Sample records for ca 3700ma zircons

  1. Isotope dilution analysis of Ca and Zr in apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He chronometry (United States)

    Guenthner, William R.; Reiners, Peter W.; Chowdhury, Uttam


    Because radiation damage influences He diffusivity, correlations between (U-Th)/He ages and effective uranium (eU, eU = U + 0.235 × Th) concentrations of single apatite and zircon grains are important for understanding thermal histories. Here we describe a method for quantifying eU concentrations in apatite and zircon grains using isotope dilution ICP-MS measurements of Zr and Ca and stoichiometry of zircon (ZrSiO4) and apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) to obtain grain masses. Combined with independent U and Th measurements, these yield eU concentrations not based on the traditional morphologic measurements and assumptions. Additional benefits of this method include correct identification of an apatite or zircon and volume estimates for crystal shards. In some cases, this method gives eU concentrations consistent with those calculated with the morphologic approach, but often significant differences are observed between concentrations calculated from the two methods. Differences in eU concentrations for our apatite grains are greater and less than morphology estimates, and the majority are between 0.7 and 31%. With the exception of two grains, all of our zircon grains have differences between 3 and 34% less than morphology estimates. These differences could result from incorrect grain width measurements, mischaracterized grain shape, or incorrect volume calculations of the pure mineral phase due to inclusions. These morphologic errors—combined with evidence for the accuracy of our isotope dilution method from analyses of reference materials—suggest that eU concentrations calculated from morphology may often be significantly inaccurate. Finally, we demonstrate that differences between the two measurements of eU cause age-eU correlation variations for representative thermal histories.

  2. Chemical abrasion-SIMS (CA-SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from the late Eocene Caetano caldera, Nevada (United States)

    Watts, Kathryn E.; Coble, Matthew A.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Colgan, Joseph P.; John, David A.


    Zircon geochronology is a critical tool for establishing geologic ages and time scales of processes in the Earth's crust. However, for zircons compromised by open system behavior, achieving robust dates can be difficult. Chemical abrasion (CA) is a routine step prior to thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) dating of zircon to remove radiation-damaged parts of grains that may have experienced open system behavior and loss of radiogenic Pb. While this technique has been shown to improve the accuracy and precision of TIMS dating, its application to high-spatial resolution dating methods, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is relatively uncommon. In our efforts to U-Pb date zircons from the late Eocene Caetano caldera by SIMS (SHRIMP-RG: sensitive high resolution ion microprobe, reverse geometry), some grains yielded anomalously young U-Pb ages that implicated Pb-loss and motivated us to investigate with a comparative CA and non-CA dating study. We present CA and non-CA 206Pb/238U ages and trace elements determined by SHRIMP-RG for zircons from three Caetano samples (Caetano Tuff, Redrock Canyon porphyry, and a silicic ring-fracture intrusion) and for R33 and TEMORA-2 reference zircons. We find that non-CA Caetano zircons have weighted mean or bimodal U-Pb ages that are 2–4% younger than CA zircons for the same samples. CA Caetano zircons have mean U-Pb ages that are 0.4–0.6 Myr older than the 40Ar/39Ar sanidine eruption age (34.00 ± 0.03 Ma; error-weighted mean, 2σ), whereas non-CA zircons have ages that are 0.7–1.3 Myr younger. U-Pb ages do not correlate with U (~ 100–800 ppm), Th (~ 50–300 ppm) or any other measured zircon trace elements (Y, Hf, REE), and CA and non-CA Caetano zircons define identical trace element ranges. No statistically significant difference in U-Pb age is observed for CA versus non-CA R33 or TEMORA-2 zircons. Optical profiler measurements of ion microprobe pits demonstrate consistent depths of ~ 1.6

  3. Better U-Pb Zircon Standards for SIMS and LA-ICPMS? Preliminary Results of Detailed Characterization and Pre-treatment using CA-TIMS (United States)

    Mattinson, J. M.; Hourigan, J.; Wooden, J. L.


    U-Pb zircon dating using SIMS and LA-ICPMS requires calibrations against natural zircons of known age. Ideally, such zircons should be perfectly concordant -- free from Pb-loss, inheritance, or any other complications, and also accurately dated. In practice this can be problematic. Complexities can be difficult to detect by SIMS and LA-ICPMS analysis if they are at or below the level of precision of an individual analysis. In addition, conventional TIMS dating, used to date the standards, can be limited by residual minor Pb loss that has not been removed by conventional "pretreatments" such as air abrasion. CA-TIMS (Mattinson, 2005, Chem Geol 220, 47-66) utilizes high-T annealing of natural radiation damage, followed by partial dissolution in HF, and has proven highly successful at complete removal of zircon domains that have experienced Pb loss, both from the outer rims and also from the deep interiors of zircon grains. Thus, it is useful for detailed characterization of existing and potential zircon standards. Here, we also investigate the potential of CA-TIMS for pre-treating zircon standards prior to SIMS and LA-ICPMS analysis. Multi-step CA-TIMS analyses of Temora-2, R-33, and a possible new standard from the Klamath Mountains reveal minor Pb loss in the first few partial dissolution steps, then yield excellent 206Pb*/238 plateau ages, and concordant 207Pb*/206Pb* ages for the remaining steps. Additional aliquots of these zircons were then "pretreated" by CA-TIMS, with sufficient partial dissolution to remove all vestiges of Pb loss, based on the earlier experiments. A sample of AS-57 was pre-treated "blind" because it was received just prior to a scheduled SHRIMP session. All samples were then prepared in a single mount for SHRIMP analysis. Our preliminary results from a round-robin Stanford SHRIMP-RG session using Temora-2, R-33, AS-57, and the Klamath sample are very promising. The Temora-2 and Klamath zircons in particular yielded excellent reproducibility

  4. Role of CA-EDTA on the Synthesizing Process of Cerate-Zirconate Ceramics Electrolyte

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    Nur Athirah Abdullah


    Full Text Available The role of a combination between citric acid (CA and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA as chelating agents in preparation of BaCe0.54Zr0.36Y0.1O2.95 powder by a modified sol-gel method is reported. The precursor solutions were prepared from metal nitrate salts (M+, chelating agents (C, and ethylene glycol (EG at molar ratio of M+ : C : EG = 3 : 2 : 3. Chemical and phase transformation of samples during thermal decomposition were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. TGA results show that the sample prepared by a combination of CA-EDTA exhibited the lowest thermal decomposition temperature, Ttd since there was no significant weight loss after 750°C. After calcined at 1100°C, the carbonates residue remained in the samples as proven by FTIR results. It was found that the used combination of CA-EDTA acts as a better combustion reagent to increase the reaction rate and influence the thermal decomposition behaviour compared to a single citric acid and EDTA, respectively. Apparently, calcination temperatures above 1100°C are needed to produce a pure perovskitic BaCe0.54Zr0.36Y0.1O2.95.

  5. Development of mixed conducting dense nickel/Ca-doped lanthanum zirconate cermet for gas separation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nag, S. [CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata - 700 032 (India); Mukhopadhyay, S. [Department of Chemical Technology, Calcutta University, 92 A. P. C. Road, Kolkata - 700 009 (India); Basu, R.N., E-mail: [CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata - 700 032 (India)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase pure La{sub 1.95}Ca{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7-{delta}} (LCZ) material is prepared by combustion synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LCZ and Ni-LCZ bulk samples are prepared with theoretical density close to 100%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bulk electrical conductivity {approx}400 S/cm is obtained for Ni-LCZ cermet at 750 Degree-Sign C. -- Abstract: La{sub 1.95}Ca{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7-{delta}} (LCZ) and Ni-LCZ cermet have been prepared by combustion synthesis and conventional solid state mixing methods respectively. Both the materials are sintered in air and controlled atmosphere (5% H{sub 2} in Ar). The density obtained for the material sintered at 1400 Degree-Sign C in controlled atmosphere is found to be more than 99.5%. This sintering temperature (1400 Degree-Sign C) is considered to be much lower compared to the conventional sintering temperature. The corresponding total conductivity for such Ni-LCZ cermet materials is {approx}400 S/cm measured at 750 Degree-Sign C having 40 vol% of Ni and 60 vol% LCZ.

  6. Garnet formation and evolution in Cordilleran source rocks: inherited zircon trace element chemistry from the Transverse Ranges, CA (United States)

    Economos, R. C.; Barth, A. P.; Wooden, J. L.; Chapman, A. D.


    Pre-magmatic (inherited) Proterozoic cores are common in Mesozoic plutons from the Transverse Ranges, southern California. These grains record chronological and compositional information that constrains the mineralogy of the source region at the time of its formation. Whole rock geochemical compositions indicate the mineralogy of the source region when re-mobilized in Mesozoic time. These constraints can be compared to yield an impression of major changes in the lower crust between these events. The behavior of garnet is of particular interest due to its role as an indicator of crystallization depth and its distinctive geochemical imprint, both on co-crystallizing zircons and magmatic chemistry as a whole. While the trace element signal of co-crystallization of garnet and zircon is well constrained for metamorphic rocks, similar signals in magmatic rocks have received less thorough treatment. We compare Yb/Gd and Th/U from zircons from garnet bearing granites and tonalites from the deeply-crystallized western Tehachapi Mountains with results for a range of metamorphic environments. A main trend in log-log Yb/Gd vs Th/U space represents the trajectory of magmatic composition in a typical granodiorite as recorded in zircons. A population of zircons from both metamorphic and igneous garnet-bearing rocks falls off this main trend towards lower Yb/Gd, interpreted as a signature of heavy REE depletion via the influence of garnet during co-crystallization. When carrying the signal of garnet co-crystallization, igneous and metamorphic zircons can be distinguished on the basis of Th/U ratio. The Yb/Gd vs. Th/U relationship is generally a better indicator than Th/U alone for discerning the formation environment of zircons, since in the main populations there is significant overlap in Th/U ratio among metamorphic and evolved magmatic zircons that make them difficult to discern. Proterozoic premagmatic zircons sampled by Mesozoic plutons in the Transverse Ranges have a

  7. HFSE (High Field Strength Elements)-transport and U-Pb-Hf isotope homogenization mediated by Ca-bearing aqueous fluids at 2.04 Ga: Constraints from zircon, monazite, and garnet of the Venetia Klippe, Limpopo Belt, South Africa (United States)

    Zeh, A.; Gerdes, A.


    Results from laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and isotope dilution (ID) analyses of minerals and rocks from a single outcrop of the Venetia Klippe of the Limpopo Belt indicate that the U-Pb and Hf isotope system homogenized on the decimetre scale under amphibolite-facies conditions of ⩽645 ± 25 °C and ⩽7.0 ± 1.1 kbar, i.e. in the presence of an aqueous fluid phase. For a metabasite sample, homogenization is supported by isotope analyses of metamorphic zircon, garnet, and whole rock, which yield a six-point Lu-Hf isochron age of 2039.7 ± 3.4 Ma, with initial 176Hf/177Hf of 0.28126 ± 0.00001, and a U-Pb zircon age of 2042 ± 10 Ma. The occurrence of a few inherited magmatic zircon cores with ages up to 2705 Ma, and with significantly lower initial 176Hf/177Hf of 0.28112, however, indicate that homogenization was incomplete. For a chlorite-biotite-garnet schist isotope homogenization is reflected by within error identical zircon and monazite U-Pb ages of 2045 ± 10 Ma and 2041 ± 8 Ma, respectively, and by a zircon-garnet-whole rock Lu-Hf isochron age of 2083 ± 63 Ma, with an initial 176Hf/177Hf of 0.28140 ± 0.00003. Contemporaneous formation of metamorphic zircon, monazite and garnet in the chlorite schist is not only supported by the isotope data, but also by chlorite inclusions in all three minerals, and by inclusions of metamorphic zircon in garnet. The inclusion textures and the identical initial 176Hf/177Hf support the conclusion that metamorphic zircon grains precipitated from an aqueous fluid phase, after dissolution of zirconium-bearing phases elsewhere, followed by a major HFSE transport, and Hf isotope homogenization. This fluid perhaps was Ca-bearing, as is suggested by the fact that garnet in the schist sample is the only Ca-bearing phase, and that metamorphic monazite, dating the metamorphic peak, is partially replacement by apatite. The fact that the metamorphic zircon rims in the metabasite sample have

  8. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions (United States)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.


    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  9. Alkaline Earth Metal Zirconate Perovskites MZrO3 (M=Ba(2+), Sr(2+), Ca(2+)) Derived from Molecular Precursors and Doped with Eu(3+) Ions. (United States)

    Drąg-Jarząbek, Anna; John, Łukasz; Petrus, Rafał; Kosińska-Klähn, Magdalena; Sobota, Piotr


    The effect of alkaline earth metal alkoxides on the protonation of zirconocene dichloride was investigated. This approach enabled the design of compounds with preset molecular structures for generating high-purity binary metal oxide perovskites MZrO3 (M=Ba(2+), Sr(2+), Ca(2+)). Single-source molecular precursors [Ba4 Zr2 (μ6 -O)(μ3 ,η(2)-OR)8 (OR)2(η(2) -HOR)2 (HOR)2 Cl4], [Sr4 Zr2 (μ6 -O)(μ3 ,η(2)-OR)8 (OR)2 (HOR)4 Cl4], [Ca4 Zr2 (μ6-O)(μ3 ,η(2)-OR)8 (OR)2 Cl4], and [Ca6 Zr2 (μ2 ,η(2)-OR)12 (μ-Cl)2 (η(2) -HOR)4 Cl6 ]⋅8 CH2 Cl2 were prepared via elimination of the cyclopentadienyl ring from Cp2 ZrCl2 as CpH in the presence of M(OR)2 and alcohol ROH (ROH=CH3OCH2 CH2OH) as a source of protons. The resulting complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds were then thermally decomposed to MCl2 /MZrO3 mixtures. Leaching of MCl2 from the raw powder with deionized water produced highly pure perovskite-like oxide particles of 40-80 nm in size. Luminescence studies on Eu(3+)-doped MZrO3 revealed that the perovskites are attractive host lattices for potential applications in display technology.

  10. Hydrogen diffusion in Zircon (United States)

    Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei


    Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH- = U4+ + O2- + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in

  11. Application of geochronology/geochemistry of zircon in understanding the construction of the Peninsular Range Batholith (United States)

    Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Johnston, S. M.


    Trace-element signatures of zircon are becoming increasingly used as a tool to infer the petrologic history of the rock from which that zircon crystallized. In this study, we sampled 11 igneous rocks from west to east across the northern Peninsular Ranges Batholith (PRB) to test how well REE patterns in zircon reflect those of the whole rock in arc magmas (granodiorite-tonalite). Previous studies of the PRB show two transitions from west to east, with respect to their REE patterns; transition 1) a decrease in HREE, from the west to the central PRB, and 2) an increase in LREE from the central to the eastern PRB. Whole rock samples in this study, analyzed by XRF and ICPMS, reproduce this pattern and thus provide a variety of REE signatures with which to test whether zircon can be used as a proxy for whole-rock data. Zircon from the 11 samples was analyzed by LASS (Laser Ablation Split Stream) ICP-MS, to measure both the age of the zircons and their trace-element compositions. In general, as expected, ages young from west (ca. 104 Ma) to east (ca. 90 Ma). Patterns of HREE in zircon correlate well with those of the whole rock, whereas the LREE correlation is weak. The distribution coefficient for HREE between zircon and whole rock, however, decreases with increasing HREE. Possibilities for this negative relation include: 1) minor changes in whole-rock chemistry, as samples become slightly more felsic from west to east, 2) changes in crystallization temperature from west to east, and 3) sampling bias of HREE-poor zircon rims with HREE fractionated in zircon cores. Other trace element data measured in zircon and whole rock include P, Ti, Y, Nb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U and provide interesting results. Nb and Ta show a moderate correlation between zircon and whole rock, but the Nb/Ta ratio does not. Also, though U correlates well between whole rock and zircon and Th/U correlates well between zircon and age, the Th/U ratio of the zircon is negatively correlated with the whole

  12. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Calcium Zirconate at Higher Temperature

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    K. B. Kale


    Full Text Available The CO2 adsorption by calcium zirconate was explored at pre- and post- combustion temperature condition. The several samples of the calcium zirconate were prepared by different methods such as sol-gel, solid-solid fusion, template and micro-emulsion. The samples of the calcium zirconate were characterized by measurement of surface area, alkalinity/acidity, and recording the XRD patterns and SEM images. The CO2 adsorptions by samples of the calcium zirconate were studied in the temperature range 100 to 850 oC and the CO2 adsorptions were observed in the ranges of 6.88 to 40.6 wt % at 600 0C and 8 to 16.82 wt% at in between the temperatures 200 to 300 oC. The effect of Ca/Zr mol ratio in the samples of the calcium zirconate on the CO2 adsorption and alkalinity were discussed. The adsorbed moisture by the samples of the calcium zirconate was found to be useful for the CO2 adsorption. The promoted the samples of the calcium zirconate by K+, Na+, Rb+, Cs+, Ag+ and La3+ showed the increased CO2 adsorption. The exposure time of CO2 on the samples of the calcium zirconate showed the increased CO2 adsorption. The samples of the calcium zirconate were found to be regenerable and reusable several times for the adsorption of CO2 for at the post- and pre-combustion temperature condition. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC Undip. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd June 2012, Revised: 28th August 2012, Accepted: 30th August 2012[How to Cite: K. B. Kale, R. Y. Raskar, V. H. Rane and A. G.  Gaikwad (2012. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Calcium Zirconate at Higher Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 124-136. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3686.124-136] [How to Link / DOI: ] | View in 

  13. The Dabie Orogen as the early Jurassic sedimentary provenance: Constraints from the detrital zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Renwei; WAN Yusheng; CHENG Zhenyu; ZHOU Jianxiong; XU Yunhua; LI Zhong; JIANG Maosheng


    The SHRIMP U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from the oldest Mesozoic strata, the Fanghushan Fomation, in the Hefei Basin range from 200 Ma to ca. 2500 Ma, which indicates that the Dabie Orogen as the early Jurassic sedimentary provenance was complex. The composition of the Dabie Orogen includes: the Triassic high pressure-ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks, of which the detrital zircon ages are from 234 Ma to 200 Ma; the rocks possibly related to the Qinling and Erlangping Groups representing the southern margin of the Sino-Korean craton in the Qinling and Dabie area, of which the detrital zircon has an age of 481-378 Ma; the Neoproterozoic rocks originated from the Yangtze croton, of which the detrital zircon ages are 799-721 Ma old; and the rocks with the detrital zircon ages of ca. 2000 Ma and ca. 2500 Ma, which could be the old basement of the Yangtze craton.

  14. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and provenance of the Carboniferous-Permian glaciomarine pebbly slates in the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Zhu, D.; Zhao, Z.; Chung, S.; Li, C.; Sui, Q.; Fu, X.; Mo, X.


