perforated peptic ulcer and the mortality rate for patients undergoing surgery for peptic ulcer perforation have increased...... with an emphasis on risks that are preventable. A systematic review including randomized studies was carried out. There are a limited number of studies of patients with peptic ulcer perforation. Most of these studies are of low evidential status. Only a few randomized, controlled trials have been published...... to improve the outcome of patients with peptic ulcer perforation, sepsis needs to be factored into the existing knowledge and treatment Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/27...

  17. Laparoscopic Repair for Perforated Duodenal Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cotirleţ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU, despite antiulcer medication and Helicobacter eradication, is still the most common indication for emergency gastric surgery associated with high morbidity and mortality. Perforated peptic ulcer is a common abdominal disease that is treated by surgery. The development of laparoscopic surgery has changed the way to treat such abdominal surgical emergencies but there is no consensus on whether the benefits of laparoscopic closure of perforated peptic ulcer outweigh the disadvantages such as prolonged surgery time and greater expense. However we can say that laparoscopic repair is a viable and safe surgical option for patients with perforated peptic ulcer disease and should be considered with the necessary expertise available.

  18. Perforated fairings for landing gear noise control

    OpenAIRE

    Boorsma, K.; Zhang, X; Molin, N.

    2008-01-01

    Landing gears of commercial aircraft make an important contribution to total aircraft noise in the approach configuration. Using fairings to shield components from high speed impingement reduces noise. Furthermore, perforating these fairings has been confirmed by flight tests to further enable noise reduction. Following a more fundamental study on the application of perforated fairings, a study has been performed to investigate and optimize the benefits of bleeding air through landing gear fa...

  19. Delayed Esophageal Perforation after Cervical Spine Plating

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Jung; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Dong Min; Kim, Seok Won

    2013-01-01

    Although anterior approaches to the cervical spine are popular and safe, they cause some of complications. Esophageal perforation after anterior spinal fusion is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. We present a rare case of delayed esophageal perforation caused by a cervical screw placed via the anterior approach. A 43-year-old man, who had undergone surgery for complete cord injury at another orthopedic department 8 years previously, was admitted to our institute due to pai...

  20. Delayed bowel perforation following suprapubic catheter insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta Ajay; Ahmed Shwan J; Rimington Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Complications of suprapubic catheter insertion are rare but can be significant. We describe an unusual complication of a delayed bowel perforation following suprapubic catheter insertion. Case presentation A gentleman presented with features of peritonitis and feculent discharge along a suprapubic catheter two months after insertion of the catheter. Conclusion Bowel perforation is the most feared complication of suprapubic catheter insertion especially in patients with low...

  1. Perforated duodenal ulcer in Asir central hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastaniah Suleiman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of 27 cases of perforated duodenal ulcer seen at Asir Central Hospital over a period of seven years, two patients were females and 25 males. The highest incidence was in the fourth decade and the average age was 36.3 years. The Saudi-foreigner ratio was 1:2.9 in an area where the Saudi-foreigner population ratio was 1:3. Nine patients (33.3% were previously diagnosed as having peptic ulcer and had received treatment at one time or the other before perforation. Eighteen patients (66.7% were first diagnosed to peptic ulcer after the perforation. All the identified perforations were located anteriorly and anterosuperiorly. Only one case occurred in the second part of duodenum. The rest occurred in the first part. Two patients were treated successfully conservatively. The month perforations occurred most was the month of Shaaban. The fasting period during the month of Ramadhan did not show any increase in the prevalence of perforation in this hospital.

  2. Fat graft myringoplasty in small central perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perforations of the tympanic membrane (TM are treated with various surgical techniques and materials. Although autologous temporalis fascia is the most common material used for the closure of TM perforations, however for a dry, small central perforation the fat graft myringoplasty (FM is a good alternative as it is a simple and cost-effective technique. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of FM for repair of small central perforations. Suggestions for optimizing the outcome of FM are presented. Material and Methods: Twenty patients (10 males and 10 females who had uncomplicated dry small central perforation, which was confined to one quadrant of the pars tensa underwent FM. The outcome was evaluated after 1-week, 1-month, and 3 months. Results: After 3 months of follow-up, a closure rate of 80% was achieved. Mean preoperative air-bone (AB gap was 22.90 ± 6.54 dB and mean postoperative AB gap was 21.80 ± 6.28 dB. Mean improvement in AB gap postoperatively was 1.1 ± 2.63 dB. Conclusion: Fat graft myringoplasty, with its ease of technique and good graft uptake rate justifies its use in the closure of small dry central TM perforations.

  3. Surgical treatment of perforated gastric ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korica Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Peptic ulcer perforation is a complication of ulcer disease which requires urgent surgical treatment. The aim of this paper was to point out our experience in surgical treatment of perforated peptic ulcer. Material and methods This retrospective study analyzes results of surgical treatment in 365 patients with perforated peptic ulcer during the period January 1996 to December 2000. Results During the last 5-year period 365 patients were treated following peptic ulcer perforation. The average age was 43.53±8.26, with the span from 18 to 86. The most frequent surgical procedures in treatment of peptic ulcer perforation were: simple closure with biopsy (55.88%, excision of the ulcer with a pyloroplasty and vagotomy (35.29% as nonresection surgical procedures and stomach resection after Billroth II (8.83%. The postoperative mortality was 4.41%. Conclusions The methods of choice in surgical treatment of gastric ulcer perforation are nonresection surgical procedures with drug therapy and eradication of Helicobacter pylori, if present.

  4. Entorhinal theta-frequency input to the dentate gyrus trisynaptically evokes hippocampal CA1 LTP

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Stepan; Matthias Eder

    2012-01-01

    There exists substantial evidence that some forms of explicit learning in mammals require long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. While CA1 LTP has been well characterized at the monosynaptic level, it still remains unclear how the afferent systems to the hippocampus can initiate formation of this neuroplastic phenomenon. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in a mouse brain slice preparation, we show that evoked entorhinal cortical (EC) theta-frequency input to the denta...

  5. Entorhinal theta-frequency input to the dentate gyrus trisynaptically evokes hippocampal CA1 LTP

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan, Jens; Dine, Julien; Fenzl, Thomas; Polta, Stephanie A.; von Wolff, Gregor; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Eder, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    There exists substantial evidence that some forms of explicit learning in mammals require long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. While CA1 LTP has been well characterized at the monosynaptic level, it still remains unclear how the afferent systems to the hippocampus can initiate formation of this neuroplastic phenomenon. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) in a mouse brain slice preparation, we show that evoked entorhinal cortical (EC) theta-frequency input to th...

  6. Input-to-output transformation in a model of the rat hippocampal CA1 network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olypher, Andrey V; Lytton, William W; Prinz, Astrid A

    2012-01-01

    Here we use computational modeling to gain new insights into the transformation of inputs in hippocampal field CA1. We considered input-output transformation in CA1 principal cells of the rat hippocampus, with activity synchronized by population gamma oscillations. Prior experiments have shown that such synchronization is especially strong for cells within one millimeter of each other. We therefore simulated a one-millimeter ıt patch of CA1 with 23,500 principal cells. We used morphologically and biophysically detailed neuronal models, each with more than 1000 compartments and thousands of synaptic inputs. Inputs came from binary patterns of spiking neurons from field CA3 and entorhinal cortex (EC). On average, each presynaptic pattern initiated action potentials in the same number of CA1 principal cells in the patch. We considered pairs of similar and pairs of distinct patterns. In all the cases CA1 strongly separated input patterns. However, CA1 cells were considerably more sensitive to small alterations in EC patterns compared to CA3 patterns. Our results can be used for comparison of input-to-output transformations in normal and pathological hippocampal networks.

  7. UCP3 Regulates Single-Channel Activity of the Cardiac mCa1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motloch, Lukas J; Gebing, Tina; Reda, Sara; Schwaiger, Astrid; Wolny, Martin; Hoppe, Uta C

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake (mCa(2+) uptake) is thought to be mediated by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). UCP2 and UCP3 belong to a superfamily of mitochondrial ion transporters. Both proteins are expressed in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the heart. Recently, UCP2 was reported to modulate the function of the cardiac MCU related channel mCa1. However, the possible role of UCP3 in modulating cardiac mCa(2+) uptake via the MCU remains inconclusive. To understand the role of UCP3, we analyzed cardiac mCa1 single-channel activity in mitoplast-attached single-channel recordings from isolated murine cardiac mitoplasts, from adult wild-type controls (WT), and from UCP3 knockout mice (UCP3(-/-)). Single-channel registrations in UCP3(-/-) confirmed a murine voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel, i.e., mCa1, which was inhibited by Ru360. Compared to WT, mCa1 in UCP3(-/-) revealed similar single-channel characteristics. However, in UCP3(-/-) the channel exhibited decreased single-channel activity, which was insensitive to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) inhibition. Our results suggest that beyond UCP2, UCP3 also exhibits regulatory effects on cardiac mCa1/MCU function. Furthermore, we speculate that UCP3 might modulate previously described inhibitory effects of ATP on mCa1/MCU activity as well.

  8. Monosynaptic excitatory transmission from the hippocampal CA1 region to the subiculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaoqi; Mori, Masahiro

    2015-09-14

    The subiculum is a major output region of the hippocampus, receiving inputs from the CA1 region. We obtained paired patch-clamp recordings from synaptically coupled pairs of CA1 pyramidal cells (CA1PCs) and subicular principal cells (SubPCs), using rat hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. A single action potential in a presynaptic CA1PC evoked a unitary excitatory postsynaptic current in a SubPC (EPSCCA1→Sub). The failure rate of the monosynaptic transmission was remarkably low (0.08). Paired-pulse depression in SubPCs was apparent when an interval of presynaptic action potentials was shorter than 50ms. When trains of action potentials were induced in a CA1PC, EPSCCA1→Sub was significantly depressed with increasing spike frequency (20-100Hz). Thus the unitary monosynaptic transmission from a CA1PC to a SubPC is reliable, and depressed in response to frequent inputs, suggesting that the subiculum may function as a low pass filter to provide the downstream brain regions with appropriate information. PMID:26232683

  9. Spectrum of perforation peritonitis in Pakistan: 300 cases Eastern experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ur-Rahman Shafiq

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perforation peritonitis is the most common surgical emergency encountered by the surgeons all over the world as well in Pakistan. The spectrum of etiology of perforation peritonitis in tropical countries continues to differ from its western counter part. This study was conducted at Dow University of health sciences and Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS & CHK Pakistan, designed to highlight the spectrum of perforation peritonitis in the East and to improve its outcome. Methods A prospective study includes three hundred consecutive patients of perforation peritonitis studied in terms of clinical presentations, Causes, site of perforation, surgical treatment, post operative complications and mortality, at (DUHS&CHK Pakistan, from 1st September 2005 – 1st March 2008, over a period of two and half years. All patients were resuscitated underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy. On laparotomy cause of perforation peritonitis was found and controlled. Results The most common cause of perforation peritonitis noticed in our series was acid peptic disease 45%, perforated duodenal ulcer (43.6% and gastric ulcer 1.3%. followed by small bowel tuberculosis (21% and typhoid (17%. large bowel perforation due to tuberculosis 5%, malignancy 2.6% and volvulus 0.3%. Perforation due to acute appendicitis (5%. Highest number of perforations has seen in the duodenum 43.6%, ileum37.6%, and colon 8%, appendix 5%, jejunum 3.3%, and stomach 2.3%. Overall mortality was (10.6%. Conclusion The spectrum of perforation peritonitis in Pakistan continuously differs from western country. Highest number of perforations noticed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract as compared to the western countries where the perforations seen mostly in the distal part. Most common cause of perforation peritonitis is perforated duodenal ulcer, followed by small bowel tuberculosis and typhoid perforation. Majority of the large bowel perforations are also tubercular

  10. Gastrointestinal tract perforation: evaluation of MDCT according to perforation site and elapsed time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Sang Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Jin [Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate mutidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for the prediction of perforation site according to each gastrointestinal (GI) tract site and elapsed time. One hundred and sixty-eight patients who underwent MDCT before laparotomy for GI tract perforation were enrolled and allocated to an early or late lapse group based on an elapsed time of 7 h. Two reviewers independently evaluated the perforation site and assessed the following CT findings: free air location, mottled extraluminal air bubbles, focal bowel wall discontinuity, segmental bowel wall thickening, perivisceral fat stranding and localised fluid collection. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 91.07 % and 91.67 % for reviewers 1 and 2, respectively, with excellent agreement (kappa 0.86). Accuracies (98.97 % and 97.94 %) and agreements (kappa 0.894) for stomach and duodenum perforation were higher than for other perforation sites. Strong predictors of perforation at each site were: focal bowel wall discontinuity for stomach, duodenal bulb and left colon, mottled extraluminal air bubbles for retroperitoneal duodenum and right colon, and segmental bowel wall thickening for small bowel. The diagnostic accuracy was not different between the early- and late-lapse groups. MDCT can accurately predict upper GI tract perforation with high reliability. Elapsed time did not affect the accuracy of perforation site prediction. (orig.)

  11. Path Sensitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵著行; 闵应骅; 等

    1997-01-01

    For different delay models,the concept of sensitization can be very different.Traditonal concepts of sensitization cannot precisely describe circuit behavior when the input vectors change very fast.Using Boolean process aporoach,this paper presents a new definition of sensitization for arbitrary input waveforms.By this new concept it is found that if the inputs of a combinational circuit can change at any time,and each gate's delay varies within an interval (bounded gate delay model),then every path,which is not necessarily a single topological path,is sensitizable.From the experimental results it can be seen that,all nonsensitizable paths for traditional concepts actually can propagate transitions along them for some input waveforms.However,specified time between input transitions(STBIT) and minimum permissible pulse width(ε)are two major factors to make some paths non-sensitizable.

  12. Surgical Treatment of Perforation Esophageal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Depu Duan; Jihua Zou; Zhigang Cai; Shengyong Wu; Haibo Xiao; Yiyong Zhou; Xiang Liang; Dekui Sun; Songchang Wu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the ideal method of surgical preoperative treatment for perforation with esophageal carcinoma.METHODS 36 cases of perforation with esophageal carcinoma were treated surgically in this series.Perforations occurred into the right lung in14 cases ,the mediastinum in 17 cases and trachea in 5 cases.Open thoracic surgery was performed in 34 cases,in which the right thoracic approach using a 3-incision method was applied in 16 cases,and operation by stages in 15 cases.Of the 34 cases,retrosternal substitution of the esophagus with stomach or colon was performed in 26 cases.RESULTS Surgery was successful in 31 cases and operative death occurred in 3 cases.The postoperative follow up study was from 3~72months.Of these cases 15 wree alive at 7~12 months, 2 at 24 months,and 1 at 72 months. The results can be considered satisfactory.CONCLUSION The therapeutic results of surgical treatment of perforation with esophageal carcinoma were markedly superior to that of conventional conservative treatment. The authors suggest that surgical intervention without delay should be undertaken for patients having a perforation with carcinoma of the esophagus. A right thoracic approach with a 3-incision method (retrosternal replacement of esophagus with stomach or colon) or operation by stages is preferable.

  13. Basic Perforator Flap Hemodynamic Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Youlun; Ding, Maochao; Wang, Aiguo; Zhuang, Yuehong; Chang, Shi-Min; Mei, Jin; Hallock, Geoffrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A mathematical model to help explain the hemodynamic characteristics of perforator flaps based on blood flow resistance systems within the flap will serve as a theoretical guide for the future study and clinical applications of these flaps. Methods: There are 3 major blood flow resistance network systems of a perforator flap. These were defined as the blood flow resistance of an anastomosis between artery and artery of adjacent perforasomes, between artery and vein within a perforasome, and then between vein and vein corresponding to the outflow of that perforasome. From this, a calculation could be made of the number of such blood flow resistance network systems that must be crossed for all perforasomes within a perforator flap to predict whether that arrangement would be viable. Results: The summation of blood flow resistance networks from each perforasome in a given perforator flap could predict which portions would likely survive. This mathematical model shows how this is directly dependent on the location of the vascular pedicle to the flap and whether supercharging or superdrainage maneuvers have been added. These configurations will give an estimate of the hemodynamic characteristics for the given flap design. Conclusions: This basic mathematical model can (1) conveniently determine the degree of difficulty for each perforasome within a perforator flap to survive; (2) semiquantitatively allow the calculation of basic hemodynamic parameters; and (3) allow the assessment of the pros and cons expected for each pattern of perforasomes encountered clinically based on predictable hemodynamic observations.

  14. Suggesting a possible role of CA1 histaminergic system in harmane-induced amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Mashaghi, Elham; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2013-11-27

    A number of tremorogenic β-carboline alkaloids such as harmane are naturally present in the human food chain. They are derived from medicinal plants such as Peganum harmala that have been used as folk medicine in anticancer therapy. In the present study, effects of the histaminergic system of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) on harmane-induced amnesia were examined. One-trial step-down was used to assess memory retention in adult male mice. The results showed that pre-training intra-CA1 administration of histamine (5μg/mouse), ranitidine (H2 receptor antagonist; at the doses of 0.25 and 0.5μg/mouse) and pyrilamine (H1 receptor antagonist; at the dose of 5μg/mouse) decreased memory formation. Pre-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of harmane (12mg/kg) also decreased memory formation. Moreover, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of a sub-threshold dose of histamine (2.5μg/mouse) could reverse harmane (12mg/kg, i.p.)-induced impairment of memory. On the other hand, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of sub-threshold doses of ranitidine (0.0625μg/mouse) and pyrilamine (2.5μg/mouse) increased harmane-induced impairment of memory. In conclusion, the present findings suggest the involvement of the CA1 histaminergic system in harmane-induced impairment of memory formation.

  15. Sublayer-Specific Coding Dynamics during Spatial Navigation and Learning in Hippocampal Area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Nathan B; Zaremba, Jeffrey D; Kaifosh, Patrick; Bowler, John; Ladow, Max; Losonczy, Attila

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian hippocampus is critical for spatial information processing and episodic memory. Its primary output cells, CA1 pyramidal cells (CA1 PCs), vary in genetics, morphology, connectivity, and electrophysiological properties. It is therefore possible that distinct CA1 PC subpopulations encode different features of the environment and differentially contribute to learning. To test this hypothesis, we optically monitored activity in deep and superficial CA1 PCs segregated along the radial axis of the mouse hippocampus and assessed the relationship between sublayer dynamics and learning. Superficial place maps were more stable than deep during head-fixed exploration. Deep maps, however, were preferentially stabilized during goal-oriented learning, and representation of the reward zone by deep cells predicted task performance. These findings demonstrate that superficial CA1 PCs provide a more stable map of an environment, while their counterparts in the deep sublayer provide a more flexible representation that is shaped by learning about salient features in the environment. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27397517

  16. WAVE INTERACTION WITH PERFORATED CAISSON BREAKWATERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xue-feng

    2003-01-01

    The reflection coefficient of perforated caissons and the total horizontal forces acting on them were experimentally and numerically analyzed and discussed when wave propagates normally. To consider the viscosity effect of fluid and nonlinear action of waves on structures, the VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method combined with the k-ε turbulence model was used to simulate the interaction between waves and structures. Governing equations were solved with the finite difference method. Through 2D experimental study in the wave flume, the empirical relationship between the reflection coefficient of perforated caissons and the main affecting factors were obtained from the experimental data using the least square method. Also the correlation between the ratio of the total horizontal force acting on perforated caisson and the force acting on solid caisson and the main affecting factors were regressed from the experimental data.

  17. Nonlinear Behaviour of Perforated Plate with Lining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. R. Nandagopan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Perforated plate with lining has a construction of plate with perforation and a lining plate welded together to form a single plate. This type of plate is used as an acoustic sonar dome. Perforated plate with lining (PPL is prone to stress concentration and subsequently such structural system falls into the large strain category. Experimental investigation on PPL is carried out in the present study to determine the static deflection of the plate. Numerical method is also followed for geometric nonlinear analysis using finite element method as an iterative interactive procedure. The deflection obtained from the numerical method is 8 per cent less than that obtained from experimental method. From numerical analysis, von Mises stress and maximum principal stress is also estimated to understanda bout the failure mode characteristics of PPL.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(4, pp.248-251, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.927

  18. Nonlinear Behaviour of Perforated Plate with Lining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.R. Nandagopan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Perforated plate with lining has a construction of plate with perforation and a lining plate welded together to form a single plate. This type of plate is used as an acoustic sonar dome. Perforated plate with lining (PPL is prone to stress concentration and subsequently such structural system falls into the large strain category. Experimental investigation on PPL is carried out in the present study to determine the static deflection of the plate. Numerical method is also followed for geometric nonlinear analysis using finite element method as an iterative interactive procedure. The deflection obtained from the numerical method is 8 per cent less than that obtained from experimental method. From numerical analysis, von Mises stress and maximum principal stress is also estimated to understand about the failure mode characteristics of PPL.

  19. Traumatic oesophageal perforation due to haematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Brandt, Bodil

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Traumatic oesophageal perforation is a rare, life-threatening emergency that requires early recognition and prompt surgical management. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present an unusual case of a patient on warfarin treatment developed an intramural oesophageal haematoma following blunt......; or the intramural hematoma gradually lysed and causing late perforation. CONCLUSION: Although extremely rare, an oesophageal haematoma and late complications must be considered in patients on anti-coagulant therapy following blunt thoracic trauma and complaining only of chest pain....... thoracic trauma leading to perforation on the 18th day. DISCUSSION: In treatment of oesophageal haematoma in patients on vitamin-K antagonists, strict control of the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is essential along with total parenteral nutrition therapy and refrainment through nasogastric tubes...

  20. Evaluation of urgent esophagectomy in esophageal perforation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de AQUINO, José Luis Braga; de CAMARGO, José Gonzaga Teixeira; CECCHINO, Gustavo Nardini; PEREIRA, Douglas Alexandre Rizzanti; BENTO, Caroline Agnelli; LEANDRO-MERHI, Vânia Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophageal trauma is considered one of the most severe lesions of the digestive tract. There is still much controversy in choosing the best treatment for cases of esophageal perforation since that decision involves many variables. The readiness of medical care, the patient's clinical status, the local conditions of the perforated segment, and the severity of the associated injuries must be considered for the most adequate therapeutic choice. Aim To demonstrate and to analyze the results of urgent esophagectomy in a series of patients with esophageal perforation. Methods A retrospective study of 31 patients with confirmed esophageal perforation. Most injuries were due to endoscopic dilatation of benign esophageal disorders, which had evolved with stenosis. The diagnosis of perforation was based on clinical parameters, laboratory tests, and endoscopic images. ‪The main surgical technique used was transmediastinal esophagectomy followed by reconstruction of the digestive tract in a second surgical procedure. Patients were evaluated for the development of systemic and local complications, especially for the dehiscence or stricture of the anastomosis of the cervical esophagus with either the stomach or the transposed colon. Results Early postoperative evaluation showed a survival rate of 77.1% in relation to the proposed surgery, and 45% of these patients presented no further complications. The other patients had one or more complications, being pulmonary infection and anastomotic fistula the most frequent. The seven patients (22.9%) who underwent esophageal resection 48 hours after the diagnosis died of sepsis. At medium and long-term assessments, most patients reported a good quality of life and full satisfaction regarding the surgery outcomes. Conclusions Despite the morbidity, emergency esophagectomy has its validity, especially in well indicated cases of esophageal perforation subsequent to endoscopic dilation for benign strictures. PMID:25626932

  1. Postsynaptic blockade of inhibitory postsynaptic currents by plasmin in CA1 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, A; Tanaka, T; Saito, H; Matsuki, N

    1997-06-27

    We have shown previously that plasmin facilitated the generation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 and dentate region of rat hippocampus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of plasmin on postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal slices. Plasmin (100 nM) had no effect on NMDA nor on non-NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents. However, plasmin significantly decreased GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents. This effect of plasmin disappeared when intracellular Ca2+ was strongly chelated with BAPTA. Furthermore, plasmin attenuated the GABA-induced currents in CA1 pyramidal cells. These results suggest that the STP-enhancing effect of plasmin is due to a blockade of postsynaptic GABA(A) responses and that an increase in intracellular Ca2+ by plasmin may be involved in its mechanism.

  2. Membrane Potential Dynamics of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons during Hippocampal Ripples in Awake Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Brad K; Moreaux, Laurent C; Lubenov, Evgueniy V; Siapas, Athanassios G

    2016-02-17

    Ripples are high-frequency oscillations associated with population bursts in area CA1 of the hippocampus that play a prominent role in theories of memory consolidation. While spiking during ripples has been extensively studied, our understanding of the subthreshold behavior of hippocampal neurons during these events remains incomplete. Here, we combine in vivo whole-cell and multisite extracellular recordings to characterize the membrane potential dynamics of identified CA1 pyramidal neurons during ripples. We find that the subthreshold depolarization during ripples is uncorrelated with the net excitatory input to CA1, while the post-ripple hyperpolarization varies proportionately. This clarifies the circuit mechanism keeping most neurons silent during ripples. On a finer timescale, the phase delay between intracellular and extracellular ripple oscillations varies systematically with membrane potential. Such smoothly varying delays are inconsistent with models of intracellular ripple generation involving perisomatic inhibition alone. Instead, they suggest that ripple-frequency excitation leading inhibition shapes intracellular ripple oscillations.

  3. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu k...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  4. Path Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Peter; Garud, Raghu

    2012-01-01

    This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts. Competenc......This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts...

  5. Transient increase in Zn2+ in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons causes reversible memory deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Takeda

    Full Text Available The translocation of synaptic Zn(2+ to the cytosolic compartment has been studied to understand Zn(2+ neurotoxicity in neurological diseases. However, it is unknown whether the moderate increase in Zn(2+ in the cytosolic compartment affects memory processing in the hippocampus. In the present study, the moderate increase in cytosolic Zn(2+ in the hippocampus was induced with clioquinol (CQ, a zinc ionophore. Zn(2+ delivery by Zn-CQ transiently attenuated CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP in hippocampal slices prepared 2 h after i.p. injection of Zn-CQ into rats, when intracellular Zn(2+ levels was transiently increased in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer, followed by object recognition memory deficit. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired 30 min after injection of ZnCl(2 into the CA1, but not after injection into the dentate gyrus that did not significantly increase intracellular Zn(2+ in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory deficit may be linked to the preferential increase in Zn(2+ and/or the preferential vulnerability to Zn(2+ in CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the case of the cytosolic increase in endogenous Zn(2+ in the CA1 induced by 100 mM KCl, furthermore, object recognition memory was also transiently impaired, while ameliorated by co-injection of CaEDTA to block the increase in cytosolic Zn(2+. The present study indicates that the transient increase in cytosolic Zn(2+ in CA1 pyramidal neurons reversibly impairs object recognition memory.

  6. Delayed bowel perforation following suprapubic catheter insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Ajay

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complications of suprapubic catheter insertion are rare but can be significant. We describe an unusual complication of a delayed bowel perforation following suprapubic catheter insertion. Case presentation A gentleman presented with features of peritonitis and feculent discharge along a suprapubic catheter two months after insertion of the catheter. Conclusion Bowel perforation is the most feared complication of suprapubic catheter insertion especially in patients with lower abdominal scar. The risk may be reduced with the use of ultrasound scan guidance.

  7. Duodenal perforation precipitated by scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness usually presenting with fever, myalgia, headache, and a pathognomonic eschar. Severe infection may lead to multiple organ failure and death. Gastrointestinal tract involvement in the form of gastric mucosal erosions and ulcerations owing to vasculitis resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding is common. This process may worsen a pre-existent asymptomatic peptic ulcer, causing duodenal perforation, and present as an acute abdomen requiring surgical exploration. We report the case of a patient with no previous symptoms or risk factors for a duodenal ulcer, who presented with an acute duodenal perforation, probably precipitated by scrub typhus infection.

  8. Pseudo-skin model for gravel-filled perforations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onyekonwu, M.O. [Laser Engineering Consultants/Uniport, Port Harcourt (Nigeria); Okonkwo, F.C. [University of Port Harcourt Uniport, Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    1997-11-05

    This paper discusses pressure losses due to flow in perforations filled with gravel or with formation material. These pressure losses are added to the pressure losses caused by convergence to perforations to obtain the pseudo-skin due to gravel-filled perforations. Calculation of the pressure loss due to convergence to perforation is discussed elsewhere. The flow in the perforation tunnel could be turbulent or laminar. Therefore, we calculated the pressure losses in a gravel-filled perforation using Forchheimer`s equation or Darcy`s law. However, we expect that the flow in such tunnels will be turbulent. Results from our model agree with experimental data published elsewhere. Also, our results show that pressure losses during flow through gravel-filled perforations could be substantial. Therefore, productivities of gravel pack completions may differ significantly from perforated completions in competent formation without gravel pack

  9. EFFECTS OF GLUTAMATE ON SODIUM CHANNEL IN ACUTELY DISSOCIATED HIPPOCAMPAL CA1 PYRAMIDAL NEURONS OF RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宾丽; 伍国锋; 杨艳; 刘智飞; 曾晓荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of glutamate on sodium channel in acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of rats.Methods Voltage-dependent sodium currents (INa) in acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of neonate rats were recorded by whole-cell patchclamp of the brain slice technique when a series of doses of glutamate (100-1000μmol/L) were applied.Results Different concentrations of glutamate could inhibit INa,and higher concentration of glutamate affected greater inhibitio...

  10. Novel nootropic dipeptide Noopept increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratenko, Rodion V; Derevyagin, Vladimir I; Skrebitsky, Vladimir G

    2010-05-31

    Effects of newly synthesized nootropic and anxiolytic dipeptide Noopept on inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were investigated using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Bath application of Noopept (1 microM) significantly increased the frequency of spike-dependant spontaneous IPSCs whereas spike-independent mIPSCs remained unchanged. It was suggested that Noopept mediates its effect due to the activation of inhibitory interneurons terminating on CA1 pyramidal cells. Results of current clamp recording of inhibitory interneurons residing in stratum radiatum confirmed this suggestion. PMID:20382202

  11. Highly Expressed Genes within Hippocampal Sector CA1: Implications for the Physiology of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    As the CA1 sector has been implicated to play a key role in memory formation, a dedicated search for highly expressed genes within this region was made from an on-line atlas of gene expression within the mouse brain (GENSAT). From a data base of 1013 genes, 16 were identified that had selective localization of gene expression within the CA1 region, and included Angpt2, ARHGEF6, CCK, Cntnap1, DRD3, EMP1, Epha2, Itm2b, Lrrtm2, Mdk, PNMT, Ppm1e, Ppp2r2d, RASGRP1, Slitrk5, and Sstr4. Of the 16 id...

  12. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+ in Ca1-XYbXF2+X crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, M.; Goutaudier, C.; Guyot, Y.; Lebbou, K.; Fukuda, T.; Boulon, G.

    2004-11-01

    Ca1-XYbXF2+X crystals were grown by two different methods: simple melting under CF{4} atmosphere and laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) method under Ar atmosphere. Spectroscopic characterization has been carried out to separate different crystallographic site in Ca1-XYbXF2+X crystals and to identify Stark's levels of Yb3+ transitions. Experimental decay time dependence of Yb3+ concentration was analyzed by using concentration gradient fiber in order to understand concentration quenching mechanisms. Energy transfer to unexpected rare earth impurities observed by up-conversion emission spectra in visible region under IR Yb3+ ion pumping seems to be an efficient process.

  13. Spontaneous perforation of a pyometra presenting as generalized peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, S. W.

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cases of spontaneous perforation of a pyometra have previously been reported. All were associated with, and probably secondary to, cervical occlusion. A further case is described, but differs in that the cervical canal was patent. In the absence of other possible causes of uterine perforation, the aetiology of the perforation in this case remains uncertain.

  14. Duodenal perforation associated with norovirus and rotavirus gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Norishi; Shimotake, Takashi; Ohama, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Norovirus (NoV) and rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis are usually self-limiting. However, few pediatric cases of bowel perforation and no duodenal perforation with NoV gastroenteritis were reported. We describe two children with duodenal perforation due to NoV or RV gastroenteritis. Suspicion for this association enables prompt intervention, preventing lethal outcomes of these common infections.

  15. Perforated duodenal ulcer: an unusual complication of gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J. M.; Darby, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    A 7 year old boy was admitted to hospital with gastroenteritis, which was complicated by an acute perforated duodenal ulcer. After oversewing of the perforation he made an uncomplicated recovery. Peptic ulceration is under-diagnosed in childhood and this leads to delay in diagnosis and appropriate management. Ulceration is associated with severe illness and viral infections, but perforation is rare.

  16. Determination of the Fundamental Frequency of Perforated Rectangular Plates: Concentrated Negative Mass Approach for the Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran D. Mali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a vibration analysis of perforated rectangular plates with rectangular perforation pattern of circular holes. The study is particularly useful in the understanding of the vibration of sound absorbing screens, head plates, end covers, or supports for tube bundles typically including tube sheets and support plates used in the mechanical devices. An energy method is developed to obtain analytical frequencies of the perforated plates with clamped edge, support conditions. Perforated plate is considered as plate with uniformly distributed mass. Holes are considered as concentrated negative masses. The analytical procedure using the Galerkin method is adopted. The deflected surface of the plate is approximated by the cosine series which satisfies the boundary conditions. Finite element method (FEM results have been used to illustrate the validity of the analytical model. The comparisons show that the analytical model predicts natural frequencies reasonably well for holes of small size.

  17. Traumatic and nontraumatic perforation of hollow viscera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, R; Rodríguez, A

    1997-12-01

    Hollow viscus injuries are usually managed with few complications. However, if their diagnosis is delayed, or if reparative suture closure should fail, the patient is placed at risk of multiple organ failure. This article presents diagnostic approaches, emphasizing imaging modalities, and therapeutic strategies for three clinical scenarios of hollow viscus perforation: 1) acute appendicitis, 2) gastroduodenal peptic ulcer disease, and 3) trauma.

  18. The Peptic Ulcer Perforation (PULP) score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M H; Engebjerg, Malene Cramer; Adamsen, S;

    2012-01-01

    Accurate and early identification of high-risk surgical patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is important for triage and risk stratification. The objective of the present study was to develop a new and improved clinical rule to predict mortality in patients following surgical treatment for...

  19. Concrete wall perforation by rigid missile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were performed to study the perforation risk of reinforced concrete by industrial accidental missile. An empiric formula is established from shots of cylindrical missile with flat nose and its validity range is set. Some shots with different missile shape have given correction to introduce then in the formula. Calculation with finite elements are compared with tests results

  20. Stercoral Perforation of the Colon in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson AL; Pepe A

    2010-01-01

    We report a 37 year old multi-parous lady, who in her third trimester of pregnancy, presented to the emergency room with acute diffuse abdominal pain and involuntary guarding. Findings on physical examination were consistent with peritonitis and a decision was made by the admitting team to perform an urgent laparotomy which surprisingly showed a stercoral perforation of the colon.

  1. [Nineteenth century physicians against drum perforation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierzek, A

    1995-01-01

    The trials of "organic" closure of drum perforation are described. The achievements of Adam Politzer, Hermann Schwartze, Joseph Gruber are presented. The first who used term "myringoplasty" was Emil Berthold. The "epochal" method of Wasilij Okuniew and achievements of Beniamin Gomperz are also depicted. The scientific activities of Polish otologists: Ludwik Guranowski and Rafai Spira were presented.

  2. Spontaneous closure of traumatic tympanic membrane perforations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellinge, Marlene Ersgaard; Kristensen, S.; Larsen, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of traumatic tympanic membrane perforations varies in different investigations, ranging from observation to early surgical repair. The present study aimed to focus on the closure rate and the closure time in a group of patients treated with a watchful waiting policy. MET...

  3. Diagnosis and management of iatrogenic endoscopic perforations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paspatis, Gregorios A; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Barthet, Marc;

    2014-01-01

    expertise available at the center. A switch to carbon dioxide insufflation, the diversion of luminal content, and decompression of tension pneumoperitoneum or tension pneumothorax should also be done. 5 After closure of an iatrogenic perforation using an endoscopic method, ESGE recommends that further...

  4. Acute phlegmonous gastritis complicated by delayed perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Won Seo

    2014-03-28

    Here, we report on a case of acute phlegmonous gastritis (PG) complicated by delayed perforation. A 51-year-old woman presented with severe abdominal pain and septic shock symptoms. A computed tomography scan showed diffuse thickening of the gastric wall and distention with peritoneal fluid. Although we did not find definite evidence of free air on the computed tomography (CT) scan, the patient's clinical condition suggested diffuse peritonitis requiring surgical intervention. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a thickened gastric wall with suppurative intraperitoneal fluid in which Streptococcus pyogenes grew. There was no evidence of gastric or duodenal perforation. No further operation was performed at that time. The patient was conservatively treated with antibiotics and proton pump inhibitor, and her condition improved. However, she experienced abdominal and flank pain again on postoperative day 10. CT and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer with perforation. Unfortunately, although the CT showed further improvement in the thickening of the stomach and the mucosal defect, the patient's condition did not recover until a week later, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy taken on postoperative day 30 showed suspected gastric submucosal dissection. We performed total gastrectomy as a second operation, and the patient recovered without major complications. A pathological examination revealed a multifocal ulceration and necrosis from the mucosa to the serosa with perforation.

  5. Circadian rhythm modulates long-term potentiation induced at CA1 in rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Natsume, Kiyohisa

    2014-03-01

    Circadian rhythm affects neuronal plasticity. Consistent with this, some forms of synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) are modulated by the light/dark cycle (LD cycle). For example, this type of modulation is observed in hippocampal slices. In rodents, which are nocturnal, LTP is usually facilitated in the dark phase, but the rat hippocampal CA1 is an exception. The reason why LTP in the dark phase is suppressed in CA1 remains unknown. Previously, LTP was induced with high-frequency stimulation. In this study, we found that in the dark phase, theta-burst stimulation-induced LTP is indeed facilitated in CA1, similar to other regions in the rodent brain. Population excitatory postsynaptic potentials (pEPSP)-LTP and population spikes (PS)-LTP were recorded at CA1. The magnitude of PS-LTP in dark-phase slices was significantly larger than in light-phase slices, while that of pEPSP-LTP was unchanged. Using antidromic-orthodromic stimulation, we found that recurrent inhibition is suppressed in the dark phase. Local gabazine-application to stratum pyramidale in light-phase slices mimicked this disinhibition and facilitated LTP in dark-phase slices. These results suggest that the disinhibition of a GABAA recurrent inhibitory network can be induced in the dark phase, thereby facilitating LTP.

  6. Electrical conductivity of the hippocampal CA1 layers and application to current-source-density analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsheimer, J.

    1987-01-01

    The microstructure of the layers in the hippocampal CA1 area suggests that differences may exist between the electrical conductivities of these layers. In order to quantify these differences a sinusoidal current was applied to hippocampal slices in a bathing medium and potential differences were mea

  7. Spatial Gene-Expression Gradients Underlie Prominent Heterogeneity of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowski, Mark S; Bachman, Julia L; Wang, Lihua; Sugino, Ken; Shields, Brenda C; Spruston, Nelson

    2016-01-20

    Tissue and organ function has been conventionally understood in terms of the interactions among discrete and homogeneous cell types. This approach has proven difficult in neuroscience due to the marked diversity across different neuron classes, but it may be further hampered by prominent within-class variability. Here, we considered a well-defined canonical neuronal population—hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells (CA1 PCs)—and systematically examined the extent and spatial rules of transcriptional heterogeneity. Using next-generation RNA sequencing, we identified striking variability in CA1 PCs, such that the differences within CA1 along the dorsal-ventral axis rivaled differences across distinct pyramidal neuron classes. This variability emerged from a spectrum of continuous gene-expression gradients, producing a transcriptional profile consistent with a multifarious continuum of cells. This work reveals an unexpected amount of variability within a canonical and narrowly defined neuronal population and suggests that continuous, within-class heterogeneity may be an important feature of neural circuits. PMID:26777276

  8. Extended studies on the effect of glutamate antagonists on ischemic CA-1 damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diemer, Nils Henrik; Balchen, T; Bruhn, T;

    1996-01-01

    Glutamate receptors are numerous on the ischemia vulnerable CA-1 pyramidal cells. Postischemic use of the AMPA antagonist NBQX has shown up to 80% protection against cell death. Three aspects of this were studied: In the first study, male Wistar rats were given NBQX (30 mg/kg x 3) either 20 hours...

  9. Distinguishing linear vs. nonlinear integration in CA1 radial oblique dendrites: it’s about time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco eGómez González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that multiple excitatory inputs to CA1 pyramidal neuron dendrites must be activated nearly simultaneously to generate local dendritic spikes and superlinear responses at the soma; even slight input desynchronization prevented local spike initiation (Gasparini, 2006;Losonczy, 2006. This led to the conjecture that CA1 pyramidal neurons may only express their nonlinear integrative capabilities during the highly synchronized sharp waves and ripples that occur during slow wave sleep and resting/consummatory behavior, whereas during active exploration and REM sleep (theta rhythm, inadequate synchronization of excitation would lead CA1 pyramidal cells to function as essentially linear devices. Using a detailed single neuron model, we replicated the experimentally observed synchronization effect for brief inputs mimicking single synaptic release events. When synapses were driven instead by double pulses, more representative of the bursty inputs that occur in vivo, we found that the tolerance for input desynchronization was increased by more than an order of magnitude. The effect depended mainly on paired pulse facilitation of NMDA receptor-mediated responses at Schaffer collateral synapses. Our results suggest that CA1 pyramidal cells could function as nonlinear integrative units in all major hippocampal states.

  10. Clinical applications of preoperative perforator planning using CT angiography in the anterolateral thigh perforator flap transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the reliability and utility of preoperative perforator planning using computed tomography angiography (CTA) in anterolateral thigh perforator flap (ALTPF) transplantation. Materials and methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients who underwent extremity reconstruction using the ALTPF were retrospectively reviewed from 2008 to 2012. These patients were divided into two groups. In group I (n = 16), suitable perforators were designed based on four criteria using CTA. These were used for the operation and compared with the intraoperative findings. In group II (n = 16), all patients underwent operation using conventional methods without preoperative perforator planning. The surgical results of all patients were evaluated for flap complications, alteration of the donor site, donor site morbidity, and the incidence of reoperation. Results: In group I, there were no statistically significant differences between the parameters, including the calibre and location of the origin (perpendicular and horizontal distance from the origin of the perforator to both the superior lateral border of the patella and the lateral region of the thigh) of all planning perforators and the operative measurement results (p-values were 0.3, 0.422, and 0.129, respectively). The types were consistent with the operative findings; the rate of the septocutaneous type was 31.25% (5/16), and the rate of the musculocutaneous type was 68.75% (11/16). The use of preoperative perforator planning in group I was associated with a significant reduction in flap complications (p = 0.009) compared with group II. There was no difference between the two groups in alteration of the donor site, donor site morbidity, or the incidence of reoperation (p-values were 0.225, 0.225, and 0.33, respectively). Conclusion: Preoperative perforator planning using CTA in ALTPF transplantation is a reliable and useful method resulting in safer operation with optimal outcome

  11. Use of pulsed neutron logging to evaluate perforation washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to the use of pulsed neutron logging techniques before and after perforation washing operations are performed to evaluate the degree of success of the perforation washing operations. Well logging operations of a type designed to respond to the difference between a formation immediately behind the well sheath and voids in the formation are performed both before and after the perforation washing operation. differences between the two resulting logs are then indicative of voids created by perforation washing. In a preferred embodiment, pulsed neutron logging is used as the logging technique, while a weighted brine having a high absorption cross section to pulsed neutrons is used as the perforation washing fluid

  12. Traumatic tympanic membrane perforation: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asef Wani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the various etiologies of traumatic tympanic membrane (TM perforations; their clinical presentation, observation and establish masterly inactivity as the main modality of management. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed on 350 cases of traumatic TM perforation in the Department of ENT, SKIMS Medical College, Srinagar from January 2010 to December 2014. Results: A total of 350 patients with the traumatic TM. Perforation was enrolled for this study. The group consisted of 231 male and 119 female patients. It affects all age groups with the highest incidence among middle age group. The right ear was involved in 94 (26.85% patients, the left ear in 249 (71.14% patients and bilateral ear involvement was seen in 7 (2% patients. The type of trauma included compression injury in 243 (64.42% patients, instrumental injury in 88 (25.14% patients, and blast injury in 19 (5.42% patients. Tinnitus was the most common complaint, followed by aural fullness, impaired hearing, otalgia, bleeding from ear and vertigo. 217 (62% patients presented with conductive hearing loss in the range of 20–35 dB, 77 (22% patients with 35 dB hearing loss, and 28 (8% patients presented with no air-bone gap. Grade I perforation (50% TM involvement was present in 38 (10.90% patients. Complete healing was observed within 2–6 weeks in 172 (49.10% patients and within 7–9 weeks in 112 (32.20% patients. 35 (10% patients showed complete healing within 10–12 weeks. The minimum time taken to heal was 21 days and maximum time 72 days. Complete healing was observed in 319 (91.10% patients. The intervention was only performed when spontaneous healing failed to occur after observing the patients for 1 week and included tympanoplasty in 8 (2.30% patients, trichloroacetic acid cauterization in 14 (4% patients. Residual perforation was observed in 9 (2.5% patients. Conclusion: In our experience, traumatic TM

  13. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on spatial memory and synapses in rat hippocampal CA1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhong Li; Changhua Shi; Guobing Lu; Qian Xu; Shaochen Liu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of mobile phone radiation on spatial learning, reference memory, and morphology in related brain regions. After the near-field radiation (0.52-1.08 W/kg) was delivered to 8-week-old Wistar rats 2 hours per day for 1 month, behavioral changes were examined using the Morris water maze. Compared with the sham-irradiated rats, the irradiated rats exhibited impaired performance. Morphological changes were investigated by examining synaptic ultrastructural changes in the hippocampus. Using the physical dissector technique, the number of pyramidal neurons, the synaptic profiles, and the length of postsynaptic densities in the CA1 region were quantified stereologically. The morphological changes included mitochondrial degenerations, fewer synapses, and shorter postsynaptic densities in the radiated rats. These findings indicate that mobile phone radiation can significantly impair spatial learning and reference memory and induce morphological changes in the hippocampal CA1 region.