    Glaciomarine diamictites (including pebbly slate, pebbly siltstone, and pebbly sandstone) in the Tibetan Plateau are widely interpreted to have been associated with the deglaciation of the Indian continent. Guiding by zircon cathodoluminescence images, we determined U-Pb ages for detrital zircons from five typical Carboniferous-Permian pebbly slate samples from the Qiangtang, Lhasa, and Tethyan Himalaya of the Tibetan Plateau. The age distributions of detrital zircons from two samples (180 analyses) from Qiwu and Gangma Tso of the Qiangtang Terrane are similar, with two main age peaks ca. 579 and ca. 816 Ma and one minor age peak ca. 2490 Ma. Two samples (177 analyses) from Jiangrang and Damxung of the Lhasa Terrane define similar age distributions with two main age peaks ca. 539 and ca. 1175 Ma. Ages of detrital zircons from one sample (110 analyses) from Kangmar of the Tethyan Himalaya display main age peaks ca. 535, ca. 949, and ca. 2490 Ma. The ca. 816-Ma detrital zircons from the Qiangtang Terrane were most likely derived from the Lesser Himalaya, and the ca. 950-Ma detrital zircons from the Tethyan Himalaya might have been sourced from the High Himalaya, Eastern Ghats Province of the Indian plate and the Rayner Province of East Antarctica. The distinctive ca. 1175-Ma age population characteristic of zircons in the pebbly slates from the Lhasa Terrane is identical to the detrital zircons from the late Paleozoic sandstones (Zhu et al., 2011a) and the inherited zircons from the Mesozoic peraluminous granites (Zhu et al., 2011b) in this terrane, but significantly absent in the pebbly slates from both the Qiangtang and the Tethyan Himalayan terranes. The ca. 1175-Ma detrital zircons in the Lhasa Terrane were most likely sourced from the Albany-Fraser-Wilkes in southwestern Australia and East Antarctica. These new data obtained in this study reveal a distinct difference of detrital zircon provenance for the coeval Carboniferous-Permian glaciomarine pebbly slates

  15. Disturbed Sr and Nd Isotope Systematics in Zircons With Concordant SHRIMP U-Pb Ages (United States)

    Weaver, K. L.; Bennett, V. C.; Depaolo, D. J.; Mundil, R.


    Little is known about the Sr- and Nd-isotopic systematics of zircon. With slow diffusion rates and a high resistance to weathering, zircon should preserve accurate age information and initial Sr and Nd isotopic ratios. As a common accessory mineral, it could provide petrogenetic information for rocks that have been altered, weathered, or metamorphosed. We have investigated the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systematics of zircons from unmetamorphosed granitic rocks that have yielded concordant U-Pb SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) ages and have depleted mantle signatures for Nd and Sr isotopes. Zircon populations from mantle-derived igneous rocks with ages of 0.1, 1.7, and 3.8 Ga were chosen for Sr and Nd isotopic analysis. Low concentrations (Sr, 4 to 8 ppm and Nd, 6 to 12 ppm) and small grain size necessitate the use of multigrain aliquots. Meaningful results can be obtained only if all of the zircons in the rock are a coherent population with homogeneous ages throughout and among grains. Zircon U-Pb ages were characterized using the SHRIMP RG, and trace element concentrations were measured by LA-ICPMS. The populations are homogeneous and the material ablated by the ion beam ( ˜~20 μ m spot size) shows little evidence of lead loss. Results on zircons of 100 Ma and 1700 Ma indicate that both the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems have been severely disturbed. For the 1700 Ma granitic rocks from the Yavapai sequence of Arizona, zircon Sm-Nd apparent ages are ca. 1000 Ma! Leaching was used to remove contributions from adhering or included minerals, but leached residues that presumably most closely approximate the composition of the pure zircon (e.g. have high Sm/Nd) are no less disturbed than unleached samples. Despite the U-Pb SHRIMP ages indicating a closed system, the zircons have failed to preserve a reasonable age or initial isotopic composition for Sr and Nd, indicating that parts of the crystal might be severely affected by radiation damage resulting in disturbed

  16. In-situ trace element analyses and Pb-Pb dating of zircons in granulite from Huangtuling, Dabieshan by LAM-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴元保; 陈道公; 夏群科; 涂湘林; 程昊; 杨晓志


    It is revealed by CL images that there are multi-stage growth internal structures of zircons in the Huangtuling granulite, including the inherited zircons, protolith zircons, sector and planar zone zircons and retrograde zircons. In-situ trace element compositions and Pb-Pb ages have been analyzed by LAM-ICP-MS. The sector and the planar zone domains show typical trace element characteristics of granulite zircon (low Th, U, Th/U, total REEs, clear negative Eu anomalies, relatively depleted HREE and small differential degree between MREE and HREE, etc.), indicating that they formed during granulite-facies metamorphism. The protolith zircons have trace element characteristics of crustal zircon (high Th, U, Th/U, total REEs and enriched HREEs, etc.). 12 analyzed spots on granulite-facies domains give a weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of (2154±26) Ma (MSWD = 3.8), which is the best estimated age of granulite-facies metamorphism of this sample. The weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 5 analyzed spots on protolith zircon domains is (2714 ± 22) Ma (MSWD = 1.4), which represents the protolith forming time. The discovery of ca. 3.4 Ga inherited zircon indicates that there are Palaeoarchean continental materials in this area. The interpretation of formation conditions and the ages of zircons can be constrained by simultaneous in-situ analysis of trace elements and ages.

  17. Detrital Zircon Geochronology of Cretaceous and Paleogene Strata Across the South-Central Alaskan Convergent Margin (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Haeussler, Peter; O'Sullivan, Paul; Friedman, Rich; Till, Alison; Bradley, Dan; Trop, Jeff


    Talkeetna Mountains (schist of Hatcher Pass) and, immediately to the south, the northernmost sedimentary sequence of the Matanuska forearc basin (Arkose Ridge Formation). Detrital zircons from the Paleogene Arkose Ridge Formation are as young as 61 and 70 Ma; the population is dominated by a single Late Cretaceous peak at 76 Ma; the oldest zircon is 181 Ma. Sedimentological evidence clearly shows that the conglomeratic Arkose Ridge Formation was derived from the Talkeetna Mountains; our detrital zircon data support this inference. Zircons dated at ca. 90 Ma in the Arkose Ridge sample suggest that buried or unmapped plutons of this age may exist in the Talkeetnas. This is a particularly interesting age as it corresponds to the age of the supergiant Pebble gold-molybdenum-copper porphyry prospect near Iliamna and suggests a new area of prospectivity for Pebble-type deposits. The schist of Hatcher Pass, which was previously assigned a Jurassic depositional age, yielded surprisingly young Late Cretaceous detrital zircons, the youngest at 75 Ma. The probability density curve has four Cretaceous peaks from 76 to 102 Ma, a pair of Late Jurassic peaks at 155 and 166 Ma, three Early Jurassic to Late Triassic peaks at 186, 197, and 213 Ma, minor Carboniferous peaks at 303 and 346 Ma, and a minor Paleoproterozoic peak at 1828 Ma. The schist of Hatcher Pass was largely derived from Mesozoic arc sources, most likely the Wrangellia composite terrane, with some contribution from one or more older, inboard sources, probably including the Yukon-Tanana terrane. We postulate that the schist of Hatcher Pass represents metamorphosed rocks of the Valdez Group that were subducted and then exhumed along the Chugach terrane's 'backstop' during Paleogene transtension. Western Alaska Range - Six detrital zircon samples were collected from a little studied belt of turbidites in Tyonek quadrangle on strike with the Kahiltna assemblage of the central Alaska Range. Many of the sandstones ar

  18. Age intercalibration of 40Ar/39Ar sanidine and chemically distinct U/Pb zircon populations from the Alder Creek Rhyolite Quaternary geochronology standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Schmitz, M. D.;


    (2σ external uncertainty), determined relative to the astronomically dated A1 tephra sanidine, is interpreted as the ACR eruption age. This age is supported by CA-TIMS U–Pb zircon dating, guided by LA-ICPMS trace element analyses, titanium-in-zircon (TiZR) thermometry, and cathodoluminescence (CL...

  19. Peninsular terrane basement ages recorded by Paleozoic and Paleoproterozoic zircon in gabbro xenoliths and andesite from Redoubt volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Wooden, Joseph L.


    Historically Sactive Redoubt volcano is an Aleutian arc basalt-to-dacite cone constructed upon the Jurassic–Early Tertiary Alaska–Aleutian Range batholith. The batholith intrudes the Peninsular tectonostratigraphic terrane, which is considered to have developed on oceanic basement and to have accreted to North America, possibly in Late Jurassic time. Xenoliths in Redoubt magmas have been thought to be modern cumulate gabbros and fragments of the batholith. However, new sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb ages for zircon from gabbro xenoliths from a late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposit are dominated by much older, ca. 310 Ma Pennsylvanian and ca. 1865 Ma Paleoproterozoic grains. Zircon age distributions and trace-element concentrations indicate that the ca. 310 Ma zircons date gabbroic intrusive rocks, and the ca. 1865 Ma zircons also are likely from igneous rocks in or beneath Peninsular terrane basement. The trace-element data imply that four of five Cretaceous–Paleocene zircons, and Pennsylvanian low-U, low-Th zircons in one sample, grew from metamorphic or hydrothermal fluids. Textural evidence of xenocrysts and a dominant population of ca. 1865 Ma zircon in juvenile crystal-rich andesite from the same pyroclastic deposit show that this basement has been assimilated by Redoubt magma. Equilibration temperatures and oxygen fugacities indicated by Fe-Ti–oxide minerals in the gabbros and crystal-rich andesite suggest sources near the margins of the Redoubt magmatic system, most likely in the magma accumulation and storage region currently outlined by seismicity and magma petrology at ∼4–10 km below sea level. Additionally, a partially melted gabbro from the 1990 eruption contains zircon with U-Pb ages between ca. 620 Ma and ca. 1705 Ma, as well as one zircon with a U-Th disequilibrium model age of 0 ka. The zircon ages demonstrate that Pennsylvanian, and probably Paleoproterozoic, igneous rocks exist in, or possibly beneath, Peninsular

  20. Detrital zircon geochronology and provenance of the Chubut Group in the northeast of Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Navarro, Edgardo L.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Belousova, Elena; Guler, M. Verónica; Gehrels, George


    The Chubut Group constitutes the most widespread sedimentary unit in NE Patagonia, characterized by variable-energy fluvial deposits. U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons from two sections of the Chubut Group constraint the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks in the northeast of the Somuncurá - Cañadón Asfalto Basin. In the Cañadón Williams area, at San Jorge section, 20 km NW of Telsen locality, dating of 56 detrital zircons from a medium to coarse sandstone indicated a maximum depositional age of 109 ± 1 Ma (n = 4). These sandstones were interpreted to represent shallow channels, associated with a lacustrine system. In the Telsen locality, a laser ablation analysis of 115 detrital zircons from a medium to coarse-grained sandstone, from fluvial channel facies, yielded a maximum depositional age of ca. 106 ± 1 Ma (n = 8). Both ages are consistent with volcanic events of the Barremian to Albian age in the central Patagonian Andes Region. Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from the San Jorge sample suggest an igneous origin, which is further supported by Th/U values above 0.5 in most of the grains. The distribution of the statistical modes of the main age populations of detrital zircons for the two samples [182, 185 and 189 Ma for Telsen sample (T2S) and 181 ± 1 Ma for San Jorge sample (SJS)] matches the age of the volcanic Marifil Formation. The rocks of the Marifil Formation of these ages are exposed NE to SE of the study area. The abundance of zircons of similar Jurassic ages (n = 52 for SJS and n = 105 for T2S) and the external morphology of the zircons in the sample SJS, implies a close proximity of the source area. Suggestion that the Marifil Formation was the main provenance source is also supported by northeast-southeasterly paleocurrents measured at the San Jorge and Telsen sections.

  1. Morphology and geochemistry of zircon: a case study on zircon from the microgranitoid enclaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪相; KIENAST; Jean-Robert


    There are three types of zircon (i.e. Zircon A, Zircon B and Zircon C) in the microgranitoid enclaves from the Qingtian granite. Zircon A is of the smallest Ipr, Ipy and Iel values with the largest range of variations; Zircon C is of the largest Ipr, Ipy and Iel values with the smallest range of variations; and Zircon B is intermediate among the three types. The microprobe analysis of zircon demonstrates that the contents of trace elements (Hf, U, Y, Th) increase progressively with larger and larger variation from Zircon A through Zircon B to Zircon C. These characters snggest that the three types of zircon in the enclaves may have formed successively during the cooling process of enclave magma, corresponding to different sites along with the intrusion of enclave magma. Because of positive correlations of the UO2/HfO2 ratio with Ipr, the ThO2/Y2O3 ratio with Ipy, and the UO2/(ThO2 + Y2O3) ratio with Iel, it is suggested that the variation in zircon typology is caused

  2. Zircon saturation in silicate melts: a new and improved model for aluminous and alkaline melts (United States)

    Gervasoni, Fernanda; Klemme, Stephan; Rocha-Júnior, Eduardo R. V.; Berndt, Jasper


    The importance of zircon in geochemical and geochronological studies, and its presence not only in aluminous but also in alkaline rocks, prompted us to think about a new zircon saturation model that can be applied in a wide range of compositions. Therefore, we performed zircon crystallization experiments in a range of compositions and at high temperatures, extending the original zircon saturation model proposed by Watson and Harrison (Earth Planet Sci Lett 64:295-304, 1983) and Boehnke et al. (Chem Geol 351:324-334, 2013). We used our new data and the data from previous studies in peraluminous melts, to describe the solubility of zircon in alkaline and aluminous melts. To this effect, we devised a new compositional parameter called G [ {( {3 \\cdot {{Al}}2 {{O}}3 + {{SiO}}2 )/({{Na}}2 {{O}} + {{K}}2 {{O}} + {{CaO}} + {{MgO}} + {{FeO}}} )} ] (molar proportions), which enables to describe the zircon saturation behaviour in a wide range of rock compositions. Furthermore, we propose a new zircon saturation model, which depends basically on temperature and melt composition, given by (with 1σ errors): ln [ {{Zr}} ] = ( {4.29 ± 0.34} ) - ( {1.35 ± 0.10} ) \\cdot ln G + ( {0.0056 ± 0.0002} ) \\cdot T( °C ) where [Zr] is the Zr concentration of the melt in µg/g, G is the new parameter representing melt composition and T is the temperature in degrees Celsius. The advantages of the new model are its straightforward use, with the G parameter being calculated directly from the molar proportions converted from electron microprobe measurements, the temperature calculated given in degrees Celsius and its applicability in a wider range of rocks compositions. Our results confirm the high zircon solubility in peralkaline rocks and its dependence on composition and temperature. Our new model may be applied in all intermediate to felsic melts from peraluminous to peralkaline compositions.

  3. Early Paleozoic tectonic reconstruction of Iran: Tales from detrital zircon geochronology (United States)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Li, Xian-Hua; Griffin, William L.; Stern, Robert J.; Thomsen, Tonny B.; Meinhold, Guido; Aharipour, Reza; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.


    In this study we use detrital zircons to probe the Early Paleozoic history of NE Iran and evaluate the link between sediment sources and Gondwanan pre-Cadomian, Cadomian and younger events. U-Pb zircon ages and Hf isotopic compositions are reported for detrital zircons from Ordovician and Early Devonian sedimentary rocks from NE Iran. These clastic rocks are dominated by zircons with major age populations at 2.5 Ga, 0.8-0.6 Ga, 0.5 Ga and 0.5-0.4 Ga as well as a minor broad peak at 1.0 Ga. The source of 2.5 Ga detrital zircons is enigmatic; they may have been supplied from the Saharan Metacraton (or West African Craton) to the southwest or Afghanistan-Tarim to the east. The detrital zircons with age populations at 0.8-0.6 Ga probably originated from Cryogenian-Ediacaran juvenile igneous rocks of the Arabian-Nubian Shield; this inference is supported by their juvenile Hf isotopes, although some negative εHf (t) values suggest that other sources (such as the West African Craton) were also involved. The age peak at ca 0.5 Ga correlates with Cadomian magmatism reported from Iranian basement and elsewhere in north Gondwana. The variable εHf (t) values of Cadomian detrital zircons, resembling the εHf (t) values of zircons in magmatic Cadomian rocks from Iran and Taurides (Turkey), suggest an Andean-type margin and the involvement of reworked older crust in the generation of the magmatic rocks. The youngest age population at 0.5-0.4 Ga is interpreted to represent Gondwana rifting and the opening of Paleotethys, which probably started in Late Cambrian-Ordovician time. A combination of U-Pb dating and Hf-isotope data from Iran, Turkey and North Gondwana confirms that Iran and Turkey were parts of Gondwana at least until late Paleozoic time.

  4. Mineral zircon : A novel thermoluminescence geochronometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, HJ; Vainshtein, DI; De Meijer, RJ; Den Hartog, HW; Donoghue, JF; Rozendaal, A


    Mineral zircon contains trace amounts (typically 10-1000 ppm) of the alpha-emitters uranium and thorium, which irradiate this mineral internally. This outstanding feature of zircon turns out to be extremely useful when this mineral is applied as a thermoluminescence (TL) dating medium, because the b

  5. Solidification of simulated actinides by natural zircon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-Wen; LUO Shang-Geng


    Natural zircon was used as precursor material to produce a zircon waste form bearing 20wt% simulated actinides (Nd2O3 and UO2) through a solid state reaction by a typical synroc fabrication process. The fabricated zircon waste form has relatively good physical properties (density 5.09g/cm3, open porosity 4.0%, Vickers hardness 715kg/mm2). The XRD, SEM/EDS and TEM/EDS analyses indicate that there are zircon phases containing waste elements formed through the reaction. The chemical durability and radiation stability are determined by the MCC-1method and heavy ion irradiation; the results show that the zircon waste form is highly leach resistance and relatively stable under irradiation (amorphous dose 0.7dpa). From this study, the method of using a natural mineral to solidify radioactive waste has proven to be feasible.

  6. Zircon xenocryst resorption and magmatic regrowth at El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico (United States)

    Pack, Brenda; Schmitt, Axel K.; Roberge, Julie; Tenorio, Felipe Garcia; Damiata, Brian N.


    El Chichón volcano is the only active volcano located within the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc in southern Mexico, which lies between the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Central American Volcanic Arc. Previous studies have shown that ~ 12 eruptions have occurred at El Chichón within the last 8000 years, forming a complex of lava domes with a central crater and surrounding pyroclastic deposits. Here, we report the discovery of zircon in Holocene El Chichón rocks, which were analyzed by high spatial resolution imaging (color cathodoluminescence CCL) and isotopic (secondary ionization mass spectrometry SIMS) methods to resolve core and rim crystallization ages. Pumice samples from five proximal pyroclastic flow and fall-out deposits were collected based on published stratigraphy. Two of the samples were further (re-)classified by new 14C dates. In addition, we sampled two lavas from the 1982 eruption and from remnants of the older Somma lava complex. Zircon crystals were dated using 230Th/238U disequilibrium (U-Th) and U-Pb geochronology. U-Th zircon ages fall between near eruption ages and ca. 84 ka, with overlapping ages in all samples. By contrast, zircon core U-Pb ages range between ca. 290 Ma and 1.9 Ga. These ages are consistent with xenocrystic origins and their heterogeneity indicates derivation from clastic country rocks. Strong age contrasts between inherited xenocrystic and young magmatic domains in individual zircon crystals are evidence for arrested assimilation of crustal rocks where initially zircon-undersaturated magmas cooled rapidly to form a crystal mush or subsolidus amalgamate as a crustally contaminated boundary layer. This layer contributed zircon crystals to eruptible magma during episodic recharge events followed by partial melt extraction, mixing and homogenization. Zircon overgrowths are significantly older than major minerals whose U-series ages and sharp zonation boundaries suggest crystallization only within a few ka before eruption

  7. U-Pb Dating of Zircons and Phosphates in Lunar Meteorites, Acapulcoites and Angrites (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Zeigler, R. A.; Yin, Q. Z.; Korotev, R. L.; Joliff, B. L.; Amelin, Y.; Marti, K.; Wu, F. Y.; Li, X. H.; Li, Q. L.; Lin, Y. T.; Liu, Y.; Tang, G. Q.