  14. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation.

  15. Highly expressed genes within hippocampal sector CA1: implications for the physiology of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Meyer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the CA1 sector has been implicated to play a key role in memory formation, a dedicated search for highly expressed genes within this region was made from an on-line atlas of gene expression within the mouse brain (GENSAT. From a data base of 1013 genes, 16 were identified that had selective localization of gene expression within the CA1 region, and included Angpt2, ARHGEF6, CCK, Cntnap1, DRD3, EMP1, Epha2, Itm2b, Lrrtm2, Mdk, PNMT, Ppm1e, Ppp2r2d, RASGRP1, Slitrk5, and Sstr4. Of the 16 identified, the most selective and intense localization for both adult and post-natal day 7 was noted for ARHGEF6, which is known to be linked to non-syndromic mental retardation, and has also been localized to dendritic spines. Further research on the role played by ARHGEF6 in memory formation is strongly advocated.

  16. Effects of carnosine on the evoked potentials in hippocampal CA1 region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou-yan FENG; Xiao-jing ZHENG; Jing WANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To directly examine the effects of carnosine on neuronal excitation and inhibition in rat hippocampus in vivo. Methods: Artificial cerebrospinal fluid with carnosine was directly administrated over the exposed rat hippocampus. The changes of neuron activity in the CA1 region of hippocampus were evaluated by orthodromically- and antidromically-evoked potentials, as well as paired-pulse stimulation paradigm. Results: In both orthodromic and antidromic response potentials, carnosine transformed population spikes (PSs) with single spike into epileptiform multiple spikes. In addition, similar to the effect of γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) antagonist picrotoxin, carnosine decreased paired-pulse stimulating depression significantly.However, no significant change was observed in the spontaneous field potentials during the application of carnosine. Conclusion:The results indicate a disinhibition-induced excitation effect of carnosine on the CA1 pyramidal neurons. It provides important information against the application of carnosine as a potential anticonvulsant in clinical treatment.

  17. Spontaneous corneal perforation in ocular rosacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Arfaj Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosacea is a dermatologic condition that affects the midfacial region. Ocular rosacea is most frequently diagnosed when cutaneous signs and symptoms are also present. Ocular manifestations are essentially confined to the eyelids and ocular surface. Ocular involvement ranges from minor irritation, dryness, and blurry vision to potentially severe ocular surface disruption including corneal ulcers, vascularization and rarely perforation. We present a 49-year-old Saudi Arabian female with the diagnosis of rosacea who presented with a peripheral corneal performation. The perforation was successfully managed by surgical repair, oral doxycycline and topical steroid. The final best corrected visual acuity was 20/30 after treatment. Early referral to an ophthalmologist and careful long-term follow-up are recommended.

  18. Thyroid Storm Precipitated by Duodenal Ulcer Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Natsuda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening complication of thyrotoxicosis that requires prompt treatment. Thyroid storm is also known to be associated with precipitating events. The simultaneous treatment of thyroid storm and its precipitant, when they are recognized, in a patient is recommended; otherwise such disorders, including thyroid storm, can exacerbate each other. Here we report the case of a thyroid storm patient (a 55-year-old Japanese male complicated with a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient was successfully treated with intensive treatment for thyroid storm and a prompt operation. Although it is believed that peptic ulcer rarely coexists with hyperthyroidism, among patients with thyroid storm, perforation of a peptic ulcer has been reported as one of the causes of fatal outcome. We determined that surgical intervention was required in this patient, reported despite ongoing severe thyrotoxicosis, and reported herein a successful outcome.

  19. Rapunzel syndrome resulting in gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, J S; McAvoy, A; Corless, D J

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old female patient with no past medical history who presented to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain and vomiting on the background of a long history of ingesting hair (trichophagia). Computed tomography revealed pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in keeping with visceral perforation. In addition, a large hair bolus was seen extending in contiguity from the stomach to the jejunum. A laparotomy was performed, revealing an anterior gastric perforation secondary to a 120cm long trichobezoar, which had formed a cast of the entire stomach, duodenum and proximal jejunum. The bezoar was removed and an omental patch repair to the anterior ulcer was performed. The patient made an excellent postoperative recovery and was discharged home with psychiatric follow-up review.

  20. Diffuse epithelial ingrowth after perforating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, M; Kirchhof, B; Hartmann, C

    1987-01-01

    Diffuse epithelial ingrowth was observed in 2 patients after perforating keratoplasty. Both cases involved a corneal graft after perforating injury with aphakia. In the first patient, the epithelial invasion was probably stimulated by a spatula synecholysis. In this case, the diagnosis was only made by histological investigation after enucleation. In the second patient the epithelial ingrowth was observed 8 months after keratoplasty. The clinical diagnosis was made on the basis of the typical slitlamp findings. In this case, the epithelial invasion led to hypotension with high resistance of outflow measured by electrotonography. In a very close chronological relation to the probable fall of chamber fluid secretion, development of a band-shaped keratopathy was observed.

  1. Effects of carnosine on the evoked potentials in hippocampal CA1 region*

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Zhou-yan; Zheng, Xiao-jing; Wang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To directly examine the effects of carnosine on neuronal excitation and inhibition in rat hippocampus in vivo. Methods: Artificial cerebrospinal fluid with carnosine was directly administrated over the exposed rat hippocampus. The changes of neuron activity in the CA1 region of hippocampus were evaluated by orthodromically- and antidromically-evoked potentials, as well as paired-pulse stimulation paradigm. Results: In both orthodromic and antidromic response potentials, carnosine t...

  2. Entorhinal theta-frequency input to the dentate gyrus trisynaptically evokes hippocampal CA1 LTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eStepan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There exists substantial evidence that some forms of explicit learning in mammals require long-term potentiation (LTP at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. While CA1 LTP has been well characterized at the monosynaptic level, it still remains unclear how the afferent systems to the hippocampus can initiate formation of this neuroplastic phenomenon. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in a mouse brain slice preparation, we show that evoked entorhinal cortical (EC theta-frequency input to the dentate gyrus highly effectively generates waves of neuronal activity which propagate through the entire trisynaptic circuit of the hippocampus (‘HTC-Waves’. This flow of activity, which we also demonstrate in vivo, critically depends on frequency facilitation of mossy fiber to CA3 synaptic transmission. The HTC-Waves are rapidly boosted by the cognitive enhancer caffeine (5 µM and the stress hormone corticosterone (100 nM. They precisely follow the rhythm of the EC input, involve high-frequency firing (>100 Hz of CA3 pyramidal neurons, and induce NMDA receptor-dependent CA1 LTP within a few seconds. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that synchronous theta-rhythmical spiking of EC stellate cells, as occurring during EC theta oscillations, has the capacity to drive induction of CA1 LTP via the hippocampal trisynaptic pathway. Moreover, we present data pointing to a basic filter mechanism of the hippocampus regarding EC inputs and describe a methodology to reveal alterations in the ‘input-output relationship’ of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit.

  3. Protective roles of heat stress on the neurons in hippocampal CA1 region of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chunxu; WANG Hanxing

    2007-01-01

    The effects of heat stress on the neurons in hippocampal CA1 region of brain ischemia/reperfusion were explored.The mice were pretreated with heat stress followed by ischemia/reperfusion by clipping bilateral cervical common arteries for 7 min.Mice were divided randomly into four groups as follows:(1)normal control group;(2)heat stress pretreated subsequent to ischemia/reperfusion group (HS/IR);(3)ischemia/reperfusion group(IR);and(4)heat stress group(HS).Animals in the last three groups were subdivided into three subgroups:1 d,4 d,14 d respectively.The Morris water maze was used to test the ability of learning and memorizing,Nissl staining was used to count the average number of survived neurons in hippocampal CA1 region,and immunohistochemistry combined with image analysis system to detect the changes of Microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2)expression.The results showed that mice in IR group exhibited increased escape latency when compared with that of normal,HS and HS/IR groups(P<0.01),and the mice in IR group adopted an inefficient search strategy,major in circling and restricted searching manners.Nissl staining results showed a significant reduction in the number of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 regions in HS/IR and IR groups,with a decrease in IR group(P<0.01).Compared with normal group,the expression of MAP-2 in hippocampal CA1 region obviously decreased in IR group(P<0.05).The present results indicate that heat stress pretreatment can improve the spatial learning and memorizing function through protection to hippocampal neurons.

  4. MAPK SIGNALING IS CRITICAL TO ESTRADIOL PROTECTION OF CA1 NEURONS IN GLOBAL ISCHEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jover-Mengual, Teresa; Zukin, R. Suzanne; Etgen, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of hormone therapy in affording protection against the sequelae of global ischemia in postmenopausal women remains controversial. Global ischemia arising during cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery causes highly selective, delayed death of hippocampal CA1 neurons. Exogenous estradiol ameliorates global ischemia-induced neuronal death and cognitive impairment in male and female rodents. However, the molecular mechanisms by which estrogens intervene in global ischemia-induced apopto...

  5. Vitrectomy in double-perforation gunshot injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El Alim Mohamed A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Abd El Alim MohamedOphthalmology department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptObjective: This study sought to evaluate the result of pars plana vitrectomy in patients with gunshot wounds involving double perforation.Methods: This was a retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series.Results: Eighteen patients (18 eyes with double-perforation gunshot injuries were treated from February 2010 to March 2012. The group included 16 men (88% and two women (11%; the mean age was 24 (15–33 years. In each case, vitrectomy was scheduled 1–6 weeks after repair of the entrance site. Associated retinal detachments were observed in two eyes (11%, retinal incarceration was observed surrounding the exit site in three eyes (16%, and retention of an intraocular foreign body was observed in two cases. After a follow-up period of 8 ± 2 months, two eyes (11% had achieved visual acuity (VA of 0.5, nine eyes (50% had achieved VA between 0.5 and 0.1, and seven eyes (38% had achieved VA between 0.1 and hand movement. The main reasons for functional failure (VA 0.1 to hand movement were macular dragging (due to fibrosis at the exit site near the macula in seven cases (38%, submacular hemorrhage in four cases (22%, and epimacular fibrosis in five cases (27%. All cases developed postoperative exotropia. One case (5% developed postoperative hemorrhage. No cases exhibited signs of postoperative redetachment.Conclusion: The outcome of pars plana vitrectomy in cases with double perforations is variable. Factors including the surgeon's skill level, the time to surgery, and the efficacy of the intraocular tamponade affect the postoperative outcome.Keywords: pars plana vitrectomy, gunshot injury, double perforation

  6. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate.

  7. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate. PMID:20065833

  8. Homogenization of eigenvalue problems in perforated domains

    OpenAIRE

    Vanninathan, M.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, we treat some eigenvalue problems in periodically perforated domains and study the asymptotic behaviour of the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors when the number of holes in the domain increases to infinity Using the method of asymptotic expansion, we give explicit formula for the homogenized coefficients and expansion for eigenvalues and eigenvectors. If we denote by ε the size of each hole in the domain, then we obtain the following aysmptotic expansion for the eigenvalues: Dir...

  9. Intrathoracic Gastric Perforation in a Child

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    Mithat Günaydın

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paraesophageal hernia (PEH is a rare condition in children. The symptomatology of these patients is usually non-specific in the form of repeated attacks of respiratory infection and/or recurrent attacks of vomiting but can also lead to serious complications such as intrathoracic gastric strangulation and perforation. Case Report: A 6-year old girl was referred from a regional hospital for haematemesis and abdominal pain. She had fever and sepsis. Physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness, rebound and failure to thrive. Air-fluid level was seen in the posterior of left hemithorax at the AP and lateral chest radiographs. Thorax CT demonstrated pleural fluid, opacity, volume loss and left lung being pushed to the right of heart. Stomach and splenic flexura were moved to the left hemithorax. At laparatomy, stomach and splenic flexura had passed along the esophageal hiatus toward the chest and fundus of the stomach was perforated within the hernia sac. Greater curvature and fundus of the stomach were necrotic and hernia sac and intraabdominal space was filled with food. Stomach was pulled into the abdomen. Hernia sac was excised and defect was primarly repaired. Necrotic areas of the stomach were debrided. Then, perforation of stomach was repaired and gastrostomy was performed. Control esophagogastroduodenography revealed a 2 cm filling defect at the greater curvature and fundus of stomach due to previous gastric resection. Antireflux medical treatment was successful.Conclusion: PEH may be asymptomatic and encountered incidentally. It has the potential for serious complications such as strangulation and perforation which may present with unusual symptoms and physical findings reflecting the original pathology. Due to the risk of these serious complications, elective surgical repair is necessary after diagnosis. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2012; 10: 36-9

  10. Traumatic Tympanic Membrane perforation: An aetiological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabi Biodun S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic perforation of the tympanic membrane may be due to direct or indirect source. The aim of the study is to profile the various aetiologies of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation in Ilorin, north central Nigeria. A retrospective review of 64 patients seen at the University of Ilorin Teaching hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria over a ten year period (January 1998 to Dec 2007 with history of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation from various causes, these also included multiply injured patients with bleeding from middle ear as part of their presentations. The data retrieved included the biodata, the clinical presentations, source of injury, the clinical findings and the treatment outcome. The data were entered into an SPSS version 11 computer soft ware and analyzed descriptively. Findings Sixty four (64 ears were analysed, Age range 6 months to 50 yrs, mean age of 29.2 yrs 7.9% of them were ≤5 years, 29.7% between 21-34 years, and 37.7% were 35 years and above. The male to female ratio was 2.5:1.0. Commonest aetiology was from slaps, then road traffic injury (RTI in 35.9% and 23.5%, Majority of the slap injury were from fights (30.5%, security agents, senior students and cultists at schools (17.4% each. Sudden hearing loss was a typical presentation (95.3%, majority of the patient defaulted from follow up once the symptoms of bleeding and pain subsided. Only 7.8% had neomembrane formation on follow up Conclusion Traumatic perforation of the tympanic membrane is an uncommon injury that is under-reported, there is the need to educate on alternative punitive measure among students and security agents, unskilled removal of foreign body, early identification, evaluation and referral of patients reduces the attendant morbidity.

  11. Gastric schwannoma coexists with peptic ulcer perforation

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    Volkan İnce

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric schwannoma is a benign neoplasm that originates from sheet of nerve cell in stomach. Differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, (GISTs which have malign potential, than these tumors, which definite diagnosis is determined by histopathological and immunohistochemical methods have clinical significance due to gastric schwannomas have excellent progress after surgical resection. We presented a case of gastric schwannoma coexists with peptic ulcer perforation with guide of literature in this study.

  12. PERFORATED PEPTIC ULCER: A CLINICAL ANALYSIS AND OUTCOME

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    Bijit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The incidence of perforated peptic ulcer is approximately 7-10 cases per one lakh population per year. Perforation is seen in about 7% of patients hospitalized for peptic ulcer disease. Peptic ulcer perforation, which can be gastric/duodenal perforation can be a serious life-threatening condition if not detected early and treated urgently. Peptic ulcer disease has decreased considerably worldwide with the advent of potent anti-ulcer medicines, but its complication like peptic ulcer perforation has not. Our study is to analyse the clinical, radiological and management related findings in influencing the outcome of patients of peptic ulcer perforation after surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS A series of 47 patients of peptic ulcer perforation were evaluated. Patients expiring within six hours of admission were not included in this study. RESULTS Age of the patients ranged from 17-80 years. The incidence of perforation was highest in the age group of 41-50 years (31.9%. Out of 47 patients, 41 (87.2% survived. CONCLUSION The incidence of perforation was highest in the age group of 41-50 years. Prognosis becomes poor with age, delayed treatment, shock at admission and concomitant diseases. Direct repair of the perforation with pedicled omentum gave excellent results.

  13. Identification and two-photon imaging of oligodendrocyte in CA1 region of hippocampal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oligodendrocyte (OL) plays a critical role in myelination and axon maintenance in central nervous system. Recent studies show that OL can also express NMDA receptors in development and pathological situations in white matter. There is still lack of studies about OL properties and function in gray matter of brain. Here we reported that some glial cells in CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices (P15-23) had distinct electrophysiological characteristics from the other glia cells in this region, while they displayed uniform properties with OL from white matter in previous report; therefore, they were considered as OL in hippocampus. By loading dye in recording pipette and imaging with two-photon laser scanning microscopy, we acquired the high spatial resolution, three-dimension images of these special cells in live slices. The OL in hippocampus shows a complex process-bearing shape and the distribution of several processes is parallel to Schaffer fiber in CA1 region. When stimulating Schaffer fiber, OL displays a long duration depolarization mediated by inward rectifier potassium channel. This suggested that the OL in CA1 region could sense the neuronal activity and contribute to potassium clearance

  14. Regulation of Astroglia on Synaptic Plasticity in the CA1 Region of Rat Hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The regulation of astroglia on synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of rat hippocampus was examined. Rats were divided into three groups: the newly born (<24 h), the juvenile (28-30days) and the adult groups (90-100 days), with each group having 20 animals. The CA1 region of rat hippocampus was immunohistochemically and electron-microscopically examined, respectively,for the growth of astroglia and the ultrastructure of synapses. The high performance liquid chromatography was employed to determine the cholesterol content of rat hippocampus. In the newly-born rats, a large number of neurons were noted in the hippocampal CA1 region of the newly-born rats,and few astroglia and no synaptic structure were observed. In the juvenile group, a few astroglias and some immature synapses were found, which were less than those in adult rats (P<0.01). The cholesterol content was 2.92±0.03 mg/g, 11.20± 3.41 mg/g and 12.91 ± 1.25 mg/g for newly born, the juvenile and the adult groups, respectively, with the differences among them being statistically significant (P<0.01). Our study suggests that the astrocytes may play an important role in the synaptic formation and functional maturity of hippocampal neurons, which may be related to the secretion of cholesterol from astrocytes.

  15. Temporal dynamics of distinct CA1 cell populations during unconscious state induced by ketamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Kuang

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a widely used dissociative anesthetic which can induce some psychotic-like symptoms and memory deficits in some patients during the post-operative period. To understand its effects on neural population dynamics in the brain, we employed large-scale in vivo ensemble recording techniques to monitor the activity patterns of simultaneously recorded hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and various interneurons during several conscious and unconscious states such as awake rest, running, slow wave sleep, and ketamine-induced anesthesia. Our analyses reveal that ketamine induces distinct oscillatory dynamics not only in pyramidal cells but also in at least seven different types of CA1 interneurons including putative basket cells, chandelier cells, bistratified cells, and O-LM cells. These emergent unique oscillatory dynamics may very well reflect the intrinsic temporal relationships within the CA1 circuit. It is conceivable that systematic characterization of network dynamics may eventually lead to better understanding of how ketamine induces unconsciousness and consequently alters the conscious mind.

  16. Electrophysiological actions of cyclosporin A and tacrolimus on rat hip-pocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong YU; Xue-qin CHEN; Yao-yuan CUI; Guo-yuan HU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the electrophysiological actions of cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506) on neurons in the brain, and to elucidate the relevant mechanisms. Methods: Whole-cell current-clamp recording was made in CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices; whole- cell voltage-clamp recording was made in dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyrami- dal neurons of rats. Results: CsA (100 μmol/L) and FKS06 (50 μmol/L) did not significantly alter the passive electrical properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, but slowed down the repolarizing phase of the action potential. CsA (10-100 μmol/L) selectively inhibited the delayed rectifier K~ current (IK,) in a concentration-dependent manner. CsA did not affect the kinetic properties of IK. Intracellular dialysis of CsA (100 μmol/L) had no effect on IK. The inhibition of IK by CsA (100/μmol/L) persisted under the low Ca2+ conditions that blocked the basal activity of calcineurin. Conclusion: CsA exerted calcineurin-independent inhibition on the IK in rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Taken together with our previous finding with FK506, it is conceivable that the spike broadening caused by the immunosuppressant drugs is due to direct inhibition on the IK.

  17. Exercise preconditioning exhibits neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabi Shamsaei; Mehdi Khaksari; Sohaila Erfani; Hamid Rajabi; Nahid Aboutaleb

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise on cerebral isch-emic injury. However, the role of physical exercise in cerebral ischemia-induced hippocampal damage remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pre-ischemia treadmill training on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. Male adult rats were randomly divided into control, ischemia and exercise + ischemia groups. In the exercise + ischemia group, rats were subjected to running on a treadmill in a designated time schedule (5 days per week for 4 weeks). Then rats underwent cerebral ischemia induction th rough occlusion of common carotids followed by reperfusion. At 4 days after cerebral ischemia, rat learning and memory abilities were evaluated using passive avoidance memory test and rat hippocampal neuronal damage was detected using Nissl and TUNEL staining. Pre-ischemic ex-ercise signiifcantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and necrotic cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region as compared to the ischemia group. Moreover, pre-ischemic exercise significantly prevented ischemia-induced memory dysfunction. Pre-ischemic exercise mighct prevent memory deficits after cerebral ischemia through rescuing hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemia-induced degeneration.

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging in transient global amnesia exposes the CA1 region of the hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Weon, Young-Cheol; Youn, Sung Won; Kim, Sung Hyun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si (Korea); Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, Sang Yun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si (Korea)

    2007-06-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterized by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia without alteration of consciousness or personal identity. Interestingly, recent studies have reported a high frequency of small high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, and ischemia has been proposed as an etiology of TGA. We hypothesized that TGA lesions occur preferentially in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, known to be susceptible to ischemia. Over a 30-month period 34 patients with TGA underwent MRI including DW imaging within 4 days of symptom onset. Patients with high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus on the initial DW images underwent subsequent DW and T2-weighted imaging in the coronal plane to identify the precise lesion locations. Fourteen patients had small (1-3 mm) high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus unilaterally on DW images. One of these patients had two lesions in one hippocampus and therefore in total 15 lesions were identified: four in the hippocampal head, and 11 in the body. Eleven lesions in ten patients with available coronal images were clearly demonstrated on both coronal DW and T2-weighted images and were localized to the lateral portion of the hippocampus, corresponding to the CA1 region. Lesions associated with TGA were localized exclusively to the lateral portion of the hippocampus corresponding to the CA1 region. This finding supports the ischemic etiology of TGA; however, the pathophysiological mechanism involved requires further study. (orig.)

  19. Upregulated H-Current in hyperexcitable CA1 dendrites after febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatic recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells indicated a persistent upregulation of the h-current (Ih after experimental febrile seizures. Here, we examined febrile seizure-induced long-term changes in Ih and neuronal excitability in CA1 dendrites. Cell-attached recordings showed that dendritic Ih was significantly upregulated, with a depolarized half-activation potential and increased maximal current. Although enhanced Ih is typically thought to be associated with decreased dendritic excitability, whole-cell dendritic recordings revealed a robust increase in action potential firing after febrile seizures. We turned to computational simulations to understand how the experimentally observed changes in Ih influence dendritic excitability. Unexpectedly, the simulations, performed in three previously published CA1 pyramidal cell models, showed that the experimentally observed increases in Ih resulted in a general enhancement of dendritic excitability, primarily due to the increased Ih-induced depolarization of the resting membrane potential overcoming the excitability-depressing effects of decreased dendritic input resistance. Taken together, these experimental and modeling results reveal that, contrary to the exclusively anti-convulsive role often attributed to increased Ih in epilepsy, the enhanced Ih can co-exist with, and possibly even contribute to, persistent dendritic hyperexcitability following febrile seizures in the developing hippocampus.

  20. Vector Symbolic Spiking Neural Network Model of Hippocampal Subarea CA1 Novelty Detection Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerskov, Claus

    2016-04-01

    A neural network model is presented of novelty detection in the CA1 subdomain of the hippocampal formation from the perspective of information flow. This computational model is restricted on several levels by both anatomical information about hippocampal circuitry and behavioral data from studies done in rats. Several studies report that the CA1 area broadcasts a generalized novelty signal in response to changes in the environment. Using the neural engineering framework developed by Eliasmith et al., a spiking neural network architecture is created that is able to compare high-dimensional vectors, symbolizing semantic information, according to the semantic pointer hypothesis. This model then computes the similarity between the vectors, as both direct inputs and a recalled memory from a long-term memory network by performing the dot-product operation in a novelty neural network architecture. The developed CA1 model agrees with available neuroanatomical data, as well as the presented behavioral data, and so it is a biologically realistic model of novelty detection in the hippocampus, which can provide a feasible explanation for experimentally observed dynamics. PMID:26890351

  1. Vector Symbolic Spiking Neural Network Model of Hippocampal Subarea CA1 Novelty Detection Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerskov, Claus

    2016-04-01

    A neural network model is presented of novelty detection in the CA1 subdomain of the hippocampal formation from the perspective of information flow. This computational model is restricted on several levels by both anatomical information about hippocampal circuitry and behavioral data from studies done in rats. Several studies report that the CA1 area broadcasts a generalized novelty signal in response to changes in the environment. Using the neural engineering framework developed by Eliasmith et al., a spiking neural network architecture is created that is able to compare high-dimensional vectors, symbolizing semantic information, according to the semantic pointer hypothesis. This model then computes the similarity between the vectors, as both direct inputs and a recalled memory from a long-term memory network by performing the dot-product operation in a novelty neural network architecture. The developed CA1 model agrees with available neuroanatomical data, as well as the presented behavioral data, and so it is a biologically realistic model of novelty detection in the hippocampus, which can provide a feasible explanation for experimentally observed dynamics.

  2. Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal area CA1-subiculum projection: implications for theories of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, S M; Commins, S; Anderson, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews investigations of synaptic plasticity in the major, and underexplored, pathway from hippocampal area CA1 to the subiculum. This brain area is the major synaptic relay for the majority of hippocampal area CA1 neurons, making the subiculum the last relay of the hippocampal formation prior to the cortex. The subiculum thus has a very major role in mediating hippocampal-cortical interactions. We demonstrate that the projection from hippocampal area CA1 to the subiculum sustains plasticity on a number of levels. We show that this pathway is capable of undergoing both long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF, a short-term plastic effect). Although we failed to induce long-term depression (LTD) of this pathway with low-frequency stimulation (LFS) and two-pulse stimulation (TPS), both protocols can induce a "late-developing" potentiation of synaptic transmission. We further demonstrate that baseline synaptic transmission can be dissociated from paired-pulse stimulation of the same pathway; we also show that it is possible, using appropriate protocols, to change PPF to paired-pulse depression, thus revealing subtle and previously undescribed mechanisms which regulate short-term synaptic plasticity. Finally, we successfully recorded from individual subicular units in the freely-moving animal, and provide a description of the characteristics of such neurons in a pellet-chasing task. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to theories of the biological consolidation of memory.

  3. Breast cancer 1 (BrCa1 may be behind decreased lipogenesis in adipose tissue from obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Ortega

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1 interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P- BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. RESULTS: BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002 and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001 adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007 as well as in OM (p = 0.010 fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001 and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001 were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005 allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium, whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects.

  4. Dust collection with systems of perforated plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onderka, G.; Wessel, J.

    1983-05-01

    Investigations were conducted on pressure drop and dust collection efficiency in a system of perforated plates. The following parameters were varied: number of plates (1 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 15), dust concentration (4 less than or equal to zeta/sub R/ less than or equal to 60 g/m/sup 3/), plate spacing (4 less than or equal to H less than or equal to 32 mm), coverage of filter (0 less than or equal to m/sub F/ less than or equal to 1,400 g), dust inlet velocity (0.4 less than or equal to ..nu../sub F/ less than or equal to 3 m/s), which together with plate geometry (hole diameter d/sub L/, fractional free hole area phi) determine the hole velocity ..nu../sub L/. Compared to a packed bed, perforated plates show longer operating periods. In the case of larger free volume, more collected dust can be deposited. The increase in pressure drop with filter loading, across perforated plates, is less than that in a packed bed filter. (orig.)

  5. Medical image of the week: eosphageal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 74 year old man with a past medical history of esophageal strictures status post dilatation, coronary artery disease status post CABG, and atrial fibrillation presented to hospital with complaints of severe chest pain that began after the consumption of tortilla chips one hour prior to presentation. Electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes were not consistent with acute coronary syndrome. Chest X-ray was consistent with a widened mediastinal silhouette. Contrast esophogram was negative for extra luminal extravasation. CT scan of the chest with oral contrast demonstrated thickening of the mid-thoracic esophagus with an extra-luminal focus of gas in the mediastinum along with fluid along the inferior aspect of the esophagus (Figures 1 and 2. These findings were concerning for esophageal perforation. The patient was taken to the operating room for endoscopy which showed micro perforation in mid-esophagus. Esophageal perforation remains a highly morbid condition. Mortality rates are based predominantly on time of ...

  6. Tuberculous gastric perforation: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deborshi; Gupta, Arun; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Agrawal, Vivek; Dargan, Puneet; Upreti, Lalendra; Arora, Vinod

    2004-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman presented with a 2-day history of acute abdominal pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a perforation in the lesser curve of the stomach. The patient suffered a bout of hematemesis, following which an endoscopy showed a bleeding blood vessel at the edge of the perforation. We performed an emergency distal gastrectomy, including the ulcer site. Histopathological examination revealed tuberculous granulation tissue and acid-fast bacilli in the ulcer. The patient was given antituberculosis therapy (ATT) postoperatively, and was well when last seen 1 year 5 months after surgery. We analyzed the clinical data of five cases of tuberculous gastric perforation (TGP), reported between 1948 and 2003, including our patient. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 45 years, with a mean age of 36.8 years (SD +/- 10.21), and a male to female ratio of 3 : 2. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery or autopsy. Abdominal lymphadenopathy was present in all patients. Gastrectomy was performed in four patients, and two were given ATT. All four patients in the previous reports died of their disease.

  7. Opposite monosynaptic scaling of BLP-vCA1 inputs governs hopefulness- and helplessness-modulated spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jin, Sen; Gao, Di; Liu, Nan; Chen, Shan-Ping; Zhang, Sinan; Liu, Qing; Liu, Enjie; Wang, Xin; Liang, Xiao; Wei, Pengfei; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Yin; Yue, Chenyu; Li, Hong-Lian; Wang, Ya-Li; Wang, Qun; Ke, Dan; Xie, Qingguo; Xu, Fuqiang; Wang, Liping; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Different emotional states lead to distinct behavioural consequences even when faced with the same challenging events. Emotions affect learning and memory capacities, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain elusive. Here we establish models of learned helplessness (LHL) and learned hopefulness (LHF) by exposing animals to inescapable foot shocks or with anticipated avoidance trainings. The LHF animals show spatial memory potentiation with excitatory monosynaptic upscaling between posterior basolateral amygdale (BLP) and ventral hippocampal CA1 (vCA1), whereas the LHL show memory deficits with an attenuated BLP-vCA1 connection. Optogenetic disruption of BLP-vCA1 inputs abolishes the effects of LHF and impairs synaptic plasticity. By contrast, targeted BLP-vCA1 stimulation rescues the LHL-induced memory deficits and mimics the effects of LHF. BLP-vCA1 stimulation increases synaptic transmission and dendritic plasticity with the upregulation of CREB and intrasynaptic AMPA receptors in CA1. These findings indicate that opposite excitatory monosynaptic scaling of BLP-vCA1 controls LHF- and LHL-modulated spatial memory, revealing circuit-specific mechanisms linking emotions to memory. PMID:27411738

  8. Kinetic changes and modulation by carbamazepine on voltage-gated sodium channels in rat CA1 neurons after epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Sun; T.R. Werkman; W.J. Wadman

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study whether the functional properties of sodium channels, and subsequently the channel modulation by carbamazepine (CBZ) in hippocampal CA1 neurons can be changed after epileptic seizures. METHODS: We used the acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells from epilepsy model rats 3 w

  9. Intrauterine devices and risk of uterine perforation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sam Rowlands,1 Emeka Oloto,2 David H Horwell3 1Centre of Postgraduate Medical Research and Education, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK; 2Staffordshire and Stoke on Trent Partnership NHS Trust, Leicester, UK; 3Spire Harpenden Hospital, Harpenden, UK Abstract: Uterine perforation is an uncommon complication of intrauterine device insertion, with an incidence of one in 1,000 insertions. Perforation may be complete, with the device totally in the abdominal cavity, or partial, with the device to varying degrees within the uterine wall. Some studies show a positive association between lactation and perforation, but a causal relationship has not been established. Very rarely, a device may perforate into bowel or the urinary tract. Perforated intrauterine devices can generally be removed successfully at laparoscopy. Keywords: uterine perforation, intrauterine device, intrauterine system

  10. Catheter perforation of distal oesophagus with duodenal re-entry of catheter. Report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundgaard, T.; Kristensen, H.; Lesak, F.

    An unusual case of perforation of the oesophagus is presented. A nasogastric tube had perforated the oesophagus and re-penetrated into the duodenum, and thereby re-entered the gastrointestinal tract without perforating the peritoneum and without causing the classical clinical signs of oesophageal perforation. Treatment was started 31 days after the perforation.

  11. Low-Cost Control Problems on Perforated and Non-Perforated Domains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kesavan; T Muthukumar

    2008-02-01

    We study the homogenization of a class of optimal control problems whose state equations are given by second order elliptic boundary value problems with oscillating coefficients posed on perforated and non-perforated domains. We attempt to describe the limit problem when the cost of the control is also of the same order as that describing the oscillations of the coefficients. We study the situations where the control and the state are both defined over the entire domain or when both are defined on the boundary.

  12. Aeroacoustic control of landing gear noise using perforated fairings

    OpenAIRE

    Boorsma, Koen

    2008-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate and optimize the application of perforated fairings for landing gear noise control. The sparse knowledge about this new subject has necessitated a more fundamental study involving a basic fairing-strut configuration, followed by wind tunnel tests on a simplified landing gear configuration incorporating perforated fairings. For the basic configuration, various exchangeable perforated half-cylindrical shells shrouding a circular cylinder we...

  13. Perforated duodenal diverticulum caused by Bezoar: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Park, Seong Jin; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Duodenal diverticulum is common, but its perforation is a rare complication. Duodenal diverticulum perforation requires prompt treatments because of its high mortality rate. However, an accurate diagnosis is difficult to make due to nonspecific symptoms and signs. It can be misdiagnosed as pancreatitis, cholecystitis, or peptic ulcer. Herein, we report a case of perforated duodenal diverticulum caused by bezoar in a 33-year-old woman whom was diagnosed by abdomen computed tomography and ultrasonography.

  14. An Unusual Etiology of Spontaneous Pyometra Perforation; A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Rachna; Suneja, Amita; Sharma, Abha; Vaid, Neelam Bala

    2011-01-01

    Introduction By presenting this case we aimed to describe an uncommon complication of generalized peritonitis following spontaneous pyometra perforation in untreated cervical carcinoma. Case Presentation This report describes a 60-year-old postmenopausal woman presenting with clinical features mimicking intestinal perforation who was later diagnosed as cervical carcinoma with pyometra perforation at exploratory laparotomy. The patient had good post-operative recovery following drainage and pe...

  15. Spontaneous Uterine Perforation Caused by Pyometra: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi, Zohreh; Sharifi, Noorieh; Morshedy, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pyometra is an accumulation of purulent material or pus in the uterine cavity. Spontaneous perforation of uterus by pyometra is rare. This is a clinical presentation and management of a spontaneous perforation of uterine caused by pyometra. Case Presentation: This is a case report on spontaneously perforated associated with pyometra secondary to cervical malignancy. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Conclusi...

  16. Spontaneous Uterine Perforation Due to Pyometra Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Sarada Prasanna; Dora, Arun Kumar; Harika, M.; Kumar, K. Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of uterus is rare, its incidence being about 0.01%-0.5%. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum caused by spontaneously perforated pyometra. A 50-year postmenopausal lady with abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. Laparotomy was performed because of the suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation with generalized peritonitis. At laparotomy about 1,500 ml of pus present in peritoneal cavity and whole of alimentary tract and gallbladder we...

  17. Effect of Perforated Plates on the Acoustics of Annular Combustors

    OpenAIRE

    Gullaud, Elsa; Nicoud, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to show the influence of perforated plates on the acoustic modes in aeronautical gas turbine combustion chambers. The analytical model was implemented in a three-dimensional acoustic Helmholtz solver to account for the effect of perforated plates. First, an analytic test case is used to validate the coding in the acoustic solver. Then, a computation of the acoustic modes in an actual industrial chamber is conducted, taking into account the perforated liners. For both cases, a ...

  18. Local and distortional buckling of perforated steel wall studs

    OpenAIRE

    Kesti, Jyrki

    2000-01-01

    The local and distortional buckling behaviour of flange and web-stiffened compression members was investigated. In particular, the behaviour of web-perforated sections was investigated both numerically and experimentally. Perforation reduces the perpendicular flexural stiffness of the web and thus particularly reduces the distortional buckling strength of the section. The main task of the research was to develop a design method for estimating the compression capacity of a perforated steel wal...

  19. Low Voltage Electric Current Causing Ileal Perforation: A Rare Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Vinay; Tanger, Ramesh; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Post-electric burn ileal perforation is a rare but severe complication leading to high morbidity and mortality if there is delay in diagnosis and management. We are describing a case of electric current injury of left forearm, chest, and abdominal wall with perforation of ileum in an 8-year old boy. Patient was successfully managed by primary closure of the ileal perforation. PMID:27170922

  20. Perforation of the duodenum by an ingested toothbrush

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We report a rare case of duodenal perforation caused by an ingested 12-cm long toothbrush handle. A 22-year-old female presented with intermittent epigas- tric pain for 6 d after swallowing a broken toothbrush. The swallowed toothbrush could not be removed from the second portion of the duodenum by endoscopy. Laparotomy revealed a perforation in the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb. The toothbrush was removed via the perforation which was debrided and closed. There were no postoperative complications.

  1. Low Voltage Electric Current Causing Ileal Perforation: A Rare Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Pratap Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-electric burn ileal perforation is a rare but severe complication leading to high morbidity and mortality if there is delay in diagnosis and management. We are describing a case of electric current injury of left forearm, chest, and abdominal wall with perforation of ileum in an 8-year old boy. Patient was successfully managed by primary closure of the ileal perforation.

  2. PERFORATION OF PLASTIC SPHERICAL SHELLS UNDER IMPACT BY CYLINDRICAL PROJECTILES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Jian-guo; SONG Wei-dong

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to study the perforation of a plastic spherical shell impacted by a cylindrical projectile. First, the deformation modes of the shell were given by introducing an isometric transformation. Then, the perforation mechanism of the shell was analyzed and an analytical model was advanced. Based on Hamilton principle, the governing equation was obtained and solved using Runge-Kuta method. Finally, some important theoretical predictions were given to describe the perforation mechanism of the shell. The results will play an important role in understanding the perforation mechanism of spherical shells impacted by a projectile.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of olive oil in the hippocampus CA1 neurons following ischemia: Reperfusion in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transient global ischemia induces selective, delayed neuronal death of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1. Oxidative Stress is considered to be involved in a number of human diseases including ischemia. Preliminary studies confirmed reduction of cell death in brain following treatment with antioxidants. Aim: According to this finding, we study the relationship between consumption of olive oil on cell death and memory disorder in brain ischemia. We studied the protective effect of olive oil against ischemia-reperfusion. Material and Methods: Experimental design includes three groups: Intact (n = 8, ischemic control (n = 8 and treatment groups with olive oil (n = 8. The mice treated with olive oil as pre-treatment for a week. Then, ischemia induced by common carotid artery ligation and following the reduction of inflammation [a week after ischemia], the mice post-treated with olive oil. Nissl staining applied for counting necrotic cells in hippocampus CA1. Tunnel kit was used to quantify apoptotic cell death while to short term memory scale, we apply y-maze and shuttle box tests and for detection the rate of apoptotic and treated cell, we used western blotting test for bax and bcl2 proteins. Results: High rate of apoptosis was seen in ischemic group that significantly associated with short-term memory loss. Cell death was significantly lower when mice treated with olive oil. The memory test results were adjusted with cell death results and bax and bcl2 expression in all groups′ comparison. Ischemia for 15 min induced cell death in hippocampus with more potent effect on CA1. Conclusion: Olive oil intake significantly reduced cell death and decreased memory loss.

  4. Memory Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Correlates with Reduced Hippocampal CA1 and Subiculum Volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Wei Zhang; Jiu-Quan Zhang; Chen Liu; Ping Wei; Xiao Zhang; Qiao-Ying Yuan; Xun-Tao Yin

    2015-01-01

    Background:Little attention has been paid to the role of subcortical deep gray matter (SDGM) structures in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced cognitive impairment,especially hippocampal subfields.Our aims were to assess the in vivo volumes of SDGM structures and hippocampal subfields using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to test their associations with cognitive performance in T2DM.Methods:A total of 80 T2DM patients and 80 neurologically unimpaired healthy controls matched by age,sex and education level was enrolled in this study.We assessed the volumes of the SDGM structures and seven hippocampal subfields on MRI using a novel technique that enabled automated volumetry.We used Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores as measures of cognitive performance.The association of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) with SDGM structures and neuropsychological tests and correlations between hippocampal subfields and neuropsychological tests were assessed by partial correlation analysis in T2DM.Results:Bilaterally,the hippocampal volumes were smaller in T2DM patients,mainly in the CA1 and subiculum subfields.Partial correlation analysis showed that the MoCA scores,particularly those regarding delayed memory,were significantly positively correlated with reduced hippocampal CA 1 and subiculum volumes in T2DM patients.Additionally,higher HbA1c levels were significantly associated with poor memory performance and hippocampal atrophy among T2DM patients.Conclusions:These data indicate that the hippocampus might be the main affected region among the SDGM structures in T2DM.These structural changes in the hippocampal CA1 and subiculum areas might be at the core of underlying neurobiological mechanisms of hippocampal dysfunction,suggesting that degeneration in these regions could be responsible for memory impairments in T2DM patients.