    Zircon U-Pb geochronology has made a great contribution to the timing of magmatism in the early Solar System [1-3]. Ca phosphates are another group of common accessory minerals in meteorites with great potential for U-Pb geochronology. Compared to zircons, the lower closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for apatite and merrillite (the most common phosphates in achondrites) makes them susceptible to resetting during thermal metamorphism. The different closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for zircon and apatite provide us an opportunity to discover the evolutionary history of meteoritic parent bodies, such as the crystallization ages of magmatism, as well as later impact events and thermal metamorphism. We have developed techniques using the Cameca IMS-1280 ion microprobe to date both zircon and phosphate grains in meteorites. Here we report U-Pb dating results for zircons and phosphates from lunar meteorites Dhofar 1442 and SaU 169. To test and verify the reliability of the newly developed phosphate dating technique, two additional meteorites, Acapulco, obtained from Acapulco consortium, and angrite NWA 4590 were also selected for this study as both have precisely known phosphate U-Pb ages by TIMS [4,5]. Both meteorites are from very fast cooled parent bodies with no sign of resetting [4,5], satisfying a necessity for precise dating.

  8. Detrital zircon without detritus: a result of 496-Ma-old fluid-rock interaction during the gold-lode formation of Passagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Zeh, Armin


    Zircon and xenotime occur in tourmaline-rich hydrothermal pockets in the auriferous lode of Passagem de Mariana, a world-class gold deposit. Zircon grains show pristine oscillatory zoning, but many of them are altered, exhibiting porous domains filled with graphite. Uranium-Pb dating of zircon, using in-situ laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, yields ages between 3.2 and 2.65 Ga, which match those for detrital zircon of the footwall quartzite of the > 2.65-Ga-old Moeda Formation. Discordant analyses point to zircon-age resetting during the Brasiliano orogeny at ca. 500 Ma. This interpretation is supported by U-Pb dating of euhedral xenotime immediately adjacent to altered zircon within the same tourmaline pocket. The xenotime grains give a Concordia age of 496.3 ± 2.0 Ma, which is identical to that determined for monazite of a quartz-hematite vein-type deposit (i.e., jacutinga lode) in the region (Itabira), another important mineralisation style of gold. The occurrence of relatively abundant inherited detrital zircon, but absence of rock fragments in the tourmaline pocket investigated here, implies that detrital material was completely replaced by tourmaline. The graphite overprint on the altered detrital zircon attests to a reducing fluid, which was likely formed by fluid-rock interaction with carbonaceous phyllite of the Batatal Formation, the host rock of the Passagem lode.

  9. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield (United States)

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.


    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have δ18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High δ18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have δ18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of δ18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  10. A new equilibrium form of zircon crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiang


    [1]Hartman, P., Perdok, G., On the relationship between structure and morphology of crystals, Acta Cryst., 1955, 8: 525-529.[2]Woensdregt, C. F., Computation of surface of energies in an electrostatic point charge model, Ⅱ. Application to zircon (ZrSiO4), Phys. Chem. Minerals, 1992, 19: 417-423.[3]Kern, R., The equilibrium form of a crystal, in Morphology of Crystal (ed. Sunnagawa, I.), Tokyo: Terra Scientific Publishing Company, 1970, 77-206.[4]Machenzie, J. K., Moore, J. W., Nickolas, J. F., Bond broken at atomically flat crystal surface, I. Face-centered and body-centered cubic crystal, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 1962, 23: 185-196.[5]?. Machenzie, J. K., Nicholas, J. F., Bond broken at atomically flat crystal surface, ?. Crystals containing many atoms in a primitive unit cell, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 1962, 23: 197-205.[6]Hazen, R. M., Finger, L. W., Crystal structure and compressibility of zircon at high pressure, Am. Mineral, 1979, 64:196-201.[7]Pupin, J. P., Zircon and granite petrology, Contrib. Mineral Petrol., 1980, 73: 207-220.[8]Wang, X., Kienast, J. R., Morphology and geochemistry of zircon: a case study on zircon from the microgranitoid enclaves,Science in China, Series D, 1999, 42(5): 544-552.[9]Wang, X., Li, W. X., Discovery of the { 211 }-type of zircon and its petrogenetic implication, Chinese Sci. Bull., 2001 (inpress).[10]Wang, X., Quantitative description of zircon morphology and its dynamics analysis, Science in China, Series D, 1998,41(4): 422-428.

  11. Crustal growth history of the Korean Peninsula:Constraints from detrital zircon ages in modern river sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taejin Choi; Yong Il Lee; Yuji Orihashi


    U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249e79 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (2491e1691 Ma) ages with subordinate Archean ages in-dicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the NeoproterozoicePaleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.

  12. Geology, zircon geochronology, and petrogenesis of Sabalan volcano (northwestern Iran) (United States)

    Ghalamghash, J.; Mousavi, S. Z.; Hassanzadeh, J.; Schmitt, A. K.


    to ca. 110 ka. Because zircon crystallization predates eruption, this age represents the upper limit for the youngest eruptions of Sabalan. Valley-filling ignimbrites yielded variable U-Pb zircon ages which argue against these pyroclastic rocks being generated in a single caldera forming event. These results indicate that eruptions occurred more recently than previously indicated by K-Ar dating. Paleo-Sabalan and Neo-Sabalan volcanic rocks have similar geochemical characteristics, including enrichment of LILE and LREE relative to HFSE and HREE, respectively, and prominent negative Ti, Nb, and Ta anomalies. The trachyandesitic to dacitic rocks of Sabalan also share negative Eu anomalies. This, together with horizontal or slightly increasing Y vs. Rb trends, indicates fractionation of plagioclase-amphibole or plagioclase-clinopyroxene assemblages with negligible crustal assimilation (based on low and invariant Rb/Th). High degrees of mantle partial melting are inferred from high (La/Yb)N (from 28 to 48). Overall, the subduction-affinity of Sabalan volcanic rocks agrees with models of melt generation following a Quaternary slab break-off event coeval with continental collision.

  13. Radiation damage in zircon and monazite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldrum, A.; Boatner, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid state Div.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ewing, R.C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences


    Monazite and zircon respond differently to ion irradiation and to thermal and irradiation-enhanced annealing. The damage process (i.e., elastic interactions leading to amorphization) in radioactive minerals (metamictization) is basically the same as for the ion-beam-irradiated samples with the exception of the dose rate which is much lower in the case of natural samples. The crystalline-to-metamict transition in natural samples with different degrees of damage, from almost fully crystalline to completely metamict, is compared to the sequence of microstructures observed for ion-beam-irradiated monazite and zircon. The damage accumulation process, representing the competing effects of radiation-induced structural disorder and subsequent annealing mechanisms (irradiation-enhanced and thermal) occurs at much higher temperatures for zircon than for monazite. The amorphization dose, expressed as displacements per atom, is considerably higher in the natural samples, and the atomic-scale process leading to metamictization appears to develop differently. Ion-beam-induced amorphization data were used to calculate the {alpha}-decay-event dose required for amorphization in terms of a critical radionuclide concentration, i.e., the concentration above which a sample of a given age will become metamict at a specific temperature. This equation was applied to estimate the reliability of U-Pb ages, to provide a qualitative estimate of the thermal history of high-U natural zircons, and to predict whether actinide-bearing zircon or monazite nuclear waste forms will become amorphous (metamict) over long timescales.

  14. Jurassic zircons from the Southwest Indian Ridge (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Zhou, Huaiyang; Yang, Qunhui; Zhang, Lingmin; Ji, Fuwu; Dick, Henry


    The existence of ancient rocks in present mid-ocean ridges have long been observed but received less attention. Here we report the discovery of zircons with both reasonably young ages of about 5 Ma and abnormally old ages of approximate 180 Ma from two evolved gabbroic rocks that were dredged from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) in the Gallieni fracture zone. U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of zircons were made using ion probe and conventional laser abrasion directly in petrographic thin sections. Young zircons and their host oxide gabbro have positive Hf isotope compositions (ɛHf = +15.7-+12.4), suggesting a highly depleted mantle beneath the SWIR. The spread ɛHf values (from-2.3 to-4.5) of abnormally old zircons, together with the unradiogenic Nd-Hf isotope of the host quartz diorite, appears to suggest an ancient juvenile magmatism along the rifting margin of the southern Gondwana prior to the opening of the Indian Ocean. A convincing explanation for the origin of the unusually old zircons is yet to surface, however, an update of the theory of plate tectonics would be expected with continuing discovery of ancient rocks in the mid-oceanic ridges and abyssal ocean basins.

  15. Jurassic zircons from the Southwest Indian Ridge. (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Zhou, Huaiyang; Yang, Qunhui; Zhang, Lingmin; Ji, Fuwu; Dick, Henry


    The existence of ancient rocks in present mid-ocean ridges have long been observed but received less attention. Here we report the discovery of zircons with both reasonably young ages of about 5 Ma and abnormally old ages of approximate 180 Ma from two evolved gabbroic rocks that were dredged from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) in the Gallieni fracture zone. U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of zircons were made using ion probe and conventional laser abrasion directly in petrographic thin sections. Young zircons and their host oxide gabbro have positive Hf isotope compositions (εHf = +15.7-+12.4), suggesting a highly depleted mantle beneath the SWIR. The spread εHf values (from-2.3 to-4.5) of abnormally old zircons, together with the unradiogenic Nd-Hf isotope of the host quartz diorite, appears to suggest an ancient juvenile magmatism along the rifting margin of the southern Gondwana prior to the opening of the Indian Ocean. A convincing explanation for the origin of the unusually old zircons is yet to surface, however, an update of the theory of plate tectonics would be expected with continuing discovery of ancient rocks in the mid-oceanic ridges and abyssal ocean basins.

  16. Extinct 244Pu in Ancient Zircons (United States)

    Turner, Grenville; Harrison, T. Mark; Holland, Greg; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Gilmour, Jamie


    We have found evidence, in the form of fissiogenic xenon isotopes, for in situ decay of 244Pu in individual 4.1- to 4.2-billion-year-old zircons from the Jack Hills region of Western Australia. Because of its short half-life, 82 million years, 244Pu was extinct within 600 million years of Earth's formation. Detrital zircons are the only known relics to have survived from this period, and a study of their Pu geochemistry will allow us to date ancient metamorphic events and determine the terrestrial Pu/U ratio for comparison with the solar ratio.

  17. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, Lu-Hf isotopes and REE geochemistry constrains on the provenance and tectonic setting of Indochina Block in the Paleozoic (United States)

    Wang, Ce; Liang, Xinquan; Foster, David A.; Fu, Jiangang; Jiang, Ying; Dong, Chaoge; Zhou, Yun; Wen, Shunv; Van Quynh, Phan


    In situ U-Pb geochronology, Lu-Hf isotopes and REE geochemical analyses of detrital zircons from Cambrian-Devonian sandstones in the Truong Son Belt, central Vietnam, are used to provide the information of provenance and tectonic evolution of the Indochina Block. The combined detrital zircon age spectra of all of the samples ranges from 3699 Ma to 443 Ma and shows with dominant age peaks at ca. 445 Ma and 964 Ma, along with a number of age populations at 618-532 Ma, 1160-1076 Ma, 1454 Ma, 1728 Ma and 2516 Ma. The zircon age populations are similar to those from time equivalent sedimentary sequences in continental blocks disintegrated from the East Gondwana during the Phanerozoic. The younger zircon grains with age peaks at ca. 445 Ma were apparently derived from middle Ordovician-Silurian igneous and metamorphic rocks in Indochina. Zircons with ages older than about 600 Ma were derived from other Gondwana terrains or recycled from the Precambrian basement of the Indochina Block. Similarities in the detrital zircon U-Pb ages suggest that Paleozoic strata in the Indochina, Yangtze, Cathaysia and Tethyan Himalayas has similar provenance. This is consistent with other geological constrains indicating that the Indochina Block was located close to Tethyan Himalaya, northern margin of the India, and northwestern Australia in Gondwana.

  18. Trace Element Zoning and Incipient Metamictization in a Lunar Zircon: Application of Three Microprobe Techniques (United States)

    Wopenka, Brigitte; Jollife, Bradley L.; Zinner, Ernst; Kremser, Daniel T.


    We have determined major (Si, Zr, Hf), minor (Al, Y, Fe, P), and trace element (Ca, Sc, Ti, Ba, REE, Th, U) concentrations and Raman spectra of a zoned, 200 microns zircon grain in lunar sample 14161,7069, a quartz monzodiorite breccia collected at the Apollo 14 site. Analyses were obtained on a thin section in situ with an ion microprobe, an electron microprobe, and a laser Raman microprobe. The zircon grain is optically zoned in birefringence, a reflection of variable (incomplete) metamictization resulting from zo- nation in U and Th concentrations. Variations in the concentrations of U and Th correlate strongly with those of other high-field-strength trace elements and with changes in Raman spectral parameters. Concentrations of U and Th range from 21 to 55 ppm and 6 to 31 ppm, respectively, and correlate with lower Raman peak intensities, wider Raman peaks, and shifted Si-O peak positions. Concentrations of heavy rare earth elements range over a factor of three to four and correlate with intensities of fluorescence peaks. Correlated variations in trace element concentrations reflect the original magmatic differentiation of the parental melt approx. 4 b.y. ago. Degradation of the zircon structure, as reflected by the observed Raman spectral parameters, has occurred in this sample over a range of alpha-decay event dose from approx. 5.2 x 10(exp 14) to 1.4 x 10(exp 15) decay events per milligram of zircon, as calculated from the U and Th concentrations. This dose is well below the approx. 10(exp 16) events per milligram cumulative dose that causes complete metamictization and indicates that laser Raman microprobe spectroscopy is an analytical technique that is very sensitive to the radiation-induced damage in zircon.

  19. Mechanisms and timescales of generating eruptible rhyolitic magmas at Yellowstone caldera from zircon and sanidine geochronology and geochemistry (United States)

    Stelten, Mark; Cooper, Kari M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Glessner, Justin G


    We constrain the physical nature of the magma reservoir and the mechanisms of rhyolite generation at Yellowstone caldera via detailed characterization of zircon and sanidine crystals hosted in three rhyolites erupted during the (ca. 170 – 70 ka) Central Plateau Member eruptive episode – the most recent post-caldera magmatism at Yellowstone. We present 238U-230Th crystallization ages and trace-element compositions of the interiors and surfaces (i.e., unpolished rims) of individual zircon crystals from each rhyolite. We compare these zircon data to 238U- 230Th crystallization ages of bulk sanidine separates coupled with chemical and isotopic data from single sanidine crystals. Zircon age and trace-element data demonstrate that the magma reservoir that sourced the Central Plateau Member rhyolites was long-lived (150 – 250 kyr) and genetically related to the preceding episode of magmatism, which occurred ca. 256 ka. The interiors of most zircons in each rhyolite were inherited from unerupted material related to older stages of Central Plateau Member magmatism or the preceding late Upper Basin Member magmatism (i.e., are antecrysts). Conversely, most zircon surfaces crystallized near the time of eruption from their host liquids (i.e., are autocrystic). The repeated recycling of zircon interiors from older stages of magmatism demonstrates that sequentially erupted Central Plateau Member rhyolites are genetically related. Sanidine separates from each rhyolite yield 238U-230Th crystallization ages at or near the eruption age of their host magmas, coeval with the coexisting zircon surfaces, but are younger than the coexisting zircon interiors. Chemical and isotopic data from single sanidine crystals demonstrate that the sanidines in each rhyolite are in equilibrium with their host melts, which considered along with their near-eruption crystallization ages suggests that nearly all CPM sanidines are autocrystic. The paucity of antecrystic sanidine crystals relative to

  20. Archean Arctic continental crust fingerprints revealing by zircons from Alpha Ridge bottom rocks (United States)

    Sergeev, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shevchenko, Sergey; Presnyakov, Sergey; Antonov, Anton; Belyatsky, Boris


    Whereas thick Cenozoic sedimentary cover overlapping bedrock of the Arctic Ocean, some tectonic windows were sampled by scientific submarine manipulator, as well as by grabbing, dredging and drilling during «Arctic-2012» Russian High-Arctic expedition (21 thousands samples in total, from 400-km profile along Alpha-Mendeleev Ridges). Among others, on the western slope of Alpha Ridge one 10x10 cm fragment without any tracks of glacial transportation of fine-layered migmatitic-gneiss with prominent quartz veinlets was studied. Its mineral (47.5 vol.% plagioclase + 29.6% quartz + 16.6% biotite + 6.1% orthoclase) and chemical composition (SiO2:68.2, Al2O3:14.9, Fe2O3:4.44, TiO2:0.54, MgO:2.03, CaO:3.13, Na2O:3.23, K2O:2.16%) corresponds to trachydacite vulcanite, deformed and metamorphozed under amphibolite facies. Most zircon grains (>80%) from this sample has an concordant U-Pb age 3450 Ma with Th/U 0.8-1.4 and U content of 100-400 ppm, epsilon Hf from -4 up to 0, and ca 20% - ca 3.3 Ga with Th/U 0.7-1.4 and 90-190 ppm U, epsilon Hf -6.5 to -4.5, while only 2% of the grains show Proterozoic age of ca 1.9 Ga (Th/U: 0.02-0.07, U~500 ppm, epsilon Hf about 0). No younger zircons were revealed at all. We suppose that magmatic zircon crystallized as early as 3450 Ma ago during acid volcanism, the second phase zircon crystallization from partial melt (or by volcanics remelting) under amphibolite facies metamorphism was at 3.3 Ga ago with formation of migmatitie gneisses. Last zircon formation from crustal fluids under low-grade metamorphic conditions was 1.9 Ga ago. There are two principal possibilities for the provenance of this metavolcanic rock. The first one - this is ice-rafted debris deposited by melted glacial iceberg. However, presently there are no temporal and compositional analogues of such rocks in basement geology of peri-oceanic regions, including Archean Itsaq Gneiss Complex, Lewisian Complex and Baltic Shield but these regions are far from the places of

  1. Paleoproterozoic mojaveprovince in northwestern Mexico? Isotopic and U-Pb zircon geochronologic studies of precambrian and Cambrian crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Caborca, Sonora (United States)

    Lang, Farmer G.; Bowring, S.A.; Matzel, J.; Maldonado, G.E.; Fedo, C.; Wooden, J.