  5. Molecular evidence of synaptic pathology in the CA1 region in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosin, Natalie; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca; Lum, Jeremy S; Engel, Martin; Andrews, Jessica L; Gassen, Nils C; Wagner, Klaus V; Schmidt, Mathias V; Newell, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of postsynaptic density (PSD)95-complex proteins in schizophrenia ostensibly induce deficits in synaptic plasticity, the molecular process underlying cognitive functions. Although some PSD95-complex proteins have been previously examined in the hippocampus in schizophrenia, the status of other equally important molecules is unclear. This is especially true in the cornu ammonis (CA)1 hippocampal subfield, a region that is critically involved in the pathophysiology of the illness. We thus performed a quantitative immunoblot experiment to examine PSD95 and several of its associated proteins in the CA1 region, using post mortem brain samples derived from schizophrenia subjects with age-, sex-, and post mortem interval-matched controls (n=20/group). Our results indicate a substantial reduction in PSD95 protein expression (−61.8%). Further analysis showed additional alterations to the scaffold protein Homer1 (Homer1a: +42.9%, Homer1b/c: −24.6%), with a twofold reduction in the ratio of Homer1b/c:Homer1a isoforms (P=0.011). Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) protein levels were significantly reduced (−32.7%), and Preso, a protein that supports interactions between Homer1 or PSD95 with mGluR1, was elevated (+83.3%). Significant reduction in synaptophysin (−27.8%) was also detected, which is a validated marker of synaptic density. These findings support the presence of extensive molecular abnormalities to PSD95 and several of its associated proteins in the CA1 region in schizophrenia, offering a small but significant step toward understanding how proteins in the PSD are altered in the schizophrenia brain, and their relevance to overall hippocampal and cognitive dysfunction in the illness. PMID:27430010

  6. Regulation of GABA Equilibrium Potential by mGluRs in Rat Hippocampal CA1 Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Rajput, Padmesh S; Kumar, Ujendra; Sastry, Bhagavatula R

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium potential for GABA-A receptor mediated currents (EGABA) in neonatal central neurons is set at a relatively depolarized level, which is suggested to be caused by a low expression of K+/Cl- co-transporter (KCC2) but a relatively high expression of Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1). Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in stratum radiatum induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the current study, the effects of TBS on EGABA in neonatal and juvenile hippocampal CA1 neurons and the underlying mechanisms were examined. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are suggested to modulate KCC2 and NKCC1 levels in cortical neurons. Therefore, the involvement of mGluRs in the regulation of KCC2 or NKCC1 activity, and thus EGABA, following TBS was also investigated. Whole-cell patch recordings were made from Wistar rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, in a slice preparation. In neonates, TBS induces a positive shift in EGABA, which was prevented by NKCC1 antisense but not NKCC1 sense mRNA. (RS)-a-Methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG), a group I and II mGluR antagonist, blocked TBS-induced shifts in both juvenile and neonatal hippocampal neurons. While blockade of mGluR1 or mGluR5 alone could interfere with TBS-induced shifts in EGABA in neonates, only a combined blockade could do the same in juveniles. These results indicate that TBS induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal neurons but a positive shift in neonatal hippocampal neurons via corresponding changes in KCC2 and NKCC1 expressions, respectively. mGluR activation seems to be necessary for both shifts to occur while the specific receptor subtype involved seems to vary.

  7. Regulation of GABA Equilibrium Potential by mGluRs in Rat Hippocampal CA1 Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    Full Text Available The equilibrium potential for GABA-A receptor mediated currents (EGABA in neonatal central neurons is set at a relatively depolarized level, which is suggested to be caused by a low expression of K+/Cl- co-transporter (KCC2 but a relatively high expression of Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1. Theta-burst stimulation (TBS in stratum radiatum induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the current study, the effects of TBS on EGABA in neonatal and juvenile hippocampal CA1 neurons and the underlying mechanisms were examined. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs are suggested to modulate KCC2 and NKCC1 levels in cortical neurons. Therefore, the involvement of mGluRs in the regulation of KCC2 or NKCC1 activity, and thus EGABA, following TBS was also investigated. Whole-cell patch recordings were made from Wistar rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, in a slice preparation. In neonates, TBS induces a positive shift in EGABA, which was prevented by NKCC1 antisense but not NKCC1 sense mRNA. (RS-a-Methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG, a group I and II mGluR antagonist, blocked TBS-induced shifts in both juvenile and neonatal hippocampal neurons. While blockade of mGluR1 or mGluR5 alone could interfere with TBS-induced shifts in EGABA in neonates, only a combined blockade could do the same in juveniles. These results indicate that TBS induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal neurons but a positive shift in neonatal hippocampal neurons via corresponding changes in KCC2 and NKCC1 expressions, respectively. mGluR activation seems to be necessary for both shifts to occur while the specific receptor subtype involved seems to vary.

  8. M-type potassium channels modulate Schaffer collateral-CA1 glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianli; Kapur, Jaideep

    2012-08-15

    Previous studies have suggested that muscarinic receptor activation modulates glutamatergic transmission. M-type potassium channels mediate the effects of muscarinic activation in the hippocampus, and it has been proposed that they modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission. We tested whether M1 muscarinic receptor activation enhances glutamatergic synaptic transmission via the inhibition of the M-type potassium channels that are present in Schaffer collateral axons and terminals. Miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons. The M1 receptor agonist, NcN-A-343, increased the frequency of mEPSCs, but did not alter their amplitude. The M-channel blocker XE991 and its analogue linopirdine also increased the frequency of mEPSCs. Flupirtine, which opens M-channels, had the opposite effect. XE991 did not enhance mEPSCs frequency in a calcium-free external medium. Blocking P/Q- and N-type calcium channels abolished the effect of XE991 on mEPSCs. These data suggested that the inhibition of M-channels increases presynaptic calcium-dependent glutamate release in CA1 pyramidal neurons. The effects of these agents on the membrane potentials of presynaptic CA3 pyramidal neurons were studied using current clamp recordings; activation of M1 receptors and blocking M-channels depolarized neurons and increased burst firing. The input resistance of CA3 neurons was increased by the application of McN-A-343 and XE991; these effects were consistent with the closure of M-channels. Muscarinic activation inhibits M-channels in CA3 pyramidal neurons and its efferents – Schaffer collateral, which causes the depolarization, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and ultimately elevates the intracellular calcium concentration to increase the release of glutamate on CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:22674722

  9. m1 Acetylcholine Receptor Expression is Decreased in Hippocampal CA1 region of Aged Epileptic Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Cavarsan, Clarissa Fantin; Avanzi, Renata Della Torre; Queiroz, Claudio Marcos; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Mello, Luiz Eugênio; Covolan, Luciene

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the possible additive effects of epilepsy and aging on the expression of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) in the rat hippocampus. Young (3 months) and Aged (20 months) male, Wistar rats were treated with pilocarpine to induce status epilepticus (SE). Immunohistochemical procedure for m1 AChR detection was performed 2 months after pilocarpine-induced SE. In the CA1 pyramidal region m1 AChR staining was significantly decreased in aged epileptic ...

  10. Neutron diffraction studies on Ca1-BaZr4P6O24 solid solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S N Achary; O D Jayakumar; S J Patwe; A B Shinde; P S R Krishna; S K Kulshreshtha; A K Tyagi

    2008-11-01

    Herein we report the results of detailed crystallographic studies of Ca1-BaZr4P6O24 compositions from combined Rietveld refinements of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data. All the studied compositions crystallize in rhombohedral lattice (space group R-3 No. 148). A continuous solid solution is concluded from the systematic variation of unit cell parameters. The variation of unit cell parameters with the composition indicates decreasing trend in parameter with increasing Ba2+ concentration contrast to an increasing trend in parameter.

  11. Altered intrinsic excitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in aged PDAPP mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eTamagnini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidopathy involves the accumulation of insoluble amyloid β (Aβ species in the brain’s parenchyma and is a key histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Work on transgenic mice that overexpress A suggests that elevated A levels in the brain are associated with aberrant epileptiform activity and increased intrinsic excitability of CA1 hippocampal neurons. In this study we examined if similar changes could be observed in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from aged PDAPP mice (20-23 month old, Indiana mutation: V717F on APP gene compared to their age-matched WT littermate controls. Whole-cell current clamp recordings revealed that sub-threshold intrinsic properties, such as input resistance, resting membrane potential and hyperpolarization activated sag were unaffected, but capacitance was significantly decreased in the transgenic animals. No differences between genotypes were observed in the overall number of action potentials (AP elicited by 500 ms supra-threshold current stimuli. PDAPP neurons, however, exhibited higher instantaneous firing frequencies after accommodation in response to high intensity current injections. The AP waveform was narrower and shorter in amplitude in PDAPP mice: these changes, according to our in silico model of a CA1/3 pyramidal neuron, depended on the respective reduction and increase of Na+ and K+ voltage-gated channels maximal conductances. Finally, the after-hyperpolarization (AHP, seen after the first AP evoked by a +300 pA current injection and after 50 Hz AP bursts, was more pronounced in PDAPP mice.These data show that Aβ-overexpression in aged mice altered the capacitance, the neuronal firing and the AP waveform of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Some of these findings are consistent with previous work on younger PDAPP, they also show important differences that can be potentially ascribed to the interaction between amyloidopathy and ageing. Such a change of IE properties over time

  12. Aeroacoustics of a wall perforation in the pure grazing flow regime: effect of the perforation geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonon, D.; Moers, E.M.T.; Golliard, J.; Hirschberg, A.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustical dampers are used in order to avoid the noise propagation. Well known examples are the aero-engine liners, the IC-engine exhaust muffers, and the liners in combustion chambers. These devices comprise wall perforations, responsible for their sound absorbing features. Understanding the effec

  13. Overexpression of SIRT6 in the hippocampal CA1 impairs the formation of long-term contextual fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xi; Gao, Yuan; Shi, Hai-Shui; Song, Li; Wang, Jie-Chao; Shao, Juan; Geng, Xu-Hong; Xue, Gai; Li, Jian-Li; Hou, Yan-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Histone modifications have been implicated in learning and memory. Our previous transcriptome data showed that expression of sirtuins 6 (SIRT6), a member of Histone deacetylases (HDACs) family in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) was decreased after contextual fear conditioning. However, the role of SIRT6 in the formation of memory is still elusive. In the present study, we found that contextual fear conditioning inhibited translational expression of SIRT6 in the CA1. Microinfusion of lentiviral vector-expressing SIRT6 into theCA1 region selectively enhanced the expression of SIRT6 and impaired the formation of long-term contextual fear memory without affecting short-term fear memory. The overexpression of SIRT6 in the CA1 had no effect on anxiety-like behaviors or locomotor activity. Also, we also found that SIRT6 overexpression significantly inhibited the expression of insulin-like factor 2 (IGF2) and amounts of proteins and/or phosphoproteins (e.g. Akt, pAkt, mTOR and p-mTOR) related to the IGF2 signal pathway in the CA1. These results demonstrate that the overexpression of SIRT6 in the CA1 impaired the formation of long-term fear memory, and SIRT6 in the CA1 may negatively modulate the formation of contextual fear memory via inhibiting the IGF signaling pathway. PMID:26732053

  14. Bladder Perforation Secondary to Primary Systemic Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Dru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a disorder of protein folding characterized by extracellular aggregation and deposition of amyloid protein fibrils. Light-chain amyloidosis, also known as primary systemic amyloidosis, is the most common form of the disease. We present a case of an 84-year-old male with a history of systemic primary amyloidosis causing genitourinary, cardiac, and autonomic dysfunction who presented with hematuria and hypotension secondary to bladder perforation. He underwent open repair of a large extraperitoneal bladder defect. He ultimately died as a result of medical complications from his disease.

  15. Small bowel perforation during suprapubic tube exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongiu, Anne K; Helfand, Brain T; Kielb, Stephanie J

    2009-02-01

    Suprapubic tube placement is a common urological procedure with a low incidence of complications, including hematuria, catheter blockage, recurrent urinary tract infections, and rarely, injury to adjacent organs. Fortunately, most serious complications are discovered shortly after initial suprapubic tube placement and are readily corrected. Very few cases of delayed complications or injuries have been reported. We report a case of Foley perforation into the ileum during suprapubic tube exchange discovered more than 8 months after initial placement, and preceding numerous monthly changes that occurred without incident. While a rare complication, physicians should be conscious of the potential for delayed injury in patients managed with long term suprapubic tube placement. PMID:19222896

  16. The value of CT in detecting pathologic bowel perforation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Wun; Shin, Joo Yong; Kim, Hong; Rhee, Chang Soo; Lee, Sung Moon; Joo, Yang Goo; Suh, Soo Jhi [Keimyung Univ. School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of CT for assessing the location and cause of pathologic gastrointestinal perforation. A retrospective analysis of abdominal CT was performed in 27 perforations of 26 patients with underlying gastrointestinal pathology. Fifteen benign and 12 malignant perforations consisted of five gastric cancers, one gastric ulcer, ten duodenal bulb ulcers. two bowel adhesions, one jejunal metastasis from lung cancer, one ileocolic Crohn's disease, one radiation colitis and six colon cancers. CT scans were evaluated for (1) diagnosis of bowel perforation, (2) assessment of the cause and site of perforation, and, in particular, differentiation between benignancy and malignancy, and (3) complications and their extent. CT easily detected varying amounts of free air or fluid collection, and infiltration or abscess formation adjacent to the main lesion, and the diagnosis of gastrointestinal perforation was therefore easy. In 11 of the 12 malignancies (92%), primary tumor was diagnosed, but detection of the site of perforation was possible in only seven cases(7/12, 58%). The 15 benign lesions revealed nonspecific CT findings, and the perforation site could be presumed in six (6/15, 40%). In one case of Crohn's disease, the primary cause was visualized. Among six colonic cancers, four pericolic abscesses and two fistulas to adjacent organs were found, but there was no evidence of diffuse peritonitis. CT was helpful to lead to optimal treatment of pathologic gastrointestinal On CT the detectability of perforation, primary benign or malignant lesion, perforation site and extent of complication was high, and this modality was therefore a useful indicator of the optimal treatment for pathologic gastrointestinal perforations.=20.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATION CAUSED BY PERFORATED TRANSPARENT POLYETHYLENE LOW TUNNELS CULTIVATED WITH LETTUCE

    OpenAIRE

    Galileo Adeli Buriol; Flavio Miguel Schneider; Nereu Augusto Streck; Sandro Luís Petter Medeiros

    1993-01-01

    Environmental modifications caused by low tunnels made of perforated transparent polyethylene were determineted in an area alocated at the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS. The perforation densities were 100, 200, 300 and 400 perforations per square meter, corresponding respectively to 0.78% (T1), 1.57% CT2), 2.35% (T3) and 3.14% (T4) of area perforated. The results indicated that perforation density did not significantly affected solar energy availability. As perforation density increas...

  18. Experimental heat transfer on the windward surface of a perforated flat plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorignac, E.; Vullierme, J.J.; Broussely, M.; Foulon, C.; Mokkadem, M. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, UMR CNRS 6608, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d' Aerotechnique, 1, Av. Clement Ader BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil cedex (France)

    2005-09-01

    Two techniques are described in this paper to determine convective transfer on a multi-perforated plate; the perforations diameter can be small or large (from 1 millimeter to 1 centimeter). This study reports on heat transfer due to the air flow before it goes through the perforations. These perforations are perpendicular to the wall. For a large range of perforations spacings, an empirical relation is proposed for heat exchange at the windward surface of a perforated flat plate. (authors)

  19. Ripple-associated high-firing interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By simultaneously recording the activity of individual neurons and field potentials in freely behaving mice, we found two types of interneurons firing at high frequency in the hippocampal CA1 region, which had high correlations with characteristic sharp wave-associated ripple oscillations (100―250 Hz) during slow-wave sleep. The firing of these two types of interneurons highly synchronized with ripple oscillations during slow-wave sleep, with strongly increased firing rates corresponding to individual ripple episodes. Interneuron type I had at most one spike in each sub-ripple cycle of ripple episodes and the peak firing rate was 310±33.17 Hz. Interneuron type II had one or two spikes in each sub-ripple cycle and the peak firing rate was 410±47.61 Hz. During active exploration, their firing was phase locked to theta oscillations with the highest probability at the trough of theta wave. Both two types of interneurons increased transiently their firing rates responding to the startling shake stimuli. The results showed that these two types of high-frequency interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region were involved in the modulation of the hippocampal neural network during different states.

  20. Ripple-associated high-firing interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; ZHANG Lu; PAN JingWei; XIE Kun; LI ShiQi; WANG ZhiRu; LIN LongNian

    2008-01-01

    By simultaneously recording the activity of individual neurons and field potentials in freely behaving mice, we found two types of interneurons firing at high frequency in the hippocampal CA1 region,which had high correlations with characteristic sharp wave-associated ripple oscillations (100-250 Hz)during slow-wave sleep. The firing of these two types of interneurons highly synchronized with ripple oscillations during slow-wave sleep, with strongly increased firing rates corresponding to individual ripple episodes. Interneuron type Ⅰ had at most one spike in each sub-ripple cycle of ripple episodes and the peak firing rate was 310±33.17 Hz. Interneuron type Ⅱ had one or two spikes in each sub-ripple cycle and the peak firing rate was 410±47.61 Hz. During active exploration, their firing was phase locked to theta oscillations with the highest probability at the trough of theta wave. Both two types of interneurons increased transiently their firing rates responding to the startling shake stimuli. The results showed that these two types of high-frequency interneurone in the hippocsmpal CA1 region were involved in the modulation of the hippocampal neural network during different states.

  1. Developmental Changes in Hippocampal CA1 Single Neuron Firing and Theta Activity during Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangjin; Goldsberry, Mary E.; Harmon, Thomas C.; Freeman, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal development is thought to play a crucial role in the emergence of many forms of learning and memory, but ontogenetic changes in hippocampal activity during learning have not been examined thoroughly. We examined the ontogeny of hippocampal function by recording theta and single neuron activity from the dorsal hippocampal CA1 area while rat pups were trained in associative learning. Three different age groups [postnatal days (P)17-19, P21-23, and P24-26] were trained over six sessions using a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) and a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (US). Learning increased as a function of age, with the P21-23 and P24-26 groups learning faster than the P17-19 group. Age- and learning-related changes in both theta and single neuron activity were observed. CA1 pyramidal cells in the older age groups showed greater task-related activity than the P17-19 group during CS-US paired sessions. The proportion of trials with a significant theta (4–10 Hz) power change, the theta/delta ratio, and theta peak frequency also increased in an age-dependent manner. Finally, spike/theta phase-locking during the CS showed an age-related increase. The findings indicate substantial developmental changes in dorsal hippocampal function that may play a role in the ontogeny of learning and memory. PMID:27764172

  2. Neural Androgen Receptor Deletion Impairs the Temporal Processing of Objects and Hippocampal CA1-Dependent Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Marie; Billard, Jean-Marie; Dombret, Carlos; Albac, Christelle; Karameh, Nida; Daumas, Stéphanie; Hardin-Pouzet, Hélène; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2016-01-01

    We studied the role of testosterone, mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), in modulating temporal order memory for visual objects. For this purpose, we used male mice lacking AR specifically in the nervous system. Control and mutant males were gonadectomized at adulthood and supplemented with equivalent amounts of testosterone in order to normalize their hormonal levels. We found that neural AR deletion selectively impaired the processing of temporal information for visual objects, without affecting classical object recognition or anxiety-like behavior and circulating corticosterone levels, which remained similar to those in control males. Thus, mutant males were unable to discriminate between the most recently seen object and previously seen objects, whereas their control littermates showed more interest in exploring previously seen objects. Because the hippocampal CA1 area has been associated with temporal memory for visual objects, we investigated whether neural AR deletion altered the functionality of this region. Electrophysiological analysis showed that neural AR deletion affected basal glutamate synaptic transmission and decreased the magnitude of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation and high-frequency stimulation-induced long-term potentiation. The impairment of NMDAR function was not due to changes in protein levels of receptor. These results provide the first evidence for the modulation of temporal processing of information for visual objects by androgens, via AR activation, possibly through regulation of NMDAR signaling in the CA1 area in male mice.

  3. Neural Androgen Receptor Deletion Impairs the Temporal Processing of Objects and Hippocampal CA1-Dependent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Picot

    Full Text Available We studied the role of testosterone, mediated by the androgen receptor (AR, in modulating temporal order memory for visual objects. For this purpose, we used male mice lacking AR specifically in the nervous system. Control and mutant males were gonadectomized at adulthood and supplemented with equivalent amounts of testosterone in order to normalize their hormonal levels. We found that neural AR deletion selectively impaired the processing of temporal information for visual objects, without affecting classical object recognition or anxiety-like behavior and circulating corticosterone levels, which remained similar to those in control males. Thus, mutant males were unable to discriminate between the most recently seen object and previously seen objects, whereas their control littermates showed more interest in exploring previously seen objects. Because the hippocampal CA1 area has been associated with temporal memory for visual objects, we investigated whether neural AR deletion altered the functionality of this region. Electrophysiological analysis showed that neural AR deletion affected basal glutamate synaptic transmission and decreased the magnitude of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activation and high-frequency stimulation-induced long-term potentiation. The impairment of NMDAR function was not due to changes in protein levels of receptor. These results provide the first evidence for the modulation of temporal processing of information for visual objects by androgens, via AR activation, possibly through regulation of NMDAR signaling in the CA1 area in male mice.

  4. Saikosaponin a Enhances Transient Inactivating Potassium Current in Rat Hippocampal CA1 Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Saikosaponin a (SSa, a main constituent of the Chinese herb Bupleurum chinense DC., has been demonstrated to have antiepileptic activity. Recent studies have shown that SSa could inhibit NMDA receptor current and persistent sodium current. However, the effects of SSa on potassium (K+ currents remain unclear. In this study, we tested the effect of SSa on 4AP-induced epileptiform discharges and K+ currents in CA1 neurons of rat hippocampal slices. We found that SSa significantly inhibited epileptiform discharges frequency and duration in hippocampal CA1 neurons in the 4AP seizure model in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 0.7 μM. SSa effectively increased the amplitude of ITotal and IA, significantly negative-shifted the activation curve, and positive-shifted steady-state curve of IA. However, SSa induced no significant changes in the amplitude and activation curve of IK. In addition, SSa significantly increased the amplitude of 4AP-sensitive K+ current, while there was no significant change in the amplitude of TEA-sensitive K+ current. Together, our data indicate that SSa inhibits epileptiform discharges induced by 4AP in a dose-dependent manner and that SSa exerts selectively enhancing effects on IA. These increases in IA may contribute to the anticonvulsant mechanisms of SSa.

  5. Pycnogenol protects CA3-CA1 synaptic function in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Christopher M; Sompol, Pradoldej; Roberts, Kelly N; Ansari, Mubeen; Scheff, Stephen W

    2016-02-01

    Pycnogenol (PYC) is a patented mix of bioflavonoids with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, we showed that PYC administration to rats within hours after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury significantly protects against the loss of several synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. Here, we investigated the effects of PYC on CA3-CA1 synaptic function following CCI. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received an ipsilateral CCI injury followed 15 min later by intravenous injection of saline vehicle or PYC (10 mg/kg). Hippocampal slices from the injured (ipsilateral) and uninjured (contralateral) hemispheres were prepared at seven and fourteen days post-CCI for electrophysiological analyses of CA3-CA1 synaptic function and induction of long-term depression (LTD). Basal synaptic strength was impaired in slices from the ipsilateral, relative to the contralateral, hemisphere at seven days post-CCI and susceptibility to LTD was enhanced in the ipsilateral hemisphere at both post-injury timepoints. No interhemispheric differences in basal synaptic strength or LTD induction were observed in rats treated with PYC. The results show that PYC preserves synaptic function after CCI and provides further rationale for investigating the use of PYC as a therapeutic in humans suffering from neurotrauma. PMID:26607913

  6. Somatosensory stimulation suppresses the excitability of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wang; Zhouyan Feng; Jing Wang; Xiaojing Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampal region of the brain is important for encoding environment inputs and memory formation. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. To investigate the behavior of indi-vidual neurons in response to somatosensory inputs in the hippocampal CA1 region, we recorded and analyzed changes in local ifeld potentials and the ifring rates of individual pyramidal cells and interneurons during tail clamping in urethane-anesthetized rats. We also explored the mechanisms underlying the neuronal responses. Somatosensory stimulation, in the form of tail clamping, chan-ged local ifeld potentials into theta rhythm-dominated waveforms, decreased the spike ifring of py-ramidal cells, and increased interneuron ifring. In addition, somatosensory stimulation attenuated orthodromic-evoked population spikes. These results suggest that somatosensory stimulation sup-presses the excitability of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region. Increased inhibition by local interneurons might underlie this effect. These ifndings provide insight into the mechanisms of signal processing in the hippocampus and suggest that sensory stimulation might have thera-peutic potential for brain disorders associated with neuronal hyperexcitability.

  7. Cytomorphometric changes in hippocampal CA1 neurons exposed to simulated microgravity using rats as model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eRanjan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity and sleep loss lead to cognitive and learning deficits. These behavioral alterations are likely to be associated with cytomorphological changes and loss of neurons. To understand the phenomenon, we exposed rats (225-275g to 14 days simulated microgravity (SMg and compared its effects on CA1 hippocampal neuronal plasticity, with that of normal cage control rats. We observed that the mean area, perimeter, synaptic cleft and length of active zone of CA1 hippocampal neurons significantly decreased while dendritic arborization and number of spines significantly increased in SMg group as compared with controls. The mean thickness of the post synaptic density and total dendritic length remained unaltered. The changes may be a compensatory effect induced by exposure to microgravity; however, the effects may be transient or permanent, which need further study. These findings may be useful for designing effective prevention for those, including the astronauts, exposed to microgravity. Further, subject to confirmation we propose that SMg exposure might be useful for recovery of stroke patients.

  8. CB1介导△~9-THC抑制CA1区LTD的作用%CB1 modulates △~9-THC-induced inhibition of LTD in the CA1 area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红卫

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨大麻素受体1(CB1)在四氢大麻酚(△~9-THC)抑制CA1区长时程抑制(LTD)中的作用.方法 在小鼠腹腔注射△~9-THC(10 mg/ks)或CB1受体的选择性抑制剂SR141716(SR,5 mg/kg)24 h后切片,在海马CA1区记录场电位EPSP.结果 ①给予低频电刺激(1 Hz 15 min)诱导CA1区LTD,△~9-THC可显著降低LTD(P0.05).结论 CB1受体介导△~9-THC抑制离体海马CA1区LTD的作用.

  9. Computed Tomography Features of Spontaneously Perforated Pyometra: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Tan, C.K.; Mak, C.W.; Chia, C.C.; Kuo, C.Y.; Yu, W.L. [Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China). Depts. of Intensive Care Medicine, Radiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Surgery

    2006-03-15

    Spontaneous perforation of pyometra is an extremely rare emergent gynecologic disease. We report a 73-year-old woman with a spontaneously perforated pyometra presenting with acute abdomen in the emergency department. A dedicated computed tomography examination of the abdominal and pelvic regions revealed the diagnosis. The patient recovered well after surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.

  10. Silent uterine perforation by an IUCD inserted during the puerperium

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Hugh; Richenberg, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    A 38-year-old lady, with a history of recent caesarean section, was diagnosed with a silent uterine perforation by a copper intrauterine contraceptive device under fluoroscopic examination. The incidence of uterine perforation and the increased risk in the puerperium are discussed. The use of ultrasound as the first line investigation is recommended.

  11. Perforation af rectum med faekal peritonitis efter staplet haemorideoperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuke, Anna-Christina; Pedersen, Mark Ellebaek; Qvist, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Rectal perforation and faecal peritonitis after stapled operation for grade IV haemorrhoids is described. The complication is rare, but surgeons performing the procedure must be familiar with potential risk factors.......Rectal perforation and faecal peritonitis after stapled operation for grade IV haemorrhoids is described. The complication is rare, but surgeons performing the procedure must be familiar with potential risk factors....

  12. The "stamp method" : a new treatment for perforated peptic ulcer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertleff, MJOE; Liem, RSB; Robinson, PH; Bonjer, HJ; Lange, JF; Bartels, H.; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to develop a simple method for closure of a perforated peptic ulcer, making it more accessible for laparoscopic surgery. Methods: An experimental pilot study was performed using five male Wistar rats. The perforation was closed by a bioabsorbable patch made of l

  13. Perforated peptic ulcer disease: A review of history and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.O.E. Bertleff (Marietta); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In the last one hundred years much has been written on peptic ulcer disease and the treatment options for one of its most common complications: perforation. The reason for reviewing the literature was evaluating most common ideas on how to treat perforated peptic ulcers (PPU)

  14. Preoperative CT angiography reduces surgery time in perforator flap reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen M.; Dimopoulou, Angeliki; Liss, Anders G.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Kildal, Morten; Whitaker, Iain S.; Magnusson, Anders; Acosta, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The use of perforator flaps in breast reconstructions has increased considerably in the past decade. A disadvantage of the perforator flap is difficult dissection, which results in a longer procedure. During spring 2006, we introduced CT angiography (CTA) as part of the diagnostic work-up in perfora

  15. CLINICAL STUDY AND MANAGEMENT OF PERITONITIS SECONDARY TO GASTROINTESTINAL PERFORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbhari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Perforation peritonitis is the most common surgical emergency in India. Peritonitis due to upper gastrointestinal tract perforation constitutes majority of these cases. Despite advances in surgical techniques, antimicrobial therapy and intensive care support, management of peritonitis continues to be highly demanding, difficult and complex. . In contrast to western countries where lower gastro-intestinal tract perforations predominate, upper gastro intestinal tract perforations constitute the majority of cases in India1. Earlier Rawlinson in the year 1727 was the first to give a clear description of the signs and symptom of gastric ulcer and peritonitis.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients having GI perforation admitted in all surgical units of Basaweshwar Teaching and General Hospital, Gulbarga were considered for the study. A total of 50 cases were studied over a period of 18 months from Dec 2009 to May 2011.Data was entered in the proforma made for the study and analyzed RESULTS &CONCLUSION: Patient group more than 50yrs were the most commonly affected group and duodenal ulcer perforation (60% was the most common. Males (92% were affected more than females. Most common symptom was vomiting (68%. Guarding and rigidity were present in 90% patients. Laparotomy with closure of the perforation with omental patch is the commonest operative management for perforated peptic ulcer. The overall mortality was 4%

  16. Pneumoscrotum: A rare manifestation of perforation associated with therapeutic colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuang-I Fu; Takahiro Fujimori; Yasushi Sano; Shigeharu Kato; Takahiro Fujii; Masanori Sugito; Masato Ono; Norio Saito; Kiyotaka Kawashima; Shigeaki Yoshida

    2005-01-01

    Pneumoscrotum is uncommon and also rarely reported as a complication associated with colonic perforation. A case of colonic perforation in delayed fashion associated with EMR, revealed by pneumoscrotum, is reported and the associated literatures are reviewed. A 52-year-old male received piecemeal EMR for a laterally spreading tumor 35 mm in size in our hospital. He complained of enlargement of the scrotum and revisited our hospital the day after the procedure. A diagnosis of pneumoscrotum was made, and as most such cases have been reported to be associated with pneumoperitoneum, colonic perforation was suspected. Free air but no fluid collection was found by abdominal computed tomography, and delayed colonic perforation was diagnosed. However, as there were no clinical signs of peritoneal irritation,conservative treatment was administered and the patient recovered uneventfully. Pneumoscrotum could be a sign of colonic perforation after EMR, and treatment should be carefully chosen.

  17. Spontaneous Uterine Perforation due to Pyometra Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loabat Geranpayeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation of the uterus is rare, its incidence being about 0.01%–0.05%. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneously perforated pyometra. A 63-year-old woman with severe abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. Laparotomy was performed because of the suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation with generalized peritonitis. At laparotomy, about 900 mL of pus was found in the peritoneal cavity. There were no abnormal findings in the alimentary tract, liver, or gallbladder. A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Pathological investigation of the surgical specimen revealed endometritis and myometritis of the uterus; but there was no evidence of malignancy, and the cervical canal was patent. Although spontaneously perforated pyometra is rare, a perforated pyometra should therefore also be considered when elderly women present with acute abdominal pain.

  18. CFD Simulations of Oscillating Flow around Solid and Perforated Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Damping plates have been used for truss spars in gulf of Mexico to reduce the heave motions. The plates are usually perforated with holes for the passage of marine risers, but the effects of the perforation have not been examined thoroughly. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics investigation into the hydrodynamic forces is carried out by using FLUENT, which is on two-dimensional perforated plates with varying degrees of perforation in oscillating flow under small Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) number. The numerical results of the hydrodynamic coefficients are presented. The effects of both the perforation ratio (PR) and KC number on the hydrodynamic coefficients of the plates are discussed. Some results of the simulated flow patterns around the plates were also given and discussed.

  19. Esophageal Perforation due to Transesophageal Echocardiogram: New Endoscopic Clip Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robotis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal perforation due to transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE during cardiac surgery is rare. A 72-year-old female underwent TEE during an operation for aortic valve replacement. Further, the patient presented hematemesis. Gastroscopy revealed an esophageal bleeding ulcer. Endoscopic therapy was successful. Although a CT scan excluded perforation, the patient became febrile, and a second gastroscopy revealed a big perforation at the site of ulcer. The patient's clinical condition required endoscopic intervention with a new OTSC® clip (Ovesco Endoscopy, Tübingen, Germany. The perforation was successfully sealed. The patient remained on intravenous antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and parenteral nutrition for few days, followed by enteral feeding. She was discharged fully recovered 3 months later. We clearly demonstrate an effective, less invasive treatment of an esophageal perforation with a new endoscopic clip.

  20. Zbtb20-Induced CA1 Pyramidal Neuron Development and Area Enlargement in the Cerebral Midline Cortex of Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob V; Blom, Jonas B; Noraberg, Jens;

    2010-01-01

    Expression of the transcriptional repressor Zbtb20 is confined to the hippocampal primordium of the developing dorsal midline cortex in mice. Here, we show that misexpression of Zbtb20 converts projection neurons of the subiculum and postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum) to CA1 pyramidal neurons...... that are innervated by Schaffer collateral projections in ectopic strata oriens and radiatum. The Zbtb20-transformed neurons express Bcl11B, Satb2, and Calbindin-D28k, which are markers of adult CA1 pyramidal neurons. Downregulation of Zbtb20 expression by RNA interference impairs the normal maturation of CA1...... pyramidal neurons resulting in deficiencies in Calbindin-D28k expression and in reduced apical dendritic arborizations in stratum lacunosum moleculare. Overall, the results show that Zbtb20 is required for various aspects of CA1 pyramidal neuron development such as the postnatal extension of apical...

  1. 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate or lanthanum potentiates transient receptor potential-like channels in rat CA1 hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengpeng Sun; Tian-ming Gao

    2010-01-01

    Expression of transient receptor potential(TRP)channels is widespread with transcripts distributed throughout the brain.All TRP channel subunits are activated following phospholipase C activation and form cation-selective ion channels.Previous studies examining the existence of TRP channels in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons were based on cultured neurons.Therefore,their relevance for living tissue remains unclear.In the present study,patch-clamp recordings were conducted from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices from 7-day-old rats.Whole-cell currents were obtained from CA1 hippocampal neurons with potentiation effects of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and lanthanum,revealing that recorded experimental currents were characteristic TRP-like channel currents.Identification of rat hippocampal mRNA transcripts of TRPC4,TRPC5,TRPV1,TRPV2,and TRPV3 channels further verified the expression of characteristic TRP-like channels on rat CA1hippocampal neurons.

  2. Hippocampal CA1/subiculum-prefrontal cortical pathways induce plastic changes of nociceptive responses in cingulate and prelimbic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Projections from hippocampal CA1-subiculum (CA1/SB areas to the prefrontal cortex (PFC, which are involved in memory and learning processes, produce long term synaptic plasticity in PFC neurons. We examined modifying effects of these projections on nociceptive responses recorded in the prelimbic and cingulate areas of the PFC. Results Extracellular unit discharges evoked by mechanical noxious stimulation delivered to the rat-tail and field potentials evoked by a single stimulus pulse delivered to CA1/SB were recorded in the PFC. High frequency stimulation (HFS, 100 Hz delivered to CA1/SB, which produced long-term potentiation (LTP of field potentials, induced long-term enhancement (LTE of nociceptive responses in 78% of cases, while, conversely, in 22% responses decreased (long-term depression, LTD. These neurons were scattered throughout the cingulate and prelimbic areas. The results obtained for field potentials and nociceptive discharges suggest that CA1/SB-PFC pathways can produce heterosynaptic potentiation in PFC neurons. HFS had no effects on Fos expression in the cingulated cortex. Low frequency stimulation (LFS, 1 Hz, 600 bursts delivered to the CA1/SB induced LTD of nociceptive discharges in all cases. After recovery from LTD, HFS delivered to CA1/SB had the opposite effect, inducing LTE of nociceptive responses in the same neuron. The bidirectional type of plasticity was evident in these nociceptive responses, as in the homosynaptic plasticity reported previously. Neurons inducing LTD are found mainly in the prelimbic area, in which Fos expression was also shown to be inhibited by LFS. The electrophysiological results closely paralleled those of immunostaining. Our results indicate that CA1/SB-PFC pathways inhibit excitatory pyramidal cell activities in prelimbic areas. Conclusion Pressure stimulation (300 g applied to the rat-tail induced nociceptive responses in the cingulate and prelimbic areas of the PFC, which

  3. Hippocampal CA1 transcriptional profile of sleep deprivation: relation to aging and stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M Porter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many aging changes seem similar to those elicited by sleep-deprivation and psychosocial stress. Further, sleep architecture changes with age suggest an age-related loss of sleep. Here, we hypothesized that sleep deprivation in young subjects would elicit both stress and aging-like transcriptional responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: F344 rats were divided into control and sleep deprivation groups. Body weight, adrenal weight, corticosterone level and hippocampal CA1 transcriptional profiles were measured. A second group of animals was exposed to novel environment stress (NES, and their hippocampal transcriptional profiles measured. A third cohort exposed to control or SD was used to validate transcriptional results with Western blots. Microarray results were statistically contrasted with prior transcriptional studies. Microarray results pointed to sleep pressure signaling and macromolecular synthesis disruptions in the hippocampal CA1 region. Animals exposed to NES recapitulated nearly one third of the SD transcriptional profile. However, the SD-aging relationship was more complex. Compared to aging, SD profiles influenced a significant subset of genes. mRNA associated with neurogenesis and energy pathways showed agreement between aging and SD, while immune, glial, and macromolecular synthesis pathways showed SD profiles that opposed those seen in aging. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that although NES and SD exert similar transcriptional changes, selective presynaptic release machinery and Homer1 expression changes are seen in SD. Among other changes, the marked decrease in Homer1 expression with age may represent an important divergence between young and aged brain response to SD. Based on this, it seems reasonable to conclude that therapeutic strategies designed to promote sleep in young subjects may have off-target effects in the aged. Finally, this work identifies presynaptic vesicular release and intercellular

  4. Long-term depression is differentially expressed in distinct lamina of hippocampal CA1 dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu eRamachandran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Information storage in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons is compartmentalized in proximal versus distal apical dendrites, cell bodies, and basal dendrites. This compartmentalization is thought to be essential for synaptic integration. Differences in the expression of LTP in each of these compartments have been described, but less is known regarding potential differences in LTD. Here, to directly compare LTD expression in each compartment and to bypass possible differences in input-specificity and stimulation of presynaptic inputs, we used global application of NMDA to induce LTD. We then examined LTD expression in each dendritic sub-region - proximal and distal apical, and basal dendrites - and in cell bodies. Interestingly, we found that distal apical dendrites exhibited the greatest magnitude of LTD of all areas tested and this LTD was maintained, whereas LTD in proximal apical dendrites was not maintained. In basal dendrites, LTD was also maintained, but the magnitude of LTD was less than in distal apical dendrites. Blockade of inhibition blocked LTD maintenance in both distal apical and basal dendrites. Population spikes recorded from the cell body layer correlated with apical dendrite fEPSPs, where LTD was maintained in distal dendrites and decayed in proximal dendrites. On the other hand, LTD of basal dendrite fEPSPs was maintained but population spike responses were not. Thus E-S coupling was distinct in basal and apical dendrites. Our data demonstrate cell autonomous differential information processing in somas and dendritic sub-regions of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus, where LTD expression is intrinsic to distinct dendritic regions, and does not depend on the nature of stimulation and input specificity.

  5. Computational modeling reveals dendritic origins of GABA(A-mediated excitation in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lewin

    Full Text Available GABA is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system, but in some circumstances can lead to a paradoxical excitation that has been causally implicated in diverse pathologies from endocrine stress responses to diseases of excitability including neuropathic pain and temporal lobe epilepsy. We undertook a computational modeling approach to determine plausible ionic mechanisms of GABA(A-dependent excitation in isolated post-synaptic CA1 hippocampal neurons because it may constitute a trigger for pathological synchronous epileptiform discharge. In particular, the interplay intracellular chloride accumulation via the GABA(A receptor and extracellular potassium accumulation via the K/Cl co-transporter KCC2 in promoting GABA(A-mediated excitation is complex. Experimentally it is difficult to determine the ionic mechanisms of depolarizing current since potassium transients are challenging to isolate pharmacologically and much GABA signaling occurs in small, difficult to measure, dendritic compartments. To address this problem and determine plausible ionic mechanisms of GABA(A-mediated excitation, we built a detailed biophysically realistic model of the CA1 pyramidal neuron that includes processes critical for ion homeostasis. Our results suggest that in dendritic compartments, but not in the somatic compartments, chloride buildup is sufficient to cause dramatic depolarization of the GABA(A reversal potential and dominating bicarbonate currents that provide a substantial current source to drive whole-cell depolarization. The model simulations predict that extracellular K(+ transients can augment GABA(A-mediated excitation, but not cause it. Our model also suggests the potential for GABA(A-mediated excitation to promote network synchrony depending on interneuron synapse location - excitatory positive-feedback can occur when interneurons synapse onto distal dendritic compartments, while interneurons projecting to the perisomatic

  6. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  7. Preliminary Clinical Study on Perforating Prosthokeratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Chen; Jintang Xu; SA Yakimenko; Guanghui Hou; Bingji Sun; Aning Zheng; Songbin Zhao

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the effects of perforating prosthokeratoplasty on patients with leucoma who failed in keratoplasty or were not suitable for keratoplasty, and improved their vision.Methods:Five cases with leucoma (4 with chemical burn and 1 with blast) received Yakimenko Style keratoprosthesis implantation. Preoperative examination showed the visual acuity in 4 of the 5 cases was light perception, and that of the other one was FC/20 crm.The light orientation in 3 patients was definite, and that in the other two was indefinite.Results: The vision improved in 4 of 5 patients in the follow-up period of 9 months to 3 years. Their visual acuity showed 0.09 to 0.8. And there was no change of vision in the other 1 case.Conclutions :Prosthokeratoplasty is the first choice for rehabilitation of the blind that have leucoma but are not suitable for or failed in penetrating keratoplasty.

  8. Intrathoracic Caecal Perforation Presenting as Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Granier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bochdalek hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that is usually diagnosed in the neonatal period and incidentally in asymptomatic adults. Small bowel incarceration in a right-sided Bochdalek hernia is exceptional for an adult. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman was admitted for acute dyspnea, tachycardia, hypotension, and fever. Five days before, she had been experiencing an episode of diffuse abdominal pain. The admission chest X-ray was interpreted as right pleural effusion and pneumothorax with left mediastinal shift. Chest tube drainage was purulent. The thoracoabdominal CT examination suspected an intestinal incarceration through a right diaphragmatic defect. At laparotomy, a right-sided Bochdalek hernia was confirmed with a complete necrosis of the incarcerated caecum. Ileocaecal resection was performed, but the patient died from delayed septic complications. Conclusion. Intrathoracic perforation of the caecum is a rare occurrence; delayed diagnosis due to misleading initial symptoms may lead to severe complications and poor prognosis.

  9. Medical image of the week: tracheal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 45 year old Caucasian man with a history of HIV/AIDS was admitted for septic shock secondary to right lower lobe community acquired pneumonia. The patient’s respiratory status continued to decline requiring emergency intubation in a non-ICU setting. Four laryngoscope intubation attempts were made including an inadvertent esophageal intubation. Subsequent CT imaging revealed a tracheal defect (Figure 1, red arrow with communication to the mediastinum and air around the trachea consistent with pneumomediastinum (Figure 2, orange arrow and figure 3, yellow arrow. Pneumopericardium (figure 4, blue arrow was also evident post-intubation. The patient’s hemodynamic status remained stable. Two days following respiratory intubation subsequent chest imaging revealed resolution of the pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium and patient continued to do well without hemodynamic compromise or presence of subcutaneous emphysema. Post-intubation tracheal perforation is a rare complication of traumatic intubation and may be managed with surgical intervention or conservative treatment (1.