    Whole-rock Nd isotopic data and U-Pb zircon geochronology from Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Caborca area, northern Sonora, reveal that these rocks are most likely a segment of the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. Supporting this conclusion are the observations that paragneiss from the ??? 1.75 Ga Bamori Complex has a 2.4 Ga Nd model age and contains detrital zircons ranging in age from Paleo- proterozoic (1.75 Ga) to Archean (3.2 Ga). Paragneisses with similar age and isotopic characteristics occur in the Mojave province in southern California. In addition, "A-type" granite exposed at the southern end of Cerro Rajon has ca 2.0 Ga Nd model age and a U-Pb zircon age of 1.71 Ga, which are similar to those of Paleoproterozoic granites in the Mojave province. Unlike the U.S. Mojave province, the Caborcan crust contains ca. 1.1 Ga granite (Aibo Granite), which our new Nd isotopic data suggest is largely the product of anatexis of the local Precambrian basement. Detrital zircons from Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian miogeoclinal arenites at Caborca show dominant populations ca. 1.7 Ga, ca. 1.4 Ga, and ca. 1.1 Ga, with subordinate Early Cambrian and Archean zircons. These zircons were likely derived predominately from North American crust to the east and northeast, and not from the underlying Caborcan basement. The general age and isotopic similarities between Mojave province basement and overlying miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks in Sonora and southern California is necessary, but not sufficient, proof of the hypothesis that Sonoran crust is allochthonous and was transported to its current position during the Mesozoic along the proposed Mojave-Sonora megashear. One viable alternative model is that the Caborcan Precambrian crust is an isolated, autochthonous segment of Mojave province crust that shares a similar, but not identical, Proterozoic geological history with Mojave province crust found in the southwest United States ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  2. Evidence for multi-cycle sedimentation and provenance constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb ages: Triassic strata of the Lusitanian basin (western Iberia) (United States)

    Pereira, M. F.; Gama, C.; Chichorro, M.; Silva, J. B.; Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; Hofmann, M.; Linnemann, U.; Gärtner, A.


    Laser ablation ICP-MS U-Pb analyses were conducted on detrital zircons of Triassic sandstone and conglomerate from the Lusitanian basin in order to: i) document the age spectra of detrital zircon; ii) compare U-Pb detrital zircon ages with previous published data obtained from Upper Carboniferous, Ordovician, Cambrian and Ediacaran sedimentary rocks of the pre-Mesozoic basement of western Iberia; iii) discuss potential sources; and iv) test the hypothesis of sedimentary recycling. U-Pb dating of zircons established a maximum depositional age for this deposit as Permian (ca. 296 Ma), which is about sixty million years older compared to the fossil content recognized in previous studies (Upper Triassic). The distribution of detrital zircon ages obtained points to common source areas: the Ossa-Morena and Central Iberian zones that outcrop in and close to the Porto-Tomar fault zone. The high degree of immaturity and evidence of little transport of the Triassic sediment suggests that granite may constitute primary crystalline sources. The Carboniferous age of ca. 330 Ma for the best estimate of crystallization for a granite pebble in a Triassic conglomerate and the Permian-Carboniferous ages (< ca. 315 Ma) found in detrital zircons provide evidence of the denudation of Variscan and Cimmerian granites during the infilling of continental rift basins in western Iberia. The zircon age spectra found in Triassic strata are also the result of recycling from the Upper Carboniferous Buçaco basin, which probably acted as an intermediate sediment repository. U-Pb data in this study suggest that the detritus from the Triassic sandstone and conglomerate of the Lusitanian basin is derived from local source areas with features typical of Gondwana, with no sediment from external sources from Laurussia or southwestern Iberia.

  3. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of the preeruption growth history of zircons from the 340 ka Whakamaru Ignimbrite, New Zealand: Evidence for >250 k.y. magma residence times (United States)

    Brown, Stuart J. A.; Fletcher, Ian R.


    The Whakamaru group ignimbrites are products of one of the largest caldera-forming eruptions from the central Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, ca. 340 ka. Imaging of zircons separated from low-silica rhyolite pumice from Whakamaru group ignimbrite reveals a complex magmatic crystallization history; some grains contain resorbed cores. Cores and rims of individual zircons were dated using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe. Due to the high U contents of the zircons, 206Pb count rates were sufficiently high to obtain 206Pb/238U ages with precisions of 5% 10% (1 σS) using longer than usual 206Pb+ count times, and this has allowed zircon core and rim ages to be distinguished. Zircon rim and outer growth zone ages range from within 1 σS error of the eruption age to 449 ± 20 ka, whereas zircon cores produced ages to 608 ± 20 ka, indicating magmatic residence times exceeding 250 k.y. for some zircons. The data are consistent with a prolonged evolution of the magma system over hundreds of thousands of years, involving magma replenishment and mixing with residual phases of older silicic magma chambers, in addition to crystal fractionation processes, prior to eruption. The study has shown that 206Pb/238U dating using high-resolution ion microprobe can be used to determine zircon preeruptive growth histories in Quaternary lavas and pyroclastic rocks.

  4. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.


    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  5. The Crystal Structure of Lanthanide Zirconates (United States)

    Clements, Richard; Kennedy, Brendan; Ling, Christopher; Stampfl, Anton P. J.


    The lanthanide zirconates of composition Ln2Zr2O7 (Ln = La-Gd) are of interest for use in inert matrix fuels and nuclear wasteforms. The series undergoes a pyrochlore to fluorite phase transition as a function of the Ln atomic radii. The phase transition has been attributed to disordering of both the cation and the anion [1]. We have undertaken a synthesis of the lanthanide zirconate series Ln2Zr2O7 (Ln = La-Gd), Ln0.2Zr0.8O1.9 (Ln = Tb-Yb) and NdxHo2-xZr2O7 (0ANSTO's new high resolution powder diffractometer Echidna, in order to obtain accurate data on atomic displacement parameters and O 48f position across the series. These results will be presented, along with details of the analysis and synthetic techniques used.

  6. The crystallization age of eucrite zircon. (United States)

    Srinivasan, G; Whitehouse, M J; Weber, I; Yamaguchi, A


    Eucrites are a group of meteorites that represent the first planetary igneous activity following metal-silicate differentiation on an early planetesimal, similar to Asteroid 4 Vesta, and, thus, help date geophysical processes occurring on such bodies in the early solar system. Using the short-lived radionuclide (182)Hf as a relative chronometer, we demonstrate that eucrite zircon crystallized quickly within 6.8 million years of metal-silicate differentiation. This implies that mantle differentiation on the eucrite parent body occurred during a period when internal heat from the decay of (26)Al and (60)Fe was still available. Later metamorphism of eucrites took place at least 8.9 million years after the zircons crystallized and was likely caused by heating from impacts, or by burial under hot material excavated by impacts, rather than from lava flows. Thus, the timing of eucrite formation and of mantle differentiation is constrained.

  7. Thermoluminescence of zircon: a kinetic model

    CERN Document Server

    Turkin, A A; Vainshtein, D I; Hartog, H W D


    The mineral zircon, ZrSiO sub 4 , belongs to a class of promising materials for geochronometry by means of thermoluminescence (TL) dating. The development of a reliable and reproducible method for TL dating with zircon requires detailed knowledge of the processes taking place during exposure to ionizing radiation, long-term storage, annealing at moderate temperatures and heating at a constant rate (TL measurements). To understand these processes one needs a kinetic model of TL. This paper is devoted to the construction of such a model. The goal is to study the qualitative behaviour of the system and to determine the parameters and processes controlling TL phenomena of zircon. The model considers the following processes: (i) Filling of electron and hole traps at the excitation stage as a function of the dose rate and the dose for both (low dose rate) natural and (high dose rate) laboratory irradiation. (ii) Time dependence of TL fading in samples irradiated under laboratory conditions. (iii) Short time anneali...

  8. Micrometer-scale U–Pb age domains in eucrite zircons, impact re-setting, and the thermal history of the HED parent body (United States)

    Hopkins, M.D.; Mojzsis, S.J.; Bottke, W.F.; Abramov, Oleg


    Meteoritic zircons are rare, but some are documented to occur in asteroidal meteorites, including those of the howardite–eucrite–diogenite (HED) achondrite clan (Rubin, A. [1997]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 32, 231–247). The HEDs are widely considered to originate from the Asteroid 4 Vesta. Vesta and the other large main belt asteroids record an early bombardment history. To explore this record, we describe sub-micrometer distributions of trace elements (U, Th) and 235,238U–207,206Pb ages from four zircons (>7–40 μm ∅) separated from bulk samples of the brecciated eucrite Millbillillie. Ultra-high resolution (∼100 nm) ion microprobe depth profiles reveal different zircon age domains correlative to mineral chemistry and to possible impact scenarios. Our new U–Pb zircon geochronology shows that Vesta’s crust solidified within a few million years of Solar System formation (4561 ± 13 Ma), in good agreement with previous work (e.g. Carlson, R.W., Lugmair, G.W. [2000]. Timescales of planetesimal formation and differentiation based on extinct and extant radioisotopes. In: Canup, R., Righter, K. (Eds.), Origin of the Earth and Moon. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 25–44). Younger zircon age domains (ca. 4530 Ma) also record crustal processes, but these are interpreted to be exogenous because they are well after the effective extinction of 26Al (t1/2 = 0.72 Myr). An origin via impact-resetting was evaluated with a suite of analytical impact models. Output shows that if a single impactor was responsible for the ca. 4530 Ma zircon ages, it had to have been ⩾10 km in diameter and at high enough velocity (>5 km s−1) to account for the thermal field required to re-set U–Pb ages. Such an impact would have penetrated at least 10 km into Vesta’s crust. Later events at ca. 4200 Ma are documented in HED apatite 235,238U–207,206Pb ages (Zhou, Q. et al. [2011]. Early basaltic volcanism and Late Heavy Bombardment on Vesta: U–Pb ages of small

  9. Orogenesis and Basin Development: U-Pb Detrital Zircon Age Constraints on Evolution of the Late Paleozoic St. Marys Basin, Central Mainland Nova Scotia. (United States)

    Murphy; Hamilton


    The St. Marys Basin, along the southern flank of the composite Late Paleozoic Magdalen Basin in the Canadian Appalachians and along the Avalon-Meguma terrane boundary, contains Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous continental clastic rocks of the Horton Group that were deposited in fluvial and lacustrine environments after the peak of the Acadian orogeny. SHRIMP II (Geological Survey of Canada) data on approximately 100 detrital zircons from three samples of Horton Group rocks from the St. Marys Basin show that most of the zircons have been involved in a multistage history, recycled from clastic rocks in the adjacent Meguma and Avalonian terranes. Although there is a minor contribution from Early Silurian (411 Ma) and Late Devonian suites (ca. 380-370 Ma), Neoproterozoic (ca. 700-550 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.0-2.2 Ga) zircon populations predominate, with a minor contribution from ca. 1.0-, 1.2-, and 1.8-Ga zircons. Published U-Pb single-zircon analyses on clastic sedimentary rocks indicate that the Meguma and Avalon terranes have different populations of detrital zircons, sourced from discrete portions (Amazonian and West African cratons) of the ancient Gondwanan margin. Both terranes contain Neoproterozoic and Late Archean populations. The SHRIMP data, in conjunction with published sedimentological and geochemical data, indicate that the Horton Group basin-fill sediments are largely the result of rapid uplift and erosion of Meguma terrane metasedimentary and granitoid rocks immediately to the south of the St. Marys Basin during the waning stages of the Acadian orogeny. Regional syntheses indicate that this uplift occurred before and during deposition and was a consequence of dextral ramping of the Meguma terrane over the Avalon terrane along the southern flank of the Magdalen Basin.

  10. Influence of gadolinium concentration on the EMR spectrum of Gd{sup 3+} in zircon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, R.S. de, E-mail: rsbiasi@ime.eb.b [Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Grillo, M.L.N., E-mail: mluciag@uerj.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Electron magnetic resonance (EMR) spectra of gadolinium-doped zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) powders have been studied at room temperature for gadolinium concentrations between 0.20 and 1.0 mol%. The results suggest that Gd{sup 3+} ions occupy substitutional sites in the zircon lattice, that the electron magnetic resonance linewidth increases with increasing gadolinium concentration and that the range of the exchange interaction between Gd{sup 3+} ions is about 1.17 nm, larger than that of the same ion in other host lattices, such as ceria (CeO{sub 2}), strontium oxide (SrO) and calcium oxide (CaO). The fact that the electron magnetic resonance linewidth of the Gd{sup 3+} ion in polycrystalline zircon increases, regularly and predictably, with Gd concentration, shows that the Gd{sup 3+} ion can be used as a probe to study, rapidly and non-destructively, the crystallinity and degradation of ZrSiO{sub 4}.

  11. [The characteristics of microstructure and chemical compositions of K-feldspar, sphene and zircon with zoning structure]. (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hua; Wu, Cai-Lai; Lei, Min; Qin, Hai-Peng; Li, Ming-Ze


    K-feldspar, sphene and zircon in quartz monzonite from Shahewan, south Qinling, showing strong zoning structure. Characteristics of microstructure and chemical compositions of K-feldspar, sphene and zircon with zoning structure were investigated using advanced instruments of electron probe micro analyses equipped with wavelength dispersive spectrometer (EPM-WDS), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and laser ablation--inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Our study suggests that K+ could be substituted by small amounts of Na+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Fe2+ and Ce3+. Ca2+ in sphene could be replaced by V3+, Ce3+, Ba2+ and Ti4+ could be substituted by both Fe2+ and Al3+. Zircon contains trace elements like Fe, Th, U, Nb, Ta, Y, Hf, Yb and Pb. Concentration of Si, Al, K, Ca, Na, Mg and Ba in K-feldspar ranked from high to low, among which the contents of K and Na are negatively correlated, the lighter part of BSE images featuring K-feldspar is attributed to comparably higher Ba content, additionally, Si and K contents are elevated while Na content decreased rimward. Ca, Si, Ti, Ba, V, Ce, Al and Fe concentration listed downward, among which higher iron content corresponds to brighter portion of BSE images. Element concentration of zircon could be ranked from high to low as Zr, Si, Nd, Ce, Hf, U, Pb and Th, in which Hf and Zr exhibit negatively correlated. Zr concentration increased while Hf, U and Th concentration decreased from core to rim.

  12. Effect of chemical doping on the visible emission in Cu ions doped perovskite zirconates (United States)

    Lee, D. J.; Lee, Y. S.


    We investigated the effect of the chemical doping on the visible emission of the Cu-ion-doped perovskite zirconates. We synthesized the Cu-ion-doped Sr1- x Ca x ZrO3 (SCZO:Cu) compounds ( x = 0 - 1), where the structural distortion and the chemical disorder were tuned due to the ionic size difference between Sr2+ and Ca2+. The nominal doping concentration of Cu ion was chosen to be 1%. We found that the visible emission in SCZO:Cu was suppressed dramatically with the substitution of Ca2+ for Sr2+ ( x > 0). The violet emission was more susceptible to the structural distortion than the orange and the green emissions. These experimental findings were discussed in relation to the electronic properties of SCZO:Cu.

  13. Significance of detrital zircons in upper Devonian ocean-basin strata of the Sonora allochthon and Lower Permian synorogenic strata of the Mina Mexico foredeep, central Sonora, Mexico (United States)

    Poole, F.G.; Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.


    U-Pb isotopic dating of detrital zircons from a conglomeratic barite sandstone in the Sonora allochthon and a calciclastic sandstone in the Mina Mexico foredeep of the Minas de Barita area reveals two main age groups in the Upper Devonian part of the Los Pozos Formation, 1.73-1.65 Ga and 1.44-1.42 Ga; and three main age groups in the Lower Permian part of the Mina Mexico Formation, 1.93-1.91 Ga, 1.45-1.42 Ga, and 1.1-1.0 Ga. Small numbers of zircons with ages of 2.72-2.65 Ga, 1.30-1.24 Ga, ca. 2.46 Ga, ca. 1.83 Ga, and ca. 0.53 Ga are also present in the Los Pozos sandstone. Detrital zircons ranging in age from 1.73 to 1.65 Ga are considered to have been derived from the Yavapai, Mojave, and Mazatzal Provinces and their transition zones of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. The 1.45-1.30 Ga detrital zircons were probably derived from scattered granite bodies within the Mojave and Mazatzal basement rocks in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, and possibly from the Southern and Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Provinces of the southern United States. The 1.24-1.0 Ga detrital zircons are believed to have been derived from the Grenville (Llano) Province to the east and northeast or from Grenvilleage intrusions or anatectites to the north. Several detrital zircon ages ranging from 2.72 to 1.91 Ga were probably derived originally from the Archean Wyoming Province and Early Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Lake Superior region. These older detrital zircons most likely have been recycled one or more times into the Paleozoic sandstones of central Sonora. The 0.53 Ga zircon is believed to have been derived from a Lower Cambrian granitoid or meta-morphic rock northeast of central Sonora, possibly in New Mexico and Colorado, or Oklahoma. Detrital zircon geochronology suggests that most of the detritus in both samples was derived from Laurentia to the north, whereas some detritus in the Permian synorogenic foredeep sequence was derived from the

  14. New age (ca. 2970 Ma), mantle source composition and geodynamic constraints on the Archean Fiskenæsset anorthosite complex, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A; Frei, Robert; Scherstén, Anders


    and recrystallization taking place between ca. 3200 and 2650 Ma. Zircon ages peak at about 3200, 3100, 3000, 2950, 2820, and 2750 Ma. The 3200–3000 Ma zircon cores are interpreted as inherited xenocrysts from older reworked crustal rocks. 2950 Ma is considered as an approximate intrusion age of sampled TTGs. The 2940...

  15. Phase relations and conductivity of Sr-zirconates and La-zirconates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, F.W.; Vanderpuil, N.


    The formation of the strontium zirconates SrZrO3, Sr4Zr3O10, Sr3Zr2O7 and Sr2ZrO4, and of the lanthanum zirconates La2Zr2O7 and La2-xYZr2O7 at 1450-degrees-C was investigated by x-ray powder diffraction and DTA. Three different routes of synthesis were tested. In the Sr-zirconate system, single...... phase orthorhombic SrZrO3 and somewhat impure, tetragonal Sr2ZrO4 were observed, whereas the formation of ordered Ruddlesden-Popper phases, SrnZrn-1O3n-2, where n = 4 and 3, could not be verified. The conductivity of La2Zr2O7 was 3.7 X 10(-6) S/cm at 750-degrees-C and 3.8 x 10(-5) S/cm at 1000-degrees......-C. The conductivity of the Sr-zirconates increases with increasing Sr/Zr ratio. Samples with a nominal composition corresponding to Sr2ZrO4 have a conductivity of 7.5 x 10(-5) and 5.9 x 10(-4) S/cm at 750 and 1000-degrees-C, respectively. For all samples one observes low activation energies for ionic conduction (0...