  10. Laser-mediated perforation of plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Martin; Jacobs, Philipp; Esser, Dominik; Schinkel, Helga; Schillberg, Stefan

    2007-07-01

    The functional analysis of plant cells at the cellular and subcellular levels requires novel technologies for the directed manipulation of individual cells. Lasers are increasingly exploited for the manipulation of plant cells, enabling the study of biological processes on a subcellular scale including transformation to generate genetically modified plants. In our setup either a picosecond laser operating at 1064 nm wavelength or a continuous wave laser diode emitting at 405 nm are coupled into an inverse microscope. The beams are focused to a spot size of about 1.5 μm and the tobacco cell protoplasts are irradiated. Optoporation is achieved when targeting the laser focal spot at the outermost edge of the plasma membrane. In case of the picosecond laser a single pulse with energy of about 0.4 μJ was sufficient to perforate the plasma membrane enabling the uptake of dye or DNA from the surrounding medium into the cytosol. When the ultraviolet laser diode at a power level of 17 mW is employed an irradiation time of 200 - 500 milliseconds is necessary to enable the uptake of macromolecules. In the presence of an EYFP encoding plasmid with a C-terminal peroxisomal signal sequence in the surrounding medium transient transformation of tobacco protoplasts could be achieved in up to 2% of the optoporated cells. Single cell perforation using this novel optoporation method shows that isolated plant cells can be permeabilized without direct manipulation. This is a valuable procedure for cell-specific applications, particularly where the import of specific molecules into plant cells is required for functional analysis.

  11. Influence of operating microscope in the sealing of cervical perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Schwingel Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Accidental root canal perforations are among the main complications of endodontic treatment. Aim: This study evaluated the influence of operating microscope (OM in the marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA (Angelus® and glass ionomer (Vitremer inserted into cervical perforations. Materials and Methods: Perforations were made in the cervical third of the buccal wall of the root canal in mandibular incisors. Next, the teeth were divided into four groups (N = 10: MG - MTA without OM; VG - Vitremer without OM; MOMG - MTA with OM; VOMG - Vitremer with OM. The perforations were sealed according to the group and the teeth were prepared for analysis by confocal laser scanning microscope. Images of perforation region (1,024Χ were made and the gap presented by the materials was measured using the Image J program. LEXT OLS4100 three dimensional (3D measuring laser microscope measured the volumetric misfit. Data of gap were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn′s tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey′s tests compared the volumetric misfits. Results: The results showed lower volume and gap in the interface dentin/material in VOMG compared to the other groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The use of OM improved the quality of cervical perforations sealed with Vitremer, being indicated in clinical situations of iatrogenic cervical perforations.

  12. CORRELATING THE SITE OF TYMPANIC MEMBRANE PERFORATION WITH HEARING LOSS

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    Priya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the various sites of perforation in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM - Safe type and to study the relationship of the perforator quadrant with the degree of hearing loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross sectional prospective study conducted between June 2014 - June 2015 in the department of ENT; 103 ears of 88 patients wit h tympanic membrane perforation – chronic suppurative otitis media ( S afe type at Chettinad hospital and research institute; Chennai . RESULTS: The sites/locations of perforations on the tympanic membrane were correlated with their mea nhearing levels (dB using chi - square test. Out of 103 perforated tympanic membranes, 29 had all four quadrant perforation (28.16%. Out of these 29 patients 7 had severe conductive hearing loss (24% and 16 had moderate conductive hearing loss (55% . CONC LUSION: The location of perforation on the tympanic membrane has effect on the magnitude of hearing loss. It has a significant impact in chronic suppurative otitis media

  13. Thoracodorsal artery perforator flap for upper limb reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP) is a feasible option to reconstruct defects in upper limb where only skin and subcutaneous tissue is required. Methods: This case series was carried out at department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi. A total of 5 patients with upper limb defects were reconstructed with thoracodorsal artery musculocutaneous perforator flaps. Among them, 3 were pedicled and two free TAP flaps. All flaps except one pedicled flap were raised on a single perforator pedicle. Recipient sites were one axilla, two shoulder regions and two hands. The soft tissue defects in the patients had resulted from burns, trauma, wide local excision of synovial sarcoma and surgery for hidradenitis suppurativa. Preoperative hand held Doppler ultrasound was used to locate and mark the perforator. Results: All flaps survived without significant complications. All flaps were hyperemic in the immediate postoperative period. We designed and raised all the five flaps on eccentrically placed perforators. All the raised perforators originated from the descending branch of the thoracodorsal artery. The donor sites were closed primarily with linear scars in all cases except one, in which partial closure was accomplished with split thickness skin grafting (STSG). Conclusion: The thoracodorsal artery perforator flap has great potential for reconstructing large, relatively shallow, defects of upper limb because of its suitable skin quality, texture and appropriate thickness, as well as hidden donor site, a reliable pedicle and sparing of muscle unit. (author)

  14. Premixed Combustion of Coconut Oil on Perforated Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.G. Wirawan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil premixed combustion behavior has been studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ varied from very lean until very rich. The results showed that burning of glycerol needs large number of air so that the laminar burning velocity (SL is the highest at very lean mixture and the flame is in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole. As φ is increased the  SL decreases and the secondary Bunsen flame with open tip occurs from φ =0.54 at the downstream of perforated flame. The perforated flame disappears at φ = 0.66 while the secondary Bunsen flame still exist with SL increases following that of hexadecane flame trend and then extinct when the equivalence ratio reaches one or more. Surrounding ambient air intervention makes SL decreases, shifts lower flammability limit into richer mixture, and performs triple and cellular flames. The glycerol diffusion flame radiation burned fatty acids that perform cellular islands on perforated hole.  Without glycerol, laminar flame velocity becomes higher and more stable as perforated flame at higher φ. At rich mixture the Bunsen flame becomes unstable and performs petal cellular around the cone flame front. Keywords: cellular flame; glycerol; perforated flame;secondary Bunsen flame with open tip; triple flame

  15. Directed path graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Hajo; Li, Xueliang

    1996-01-01

    The concept of a line digraph is generalized to that of a directed path graph. The directed path graph $\\overrightarrow P_k(D)$ of a digraph D is obtained by representing the directed paths on k vertices of D by vertices. Two vertices are joined by an arc whenever the corresponding directed paths in

  16. Spontaneous Uterine Perforation due to Pyometra Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Loabat Geranpayeh; Mohsen Fadaei-Araghi; Behnam Shakiba

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of the uterus is rare, its incidence being about 0.01% − 0.05%. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneously perforated pyometra. A 63-year-old woman with severe abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. Laparotomy was performed because of the suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation with generalized peritonitis. At laparotomy, about 900 mL of pus was found in the peritoneal cavity. There were no abnormal findings in the alimentary tract, li...

  17. Gastric Perforation Associated with Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richdeep S. Gill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric tuberculosis is a rare presentation of tuberculosis infection. Gastric perforation associated with tuberculosis is exceedingly rare with five previously published cases. We present a case of a male patient that developed presumed gastric tuberculosis secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis infection. He subsequently developed gastric perforation and sepsis, for which he was treated both surgically and medically. Despite ongoing antituberculosis treatment, the patient's condition worsened and the patient died secondary to multiorgan failure. This case highlights gastric perforation as a rare but devastating complication of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  18. A Rare Acute Abdomen Reason: Perforated Jejunal Diverticulitis

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    Oktay Karakose

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare case that is diagnosed incidental. Although it is generally asymptomatic, it can cause non-spesific symptoms like stomachache, nausea, diarrhoea, malabsorption, bleeding, obstruction and / or perforation. Perforated jejunal diverticulitis is a very rare acute abdomen cause. The acute complications of jejunal diverticulosis can be cause of significant morbidity and mortality especially in old patients. In this text, we report a 81 year old woman case that was operated emergently because of perforated jejunal diverticulitis and was lost in postoperation term because of multiple organ failure.

  19. Biliary peritonitis due to gall bladder perforation after percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Nikhil; Singh, Rana Pratap; Tiwary, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    A 19-year-old male patient underwent right percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for right renal 1.5 × 1.5 cm lower pole stone. The procedure was completed uneventfully with complete stone clearance. The patient developed peritonitis and shock 48 h after the procedure. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of bile in the abdomen along with three small perforations in the gall bladder (GB) and one perforation in the caudate lobe of the liver. Retrograde cholecystectomy was performed but the patient did not recover and expired post-operatively. This case exemplifies the high mortality of GB perforation after PNL and the lack of early clinical signs. PMID:26166971

  20. Esophageal Perforation with Unilateral Fluidothorax Caused by Nasogastric Tube

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    Lukas P. Mileder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are highly susceptible to injuries following necessary and often life-saving medical interventions. Esophageal perforation is a rare, yet serious complication that can be caused by aerodigestive tract suction, endotracheal intubation, or nasogastric tube placement. We present the case of a neonate born at 23 weeks plus three days of gestation with chest radiography showing malposition of the nasogastric feeding tube and massive right-sided effusion of Iopamidol in the pleural cavity due to esophageal perforation. In addition, the article summarizes common signs and symptoms associated with esophageal perforation in infants and discusses diagnostic approaches.

  1. External perforated Solar Screens for daylighting in residential desert buildings: Identification of minimum perforation percentages

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    The desert climate is endowed by clear sky conditions, providing an excellent opportunity for optimum utilization of natural light in daylighting building indoor spaces. However, the sunny conditions of the desert skies, in countries like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, result in the admittance of direct solar radiation, which leads to thermal discomfort and the incidence of undesired glare. One type of shading systems that is used to permit daylight while controlling solar penetration is " Solar Screens" Very little research work addressed different design aspects of external Solar Screens and their influence on daylighting performance, especially in desert conditions, although these screens proved their effectiveness in controlling solar radiation in traditional buildings throughout history.This paper reports on the outcomes of an investigation that studied the influence of perforation percentage of Solar Screens on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room of a building in a desert location. The objective was to identify minimum perforation percentage of screen openings that provides adequate illuminance levels in design-specific cases and all-year-round.Research work was divided into three stages. Stage one focused on the analysis of daylighting illuminance levels in specific dates and times, while the second stage was built on the results of the first stage, and addressed year round performance using Dynamic Daylight Performance Metrics (DDPMs). The third stage addressed the possibility of incidence of glare in specific cases where illuminance levels where found very high in some specific points during the analysis of first stage. The research examined the daylighting performance in an indoor space with a number of assumed fixed experimentation parameters that were chosen to represent the principal features of a typical residential living room located in a desert environment setting.Stage one experiments demonstrated that the screens fulfilled the

  2. External perforated window Solar Screens: The effect of screen depth and perforation ratio on energy performance in extreme desert environments

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, A.

    2012-09-01

    In hot arid desert environments, the solar radiation passing through windows increases the cooling loads and the energy consumption of buildings. Shading of windows can reduce these loads. Unlike the woven solar screens, wooden solar screens have a thickness that provides selective shading properties. Perforated wooden solar screens were traditionally used for windows shading. Developing modern types of these shading systems can lead to significant energy savings. The paper addresses the influence of changing the perforation percentage and depth of these screens on the annual energy loads, hence defining the optimum depth/perforation configurations for various window orientations. Series of experiments were performed using the EnergyPlus simulation software for a typical residential building in the Kharga Oasis, located in the Egyptian desert. A range of perforation percentages and depths were tested. Conclusions prove that external fixed deep perforated solar screens could effectively achieve energy savings up to 30% of the total energy consumption in the West and South orientations. Optimum range of depths and perforation percentages were recommended. These are: 80-90% perforation rate and 1:1 depth/opening width ratio. These lighter and deeper solar screen configurations were found to be more efficient in energy consumption in comparison with the traditional ones. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell-Type-Specific Circuit Connectivity of Hippocampal CA1 Revealed through Cre-Dependent Rabies Tracing

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    Yanjun Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed and applied a Cre-dependent, genetically modified rabies-based tracing system to map direct synaptic connections to specific CA1 neuron types in the mouse hippocampus. We found common inputs to excitatory and inhibitory CA1 neurons from CA3, CA2, the entorhinal cortex (EC, the medial septum (MS, and, unexpectedly, the subiculum. Excitatory CA1 neurons receive inputs from both cholinergic and GABAergic MS neurons, whereas inhibitory neurons receive a great majority of inputs from GABAergic MS neurons. Both cell types also receive weaker input from glutamatergic MS neurons. Comparisons of inputs to CA1 PV+ interneurons versus SOM+ interneurons showed similar strengths of input from the subiculum, but PV+ interneurons received much stronger input than SOM+ neurons from CA3, the EC, and the MS. Thus, rabies tracing identifies hippocampal circuit connections and maps how the different input sources to CA1 are distributed with different strengths on each of its constituent cell types.

  4. Colon perforation after esophagogastroduodenoscopy in an asymptomatic diverticulitis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD is regarded as a relatively safe procedure; however, it carries a very low incidence of severe adverse events. Perforation is a rare complication of EGD, and it may further lead to pneumoperitoneum or pneumoretroperitoneum. The occurrence of large bowel perforation after EGD is extremely rare, and it has never been reported in the international literature. Herein, we present a case of concurrence of pneumoperitoneum and pneumoretroperitoneum as a result of sigmoid perforation after EGD. In our case, the probable mechanism of the perforation may have stemmed from the excessive inflation of air that passed through the gastrointestinal tract to the sigmoid colon, causing the increased intraluminal pressure, and then prompting a healed asymptomatic diverticulitis leak again.

  5. Modeling natural convection heat transfer from perforated plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zan WU; Wei LI; Zhi-jian SUN; Rong-hua HONG

    2012-01-01

    Staggered pattern perforations are introduced to isolated isothermal plates,vertical parallel isothermal plates,and vertical rectangular isothermal fins under natural convection conditions.The performance of perforations was evaluated theoretically based on existing correlations by considering effects of ratios of open area,inclined angles,and other geometric parameters.It was found that staggered pattern perforations can increase the total heat transfer rate for isolated isothermal plates and vertical parallel plates,with low ratios of plate height to wall-to-wall spacing (H/s),by a factor of 1.07 to 1.21,while only by a factor of 1.03 to 1.07 for vertical rectangular isothermal fins,and the magnitude of enhancement is proportional to the ratio of open area.However,staggered pattern perforations are detrimental to heat transfer enhancement of vertical parallel plates with large H/s ratios.

  6. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule. PMID:27254279

  7. Oblique perforation of thick metallic plates by rigid projectiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Chen; Qingming Li; Saucheong Fan

    2006-01-01

    Oblique perforation of thick metallic plates by rigid Drojectiles with various nose shapes is studied in this paper.Two perforation mechanisms,i.e., the hole enlargement for a sharp projectile nose and the plugging formation for a blunt projectile nose,are considered in the proposed analytical model.It is shown that the perforation of a thick plate is dominated by several non-dimensional numbers,i.e., the impact function,the geometry function of projectile,the non-dimensional thickness of target and the impact obliquity.Explicit formulae are obtained to predict the ballistic limit.residual velocity and directional change for the oblique perforation of thick metallic plates.The proposed model is able to predict the critical condition for the occurrence of ricochet.The proposed model is validated by comparing the predictions with other existing models and independent experimental data.

  8. Laparoscopic lavage for perforated diverticulitis: a population analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rogers, Ailín C

    2012-09-01

    Laparoscopic lavage has shown promising results in nonfeculent perforated diverticulitis. It is an appealing strategy; it avoids the complications associated with resection. However, there has been some reluctance to widespread uptake because of the scarcity of large-scale studies.

  9. Wave Damping over a Perforated Plate with Water Chambers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shutang

    2006-01-01

    The movement of waves propagating over a horizontally submerged perforated plate with waterfilled chambers bellow the plate was investigated by using linear potential theory. The analytical solution was compared with laboratory experiments on wave blocking. The analysis of the wave energy dissipation on the perforated bottom surface shows that the effects of the perforated plate on thewave motion depend mainly on the plate porosity, the wave height, and the wave period. The wave number is a complex number when the wave energy dissipation on the perforated plate is considered. The real part of the wave number refers to the spatial periodicity while the imaginary part represents the damping modulus. The characteristics of the wave motion were explored for several possible conditions.

  10. Selective approach in the treatment of esophageal perforations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, AI; von Dullemen, H; Plukker, JTM

    2004-01-01

    Background: Treatment of esophageal perforation remains controversial and recommendations vary from initially non-operative to aggressive surgical management. Several factors are responsible for this life-threatening event, which has led to more individualized treatment ensuring adequate pleuromedia

  11. Perforated diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon causing a subcutaneous emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan Kassir

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: This physical sign may be of especial value in elderly patient groups amongst whom perforation may be less clinically obvious. General surgeons should bear in mind this rare complication of colonic diverticulosis.

  12. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  13. Estimating extracellular spike waveforms from CA1 pyramidal cells with multichannel electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molden, Sturla; Moldestad, Olve; Storm, Johan F

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular (EC) recordings of action potentials from the intact brain are embedded in background voltage fluctuations known as the "local field potential" (LFP). In order to use EC spike recordings for studying biophysical properties of neurons, the spike waveforms must be separated from the LFP. Linear low-pass and high-pass filters are usually insufficient to separate spike waveforms from LFP, because they have overlapping frequency bands. Broad-band recordings of LFP and spikes were obtained with a 16-channel laminar electrode array (silicone probe). We developed an algorithm whereby local LFP signals from spike-containing channel were modeled using locally weighted polynomial regression analysis of adjoining channels without spikes. The modeled LFP signal was subtracted from the recording to estimate the embedded spike waveforms. We tested the method both on defined spike waveforms added to LFP recordings, and on in vivo-recorded extracellular spikes from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in anaesthetized mice. We show that the algorithm can correctly extract the spike waveforms embedded in the LFP. In contrast, traditional high-pass filters failed to recover correct spike shapes, albeit produceing smaller standard errors. We found that high-pass RC or 2-pole Butterworth filters with cut-off frequencies below 12.5 Hz, are required to retrieve waveforms comparable to our method. The method was also compared to spike-triggered averages of the broad-band signal, and yielded waveforms with smaller standard errors and less distortion before and after the spike. PMID:24391714

  14. Methamphetamine reduces LTP and increases baseline synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarod Swant

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is an addictive psychostimulant whose societal impact is on the rise. Emerging evidence suggests that psychostimulants alter synaptic plasticity in the brain--which may partly account for their adverse effects. While it is known that METH increases the extracellular concentration of monoamines dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, it is not clear how METH alters glutamatergic transmission. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and systemic METH on basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP; an activity-induced increase in synaptic efficacy in CA1 sub-field in the hippocampus. Both the acute ex vivo application of METH to hippocampal slices and systemic administration of METH decreased LTP. Interestingly, the acute ex vivo application of METH at a concentration of 30 or 60 microM increased baseline synaptic transmission as well as decreased LTP. Pretreatment with eticlopride (D2-like receptor antagonist did not alter the effects of METH on synaptic transmission or LTP. In contrast, pretreatment with D1/D5 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonist NAN-190 abrogated the effect of METH on synaptic transmission. Furthermore, METH did not increase baseline synaptic transmission in D1 dopamine receptor haploinsufficient mice. Our findings suggest that METH affects excitatory synaptic transmission via activation of dopamine and serotonin receptor systems in the hippocampus. This modulation may contribute to synaptic maladaption induced by METH addiction and/or METH-mediated cognitive dysfunction.

  15. THE KINETICS OF MULTIBRANCH INTEGRATION ON THE DENDRITIC ARBOR OF CA1 PYRAMIDAL NEURONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunggu eYang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The process by which synaptic inputs separated in time and space are integrated by the dendritic arbor to produce a sequence of action potentials is among the most fundamental signal transformations that takes place within the central nervous system. Some aspects of this complex process, such as integration at the level of individual dendritic branches, have been extensively studied. But other aspects, such as how inputs from multiple branches are combined, and the kinetics of that integration have not been systematically examined. Using a 3D digital holographic photolysis technique to overcome the challenges posed by the complexities of the 3D anatomy of the dendritic arbor of CA1 pyramidal neurons for conventional photolysis, we show that integration on a single dendrite is fundamentally different from that on multiple dendrites. Multibranch integration occurring at oblique and basal dendrites allows somatic action potential firing of the cell to faithfully follow the driving stimuli over a significantly wider frequency range than what is possible with single branch integration. However, multibranch integration requires greater input strength to drive the somatic action potentials. This tradeoff between sensitivity and kinetics may explain the puzzling report of the predominance of multibranch, rather than single branch, integration from in vivo recordings during presentation of visual stimuli.

  16. Roller Coaster Scanning reveals spontaneous triggering of dendritic spikes in CA1 interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Gergely; Kaszás, Attila; Turi, Gergely F; Hájos, Norbert; Tamás, Gábor; Vizi, E Sylvester; Rózsa, Balázs

    2011-02-01

    Inhibitory interneurons are considered to be the controlling units of neural networks, despite their sparse number and unique morphological characteristics compared with excitatory pyramidal cells. Although pyramidal cell dendrites have been shown to display local regenerative events--dendritic spikes (dSpikes)--evoked by artificially patterned stimulation of synaptic inputs, no such studies exist for interneurons or for spontaneous events. In addition, imaging techniques have yet to attain the required spatial and temporal resolution for the detection of spontaneously occurring events that trigger dSpikes. Here we describe a high-resolution 3D two-photon laser scanning method (Roller Coaster Scanning) capable of imaging long dendritic segments resolving individual spines and inputs with a temporal resolution of a few milliseconds. By using this technique, we found that local, NMDA receptor-dependent dSpikes can be observed in hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons during spontaneous network activities in vitro. These NMDA spikes appear when approximately 10 spatially clustered inputs arrive synchronously and trigger supralinear integration in dynamic interaction zones. In contrast to the one-to-one relationship between computational subunits and dendritic branches described in pyramidal cells, here we show that interneurons have relatively small (∼14 μm) sliding interaction zones. Our data suggest a unique principle as to how interneurons integrate synaptic information by local dSpikes. PMID:21224413

  17. Thermoluminescence studies of bismuth doped Ba xCa 1- xS nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Lochab, S. P.; Kumar, Ravi; Singh, Nafa

    2011-01-01

    Bismuth doped Ba 1- xCa xS:Bi ( x=0-1) nanocrystallities have been prepared by the solid state reaction method and characterized by XRD and TEM. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the formation of the compounds in cubic structure at room temperature. Only partial replacement of Ba is possible and we found that Ba 0.5Ca 0.5S:Bi could not be prepared due to the difference between ionic radii of barium and calcium. Thermoluminescence studies of these samples after exposure to UV radiation have been carried out. The TL glow curve of Ba xCa 1 -xS:Bi has been found to be a simple structure with a single peak at 405, 428 and 503 K for x=1, 0.8 and 0, respectively. The kinetic parameters at various heating rates namely activation energy ( E), order of kinetics ( b) and frequency factor ( s) of the Ba 1- xCa xS:Bi ( x=0.2) (0.4 mol%) sample have been determined using Chen’s method. The deconvolution of curve was done using the GCD function suggested by Kitis. The effect of different heating rates and different amount of dose has also been discussed.

  18. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we find that five hours of sleep deprivation decreases dendritic spine numbers selectively in hippocampal area CA1 and increased activity of the filamentous actin severing protein cofilin. Recovery sleep normalizes these structural alterations. Suppression of cofilin function prevents spine loss, deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and impairments in long-term memory caused by sleep deprivation. The elevated cofilin activity is caused by cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-4A5 (PDE4A5), which hampers cAMP-PKA-LIMK signaling. Attenuating PDE4A5 function prevents changes in cAMP-PKA-LIMK-cofilin signaling and cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation. Our work demonstrates the necessity of an intact cAMP-PDE4-PKA-LIMK-cofilin activation-signaling pathway for sleep deprivation-induced memory disruption and reduction in hippocampal spine density. PMID:27549340

  19. Effects of lithium chloride on outward potassium currents in acutely isolated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chaofeng; DU Huizhi; YANG Pin

    2006-01-01

    Although lithium possesses neuroprotective functions, the molecular mechanism underlying its actions has not been fully elucidated. In the present paper, the effects of lithium chloride on voltage-dependent potassium currents in the CA1 pyramidal neurons acutely isolated from rat hippocampus were studied using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Depolarizing test pulses activated two components of outward potassium currents: a rapidly activating and inactivating component, IA and a delayed component, IK. Results showed that lithium chloride increased the amplitude of IA in a concentration-dependent manner. Half enhancement concentration (EC50) was 22.80±5.45 μmol·L-1. Lithium chloride of 25 μmol·L-1 shifted the steady-state activation curve and inactivation curve of IA to more negative potentials, but mainly affected the activation kinetics. The amplitude and the activation processes of IK were not affected by lithium chloride. The effects of lithium chloride on potassium channel appear to possess neuroprotective properties by Ca2+-lowing effects modulate neuronal excitability by activating IA in rat hippocampal neurons.

  20. Growth of Nucleation Sites on Pd-doped Bi_2Sr_2Ca1 Cu_2O_8+δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzoudis, D.; Finnemore, D. K.; Xu, Ming; Balachandran

    1996-03-01

    Enviromental Scanning Electron Microscope has shown evidence that during the growth of Bi_2Sr_2Ca_2Cu_3O_10+δ from mixed powders of Pb-doped Bi_2Sr_2Ca_1Cu_2O_8+δ and other oxides, a dense array of hillocks or mesas grow at the interface between an Ag overlay and Pb doped Bi_2Sr_2Ca_1Cu_2O_8+δ grains. These hillocks develop a texture that looks like ''chicken pox'' during the ramp up to the reaction temperature starting at about 700^circ C and they are about 500 to 1000 nm across and are spaced at about 500 to 1000 nm. If there is no Ag, this texture does not develop. Preliminary measurments indicate that the hillocks are re-crystallization of (Bi,Pb)_2Sr_2Ca_1Cu_2O_8+δ and are definetely not a Pb rich phase

  1. Gallstone spillage caused by spontaneously perforated hemorrhagic cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are occasional incidences of gallstone spillage during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and there have been frequent reports on such a topic in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, however, there have been no reports about spilled stones caused by spontaneously perforated hemorrhagic cholecystitis. Here, we report the radiologic findings of spilled stones caused by spontaneously perforated hemorrhagic cholecystitis in a 55-year-old man.

  2. Endoscopic Treatment of Gastrointestinal Perforations, Leaks, and Fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarun; McCarty, Thomas R; Aslanian, Harry R

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal leaks and fistulae are common postoperative complications, whereas intestinal perforation more commonly complicates advanced endoscopic procedures. Although these complications have classically been managed surgically, there exists an ever-expanding role for endoscopic therapy and the involvement of advanced endoscopists as part of a multidisciplinary team including surgeons and interventional radiologists. This review will serve to highlight the innovative endoscopic interventions that provide an expanding range of viable endoscopic approaches to the management and therapy of gastrointestinal perforation, leaks, and fistulae.

  3. Spontaneous Uterine Perforation of Pyometra Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiro Kitai; Kentaro Okuno; Hiromi Ugaki; Yoshiko Komoto; Satoshi Fujimi; Masahiko Takemura

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is the accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity, and spontaneous perforation of pyometra resulting in generalized diffuse peritonitis is extremely uncommon. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforation of pyometra. A 66-year-old postmenopausal woman with diffuse abdominal pain and vomiting was admitted to our institution. She had a history of mixed connective-tissue disease and had been taking steroids for 20 years. Under a diagnosis of generalized ...

  4. To drain or not to drain in perforated peptic ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Zafer Kilbas; Nail Ersoz

    2012-01-01

    In their study, published in the current issue of the Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine, Ansari et al investigated the role of prophylactic abdominal drain usage in perforated peptic ulcer (PPU), a frequently performed surgical procedure in the emergency departments. Surgical treatment of PPU has not changed much, i.e. primary closure of the perforation and careful cleansing of the abdominal cavity, since it was described by Johann von Mikulicz-Radecki (1850-1905). There have b...

  5. Tacalcitol in the Treatment of Acquired Perforating Collagenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano-Stablé, J.C.; Doménech, C.; Matarredona, J.; Pascual, J.C.; Jaen, A; Vicente, J.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired perforating collagenosis (APC) is a rare perforating dermatosis characterized by transepidermal collagen elimination. We describe a 65-year-old patient, with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus and a 2-year history of itchy hyperkeratotic nodules situated on the back, who was subsequently diagnosed with APC. Treatment included topical corticosteroids and antihistamines, without improvement of the lesions. However, therapy with topical tacalcitol administered for 2 months produced ...

  6. Tacalcitol in the Treatment of Acquired Perforating Collagenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Escribano-Stablé

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acquired perforating collagenosis (APC is a rare perforating dermatosis characterized by transepidermal collagen elimination. We describe a 65-year-old patient, with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus and a 2-year history of itchy hyperkeratotic nodules situated on the back, who was subsequently diagnosed with APC. Treatment included topical corticosteroids and antihistamines, without improvement of the lesions. However, therapy with topical tacalcitol administered for 2 months produced a significant response leading to complete remission of APC.

  7. Colonoscopic perforation:Incidence,risk factors,management and outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varut; Lohsiriwat

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the incidence,risk factors,management and outcome of colonoscopic perforation(CP).The incidence of CP ranges from 0.016% to 0.2% following diagnostic colonoscopies and could be up to 5% following some colonoscopic interventions.The perforations are frequently related to therapeutic colonoscopies and are associated with patients of advanced age or with multiple comorbidities.Management of CP is mainly based on patients' clinical grounds and their underlying colorectal diseases.Current t...

  8. PERFORATED DUODENAL ULCER ASSOCIATED WITH SITUS INVERSUS AND DEXTROCARDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mumtaz; Hussain, Dildar; Waheed, Seema; Tahir, Raazia; Haider, Ghulam; Ali, Nauvan; Sarfraz, Shahid Latif

    2016-01-01

    A 32 years old gentleman, presented in emergency department, with complaints of sudden onset of severe upper abdominal pain, associated with nausea and vomiting. He was a known case of acid peptic disease. His abdominal examination showed signs of peritonitis. X-ray chest showed pneumoperitoneum, with dextrocardia. Ultrasound showed situs inversus. Exploration confirmed the diagnosis of perforated ulcer and situs inversus. Grahm's patch repair of perforation was done. His postoperative recovery was smooth.

  9. Radiologic findings of perforated jejunal diverticulitis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of perforated jejunal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old man with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. The patient presented with right upper abdominal pain. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic structure connected to a small bowel loop, and subsequent CT examination showed multiple diverticula in proximal jejunal loops with free air trapped within the mesenteric leaf. Segmental resection of the jejunal loop confirmed jejunal diverticulitis with perforation

  10. Radiologic findings of perforated jejunal diverticulitis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Jeong Hwa; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lim, Joo Won; Ko, Young Tae; Park, Yong Koo [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    We report a case of perforated jejunal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old man with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. The patient presented with right upper abdominal pain. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic structure connected to a small bowel loop, and subsequent CT examination showed multiple diverticula in proximal jejunal loops with free air trapped within the mesenteric leaf. Segmental resection of the jejunal loop confirmed jejunal diverticulitis with perforation.

  11. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON DUODENAL ULCER PERFORATION AND OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwara Chaldiganahalli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Duodenal ulcer disease which was once so common 3-4 decades ago has drastically decreased in its incidence due to invent of PPIs and anti H. Pylori therapy. But percentage of patients with complications of duodenal ulcer has not shown a similar decline. In spite of understanding the disease effective resuscitation and prompt surgery there is still High incidence of morbidity and mortality. Hence in this study an attempt is made to analyse the various factors which effect the morbidity, mortality of patients with duodenal ulcer perforation and management of the same. AIMS The objective is to study, 1. The factors responsible for duodenal ulcer perforation. 2. The factors that affect the post-operative outcome. 3. Morbidity, mortality after surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty patient’s case sheets were selected retrospectively who were diagnosed as duodenal ulcer perforation, admitted in MIMS Hospital, Mandya. Between 2012 to 2014 patients underwent Graham's omentoplasty. All the data related to the objectives of the study were collected. RESULTS Majority of patients belong to the. Age group of 30-50 years and commonly males Most of the perforations occur in first part of duodenum low socio-economic group, O+ve blood group with maximum seasonal incidence in October-January All cases were managed by Graham's omentoplasty. Four per cent of mortality noted. CONCLUSION Duodenal ulcer perforation is one of the common acute abdominal emergencies. The peak incidence between 30 and 50 years, majority cases males, common in lower socio–economic group, unskilled workers, maximum incidence period October-January, increased morbidity and mortality when perforation time period >24 hours, maximum in patient with blood group o+, early diagnosis and septicaemia management necessary for patients better prognosis, emergency procedure is Graham’s omentoplasty (perforations<2cm with H. pylori eradication treatment. Mortality noticed in longer

  12. Acute Palatal Perforation and Peroperative Repair Method During Septoplasty Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, Hasan Emre; Elbistanli, Mustafa Suphi; Acipayam, Harun; Olgun, Burak; Kayhan, Fatma Tülin

    2016-09-01

    Septoplasty is a frequent and relatively low-risk procedure in otolaryngology practice. Palatal perforation complication is very rare in the literature and only a few patients have been reported. In this clinical report, a patient with palatal perforation that has been developed and noticed during the septoplasty operation with no anatomical abnormality and alternative repair method are reported with video of the procedure. PMID:27526239

  13. Path Creation, Path Dependence and Breaking Away from the Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jens Erik; Hedman, Jonas; Tuunainen, Virpi Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    The explanation of how and why firms succeed or fail is a recurrent research challenge. This is particularly important in the context of technological innovations. We focus on the role of historical events and decisions in explaining such success and failure. Using a case study of Nokia, we develop...... and extend a multi-layer path dependence framework. We identify four layers of path dependence: technical, strategic and leadership, organizational, and external collaboration. We show how path dependence at these four interdependent layers can blindfold the organization from seeing and understanding...... the importance of intermediate outcomes, which in the case of Nokia was the importance of software ecosystems and adaptable mobile devices. Furthermore, we show how the layers of path dependence mutually reinforce each other and become stronger....

  14. Delayed Diagnosis of Pharyngeal Perforation following Exploding Tyre Blast Barotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Samantha M; Manjaly, Joseph G; Ramdoo, S Krishan; Jones, Huw A S; Tatla, Taran S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Pharyngoesophageal perforation secondary to barotrauma is a rare phenomenon that can have serious complications if identified late. It is challenging to detect due to nonspecific symptoms. We present a case in which detection proved difficult leading to delayed diagnosis. Case Report. A 27-year-old mechanic presented with haemoptysis, dysphonia, and odynophagia after a car tyre exploded in his face. Flexible nasoendoscopy (FNE) revealed blood in the pharynx, thought to represent mucosal haemorrhage. Initial treatment consisted of IV dexamethasone and antibiotics. After 3 days, odynophagia persisted prompting a CT scan. This revealed a defect in the posterior hypopharynx and surgical emphysema in the deep neck tissues. Contrast swallow confirmed posterior hypopharyngeal leak. NG feeding was commenced until repeated contrast swallow confirmed resolution of the defect. Discussion. Prompt nonsurgical management of pharyngoesophageal perforation has good outcomes but untreated perforation can have serious complications. FNE should be performed routinely, but only a contrast swallow can diagnose a functional perforation. Clinicians should have a high index of clinical suspicion when patients present with barotrauma and odynophagia. Patients should be kept nil by mouth until perforation has been excluded. Conclusion. When faced with cases of facial barotrauma, clinicians should have a low threshold for further imaging to exclude pharyngoesophageal perforation. PMID:25525540

  15. Delayed Diagnosis of Pharyngeal Perforation following Exploding Tyre Blast Barotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Field

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pharyngoesophageal perforation secondary to barotrauma is a rare phenomenon that can have serious complications if identified late. It is challenging to detect due to nonspecific symptoms. We present a case in which detection proved difficult leading to delayed diagnosis. Case Report. A 27-year-old mechanic presented with haemoptysis, dysphonia, and odynophagia after a car tyre exploded in his face. Flexible nasoendoscopy (FNE revealed blood in the pharynx, thought to represent mucosal haemorrhage. Initial treatment consisted of IV dexamethasone and antibiotics. After 3 days, odynophagia persisted prompting a CT scan. This revealed a defect in the posterior hypopharynx and surgical emphysema in the deep neck tissues. Contrast swallow confirmed posterior hypopharyngeal leak. NG feeding was commenced until repeated contrast swallow confirmed resolution of the defect. Discussion. Prompt nonsurgical management of pharyngoesophageal perforation has good outcomes but untreated perforation can have serious complications. FNE should be performed routinely, but only a contrast swallow can diagnose a functional perforation. Clinicians should have a high index of clinical suspicion when patients present with barotrauma and odynophagia. Patients should be kept nil by mouth until perforation has been excluded. Conclusion. When faced with cases of facial barotrauma, clinicians should have a low threshold for further imaging to exclude pharyngoesophageal perforation.

  16. Inferior Flap Tympanoplasty: A Novel Technique for Anterior Perforation Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haim Gavriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report a novel tympanoplasty modification for anterior tympanic membrane perforation closure. Materials and Methods. A prospective study on 13 patients who underwent inferior tympanoplasty between December 2008 and May 2011 was carried out. In our technique, an inferior rather than a posterior flap is raised and the graft is laid from the inferior direction to obtain better access to the anterior part of the tympanic membrane perforation and provide better support. Results. A total of 13 patients underwent the novel inferior tympanoplasty technique with a mean age of 33 years. Six patients had undergone tympanoplasties and/or mastoidectomies in the past, 3 in the contralateral ear. A marginal perforation was observed in 3 cases, total perforation in 2 and subtotal in 1 case. The mean preoperative pure-tone average was 40.4 dB (10 to 90 dB, compared to 26.5 dB (10 to 55 dB postoperatively. All perforations were found to be closed but one (92.3% success rate. Conclusions. The inferior tympanoplasty technique provides a favorable outcome in terms of tympanic membrane closure and hearing improvement for anterior perforations, even in difficult and complex cases. It is based on a well-known technique and is easy to implement.

  17. Laparoscopic repair for perforated peptic ulcers with U-CLIP®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontana Diego

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature established that, in patients without Boey's risk factors, laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcers, compared to open repair, is associated to lower wound infection rate, less analgesic use, reduction in post operative pain, shorter hospital stay. Some of the main drawbacks are length of operative time and laparoscopic surgeon's experience in intracorporeal knotting. We, for first, report our preliminary experience of perforated peptic ulcers' laparoscopic repair using Medtronic U-Clip®. Methods From January 2008 to June 2008 we performed laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcers using Medtronic U-Clip® in 10 consecutive patients (6 men and 4 women, from 20 to 65 years-old of age. All the patients presented with iuxtapyloric perforated peptic ulcer, not greater than 10 mm, without signs of sepsis, free from major illnesses. The mini-invasive procedure was performed both by skilled and non-skilled laparoscopic surgeons under experts' surveillance. After it was recognized, perforation was sutured using U-Clip® in a full-thickness manner. Results and Discussion We reported no surgical complications in the peri-operative period. The clinical outcome and time needed to perform the intervention didn't change between skilled and non-skilled surgeons. The follow-up at 30 days was good. Conclusion In our experience, the anastomotic device U-Clip® simplifies laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer, avoiding the need to perform knots and making the procedure safe and easier.

  18. Perforated peptic ulcer following gastric bypass for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, A M; Pickens, N E; Thoburn, E K

    1999-03-01

    Peptic ulcer in the excluded segment of a gastric bypass performed in the management of morbid obesity has only rarely been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study is to review our experience with the condition in a series of 4300 patients who underwent gastric-restrictive surgery between 1978 and 1997. Eleven patients presented with acute perforation of a peptic ulcer in the excluded gastric segment. Nine ulcers were duodenal, one was gastric, and one patient had both gastric and duodenal perforations. The time between primary gastric-restrictive surgery and ulcer perforation varied from 20 days to 12 years. All patients presented with upper abdominal pain. The classical radiological sign of perforated peptic ulcer, free air under the diaphragm, did not occur in any patient. Nine patients were initially treated by primary closure of the perforation with subsequent definitive ulcer therapy by vagotomy, pyloroplasty, or gastrectomy. One case, initially treated elsewhere, was managed by placement of a Malecot catheter through the duodenal perforation, gastrostomy, and peritoneal drainage. One recent case remains symptom-free on H2 blockers after simple closure. There was no mortality. Six cases were previously reported in the literature with a 33 per cent mortality rate.

  19. Perforator propeller flaps for sacral and ischial soft tissue reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korambayil Pradeoth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The perforator-based flaps in the sacral and ischial region is designed according to the localization of perforators that penetrate the gluteus maximus muscle, reach the intra-fascial and supra-fascial planes with the overlying skin forming a rich vascular plexus. The perforator-based flaps described in this article are highly vascularized, have minimal donor site morbidity, and do not require the sacrifice of the gluteus maximus muscle. In a period between April 2008 and March 2009, six patients with sacral pressure sore were reconstructed with propeller flap method based on superior gluteal and parasacral artery perforators. One flap loss was noted. Three cases of ischial pressure sore were reconstructed with longitudinal propeller flap cover, based on inferior gluteal artery perforator. One flap suffered wound infection and dehiscence. Two cases of pilonidal sinus were reconstructed with propeller flap based on parasacral perforators. Both the flaps survived without any complications. Donor sites were closed primarily. In the light of this, they can be considered among the first surgical choices to re-surface soft tissue defects of the sacral and ischial regions. In the series of 11 patients, two patients (18% suffered complications.

  20. Perforator propeller flaps for sacral and ischial soft tissue reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korambayil, Pradeoth M.; Allalasundaram, KV; Balakrishnan, TM

    2010-01-01

    The perforator-based flaps in the sacral and ischial region is designed according to the localization of perforators that penetrate the gluteus maximus muscle, reach the intra-fascial and supra-fascial planes with the overlying skin forming a rich vascular plexus. The perforator-based flaps described in this article are highly vascularized, have minimal donor site morbidity, and do not require the sacrifice of the gluteus maximus muscle. In a period between April 2008 and March 2009, six patients with sacral pressure sore were reconstructed with propeller flap method based on superior gluteal and parasacral artery perforators. One flap loss was noted. Three cases of ischial pressure sore were reconstructed with longitudinal propeller flap cover, based on inferior gluteal artery perforator. One flap suffered wound infection and dehiscence. Two cases of pilonidal sinus were reconstructed with propeller flap based on parasacral perforators. Both the flaps survived without any complications. Donor sites were closed primarily. In the light of this, they can be considered among the first surgical choices to re-surface soft tissue defects of the sacral and ischial regions. In the series of 11 patients, two patients (18%) suffered complications. PMID:21217972

  1. NR2A at CA1 Synapses Is Obligatory for the Susceptibility of Hippocampal Plasticity to Sleep Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Longordo, Fabio; Kopp, Caroline; Mishina, Masayoshi; Luján, Rafael; Lüthi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    A loss in the necessary amount of sleep alters expression of genes and proteins implicated in brain plasticity, but key proteins that render neuronal circuits sensitive to sleep disturbance are unknown. We show that mild (4–6 h) sleep deprivation (SD) selectively augmented the number of NR2A subunits of NMDA receptors on postsynaptic densities of adult mouse CA1 synapses. The greater synaptic NR2A content facilitated induction of CA3-CA1 long-term depression in the theta frequency stimulation...

  2. Estrogen and Aging Affect Synaptic Distribution of Phosphorylated LIM Kinase (LIMK) in CA1 Region of Female Rat Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Murat; JANSSEN, WILLIAM G.M.; Tabori, Nora E.; Adams, Michelle M.; Yuen, Genevieve S.; Akama, Keith T.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Milner, Teresa A.; Morrison, John H.

    2008-01-01

    17β-Estradiol (E) increases axospinous synapse density in the hippocampal CA1 region of young female rats, but not in aged rats. This may be linked to age-related alterations in signaling pathways activated by synaptic estrogen receptor α (ER-α) that potentially regulate spine formation, such as LIM-Kinase (LIMK), an actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin kinase. We hypothesized that, as with ER-α, phospho-LIMK (pLIMK) may be less abundant or responsive to E in CA1 synapses of aged female rats. ...

  3. Late anastomotic perforation following surgery for gastric neuroendocrine tumor complicated by perforated duodenal ulcer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; He, Zhenyu

    2013-03-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a group of neoplasms that are characterized by the secretion of a variety of hormones and diverse clinical syndromes. NETs are considered to be rare, but the incidence of NETs has increased rapidly in recent years. NETs provide a clinical challenge for physicians because they comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies with a wide range of morphological, functional, and behavioral characteristics. Subtotal gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction is the mainstay of therapy in the management of gastric NETs complicated by perforated duodenal ulcer. Late perforation of anastomotic stoma as a long-term complication has been rarely reported. Here, we report a case of anastomotic perforation 5 years after subtotal gastrectomy due to perforated duodenal ulcer and gastric NETs.

  4. Neonatal gastric perforation: A single center experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeik; Byun; Hyun; Young; Kim; Seung; Yeon; Noh; Soo; Hong; Kim; Sung; Eun; Jung; Seong; Cheol; Lee; Kwi; Won; Park

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the etiology and prognostic factors for neonatal gastric perforation(NGP), a rare but life-threatening disease.METHODS: Between 1980 and 2011, nine patients un-derwent surgical intervention for NGP at Seoul National University Children’s Hospital. The characteristics and prognosis of the patients were retrospectively analyzed.RESULTS: Among the nine patients, three(33.3%) were preterm babies and five(55.5%) had associated anomalies, which included diaphragmatic eventration(n = 2), congenital diaphragmatic hernia, esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, and antral web. Three(33.3%) patients were born before 1990 and three(33.3%) had a birth weight < 2500 g. Pneumo-peritoneum was found on preoperative images in six(66.7%) patients, and incidentally in the other three(33.3%) patients. Surgery was performed within 24 h after the onset of symptoms in seven(77.8%) patients. The overall mortality rate was 22.2%(2/9). The time between symptoms and surgical intervention was the only prognostic factor for survival, whereas premature birth and birth weight were not.CONCLUSION: Early detection and advances in neo-natal intensive care may improve the prognosis of NGP.

  5. Intraocular cilia associated with perforating injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case series of penetrating injury complicated by occurrence of intraocular cilia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of charts of 11 eyes of 11 patients with penetrating injury and intraocular cilia, presenting between September 1978 and November 1998. Ten eyes underwent surgery for trauma-related problems such as cataract, vitritis, retinal detachment etc., at which time intraocular cilia were removed. One eye did not have surgery and continues to harbour cilia at the posterior perforation site. Results: Metallic wire was responsible for injury in 6 of 11 eyes with intraocular cilia. Five eyes had significant intraocular inflammation. The cilia were located in the anterior segment in 4 eyes; in the posterior segment in 6 eyes and in both in one eye. At the last follow up, 72.7% had 6/18 or better vision. Poor vision in the rest was due to recurrent retinal detachment (2 eyes and macular scarring (1 eye. Conclusion: Intraocular cilia are more commonly associated with injury by a metallic wire. The presentation and management of an injured eye does not seem to be influenced by the presence of cilia in the eye.

  6. Increased synthesis of heparin affin regulatory peptide in the perforant path lesioned mouse hippocampal formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, F R; Lagord, C; Courty, J;

    2000-01-01

    Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP), also known as pleiotrophin or heparin-binding growth-associated molecule, is a developmentally regulated extracellular matrix protein that induces cell proliferation and promotes neurite outgrowth in vitro as well as pre- and postsynaptic developmental...

  7. Estimating extracellular spike waveforms from CA1 pyramidal cells with multichannel electrodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturla Molden

    Full Text Available Extracellular (EC recordings of action potentials from the intact brain are embedded in background voltage fluctuations known as the "local field potential" (LFP. In order to use EC spike recordings for studying biophysical properties of neurons, the spike waveforms must be separated from the LFP. Linear low-pass and high-pass filters are usually insufficient to separate spike waveforms from LFP, because they have overlapping frequency bands. Broad-band recordings of LFP and spikes were obtained with a 16-channel laminar electrode array (silicone probe. We developed an algorithm whereby local LFP signals from spike-containing channel were modeled using locally weighted polynomial regression analysis of adjoining channels without spikes. The modeled LFP signal was subtracted from the recording to estimate the embedded spike waveforms. We tested the method both on defined spike waveforms added to LFP recordings, and on in vivo-recorded extracellular spikes from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in anaesthetized mice. We show that the algorithm can correctly extract the spike waveforms embedded in the LFP. In contrast, traditional high-pass filters failed to recover correct spike shapes, albeit produceing smaller standard errors. We found that high-pass RC or 2-pole Butterworth filters with cut-off frequencies below 12.5 Hz, are required to retrieve waveforms comparable to our method. The method was also compared to spike-triggered averages of the broad-band signal, and yielded waveforms with smaller standard errors and less distortion before and after the spike.

  8. The universal path integral

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Seth; Dreyer, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Path integrals represent a powerful route to quantization: they calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete...

  9. EVALUATION OF “SEPS” PROCEDURE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PRIMARY VARICOSE VEINS WITH INCOMPETENT LOWER LIMB PERFORATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Varicose veins affect at least 1 out of 5 in the world and the cost of health care for the society is significant. In a developing country like India, study encompassing the clinical evaluation and management of lower limb varicose veins on the conventional lines seems a necessity to improve the quality care with the available resources. OBJECTIVES To study the relation between site of incompetence and complications, pattern of complications, surgical management and its outcome for lower limb varicose veins. METHODS A total 26 number of patients with primary varicose veins admitted, investigated, operated and followed up. Final outcome evaluated. All the information was taken down in the proforma, designed for the study. RESULTS In the study, it was noted that the varicose veins affect younger, adult, and middle age population. (20 to 60 years. Majority of the patients were male (84.60%. Perforator incompetence only = 42.3% (n=11. Perforator incompetence + saphenofemoral/saphenopopliteal incompetence seen in 57.7%. Long saphenous vein involvement was seen in 90.5% of the patients and both LSV and SSV involvement in 9.5%. A greater portion of the patients had combined valvular incompetence (69.56%. The mean ulcer healing time in our study was 2.8 weeks following surgery (90%. Residual incompetent perforators are seen in 7.6% (n=2. New incompetent perforators seen in 7.6% (n=2. Postoperative wound infection of the incision of SPJ ligation was seen in 3.8% (n=1 of the patients, but not the SEPS wound infection and the total complication rate was 3.85%. The mean postoperative stay for patients undergoing SEPS procedure alone was 3.6 days. The mean postoperative stay for patients who underwent perforator ligation with concomitant stripping procedure was 5 days. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION Majority of the patients present with complications of varicose vein with combined valvular incompetence and surgical treatment with stripping of path

  10. Cell-Type Specific Inactivation of Hippocampal CA1 Disrupts Location-Dependent Object Recognition in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haettig, Jakob; Sun, Yanjun; Wood, Marcelo A.; Xu, Xiangmin

    2013-01-01

    The allatostatin receptor (AlstR)/ligand inactivation system enables potent regulation of neuronal circuit activity. To examine how different cell types participate in memory formation, we have used this system through Cre-directed, cell-type specific expression in mouse hippocampal CA1 in vivo and examined functional effects of inactivation of…

  11. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 region of hyperlipidemic rats with chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingying Cheng; Ying Zhang; Hongmei Song; Jiachun Feng

    2012-01-01

    Chronic cerebral ischemia is a pathological process in many cerebrovascular diseases and it is induced by long-term hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. After being fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks, rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries to establish rat models of chronic cerebral ischemia with hyperlipidemia. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in rat hippocampal CA1 region was determined to better understand the mechanism underlying the effects of hyperlipidemia on chronic cerebral ischemia. Water maze test results showed that the cognitive function of rats with hyperlipidemia or chronic cerebral ischemia, particularly in rats with hyperlipidemia combined with chronic cerebral ischemia, gradually decreased between 1 and 4 months after occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries. This correlated with pathological changes in the hippocampal CA1 region as detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Immunohistochemical staining showed that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 region was noticeably increased in rats with hyperlipidemia or chronic cerebral ischemia, in particular in rats with hyperlipidemia combined with chronic cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that hyperlipidemia aggravates chronic cerebral ischemia-induced neurological damage and cognitive impairment in the rat hippocampal CA1 region, which may be mediated, at least in part, by up-regulated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

  12. Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis Cytolytic Toxin (Cyt2Ca1) in citrus roots to control Diaprepes abbreviatus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is an important pest of citrus in the USA. Currently, no effective management strategies of Diaprepes abbreviatus exist in citriculture. To protect citrus against Diaprepes abbreviatus a transgenic citrus rootstock expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Ca1, an insect toxin...

  13. Clioquinol inhibits zinc-triggered caspase activation in the hippocampal CA1 region of a global ischemic gerbil model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive release of chelatable zinc from excitatory synaptic vesicles is involved in the pathogenesis of selective neuronal cell death following transient forebrain ischemia. The present study was designed to examine the neuroprotective effect of a membrane-permeable zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, in the CA1 region of the gerbil hippocampus after transient global ischemia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The common carotid arteries were occluded bilaterally, and CQ (10 mg/kg, i.p. was injected into gerbils once a day. The zinc chelating effect of CQ was examined with TSQ fluorescence and autometallography. Neuronal death, the expression levels of caspases and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF were evaluated using TUNEL, in situ hybridization and Western blotting, respectively. We were able to show for the first time that CQ treatment attenuates the ischemia-induced zinc accumulation in the CA1 pyramidal neurons, accompanied by less neuronal loss in the CA1 field of the hippocampus after ischemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of caspase-3, -9, and AIF were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of CQ-treated gerbils. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicates that the neuroprotective effect of CQ is related to downregulation of zinc-triggered caspase activation in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils with global ischemia.

  14. CORRELATION BETWEEN TYMPANIC MEMBRANE PERFORATION AND HEARING LOSS

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    Lidija RISTOVSKA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Perforation of the tympanic membrane primarily results from middle ear infections, trauma or iatrogenic causes. The perforation causes conductive hearing loss by reducing the surface area available for sound transmission to the ossicular chain. Objective: The objective was to analyze the characteristics of tympanic membrane perforations in relation to hearing loss and to determine the type and degree of hearing loss. Materials and methods: We analyzed audiometric, otoscopic findings and medical reports of 218 patients, 114 males (52.3% and 104 females (47.7%, aged 9 to 75 years (mean age of 47.9 years, examined during the period of November 2012 to October 2015. For statistical data analysis we used Chi-square test with level of significance p<0.05. Results: Most of the patients had unilateral perforations (89% with right ear predominance and involvement of two quadrants of pars tensa (37.2%. Mean air-bone gap was 23.9 dB. The largest air-bone gap was at frequency of 250 Hz. Most of the patients (73.1% had mixed hearing loss (p=0.032, and average hearing thresholds from 21 to 40 dB. Conclusion: Mean air-bone gap is largest at the lower frequencies, and decreases as frequency increases. Size of the perforation has effect on hearing loss. Mean air-bone gap increases with increasing size of the perforation. There is no big difference between the mean air-bone gap in posterior versus anterior perforations.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LAPAROSCOPIC CLOSURE OPEN PEPTIC PERFORATION CLOSURE

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    Vivek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic closure of perforated duodenal ulcer was first performed in the year 1990 . Due to its advantage of better view of the peritoneal cavity an opportunity for thorough lavage and avoidance of upper abdominal incision, with its related complication, especially in high – ri sk patients, this procedure has gained popularity all over the world. Approximately 10 - 20% of patients suffering from peptic ulcer develop perforation of stomach or duodenum in which, chemical peritonitis develop initially from gastric secretion and duoden al secretion the condition is life threatening. Early diagnosis and treatment is extremely important. Mortality will increase up if perforation exists more than 24 to 48 hours. Usually surgical intervention of simple closure with omental patch of the perforation is required. this study aims at evaluating efficacy , safety and outcome of laparoscopic surgery for perforated duodenal ulcer patients admitted during period Jan 2009 to Dec 2012 at tertiary hospital in north Karnataka A total of 61cases diagnosed as peritonitis secondary to duodenal ulcer perforation were involved in the study 30underwent open perforation closure and 31 cases underwent lap closure. Peptic ulcers are focal defects in the gastric or duodenal mucosa which extend into the sub mucosa or deeper. they may be acute or chronic and ultimately are caused by on imbalance between the action of peptic acid and mucosal defenses peptic ulcer remains a common outpatient diagnosis, but the number of elective operations for peptic ul cer disease have decreased dramatically over the past 30 decades due to the advent of H2 blockers However the incidence of emergency surgeries, and death rate associated with peptic ulcer are same

  16. Proteasome alteration and delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus regions following transient cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfei Ge; Tianfei Luo; Jizhou Zhang; Haifeng Wang; Wenchen Li; Yongxin Luan; Feng Ling; Yi'nan Luo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Proteasome dysfunction has been reported to induce abnormal protein aggregation and cell death.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of proteasome changes on delayed neuronal death in CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the rat hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized,controlled animal experiment.The study was performed at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,Norman Bethune Medical College of Jilin University,from September 2006 to May 2008.MATERIALS:Rabbit anti-19S S10B polyclonal antibody was purchased from Bioreagents,USA;propidium iodide and fluorescently-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG were purchased from Jackson Immunoresearch,USA;hematoxylin and eosin staining solution was purchased from Sigma,USA;LSM 510 confocal microscope was purchased from Zeiss,Germany.METHODS:A total of 40 healthy Wistar rats,male,4 months old,were randomly divided into sham surgery group (n=8) and model group (n=32).Ischemic models were established in the model group by transient clamping of the bilateral carotid arteries and decreased blood pressure.After 20 minutes of global ischemia,the clamp was removed to allow blood flow for 30 minutes,4,24,and 72 hours,respectively,with 8 rats at each time point.The bilateral carotid arteries were not ligated in the sham surgery group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Neuronal death in the CA1 and DG regions was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining.Proteasome expression in CA1 and DG region neurons was detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS:Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed neuronal death in the CA1 region alone at 72 hours of reperfusion following ischemia.In comparison to the sham surgery group,a significant decrease in proteasome expression was observed,by immunohistochemistry,in the CA1 and DG regions in the model group,following 30 minutes,4,24,and 72 hours of reperfusion (P<0.01).After 72 hours of reperfusion following ischemia,proteasome expression had almost completely

  17. Bladder perforation in a peritoneal dialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounissi, M; Sfaxi, M; Fayala, H; Abderrahim, E; Ben Abdallah, T; Chebil, M; Ben Maiz, H; Kheder, A

    2012-05-01

    The dysfunction of the catheter in peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a frequent complication. However, perforation of organs are rare, particularly that of the urinary bladder. This requires an early diagnosis and prompt treatment of patients. We report here the case of a 38-year-old woman having end-stage renal disease due to autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease treated by PD since November 2000. Three years later, she was treated for Staphylococcal peritonitis. Four months later, she presented with a severe urge to urinate at the time of the fluid exchanges. The biochemical analysis of the fluid from the bladder showed that it was dialysis fluid. Injection of contrast through the catheter demonstrated the presence of a fistula between the bladder and the peritoneal cavity. She underwent cystoscopic closure of the fistulous tract and the PD catheter was removed. Subsequently, the patient was treated by hemodialysis. One month later, a second catheter was implanted surgically after confirming the closure of the fistula. Ten days later, she presented with pain at the catheter site and along the tunnel, which was found to be swollen along its track. The injection of contrast produced swelling of the subcutaneous tunnel but without extravasation of the dye. PD was withdrawn and the patient was put back on hemodialysis. Bladder fistula is a rare complication in PD and diagnosis should be suspected when patient complains of an urge to pass urine during the exchanges, which can be confirmed by contrast study showing presence of dye in the bladder. PD may be possible after the closure of the fistula, but recurrence may occur. PMID:22569443

  18. Bladder perforation in a peritoneal dialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ounissi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dysfunction of the catheter in peritoneal dialysis (PD is a frequent compli-cation. However, perforation of organs are rare, particularly that of the urinary bladder. This re-quires an early diagnosis and prompt treatment of patients. We report here the case of a 38-year-old woman having end-stage renal disease due to autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease treated by PD since November 2000. Three years later, she was treated for Staphylococcal peritonitis. Four months later, she presented with a severe urge to urinate at the time of the fluid exchanges. The biochemical analysis of the fluid from the bladder showed that it was dialysis fluid. Injection of contrast through the catheter demonstrated the presence of a fistula between the bladder and the peritoneal cavity. She underwent cystoscopic closure of the fistulous tract and the PD catheter was removed. Subsequently, the patient was treated by hemodialysis. One month later, a second catheter was implanted surgically after confirming the closure of the fistula. Ten days later, she presented with pain at the catheter site and along the tunnel, which was found to be swollen along its track. The injection of contrast produced swelling of the subcutaneous tunnel but without extravasation of the dye. PD was withdrawn and the patient was put back on hemodialysis. Bladder fistula is a rare complication in PD and diagnosis should be suspected when patient complains of an urge to pass urine during the exchanges, which can be confirmed by contrast study showing presence of dye in the bladder. PD may be possible after the closure of the fistula, but recurrence may occur.

  19. Does Ramadan Fasting Increase duodenal ulcer perforation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulhossein Davoodabadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Ramadan, healthy adult Muslims are obliged to fast. Prolonged fasting increase gastric acid and pepsin levels, which promote the risk of duodenal ulcer perforation (DUP. Effects of Ramadan fasting on DUP have not been thoroughly studied yet, and the limited number of studies investigating the impact of Ramadan fasting on DUP yielded discrepant results. This study aimed to evaluate DUP frequency during Ramadan 2011-2015 and compare it with other months. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 82 patients undergoing surgery due to DUP during July 2011-September 2015. The demographics, history of addiction, use of nonsteroidal and antiinflammatory drugs, previous history of acid peptic disease, as well as complications and outcomes of treatment were recorded and analyzed, and the obtained results were compared between Ramadan and other lunar months. Results: The majority of patients were male (86.6%, 71 patients, with a mean age of 43.9±16.5 years (age range: 20-75 years. Male to female ratio was 6:1. Cases with less than 30 years of age were less frequent (22%, 18 patients. DUP was more frequent during Rajab with nine cases (11%, while during Ramadan, six cases were reported, the difference between Ramadan and other months regarding the incidence of DUP was not significant (P=0.7. Risk factors such as smoking (60% and addiction (44%; especially to crystal and crack were noted. Consumption of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in 20 (24% patients, and use of antacids in 17 (25% patients. Distribution of DUP in different blood types was as follows: O+=41%, A+=28%, B+=23%, AB=5%, and O-=3%; moreover, post-operative Helicobacter pylori antibody was present in 67% of the patients. Conclusion: Ramadan fasting did not escalate DUP incidence, and those with DUP risk factors can fast with the use of antacids.

  20. Jet Screech Reduction with Perforated Flat Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the present experimental study, investigations have been carried out to evaluate the performance of the new control technique of jet screech with different perforated flat reflectors. Mainly two types of porous flat reflectors had been used in the experiment. One reflector (reflector-V) designed for placing the reflector surface vertical to the jet axis, when, another type of reflector (reflector-H) designed for placing the reflecting surface horizontal to the jet axis. In both cases the reflectors had been placed at the nozzle (base tube with uniform cross-sectional area)exit. The diameter of the reflector-V was 15D when the diameter of the reflector-H was 10D. The porous area of the reflector-V was 6D and 4.5D for reflector-H where D indicated the diameter of the nozzle exit. The placement of the reflector at the exit of the nozzle reduces the sound pressure at the nozzle exit. Thus the muted sound can not excite the unstable disturbance at the nozzle exit and the loop of the feedback mechanism disappeared, finally,the generation of jet screech be cancelled. The suction space located at the back side of the porous surface of the reflector-V improves the efficiency of the screech control technique. However, in the case of reflector-H, the receptivity process of feedback loop had been controlled by reducing the disturbances at the effective shock fronts as well as at the nozzle exit. The performance of the proposed method was verified with a flat reflector concept and good performance in jet screech suppression has been confirmed in the case of porous reflector.

  1. Different patterns of amygdala priming differentially affect dentate gyrus plasticity and corticosterone, but not CA1 plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose-Marie eVouimba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced activation of the amygdala is involved in the modulation of memory processes in the hippocampus. However, stress effects on amygdala and memory remain complex. The activation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA was found to modulate plasticity in other brain areas, including the hippocampus. We previously demonstrated a differential effect of BLA priming on LTP in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG. While BLA priming suppressed long term potentiation (LTP in CA1, it was found to enhance it in the DG. However, since the amygdala itself is amenable to experience-induced plasticity it is thus conceivable that when activity within the amygdala is modified this will have impact on the way the amygdala modulates activity and plasticity in other brain areas. In the current study we examined the effects of different patterns of BLA activation on the modulation of LTP in the DG and CA1, as well as on serum corticosterone (CORT. In CA1, BLA priming impaired LTP induction as was reported before. In contrast, in the DG, varying BLA stimulation intensity and frequency resulted in differential effects on LTP, ranging from no effect to strong impairment or enhancement. Varying BLA stimulation patterns resulted in also differential alterations in Serum CORT, leading to higher CORT levels being positively correlated with LTP magnitude in DG but not in CA1.The results support the notion of a differential role for the DG in aspects of memory, and add to this view the possibility that DG-associated aspects of memory will be enhanced under more emotional or stressful conditions. It is interesting to think of BLA patterns of activation and the differential levels of circulating CORT as two arms of the emotional and stress response that attempt to synchronize brain activity to best meet the challenge. It is foreseeable to think of abnormal such synchronization under extreme conditions, which would lead to the development of maladaptive behavior.

  2. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation prevents kindling-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, A; Semnanian, S; Janahmadi, M; Moradi-Chameh, H; Firoozabadi, S M; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, J

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying antiepileptic or antiepileptogenic effects of repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of rTMS applied during rapid amygdala kindling on some electrophysiological properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Male Wistar rats were kindled by daily electrical stimulation of the basolateral amygdala in a semi-rapid manner (12 stimulations/day) until they achieved stage-5 seizure. One group (kindled+rTMS (KrTMS)) of animals received rTMS (1Hz for 4min) 5min after termination of daily kindling stimulations. Twenty four hours following the last kindling stimulation electrophysiological properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons were investigated using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Amygdala kindling significantly depolarized the resting membrane potential and increased the input resistance, spontaneous firing activity, number of evoked spikes and half-width of the first evoked spike. Kindling also decreased the first-spike latency and amplitude significantly. Application of rTMS during kindling somehow prevented the development of seizures and protected CA1 pyramidal neurons of hippocampus against deleterious effect of kindling on both passive and active neuronal electrophysiological properties. Interestingly, application of rTMS alone enhanced the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons significantly. Based on the results of our study, it may be suggested that rTMS exerts its anticonvulsant effect, in part, through preventing the amygdala kindling-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. It seems that rTMS exerts protective effects on the neural circuits involved in spreading the seizures from the focus to other parts of the brain.

  3. Multi-Dimensional Path Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We present the path-relationship model that supports multi-dimensional data modeling and querying. A path-relationship database is composed of sets of paths and sets of relationships. A path is a sequence of related elements (atoms, paths, and sets of paths). A relationship is a binary path...... that connects a pair of paths. A path expression is a function that maps a set of path sets into a path set. Path sets can be joined, filtering conditions can restrict the set of qualifying paths, and aggregation functions can be applied to path elements. In particular, the aggregation function SET can be used...... to create nested path structures. We present an SQL-like query language that is based on path expressions and we show how to use it to express multi-dimensional path queries that are suited for advanced data analysis in decision support environments like data warehousing environments...

  4. A CLINICAL STUDY ON PATIENTS WITH DUODENAL ULCER PERFORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Babu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Perforated duodenal ulcer, the most catastrophic complication was Associated with high mortality in the past due to late presentation of the patients, delay in surgery and lack of antibiotics. Various authors state that the incidence of peptic ulcer disease and perforation has been declining for the past 3 decades. Because of advances in the medical therapy of peptic ulcer with a wide range of drugs the management of peptic ulcer disease has been changing and the role of surgery has been declining. Perforation is usually seen in 3rd and 4th decades with a male preponderance and the epidemiological trend is not the same worldwide. Incidence is slightly declining in western countries. The present study has been done during the period between 2013 and 2014 in S. V. R. R. Government general hospital Tirupati. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim of the present study is to analyze the probable factors for increase in incidence of duodenal ulcer perforation, with particular emphasis on assessment of impact of H2 receptor antagonists and Proton Pump inhibitors on the incidence of perforation. STUDY SETTING S. V. Medical College, Department of General Surgery, Tirupati. STUDY PERIOD Patients attending S. V. Medical College, Department of General Surgery with perforation during the period from November 2013 to October 2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA Patients between age group of more than 14 years presenting with pain abdomen and who are diagnosed to have peritonitis due to duodenal ulcer perforation. EXCLUSION CRITERIA Patients with peritonitis due causes other than duodenal ulcer. STUDY METHOD Prospective Observational study among the selected patients. Total numbers of peptic ulcer cases that were admitted in this hospital and treated either medically or surgically were noted. The details of their clinical history and findings, investigation reports, operative findings, post-operative complications were recorded. Simple closure was performed for all the

  5. Displacements and stresses in bending of circular perforated plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasiu, C.; Sorohan, St.

    2016-08-01

    The flat plates, perforated by a large number of holes are widely used in the engineering, especially in the component of the process equipment. Strength calculations and experimental methods used in the actual literature for study perforated plates, do not present the problem in all its complexity for stress distribution and displacements. Research and doctoral theses in last decades, with methods characteristic of the respective periods were engaged either perforated plates considered infinite and requested the median plane or rarely, plate loaded normal to the median plane, with a small number of holes. In this work the stress distribution and displacement is presented for a circular plate perforated by 96 holes arranged in a grid of squares, simply supported on the outline and loaded through a central concentrated force or by uniformly distributed load. It conducted a numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM) with a proper meshing of the plate and an experimental study by holographic interferometry. Holographic interferometry method permits to measure, with high accuracy, extremely small displacements and comparing the results with those obtained by FEM becomes sustainable. Supplementary, an analysis of a non-perforated plate with the same dimensions and stiffness, similar loaded, was performed, determining the coefficient of stress concentration for a particular arrangement of holes.

  6. Laparoscopic Management of Perforated Meckel's Diverticulum in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinlu Ding, Yong Zhou, Zhipeng Ji, Jianliang Zhang, Qisan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of laparoscopy in diagnosis and surgical treatment of perforated Meckel's diverticulum (MD in adults.Methods: Between July 2003 and July 2011, fifteen patients were seen with perforated MD. Eleven were male and four were female. The median age was 38 years (range, 21-68. All patients presented with a sudden onset of pain. Among them 9 had a past medical history of bloody stools and /or chronic recurrent abdominal pain. 2 were preoperatively diagnosed with perforated MD confirmly and 4 suspiciously, 9 with perforated acute appendicitis. All 15 patients underwent exploratory laparoscopy.Results: 4 patients with broad-base(≧ 2 cm and 2 patients with narrow-base(<2 cm whose perforative site was near the base underwent laparoscopically assisted extracorporal bowel segment resection, the other 9 patients with narrow-base(<2 cm underwent laparoscopically intraabdominal wedge resection of the MD. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. The median hospital stay was 4 days (range, 2-7days. The histopathologic studies showed heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM in 10 cases (66.7%. All patients recovered uneventfully.Conclusion: To patients with sudden abdomen pain mimic acute appendicitis accompanied by a past medical history of bloody stools and/or chronic recurrent abdominal pain, proferated MD should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis. Laparoscopy is a safe and effective surgical modality for diagnosis of proferated MD and has a therapeutic role that results in an excellent cosmetic result.

  7. Perforated duodenal ulcer: A rare complication of deferasirox in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal ulcer perforation in pediatric age group is an uncommon entity; hence, it is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in these patients. It is important for the emergency physician to consider perforated peptic ulcer in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with acute abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, or shock. We report a 6½-year-old male child with thalassemia major who presented to emergency room with an acute abdomen and shock, who was subsequently found to have a perforated duodenal ulcer, probably related to use of oral chelating agent, deferasirox. Although, gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain has been mentioned as infrequent adverse event in the scientific product information of deferasirox, in our current knowledge this is the first case report of perforated duodenal ulcer after oral deferasirox. The severity of this event justifies the reporting of this case. This patient had an atypical presentation in that there were no signs or symptoms of peptic ulcer disease before perforation and shock he was successfully managed with open surgery after initial resuscitation and stabilization of his general condition.

  8. Colon perforation related to percutaneous nephrolithotomy: from diagnosis to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Fatih; Tok, Adem; Penbegul, Necmettin; Daggulli, Mansur; Eryildirim, Bilal; Adanur, Senol; Gurbuz, Gokhan; Celik, Huseyin; Utangac, Mehmet Mazhar; Dede, Onur; Bodakcı, Mehmet Nuri; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Sarica, Kemal

    2015-11-01

    We present our experience with the largest series of colon perforation (CP) as complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). From January 1998 to August 2014, 22 cases that presented with PNL-related CP from seven referral centers were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with CP were evaluated in terms of probable risk factors. Peri-operative and postoperative findings, timing of diagnosis, and treatment modalities of the CP were reviewed. Of the 22 patients, previous ipsilateral renal surgery (n:2) and retrorenal colon (n:5) were the risk factors for CP. The CP was directly visualized via nephroscopy during the surgery in 3 (13.6%) and with nephrostography at the end of the procedure in 4 patients (18.2%). In two patients, perforation was realized via the passage of contrast into the colon with nephrostography on the postoperative second day. Postoperative passage of feces through the nephrostomy tube was seen in six patients. The clinical signs in 13 cases directed CP diagnosis. The confirmation of the CP was achieved with a CT scan in all the patients. The patients with extraperitoneal perforation were primarily managed conservatively. Open surgical treatment was performed in cases with intraperitoneal perforation (n:5) and those with extraperitoneal perforation resistant to conservative treatment (n:5). Meticulous evaluation of the risk factors preoperatively is the initial step in the prevention of CP. Timely diagnosis plays essential role in the management of this PNL complication. Although extraperitoneal CP may be managed conservatively, surgery is required for intraperitoneal CPs. PMID:26033042

  9. Coagulation syndrome: Delayed perforation after colorectal endoscopic treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kingo; Hirasawa; Chiko; Sato; Makomo; Makazu; Hiroaki; Kaneko; Ryosuke; Kobayashi; Atsushi; Kokawa; Shin; Maeda

    2015-01-01

    Various procedure-related adverse events related to colonoscopic treatment have been reported. Previous studies on the complications of colonoscopic treatment have focused primarily on perforation or bleeding. Coagulation syndrome(CS), which is synonymous with transmural burn syndrome following endoscopic treatment, is another typical adverse event. CS is the result of electrocoagulation injury to the bowel wall that induces a transmural burn and localized peritonitis resulting in serosal inflammation. CS occurs after polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR), and even endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD). The occurrence of CS after polypectomy or EMR varies according previous reports; most report an occurrence rate around 1%. However, artificial ulcers after ESD are largely theoretical, and CS following ESD was reported in about 9% of cases, which is higher than that for CS after polypectomy or EMR. Most cases of post-polypectomy syndrome(PPS) have an excellent prognosis, and they are managed conservatively with medical therapy. PPS rarely develops into delayed perforation. Delayed perforation is a severe adverse event that often requires emergency surgery. Since few studies have reported on CS and delayed perforation associated with CS, we focused on CS after colonoscopic treatments in this review. Clinicians should consider delayed perforation in CS patients.

  10. Serrated needle design facilitates precise round window membrane perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, James P; Watanabe, Hirobumi; Kysar, Jeffrey W; Lalwani, Anil K

    2016-07-01

    The round window membrane (RWM) has become the preferred route, over cochleostomy, for the introduction of cochlear implant electrodes as it minimizes inner ear trauma. However, in the absence of a tool designed for creating precise perforation, current practices lead to tearing of the RWM and significant intracochlear pressure fluctuations. On the basis of RWM mechanical properties, we have designed a multi-serrated needle to create consistent holes without membrane tearing or damaging inner ear structures. Four and eight-serrated needles were designed and produced with wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). The needle's ability to create RWM perforations was tested in deidentified, commercially acquired temporal bones with the assistance of a micromanipulator. Subsequently, specimens were imaged under light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The needles created consistent, appropriately sized holes in the membrane with minimal tearing. While a four-serrated crown needle made rectangular/trapezoid perforations, the octagonal crown formed smooth oval holes within the membrane. Though designed for single use, the needle tolerated repeated use without significant damage. The serrated needles formed precise perforations in the RWM while minimizing damage during cochlear implantation. The octagonal needle design created the preferred oval perforation better than the quad needle. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1633-1637, 2016. PMID:26914984

  11. The research progress of acute small bowel perforation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rudolf Schiessel

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the various aetiologies of small bowel perforations and their management. In addition to the well-known aetiologies such as trauma, inflammation and circulatory disorders, several new causes of small bowel perforation have been described in recent years. The spectrum reaches from iatrogenic perforations during laparoscopic surgery or enteroscopies to drug-induced perforations with new anticancer agents. The management of small bowel perforations requires a concept consisting of the safe revision of the leaking bowel and the treatment of the peritonitis. Depending on the local situation and the condition of the patient, several treatment options are available. The surgical management of the bowel leak can range from a simple primary closure to a delayed restoration of bowel continuity. When the condition of the bowel or patient is frail, the risk of a failure of a closure or anastomosis is too high, and the exteriorization of the bowel defect as a primary measure is a safe option. The treatment of the peritonitis is also dependent on the condition of the patient and the local situation. Early stages of peritonitis can be treated by a simple peritoneal lavage, either performed by laparoscopy or laparotomy. Severe forms of peritonitis with multiorgan failure and an abdominal compartment syndrome need repeated peritoneal revisions. In such cases, the abdomen can only be closed temporarily. Different technical options are available in order to overcome the difficult care of these patients.

  12. Reactive changes in astrocytes, and delayed neuronal death, in the rat hippocampal CA1 region following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiqing Zhang; Xiang Luo; Zhiyuan Yu; Chao Ma; Shabei Xu; Wei Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood supply to the hippocampus is not provided by the middle cerebral artery. However, previous studies have shown that delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus may occur following focal cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship between reactive changes in hippocampal astrocytes and delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region following middle cerebral artery occlusion. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The immunohistochemical, randomized, controlled animal study was performed at the Laboratory of Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, from July to November 2007. MATERIALS: Rabbit anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (Neomarkers, USA), goat anti-rabbit IgG (Sigma, USA) and ApoAlert apoptosis detection kit (Biosciences Clontech, USA) were used in this study. METHODS: A total of 42 healthy adult male Wistar rats, aged 3-5 months, were randomly divided into a sham operation group (n = 6) and a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group (n = 36). In the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion models were created by middle cerebral artery occlusion. In the sham operation group, the thread was only inserted into the initial region of the internal carotid artery, and middle cerebral artery occlusion was not induced. Rats in the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group were assigned to a delayed neuronal death (+) subgroup and a delayed neuronal death (-) subgroup, according to the occurrence of delayed neuronal death in the ischemic side of the hippocampal CA1 region following cerebral ischemia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region was measured by Nissl staining. GFAP expression and delayed neuronal death changes were measured in the rat hippocampal CA1 region at the ischemic hemisphere by double staining for GFAP and TUNEL. RESULTS: After 3 days of ischemia

  13. GABAA receptor-mediated feedforward and feedback inhibition differentially modulate the gain and the neural code transformation in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun Jae; Park, Kyerl; Lee, Jaedong; Kim, Hyuncheol; Han, Kyu Hun; Kwag, Jeehyun

    2015-12-01

    Diverse variety of hippocampal interneurons exists in the CA1 area, which provides either feedforward (FF) or feedback (FB) inhibition to CA1 pyramidal cell (PC). However, how the two different inhibitory network architectures modulate the computational mode of CA1 PC is unknown. By investigating the CA3 PC rate-driven input-output function of CA1 PC using in vitro electrophysiology, in vitro-simulation of inhibitory network, and in silico computational modeling, we demonstrated for the first time that GABAA receptor-mediated FF and FB inhibition differentially modulate the gain, the spike precision, the neural code transformation and the information capacity of CA1 PC. Recruitment of FF inhibition buffered the CA1 PC spikes to theta-frequency regardless of the input frequency, abolishing the gain and making CA1 PC insensitive to its inputs. Instead, temporal variability of the CA1 PC spikes was increased, promoting the rate-to-temporal code transformation to enhance the information capacity of CA1 PC. In contrast, the recruitment of FB inhibition sub-linearly transformed the input rate to spike output rate with high gain and low spike temporal variability, promoting the rate-to-rate code transformation. These results suggest that GABAA receptor-mediated FF and FB inhibitory circuits could serve as network mechanisms for differentially modulating the gain of CA1 PC, allowing CA1 PC to switch between different computational modes using rate and temporal codes ad hoc. Such switch will allow CA1 PC to efficiently respond to spatio-temporally dynamic inputs and expand its computational capacity during different behavioral and neuromodulatory states in vivo.

  14. Leptin Induces a Novel Form of NMDA Receptor-Dependent LTP at Hippocampal Temporoammonic-CA1 Synapses 1,2,3

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xiao; McGregor, Gemma; Irving, Andrew J; Harvey, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It is well documented that the hormone leptin regulates many central functions and that hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are a key target for leptin action. Indeed, leptin modulates excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity at the Schaffer-collateral input to CA1 neurons. However the impact of leptin on the direct temporoammonic (TA) input to CA1 neurons is not known. Here we show that leptin evokes a long-lasting increase [long-term potentiation (LTP)] in excitatory ...

  15. THE ALTERATION OF NFP IN CA1 OF HIPPOCAMPUB IN MORPHINE DEPENDENT RATS%吗啡依赖性大鼠海马CA1区NPY细胞免疫组织化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周郦楠; 张晖

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察吗啡依赖性大鼠海马区NPY细胞的变化.方法:用皮下注射吗啡法建立雄性大鼠吗啡依赖模型.用免疫组织化学和图像分析方法观察大鼠CA1区NPY细胞的变化.结果:吗啡依赖性大鼠海马CA1区NPY细胞免疫反应减弱(p<0.01).结论:NPY细胞减少与吗啡依赖性的发生、发展.

  16. [Intrathoracic esophageal perforation of unknown cause in four horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graubner, C; Gerber, V; Imhasly, A; Gorgas, D; Koch, C

    2011-10-01

    Three horses (age 17 - 23 years) were referred to the equine clinic of the University of Berne due to colic, fever, tachycardia and tachypnea. All horses showed pleural effusion. Clinical findings in 2 of the horses were highly suggestive of an intra-thoracic esophageal perforation. Severe septic pleuropneumonia without suspicion of an esophageal lesion was diagnosed in the 3rd horse. In addition, an 11 year old stallion was referred to the equine clinic for treatment of a presumptive large colon impaction. The horse was given laxatives after nasogastric intubation. Subsequent dramatic clinical deterioration and signs consistent with severe pleuropneumonia suggest that esophageal perforation had occurred when passing the nasogastric tube. All 4 horses were euthanized due to a poor prognosis. Esophageal perforation was diagnosed or confirmed post mortem in all cases. A hypertrophy of the tunica muscularis of the intra-thoracic esophagus was found in 3 of 4 horses. PMID:21971675

  17. Primary tubercular caecal perforation: a rare clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Sonia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal tuberculosis is a common problem in endemic areas, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. An isolated primary caecal perforation of tubercular origin is exceptionally uncommon. Case presentation We report the case of a 39 year old male who presented with features of perforation peritonitis, which on laparotomy revealed a caecal perforation with a dusky appendix. A standard right hemicolectomy with ileostomy and peritoneal toileting was done. Histopathology revealed multiple transmural caseating granulomas with Langerhans-type giant cells and acid-fast bacilli, consistent with tuberculosis, present only in the caecum. Conclusions We report this extremely rare presentation of primary caecal tuberculosis to sensitize the medical fraternity to its rare occurrence, which will be of paramount importance owing to the increasing incidence of tuberculosis all over the world, especially among the developing countries.

  18. Laparoscopic Lavage for Perforated Diverticulitis With Purulent Peritonitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornell, Anders; Angenete, Eva; Bisgaard, Thue;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis has traditionally been treated with open colon resection and stoma formation with risk for reoperations, morbidity, and mortality. Laparoscopic lavage alone has been suggested as definitive treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare laparoscopic...... lavage with open colon resection and colostomy (Hartmann procedure) for perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, multicenter, open-label trial. (ISRCTN registry number: ISRCTN82208287). SETTING: 9 hospitals in Sweden and Denmark. PATIENTS: Patients who have...... confirmed Hinchey grade III perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis at diagnostic laparoscopy. INTERVENTION: Randomization between laparoscopic lavage and the Hartmann procedure. MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcome was the percentage of patients having 1 or more reoperations within 12 months. Key...

  19. Suprapubic catheter change resulting in terminal ileal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Peng Chang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Suprapubic cystostomy is commonly performed in patients with neurogenic bladder or bladder outlet obstruction. The most serious complication is bowel injury, which usually occurs during catheter insertion. Bowel perforation during suprapubic catheter exchange is rare. We herein report an extremely rare case of terminal ileal perforation resulting from a change of suprapubic catheter. After insertion of the suprapubic catheter, a feculent material was noted in the terminal ileum. A cystography revealed that the contrast medium passed directly into the terminal ileum and colon. A computed tomographic scan confirmed the presence of a balloon tip in the terminal ileum. Terminal ileum perforation was diagnosed. Emergent laparotomy and loop ileostomy were performed. The patient's recovery was uneventful.

  20. Intestinal perforation management using T-tube drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakahara, Tomoyuki; Kaji, Masahide; Harada, Yuko; Tsuchida, Shinobu; Toyokawa, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    In cases of small bowel perforation with gross contamination, enterostomy has traditionally been the treatment of choice. An 86-year-old woman was diagnosed with perforative peritonitis. Emergency laparotomy revealed a small bowel perforation with gross contamination, and a T-tube enterostomy was performed. The T-tube was used for intestinal decompression for the first few days and was then accompanied by enteral feeding. When oral intake was sufficient, the T-tube was removed. The abdominal wall’s fistula healed within 2 days of removal. Except for wound infection, the patient developed no postoperative complications. Under specific circumstances, a T-tube enterostomy can be an effective alternative for a traditional enterostomy. Its advantages include less or no anastomotic leakage, easier management of fluid and electrolyte levels, postoperative enteral feeding from the tube, a shorter operative time and no need for a second operation to close the stoma. PMID:27177890

  1. Distal thoracic oesophageal perforation secondary to blunt trauma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandon Ruchi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic perforation of the distal oesophagus due to blunt trauma is a very rare condition and is still associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. This is further exacerbated by delayed diagnosis and management as symptoms and signs are often masked by or ascribed to more common blunt thoracic injuries. Case report We present a case of a distal oesophageal perforation, secondary to a fall from a third storey window, which was masked by concomitant thoracic injuries and missed on both computed tomography imaging and laparotomy. The delay in his diagnosis significantly worsened the patient's recovery by allowing the development of an overwhelming chest sepsis that contributed to his death. Conclusion Early identification of an intrathoracic oesophageal perforation requires deliberate consideration and is essential to ensure a favorable outcome. Treatment should be individualised taking into account the nature of the oesophageal defect, time elapsed from injury and the patient's general condition.

  2. Microsporidium infection and perforation peritonitis: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Tanveer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric protozoan infections are a well-documented cause of diarrhea in immunocompromised patients. Special stains on stool specimens are routinely performed in such patients to diagnose these protozoa namely cryptosporidium, microsporidium, and isospora. Duodenal and jejunal biopsies can also be performed to obtain a tissue diagnosis. We report a case of microsporidium enteritis diagnosed on histopathological examination of small bowel resection specimen in a case of perforation peritonitis. The patient was a known HIV-positive on antiretroviral treatment for 2 years and on antitubercular treatment for 3 months. This case report highlights the importance of carefully screening the resection specimens for protozoal infections in immunocompromised individuals. The association of perforation peritonitis and microsporidium is rare. Hence, the possibility that untreated microsporidium infection can lead to perforation cannot be ruled out.