  16. Natural radioactivity and radon specific exhalation rate of zircon sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righi, S.; Verita, S.; Bruzzi, L. [Bologna Univ., Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali and Dipt. di Fisica, Ravenna (Italy); Albertazzi, A. [Italian Ceramic Center, Bologna (Italy)


    The study focuses on the radon emanation from zircon sands and their derivatives, which are widely used in many sectors of industry. In particular, the results obtained by experimental measurements on samples of zircon sands and zircon flours commonly used in Italian ceramic industries are reported. Zircon sands contain a significant concentration of natural radioactivity because Th and U may substitute zirconium in the zircon crystal lattice. The relevant routes of exposure of workers to T.E.N.O.R.M. from zircon materials are external radiation and internal exposure, either by inhalation of aerosols in dusty working conditions or by inhalation of radon in workplaces. The main objective of this investigation is to provide experimental data able to better calculate the internal exposure of workers due to radon inhalation. Zircon samples were surveyed for natural radioactivity, radon specific exhalation rate and emanation fraction. Measurements of radioactivity concentration were carried out using {gamma}-spectrometry. Methods used for determining radon consisted in determining the {sup 222}Rn activity accumulated in a vessel after a given accumulation build-up time. The average activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in samples result about 2600 and 550 Bq kg-1, respectively; these concentrations are significantly higher than the world average noticed in soils, rocks and Earth crust. The {sup 222}Rn specific exhalation rates result very low probably due to the low porosity of the material and the consequent difficulty for radon to be released from the zircon crystal lattice. (author)

  17. Timing of metasomatism in a subcontinental mantle: evidence from zircon at Finero (Italy) (United States)

    Badanina, I. Yu.; Malitch, K. N.


    The Finero phlogopite-peridotite represents a metasomatized residual mantle harzburgite, exposed at the base of the lower-crust section in the Ivrea Zone, Western Alps (Hartmann and Wedepohl 1993). It forms the core of a concentrically zoned sequence of internal layered gabbro, amphibole-rich peridotite and external gabbro. The phlogopite peridotite contains small-size chromitite bodies, with a suite of accessory minerals such as phlogopite, apatite, Ca-Mg carbonates, zirconolite, zircon, thorianite and uraninite, proposed to form during alkaline-carbonatitic metasomatism process within the mantle (Zaccarini et al. 2004). In this study, the combined application of a non-destructive technique to separate zircon from their host rocks (see details at and in-situ analytical technique for compositional and isotopic analysis (SHRIMP-II at Russian Geological Research Institute, St. Petersburg) has provided new more detailed age constraints on the formation of chromitite and related metasomatic events within a mantle tectonite at Finero. Chromitite samples derived from the dump in the prospecting trenches of Rio Creves. In thin sections, zircon occurs as relatively large (up to 200 μm) grains characterized by subhedral to euhedral shapes. Separated grains of zircon form two distinct populations. Dominant zircon population is pale pink and characterized by different shapes (subhedral, subrounded or elongated). In cathodoluminescense, the main set of population is represented by complex grains, which show development of core-rim relationship (most likely recrystallized rim on a preserved core). Subordinate zircon grains are colourless. They are characterized by a smoky cathodoluminescense, with almost no internal pattern. Three main U-Pb age clusters have been recognized. The youngest age cluster, typical for subordinate colourless zircon population and rims in complex grains of dominant pale pink population, show two concordant 206Pb/238U ages (e

  18. Selection of Raw Materials for the Reactive Sinterling of Zircon Porous Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENYi; ZHANGWenli; 等


    The effect of three kinds of zircon raw materials on the sinterability and properties of porous zircon ceramics have been investigated.The results have shown that all the tested fired compacts are of high porosity,However,the sintering process are different for different raw materials.The preferable selected raw materials for porous zircon ceramics were commercials zircon and quartz.

  19. Interaction of rhyolite melts with monazite, xenotime, and zircon surfaces (United States)

    Rustad, James R.


    The interfacial contact region between a rhyolite melt and the accessory minerals monazite, xenotime, and zircon is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. On all surfaces, major structural rearrangement extends about 1 nm into the melt from the interface. As evidenced by the structural perturbations in the ion distribution profiles, the affinity of the melt for the surface increases in going from monazite to xenotime to zircon. Alkali ions are enriched in the melt in contact with an inert wall, as well as at the mineral surfaces. Melt in contact with zircon has a particularly strong level of aluminum enrichment. In xenotime, the enrichment of aluminum is less than that in zircon, but still notable. In monazite, the aluminum enrichment in the contact layer is much less. It is expected that the relative surface energies of these accessory minerals will be a strong function of the aluminum content of the melt and that nucleation of zircon, in particular, would be easier for melts with higher aluminum concentration. The crystal growth rate for zircon is expected to be slower at a higher aluminum concentration because of the effectiveness of aluminum in solvating the zircon surface. The variable interfacial concentration profiles across the series of accessory minerals will likely affect the kinetics of trace element incorporation, as the trace elements must compete with the major elements for surface sites on the growing accessory minerals.

  20. Cast aluminum alloys containing dispersions of zircon particles (United States)

    Banerji, A.; Surappa, M. K.; Rohatgi, P. K.


    A process for preparing Al-alloy castings containing dispersions of zircon particles is described. Composites were prepared by stirring zircon particles (40 to 200 µm size) in commercially pure Al (99.5 pct)* and Al-11.8 pct Si melts and subsequently casting these melts in permanent molds. It was found to be necessary to alloy the above two melts with 3 pct Mg to disperse substantial amounts of zircon particles (25 to 30 pct). Further, it was possible to disperse up to 60 wt pct zircon by adding up to 5 pct Mg; however, the melts containing above 30 wt pct zircon showed insufficient fluidity for gravity diecasting and had to be pressure diecast. Microstructural studies of cast composites indicated the presence of a reaction zone at the periphery of zircon particles, and electron probe microanalysis showed concentrations of Mg and Si at the particle-matrix interface. Hardness, abrasive wear resistance, elastic modulus, 0.2 pct proof stress, and tensile strength of cast Al-3 pct Mg alloy were found to improve with the dispersions of zircon particles. Scanning electron micrographs of abraded and fractured surfaces did not show any evidence of particle pull-outs or voids at the particle matrix interface, indicating strong continuous bonding.

  1. Dating sub-20 micron zircons in granulite-facies mafic dikes from SW Montana: a new approach using automated mineralogy and SIMS U-Pb geochronology (United States)

    Ault, A. K.; Mahan, K. H.; Flowers, R. M.; Chamberlain, K.; Appleby, S. K.; Schmitt, A. K.


    Geochronological data is fundamental to all tectonic studies, but a major limitation for many lithologies is a paucity of sizeable zircons suitable for conventional U-Pb techniques. In particular, mafic dike swarms provide important time markers for tectonometamorphic activity in Precambrian terranes, but commonly yield little or no zircon or baddeleyite sufficient for TIMS or standard ion-probe analysis of crystal separates. We apply a new approach involving in-situ automated mineralogy and high spatial resolution Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) geochronology to a mafic dike swarm exposed in the Northern Madison Range of SW Montana. The dikes cross-cut early fabrics but are also variably deformed and metamorphosed to P-T conditions as high as 1.2 GPa and 850 C. The swarm emplacement age is inferred to be ca. 2.1 Ga based on similarities to dated dikes in the adjacent Tobacco Root Mountains. Resolving the timing of dike emplacement and high-grade metamorphism in the study area is important for understanding the extent of post-Archean modification to the northwest margin of the Wyoming craton. Identification and textural characterization of zircons were facilitated by in-situ automated mineralogical analysis, in contrast to a standard elemental X-ray mapping approach. Our technique uses an SEM-based platform coupling calibrated BSE data with X-ray data collected by multiple energy dispersive spectrometers to rapidly identify target accessory phases at high spatial resolution. Whole thin section search maps were generated in ~30 minutes at 4 µm pixel resolution. Our dike thin sections commonly contained >300 zircons in a variety of textural settings, with 80% having a short dimension 95% for 206Pb. SIMS data for 22 zircons from a granulite-facies mafic dike thin section define a chord with upper and lower intercepts of 1753.1 ± 9.5 Ma and 63.2 ± 7.9 Ma, respectively (2 sigma error, MSWD = 1.6). A positive correlation between U concentration and degree of

  2. Cambrian Kherlen ophiolite in northeastern Mongolia and its tectonic implications: SHRIMP zircon dating and geochemical constraints (United States)

    Miao, Laicheng; Baatar, Munkhtsengel; Zhang, Fochin; Anaad, Chimedtseren; Zhu, Mingshuai; Yang, Shunhu


    The Kherlen terrane, which contains the Kherlen ophiolitic complex, is located between two Precambrian continental blocks in the northeastern Mongolia. We present new geochemical and SHRIMP zircon U-Pb data for the Kherlen ophiolitic complex and for granitic plutons intruding the complex, providing constraints on the regional evolution in Early Paleozoic time. The Kherlen ophiolite, which is geochemically similar to SSZ-type ophiolites, was originated from two distinct mantle sources, a N-MORB-like source and an E-MORB-like source. A gabbro and a plagiogranite dike intruding the gabbro from the Kherlen ophiolite yielded similar SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 500 Ma, suggesting that the ophiolite formed in Late Cambrian time. Post- or syn-collisional granites intruding the ophiolitic complex yielded crystallization ages of ca. 440 Ma, which is interpreted to record the minimum age of the tectonic emplacement of the ophiolite. These new data demonstrate that the Kherlen ophiolite belt is an Early Paleozoic suture between the Ereendavaa and the Idermeg continental terranes, which is generally coeval with the Bayankhongor belt in central Mongolia, indicating that they are regionally correlated, and thus they define a major Early Paleozoic suture between two Precambrian continental blocks in the central-northeastern Mongolia.

  3. Detrital Zircon of 4100 Ma in Quartzite in Burang, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUO Ji; WEN Chunqi; FAN Xiaoping; GUO Jianci; NI Zhiyao; LI Xiaowen; SHI Yuruo; WEN Quan


    A detrital zircon aged 4.1 Ga is discovered by the SHRIMP U-Pb method in a quartzite in Burang County, western Tibet. This is presently the oldest single-grain detrital zircon in China. The Th-U ratios of the two testing points of the >4.0 Ga zircon are between 0.76 and 0.86, indicating their magmatic origin. This discovery has offered an important age for investigating the geological evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  4. A Raman spectroscopic study of zircons on micro-scale and Its significance in explaining the origin of zircons

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Xuezhao; Lu, Songnian


    The magmatic and metamorphic zircons were investigated with Raman spectrum microprobe analysis. We found notable differences between these two kinds of zircons exhibited by the variation trend of Raman peak intensity from core to rim of a crystal. In magmatic zircons, the intensity and the ratio H/W of Raman spectrum peaks gradually decrease from core to rim of a crystal, which is produced by an increase in metamictization degree and suggests an increase in U and Th concentrations from core to rim. In metamorphic zircons, there are two kinds of crystals according to their Raman spectra: the first group of zircons exhibits a variation trend opposite to those of magmatic zircons, tending to increase in the Raman peak intensity and H/W value from core to rim of a crystal, which is produced by a decrease in metamictization degree and indicates a decrease of U and Th concentrations from core to rim of a crystal. The second group of zircons exhibits no change in Raman peak intensity and H/W value through a crystal....

  5. Thermal expansion in lead zirconate titanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The volume anomalies with temperature variations in tin-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics are investigated. Experimental results show that the volume changes are related to the phase transitions induced with temperature. The magnitude and orientation of crystal volume changes are dependent on the particular phase transition. When antiferroelectrics is transformed to ferroelectrics or paraelectrics the volume expands. Oppositely when ferroelectrics is transformed to antiferroelectrics or paraelectrics the volume contracts. In the transition of antiferroelectric orthorhombic structure to tetragonal structure or ferroelectric low-temperature rhombohedral structure to high-tem- perature rhombohedral structure, there are also revealed apparent anomalies in the curves of thermal expansion. Among them, the volume strain caused by the transition between antiferroelectrics and ferroelectrics is the biggest in magnitude, and the linear expansion dL/L0 and the expansion coefficient (dL/L0)/dT can reach 2.810?3 and 7.5 × 10?4 K?1 respectively.

  6. Sol-gel synthesis of macroporous barium zirconate monoliths from ionic precursors via a phase separation route (United States)

    Guo, Xingzhong; Wang, Zichen; Song, Jie; Yang, Hui


    Monolithic macroporous barium zirconate derived from ionic precursors has been successfully prepared via a phase separation route in the presence of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and propyleneoxide (PO). Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) acts as a phase separation inducer, while propyleneoxide (PO) acts as a gelation accelerant in the sol-gel process. Appropriate choice of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and propyleneoxide (PO) allows the production of continuous macroporous monolithic gel with a porosity of ca. 63% and a macropore size of 1.8 μm. Some BaCl2 recrystallizes in the dried gel, and subsequently tetragonal ZrO2 phase precipitates after heat-treated at 800 °C. The crystalline phase barium zirconate forms after heat treatment at 1100 °C in air, while the macroporous structure is preserved with a slight increase of porosity and a decrease of macropore size.

  7. Matrix cracking and creep behavior of monolithic zircon and zircon silicon carbide fiber composites (United States)

    Anandakumar, Umashankar

    In this study, the first matrix cracking behavior and creep behavior of zircon matrix silicon carbide fiber composites were studied, together with the fracture and creep behavior of the monolithic zircon. These behaviors are of engineering and scientific importance, and the study was aimed at understanding the deformation mechanisms at elevated temperatures. The first matrix cracking behavior of zircon matrix uniaxially reinforced with silicon carbide fiber (SCS-6) composites and failure behavior of monolithic zircon were studied as a function of temperature (25°C, 500°C, and 1200°C) and crack length in three point bending mode. A modified vicker's indentation technique was used to vary the initial crack length in monolithic and composite samples. The interfacial shear strength was measured at these temperatures from matrix crack saturation spacing. The composites exhibited steady state and non steady state behaviors at the three different temperatures as predicted by theoretical models, while the failure stress of zircon decreased with increasing stress. The intrinsic properties of the composites were used to numerically determine the results predicted by three different matrix cracking models based on a fracture mechanics approach. The analysis showed that the model based on crack bridging analysis was valid at 25°C and 500°C, while a model based on statistical fiber failure was valid at 1200°C. Microstructural studies showed that fiber failure in the crack wake occurred at or below the matrix cracking stress at 1200°C, and no fiber failure occurred at the other two temperatures, which validated the results predicted by the theoretical models. Also, it was shown that the interfacial shear stress corresponding to debonding determined the matrix cracking stress, and not the frictional shear stress. This study showed for the first time, the steady state and non-steady state matrix cracking behavior at elevated temperatures, the difference in behavior between

  8. Extrusion and properties of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, S.; Millar, C.E.; Pedersen, L.


    The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates was investi......The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates...

  9. Magmatic and metasomatic imprints in a long-lasting subduction zone: Evidence from zircon in rodingite and serpentinite of Kochi, SW Japan (United States)

    Hu, Chao-Nan; Santosh, M.; Yang, Qiong-Yan; Kim, S. W.; Nakagawa, M.; Maruyama, S.


    Southwest Japan, as an active convergent margin, is one of the world's natural laboratories to investigate magmatic and metasomatic processes associated with a long-lived subduction zone. Rocks that carry the imprints of mantle metasomatism in this region include serpentinite, jadeitite, omphacitite, albitite, and rodingite. Here we investigate rodingites, serpentinites and pyroxenites from the accretionary complex of Kochi in the Shikoku island from within the Kurosegawa serpentinite mélange. We present petrology, zircon U-Pb geochronology, rare earth element (REE) geochemistry and Lu-Hf isotope data which indicate multiple pulses of magmatism and metasomatism. The zircon grains in these rocks yield major age peaks at 485 Ma and 469 Ma, marking the timing of formation of the protoliths. The wide range of minor age peaks including those at 152 Ma and 104 Ma suggest continuous fluid- and melt-induced mantle metasomatism in an active subduction zone from Cambrian to Paleogene associated with subduction of the Pacific plate. Our data suggest that the serpentinite-rodingite association might belong to various stages of subduction with the 450 Ma marking the initial phase. This is also close to the serpentinite zircon age of ca. 490 Ma. The REE patterns of zircons in all the rocks analyzed in this study show a distinct negative Eu-anomaly, particularly in the case of hydrothermal zircons. However, few zircons show only a slight negative Eu-anomaly suggesting that they might have crystallised from melts with high H2O content generated by partial melting of mantle wedge during the interaction of fluids released by the downgoing slab and the overlying sediments. Although the εHf(t) values of zircons in our samples show wide variation from - 9 to 18, most zircon grains that are younger than 485 Ma are typically characterised by positive εHf(t) values (ranging from 2 to18). This feature indicates that the zircon grains crystallised during serpentinisation and

  10. Deformation Behavior across the Zircon-Scheelite Phase Transition. (United States)

    Yue, Binbin; Hong, Fang; Merkel, Sébastien; Tan, Dayong; Yan, Jinyuan; Chen, Bin; Mao, Ho-Kwang


    The pressure effects on plastic deformation and phase transformation mechanisms of materials are of great importance to both Earth science and technological applications. Zircon-type materials are abundant in both nature and the industrial field; however, there is still no in situ study of their deformation behavior. Here, by employing radial x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell, we investigate the dislocation-induced texture evolution of zircon-type gadolinium vanadate (GdVO_{4}) in situ under pressure and across its phase transitions to its high-pressure polymorphs. Zircon-type GdVO_{4} develops a (001) compression texture associated with dominant slip along ⟨100⟩{001} starting from 5 GPa. This (001) texture transforms into a (110) texture during the zircon-scheelite phase transition. Our observation demonstrates a martensitic mechanism for the zircon-scheelite transformation. This work will help us understand the local deformation history in the upper mantle and transition zone and provides fundamental guidance on material design and processing for zircon-type materials.

  11. Spectroscopic determination of optimal hydration time of zircon surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia R, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios del Posgrado, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia G, N., E-mail: eduardo.ordonez@inin.gob.m [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Av. Colon y Av. Tollocan, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops and electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and rea liable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3} in the bulk of zircon. The Dy{sup 3+} is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy{sup 3+} has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 minutes from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16 h optimal hydration time. (Author)

  12. Deformation Behavior across the Zircon-Scheelite Phase Transition (United States)

    Yue, Binbin; Hong, Fang; Merkel, Sébastien; Tan, Dayong; Yan, Jinyuan; Chen, Bin; Mao, Ho-Kwang


    The pressure effects on plastic deformation and phase transformation mechanisms of materials are of great importance to both Earth science and technological applications. Zircon-type materials are abundant in both nature and the industrial field; however, there is still no in situ study of their deformation behavior. Here, by employing radial x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell, we investigate the dislocation-induced texture evolution of zircon-type gadolinium vanadate (GdVO4 ) in situ under pressure and across its phase transitions to its high-pressure polymorphs. Zircon-type GdVO4 develops a (001) compression texture associated with dominant slip along ⟨100 ⟩{001 } starting from 5 GPa. This (001) texture transforms into a (110) texture during the zircon-scheelite phase transition. Our observation demonstrates a martensitic mechanism for the zircon-scheelite transformation. This work will help us understand the local deformation history in the upper mantle and transition zone and provides fundamental guidance on material design and processing for zircon-type materials.

  13. Creation of a continent recorded in zircon zoning (United States)

    Moser, D.E.; Bowman, J.R.; Wooden, J.; Valley, J.W.; Mazdab, F.; Kita, N.


    We have discovered a robust microcrystalline record of the early genesis of North American lithosphere preserved in the U-Pb age and oxygen isotope zoning of zircons from a lower crustal paragneiss in the Neoarchean Superior province. Detrital igneous zircon cores with ??18O values of 5.1???-7.1??? record creation of primitive to increasingly evolved crust from 2.85 ?? 0.02 Ga to 2.67 ?? 0.02 Ga. Sharp chemical unconformity between cores and higher ??18O (8.4???-10.4???) metamorphic overgrowths as old as 2.66 ?? 0.01 Ga dictates a rapid sequence of arc unroofing, burial of detrital zircons in hydrosphere-altered sediment, and transport to lower crust late in upper plate assembly. The period to 2.58 ?? 0.01 Ga included ???80 m.y. of high-temperature (???700-650 ??C), nearly continuous overgrowth events reflecting stages in maturation of the subjacent mantle root. Huronian continental rifting is recorded by the youngest zircon tip growth at 2512 ?? 8 Ma (??? 600 ??C) signaling magma intraplating and the onset of rigid plate behavior. This >150 m.y. microscopic isotope record in single crystals demonstrates the sluggish volume diffusion of U, Pb, and O in zircon throughout protracted regional metamorphism, and the consequent advances now possible in reconstructing planetary dynamics with zircon zoning. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  14. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.


    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous

  15. Brittle-ductile deformation effects on zircon crystal-chemistry and U-Pb ages: an example from the Finero Mafic Complex (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, western Alps) (United States)

    Langone, Antonio; José Alberto, Padrón-Navarta; Zanetti, Alberto; Mazzucchelli, Maurizio; Tiepolo, Massimo; Giovanardi, Tommaso; Bonazzi, Mattia


    A detailed structural, geochemical and geochronological survey was performed on zircon grains from a leucocratic dioritic dyke discordantly intruded within meta-diorites/gabbros forming the External Gabbro unit of the Finero Mafic Complex. This latter is nowadays exposed as part of a near complete crustal section spanning from mantle rocks to upper crustal metasediments (Val Cannobina, Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Italy). The leucocratic dyke consists mainly of plagioclase (An18-24Ab79-82Or0.3-0.7) with subordinate amounts of biotite, spinel, zircon and corundum. Both the leucocratic dyke and the surrounding meta-diorites show evidence of ductile deformation occurred under amphibolite-facies conditions. Zircon grains (up to 2 mm in length) occur mainly as euhedral grains surrounded by fine grained plagioclase-dominated matrix and pressure shadows, typically filled by oxides. Fractures and cracks within zircon are common and can be associated with grain displacement or they can be filled by secondary minerals (oxides and chlorite). Cathodoluminescence (CL) images show that zircon grains have internal features typical of magmatic growth, but with local disturbances. However EBSD maps on two selected zircon grains revealed a profuse mosaic texture resulting in an internal misorientation of ca. 10o. The majority of the domains of the mosaic texture are related to parting and fractures, but some domains show no clear relation with brittle features. Rotation angles related to the mosaic texture are not crystallographically controlled. In addition, one of the analysed zircons shows clear evidence of plastic deformation at one of its corners due to indentation. Plastic deformation results in gradual misorientations of up to 12o, which are crystallographically controlled. Trace elements and U-Pb analyses were carried out by LA-ICP-MS directly on petrographic thin sections and designed to cover the entire exposed surface of selected grains. Such investigations revealed a strong

  16. Thermobarometric data from a fossil zircon partial annealing zone in high pressure low temperature rocks of eastern and central Crete, Greece (United States)

    Brix, Manfred R.; Stöckhert, Bernhard; Seidel, Eberhard; Theye, Thomas; Thomson, Stuart N.; Küster, Martina


    A fossil partial annealing zone of fission tracks in zircon is described from high pressure-low temperature (HP-LT) rocks of the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit (PQ) on the island of Crete, Greece. Correlation of regional trends in fission track age populations with independent thermobarometric and microstructural data, and with new experimental annealing results, allows a calibration of this low temperature thermochronological method to a degree hitherto not available from other field examples. The zircon fission track (FT) ages of samples from the PQ across Crete range from original detrital signature through reduced to completely reset. The annealing is the result of a single heating period related to the HP-LT metamorphism with near-peak temperatures lasting for only a few million years some time between 24±1 and 20±1 Ma. In eastern Crete, where rocks have experienced temperatures of 300±50 °C and pressures of 0.8±0.3 GPa, zircon FT ages range from 414±24 to 145±10 Ma. Ages above 300 Ma occur mostly near the east coast of the island in rocks which have not been heated to above ca. 280 °C and probably represent a pre-Variscan source. Track lengths are already indicative of a substantial annealing at this temperature. Most of the zircon FT ages from eastern Crete scatter within error around the stratigraphic age. Samples with apparent zircon FT ages significantly younger than the depositional age are only observed in areas where temperatures exceeded ca. 320 °C. Towards the west, a sudden decrease to very young ages ranging from 17±2 to 18±1 Ma reflects a complete resetting at ca. 350 °C. Short tracks, however, are still observed. Throughout the central and western part of the island, ages are consistently below 22 Ma. Thermobarometric data for this area indicate maximum temperatures of 400±50 °C and pressures of 1±0.3 GPa. Only samples from western Crete, which have been exposed to 400±50 °C, show exclusively long tracks. Consequently, the high

  17. Detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data from the Liuling Group in the South Qinling belt: Provenance and tectonic implications (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-ying; Wang, Ya-wei; Liu, Liang; Wang, Chao; Santosh, M.


    The Liuling Group is exposed in the Northern part of the South Qinling orogenic belt. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons from the meta-sandstones in this Group yields ages ranging between 400 Ma and 3200 Ma, with three prominent age clusters at 500-400 Ma, 850-700 Ma and 1000-900 Ma. A few older zircon populations with U-Pb ages of 1750-1450 Ma, 2000 Ma and 2600-2400 Ma are also present. Age data integrated with cathodoluminescence, trace element data and εHf(t) values of zircon grains show that the Liuling sediments have a complex source. Source rocks mainly include Early Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic granitoids, together with minor ultra-high pressure/high pressure (HP-UHP) metamorphic rocks, and paragneiss in the North Qinling belt, and Middle-Late Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks in the South Qinling belt. The dominant population of detrital zircon grains with ages between 500 Ma and 400 Ma show the characteristics of both magmatic and metamorphic zircons. They show three age clusters at 497 Ma, 451 Ma, and ca. 420 Ma and show marked correlation with the three stages of Palaeozoic magmatism, as well as with the peak and retrograde HP-UHP metamorphic stages in the North Qinling belt. This correlation demonstrates that these Early Palaeozoic granitoids and HP-UHP metamorphic rocks in the North Qinling belt were already exhumed to the surface, underwent erosion prior to Middle Devonian time and were then deposited in an extensional basin. Based on the results from detrital zircon U-Pb dating, combined with geochemical data and the regional geology, the deposition of Liuling sediments is inferred to have occurred in a post-orogenic extensional basin, rather than a subduction-related fore-arc basin or a foreland basin formed during or after continental collision.

  18. «Granulite» zircons of the Lapland granulite belt (United States)

    Kaulina, T.


    An age of the main stage of granulite metamorphism, which followed the overthrusting of the Lapland granulite belt (LGB) is estimated at about 1.91-1.95 Ga (Tugarinov, Bibikova, 1980; Bernard-Griffiths et al., 1984; Bibikova et al., 1993; Mitrofanov et al., 1993). This high-grade metamorphism is dated by U-Pb method on short prismatic gem-quality zircons that are typical for granulites and are interpreted as formed under stress and space-shortage conditions of the high pressure. And the common belief is that these zircon ages are dating the peak conditions of a metamorphic P-T path, since zircon has a high closure temperature of its U-Pb system. We studied rocks with different degree of metamorphism from Yavr and Pados rivers district (Kola Peninsula, Russia) located in the connection zone of the Tanaelv belt and LGB. Samples from the Tanaelv belt were taken from: 1) leucocratic garnet-clinopyroxene-amphibole plagiogneiss, chemically corresponds to andesite and formed under amphibolite facies 2) leucocratic biotite-pyroxene plagiogneiss with mineral association of granulite facies. Lapland granulites are represented by sillimanite-garnet-biotite gneiss from khondalite complex and leuco-mesocratic amphibole-pyroxene-plagioschist, belonging to the charnockite complex. Metamorphic zircons in all studied samples are represented practically by crystals of the same image. These are round or isometric (rarely subidiomorphic-prismatic in mafic granulites) large crystals with bright luster and high transparency. They are colorless or weakly colored into yellowish-pinkish tones. Crystals are zoneless but may contain cores, especially zircons from khondalite, 60% of which contain zoned cores. Thus typically “granulitic” zircon, described in many works, is the dominant type both in granulites of the Lapland belt and in amphiboles gneisses of the Tanaelv belt. Zircons are distinguished by low U contents (up to 100 ppm) and high Th/U and Zr/Hf ratios (0.6-0.7 and 42

  19. Electron Microprobe Analysis of Hf in Zircon: Suggestions for Improved Accuracy of a Difficult Measurement (United States)

    Fournelle, J.; Hanchar, J. M.


    La with the accelerating voltage under 18 keV (e.g. 17 keV is optimal), and also with synthetic stoichiometric hafnon as the standard. We have developed useful standards that are to be distributed to the community for those researchers working on this problem and can be obtained from the second author at The standards include synthetic stoichiometric undoped zircon and hafnon, and synthetic zircon doped with 2 wt. % Hf. Donovan et al. (2002) Probe for Windows: User's Guide and Reference Wiedenbeck, M., et al. (2004) Further characterisation of the 91500 zircon crystal. Geostandards and Geoanatytical Research, 28: 9-39.

  20. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb isotopic systematics of zircon from the Angel Lake orthogneiss, East Humboldt Range, Nevada: Is this really archean crust? (United States)

    Premo, Wayne R.; Castineiras, Pedro; Wooden, Joseph L.


    New SHRIMP-RG (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry) data confirm the existence of Archean components within zircon grains of a sample from the orthogneiss of Angel Lake, Nevada, United States, previously interpreted as a nappe of Archean crust. However, the combined evidence strongly suggests that this orthogneiss is a highly deformed, Late Cretaceous monzogranite derived from melting of a sedimentary source dominated by Archean detritus. Zircon grains from the same sample used previously for isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) isotopic work were analyzed using the SHRIMP-RG to better define the age and origin of the orthogneiss. Prior to analysis, imaging revealed a morphological variability and intragrain, polyphase nature of the zircon population. The SHRIMP-RG yielded 207Pb/206Pb ages between ca. 2430 and 2580 Ma (a best-fit mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2531 ± 19 Ma; 95% confidence) from mostly rounded to subrounded zircons and zircon components (cores). In addition, several analyses from rounded to subrounded cores or grains yielded discordant 207Pb/206Pb ages between ca. 1460 and ca. 2170 Ma, consistent with known regional magmatic events. All cores of Proterozoic to latest Archean age were encased within clear, typically low Th/U (206Pb/238U ages between 72 and 91 Ma, consistent with magmatic ages from Lamoille Canyon to the south. An age of ca. 90 Ma is suggested, the younger 206Pb/238U ages resulting from Pb loss. The Cretaceous and Precambrian zircon components also have distinct trace element characteristics, indicating that these age groups are not related to the same igneous source. These results support recent geophysical interpretations and negate the contention that the Archean-Proterozoic boundary extends into the central Great Basin area. They further suggest that the world-class gold deposits along the Carlin Trend are not underlain by Archean cratonal crust, but rather by the Proterozoic Mojave

  1. Provenance shift in Cambrian mid-Baltica: detrital zircon chronology of Ediacaran–Cambrian sandstones in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Isozaki


    Full Text Available In order to clarify the tectono-sedimentary history of Paleozoic Baltica, age spectra of detrital zircon grains from the Ediacaran (Kotlin Regional Stage and Lower Cambrian sandstones (lowermost Lontova and Lükati formations in western Estonia in central Baltica were analyzed by LA-ICPMS. The abundant occurrence of Archean to Mesoproterozoic (2800–1000 Ma zircon grains was confirmed in all samples. The new data provided the following information on the provenance of siliciclastic material as well as a major change in the sedimentary regime of the Paleo-Baltic basin during the Early Cambrian: (1 the Ediacaran–Lower Cambrian Paleo-Baltic basin received abundant terrigenous clastics from the core of Baltica underlain by the Archean–Mesoproterozoic crystalline crust, (2 the exposed surface area of the 1600 Ma Rapakivi granites apparently was more extensive during the Ediacaran–Early Cambrian than at present, (3 a major re-organization of the basin geometry occurred in the middle Early Cambrian (ca 530–515 Ma in central Baltica, inducing a change in the sediment supply system, (4 in contrast to the total absence of Neoproterozoic detrital zircon grains before the middle Early Cambrian, their sudden appearance at this time, together with consistent occurrence at least until the mid-Devonian, suggests a significant uplift event located in southeast Baltica and/or in a more easterly land domain (e.g., in Sarmatia, (5 possible sources for the Neoproterozoic zircon grains include the peripheral mobile belts with pan-African signatures around Baltica, e.g., the so-called Gondwanan fragments along the Tornquist margin to the southwest and the Timanian belt along the northeastern margin.

  2. Oxidation behavior of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium - Magnesium oxide and nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium - zirconate type of cermets (United States)

    Zaplatynsky, I.


    The 1100 and 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance of dense Ni-Cr-Al-Y - MgO, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - CaZrO3, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - SrZrO3, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - MgZro3 cermets and a 70 percent dense Ni-Cr-Al-Y developmental material was determined. The cermets contained 60 and 50 volume percent of Ni-Cr-Al-Y which formed a matrix with the oxide particles imbedded in it. The cermets containing MgO were superior to cermets based on zirconates and to the porous Ni-Cr-Al-Y material.

  3. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece (United States)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.


    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top

  4. Zircon U-Pb Age, Trace Element, and Hf Isotope Evidence for Paleoproterozoic Granulite-Facies Metamorphism and Archean Crustal Remnant in the Dabie Orogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Nengzhong; Wu Yuanbao


    .90 Gainherited zircons show the similar Hf isotope features. These indicate that both growth of juvenile crust and reworking of ancient crust took place at the time of zircon formation. It is inferred that the Archean basement of the Yangtze block occurs in thenorth as the Dabie orogen, with ca. 2.90-2.95 Ga and 2.75-2.80 Ga as two major episodes of crustalformation.

  5. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of neodymium oxide doped lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Janardan Singh; N C Soni; S L Srivastava


    The dielectric and electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr, Ti)O3] ceramic added with neodymium oxide have been systematically studied employing the vector impedance spectroscopic (VIS) technique. The specimens were prepared using the mixed oxide route by adding different mol% of Nd2O3 (0.1 to 7 mol%) in [Pb(Zr, Ti)O3] near morphotropic phase boundary. Piezoelectric equivalent circuit parameters , , $C_a$ in series and $C_b$ in parallel have been determined by simulating /Z/ and plots. Electromechanical coupling coefficients and strain constants for the radial modes show a peak at about 3 mol%, the dielectric constant peaks at about 1 mol% and voltage constants peak at about 0.75 mol% of Nd2O3.

  6. Pb–Pb zircon ages of Archaean metasediments and gneisses from the Dharwar craton, southern India: Implications for the antiquity of the eastern Dharwar craton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Maibam; J N Goswami; R Srinivasan


    207Pb–206Pb ages of zircons in samples of metasediments as well as ortho- and para-gneisses from both the western and the eastern parts of the Dharwar craton have been determined using an ion microprobe. Detrital zircons in metasedimentary rocks from both yielded ages ranging from 3.2 to 3.5 Ga. Zircons from orthogneisses from the two parts also yielded similar ages. Imprints of younger events have been discerned in the ages of overgrowths on older zircon cores in samples collected throughout the craton. Our data show that the evolution of the southwestern part of eastern Dharwar craton involved a significant amount of older crust (< 3.0 Ga). This would suggest that crust formation in both the western and eastern parts of the Dharwar craton took place over similar time interval starting in the Mesoarchaean at ca. 3.5 Ga and continuing until 2.5 Ga. Our data coupled with geological features and geodynamic setting of the Dharwar craton tend to suggest that the eastern Dharwar craton and the western Dharwar craton formed part of a single terrane.

  7. Gondwana to Pangea: a detrital zircons tale from NW Iberia (United States)

    Pastor-Galán, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Brendan Murphy, J.; Fernández-Suárez, Javier; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf


    The Cantabrian Zone of NW Iberia preserves a voluminous, almost continuous, sedimentary sequence that ranges from Neoproterozoic to Early Permian in age. Its tectonic setting is controversial and recent hypotheses include (i) passive margin deposition along the northern margin of Gondwana or (ii) an active continental margin or (iii) a drifting ribbon continent. In this paper we present detrital zircon U-Pb laser ablation age data from 13 samples from the Cantabrian Zone sequence ranging from Early Silurian to Early Permian in depositional age, which, together with previously published detrital zircon ages from Ediacaran-Ordovician strata, allow a comprehensive analysis of changing provenance through time. Laser ablation U-Pb geochronological analysis of detrital zircons in thirteen samples of the Cantabrian Zone of the NW Iberian Variscan belt reveal that this portion of Iberia was part of the northern passive-margin of Gondwana from the Ordovician to Late Devonian, until the onset of collision between Gondwana and Laurentia. Zircon populations in these samples show important similarities with zircons found in coeval detrital rocks from central North Africa. Additionally, the populations found in NW Iberia are coherent with a Saharan source. We suggest that NW Iberia was situated from Ordovician to Late Devonian along the Gondwana northern passive margin close to the paleoposition of central North Africa and Saharan craton. Additionally, the Carboniferous-Permian samples studied record the provenance changes produced during the Variscan collision and basement exhumation, the Cantabrian orocline formation and the subsequent detachment of the lithospheric mantle. The provenance changes reflect major topographic variations due to the afore mentioned processes during Late Devonian to Early Permian times. Detrital zircon studies are a useful tool that can complement regional syntheses in deducing paleogeographic locations, the occurrence of major tectonic events such

  8. Neoproterozoic-middle Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of the Gorny Altai terrane, northwest of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope studies (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Zheng, Jianping; Rubanova, Elena S.; Voytishek, Elena E.