  3. Risk factors in patients surgically treated for peptic ulcer perforation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten Hylander; Shah, Kamran; Bendix, Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The overall mortality for patients undergoing surgery for perforated peptic ulcer has increased despite improvements in perioperative monitoring and treatment. The objective of this study was to identify and describe perioperative risk factors in order to identify ways of optimizing...... the treatment and to improve the outcome of patients with perforated peptic ulcer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred and ninety-eight patients undergoing emergency surgery in four university hospitals in Denmark were included in the study. Information regarding the pre-, intra- and postoperative phases were...... insufficiency upon admission and insufficient postoperative nutrition have been added to the list of independent risk factors for death within 30 days of surgery in patients with peptic ulcer perforation. Finding that shock upon admission, reduced albumin blood levels upon admission, renal insufficiency upon...

  4. Numerical study of perforated plate convective heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Mladen A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations were performed to determine the heat transfer coefficient of a perforated plate with square arranged cylindrical perforations. Three parameters were varied in the study: plate porosity, pitch Reynolds number and working fluid, while perforation diameter and plate thickness were constant. The Reynolds number was varied in the range from 50 to 7000, and porosity in the range from 0.1 to 0.3. As working fluids, helium, air or carbon-dioxide were set, respectively. The Nusselt number was correlated in the function of the Reynolds number, the Prandtl number, and the pitch-to-diameter ratio. The comparison with other correlations is given at the end of the paper. The difference was found to be acceptable.

  5. Acoustic Liner Drag: Measurements on Novel Facesheet Perforate Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in characterization of the aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has increased in the past several years. This paper details experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of several perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of centerline flow Mach number equals 0.3 and 0.5. Various perforate geometries and orientations are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of these resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 hertz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 decibels. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the impact of variations in perforate geometry on acoustic performance.

  6. INCIDENCE, RISK FACTORS AND COMPLICATIONS OF ACUTE PERFORATED AND NON - PERFORATED APPENDICITIS IN A RURAL SETUP OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. The incidence of appendicitis and chances of complication in the form of perforation are dependent on both the patients and non - patient factors . There are various studies conducted to address this problem, but there are no studies conducted to look in to the incidence of appendicitis in east Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. Our study was aimed to bridge thi s gap. METHOD S AND MATERIALS: this was a retrospective study, patient data from 2009 - 2014 was analyzed and the age, distance from hospital, educational and socioeconomic background of the patients was collected. The duration between first appearance of sy mptoms and hospitalization was recorded. The incidence of post - op complication was also recorded. RESULTS: T he incidence of perforation was 15% in our study population, most of the patients were from low socioeconomic group and having income less than 5000 /month. The middle age group between 30 - 40 years was commonly affected by the appendicitis. The time laps between appearance of symptoms and hospitalization was found to be a predominant factor in the perforation. Surgical site infection was most common co mplication in the patients treated. CONCLUSION: T he incidence of perforation is still high and the time laps between first appearance of symptoms and hospitalization is a major determinant of perforation or complication in the appendicitis.

  7. Outcome of surgical treatment of intestinal perforation in typhoid fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aziz; Sümer; zgür; Kemik; Ahmet; Cumhur; Dülger; Aydemir; Olmez; Ismail; Hasirci; Erol; Kisli; Vedat; Bayrak; Gulay; Bulut; etin; Kotan

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To represent our clinical experience in the treatment of intestinal perforation arising from typhoid fever.METHODS:The records of 22 surgically-treated patients with typhoid intestinal perforation were evaluated retrospectively.RESULTS:There were 18 males and 4 females,mean age 37 years(range,8-64 years).Presenting symptoms were fever,abdominal pain,diarrhea or constipation.Sixteen cases were subjected to segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis,while 3 cases received 2-layered primary repair foll...

  8. [Acute abdomen caused by spontaneous perforation of the colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotta, F; Ghidotti, G; Pecchia, G; Santoro, A

    The literature on simple ulcer of the colon is reviewed. Three successfully treated cases of spontaneous perforation of the colon due to ulcer of the sigmoid, and single and multiple ulceration of the caecum are described, with particular reference to their aetiopathogenesis. The view that simple ulcer is caused by mechanical and circulatory factors, with or without inflammation, is expressed. Surgical management of this lesion must take the patient's age and local and general condition into account. These parameters will determine the type of operation employed, ranging from simple colorrhaphy to variously extensive resection of the perforated segment. PMID:7019756

  9. Non-invasive vascular imaging in perforator flap surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative imaging using a range of imaging modalities has become increasingly popular for preoperative planning in plastic surgery, in particular in perforator flap surgery. Modalities in this role include ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and computed tomographic angiography (CTA). The evidence for the use of these techniques has been reported in only a handful of studies. In this paper we conducted a non-systematic review of the literature to establish the role for each of these modalities. The role of state-of-the-art vascular imaging as an application in perforator flap surgery is thus offered

  10. Barotraumatic esophageal perforation by explosion of a carbonated drink bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Bum; Hwang, Jae Joon; Bang, Seung Ho; Lee, Song Am; Lee, Woo Surng; Kim, Yo Han; Chee, Hyun Keun

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of barotraumatic esophageal perforation caused by the explosion of a carbonated beverage containing plastic bottle into the mouth. A 6-year-old girl presented with sudden sharp pain in her mouth and upper abdomen after outburst of the plastic bottle. A computed tomography scan showed massive pneumomediastinum with diffuse edematous esophageal wall thickening and subcutaneous emphysema primarily in the neck. An esophagogram revealed a perforation of the middle portion of the esophagus with extravasation of contrast on left side. Surgical repair was performed successfully. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 15 after an uneventful postoperative course. PMID:22186459

  11. Oral antibiotics for perforated appendicitis is not recommended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamili, Mahdi; Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In the majority of surgical departments in Denmark, the postoperative treatment for acute perforated appendicitis comprises three days of intravenous antibiotics. Recently, it has been proposed that such antibiotic regimen should be replaced by orally administered antibiotics. The aim of this paper...... was to give an overview of studies on acute perforated appendicitis with postoperative oral antibiotics. Five studies were found in a database search covering the 1966-2009 period. There is no evidence to support a conversion of the postoperative antibiotic regimen from intravenous to oral administration...

  12. Numerical Simulation of Wave Interaction with Perforated Caisson Breakwaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪峰; 李玉成; 王永学; 董国海; 白雪

    2003-01-01

    The volume of fluid (VOF) method is presented to determine the reflection coefficient of and the total horizontal wave force on perforated caisson breakwaters. The present numerical model is compared with a linear analytic solution obtained by Sahoo et al. (2000). Also this model is verified with the authors′ laboratory data. It is found that the numerical model is in good agreement with the regression equations obtained from the experimental data. The present numerical method is further discussed to relate porosity, the relative wave absorbing chamber depth, the reflection coefficient of perforated caissons and the total horizontal force on them.

  13. Rectum perforation during transanal irrigation: a case story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bing, J; Berggreen, P;

    2008-01-01

    later she started shivering with a temperature at 38.3 degrees C with normal blood pressure (BP). At rectal exploration, a spoonful fresh blood was found. After another 2 h, she became septic and was transferred to a gastroenterological surgical department. An abdominal X-ray gave no suspicion of free...... air in the abdomen. Sigmoideoscopy showed 3-5 cm oral to the dentate line a 1 x 1 cm transmural circular lesion. A colon X-ray with water contrast showed a perforation of approximately 2 x 0.5 cm. CONCLUSION: Even in experienced individuals who are proper trained, TAI can cause rectal perforation...

  14. To drain or not to drain in perforated peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Kilbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In their study, published in the current issue of the Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine, Ansari et al investigated the role of prophylactic abdominal drain usage in perforated peptic ulcer (PPU, a frequently performed surgical procedure in the emergency departments. Surgical treatment of PPU has not changed much, i.e. primary closure of the perforation and careful cleansing of the abdominal cavity, since it was described by Johann von Mikulicz-Radecki (1850-1905. There have been different applications related to drain usage and drain numbers in different centers. While a single drain... [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 45-46

  15. Non-operative management of perforated peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to see the morbidity and mortality in peptic ulcer perforation cases by non-operative management in selected cases. Results: In the selected 54 patients, male: female were 49:05. Nine had history of NSAID intake. There was no mortality. Morbidity analysis showed that three had hepatic abscess, four had pelvic abscess, six took prolonged time for improvement, in two cases conservative treatment had to be abandoned and laparotomy was done in the same hospital admission. Conclusion: Non-operative procedure is a safe and effective measure for the management of perforated peptic ulcer in selected cases. (author)

  16. Non-invasive vascular imaging in perforator flap surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario [Dept. of Radiology, Azienda Ospedaliero Univ. (AOU), di Cagliari-Polo di Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy)], e-mail: lucasaba@tiscali.it; Atzeni, Matteo; Ribuffo, Diego [Dept. of Surgery, Section of Plastic Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Univ. (AOU), di Cagliari-Polo di Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Rozen, Warren Matthew [Jack Brockhov Reconstructive Plastic Surgery Research Unit, Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Alonso-Burgos, Alberto [Dept. of Radiology, Clinica Univ., Univ. de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Bura, Raffaella [Dept. of Surgery, Section of Vascular Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Univ. (AOU), di Cagliari-Polo di Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    Preoperative imaging using a range of imaging modalities has become increasingly popular for preoperative planning in plastic surgery, in particular in perforator flap surgery. Modalities in this role include ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and computed tomographic angiography (CTA). The evidence for the use of these techniques has been reported in only a handful of studies. In this paper we conducted a non-systematic review of the literature to establish the role for each of these modalities. The role of state-of-the-art vascular imaging as an application in perforator flap surgery is thus offered.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATION CAUSED BY PERFORATED TRANSPARENT POLYETHYLENE LOW TUNNELS CULTIVATED WITH LETTUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Adeli Buriol

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental modifications caused by low tunnels made of perforated transparent polyethylene were determineted in an area alocated at the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS. The perforation densities were 100, 200, 300 and 400 perforations per square meter, corresponding respectively to 0.78% (T1, 1.57% CT2, 2.35% (T3 and 3.14% (T4 of area perforated. The results indicated that perforation density did not significantly affected solar energy availability. As perforation density increased there was a decrease on the average diurnal air temperature which demonstrated the viability of ventilating low tunnels with perforated plastic. It was also observed that inside the perforated tunnels the averages values for soil, air minimun and diurnal temperatures and air relative humidity were higher than on the external environment.

  18. Laparoscopic Lavage Is Feasible and Safe for the Treatment of Perforated Diverticulitis With Purulent Peritonitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angenete, Eva; Thornell, Anders; Burcharth, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short-term outcomes of a new treatment for perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis in a randomized controlled trial. BACKGROUND: Perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis (Hinchey III) has traditionally been treated with surgery including colon resection...

  19. An unusual case of duodenal perforation caused by a blister pack: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Yao

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Unnoticed ingestion of blister packs can cause duodenal perforation. Although prompt management is necessary, duodenal perforation, especially in the third portion, may be potentially fatal.

  20. Low doses of alcohol potentiate GABA sub B inhibition of spontaneous activity of hippocampal CA1 neurons in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado, J.R.; Thies, R. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Low doses of alcohol facilitate firing of hippocampal neurons. Such doses also enhance the inhibitory actions of GABA. Alcohol is known to potentiate inhibition via GABA{sub A} receptors. However, the effects of alcohol on GABA{sub B} receptor function are not understood. Spontaneous activity of single units was recorded from CA1 neurons of male rats anesthetized with 1.0% halothane. Electrical recordings and local application of drugs were done with multi-barrel pipettes. CA1 pyramidal neurons fired spontaneous bursts of action potentials. Acute alcohol decreased the interval between bursts, a mild excitatory action. Alcohol also more than doubled the period of complete inhibition produced by local application of both GABA and baclofen. These data suggest that GABA{sub B}-mediated inhibition is also potentiated by low doses of alcohol.

  1. Electron-correlation-induced band renormalization and Mott transition in Ca1-xSrxVO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guang-Tao; Zhang Min-Ping; Zheng Li-Hua

    2011-01-01

    We present the local density approximate+Gutzwiller results for the electronic structure of Ca1-xSryVO3. The substitution of Sr 2+ by Ca2+ reduces the bandwidth,as the V-O-V bond angle decreases from 180°for SrVO3 to about 160°for CaVO3. However,we find that the bandwidth decrease induced by the V-O-V bond angle decrease is smaller as compared to that induced by electron correlation. In correlated electron systems,such as Ca1-xSr. V03,the correlation effect of 3d electrons plays a leading role in determining the bandwidth. The electron correlation effect and crystal field splitting collaboratively determine whether the compounds will be in a metal state or in a Mottinsulator phase.

  2. Atorvastatin increases dynamin 1 expression in hippocampal CA1 region in a rat model of vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua Li; Wensheng Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined a rat model of vascular dementia. The model rats exhibited obvious morphological and ultrastructural changes in neurons in the brain, and significantly reduced dynamin 1 expression in hippocampal CA1 region along with decreased learning and memory performance. Following atorvastatin treatment, the morphology and ultrastructure of cells in the model rat brain were significantly improved, dynamin 1 expression in hippocampal CA1 region was significantly enhanced, and learning and memory ability was significantly improved. The results demonstrated that impaired learning and memory abilities in vascular dementia model rats were closely correlated with decreased dynamin 1 expression. These findings indicate that atorvastatin can protect model rats against cognitive impairment by increasing dynamin 1 expression.

  3. 小鼠海马CA1区锥体神经元树突棘的发育%Dendritic spine development of mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅; 范文娟; 程维杰; 左曙光; 邓锦波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the developmental characteristics of dendritic spines in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by analysing the spine density and morphological changes. Methods Fifty mice were collected at postnatal days ( P ) 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30, 10 mice for each age. Dil diolistic labeling with gene gun was performed to observe dendritic spines development in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. High quality labeled neurons were examined and photographed under a confocal microscope, whereas the ultrastructure of spines was observed under a transmission electron microscope. Results Dendritic spines changed their morphology and density with mouse development in response to neuronal activity. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum and spine apparatus in dendritic spines of hippocampal CA1 were observed with electron microscopy analysis, which might be involved in the regulation of plasticity at individual synapses. Conclusion The development of dendritic spines may be closely related to synaptogenesis and the formation of synaptic plasticity.%目的 对小鼠海马CA1区锥体神经元正常发育中树突棘密度及各种形态变化进行分析测定,为深入研究突触发生及突触可塑性提供直接的形态学依据.方法 分别取出生后0、5、10、20及30d 5个年龄段的C57BL/6小鼠各10只,采用基因枪对小鼠海马CA1区锥体神经元树突棘进行亲脂性荧光染料DiI标记,通过激光共焦显微镜对其进行观察分析;同时利用透射电镜技术对树突棘的超微结构进行分析.结果 树突棘的形态、大小及其密度随小鼠发育而变化,成熟树突棘内部存在滑面内质网与棘器,可能参与了突触后膜结合蛋白及其转运体的合成.结论 树突棘的发育过程与突触连接的形成以及突触可塑性密切相关.

  4. Path Problems in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Baras, John

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic path problem is a generalization of the shortest path problem in graphs. Various instances of this abstract problem have appeared in the literature, and similar solutions have been independently discovered and rediscovered. The repeated appearance of a problem is evidence of its relevance. This book aims to help current and future researchers add this powerful tool to their arsenal, so that they can easily identify and use it in their own work. Path problems in networks can be conceptually divided into two parts: A distillation of the extensive theory behind the algebraic path pr

  5. Cholinergic-mediated IP3-receptor activation induces long-lasting synaptic enhancement in CA1 pyramidal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández de Sevilla, D.; Núñez Molina, Ángel; Borde, M.; Malinow, R.; Buño, Washinton

    2008-01-01

    Cholinergic-glutamatergic interactions influence forms of synaptic plasticity that are thought to mediate memory and learning. We tested in vitro the induction of long-lasting synaptic enhancement at Schaffer collaterals by acetylcholine (ACh) at the apical dendrite of CA1 pyramidal neurons and in vivo by stimulation of cholinergic afferents. In vitro ACh induced a Ca2+ wave and synaptic enhancement mediated by insertion of AMPA receptors in spines. Activation of muscarinic ACh receptors (mAC...

  6. Ischemic preconditioning acts upstream of GluR2 down-regulation to afford neuroprotection in the hippocampal CA1

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Hidenobu; Calderone, Agata; Jover, Teresa; Grooms, Sonja Y.; Yokota, Hidenori; Zukin, R. Suzanne; Bennett, Michael V. L.

    2002-01-01

    Animals subjected to sublethal transient global ischemia (ischemic preconditioning) exhibit neuroprotection against subsequent global ischemia-induced neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 (ischemic tolerance). The molecular mechanisms underlying ischemic tolerance are unclear. Here we report that ischemic preconditioning induced a small, transient down-regulation of GluR2 mRNA expression and greatly attenuated subsequent ischemia-induced GluR2 mRNA and protein down-regulation and neuronal de...

  7. Study of gel grown mixed crystals of BaCa(1–)(IO3)4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S L Garud; N K Mahajan; K B Saraf

    2009-04-01

    The growth of mixed crystals of BaCa1–(IO3)4 were carried out with simple gel method. The effect of various parameters such as pH of gel solution, gel concentration, gel setting time, concentration of reactants on the growth was studied. Crystals having different morphologies and habits were obtained. The grown crystals were characterized by XRD, FT–IR, EDAX, TGA, DTA and DSC.

  8. Melamine Alters Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission of CA3-CA1 Synapses Presynaptically Through Autophagy Activation in the Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hui; Xiao, Xi; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Melamine is an industrial chemical that can cause central nervous system disorders including excitotoxicity and cognitive impairment. Its illegal use in powdered baby formula was the focus of a milk scandal in China in 2008. One of our previous studies showed that melamine impaired glutamatergic transmission in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. However, the underlying mechanism of action of melamine is unclear, and it is unknown if the CA3-CA1 pathway is directly involved. In the present study, a whole-cell patch-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effect of melamine on the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway in vitro. Both the evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (eEPSC) and the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) were recorded. Furthermore, we examined whether autophagy was involved in glutamatergic transmission alterations induced by melamine. Our data showed that melamine significantly increased the amplitude of eEPSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor did not prevent the increase in eEPSC amplitude. In addition, the PPR was remarkably decreased by a melamine concentration of 5 × 10(-5) g/mL. It was found that autophagy could be activated by melamine and an autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA, prevented the melamine-induced increase in eEPSC amplitude. Overall, our results show that melamine presynaptically alters glutamatergic synaptic transmission of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses in vitro and this is likely associated with autophagy alteration. PMID:26530910

  9. GABABR-Dependent Long-Term Depression at Hippocampal Synapses between CB1-Positive Interneurons and CA1 Pyramidal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappy, Dave; Valiullina, Fliza; Draguhn, Andreas; Rozov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Activity induced long lasting modifications of synaptic efficacy have been extensively studied in excitatory synapses, however, long term plasticity is also a property of inhibitory synapses. Inhibitory neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region can be subdivided according to the compartment they target on the pyramidal cell. Some interneurons preferentially innervate the perisomatic area and axon hillock of the pyramidal cells while others preferentially target dendritic branches and spines. Another characteristic feature allowing functional classification of interneurons is cell type specific expression of different neurochemical markers and receptors. In the hippocampal CA1 region, nearly 90% of the interneurons expressing cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1R) also express cholecystokinin (CCK). Therefore, the functional presence of CB1 receptors can be used for identification of the inhibitory input from CCK positive (CCK+) interneurons to CA1 pyramidal cells. The goal of this study was to explore the nature of long term plasticity at the synapses between interneurons expressing CB1Rs (putative CCK+) and pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in vitro. We found that theta burst stimulation triggered robust long-term depression (LTD) at this synapse. The locus of LTD induction was postsynaptic and required activation of GABAB receptors. We also showed that LTD at this synaptic connection involves GABABR-dependent suppression of adenylyl cyclase and consequent reduction of PKA activity. In this respect, CB1+ to pyramidal cell synapses differ from the majority of the other hippocampal inhibitory connections where theta burst stimulation results in long-term potentiation. PMID:26858602

  10. Large Magnetic Entropy Effect in La2/3Ca1/3MnO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭振生

    2004-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect in the colossal magnetoresistance material La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 was studied.From the measurements of temperature dependence of magnetization in various magnetic fields,the large magnetic entropy change associated with the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition was discovered.This result suggests that perovskite manganites are suitable candidates as working substance in magnetic refrigeration technology.

  11. A novel non-CB1/TRPV1 endocannabinoid-mediated mechanism depresses excitatory synapses on hippocampal CA1 interneurons

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jeffrey G.; Gibson, Helen E.; Jensen, Tyron; Nugent, Fereshteh; Walther, Curtis; Blickenstaff, Jacob; Kauer, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) mediate various forms of synaptic plasticity at excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the brain. The eCB anandamide binds to several receptors including the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). We recently identified that TRPV1 is required for long-term depression at excitatory synapses on hippocampal stratum radiatum interneurons. Here we performed whole-cell patch clamp recordings from CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons in...

  12. Plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yue; Guo, Yongzhi; Wilczynska, Malgorzata; Li, Jinan; Hellström, Sten; Ny, Tor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most tympanic membrane (TM) perforations heal spontaneously, but approximately 10-20% remain open as chronic TM perforations. Chronic perforations can lead to an impaired hearing ability and recurrent middle ear infections. Traditionally, these perforations must be surgically closed, which is costly and time consuming. Therefore, there is a need for simpler therapeutic strategies. Previous studies by us have shown that plasminogen (plg) is a potent pro-inflammatory regulator that ...

  13. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra Presenting as Acute Abdomen and Pneumoperitoneum Mimicking Those of Gastrointestinal Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Yamada; Nanako Ando; Naoshi Shibata; Motomu Suitou; Hiroshi Takagi; Kazutoshi Matsunami; Satoshi Ichigo; Atsushi Imai

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) perforation accounts for over 90% of acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum. The presence of pneumoperitoneum secondary to spontaneously perforated pyometra is an interesting yet confusing finding given the absence of gastrointestinal (GI) perforation, because pyometra is more common in postmenopausal women. We report an instructive case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforation of pyometra. A 70-year-old postmenopausal female was admitted to surgical emergenc...

  14. Primary endoscopic approximation suture under cap-assisted endoscopy of an ERCP-induced duodenal perforation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae; Hoon; Lee; Byoung; Wook; Bang; Jee; In; Jeong; Hyung; Gil; Kim; Seok; Jeong; Seon; Mee; Park; Don; Haeng; Lee; Sang-Heum; Park; Sun-Joo; Kim

    2010-01-01

    Duodenal perforation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography(ERCP) is a rare complication,but it has a relatively high mortality risk.Early diagnosis and prompt management are key factors for the successful treatment of ERCP-related perforation.The management of perforation can initially be conservative in cases resulting from sphincterotomy or guide wire trauma.However,the current standard treatment for duodenal free wall perforation is surgical repair.Recently,several case reports of endosco...

  15. Xanthogranulomatous pseudotumor of stomach induced by perforated peptic ulcer mimicking a stromal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chen, Chi-Kuan; Chen, Yung-Fang; Ho, Yung-Jen; Yang, Mei-Due; Shen, Wu-Chung

    2006-10-01

    Perforation is a serious complication of peptic ulcer disease occurring in 5% of such patients. Occasionally, the perforation may be sealed off by the omentum or the adjacent organs. Sealed perforated ulcer with pseudotumor formation is very rarely encountered. Here we present a case of gastric pseudotumor induced by perforation of a peptic ulcer. The imaging features in a barium sulfate study and computed tomography mimic an intramural tumor of the stomach.

  16. Spatial memory decline after masticatory deprivation and aging is associated with altered laminar distribution of CA1 astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frota de Almeida Marina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chewing imbalances are associated with neurodegeneration and are risk factors for senile dementia in humans and memory deficits in experimental animals. We investigated the impact of long-term reduced mastication on spatial memory in young, mature and aged female albino Swiss mice by stereological analysis of the laminar distribution of CA1 astrocytes. A soft diet (SD was used to reduce mastication in the experimental group, whereas the control group was fed a hard diet (HD. Assays were performed in 3-, 6- and 18-month-old SD and HD mice. Results Eating a SD variably affected the number of astrocytes in the CA1 hippocampal field, and SD mice performed worse on water maze memory tests than HD mice. Three-month-old mice in both groups could remember/find a hidden platform in the water maze. However, 6-month-old SD mice, but not HD mice, exhibited significant spatial memory dysfunction. Both SD and HD 18-month-old mice showed spatial memory decline. Older SD mice had astrocyte hyperplasia in the strata pyramidale and oriens compared to 6-month-old mice. Aging induced astrocyte hypoplasia at 18 months in the lacunosum-moleculare layer of HD mice. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that the impaired spatial learning and memory induced by masticatory deprivation and aging may be associated with altered astrocyte laminar distribution and number in the CA1 hippocampal field. The underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown and merit further investigation.

  17. Growth of nucleation sites on Pb-doped Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8 + delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnemore, D. K.; Xu, Ming; Kouzoudis, D.; Bloomer, T.; Kramer, M. J.; McKernan, Stuart; Balachandran, U.; Haldar, Pradeep

    1996-01-01

    In the growth of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ from mixed powders of Pb-doped Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+δ and other oxides, it has been discovered that a dense array of hillocks or mesas grow at the interface between a Ag overlay and Pb-doped Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+δ grains during the ramp up to the reaction temperature. As viewed in an environmental scanning electron microscope, the Ag coated grains develop a texture that looks like ``chicken pox'' growing on the grains at about 700 °C. These hillocks are about 100 nm across and are spaced at about 500 to 1000 nm. If there is no Ag, this texture does not develop. Preliminary measurements indicate that the hillocks are a recrystallization of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+δ, and are definitely not a Pb rich phase.

  18. Role for MMP-9 in stress-induced downregulation of nectin-3 in hippocampal CA1 and associated behavioural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Michael A; Fantin, Martina; Rejmak, Emilia; Grosse, Jocelyn; Zanoletti, Olivia; Fournier, Celine; Ganguly, Krishnendu; Kalita, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Sandi, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress is a risk factor for the development of psychopathologies characterized by cognitive dysfunction and deregulated social behaviours. Emerging evidence suggests a role for cell adhesion molecules, including nectin-3, in the mechanisms that underlie the behavioural effects of stress. We tested the hypothesis that proteolytic processing of nectins by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), an enzyme family that degrades numerous substrates, including cell adhesion molecules, is involved in hippocampal effects induced by chronic restraint stress. A reduction in nectin-3 in the perisynaptic CA1, but not in the CA3, compartment is observed following chronic stress and is implicated in the effects of stress in social exploration, social recognition and a CA1-dependent cognitive task. Increased MMP-9-related gelatinase activity, involving N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, is specifically found in the CA1 and involved in nectin-3 cleavage and chronic stress-induced social and cognitive alterations. Thus, MMP-9 proteolytic processing emerges as an important mediator of stress effects in brain function and behaviour. PMID:25232752

  19. Effects of FK506 on Hippocampal CA1 Cells Following Transient Global Ischemia/Reperfusion in Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra-Nadia Sharifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient global cerebral ischemia causes loss of pyramidal cells in CA1 region of hippocampus. In this study, we investigated the neurotrophic effect of the immunosuppressant agent FK506 in rat after global cerebral ischemia. Both common carotid arteries were occluded for 20 minutes followed by reperfusion. In experimental group 1, FK506 (6 mg/kg was given as a single dose exactly at the time of reperfusion. In the second group, FK506 was administered at the beginning of reperfusion, followed by its administration intraperitoneally (IP 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after reperfusion. FK506 failed to show neurotrophic effects on CA1 region when applied as a single dose of 6 mg/kg. The cell number and size of the CA1 pyramidal cells were increased, also the number of cell death decreased in this region when FK506 was administrated 48 h after reperfusion. This work supports the possible use of FK506 in treatment of ischemic brain damage.

  20. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on the expression of c-myb in the CA1 region of the gerbil hippocampus after ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Young Lee

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Our results show that a lethal transient ischemia significantly decreased c-myb immunoreactivity in the SP of the CA1 region and that IPC well preserved c-myb immunoreactivity in the SP of the CA1 region. We suggest that the maintenance of c-myb might be related with IPC-mediated neuroprotection after a lethal ischemic insult.

  1. Path dependence and creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile...

  2. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  3. Laparoscopic repair in children with traumatic bladder perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Cetin Ali; Tander, Burak; Erginel, Basak; Demirel, Dilek; Bicakci, Unal; Gunaydin, Mithat; Sever, Nihat; Bernay, Ferit; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report two patients with a traumatic intraperitoneal bladder dome rupture repaired by laparoscopic intracorporeal sutures. The first patient was a 3-year old boy was admitted with a history of road accident. He had a traumatic lesion on his lower abdomen and a pelvic fracture. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed free intraabdominal fluid. The urethragram showed spreading contrast material into the abdominal cavity. Laparoscopic exploration revealed a 3-cm-length perforation at the top of the bladder. The injury was repaired in a two fold fashion. Post-operative follow-up was uneventful. The second case was a 3-year-old boy fell from the second floor of his house on the ground. He had traumatic lesion on his lower abdomen and a pelvic fracture. Due to bloody urine drainage, a cystography was performed and an extravasation from the dome of the bladder into the peritoneum was detected. On laparoscopy, a 3-cm long vertical perforation at the dome of the bladder was found. The perforation was repaired in two layers with intracorporeal suture technique. The post-operative course was uneventful. Laparoscopic repair of traumatic perforation of the bladder dome is a safe, effective and minimally invasive method. The cosmetic outcome is superior. PMID:27279407

  4. Gastrointestinal Perforation in Neonates: Aetiology and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwunife Okechukwu Hyginus

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal perforation (GIP in neonates presents important challenges and mortality can be high. This is a report of recent experience with GIP in neonates in a developing country. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of 16 neonates treated for GIP in a 3 year period. Results: There were 9 males and 7 females, aged 0-28 days (median age =7days. Their weights at presentation ranged from 0.9 - 4.7kg (median =2.6. Five infants were premature. Twelve infants presented more than 72 hours after onset of symptoms. Plain abdominal radiographs showed peumoperitoneum in 9 infants. The cause of perforation was necrotising enterocolitis 6, intestinal obstruction 6, iatrogenic 3 and spontaneous 1. The site of perforation was ileum in 12 infants, stomach in 4 and colon in 4; 4 patients had involvement of more than one site. All the neonates underwent exploratory laparotomy with primary closure ( n=5 , resection and anastomosis( n=6, colostomy (n=3, Ileostomy ( n=2, partial gastrectomy (n=2 ,or gastrojejunostomy ( n=1. Two neonates had multiple procedures. Two very sick preterm babies had an initial peritoneal lavage. Surgical site infection is the commonest postoperative complication occurring in 9 infants. Anaesthesia sepsis and malnutrition is responsible for the seven deaths recorded.Conclusions: Neonatal GIP has multiple aetiologies; NEC is the most common cause. Major mortality risk factors include NEC, multiple perforations, delayed presentation and prematurity.

  5. Mitral valve perforation appearing years after radiofrequency ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisch-Thomsen, Marie; Jensen, Jesper K; Egeblad, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    The case is reported of a young adult with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome who, three years after a complicated radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation procedure, developed dyspnea on exertion. Echocardiography revealed severe mitral valve regurgitation caused by a perforation of the posterior...

  6. Perforation of the sinus membrane during sinus floor elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Fodich, Ivo; Bornstein, Michael M;

    2014-01-01

    and radiographic variables potentially influencing the risk of sinus membrane perforation were evaluated and divided into patient-related factors (age, sex, smoking habit); surgery-related factors (type of surgical approach, side, units, sites, and technique of osteotomy); and maxillary sinus-related factors...

  7. Spontaneous uterine perforation of pyometra presenting as acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitai, Toshihiro; Okuno, Kentaro; Ugaki, Hiromi; Komoto, Yoshiko; Fujimi, Satoshi; Takemura, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is the accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity, and spontaneous perforation of pyometra resulting in generalized diffuse peritonitis is extremely uncommon. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforation of pyometra. A 66-year-old postmenopausal woman with diffuse abdominal pain and vomiting was admitted to our institution. She had a history of mixed connective-tissue disease and had been taking steroids for 20 years. Under a diagnosis of generalized peritonitis secondary to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract or uterus, supravaginal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Unfortunately, wound dehiscence and infection occurred during the postoperative course, which were exacerbated by her immunocompromised state. Despite intensive care and a course of antibiotics, the patient died of multiple organ failure resulting from sepsis on the 36th postoperative day. Although correct diagnosis, early intervention, and proper treatment can reduce morbidity and mortality of spontaneous perforation of pyometra, if severe infection occurs, this disease can be life threatening for immunocompromised hosts. PMID:25057420

  8. Incidence and management of colonoscopic perforations: 8 years' experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hagit Tulchinsky; Osnat Madhala-Givon; Nir Wasserberg; Shlomo Lelcuk; Yaron Niv

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To review the experience of a major medical teaching center with diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopies and to assess the incidence and management of related colonic perforations.METHODS: All colonoscopies performed between January 1994 and December 2001 were studied. Data on patients, colonoscopic reports and procedure-related complications were collected from the departmental computerized database. The medical records of the patients with post procedural colonic perforation were reviewed.RESULTS: A total of 12 067 colonoscopies were performed during the 8 years of the study. Seven colonoscopic perforations (4 females, 3 males) were diagnosed (0.058%). Five occurred during diagnostic and two during therapeutic colonoscopy. Six were suspected during or immediately after colonoscopy. All except one had signs of diffuse tenderness and underwent immediate operation with primary repair done in 4patients. No deaths were reported.CONCLUSION: Perforation rate during colonoscopy is low. Nevertheless, it is a serious complication and its early recognition and treatment are essential to optimize outcome. In patients with diffuse peritonitis early operative intervention makes primary repair a safe option.

  9. Colorectal cancer complicated by perforation. Specific features of surgical tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Shchaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the immediate results of surgical interventions for colorectal cancer complicated by perforation.Materials and methods. The immediate results of surgical treatment were retrospectively analyzed in 56 patients with colorectal cancer complicated by perforated colon cancer, who had been treated at Smolensk surgical hospitals in 2001 to 2013. Patients with diastatic perforation of the colon in the presence of decompensated obturation intestinal obstruction of tumor genesis were not included into this investigation.Results. The immediate results of uni- and multistage surgical interventions were analyzed in relation to the extent of peritonitis and the stage of colon cancer. More satisfactory immediate results were observed after multistage surgical treatment. Following these interventions, a fatal outcome of disseminated peritonitis in the presence of performed colorectal cancer was recorded in 8 (53.3 % cases whereas after symptomatic surgery there were 11 (67.8 % deaths. A fatal outcome was noted in 1 case (7.7 % after multistage surgery.Discussion. The results of surgical treatment in the patients with perforated colorectal cancer are directly related to the degree of peritonitis and the choice of surgical tactics.

  10. Primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma of colonic type with perforating peritonitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguch H

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix is rare, especially the colonic type. We report a case of appendiceal adenocarcinoma of colonic type associated with perforating peritonitis after aorto-femoral artery bypass surgery. A 79-year-old woman presented with fever and pain in the right lower abdomen. She had undergone aorto-femoral artery bypass surgery due to arteriosclerosis obliterans 6 months earlier. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a suspected pool of fluid surrounding the artificial vessel and a mass lesion in the upper end of the fluid collection. These findings suggested localized peritonitis due to appendiceal perforation. Emergency laparotomy showed a pool of pus around the artificial vessel and inflamed appendix, which adhered to the surrounding tissue. The mass was excised in combination with an ileocaecal resection, followed by an ileocolic anastomosis. The histological diagnosis was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the appendix, colonic type. The tumour had infiltrated and obstructed the lumen of the orifice of the appendix, which may have caused perforation of the appendix. She was examined at regular periodic follow-ups and no evidence of recurrence or metastasis was noted in the 12-month postoperative period. These findings indicate that, in cases of acute appendicitis, especially with perforation, the possibility of appendiceal adenocarcinoma should be considered.

  11. Laparoscopic repair in children with traumatic bladder perforation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Cetin Ali; Tander, Burak; Erginel, Basak; Demirel, Dilek; Bicakci, Unal; Gunaydin, Mithat; Sever, Nihat; Bernay, Ferit; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report two patients with a traumatic intraperitoneal bladder dome rupture repaired by laparoscopic intracorporeal sutures. The first patient was a 3-year old boy was admitted with a history of road accident. He had a traumatic lesion on his lower abdomen and a pelvic fracture. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed free intraabdominal fluid. The urethragram showed spreading contrast material into the abdominal cavity. Laparoscopic exploration revealed a 3-cm-length perforation at the top of the bladder. The injury was repaired in a two fold fashion. Post-operative follow-up was uneventful. The second case was a 3-year-old boy fell from the second floor of his house on the ground. He had traumatic lesion on his lower abdomen and a pelvic fracture. Due to bloody urine drainage, a cystography was performed and an extravasation from the dome of the bladder into the peritoneum was detected. On laparoscopy, a 3-cm long vertical perforation at the dome of the bladder was found. The perforation was repaired in two layers with intracorporeal suture technique. The post-operative course was uneventful. Laparoscopic repair of traumatic perforation of the bladder dome is a safe, effective and minimally invasive method. The cosmetic outcome is superior. PMID:27279407

  12. Scour around a perforated disk modeling a marine hydrokinetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninati, M. L.; Soliani, G.; Zhou, C. C.; Krane, M.; Fontaine, A.

    2013-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the behavior of scour hole dimensions and scour rates around a bottom-mounted cylindrical support structure of a perforated disk. The experiments focus on collecting temporal variations of scour depth around the support structure of the perforated disk for two scour regimes: transitional (ReD = 8500 and 9400) and live-bed (ReD = 10200). A perforated disk is used to approximate the drag of a submerged, horizontal axis, marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine. The goal is to compare the scour behavior around a perforated disk to that of a marine hydrokinetic (MHK) device. This study is motivated by the need to predict the environmental effect of MHK devices on an erodible bed. Testing is conducted in the small-scale hydraulic flume facility (1.2 m wide, 0.38 m deep, and 9.75 m long) at Bucknell University. The base of the support structure is marked incrementally to allow for time based observations of changes in scour depth. Bed form topologies are then acquired after a three hour time interval using a 2D sediment bed profiler. Experimental results show that scour rate is dependent on flow speed. Additionally, an increase in scour hole size occurs as the scour conditions are varied from transitional to live-bed.

  13. Numerical Method for Wave Forces Acting on Partially Perforated Caisson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜峰; 唐晓成; 金钊; 张莉; 陈洪洲

    2015-01-01

    The perforated caisson is widely applied to practical engineering because of its great advantages in effectively wave energy consumption and cost reduction. The attentions of many scientists were paid to the fluid–structure interaction between wave and perforated caisson studies, but until now, most concerns have been put on theoretical analysis and experimental model set up. In this paper, interaction between the wave and the partial perforated caisson in a 2D numerical wave flume is investigated by means of the renewed SPH algorithm, and the mathematical equations are in the form of SPH numerical approximation based on Navier–Stokes equations. The validity of the SPH mathematical method is examined and the simulated results are compared with the results of theoretical models, meanwhile the complex hydrodynamic characteristics when the water particles flow in or out of a wave absorbing chamber are analyzed and the wave pressure distribution of the perforated caisson is also addressed here. The relationship between the ratio of total horizontal force acting on caisson under regular waves and its influence factors is examined. The data show that the numerical calculation of the ratio of total horizontal force meets the empirical regression equation very well. The simulations of SPH about the wave nonlinearity and breaking are briefly depicted in the paper, suggesting that the advantages and great potentiality of the SPH method is significant compared with traditional methods.

  14. Self-organizing nanochannel networks in periodically perforated semiconductor films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annabattula, R. K.; Onck, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we theoretically analyze the mechanism of nanochannel formation by an evolutionary etching process in periodically perforated semiconductor films. The compressive stresses due to lattice mismatch of the epitaxially grown nanoscale films are gradually relaxed; leading to an evolutionary

  15. Perforated jejunal diverticulitis as a rare cause of acute abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.; Grust, A.; Fuerst, G. [Department of Radiology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Gerharz, C.D. [Department of Pathology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Dumon, C. [Department of Surgery, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Jejunal diverticula is rare and in most cases without any symptoms. They become clinically relevant when complications, such as diverticulitis, malabsorption caused by bacterial overgrowth, intestinal hemorrhage, or obstruction, occur. In this case report a case of perforated jejunal diverticulitis is presented and the problems in finding the correct diagnosis are discussed. (orig.) With 3 figs., 13 refs.

  16. Colonic perforations caused by migrated plastic biliary stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgilio, Edoardo; Pascarella, Agauido; Scandavini, Chiara Maria; Frezza, Barbara; Bocchetti, Tommaso; Balducci, Genoveffa [Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' , St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Endoscopic insertion of plastic endoprostheses has become an integral part of the management of many benign and malignant diseases affecting the hepatobiliary and pancreatic system. Clogging and dislocation into the duodenum are the most frequently described complications following stent placement. Distal migration with or without perforation of the colon is an exceedingly rare phenomenon and the treatment is not well defined, as discussed below.

  17. Spontaneous Gastric Perforation in a Case of Collagenous Gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelman, Marly H; de Meij, Tim G J; Neefjes-Borst, E Andra; Kneepkens, C M F

    2016-01-01

    Collagenous gastritis is an extremely rare disease, both in children and adults. Symptoms vary depending on the extent of collagenous changes in the bowel. In most of the children, iron deficiency anemia and abdominal pain are the presenting symptoms. We present a 15-year-old boy with acute abdomen due to gastric perforation the cause of which was collagenous gastritis. PMID:26816680

  18. Spontaneous Gastric Perforation in a Case of Collagenous Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Appelman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagenous gastritis is an extremely rare disease, both in children and adults. Symptoms vary depending on the extent of collagenous changes in the bowel. In most of the children, iron deficiency anemia and abdominal pain are the presenting symptoms. We present a 15-year-old boy with acute abdomen due to gastric perforation the cause of which was collagenous gastritis.

  19. Spontaneous Gastric Perforation in a Case of Collagenous Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Marly Appelman; Tim G.J. de Meij; E. Andra Neefjes-Borst; C.M. Frank Kneepkens

    2016-01-01

    Collagenous gastritis is an extremely rare disease, both in children and adults. Symptoms vary depending on the extent of collagenous changes in the bowel. In most of the children, iron deficiency anemia and abdominal pain are the presenting symptoms. We present a 15-year-old boy with acute abdomen due to gastric perforation the cause of which was collagenous gastritis.

  20. Gastrointestinal Perforation in Neonates: Aetiology and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyginus Okechukwu Ekwunife

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal perforation (GIP in neonates presents important challenges and mortality can be high. This is a report of recent experience with GIP in neonates in a developing country.Patients and methods: A retrospective review of 16 neonates treated for GIP in a 3 year period.Results: There were 9 males and 7 females, aged 0-28 days (median age =7days. Their weights at presentation ranged from 0.9 - 4.7kg (median =2.6. Five infants were premature. Twelve infants presented more than 72 hours after onset of symptoms. Plain abdominal radiographs showed peumoperitoneum in 9 infants. The cause of perforation was necrotising enterocolitis 6, intestinal obstruction 6, iatrogenic 3 and spontaneous 1. The site of perforation was ileum in 12 infants, stomach in 4 and colon in 4; 4 patients had involvement of more than one site. All the neonates underwent exploratory laparotomy with primary closure ( n=5 , resection and anastomosis( n=6, colostomy (n=3, Ileostomy ( n=2, partial gastrectomy (n=2 ,or gastrojejunostomy ( n=1. Two neonates had multiple procedures. Two very sick preterm babies had an initial peritoneal lavage. Surgical site infection is the commonest postoperative complication occurring in 9 infants. Anaesthesia sepsis and malnutrition is responsible for the seven deaths recorded.Conclusions: Neonatal GIP has multiple aetiologies; NEC is the most common cause. Major mortality risk factors include NEC, multiple perforations, delayed presentation and prematurity.

  1. Metastatic Gas gangrene and Colonic Perforation: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sasapu Kishore K; Powell Matthew J; Macklin Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Clostridium septicum myonecrosis is associated with diabetes, colorectal and haematological malignancies. We present a case of metastatic myonecrosis in a diabetic patient with a perforated caecal tumour. The literature since 1989 is reviewed and 28 cases of Clostridium septicum myonecrosis are discussed.

  2. Ascaris lumbricoides: an unusual aetiology of gastric perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shahana; Kumar, Sanjeev; Satapathy, Ayusman; Ray, Udipta; Chatterjee, Souvik; Choudhury, Tamal Kanti

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides is common in the tropical countries, particularly in children. A wide range of clinical presentations are reported for GI ascariasis in both adults and children. We report a case of gastric perforation due to Ascaris, a rare presentation.

  3. Diffuse Peritonitis due to Perforated Gastric Ectopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutada Fukino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pancreas is frequently found in the gastrointestinal tract. Lesions comprise well-developed and normally organized pancreatic tissue outside the pancreas, without anatomic or vascular connections with the true pancreas. Most patients with ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic or exhibit nonspecific symptoms. A 68-year-old Japanese woman had been experiencing intermittent pain in the right upper abdomen. Suddenly, the abdominal pain changed to intense pain in the right flank of the abdomen 2 days later. On initial medical examination, the abdomen exhibited rebound tenderness and distension. The results of laboratory tests revealed increased inflammatory reaction. Abdominal computed tomography showed free air and ascites on the surface of the liver and elevated levels of adipose tissue around the antrum and pylorus of the stomach. Perforation of the upper gastrointestinal tract was diagnosed and we performed urgent surgery. The site of perforation, whose size was 25 mm, was the lesser curvature of the antrum of the stomach. Since it was not possible to perform omentopexy, we performed extensive gastric resection. The reconstruction was a Billroth II operation. Microscopic analysis revealed pancreatic tissue within the ulceration, showing islets of Langerhans, acini, and ducts; the lesion was diagnosed as type I using Heinrich’s criteria. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient was discharged on day 13 and remains clinically healthy. Gastric perforation due to ectopic pancreas has been reported in 2 cases, including our patient, and is extremely rare. Once gastric perforation has been diagnosed, the presence of ectopic pancreas might be considered.

  4. Oral antibiotics for perforated appendicitis is not recommended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob; Alamili, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    In the majority of surgical departments in Denmark, the postoperative treatment for acute perforated appendicitis comprises three days of intravenous antibiotics. Recently, it has been proposed that such antibiotic regimen should be replaced by orally administered antibiotics. The aim of this paper...

  5. Auxetic Perforated Mechanical Metamaterials with Randomly Oriented Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, Joseph N; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Keith M; Gatt, Ruben

    2016-01-13

    Perforated systems with quasi-disordered arrays of slits are found to exhibit auxetic characteristics almost as much as their traditional ordered "rotating-squares" counterparts. This provides a highly robust methodology for constructing auxetics that may be used for various practical applications such as skin grafting, where a high degree of precision may not always be achievable.

  6. Spontaneous Uterine Perforation of Pyometra Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Kitai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity, and spontaneous perforation of pyometra resulting in generalized diffuse peritonitis is extremely uncommon. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforation of pyometra. A 66-year-old postmenopausal woman with diffuse abdominal pain and vomiting was admitted to our institution. She had a history of mixed connective-tissue disease and had been taking steroids for 20 years. Under a diagnosis of generalized peritonitis secondary to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract or uterus, supravaginal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Unfortunately, wound dehiscence and infection occurred during the postoperative course, which were exacerbated by her immunocompromised state. Despite intensive care and a course of antibiotics, the patient died of multiple organ failure resulting from sepsis on the 36th postoperative day. Although correct diagnosis, early intervention, and proper treatment can reduce morbidity and mortality of spontaneous perforation of pyometra, if severe infection occurs, this disease can be life threatening for immunocompromised hosts.

  7. Sen perforation af tyndtarm efter laparoskopisk gastrisk bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanager, Lene; Sigild, Ulf Henrik; Neuenschwander, Anders Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    We present two cases in which the patients were admitted to a local hospital with acute abdominal pain four or five months after having undergone laparoscopic gastric bypass. In both cases, operation revealed a perforation of the small bowel close to the distal anastomosis. In the first case...... bypass but as our two cases illustrate they are important to keep in mind....

  8. Free path groupoid grading on Leavitt path algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, Daniel; Yoneda, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In this work we realize Leavitt path algebras as partial skew groupoid rings. This yields a free path groupoid grading on Leavitt path algebras. Using this grading we characterize free path groupoid graded isomorphisms of Leavitt path algebras that preserves generators.

  9. Perforator plus flaps: Optimizing results while preserving function and esthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrotra Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tenuous blood supply of traditional flaps for wound cover combined with collateral damage by sacrifice of functional muscle, truncal vessels, or nerves has been the bane of reconstructive procedures. The concept of perforator plus flaps employs dual vascular supply to flaps. By safeguarding perforators along with supply from its base, robust flaps can be raised in diverse situations. This is achieved while limiting collateral damage and preserving nerves, vessels, and functioning muscle with better function and aesthesis. Materials and Methods: The perforator plus concept was applied in seven different clinical situations. Functional muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps were employed in five and adipofascial flaps in two cases, primarily involving lower extremity defects and back. Adipofascial perforator plus flaps were employed to provide cover for tibial fracture in one patients and chronic venous ulcer in another. Results: All flaps survived without any loss and provided long-term stable cover, both over soft tissue and bone. Functional preservation was achieved in all cases where muscle flaps were employed with no clinical evidence of loss of power. There was no sensory loss or significant oedema in or distal to the flap in both cases where neurovascular continuity was preserved during flap elevation. Fracture union and consolidation were satisfactory. One patient had minimal graft loss over fascia which required application of stored grafts with subsequent take. No patient required re-operation. Conclusions: Perforator plus concept is holistic and applicable to most flap types in varied situations. It permits the exercise of many locoregional flap options while limiting collateral functional damage. Aesthetic considerations are also addressed while raising adipofascial flaps because of no appreciable donor defects. With quick operating times and low failure risk, these flaps can be a better substitute to traditional flaps and at

  10. Gut perforation after orthotopic liver transplantation in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Xiong; Shen You; Xiao-Shun He

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To describe cases of gut perforation after orthotopic liver transplantation.METHODS: Data were colleted from our center database and medical records. Six of 187 patients (3.2%)who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation from January to December 2005 developed gut perforation.All patients were male with an average age of 46 years.Modified piggyback liver transplantation was performed at the Organ Transplantation Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University.RESULTS: Previous operation, steroid therapy, and prolonged portal venous cross clamp time, poor nutritional status and iatrogenic injury were found to be its ecological factors. The patients with gut perforation were found to have fever, increased leukocytes, mild abdominal pain and tenderness. The median portal venous clamp time was 63 min (range 45-72 min),median cold ischaemia time was 11.3 h (range 7-15 h).Median intraoperative blood loss was 500 mL (range 100-1200 mL) and median operation time was 8.8 h (range 6-12 h). None of the six patients developed acute cellular rejection. White cell count was above 18 × 109/L in five patients (neutrophilic leukocytes were above 90%) and 1.5 × 109/L in one patient. Bacterial culture in drainage liquid revealed enterococci in five patients. Of the 6 patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation, 3 survived and 3 died after modified piggyback liver transplantation.CONCLUSION: Gut perforation occurs after orthotopic liver transplantation in adults. A careful and minimal dissection during OLT, longer retention of the stomach tube, and reducing the portal clamp time and steroid dose should be taken into consideration. If gut perforation is not prevented, then early diagnosis,preferably through detection of enterococci may ensure better survival.

  11. Delayed presentation of intrathoracic esophageal perforation after pneumatic dilation for achalasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Tzung Lin; Wei-Chen Tai; King-Wah Chiu; Yeh-Pin Chou; Ming-Chao Tsai; Tsung-Hui Hu; Chuan-Mo Lee; Chi-Sin Changchien; Seng-Kee Chuah

    2009-01-01

    Pneumatic dilation (PD) is considered to be a safe and effective first line therapy for achalasia. The major adverse event caused by PD is esophageal perforation but an immediate gastrografin test may not always detect a perforation. It has been reported that delayed management of perforation for more than 24 h is associated with high mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice within 24 h, but the management of delayed perforation remains controversial. Hereby, we report a delayed presentation of intrathoracic esophageal perforation following PD in a 48-year-old woman who suffered from achalasia. She completely recovered after intensive medical care. A review of the literature is also discussed.

  12. Spontaneous biliopneumothorax (thoracobilia) following gastropleural fistula due to stomach perforation by nasogastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Alessandro; Grazia, Manuele; Petrella, Francesco; Stella, Franco; Bazzocchi, Ruggero

    2004-07-01

    Gastropleural fistula may occur after pulmonary resection, perforated paraesophageal hernia, perforated malignant gastric ulcer at the fundus, or gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. We describe a case of gastropleural fistula after stomach perforation by a nasogastric tube in a patient who underwent Billroth II gastric resection for adenocarcinoma. Left biliopneumothorax occurred and was treated by thoracic drainage with -20 cm H2O aspiration. As gastropleural fistula persisted, laparotomy was repeated and gastric and diaphragmatic perforations were sutured. Gastropleural fistula is rare and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of gastropleural fistula and biliopneumothorax caused by gastric and diaphragmatic perforation by a nasogastric tube.

  13. Mediastinitis and pneumomediastinum in a preterm infant with iatrogenic esophageal perforation: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Ok Hwa [College of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Introgenic esophageal perforation is very rare in pediatric patients. Preterm infants or low birth weight babies are more susceptible to esophageal perforation due to performing frequent tracheal intubation and/or gastric tube installation. When perforation occurs, it may present as pneumothorax and pulmonary interstitial emphysema. However, isolated pneumomediastinum without pneumothorax is a rare finding. Furthermore, the mediastinitis after esophageal perforation is rare complication, but it can be a critical complication. Therefore, making an immediate and precise diagnosis as well as instituting proper treatment of esophageal perforation and mediastinitis are important. To the best of our kowledge, few reports have described mediastinitis after pneumomediastinum that was secondary to esophageal perforation. We describe here the radiologic findings of a rare case of mediastinitis after pneumomediastinum is a preterm infant with esophageal perforation.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell region after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in juvenile rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna B Laurén

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms involved in epileptogenesis in the developing brain remain poorly understood. The gene array approach could reveal some of the factors involved by allowing the identification of a broad scale of genes altered by seizures. In this study we used microarray analysis to reveal the gene expression profile of the laser microdissected hippocampal CA1 subregion one week after kainic acid (KA-induced status epilepticus (SE in 21-day-old rats, which are developmentally roughly comparable to juvenile children. The gene expression analysis with the Chipster software generated a total of 1592 differently expressed genes in the CA1 subregion of KA-treated rats compared to control rats. The KEGG database revealed that the identified genes were involved in pathways such as oxidative phosporylation (26 genes changed, and long-term potentiation (LTP; 18 genes changed. Also genes involved in Ca(2+ homeostasis, gliosis, inflammation, and GABAergic transmission were altered. To validate the microarray results we further examined the protein expression for a subset of selected genes, glial fibrillary protein (GFAP, apolipoprotein E (apo E, cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1, Purkinje cell protein 4 (PEP-19, and interleukin 8 receptor (CXCR1, with immunohistochemistry, which confirmed the transcriptome results. Our results showed that SE resulted in no obvious CA1 neuronal loss, and alterations in the expression pattern of several genes during the early epileptogenic phase were comparable to previous gene expression studies of the adult hippocampus of both experimental epileptic animals and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. However, some changes seem to occur after SE specifically in the juvenile rat hippocampus. Insight of the SE-induced alterations in gene expression and their related pathways could give us hints for the development of new target-specific antiepileptic drugs that interfere with the progression of the disease in the

  15. Experimental Study on the Feasibility of Methane Drainage in Coal Seams with Compound Technique of Perforating and Fracturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yong; Shen Zhaowu

    2007-01-01

    Compound technique of perforating and fracturing can effectively control the perforating direction and the fracturing expansion. The feasibility of this technique used in fracturing coal seams is analyzed. In this paper, the experiments of perforating and fracturing are carried out on samples of coal and the experimental effects are satisfactory. Compound technique of perforating and fracturing is promising in coal seams.

  16. Ca 1- xNa xIrO 3 as a novel quasi-two-dimensional Mott transition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgushi, Kenya; Gotou, Hirotada; Yagi, Takehiko; Kiuchi, Yoko; Sakai, Fumiko; Ueda, Yutaka

    2007-09-01

    We have successfully synthesized Ca1-xNaxIrO3 with the post-perovskite structure and elucidated their electronic properties. CaIrO3 is a S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic Mott insulator with the Néel temperature (TN) of 115 K. A gradual decrease in TN upon carrier doping culminates in a paramagnetic state at x ∼ 0.3 with the simultaneous change from an insulator to a metal. The metallic state for x ⩾ 0.31 shows the non-Fermi liquid behavior originating from antiferromagnetic fluctuations.

  17. Reversal transient laser-induced voltages in La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Kun; He Meng; Lü Hui-Bin

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports that the transient laser-induced voltages have been observed in La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 thin films on MgO (001) in the absence of an applied current.A peak voltage of~0.15V Was detected in response to 0.015 J pulse of 308 nm laser.It is demonstrated that the signal polarity is reversed when the films are irradiated through the substrate rather than at the air/film interface.Off-diagonal thermoelectricity may support the inversion of the signal when the irradiation direction is reversed.

  18. The effect of two lipophilic gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake blockers in CA1 of the rat hippocampal slice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Jahnsen, H; Mosfeldt Laursen, A

    1990-01-01

    the blood. 2. We have investigated the effect of these two uptake inhibitors on the responses to exogenous GABA and on GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptic potentials in pyramidal neurones of the CA1 region in the rat hippocampal slice. 3. We found that both drugs increased the amplitude and duration of...... responses to exogenous GABA. Furthermore, the inhibitory synaptic potentials increased in amplitude. This increase was seen in both early and late phases of the synaptic potentials. We conclude that NO-05-0328 and NO-05-0329, at least in vitro, are more effective than older GABA uptake inhibitors such as...

  19. The functional genome of CA1 and CA3 neurons under native conditions and in response to ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossner Moritz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The different physiological repertoire of CA3 and CA1 neurons in the hippocampus, as well as their differing behaviour after noxious stimuli are ultimately based upon differences in the expressed genome. We have compared CA3 and CA1 gene expression in the uninjured brain, and after cerebral ischemia using laser microdissection (LMD, RNA amplification, and array hybridization. Results Profiling in CA1 vs. CA3 under normoxic conditions detected more than 1000 differentially expressed genes that belong to different, physiologically relevant gene ontology groups in both cell types. The comparison of each region under normoxic and ischemic conditions revealed more than 5000 ischemia-regulated genes for each individual cell type. Surprisingly, there was a high co-regulation in both regions. In the ischemic state, only about 100 genes were found to be differentially expressed in CA3 and CA1. The majority of these genes were also different in the native state. A minority of interesting genes (e.g. inhibinbetaA displayed divergent expression preference under native and ischemic conditions with partially opposing directions of regulation in both cell types. Conclusion The differences found in two morphologically very similar cell types situated next to each other in the CNS are large providing a rational basis for physiological differences. Unexpectedly, the genomic response to ischemia is highly similar in these two neuron types, leading to a substantial attenuation of functional genomic differences in these two cell types. Also, the majority of changes that exist in the ischemic state are not generated de novo by the ischemic stimulus, but are preexistant from the genomic repertoire in the native situation. This unexpected influence of a strong noxious stimulus on cell-specific gene expression differences can be explained by the activation of a cell-type independent conserved gene-expression program. Our data generate both novel

  20. β-adrenergic modulation of in vivo long-term potentiation in area CA1 and its role in spatial learning in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI; Jinzhao; (季今朝); ZHANG; Xuehan; (张雪寒); LI; Baoming; (李葆明)

    2003-01-01

    Activation of β-adrenoceptors in area CA1 of the hippocampus facilitates in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) in this region. However, it is unclear if in vivo LTP in area CA1 and hippocampus-dependent learning are subjected to β-adrenergic regulation. To address this question, we investigated the effects of the β-adrenergic agonist L-isoproterenol or antagonist DL-propranolol on in vivo LTP of area CA1 and the spatial learning in Morris water maze. In the presence of L-isoproterenol (through local infusion into area CA1), the theta-pulse stimulation with the parameter of 10 Hz, 150 pulses/train, 1 train, a frequency weakly modifying synaptic strength, induced a robust LTP, and this effect was blocked when DL-propranolol was co-administered. By contrast, the theta-pulse stimulation with the parameter of 5 Hz, 150 pulses/train, 3 trains, a frequency strongly modifying synaptic strength, induced a significantly smaller LTP when DL-propranolol was administered into area CA1. Accordingly, DL-propranolol impaired the spatial learning in the water maze when infused into area CA1 20 min pretraining. Compared with control rats, the DL-propranolol-treated rats showed significantly slower learning in the water maze and subsequently exhibited poor memory retention at 24-h test. These results suggest that β-adrenoceptors in area CA1 are involved in regulating in vivo synaptic plasticity of this area and are important for spatial learning.

  1. Career Path Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Charkiewicz, A

    2000-01-01

    Before the Career Path system, jobs were classified according to grades with general statutory definitions, guided by the "Job Catalogue" which defined 6 evaluation criteria with example illustrations in the form of "typical" job descriptions. Career Paths were given concise statutory definitions necessitating a method of description and evaluation adapted to their new wider-band salary concept. Evaluations were derived from the same 6 criteria but the typical descriptions became unusable. In 1999, a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee proposed a new guide for describing Career Paths, adapted to their wider career concept by expanding the 6 evaluation criteria into 9. For each criterion several levels were established tracing the expected evolution of job level profiles and personal competencies over their longer salary ranges. While providing more transparency to supervisors and staff, the Guide's official use would be by services responsible for vacancy notices, Career Path evaluations and rela...

  2. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  3. Quadrilobed superior gluteal artery perforator flap for sacrococcygeal defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI Heng-lin; SHEN Chuan-an; CHAI Jia-ke; LI Hua-tao; YU Yong-ming; LI Da-wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Perforator flaps are used extensively in repairing soft tissue defects.Superior gluteal artery perforatorflaps are used for repairing sacral defects,but the tension required for direct closure of the donor area after harvesting ofrelatively large flaps carries a risk of postoperative dehiscence.This research was to investigate a modified superiorgluteal artery perforator flap for repairing sacrococcygeal soft tissue defects.Methods From June 2003 to April 2010,we used our newly designed superior gluteal artery perforator flap for repair of sacrococcygeal soft tissue defects in 10 patients (study group).The wound and donor areas were measured,and the flaps were designed accordingly.Wound healing was assessed over a follow-up period of 6-38 months.From January 1998 to February 2003,twelve patients with sacrococcygeal pressure sores were treated with traditional methods,VY advancement flaps or oblong flaps,as control group.Results After debridement,the soft tissue defects ranged from 12 cm × 10 cm to 26 cm × 22 cm (mean 16.3 cm x 13.5cm).Four patients were treated using right-sided flaps ranging from 15 cm × 11 cm to 25 cm × 20 cm (mean 18.2 cm × 14cm).Four patients were treated using left-sided flaps,and two were treated using both right-and left-sided flaps.Suction drains were removed on postoperative Days 3-21 (mean 5.9) and sutures were removed on postoperative Days 12-14.Each flap included 1-2 perforators for each of the donor and recipient sites.Donor sites were closed directly.All flaps survived.In eight patients,the wounds healed after single-stage surgery.After further debridement,the wounds of the remaining two patients were considered healed on postoperative Days 26 and 33,respectively.The rate of first intention in the study group (80%,8/10) significantly increased than that of control group ((25%,3/12),X2=4.583,P=-0.032).Follow-up examinations found that the flaps had a soft texture without ulceration.In the two patients without

  4. Optimization of the process of steel strip perforation and nickel platting for the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Aleksandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the production of pocket type electrodes for Ni-Cd batteries perforation of proper steel strips and then nickel platting of perforated steel strips were made. In the nickel platting process, the organic solvent, trichloroethylene, has previously been used for cleaning. Due to the carcinogenic nature of trichloroethylene and the many operations previously required during cleaning, it was considered to do cleaning of perforated steel strips without use of the mentioned organic solvent. In the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strips, the tests of perforation of steel strips with use of oils of different viscosity were made. It was shown that there was no dysfunction during the work of the perforation plants, meaning there was no additional heating of the strips, deterring of the steel filings, nor excessive wearing of the perforation apparatus. The perforation percent was the same irrelevant of the viscosity of the used oil. Before being perforated using the oils with different viscosity, the nickel platting steel strips were cleaned in different degreasers (based on NaOH as well as on KOH. It was shown that efficient cleaning without the use of trichloroethylene is possible with the use of oil with smaller viscosity in the perforated steel strips process and the degreaser based on KOH in the cleaning process, before nickel platting. It also appeared that the alkali degreaser based on KOH was more efficient, bath corrections were made less often and the working period of the baths was longer, which all in summary means less quantity of chemicals needed for degreasing of perforated steel strips.

  5. Investigation on the change of nitric oxide synthetase positive neurons in hippocampus CA1 area of rats with hyperglycemia%高血糖大鼠海马CA1区一氧化氮合成酶阳性神经元变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周郦楠; 王冶; 孙永杰

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of nitric oxide syhthetase(NOS) in hippocampus CA1 neurons with hyperglycemia.Method NADPH-d histochemical method was used.Rcsults NOS positive neurons expressed in hippocampus CA1 and nomal neurons of 6 weeks old rats with hyperglycemia(DM) and normal rats(NC).There was significant difference in neurons between DM group and control group.Conclusion NOS positive neurons decrease in hippocampus CA1 of rats with hyperglycemia.

  6. Path Optimization Using APSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Goyal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the malicious node detection and path optimization problem for wireless sensor networks. Malicious node detection in neighborhood is a needed because that node may cause incorrect decisions or energy depletion. In this paper APSO (combination of Artificial bee colony and particular swarm optimization is used to choose an optimized path. Through this improved version we will overcome the disadvantage of local optimal which comes when we use PSO approach.

  7. Path Optimization Using APSO

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Goyal; Malay Ranjan Tripathy

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the malicious node detection and path optimization problem for wireless sensor networks. Malicious node detection in neighborhood is a needed because that node may cause incorrect decisions or energy depletion. In this paper APSO (combination of Artificial bee colony and particular swarm optimization) is used to choose an optimized path. Through this improved version we will overcome the disadvantage of local optimal which comes when we use PSO approach.

  8. Kinetic changes and modulation by carbamazepine on voltage-gated sodium channels in rat CA1 neurons after epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-chun SUN; Taco WERKMAN; Wytse J WADMAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study whether the functional properties of sodium channels, and subsequently the channel modulation by carbamazepine (CBZ) in hippocampal CA1 neurons can be changed after epileptic seizures. Methods: We used the acutely dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells from epilepsy model rats 3 weeks and 3 months respectively after kainate injection, and whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. Results: After long-term epileptic seizures, both sodium channel voltage-dependence of activation and steady-state inactivation shifted to more hyperpolarizing potentials, which resulted in the enlarged window current; the membrane density of sodium current decreased and the time constant of recovery from inactivation increased. CBZ displayed unchanged efficacy on sodium channels, with a similar binding rate to them, except that at higher concentrations, the voltage shift of inactivation was reduced. For the short-term kainate model rats, no differences were detected between the control and epilepsy groups. Conclusion: These results indicate that the properties of sodium channels in acutely dissociated hippocampal neurons could be changed following long-term epilepsy, but the alternation might not be enough to induce the channel resistance to CBZ.

  9. Effects of pioglitazone injection into hippocampal CA1 area on spatial learning and memory deficits in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Farshchi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pioglitazone from thiazolidinediones generation, represent a new antidiabetic drugs that have been introduced in the world recently. Thiazolidinediones can improve insulin resistance by activating the nuclear peroxoxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ and increasing insulin sensitivity in their receptors. Insulin and its receptors are found in specific areas of CNS with a variety of region-specific functions. The effects of insulin in CNS are different from its direct glucose regulation in the periphery. Hippocampus and cerebral cortex distributed insulin/insulin receptor have been shown to be involved in brain cognitive functions. In the present study, the effect of pioglitazone microinjection into CA1 region of rat hippocampus using Morris water maze performance has been investigated.Methods: In this experimental study, male N-MRI rats were randomly divided into control, DMF (dimethyl formamide and pioglitazone groups (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 µg/rat. Drugs were injected (1 µl/rat into CA1 region bilaterly during 1 min. Thirty minutes after the intrahippocampal injection of drugs, water maze training was started. Results: Pioglitazone had a dose dependent effect. The spatial learning and memory didn’t change with lower dose of pioglitazone, but improved with intermediate doses, while they impaired with higher dose. Conclusion: These results suggest that intrahippocampal injection of pioglitazone may have a dose-dependent effect on spatial learning and memory in rats in range of 0.001 to 1 µg/rat.

  10. Administration of copper reduced the hyper-excitability of neurons in CA1 hippocampal slices from epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Juan; Infante, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Copper as a trace metal is involved in several neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Menkes, Wilson's, Alzheimer's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob. Electrophysiological evidence indicates that acute perfusion of copper can inhibit long-term synaptic potentiation in hippocampal slices. The objective of this work is to determine whether Cu perfusion can perturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices derived from pilocarpine treated epileptic rats. Field potential (FP) recordings of the CA1 neurons of rats with chronic epilepsy showed voltage and response duration decrease following copper sulfate perfusion. However, voltage and response duration were higher after removing copper by washing. The discharge frequency of the CA1 neurons of hippocampal slices from non-epileptic control rats was increased after acute perfusion of 10 μM of pilocarpine. This increase was blocked by administering copper sulphate 10 μM. Krebs-Ringer solution washing re-established the discharges, with a higher frequency than that provoked by pilocarpine perfusion. We discuss the blocking effect of copper and the synaptic hyper-excitability generated by its removal. PMID:27548095

  11. Molecular analysis of ivy cells of the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum using spectral identification of immunofluorophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozsef eSomogyi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide synthase-expressing (NOS+ GABAergic interneurons are common in hippocampal stratum radiatum, but these cells are less well characterised than NOS+ ivy cells in stratum pyramidale or neurogliaform cells in stratum lacunosum-moleculare. Here we have studied the laminar distribution of the axons and dendrites, and the immunoreactivity of these neurons recorded in rat hippocampal slices. We have used spectral analysis of antibody- or streptavidin conjugated fluorophores to improve recognition of genuine signals in reactions for molecules such as NOS and neuropeptide-Y, when immunolabelling was low in the recorded cell. We found that most NOS+ cells with soma in the CA1 area stratum radiatum exhibit characteristic properties of ivy cells; all tested cells were positive for NPY and negative for reelin. However, laminar distributions of their neurites differ from original characterization of ivy cells with the soma close to stratum pyramidale. Both their dendrites and axon are mainly in stratum radiatum and to a lesser extent in stratum oriens. In addition, both the dendrites and axons often extend to stratum lacunosum-moleculare. We conclude that ivy cells in stratum radiatum are predominantly feedforward inhibitory interneurons in the CA1 area, and their axonal output delivering GABA, NPY and NO can influence both the entorhinal cortex innervated and the CA3 innervated zones pre- and postsynaptically. Spectral analysis of fluorophores provides an objective algorithm to analyze signals in immunoreactions for neurochemical markers.

  12. Enhanced Glutamatergic Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampal CA1 Field of Food-Restricted Rats: Involvement of CB1 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talani, Giuseppe; Licheri, Valentina; Biggio, Francesca; Locci, Valentina; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Melis, Valentina; Dazzi, Laura; Carta, Gianfranca; Banni, Sebastiano; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    The endogenous endocannabinoid system has a crucial role in regulating appetite and feeding behavior in mammals, as well as working memory and reward mechanisms. In order to elucidate the possible role of cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB1Rs) in the regulation of hippocampal plasticity in animals exposed to food restriction (FR), we limited the availability of food to a 2-h daily period for 3 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats. FR rats showed a higher long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA1 excitatory synapses with a parallel increase in glutamate release when compared with animals fed ad libitum. FR rats showed a significant increase in the long-term spatial memory determined by Barnes maze. FR was also associated with a decreased inhibitory effect of the CB1R agonist win55,212-2 on glutamatergic field excitatory postsynaptic potentials, together with a decrease in hippocampal CB1R protein expression. In addition, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels and mushroom dendritic spine density were significantly enhanced in FR rats. Altogether, our data suggest that alterations of hippocampal CB1R expression and function in FR rats are associated with dendritic spine remodeling and functional potentiation of CA1 excitatory synapses, and these findings are consistent with increasing evidence supporting the idea that FR may improve cognitive functions.

  13. Modulators of cytoskeletal reorganization in CA1 hippocampal neurons show increased expression in patients at mid-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia F Kao

    Full Text Available During the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD, hippocampal neurons undergo cytoskeletal reorganization, resulting in degenerative as well as regenerative changes. As neurofibrillary tangles form and dystrophic neurites appear, sprouting neuronal processes with growth cones emerge. Actin and tubulin are indispensable for normal neurite development and regenerative responses to injury and neurodegenerative stimuli. We have previously shown that actin capping protein beta2 subunit, Capzb2, binds tubulin and, in the presence of tau, affects microtubule polymerization necessary for neurite outgrowth and normal growth cone morphology. Accordingly, Capzb2 silencing in hippocampal neurons resulted in short, dystrophic neurites, seen in neurodegenerative diseases including AD. Here we demonstrate the statistically significant increase in the Capzb2 expression in the postmortem hippocampi in persons at mid-stage, Braak and Braak stage (BB III-IV, non-familial AD in comparison to controls. The dynamics of Capzb2 expression in progressive AD stages cannot be attributed to reactive astrocytosis. Moreover, the increased expression of Capzb2 mRNA in CA1 pyramidal neurons in AD BB III-IV is accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB, mediator of synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons. Thus, the up-regulation of Capzb2 and TrkB may reflect cytoskeletal reorganization and/or regenerative response occurring in hippocampal CA1 neurons at a specific stage of AD progression.

  14. Capacity limits in columns pulsed with stain steel perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper includes part of the second stage of the pulsed columns development program, using a water-nitric acid system as continuous phase and tri-n-butyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene at 30% v/v as disperse phase. Two kits of different geometry perforated plates (different diameter of perforation and free area percentage) were used. Due to the affinity importance of the plates' material with the continuous phase, in all the cases the continuous aqueous phase was used. The relation of flows varied, thus obtaining in each case a curve of characteristic 'flood'. The influence of the geometrical variables, the relation of flows, the medium acidity and the pulse's amplitude was applied in the capacity of the column. Besides, the dimensional correlation of Swift W.H. on the results obtained from 'flood' with both kits of plates to relate flows 1:1 and a minimum deviation was observed. (Author)

  15. A RARE CASE OF SPONTANEOUS POSTPARTUM MULTIPLE BLADDER PERFORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A 22 year s old female presented with ascites five months after delivery . She had repeated attacks in the past and had been treated conservatively elsewhere . On examination she was poorly nourished , with tachypnoea , tachycardia and gross ascites . Raised blood urea and serum creatinine . Had raised urea and creatinine level more than 3 times the serum level in the ascitic fluid . With a provisional diagnosis of intraperitonial bladder rupture she was subjected to CT cyst ogram - showed rent in the posterior left lateral wall of bladder with urinary ascites . Cystoscopy showed multiple perforations with multiple sacculations and trabuclations . Laparotomy done , perforation closed and abdominal toileting done with SPC placemen t . Postoperative recovery was good . Follow - up cystogram at two months was normal .

  16. Hepatobiliary Scan in Infantile Spontaneous Perforation of Common Bile Duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeon, Seok Kil; Ryu, Jong Gul; Lee, Eun Young [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Gil [Taegu Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Spontaneous perforation of CBD in infant is a rare but fatal disease. We report a case of bile leakage from common bile duct in 11 months old girl with progressive abdominal distension and vomiting, preoperatively diagnosed by hepatobiliary scan with Tc-99m-DISIDA, which was confirmed by surgery. Operative cholangiogram showed a small perforation at the confluence of cystic duct and common bile duct with mild fusiform dilatation, and no definite abnormality in confluence of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct. Simple drainage of the free peritoneal bilous fluid and T-tube drainage were performed without any evidence of the complication. Patient was inevitable for 6 months OPD follow-up examination.

  17. Study of a new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Kim, K.; King, T.L. (Fusion Technology and Charged Particle Research Lab., Urbana, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls is investigated. The motivation for this new configuration is the desire to minimize the detrimental effects of inertial and viscous drag at high velocities caused by the debris from the projectile and the gun wall trapped in the plasma armature. The test has been done on a 1.2 m long railgun with a 3.2-mm-diameter bore. Results for hydrogen pellet acceleration show that at high currents the perforated railgun outperforms the unperforated one. Combined with a newly designed cryogenic pellet generator and the first stage gas gun, a solid hydrogen pellet velocity of 2.46 km/s has been achieved on the 1.2-m railgun.

  18. Free perforation of the small intestine in collagenous sprue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh J Freeman; Douglas L Webber

    2009-01-01

    A 67-year-old man with celiac disease developed recurrent diarrhea, profound weakness and weight loss, with evidence of marked protein depletion. His clinical course was refractory to a strict gluten-free diet and steroid therapy. Postmortem studies led to definition of unrecognized collagenous sprue that caused ulceration and small intestinal perforation. Although PCR showed identical monoclonal T-cell populations in antemortem duodenal biopsies and postmortem jejunum, careful pathological evaluation demonstrated no frank lymphoma. Rarely, overt or even cryptic T-cell lymphoma may complicate collagenous sprue, however, small intestinal ulcers and perforation may also develop independently. The dramatic findings here may reflect an underlying or early molecular event in the eventual clinical appearance of overt T-cell lymphoma.

  19. Perforation of the hard palate due to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmed Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB of the hard palate is rare and usually secondary to pulmonary TB. We present a case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with difficulty in swallowing solid foods, low-grade fever and loss of weight. Oral cavity examination showed perforation of the hard palate with an irregular, undermined margin and a necrotic base. Chest X-ray showed homogeneous opacity in the right upper zone. Fine-needle aspiration of the cervical lymph nodes showed granular caseous necrosis and granuloma composed of epitheliod cells and histiocytes. In view of the clinical presentation and evidence of pulmonary and lymph node TB, the palatal perforation was most likely due to TB. Patient was started on antituberculous therapy and is on regular follow-up.

  20. Wave interaction with a new type perforated breakwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Liu; Yucheng Li; Bin Teng

    2007-01-01

    In this study examined is the wave interaction with a new modified perforated breakwater, consisting of a perforated front wall, a solid back wall and a wave absorb-ing chamber between them with a two-layer rock-filled core.The fluid domain is divided into three sub-domains accord-ing to the components of the breakwater. Then by means of the matched eigenfunction expansion method, an analytical solution is obtained to assess the hydrodynamic performance of the new structure. An approach based on a step approach method is introduced Io solve the complex dispersion equa-tions for water wave motions within two-layer porous media.Numerical results of the present model are compared with previous limiting cases. The effects of rock fill on the reflec-tion coefficient and the horizontal wave force are discussed.

  1. Directional bending wave propagation in periodically perforated plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Manktelow, Kevin; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We report on the investigation of wave propagation in a periodically perforated plate. A unit cell with double-C perforations is selected as a test article suitable to investigate two-dimensional dispersion characteristics, group velocities, and internal resonances. A numerical model, formulated...... using Mindlin plate elements, is developed to predict relevant wave characteristics such as dispersion, and group velocity variation as a function of frequency and direction of propagation. Experimental tests are conducted through a scanning laser vibrometer, which provides full wave field information....... The analysis of time domain wave field images allows the assessment of plate dispersion, and the comparison with numerical predictions. The obtained results show the predictive ability of the considered numerical approach and illustrate how the considered plate configuration could be used as the basis...

  2. Reconstruction of hand contracture by reverse ulnar perforator flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Eser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hand burn scar contractures affect patients in aesthetic and functional aspects. After releasing these scars, the defects should be repaired. The reconstruction methods include primary suturation, Z plasty, skin grafting, local or free flaps, etc. All methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. One of the most useful flaps is the reverse ulnar perforator flap. We performed a two-staged procedure for repairing a post-burn contracture release defect in a 40-year-old male. In the first stage we applied reverse ulnar perforator flap for the hand defect, and ulnar artery and vein repair in the second stage. In conclusion, this two-staged procedure is a non-primary but useful option for hand and finger defects and prevents major vascular structure damage of the forearm. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(1.000: 40-43

  3. A STUDY ON CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF GASTRIC PERFORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedala

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There is presently a widespread use of gastric antisecretory agents and eradication therapy, but the incidence of perforated peptic ulcer has changed little. Nowadays, however, there has been a considerable change in the epidemiology of perforated peptic ulcer in the Western world over the last two decades. This may be because of the fact that previously most patients were middle aged in the western world. This was not long back. In fact this condition was there two decades back with a ratio of 2:1 of male: female. With time, there has been a steady increase in the age of the patients suffering from this complication and an increase in the number of females, such that perforations now occur most commonly in elderly female patients. But in India most of the perforations occur in males. This may be due to consumption of alcohol and smoking habit that is commonly seen in the male counterpart. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin appears to be responsible for most of these perforations. A sincere effort has been put in this study to understand and help a surgeon to identify the cases of gastric perforations and act immediately to ensure the safety of the patient before any tragedy occurs. METHODS The study was done in fifty cases that were admitted in the Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh from 01- 04-2015 to 29-10-2015. Out of this fifty, twenty five were female and twenty five were male. The demographic and other details were taken from the patient’s relatives or from the patient when the condition of the patient was stabilised. RESULT In the present study, majority of the cases were seen from the month of June to September. This may be pointing to the fact that majority of the peptic ulcers are seen in rainy season. Majority of the cases were admitted within six hours and majority of them were females. The signs which were significantly associated with the disease and were almost equally seen

  4. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Raffaele Dalla; Zinicola, Roberto; Iaria, Maurizio

    2014-08-27

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its incidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perforation. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  5. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raffaele; Dalla; Valle; Roberto; Zinicola; Maurizio; Iaria

    2014-01-01

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anas-tomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its in-cidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perfora-tion. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  6. Impalement injury by glass shard with delayed colonic perforation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosat, Adriá; Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Chocarro, Cristina; Barrera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old man experienced a traumatic injury after a fall on top of a glass tea table, which caused some superficial lacerations all around the body. He was examined in the emergency room by a physician. The physician could not feel any foreign body upon wound exploration and sutured the laceration. Fourteen months after the injury, he developed progressive abdominal pain. On emergency room and abdominal x-ray showed a foreign body, which a CT scan revealed as an intraabdominal glass shard. The glass presumably impaled his abdominal wall as a result of his previous traumatic injury. The patient underwent laparotomy, which revealed a large glass (16x1cm) perforating the transverse colon. It was extracted and the perforation closed with a lineal stapler. There was no need of bowel resection and the patient was discharged home nine days after the intervention. PMID:26587176

  7. Experimental and Analytical Analysis of Perforated Plate Aerodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jürgen Zierep; Rainer Bohning; Piotr Doerffer

    2003-01-01

    Perforated walls and transpiration flow play an important role in aerodynamics due to an increasing interest in application of flow control by means of blowing and/or suction. An experimental study was carried out which has led to the determination of a transpiration flow characteristics in the form of a simple formula that is very useful in modelling such flows. In connection to this relation a method of "aerodynamic porosity" determination has been proposed which is much more reliable than geometric description of the porosity. A theoretical analysis of the flow through a perforation hole was also carried out. The flow was considered as compressible and viscous. The gasdynamic analysis led us to a very similar result to the relation obtained from the experiment. The adequacy of the theoretical result is discussed in respect to the experiment.

  8. Vibroacoustics of thin micro-perforated sound absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Maury, Cédric; Bravo, Teresa; Pinhède, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    ISBN 978-2-919340-01-9 International audience Lightweight Micro-Perforated Panels (MPP) backed by an air cavity constitute compact sound absorbing resonators, mostly efficient in the mid-frequency range, and that may be constructed using transparent, fibreless and recyclable materials. These soundproof devices have been intensively studied due to their important applications in building acoustics and the aeronautic, astronautic and automotive industries. However, MPPs have been often co...

  9. Pyometra Perforation Caused by Actinomyces without Intrauterine Device Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Hideharu Hagiya

    2013-01-01

    An 86-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and severe decubitus at the sacral and calcaneal regions stemming from poor daily activity was diagnosed with pyometra perforation caused by Actinomyces. No foreign materials, including an IUD, were found inside the uterus. Pyometra is usually caused by Enterobacteriaceae or anaerobes derived from the gastrointestinal tract. The virulence of Actinomyces is rather low, and, in almost all the reported cases of Actinomyces-related pyometra, an intraut...

  10. Postpartum spontaneous colonic perforation due to antiphospholipid syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Kamran; Darakhshan, Amir; Au, Eleanor; Khamashta, Munther A; Katsoulis, Iraklis E

    2009-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multi-systemic disease being characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies that involves both arterial and venous systems resulting in arterial or venous thrombosis, fetal loss, thrombocytopenia, leg ulcers, livedo reticularis, chorea, and migraine. We document a previously unreported case of a 37-year-old female in whom APS was first manifested by infarction and cecal perforation following cesarean section. At laparotomy the underlying ...

  11. Internal granuloma with perforation – 2 case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Suciu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Internal resorption was associated with long-term chronic inflammation of the pulp (chronic granulomatous pulpitis. When internal resorption is radiographically confirmed, endodontic treatment becomes a necessity. Vital teeth internal resorption appears radiographically as an oval enlargement of the pulp chamber and root canal with smooth, symmetrical outline. Internal granuloma is assumed to be an effect of the trauma, or pulp inflammation, the ailment is rare, asymptomatic and might progress rapidly, causing perforation.

  12. [Pneumoperitoneum in polytraumatized patients without perforated hollow viscera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanza-Llorente, Juan Antonio; Quesada-Peinado, María Carmen; Díaz-Oller, Juan; Moreno-Montesinos, José Martín; Medina-Domínguez, María Teresa

    2007-12-01

    Bowel and mesenteric injuries from blunt abdominal trauma are infrequent and difficult to diagnose. A finding of pneumoperitoneum on computed tomography is useful, although not specific. In associated blunt chest trauma gas can reach the peritoneal cavity through congenital or post-traumatic diaphragmatic interruptions. Two cases of pneumoperitoneum following associated blunt chest and abdominal trauma are reported. In both patients laparotomy did not show bowel perforation and conservative treatment could have been provided.

  13. Chemical process for backsurging fluid through well casing perforations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkshire, D.C.; Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.

    1980-08-26

    A backsurge of fluid through perforations in a well casing is chemically induced by injecting into the surrounding reservoir a solution which contains (A) nitrogen gas-generating reactants, (B) a reaction-retarding alkaline buffer, and (C) a ph-reducing reactant that is capable of subsequently overriding the buffer, so that a rapid production of gas and heat causes a backsurging of fluid into the wellbore.

  14. Chemical process for backsurging fluid through well casing perforations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkshire, D.C.; Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.

    1981-09-15

    A backsurge of fluid through perforations in a well casing is chemically induced by injecting into the surrounding reservoir a solution which contains nitrogen gas-generating reactants, a reaction-retarding alkaline buffer, and a pH-reducing reactant that is capable of subsequently overriding the buffer, so that a rapid production of gas and heat causes a backsurging of fluid into the wellbore.

  15. Fire safety in perforated wooden slab, a numerical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, E.M.M.; Couto, D.; Piloto, P.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to present a numerical model to assess the fire safety of wooden slabs with rectangular perforations at the ceiling. These typical constructions have good sound absorption, heat insulation and relevant architectonic characteristics. They are used in many civil applications: concert and conference halls, classrooms, nurseries, airports, hotels, shopping, universities, and many other public buildings. These panels are normally installed at lower level in building c...