    The Gorny Altai terrane (GA) is a key area in understanding the crustal evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This paper reports U-Pb and Hf-isotope data for detrital zircons from Cambrian to early Devonian sedimentary sequences to constrain their provenance, as well as the tectono-magmatic events and crustal growth in this region. Nearly all the detrital zircons are characterized by euhedral to subhedral morphology, high Th/U ratios (ca. 0.1-1.6) and typical oscillatory zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. The three samples from the Gorny Altai Group (middle Cambrian to early Ordovician) yield detrital zircon populations that are composed predominantly of 530-464 Ma grains, followed by a subordinate group of 641-549 Ma old. The Silurian and Devonian samples exhibit similar major zircon populations (555-456 Ma and 525-463 Ma, respectively), but a significant amount of additional 2431-772 Ma zircons occur in the early Devonian sample. Our results suggest that detritus from the nearby Kuznetsk-Altai intra-oceanic island arc served as a unitary source for the Cambrian-Silurian sedimentary sequences, but older detritus from other sources added to the early Devonian sequence. The low abundance of ca. 640-540 Ma detrital zircons may testify that this island arc was under a primitive stage in this period, when mafic volcanic rocks probably dominated. In contrast, the dominant population of ca. 530-470 Ma zircons may indicate an increased amount of granitic rocks in the source area, suggesting that the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc possibly evolved into a mature one in the Cambrian to early Ordovician. The ca. 530-470 Ma detrital zircons are almost exclusively featured by positive εHf(t) values and have two-stage Hf model ages of ca. 1.40-0.45 Ga, indicating that the precursor magmas were sourced predominantly from heterogeneous juvenile materials. We conclude that the late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic magmatism in the Kuznetsk-Altai arc made a

  9. Zircon SHRIMP dating of granite from Qaidamshan,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Zircon SHRIMP dating from Qaidamshan granite shows that the granite age is 446 Ma, similar to that of eclogite in the UHP belt. We think that both granite and eclogite may be formed at different stages during tectonic evolution of this area. Together with other studies we suggested that the collision of ocean and continent plates may occur at the early Caledonian in this area, forming the eclogite, and the collision of continent and continent plates at the late Caledonian, forming the Qaidamshan granite with the zircon SHRIMP age of 446 Ma.

  10. Genesis of zircon and its constraints on interpretation of U-Pb age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yuanbao; ZHENG Yongfei


    Zircon U-Pb dating is the most commonly used method for isotopic geochronology. However, it has been a difficult issue when relating zircon U-Pb ages to metamorphic conditions in complex metamorphic rocks. Much progress has been made in the past decade with respect to the genesis of zircon and its constraints on interpretation of U-Pb age. Three methods have been proposed to link zircon U-Ph age to metamorphic conditions: ( I ) internal structure; (ii)trace element feature; (iii) mineral inclusion composition.Magmatic zircon shows typical oscillatory zoning and/or sector zoning, whereas metamorphic zircon has internal structures such as no zoned, weakly zoned, cloudy zoned,sector zoned, planar zoned, and patched zoned ones. Zircons formed in different geological environments generally have characteristic internal structures. Magmatic zircons from different rock types have variable trace element abundances,with a general trend of increasing trace element abundances in zircons from ultramafic through mafic to granitic rocks.Zircons formed under different metamorphic conditions have different trace element characteristics that can be used to relate their formation to metamorphic conditions. It is an effective way to relate zircon growth to certain P-T conditions by studying the trace element partitioning between coexisting metamorphic zircon and garnet in high-grade metamorphic rocks containing both zircon and garnet. Primary mineral inclusions in zircon can also provide unambiguous constraints on its formation conditions. Therefore,interpretation of zircon U-Pb ages can be constrained by its internal structure, trace element composition, mineral inclusion and so on.

  11. Oxalate co-precipitation synthesis of calcium zirconate and calcium titanate powders.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew


    Fine powders of calcium zirconate (CaZrO{sub 3}, CZ) and calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}, CT) were synthesized using a nonaqueous oxalate co-precipitation route from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O and group(IV) n-butoxides (Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} or Zr(OBu{sup n}){sub 4}). Several reaction conditions and batch sizes (2-35 g) were explored to determine their influence on final particle size, morphology, and phase. Characterization of the as-prepared oxalate precursors, oven dried oxalate precursors (60-90 C), and calcined powders (635-900 C) were analyzed with TGA/DTA, XRD, TEM, and SEM. Densification and sintering studies on pressed CZ pellets at 1375 and 1400 C were also performed. Through the developed oxalate co-precipitation route, densification temperatures for CZ were lowered by 125 C from the 1500 C firing temperature required for conventional mixed oxide powders. Low field electrical tests of the CZ pellets indicated excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of {approx}30 and a dissipation factor of 0.0004 were measured at 1 kHz.

  12. Evaluating the paleomagnetic potential of single zircon crystals using the Bishop Tuff

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Roger R; Lima, Eduardo A; Kehayias, Pauli; Araujo, Jefferson F D F; Glenn, David R; Gelb, Jeff; Einsle, Joshua F; Bauer, Ann M; Harrison, Richard J; Ali, Guleed A H; Walsworth, Ronald L


    Zircon crystals offer a unique combination of suitability for high-precision radiometric dating and high resistance to alteration. Paleomagnetic experiments on ancient zircons may potentially constrain the earliest geodynamo, which holds broad implications for the early Earth interior and atmosphere. However, the ability of zircons to record accurately the geomagnetic field has not been fully demonstrated. Here we conduct thermal and room temperature alternating field (AF) paleointensity experiments on 767.1 thousand year old (ka) zircons from the Bishop Tuff, California. The rapid emplacement of these zircons in a well-characterized magnetic field provides a high-fidelity test of the zircons intrinsic paleomagnetic recording accuracy. Successful dual heating experiments on nine zircons measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope yield a mean paleointensity of 46.2 +/- 18.8 microtesla (1sigma), which agrees closely with high-precision results from Bishop Tuff whole rock (43...

  13. Magma mixing and the generation of isotopically juvenile silicic magma at Yellowstone caldera inferred from coupling 238U–230Th ages with trace elements and Hf and O isotopes in zircon and Pb isotopes in sanidine (United States)

    Stelten, Mark E.; Cooper, Kari M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Reid, Mary R.; Barfod, Gry H.; Wimpenny, Josh; Yin, Qing-Zhu


    The nature of compositional heterogeneity within large silicic magma bodies has important implications for how silicic reservoirs are assembled and evolve through time. We examine compositional heterogeneity in the youngest (~170 to 70 ka) post-caldera volcanism at Yellowstone caldera, the Central Plateau Member (CPM) rhyolites, as a case study. We compare 238U–230Th age, trace-element, and Hf isotopic data from zircons, and major-element, Ba, and Pb isotopic data from sanidines hosted in two CPM rhyolites (Hayden Valley and Solfatara Plateau flows) and one extracaldera rhyolite (Gibbon River flow), all of which erupted near the caldera margin ca. 100 ka. The Hayden Valley flow hosts two zircon populations and one sanidine population that are consistent with residence in the CPM reservoir. The Gibbon River flow hosts one zircon population that is compositionally distinct from Hayden Valley flow zircons. The Solfatara Plateau flow contains multiple sanidine populations and all three zircon populations found in the Hayden Valley and Gibbon River flows, demonstrating that the Solfatara Plateau flow formed by mixing extracaldera magma with the margin of the CPM reservoir. This process highlights the dynamic nature of magmatic interactions at the margins of large silicic reservoirs. More generally, Hf isotopic data from the CPM zircons provide the first direct evidence for isotopically juvenile magmas contributing mass to the youngest post-caldera magmatic system and demonstrate that the sources contributing magma to the CPM reservoir were heterogeneous in 176Hf/177Hf at ca. 100 ka. Thus, the limited compositional variability of CPM glasses reflects homogenization occurring within the CPM reservoir, not a homogeneous source.

  14. Geochemistry and zircon geochronology of the Neoarchean volcano-sedimentary sequence along the northern margin of the Nilgiri Block, southern India (United States)

    Samuel, Vinod O.; Santosh, M.; Yang, Qiong-Yan; Sajeev, K.


    The Nilgiri Block is one of the major Archean crustal blocks that define the tectonic framework of southern India. Here we report geologic, petrologic, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb, -REE, and -Lu-Hf data of a highly metamorphosed and disrupted sequence of amphibolite, meta-gabbro, websterite, volcanic tuff, meta-sediment, and banded iron formation (BIF) from the northern fringe of the Nilgiri Block. Geochemically, the amphibolite shows altered ocean floor basalt signature, whereas the meta-gabbro and the websterite samples form part of a volcanic arc. The metamorphosed volcanic tuff shows subalkaline rhyolitic signature. U-Pb isotope analysis of zircon grains from the volcanic tuff and meta-gabbro shows 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2490 ± 12 Ma and 2448 ± 16 Ma, respectively. Zircons from the meta-sediments show an age range of 2563 ± 33 Ma to 2447 ± 34 Ma. The dominantly positive εHf (t) values of the zircons in the analyzed rock suite suggest that the magmas from which the zircons crystallized evolved from a Neoarchean depleted mantle source. The Hf model ages (TDM) of volcanic tuff, meta-sediment and meta-gabbro samples are ranging between 2908-2706 Ma, 2849-2682 Ma, and 2743-2607 Ma, respectively. The ca. 2500 Ma ages for the arc-related magmatic rock suite identified along the northern periphery of Nilgiri Block suggest prominent Neoarchean arc magmatism and early Paleoproterozoic convergent margin processes contributing to the early Precambrian crustal growth in Peninsular India.

  15. U-Pb (LA-PIMMS) Ages of Inherited Zircons from Early Palaeozoic Granitoids of the W Sudetes, N Bohemian Massif, Central Europe: Implications for Neoproterozoic Continental Reconstructions (United States)

    Crowley, Q. G.; Patocka, F.; Kachlík, V.


    A U-Pb laser ablation plasma ionisation multi-collector mass spectrometry (LA-PIMMS) geochronological study of zircons from early Palaeozoic (meta)granitoids of the Czech W Sudetes (E Saxothuringian Zone), NW Bohemian Massif, was carried out in order to determine the range of inherited age spectra preserved in these lithologies. Backscattered SEM images indicate that many zircons have distinct cores and rims. The majority of inherited zircon components yield concordant U-Pb ages that fall into the following age ranges: (1) 520-770 Ma, (2) 1.9-2.2 Ga and (3) ca. 3.0 Ga. These three age populations are typical of the W African Craton and the Armorican Terrane Assemblage of Europe. The age spectra correspond to Cadomian, Birimian / Icartian / Eburnean / Burkinian and Leonian events respectively. Some previous Pb-Pb zircon and whole rock Nd studies of similar lithologies from the W Sudetes (e.g. Hegner &Kröner, 2000) have attributed the presence of Mesoproterozoic 207Pb/206Pb ages to a peri-Amazonian provenance. Although some zircons from this study have yielded apparent Mesoproterozoic ages, they are discordant and can be resolved into early Palaeozoic to Neoproterozoic lower intercept and Palaeoproterozoic to Archaean upper intercept components. This unequivocally proves that an inherited Grenvillian component does not exist in these lithologies. We therefore favour derivation of the Saxothuringian zone and associated members of the Armorican Terrane Assemblage from a W African Craton Gondwanan setting. References: Hegner, E, &Kröner, A. 2000. Review of Nd data and xenocrystic and detrital ages from the pre-Variscan basement in the Eastern Bohemian Massif: speculations on palinspastic reconstructions. In: Franke, W., Altherr, R., Haak, V. &Oncken, O. (eds.), Orogenic Processes: Quantification and Modelling in the Variscan Belt of Central Europe Geological Society of London Special Publication, 179, 113-129.

  16. Timing and conditions of metamorphism and melt crystallization in Greater Himalayan rocks, eastern and central Bhutan: insight from U-Pb zircon and monazite geochronology and trace-element analyses (United States)

    Zeiger, K.; Gordon, S. M.; Long, S. P.; Kylander-Clark, A. R. C.; Agustsson, K.; Penfold, M.


    Within the eastern Himalaya in central and eastern Bhutan, Greater Himalayan (GH) rocks are interpreted to have been thickened by the Kakhtang thrust (KT). In order to understand the metamorphic and exhumation history of the GH and to evaluate the structural significance of the KT, zircon and monazite from twenty samples were analyzed by laser-ablation split-stream ICPMS. In eastern Bhutan, zircon and monazite from samples collected in the KT hanging wall revealed ca. 36-28 Ma metamorphism. Subsequently, the initiation of melt crystallization shows a trend with structural distance above the KT, with early melt crystallization (ca. 27 Ma) in the structurally highest samples and younger melt crystallization (ca. 16 Ma) for leucosomes within the KT zone. Melt crystallization was protracted and continued until ca. 14-13 Ma in both the KT hanging wall and the footwall. In comparison, in central Bhutan, two leucosomes revealed extended melt crystallization from ca. 31 to 19 Ma. The youngest zircon dates from samples exposed structurally above and below the KT are similar, indicating that the KT was not as significant of a structure as other fault systems to which it has been correlated. However, the younging trend in the initiation of melt crystallization with decreasing structural distance above the KT argues that progressive underplating of ductile material assisted in the initial emplacement of the GH unit in central and eastern Bhutan. The KT likely represents a minor shear zone that aided in this underplating process.

  17. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating of high-grade rocks from the Upper Allochthonous Terrane of Bragança and Morais Massifs (NE Portugal); geodynamic consequences (United States)

    Mateus, A.; Munhá, J.; Ribeiro, A.; Tassinari, C. C. G.; Sato, K.; Pereira, E.; Santos, J. F.


    Bragança and Morais Massifs are part of the mega-klippen ensemble of NW Iberia, comprising a tectonic pile of four allochthonous units stacked above the Central-Iberian Zone autochthon. On top of this pile, the Upper Allochthonous Terrane (UAT) includes different high-grade metamorphic series whose age and geodynamic meaning are controversial. Mafic granulites provided U-Pb zircon ages at 399 ± 7 Ma, dating the Variscan emplacement of UAT. In contrast, U-Pb zircon ages of ky- and hb-eclogites, felsic/intermediate HP/HT-granulites and orthogneisses (ca. 500-480 Ma) are identical to those of gabbros (488 ± 10 Ma) and Grt-pyroxenites (495 ± 8 Ma) belonging to a mafic/ultramafic igneous suite that records upper mantle melting and mafic magma crustal underplating at these times. Gabbros intrude the high-grade units of UAT and did not underwent the HP metamorphic event experienced by eclogites and granulites. These features and the zircon dates resemblance among different lithologies, suggest that extensive age resetting of older events may have been correlative with the igneous suite emplacement/crystallisation. Accordingly, reconciliation of structural, petrological and geochronological evidence implies that the development and early deformation of UAT high-grade rocks should be ascribed to an orogenic cycle prior to ≈ 500 Ma. Undisputable dating of this cycle is impossible, but the sporadic vestiges of Cadomian ages cannot be disregarded. The ca. 500-480 Ma time-window harmonises well with the Lower Palaeozoic continental rifting that trace the Variscan Wilson Cycle onset and the Rheic Ocean opening. Subsequent preservation of the high heat-flow regime, possibly related to the Palaeotethys back-arc basin development (ca. 450-420 Ma), would explain the 461 ± 10 Ma age yielded by some zircon domains in felsic granulites, conceivably reflecting zircon dissolution/recrystallisation till Ordovician times, long before the Variscan paroxysm (ca. 400-390 Ma). This

  18. The composition of zircon in Variscan granites from Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins, H. C.B.


    Full Text Available A group of slightly peraluminous Variscan plutons in Northern Portugal were selected from the study of zircon composition. The selected plutons are: the Vila Pouca de Aguiar and the Lavadores-Madalena plutons with I-type affinities and the Vieira do Minho pluton, an l-S transitional type. Zircon occurs as euhedral to subhedral crystals and exhibit finely concentric oscillatory magmatic zoning mainly related to variations of Hf, Y, U and Th concentrations. Most zircon crystals show the dominant “xenotime” substitution. The zircon crystals have Zr/Hf ratio in the range of 21 to 52, with no significant differences between the different granites. These values are in the same range of other peraluminous granites and are in accordance with a crustal signature of zircon. Moreover, the range of Zr/Hf values in zircon crystals overlaps with that of crustal sources and consequently to the potential protoliths proposed in the genesis of the Vieira do Minho and the Vila Pouca de Aguiar plutons, namely meta-igneous crustal sources at different levels. Although zircon from the Lavadores-Madalena pluton has a compositional range similar to the other plutons, an origin by hibridisation has been proposed. However, similar zircon chemistry between this pluton and Vila Pouca de Aguiar and Vieira do Minho plutons could also suggest a similar crustal source.Se han seleccionado tres plutones graniticos variscos en el norte de Portugal para el estudio de la composición del circón. Los plutones son: Vila Pouca de Aguiar y Lavadores-Madalena con afinidad de tipo-I y el plutón de Vieira do Minho de tipo transicional I-S. Los circones se presentan en cristales euhédricos a subhédricos y tienen zonados magmáticos, concéntricos oscilatorios finos ligados principalmente a variaciones de las concentraciones del Hf, Y, U y Th. La mayoría de los cristales de circón muestran la sustitución dominante “xenotima”. Los zircones tienen relaciones Zr/Hf que var

  19. Scanning ion imaging - a potent tool in SIMS U -Pb zircon geochronology (United States)

    Whitehouse, M. J.; Fedo, C.; Kusiak, M.; Nemchin, A.


    The application of high spatial resolution (BSE) characterisation, has revolutionised geochronology over the past 25 years, re-vealing complexities of crustal evolution from zoned zircons. In addition to ge-ochronology, such studies now commonly form the basis of broader investigations using O- and Hf- isotopes and trace elements obtained from the same growth zone as age, circumventing ambiguities commonly present in bulk-rock isotope studies. The choice of analytical beam diameter is often made to maximise the precision of data obtained from a given area of analysis within an identifiable growth zone. In cases where zircons yield poorly constrained internal structures in SEM, high spatial resolution spot analyses may yield uninterpretable and/or meaningless mixed ages by inadvertent sampling across regions with real age differences. Scanning ion imaging (SII) has the potential to generate accurate and precise geochrono-logical data with a spatial resolution down to ca. 2 μm, much higher than that of a normal spot analysis. SII acquisition utilises a rastered primary beam to image an area of the sample with a spatial resolution dependent on the selected primary beam diameter. On the Cameca ims1270/80 instruments, the primary beam scanning is coupled with the dynamic transfer optical system (DTOS) which deflects the secondary ions back on to the ion optical axis of the instrument regardless of where in the raster illuminated area the ions originated. This feature allows retention of a high field magnification (= high transmission) mode and the ability to operate the mass spectrometer at high mass resolution without any compromise in the quality of the peak shape. Secondary ions may be detected either in a sequential (peak hopping) mono-collection mode or simultaneous multicollection mode using low-noise pulse counting electron multipliers. Regardless of the detection mode, data are acquired over sufficient cycles to generate usable counting statistics from selected

  20. Using Zircon Geochronology to Unravel the History of the Naga Hills Ophiolite (United States)

    Roeder, T.; Aitchison, J. C.; Clarke, G. L.; Ireland, T. R.; Ao, A.; Bhowmik, S. K.