  16. Unusual perforated appendicitis within umbilical hernia: CT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnáiz, J; Ortiz, A; Marco de Lucas, E; Piedra, T; Jordá, J; Arnáiz, A M; Pagola, M A

    2006-01-01

    We present the first imaging report of perforated appendicitis in an umbilical hernia. Computed tomography demonstrated a gas-forming abscess within an umbilical hernia and the cecum was found inside the hernial sac, with an inner relation to the abscess. Computed tomographic findings suggested appendicitis as possible diagnosis, which was confirmed at surgery. Physicians must consider appendicitis within the differential diagnosis of an abdominal abscess located near to the cecum, even at an unexpected location. PMID:16465570

  17. An unusual presentation of perforated appendicitis in epigastric region ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Abuoglu, Hasan; Gunay, Emre; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Ozkan, Erkan; Aktekin, Ali; Muftuoglu, M. A. Tolga

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Atypical presentations of appendix have been reported including backache, left lower quadrant pain and groin pain from a strangulated femoral hernia containing the appendix. We report a case presenting an epigastric pain that was diagnosed after computed tomography as a perforated appendicitis on intestinal malrotation. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 27-year-old man was admitted with a three-day history of epigastric pain. Physical examination revealed tenderness and defense on palpation...

  18. PERITONITIS DUE TO TRANSVERSE COLON PERFORATION: A RARE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana B.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal tuberculosis is defined as infection of the peritoneum, hollow or solid abdominal organs with Mycobacterium tuberculi . TB can affect any part of the gastrointestinal (GI tract including anus, peritoneum and hepatobiliary system. The peritoneum and the ileocaecal region are the most likely sites of infection. The clinical manifestations of abdominal tuberculosis are nonspecific and mimic various GI disorders and cause delay in diagnosis and management. This pa thology has several complications, including free intestinal perforation.

  19. Perforated appendicitis: an underappreciated mimic of intussusception on ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley; Schmitz, Matthew; Gawande, Rakhee; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Barth, Richard [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    We encountered multiple cases in which the US appearance of ruptured appendicitis mimicked intussusception, resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic delay and multiple additional imaging studies. To explore the clinical and imaging discriminatory features between the conditions. Initial US images in six children (age 16 months to 8 years; 4 boys, 2 girls) were reviewed independently and by consensus by three pediatric radiologists. These findings were compared and correlated with the original reports and subsequent US, fluoroscopic, and CT images and reports. All initial US studies demonstrated a multiple-ring-like appearance (target sign, most apparent on transverse views) with diagnostic consensus supportive of intussusception. In three cases, US findings were somewhat discrepant with clinical concerns. Subsequently, four of the six children had contrast enemas; two were thought to have partial or complete intussusception reduction. Three had a repeat US examination, with recognition of the correct diagnosis. None of the US examinations demonstrated definite intralesional lymph nodes or mesenteric fat, but central echogenicity caused by debris/appendicolith was misinterpreted as fat. All showed perilesional hyperechogenicity that, in retrospect, represented inflamed fat ''walling off'' of the perforated appendix. There were four CTs, all of which demonstrated a double-ring appearance that correlated with the US target appearance, with inner and outer rings representing the dilated appendix and walled-off appendiceal rupture, respectively. All six children had surgical confirmation of perforated appendicitis. Contained perforated appendicitis can produce US findings closely mimicking intussusception. Clinical correlation and careful multiplanar evaluation should allow for sonographic suspicion of perforated appendicitis, which can be confirmed on CT if necessary. (orig.)

  20. Energy-momentum balance in particle - domain wall perforating collision

    OpenAIRE

    Gal'tsov, D. V.; Melkumova, E. Yu.; Spirin, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the energy-momentum balance in the perforating collision of a point particle with an infinitely thin planar domain wall within the linearized gravity in arbitrary dimensions. Since the metric of the wall increases with distance, the wall and the particle are never free, and their energy-momentum balance involves not only the instantaneous kinetic momenta, but also the non-local contribution of gravitational stresses. However, careful analysis shows that the stresses can be unam...

  1. Outcome after emergency surgery in patients with a free perforation caused by gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hironori; Hiraki, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yaguchi, Yoshihisa; Horio, Takuya; Kumano, Isao; Akase, Takayoshi; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Aiko, Satoshi; Ono, Satoshi; Ichikura, Takashi; Kazuo, Hase

    2010-01-01

    Perforation of gastric cancer is rare and it accounts for less than 1% of the incidences of an acute abdomen. In this study, we reviewed cases of benign or malignant gastric perforation in terms of the accuracy of diagnosis and investigated the clinical outcome after emergency surgery in patients with a free perforation caused by gastric cancer. On the basis of pathological examination, gastric cancer was diagnosed in 8 patients and benign ulcer perforation in 32 patients. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis by pathological examination were 50, 93.8 and 85%, respectively. Except for age, there were no differences in the other demographic characteristics between patients with gastric cancer and benign ulcer perforation. The median survival time of patients with perforated gastric cancer was 195 days after surgery. Patients with gastric cancer perforation had a poorer overall survival rate than those who had T3 tumors without perforation. In addition, in patients with perforation, recurrence of peritoneum occurred more frequently. In conclusion, to improve the survival rate of patients with perforated gastric cancer and to improve the accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis, endoscopic examination and/or pathological examination of the frozen section should be performed, if possible. A balanced surgical strategy using laparoscopic local repair as the first-step of surgery, followed by radical open gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy may be considered.

  2. The effect of varying path properties in path steering tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Liere, R. van

    2010-01-01

    Path steering is a primitive 3D interaction task that requires the user to navigate through a path of a given length and width. In a previous paper, we have conducted controlled experiments in which users operated a pen input device to steer a cursor through a 3D path subject to fixed path propertie

  3. [New approaches in treatment of patients with perforated duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romashchenko, P N; Maĭstrenko, N A; Korovin, A E; Sibirev, S A; Sidorchuk, P A

    2013-01-01

    The results of examination and treatment of 152 patients with perforated duodenal ulcer were analyzed with the aim to make the ground of systemic approach to their surgical treatment in consideration of contemporary achievements of laboratorial and instrumental diagnostics and the opportunities of minimally invasive surgery. The results of conducted clinical study showed that in order to establish the correct preoperative diagnosis and the choice of rational treatment of patients with perforated duodenal ulcer it is necessary to conduct a purposeful complex investigation, including an assessment of general somatic state and the operative-anaesthetic risk of patients and changes of pyloroduodenal zone and the severity of peritonitis and prediction of lethality. The diagnostic algorithm let the authors make a diagnosis of perforated duodenal ulcer before the operation and decide on an adequate volume of surgical intervention. It is established, that the integral assessment of the examination results and surgery, the evaluation of the titres of antibody to ulcerogenic strains Helicobacter pylori, studying of psychophysiological profile of patient can justify the complex program of medicamentous therapy in postoperative period, providing the remission of peptic ulcer. PMID:24340972

  4. Cervical cellulitis and mediastinitis following esophageal perforation: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian A Righini; Basilide Z Tea; Emile Reyt; Karim A Chahine

    2008-01-01

    Chicken bone is one of the most frequent foreign bodies (FB) associated with upper esophageal perforation.Upper digestive tract penetrating FB may lead to life threatening complications and requires prompt management.We present the case of a 52-year-old man who sustained an upper esophageal perforation associated with cervical cellulitis and mediastinitis.Following CT-scan evidence of FB penetrating the esophagus,the impacted FB was successfully extracted under rigid esophagoscopy.Direct suture was required to close the esophageal perforation.Cervical and mediastinal drainage were made immediately.Nasogastric tube decompression,broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics,and parenteral hyperalimentation were administered for 10 d postoperatively.An esophagogram at d 10 revealed no leak at the repair site,and oral alimentation was successfully reinstituted.Conclusion:Rigid endoscope management of FB esophageal penetration is a simple,safe and effective procedure.Primary esophageal repair with drainage of all affected compartments are necessary to avoid life-threatening complications.

  5. Experimental Study on Penetration and Perforation of Laminated Kevlar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元博; 王肖钧; 胡秀章; 孙宇新

    2004-01-01

    The penetration behavior and perforation characteristics of Kevlar/Epoxy laminates with various thickness in quasi-static and ballistic perforation penetrated by steel projectiles with different noses are investigated. Quasi-static tests are conducted on MTS810 testing system. The results indicate that global deformation is the major mechanism of energy absorption and woven laminates exhibit larger energy dissipation than that of angle-plied laminates. Therefore, the woven laminates have better quasi-static penetration resistance. Ballistic tests with velocity of 200-700 m/s are executed by using a powder gun with 7.62 mm barrel. Comparing ballistic experimental results with those under quasi-static condition, both the perforation performance and the failure modes are related closely to the speed of penetrator. Quite different from quasi-static tests, ballistic tests indicate that thick angle-plied laminate targets are even better than woven laminates in resisting ballistic impact. It is observed that the damage zone of the laminate is localized highly with the increasing of the impact velocity and correspondingly, the failure modes are more manifold. The shape of projectile noses affects the impact resistance of laminated Kevlar significantly in the range of velocity around the ballistic limit.

  6. What are the risk factors of colonoscopic perforation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohsiriwat Darin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the factors influencing colonoscopic perforation (CP is of decisive importance, especially with regard to the avoidance or minimization of the perforations. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of CP in one of the endoscopic training centers accredited by the World Gastroenterology Organization. Methods The prospectively collected data were reviewed of all patients undergoing either colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy at the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand between January 2005 and July 2008. The incidence of CP was evaluated. Eight independent patient-, endoscopist- and endoscopy-related variables were analyzed by a multivariate model to determine their association with CP. Results Over a 3.5-year period, 10,124 endoscopic procedures of the colon (8,987 colonoscopies and 1,137 flexible sigmoidoscopies were performed. There were 15 colonic perforations (0.15%. Colonoscopy had a slightly higher risk of CP than flexible sigmoidoscopy (OR 1.77, 95%CI 0.23-13.51; p = 1.0. Patient gender, emergency endoscopy, anesthetic method, and the specialty or experience of the endoscopist were not significantly predictive of CP rate. In multivariate analysis, patient age of over 75 years (OR = 6.24, 95%CI 2.26-17.26; p Conclusion The incidence of CP in this study was 0.15%. Patient age of over 75 years and therapeutic colonoscopy were two important risk factors for CP.

  7. A case of delayed cardiac perforation of active ventricular lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangyuan Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man was admitted as for one month of repetitive dizziness and one episode of syncope. Electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia and his Holter monitoring also showed sinus bradycardia with sinus arrest, sino-atrial block and a longest pause of 4.3 s. Then sick sinus syndrome and Adam-Stokes syndrome were diagnosed. Then a dual chamber pacemaker (Medtronic SDR303 was implanted and the parameters were normal by detection. The patient was discharged 1 week later with suture removed. Then 1.5 month late the patient was presented to hospital once again for sudden onset of chest pain with exacerbation after taking deep breath. Pacemaker programming showed both pacing and sensing abnormality with threshold of?5.0V and resistance of 1200?. Lead perforation was revealed by chest X-ray and confirmed by echocardiogram. Considering the fact that there was high risk to remove ventricular lead, spiral tip of previous ventricular lead was withdrew followed by implantation of a new ventricular active lead to the septum. Previous ventricular lead was maintained. As we know that the complications of lead perforation in the clinic was rare. Here we discuss the clinical management and the possible reasons for cardiac perforation of active ventricular lead.

  8. Hybrid silencers with micro-perforated panels and internal partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Cheng, Li; You, Xiangyu

    2015-02-01

    A sub-structuring approach, along with a unit cell treatment, is proposed to model expansion chamber silencers with internal partitions and micro-perforated panels (MPPs) in the absence of internal flow. The side-branch of the silencer is treated as a combination of unit cells connected in series. It is shown that, by connecting multiple unit cells with varying parameters, the noise attenuation bandwidth can be enlarged. With MPPs, the hybrid noise attenuation mechanism of the silencer is revealed. Depending on the size of the perforation hole, noise attenuation can be dominated by dissipative, reactive, or combined effects together. For a broadband sound absorption, the hole size, together with the perforation ratio and other parameters, can be optimized to strike a balance between the dissipative and reactive effect, for ultimately achieving the desired noise attenuation performance within a prescribed frequency region. The modular nature of the proposed formulation allows doing this in a flexible, accurate, and cost effective manner. The accuracy of the proposed approach is validated through comparisons with finite element method and experiments.

  9. Spontaneous corneal perforation in an eye with Peters' anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Moosang Kim, Seung-Chan Lee, Seung-Jun Lee Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea Abstract: A premature female infant underwent her first ophthalmologic examination at the age of 4 weeks. The initial examination of the baby was requested for evaluation of a ‘white spot’ on the surface of her right eye. She had been hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit because of systemic abnormalities, such as a right clavicle fracture and microcephaly. Slit-lamp examination of the right eye showed a central corneal opacity, corneal thinning, and an iridocorneal adhesion. The lens and fundus of the right eye could not be observed. We observed no pathologic findings in the left eye. The baby's parents were informed of the high risk for spontaneous corneal perforation without external pressure. At 42 days of age, an ophthalmologic examination of the infant was again requested for evaluation of ‘tears’ from her right eye 3 hours previously. Examination revealed corneal perforation, iris protrusion, and a flat anterior chamber. We performed emergent conjunctival flap surgery. Three months following surgery, the patient's right eye was successfully preserved with no sign of inflammation or leakage. Keywords: conjunctival flap, corneal perforation, Peters' anomaly

  10. Evaluation of prognostic factors and scoring system in colonic perforation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi Horiuchi; Yuji Watanabe; Takashi Doi; Kouichi Sato; Syungo Yukumi; Motohira Yoshida; Yuji Yamamoto; Hiroki Sugishita; Kanji Kawachi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the significance of scoring systems assessing severity and prognostic factors in patients with colonic perforation.METHODS: A total of 26 patients (9 men, 17 women;mean age 72.7±11.6 years) underwent emergency operation for colorectal perforation in our institution between 1993 and 2005. Several clinical factors were measured preoperatively and 24 h postoperatively. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluationⅡ (APACHE Ⅱ),Mannheim peritonitis index (MPI) and peritonitis index of Altona (PIA Ⅱ) scores were calculated preoperatively.RESULTS: Overall postoperative mortality rate was 23.1% (6 patients). Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors displayed low blood pressure, low serum protein and high serum creatinine preoperatively, and low blood pressure, low white blood cell count, low pH,low PaO2/FiO2, and high serum creatinine postoperatively.APACHE Ⅱ score was significantly lower in survivors than in non-survivors (10.4±3.84 vs19.3±2.87, P= 0.00003). Non-survivors tended to display high MPI score and low PIA Ⅱ score, but no significant difference was identified.CONCLUSION: Pre- and postoperative blood pressure and serum creatinine level appear related to prognosis of colonic perforation. APACHE Ⅱ score is most associated with prognosis and scores ≥ 20 are associated with significantly increased mortality rate.

  11. Lax Ca1-xMnO5/Si异质结的光伏特性%Photovoltaic Properties of LaxCa1-xMnO3/Si Heterojunctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕志清; 冯鑫; 尼浩; 赵昆; Wong Hong-Kuen; Kong Yu-Chau

    2013-01-01

    Doped manganite was a kind of important function materials, which recently drew many attentions for its photoelectric properties. Manganite oxide heterojunctions of LaxCa1-xMnO3 (x =0. 4 and 0. 67) were fabricated by depositing 100 nm LaxCa1-x MnO3 thin films on n-type silicon substrates using facing target sputtering technique. The current-voltage characteristics of the heterojunctions were measured by standard four-probe technique with different light illuminations; dark, 532 nm laser irradiation, 1064 nm laser irradiation or simulated sunlight irradiation. The results showed that the current-voltage properties presented obvious changes in the negative bias region with light illuminations. And among the three types of light irradiations which had the same optical power, under the simulated sunlight, the sample showed the largest variation of the Ⅰ- Ⅴ curve and the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency. The sample of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/Si showed higher photoelectric conversion efficiency than the sample of La0.4Ca0.6MnO3/Si. The heterojunctions had good absorption among 400 ~ 1100 nm wavelength range shown by absorption spectrum. All the results would be helpful for exploring the solar cell material based on manganite oxide heterojunctions.%掺杂锰氧化物是一种重要功能材料,近来其光电功能特性受到重视.利用对靶溅射方法在n型硅基底上沉积了100 nm的两种镧掺杂锰氧化物薄膜LaxCa1-xMn03(x=0.4和x=0.67),构成异质结.分别研究了在无光照射、532 nm激光辐照、1064 nm激光辐照、模拟太阳光辐照4种情况下两种异质结的光生伏特效应.对比实验表明,与无光条件下相比,光照下的异质结负向区的整流特性变化明显,而正向导通区的整流曲线变化不大.其中在同样的光功率下,模拟太阳光入射时异质结I-V曲线变化最为明显,此时I-V曲线与坐标轴相交所构成的图形区域的面积也最大,光电转化效

  12. Three-dimensional structure of CA1 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampus——Optical recording of LSM and computer simulation of fractal structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯春华; 刘力; 刘守忠; 宁红; 孙海坚; 郭爱克

    1995-01-01

    The optical recording of three-dimensional(3-D)reconstruction of CA1 pyramidal cells wasderived from the studies on the CA1 region of the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats.The recordingwas produced by the Confocal Laser Scan Microscope(LSM-10).The attemption was to outline themorphological neural network of CA1 pyramidal cells organization,following the trail of axo-dendritic connec-tions in 3-D spatial distributions among neurons.The fractal structure of neurons with their dendritic andaxonal trees using fractal algorithm was noticed,and 2—18 simulated cells were obtained using PC-486 comput-er.The simulational cells are similar in morphology to the natural CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells.There-fore,the exploitation of an advanced neurohistological research technique combining optical recording of theLSM-10 and computer simulation of fractal structure can provide the quantitative fractal structural basis forchaosic dynamics of brain.

  13. Shortest Paths in Microseconds

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Rachit; Godfrey, P Brighten; Zhao, Ben Y

    2013-01-01

    Computing shortest paths is a fundamental primitive for several social network applications including socially-sensitive ranking, location-aware search, social auctions and social network privacy. Since these applications compute paths in response to a user query, the goal is to minimize latency while maintaining feasible memory requirements. We present ASAP, a system that achieves this goal by exploiting the structure of social networks. ASAP preprocesses a given network to compute and store a partial shortest path tree (PSPT) for each node. The PSPTs have the property that for any two nodes, each edge along the shortest path is with high probability contained in the PSPT of at least one of the nodes. We show that the structure of social networks enable the PSPT of each node to be an extremely small fraction of the entire network; hence, PSPTs can be stored efficiently and each shortest path can be computed extremely quickly. For a real network with 5 million nodes and 69 million edges, ASAP computes a short...

  14. 术中机械通气对小鼠海马CA1区突触可塑性的影响%Effect of mechanical ventilation on synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 region of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 张宗泽; 陈畅; 彭勉; 许鑫; 陈凯; 王焱林

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价术中机械通气对小鼠海马CA1区突触可塑性的影响.方法 健康雄性C57BL/6小鼠36只,8~10周龄,体重20~25 g,采用随机数字表法,将其分成2组(n=18):对照组(C组)和机械通气组(M组).小鼠在麻醉后气管插管并行胫骨骨折切开复位内固定术.C组术后拔除气管导管,放入麻醉箱6h,通入1.5%异氟醚维持麻醉;M组术后继续机械通气6h,吸入1.5%异氟醚维持麻醉.于机械通气结束后2h、1和3d时,取6只小鼠进行恐惧条件化实验,记录僵直时间百分比.于机械通气结束后1d时取6只小鼠开始进行新物体识别实验,第4天时间隔5 min、2h和1d时,计算优先指数.于机械通气结束后1d时处死3只小鼠,取海马组织,电镜下观察海马超微结构,并记录突触数量.于机械通气结束后1d时处死3只小鼠,取全脑组织,进行高尔基染色,测定树突棘密度.结果 与C组比较,M组术后2h和1d时僵直时间百分比降低,不同时间间隔优先指数降低,海马CA1区突触数量减少,顶树突棘密度和基树突棘密度降低(P<0.01).结论 术中机械通气可改变小鼠海马CA1区突触可塑性.%Objective To evaluate the effect of mechanical ventilation on synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 region of mice.Methods Thirty-six male C57BL/6 mice,aged 8-10 weeks,weighing 20-25 g,were randomly divided into 2 groups (n =18 each) using a random number table:control group (group C) and mechanical ventilation group (group M).After anesthesia,endotracheal intubation was carried out,and open reduction and internal fixation was performed after tibial fracture was induced in mice.In C group,the endotracheal tube was removed after operation,and then the mice were exposed to 1.5% isoflurane for 6 h in a chamber.In M group,the mice were mechanically ventilated continuously for 6 h,and 1.5% isoflurane was inhaled to maintain the level of anesthesia.At 2 h and 1 and 3 days after the end of ventilation,6 mice were

  15. Activities of Polymyxin B and Cecropin A-Melittin Peptide CA(1-8)M(1-18) against a Multiresistant Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii

    OpenAIRE

    Saugar, José María; Alarcón, Teresa; López-Hernández, Susana; López-Brea, Manuel; Andreu, David; Rivas, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Polymyxin B (PXB) and the cecropin A-melittin hybrid CA(1-8)M(1-18) (KWKLFKKIGIGAVLKVLTTGLPALIS-NH2) were compared for antibiotic activity on reference and multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Significant differences for both peptides were observed on their inner membrane interaction and inhibition by environmental factors, supporting the use of CA(1-8)M(1-18) as a potential alternative to PXB against Acinetobacter.

  16. Protein Kinase M[Zeta] Is Essential for the Induction and Maintenance of Dopamine-Induced Long-Term Potentiation in Apical CA1 Dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Frey, Julietta U.

    2010-01-01

    Dopaminergic D1/D5-receptor-mediated processes are important for certain forms of memory as well as for a cellular model of memory, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. D1/D5-receptor function is required for the induction of the protein synthesis-dependent maintenance of CA1-LTP (L-LTP) through activation…

  17. Effect of bone marrow stromal cell transplantation to the hippocampal CA1 region on electroencephalographic activity in epileptic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xu; Guowei Xu; Zhongtang Feng; Tinghua Wang; Jia Yang; Qingying Wu; Zhicheng Xiao

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal experiments have confirmed that bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation can serve as a treatment for epilepsy.OBJECTIVE: BMSCs derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were transplanted into the hippocampal CA1 region of epileptic rats. The aim of the study was to record electroencephalogram (EEG), analyze survival and migration of BMSCs, and validate the effect of BMSC transplantation for the treatment of epilepsy.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized block design experiment was performed at the Institute of Neuroscience, Kunming Medical College from March 200.5 to February 2006.MATERIALS: Homozygous C57BL/6CrSIcTgN (acr-EGFP) OsbC 14-Y01 -FM 131 mice, 8-12 weeks of age, were selected for preparation of cell suspension. Sprague Dawley rats were selected for establishing epilepsy models.METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control (n = 8), model (n = 8), normal saline (n = 24), and BMSC (n = 24). In the model, normal saline, and BMSC groups, epilepsy was established with penicillin (3×107 U/kg i.p. ×7 days). Rats in the BMSC group received a BMSC suspension derived fromgreen fluorescent protein mice into the right hippocampal CA1 region. Rats in the vehicle control group were injected with the same volume of normal saline into the hippocampal CA1 region.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The electroencephalogram was used to monitor brain activity. Survival and migration of the transplanted BMSCs was observed using fluorescence microscopy at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after transplantation.RESULTS: In BMSC group, fluorescent cells were observed at the transplantation site and in the adjacent tissue, as well as in the tissue surrounding the needle tract, indicating the migration of implanted cells. Fluorescent cells were not detected in the vehicle control group. The electroencephalogram of the control animals exhibited 7-9 Hz α waves, with a wave amplitude < 50 μ V. In the model and vehicle control groups, random spike

  18. TRACING EFFICIENT PATH USING WEB PATH TRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Joshila Grace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the fast improving society, people depend on online purchase of goods than spending time physically. So there are lots of resources emerged for this online buying and selling of materials. Efficient and attractive web sites would be the best to sell the goods to people. To know whether a web site is reaching the mind of the customers or not, a high speed analysis is done periodically by the web developers. This works helps for the web site developers in knowing the weaker and stronger section of their web site. Parameters like frequency and utility are used for quantitative and qualitative analysis respectively. Addition to this down loads, book marks and the like/dislike of the particular web site is also considered. A new web path trace tree structure is implemented. A mathematical implementation is done to predict the efficient pattern used by the web site visitors.

  19. Investigations on the acoustic transmission characteristics of underwater perforated panel structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zefeng; HU Yongming

    2009-01-01

    Perforated panel structures have a wide potential in underwater applications. However, up to now there has been little related research. The acoustic impedance of an underwater perforated panel is obtained based on the theories for air perforated panel sound absorption.In this paper sound transmission characteristics of underwater perforated panel structures are theoretically analyzed by the transfer matrix method. A formula for normal incidence sound transmission coefficients is given. The main factors that have effects on the acoustic transmission coefficient are analyzed by numerical simulations. The perforated panel structures made by ourselves are tested in a standing-wave tube by the four-sensor transfer-function method.The experimental results are well in accord with the results obtained by the numerical method,which proves that the theoretical analysis is correct. This paper has provided theoretical and experimental bases for the design of underwater perforated panel structures.

  20. Intrahepatic type II gall bladder perforation by a gall stone in a CAPD patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göbel T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Perforation of the gall bladder represents a rare, but life-threatening complication of cholecystitis. Clinical presentation may vary between severe peritonism in acute perforation and absence of symptoms in subacute or chronic progression of perforation. Abdominal imaging like ultrasound or CT-scan are important tools for immediate diagnose of gall bladder perforation. Case presentation We report a case of a 30-year old female patient with end-stage kidney disease treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD who was admitted to the emergency room with fever and mild abdominal pain. A type II gall bladder perforation by a solitary gall stone with development of a liver abscess was detected by abdominal ultrasound. Conclusion Gall bladder perforations are rare but have to be considered in patients with abdominal pain and fever. Abdominal ultrasound is a reliable tool to establish diagnosis.

  1. Small bowel perforation due to indistinguishable metastasis of angiosarcoma: case report and brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihara, Tomoyuki; Imamura, Yu; Iwagami, Shiro; Kajihara, Ikko; Kanemaru, Hisashi; Karashima, Ryuichi; Ida, Satoshi; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Baba, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Iyama, Ken-Ichi; Ihn, Hironobu; Baba, Hideo

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal metastasis of angiosarcoma is extremely rare. We herein report a case of intestinal perforation due to intestinal metastasis of angiosarcoma. The patient was a 72-year-old Japanese man with multiple recurrent angiosarcomas of the scalp. He developed acute abdominal pain with guarding, and we performed an emergency exploratory laparotomy. An intestinal perforation was found 80 cm from the ligament of Treitz, and partial jejunectomy was successfully performed. Macroscopic inspection revealed no obvious injury, ulcer, or tumor at or around the perforation site. Pathological examination revealed angiosarcoma cells penetrating through all layers of the jejunum at the site of intestinal perforation. This is the first reported case of intestinal perforation caused by indistinguishable intestinal metastasis of angiosarcoma. This case emphasizes intestinal metastasis of angiosarcoma as a possible cause of small bowel perforation in patients with advanced angiosarcoma, even when no visible tumor is present during surgery. PMID:27156097

  2. Euclidean shortest paths

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Fajie

    2011-01-01

    This unique text/reference reviews algorithms for the exact or approximate solution of shortest-path problems, with a specific focus on a class of algorithms called rubberband algorithms. Discussing each concept and algorithm in depth, the book includes mathematical proofs for many of the given statements. Topics and features: provides theoretical and programming exercises at the end of each chapter; presents a thorough introduction to shortest paths in Euclidean geometry, and the class of algorithms called rubberband algorithms; discusses algorithms for calculating exact or approximate ESPs i

  3. Metal-Insulator Transition in Ca1-xNaxIrO3 with Post-Perovskite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgushi, Kenya; Gotou, Hirotada; Yagi, Takehiko; Kiuchi, Yoko; Sakai, Fumiko; Ueda, Yutaka

    2007-03-01

    We developed a novel solid solution Ca1-xNaxIrO3 (0 CaIrO3, the magnetic long-range order is gradually destabilized, culminating in a paramagnetic state at x > 0.30, with simultaneous change from the insulating to metallic behavior. The temperature dependence of the resistivity for metallic samples exhibits several characteristic features: (1) the T^α dependence with α ˜ 1.2 in the metallic range, (2) the lnT dependence in the weak-localization regime, and (3) the positive magnetoresistance violating the Kohler's rule. These results indicate the anomalous metallic state caused by the strong electron correlation effect is realized on the verge of the Mott transition. [1] Nobuyoshi Miyajima, Kenya Ohgushi, Masaki Ichihara, and Takehiko Yagi, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L12302 (2006). [2] K. Ohgushi, H. Gotou, T. Yagi, Y. Kiuchi, F. Sakai, and Y. Ueda, submitted.

  4. Size and receptor density of glutamatergic synapses: a viewpoint from left-right asymmetry of CA3-CA1 connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Shinohara

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is considered to be the main mechanism for learning and memory. Excitatory synapses in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus undergo plastic changes during development and in response to electric stimulation. It is widely accepted that this process is mediated by insertion and elimination of various glutamate receptors. In a series of recent investigations on left-right asymmetry of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, glutamate receptor subunits have been found to have distinctive expression patterns that depend on the postsynaptic density (PSD area. Particularly notable are the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit and NR2B NMDA receptor subunit, where receptor density has either a supra-linear (GluR1 AMPA or inverse (NR2B NMDAR relationship to the PSD area. We review current understanding of structural and physiological synaptic plasticity and propose a scheme to classify receptor subtypes by their expression pattern with respect to PSD area.

  5. Evidence for neuroprotective effect of sulbutiamine against oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwag, Jeehyun; Majid, Aman Shah Abdul; Kang, Kui Dong

    2011-01-01

    Hippocampus is one of the earliest brain regions that gets affected by ischemia, however, no pharmacological therapy exists yet that can fully counteract the ischemic damage. Here we study the effect of sulbutiamine, a synthetic thiamine analogue that can cross the blood-brain barrier easily, on hippocampal neurons under an in vitro model of ischemia, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We find that exposure to OGD in the presence of sulbutiamine significantly increases neuronal viability and enhances electrophysiological properties such as excitatory synaptic transmissions and intrinsic neuronal membrane input resistance in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, here we report, for the first time, the neuroprotective evidence of sulbutiamine on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons under OGD, which may have beneficial implications as a possible therapeutic agent/substance against ischemic insult. PMID:22040892

  6. Synthesis and thermal expansion hysteresis of Ca1–SrZr4P6O24

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basavaraj Angadi; V M Jali; M T Lagare; N S Kini; A M Umarji

    2002-06-01

    The low thermal expansion ceramic system, Ca1-SrZr4P6O24, for the compositions with = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1 was synthesized by solid-state reaction. The sintering characteristics were ascertained by bulk density measurements. The fracture surface microstructure examined by scanning electron microscopy showed the average grain size of 2.47 m for all the compositions. The thermal expansion data for these ceramic systems over the temperature range 25–800°C is reported. The sinterability of various solid solutions and the hysteresis in dilatometric behaviour are shown to be related to the crystallographic thermal expansion anisotropy. A steady increase in the amount of porosity and critical grain size with increase in is suggested to explain the observed decrease in the hysteresis.

  7. Activation of functional α7-containing nAChRs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by physiological levels of choline in the presence of PNU-120596.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bopanna I Kalappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The level of expression of functional α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons is believed to be very low compared to hippocampal CA1 interneurons, and for many years this expression was largely overlooked. However, high densities of expression of functional α7-containing nAChRs in CA1 pyramidal neurons may not be necessary for triggering important cellular and network functions, especially if activation of α7-containing nAChRs occurs in the presence of positive allosteric modulators such as PNU-120596. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An approach previously developed for α7-containing nAChRs expressed in tuberomammillary neurons was applied to investigate functional CA1 pyramidal α7-containing nAChRs using rat coronal hippocampal slices and patch-clamp electrophysiology. The majority (∼71% of tested CA1 pyramidal neurons expressed low densities of functional α7-containing nAChRs as evidenced by small whole-cell responses to choline, a selective endogenous agonist of α7 nAChRs. These responses were potentiated by PNU-120596, a novel positive allosteric modulator of α7 nAChRs. The density of functional α7-containing nAChRs expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons (and thus, the normalized net effect of activation, i.e., response net charge per unit of membrane capacitance per unit of time was estimated to be ∼5% of the density observed in CA1 interneurons. The results of this study demonstrate that despite low levels of expression of functional pyramidal α7-containing nAChRs, physiological levels of choline (∼10 µM are sufficient to activate these receptors and transiently depolarize and even excite CA1 pyramidal neurons in the presence of PNU-120596. The observed effects are possible because in the presence of 10 µM choline and 1-5 µM PNU-120596, a single opening of an individual pyramidal α7-containing nAChR ion channel appears to transiently depolarize (∼4 mV the

  8. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on morphology of dendritic spines in hippocampal CA1 region of neonatal mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Hong; REN Rong-rong; XIONG Zhi-qi; WANG Ying-wei

    2009-01-01

    Background It is a common phenomenon that children experience multiple general anesthesias in clinical practice, which raises the question whether repeated exposure to general anesthetics would interfere with the development of the central nervous system of children. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of repeated treatment with ketamine or midazolam on postnatal dendrite development by examining the morphology of the dendritic spines of the pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region in mice.Methods The transgenic green fluorescent protein-M line (GFP-M) mice were used in this study. Ketamine (100 mg/kg), midazolam (50 mg/kg) or saline (10 ml/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once a day on consecutive days from postnatal day 8 (P8) to postnatal day 12 (P12). At postnatal day 13 (P13) and postnatal day 30 (P30), the density and length of the apical dendritic spines of the pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region were examined under a confocal microscope.Results At P13, for both the ketamine group and the midazolam group, the dendritic spines were found with a comparatively lower density and longer average length than in the control group. At P30, no significant difference in the density or average length of dendritic spines was found between the anesthetic group and control group.Conclusions This study indicated that repeated exposure to ketamine or midazolam in neonatal mice impaired dendritic spine maturation immediately afterwards, but this influence seemed to disappear during further postnatal development.

  9. Effect of intrahippocampal CA1 injection of insulin on spatial learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golbarg Ghiasi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important diseases in all over the world. Insulin and its receptor are found in specific area of CNS with a variety of regions-specific functions different from its role in direct glucose regulation in the periphery. The hippocampus and cerebral cortex distributed insulin and insulin receptor has been shown to be involved in brain cognitive functions. Previous studies about the effect of insulin on memory in diabetes are controversial and further investigation is necessary.Methods: Seventy male NMRI rats (250-300 g were randomly divided into control, diabetic, saline-saline, saline-insulin (12, 18 or 24 mU, diabetic-saline, diabetic-insulin (12, 18 or 24 mU groups. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, ip. Saline or insulin were injected bilaterally (1 µl/rat into CA1 region of hippocampus during 1 min. Thirty minutes later, water maze training was performed.Results: Insulin had a dose dependent effect. The spatial learning and memory were impaired with diabetes, and improved by insulin. Escape latency and swimming distance in a water maze in insulin treated animals were significantly lower (P<0.05 than control and diabetic groups. Percentage of time spent by animals in a target quarter in probe trial session showed a significant difference among groups. This difference was significant between insulin treated and the other groups (P<0.05.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that injection of insulin into hippocampal CA1 area may have a dose-dependent effect on spatial learning and memory in diabetic rats.

  10. Urotensin Ⅱ inhibits electrical activity of hippocampal CA1 neurons by potentiating the GABAA receptor-mediated Cl- current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of urotensin Ⅱ (UII) on the discharges of neurons in CA1 area of hippocampal slices by using extracellular recording technique. Results① In response to the application of UII (0.3, 3.0,30.0, 300.0 nmol/L, n =77) into the perfusate for 2 min, the spontaneous discharge rates (SDR) of 63/77 (81.8%) neurons were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. ②Pretreatment with bicuculline( BIC, 100 μmol/L) , a specific GABAA receptor antagonist, led to a marked increase in the SDR of 6/7 (85.71% ) neurons in an epileptiform pattern. The increased discharges were not significantly changed after UII (30.0 nmol/L) was applied into the perfusate for 2 min. ③ Pretreatment with picrotoxin (PIC, 50 μmol/L) , a selective blocker of Cl- channel, led to an increase in the SDR of all 8/8 (100%) neurons. The increased discharges were not influenced by the UII (30.0 nmol/L) applied.④Application of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 50 μmol/L) into the perfusate for 2 min also significantly augmented the SDR of 14/16 (87.5%) neurons , then UII (30.0 nmol/L) applied into the perfusate reduced the increased the SDR of all 14/14 ( 100% ) neurons. Conclusion These results suggest that UII may decrease neuronal activity by potentiating GABAA receptor-mediated Cl- current in hippocampal CA1 neurons, and involved with the mediation of nitric oxide.

  11. Characterization of altered intrinsic excitability in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells of the Aβ-overproducing PDAPP mouse☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, T.L.; Brown, J.T.; Randall, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic mice that accumulate Aβ peptides in the CNS are commonly used to interrogate functional consequences of Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloidopathy. In addition to changes to synaptic function, there is also growing evidence that changes to intrinsic excitability of neurones can arise in these models of amyloidopathy. Furthermore, some of these alterations to intrinsic properties may occur relatively early within the age-related progression of experimental amyloidopathy. Here we report a detailed comparison between the intrinsic excitability properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurones in wild-type (WT) and PDAPP mice. The latter is a well-established model of Aβ accumulation which expresses human APP harbouring the Indiana (V717F) mutation. At the age employed in this study (9–10 months) CNS Abeta was elevated in PDAPP mice but significant plaque pathology was absent. PDAPP mice exhibited no differences in subthreshold intrinsic properties including resting potential, input resistance, membrane time constant and sag. When CA1 cells of PDAPP mice were given depolarizing stimuli of various amplitudes they initially fired at a higher frequency than WT cells. Commensurate with this, PDAPP cells exhibited a larger fast afterdepolarizing potential. PDAPP mice had narrower spikes but action potential threshold, rate of rise and peak were not different. Thus not all changes seen in our previous studies of amyloidopathy models were present in PDAPP mice; however, narrower spikes, larger ADPs and the propensity to fire at higher frequencies were consistent with our prior work and thus may represent robust, cross-model, indices of amyloidopathy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Neurodevelopment Disorder’. PMID:24055500

  12. Adenosine A(2A) receptor modulation of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse plasticity during associative learning in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontinha, Bruno M; Delgado-García, José M; Madroñal, Noelia; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M; Gruart, Agnès

    2009-06-01

    Previous in vitro studies have characterized the electrophysiological and molecular signaling pathways of adenosine tonic modulation on long-lasting synaptic plasticity events, particularly for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, it remains to be elucidated whether the long-term changes produced by endogenous adenosine in the efficiency of synapses are related to those required for learning and memory formation. Our goal was to understand how endogenous activation of adenosine excitatory A(2A) receptors modulates the associative learning evolution in conscious behaving mice. We have studied here the effects of the application of a highly selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, SCH58261, upon a well-known associative learning paradigm-classical eyeblink conditioning. We used a trace paradigm, with a tone as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and an electric shock presented to the supraorbital nerve as the unconditioned stimulus (US). A single electrical pulse was presented to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway to evoke field EPSPs (fEPSPs) in the pyramidal CA1 area during the CS-US interval. In vehicle-injected animals, there was a progressive increase in the percentage of conditioning responses (CRs) and in the slope of fEPSPs through conditioning sessions, an effect that was completely prevented (and lost) in SCH58261 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) -injected animals. Moreover, experimentally evoked LTP was impaired in SCH58261-injected mice. In conclusion, the endogenous activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors plays a pivotal effect on the associative learning process and its relevant hippocampal circuits, including activity-dependent changes at the CA3-CA1 synapse.

  13. Transstomal Small Bowel Evisceration after Colonic Perforation Secondary to Ischemic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Guner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal stomas are commonly used in a temporary or permanent fashion in gastrointestinal surgeries. The complication rate of stomas has been reported to vary between 23 and 50%. There is only one case in the literature involving transstomal small bowel evisceration following colonic perforation. In this paper, we aimed to present a patient with a perforated colon secondary to ischemic colitis, which resulted in small bowel evisceration through this perforation site.

  14. Transstomal Small Bowel Evisceration after Colonic Perforation Secondary to Ischemic Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Guner; Izzettin Kahraman; Omer Faruk Ozkan; Adem Aktas; Can Kece

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal stomas are commonly used in a temporary or permanent fashion in gastrointestinal surgeries. The complication rate of stomas has been reported to vary between 23 and 50%. There is only one case in the literature involving transstomal small bowel evisceration following colonic perforation. In this paper, we aimed to present a patient with a perforated colon secondary to ischemic colitis, which resulted in small bowel evisceration through this perforation site.

  15. Surgical Outcome and Complications of Nasal Septal Perforation Repair with Temporal Fascia and Periosteal Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Virkkula; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Seija I. Vento

    2015-01-01

    AIMS Surgical treatment of nasal septal perforation remains a challenging field of rhinology. A large variety of techniques and grafts with promising results have been introduced for perforation repair. However, the use of fascia or fascia with periosteum has not been previously evaluated for a large sample of patients. METHODS During the years 2007–2014, 105 operations were performed and 98 patients were treated for nasal septal perforation at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and N...

  16. Role of topical heparine in healing of traumatic tympanic membrane perforations

    OpenAIRE

    Zafarullah Beigh; Manzoor Ahmad Malik; Aamir Yousuf; Rafiq Ahmad Pampori

    2012-01-01

    Background: Traumatic tympanic membrane (TM) perforations may arise from instruments such as cotton swabs, bobby pins, and sticks, skull fractures, acid burns and welding or metal working slag burns. Pressure induced perforations can occur after loud noise and explosions, open palm trauma (slapping), or changes in ambient pressure that occurs during flying and underwater diving. In case of traumatic perforation, some observation time is recommended before surgical intervention. In the recent ...

  17. Spontaneously perforated pyometra: an unusual cause of acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum

    OpenAIRE

    Shapey, IM; Nasser, T; Dickens, P; Haldar, M; Solkar, MH

    2012-01-01

    Pneumoperitoneum is usually associated with gastrointestinal perforation or following surgical and endoscopic procedures. We report a rare case of spontaneously perforated pyometra presenting with generalised peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum. Perforation of the uterus is also unusual and often associated with the presence of an intrauterine device, a gravid uterus or malignancy. Our case illustrates the importance of clinical knowledge of acute and neoplastic gynaecological diseases, which ar...

  18. Perforated Duodenal Ulcer –A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Bharti; Rani, Jyotsna; Huria, Anju; Gupta, Pratiksha; Dalal, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Acute abdomen during pregnancy is a medico-surgical emergency demanding concerted, synchronized specialties approach of obstetrician, surgeon and gastroenterologist. Duodenal perforation is one of the rarer causes of acute abdomen in pregnancy. Here, we report a case of duodenal perforation with peritonitis in third trimester of pregnancy requiring surgical management. Our aim of reporting this case is to stress the physicians to keep the differential of duodenal perforation also in mind whil...

  19. Perforation of the colon and rectum--a newly recognized complication of CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosna, Jacob; Sella, Tamar; Bar-Ziv, Jacob; Libson, Eugene

    2006-04-01

    CT colonography (CTC) and conventional colonoscopy may have similar efficacy for detection of polyps > 6 mm. Perforation of the colon and rectum is a relatively rare, but potentially morbid complication of CTC, especially in symptomatic patients. Older age and underlying concomitant colon pathology increase the risk of perforation. This review describes the incidence, clinical features, and management of colon perforations at CTC, a study that was considered risk-free until recently. PMID:16623370

  20. The Houdini effect--an unusual case of blunt abdominal trauma resulting in perforative appendicitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, F

    2012-03-01

    We present a unique case of perforative appendicitis that occurred in an adult following blunt abdominal trauma. This case represents the first such reported case from Ireland. It also represents a modern practical example of Laplace\\'s theory of the effect of increased pressure on colonic wall tension leading to localized perforation, and serves to highlight not only the importance in preoperative imaging for blunt abdominal trauma, but also the importance of considering appendiceal perforation.