    Outcrops of the Naga Hills Ophiolite (NHO), a possible eastern extension of the ophiolitic belt running along the India-Asia suture, in Northeast India include a full suite of ophiolitic rocks. The ophiolite has been dated Upper Jurassic based on radiolarian studies of the unit (Baxter et al., 2011) but details of its emplacement onto the Indian margin have not been the subject of detailed investigation. Conglomerates of the Phokphur Formation unconformably overlie an eroded surface on top of dismembered ophiolite fragments and include sediments sourced from both the ophiolite and the margin of the Indian subcontinent. Notably no Asian margin-derived detritus is recognised (similar to the Liuqu conglomerates of Tibet (Davis et al., 2002)). Thus, a detailed study of the Phokphur sediments can produce valuable details of the NHO history, including constraining the timing of ophiolite emplacement. Studies of detrital sandstone petrography confirm a recycled orogen provenance for the Phokphur Formation and thus serve as validation of the methods of Dickinson and Suczek (1979) and Garzanti et al. (2007). Detrital zircon data provides further insight as to the age of source rocks of Phokphur sediments and help to further constrain the timing of ophiolite emplacement. We present results of sedimentary and detrital zircon geochronology analyses of Phokphur sediments from outcrops near the villages of Salumi and Wazeho as a contribution to furthering research on aspects of the India-Asia collision. Baxter, A.T., et al. 2011. Upper Jurassic radiolarians from the Naga Ophiolite, Nagaland, northeast India. Gondwana Research, 20: 638-644. Davis, A.M., et al. 2002. Paleogene island arc collision-related conglomerates, Yarlung-Tsangpo suture zone, Tibet. Sedimentary Geology, 150: 247-273. Dickinson, W.R. and Suczek, C.A., 1979. Plate tectonics and sandstone compositions. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 63, 2164-2182, (1979). Garzanti, E., et al., 2007. Orogenic belts and orogenic

  1. Finite lattice distortion patterns in plastically deformed zircon grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kovaleva


    Full Text Available This study examines finite deformation patterns of zircon grains from high-temperature natural shear zones. Various zircon-bearing rocks were collected in the Western Tauern Window, Eastern Alps, where they were deformed under amphibolite facies conditions, and in the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (IVZ, Southern Alps, where deformation is related with granulite-facies metamorphism. Among the sampled rocks are: granitic orthogneisses, meta-lamprophyres and paragneisses, all of which are highly deformed. The investigated zircon grains ranging from 10 to 50 microns were studied in situ using a combination of scanning electron microscope (SEM techniques, including secondary electron (SE, backscattered electron (BSE, forward scattered electron (FSE, cathodoluminescence (CL imaging, and crystallographic orientation mapping by electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD, as well as micro-Raman spectroscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS was applied to host phases. Microstructural analysis of crystal-plastically deformed zircon grains was based on high-resolution EBSD maps. Three general types of finite lattice distortion patterns were detected: Type (I is defined by gradual bending of the zircon lattice with orientation changes of about 0.6° to 1.4° per μm without subgrain boundary formation. Type (II represents local gradual bending of the crystal lattice coupled with the formation of subgrain boundaries that have concentric semicircular shapes in 2-D sections. Cumulative grain-internal orientation variations range from 7° to 40° within single grains. Type (III is characterized by formation of subgrains separated by a well-defined subgrain boundary network, where subgrain boundaries show a characteristic angular closed contour in 2-D sections. The cumulative orientation variation within a single grain ranges from 3° to 10°. Types (I and (II predominate in granulite facies rocks, whereas type (III is restricted to the amphibolite facies

  2. Zircon-scale insights into the history of a Supervolcano, Bishop Tuff, Long Valley, California, with implications for the Ti-in-zircon geothermometer (United States)

    Reid, M.R.; Vazquez, J.A.; Schmitt, A.K.


    Zircon has the outstanding capacity to record chronological, thermal, and chemical information, including the storage history of zoned silicic magma reservoirs like the one responsible for the Bishop Tuff of eastern California, USA. Our novel ion microprobe approach reveals that Bishop zircon rims with diverse chemical characteristics surround intermediate domains with broadly similar compositions. The highest Y, REE, U, and Th concentrations tend to accompany the largest excesses in Y + REE3+:P beyond what can be explained by xenotime substitution in zircon. Apparent Ti-in-zircon temperatures of Bishop Tuff compositional spectrum may have evolved to broadly similar chemical and thermal conditions and therefore it is possible that there was no significant thermal gradient in the magma reservoir at some stage in its evolution. There is also no compelling evidence for punctuated heat ?? chemical influxes during the intermediate stages of zircon growth. Judging by the zircon record, the main volume of the erupted magma evolved normally by secular cooling but the latest erupted portion is characterized by a reversal in chemistry that appears to indicate perfusion of the magma reservoir by-or zircon entrainment in-a less evolved melt from the one in which the zircons had previously resided. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  3. EPDM composite membranes modified with cerium doped lead zirconate titanate (United States)

    Zaharescu, T.; Dumitru, A.; Lungulescu, M. E.; Velciu, G.


    This study was performed on γ-irradiated ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) loaded with lead zirconate titanate. The inorganic phase has a perovskite structure with general formula Pb(Zr0.65-xCexTi0.35)O3. The three composites with different Ce dopant concentrations revealed the stabilization activity of filler against oxidation proved by chemiluminescence investigation in respect to pristine polymer. The presence of cerium low concentrations in the solid lead zirconate titanate nanoparticles causes significant slowing of oxidation rate during radiation exposure. The improvement in the stabilization feature of filler is correlated with the existence of traps, whose interaction with free radicals assumes medium energy due to their convenient depth.

  4. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and its implications on the Xilin Gol Complex, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Guanghai; LIU Dunyi; ZHANG Fuqin; JIAN Ping; MIAO Laicheng; SHI Yuruo; TAO Hua


    The Xilin Gol Complex, consisting of deformed and metamorphosed rocks, was exposed as a large geological unit within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, but its forming and subsequent deformed and metamorphic time has been an issue of little consensus. Petrographic analyses and SHRIMP dating on biotite-plagioclase gneiss, one of the major rocks within the Xilin Gol Complex, in southeast Xilinhot City, Inner Mongolia, China, where the Xilin Gol Complex was identified and named, yield its lower limit age of 437 ( 3 Ma (2--) by its magmatic zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating, and an upper limit age of 316 ( 3Ma (2--), which was constrained by SHRIMP dating of magmatic zircons from adjacent undeformed garnet-bearing granite which intruded the Complex. The Complex was thus determined to be formed and subsequently deformed/metamorphosed from the late Ordovician-early Silurian to the mid-Carboniferous. Consequently, it is not the Precambrian terrane as previously considered by most geologists. More or less, the major rock--biotite- plagioclase gneiss within the Complex is more likely to be Paleozoic fore-arc turbidite formation before metamorphism and intensive deformation, in which the detrital zircons gave sporadic Precambrian ages as old as up to 3.1 Ga. The source of the turbidite formation is multiple, which may be derived either from the North China Craton, or from the South- Mongolia Micro-continent, or probably came from a potential and undiscovered in situ terranes aged 600-800 Ma or even up to ca 3.1 Ga near the Complex.

  5. Evidence of post-Gondwana breakup in Southern Brazilian Shield: Insights from apatite and zircon fission track thermochronology (United States)

    Oliveira, Christie Helouise Engelmann de; Jelinek, Andréa Ritter; Chemale, Farid; Bernet, Matthias


    Apatite and zircon fission track thermochronology studies are applied to basement and sedimentary rocks from the Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield to unravel the tectonic history of the onshore southernmost Brazilian margin. The Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield is a major geotectonic feature of southernmost Brazil that includes Paleoproterozoic basement areas and Neoproterozoic fold belts linked to the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny. Crustal reworking and juvenile accretion events related to this cycle were dated in the region between 900 and 500 Ma and were responsible for the assembly of southwestern Gondwana in southeastern South America. Apatite fission track (AFT) ages range from 340 ± 33 to 77 ± 6 Ma and zircon fission track (ZFT) ages range from ca. 386 to 210 Ma. Based on thermal history modeling, the most part of the samples record an early cooling event during the Carboniferous, which reflect the main tectonic activity of the final stages of the Gondwanides at the Pacific margin of West Gondwana. Subsequently, the Permo-Triassic cooling event is related to the last stages of the Gondwanides, with convergence along the southern border of Western Gondwana and consequent reactivation of N-S and NE-SW trending basement structures. The onset of initial breakup of southwestern Gondwana with opening of the South Atlantic Ocean is mostly recorded in the eastern terrain and ZFT ages show that the temperature during this period was high enough for total or at least partial resetting of fission tracks in zircon. The last cooling event of the Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield records the final breakup between South America and Africa, which began during the Late Cretaceous. However, the Cenozoic rapid cooling episode probably is a result of plate adjustment after breakup and neotectonic reactivation of faults associated with South Atlantic rift evolution.

  6. Evaluating the paleomagnetic potential of single zircon crystals using the Bishop Tuff (United States)

    Fu, Roger R.; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Lima, Eduardo A.; Kehayias, Pauli; Araujo, Jefferson F. D. F.; Glenn, David R.; Gelb, Jeff; Einsle, Joshua F.; Bauer, Ann M.; Harrison, Richard J.; Ali, Guleed A. H.; Walsworth, Ronald L.


    Zircon crystals offer a unique combination of suitability for high-precision radiometric dating and high resistance to alteration. Paleomagnetic experiments on ancient zircons may potentially constrain the history of the earliest geodynamo, which would hold broad implications for the early Earth's interior and atmosphere. However, the ability of zircons to record accurately the geomagnetic field has not been demonstrated. Here we conduct thermal and alternating field (AF) paleointensity experiments on 767.1 thousand year old (ka) zircons from the Bishop Tuff, California. The rapid emplacement of these zircons in a well-characterized magnetic field provides a high-fidelity test of the zircons' intrinsic paleomagnetic recording accuracy. Successful dual heating experiments on eleven zircons measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope yield a mean paleointensity of 54.1 ± 6.8μT (1σ; 42.6 ± 5.3μT after excluding possible maghemite-bearing zircons), which is consistent with high-precision results from Bishop Tuff whole rock (43.0 ± 3.2μT). High-resolution quantum diamond magnetic (QDM) mapping, electron microscopy, and X-ray tomography indicate that the bulk of the remanent magnetization in Bishop Tuff zircons is carried by Fe oxides associated with apatite inclusions, which may be susceptible to destruction via metamorphism and aqueous alteration in older zircons. As such, while zircons can reliably record the geomagnetic field, robust zircon-derived paleomagnetic results require careful characterization of the ferromagnetic carrier and demonstration of their occurrence in primary inclusions. We further conclude that a combination of quantum diamond magnetometry and high-resolution imaging can provide detailed, direct characterization of the ferromagnetic mineralogy of geological samples.

  7. Residence, resorption and recycling of zircons in Devils Kitchen rhyolite, Coso Volcanic Field, California (United States)

    Miller, J.S.; Wooden, J.L.


    Zircons from the Devils Kitchen rhyolite in the Pleistocene Coso Volcanic field, California have been analyzed by in situ Pb/U ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) and by detailed cathodoluminescence imaging. The zircons yield common-Pb-corrected and disequilibrium-corrected 206Pb/238U ages that predate a previously reported K-Ar sanidine age by up to 200 kyr, and the range of ages exhibited by the zircons is also approximately 200 kyr. Cathodoluminescence imaging indicates that zircons formed in contrasting environments. Most zircons are euhedral, and a majority of the zircons are weakly zoned, but many also have anhedral, embayed cores, with euhedral overgrowths and multiple internal surfaces that are truncated by later crystal zones. Concentrations of U and Th vary by two orders of magnitude within the zircon population, and by 10-20 times between zones within some zircon crystals, indicating that zircons were transferred between contrasting chemical environments. A zircon saturation temperature of ???750??C overlaps within error a previously reported phenocryst equilibration temperature of 740 ?? 25??C. Textures in zircons indicative of repeated dissolution and subsequent regrowth are probably caused by punctuated heating by mafic magma input into rhyolite. The overall span of ages and large variation in U and Th concentrations, combined with calculated zircon saturation temperatures and resorption times, are most compatible with crystallization in magma bodies that were emplaced piecemeal in the crust at Coso over 200 kyr prior to eruption, and that were periodically rejuvenated or melted by subsequent basaltic injections. ?? Oxford University Press 2004; all rights reserved.

  8. Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, Delaware: Morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Schenck, W.S.; Plank, M.O.; Srogi, L.A.; Fanning, C.M.; Kamo, S.L.; Bosbyshell, H.


    High-grade rocks of the Wilmington Complex, northern Delaware and adjacent Maryland and Pennsylvania, contain morphologically complex zircons that formed through both igneous and metamorphic processes during the development of an island-arc complex and suturing of the arc to Laurentia. The arc complex has been divided into several members, the protoliths of which include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with the complex and are believed to be the infrastructure upon which the arc was built. In the Wilmingto n Complex rocks, both igneous and metamorphic zircons occur as elongate and equant forms. Chemical zoning, shown by cathodoluminescence (CL), includes both concentric, oscillatory patterns, indicative of igneous origin, and patchwork and sector patterns, suggestive of metamorphic growth. Metamorphic monazites are chemically homogeneous, or show oscillatory or spotted chemical zoning in backscattered electron images. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date complexly zoned zircon and monazite. All but one member of the Wilmington Complex crystallized in the Ordovician between ca. 475 and 485 Ma; these rocks were intruded by a suite of gabbro-to-granite plutonic rocks at 434 ?? Ma. Detrital zircons in metavolcanic and metasedimentary units were derived predominantly from 0.9 to 1.4 Ga (Grenvillian) basement, presumably of Laurentian origin. Amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, recorded by ages of metamorphic zircon (428 ?? 4 and 432 ?? 6 Ma) and monazite (429 ?? 2 and 426 ?? 3 Ma), occurred contemporaneously with emplacement of the younger plutonic rocks. On the basis of varying CL zoning patterns and external morphologies, metamorphic zircons formed by different processes (presumably controlled by rock chemistry) at slightly different times and temperatures during prograde metamorphism. In addition, at least three other thermal episodes are

  9. Paragneiss zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, western China (United States)

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Zhang, J.X.; Bird, D.K.


    In the southeastern part of the North Qaidam terrane, near Dulan, paragneiss hosts minor peridotite and UHP eclogite. Zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry of three paragneiss samples (located within a ???3 km transect) indicates that eclogite-facies metamorphism resulted in variable degrees of zircon growth and recrystallization in the three samples. Inherited zircon core age groups at 1.8 and 2.5 Ga suggest that the protoliths of these rocks may have received sediments from the Yangtze or North China cratons. Mineral inclusions, depletion in HREE, and absence of negative Eu anomalies indicate that zircon U-Pb ages of 431 ?? 5 Ma and 426 ?? 4 Ma reflect eclogite-facies zircon growth in two of the samples. Ti-in-zircon thermometry results are tightly grouped at ???660 and ???600 ??C, respectively. Inclusions of metamorphic minerals, scarcity of inherited cores, and lack of isotopic or trace element inheritance demonstrate that significant new metamorphic zircon growth must have occurred. In contrast, zircon in the third sample is dominated by inherited grains, and rims show isotopic and trace element inheritance, suggesting solid-state recrystallization of detrital zircon with only minor new growth. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Detrital zircon record of the early Paleozoic meta-sedimentary rocks in Russian Altai: Implications on their provenance and the tectonic nature of the Altai-Mongolian terrane (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.; Voytishek, Elena E.


    An integrated U-Pb and Hf-isotope study on detrital zircons from the early Paleozoic meta-sedimentary rocks along the Charysh-Terekta-Ulagan-Sayan suture zone in Russian Altai was conducted in order to trace their provenance and tectonic setting. Most of the zircons possess oscillatory zoning and high Th/U ratios (> 0.1), indicating their magmatic origin. The investigated samples yield similar zircon populations, i.e., dominant groups with late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic ages, followed by those from Mesoproterozoic to late Neoproterozoic and minor ones from Archean to middle Mesoproterozoic, indicating multiple tectono-thermal events in the source area. Comparison with surrounding tectonic units shows that the Tuva-Mongolian terrane and its adjacent island arcs possibly provided substantial materials to the sedimentary basin. These rocks show detrital zircon age patterns and Hf-isotope compositions similar to their counterparts in the Chinese Altai and Tseel terrane in western Mongolia, but different from those in the Gorny Altai terrane. Therefore, the investigated meta-sedimentary units possibly represented the northernmost segment of the Altai-Mongolian terrane. With combination of previous studies in the Chinese Altai and Tseel terrane, our data suggest that the Altai-Mongolian terrane possibly represents a coherent continental arc-accretionary prism system built upon the active margin of the western Mongolia during the Cambrian to Ordovician and thus does not support the micro-continent model with a passive margin. A compilation of U-Pb and Hf-isotope data of detrital zircons from the whole Altai-Mongolian terrane shows that the source area (i.e., the western Mongolia) underwent two most extensive magmatic activities at ca. 1.02-0.67 Ga and 0.67-0.43 Ga. These zircons possess both positive and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting significant crustal growth and reworking during the magmatic activities. Our study underlines a crucial role of Precambrian

  11. High precision dating of mass extinction events: a combined zircon geochronology, apatite tephrochronology, and Bayesian age modelling approach of the Permian-Triassic boundary extinction (United States)

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Brosse, Morgane; Bagherpour, Borhan; Schaltegger, Urs


    Chemical abrasion isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) U-Pb dating of single-zircon crystals is preferably applied to tephra beds intercalated in sedimentary sequences. By assuming that the zircon crystallization age closely approximate that of the volcanic eruption and ash deposition, U-Pb zircon geochronology is the preferred approach for dating mass extinction events (such as the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction) in the sedimentary record. As tephra from large volcanic eruptions is often transported over long distances, it additionally provide an invaluable tool for stratigraphic correlation across distant geologic sections. Therefore, the combination of high-precision zircon geochronology with apatite chemistry of the same tephra bed (so called apatite tephrochronology) provides a robust fingerprint of one particular volcanic eruption. In addition we provide coherent Bayesian model ages for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) mass extinction, then compare it with PTB model ages at Meishan after Burgess et al. (2014). We will present new high-precision U-Pb zircon dates for a series of volcanic ash beds in deep- and shallow-marine Permian-Triassic sections in the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. In addition, apatite crystals out of the same ash beds were analysed focusing on their halogen (F, Cl) and trace-element (e.g. Fe, Mg, REE) chemistry. We also show that Bayesian age models produce reproducible results from different geologic sections. On the basis of these data, including litho- and biostratigraphic correlations, we can precisely and accurately constrain the Permian-Triassic boundary in an equatorial marine setting, and correlate tephra beds over different sections and facies in the Nanpanjiang Basin independently from litho-, bio- or chemostratigraphic criteria. The results evidence that data produced in laboratories associated to the global EARTHTIME consortium can provide age information at the 0.05% level of 206

  12. Sm-Nd and zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of Huilanshan mafic granulite in the Dabie Mountains and its zircon trace element geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Zhenhui; LI; Shuguang; CHEN; Nengsong; LI; Qiuli; LIU


    The mafic granulites from Huilanshan are outcropped on the center of the Luotian dome in the northern Dabie Mountains. The Sm-Nd isochron defined by granulite-facies metamorphic minerals (garnet + clinopyroxene + hypersthene) yields an age of 136(±)18 Ma indicating the early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphism. The cathodoluminescence (CL) images of zircons from the granulite show clearly core-mantle-rim structures. The zircon cores are characterized by typical oscillatory zoning and highly HREE enriched patterns, which suggests their magma origin. Some zircon cores among them with little Pb loss give SHRIMP U-Pb ages ranging from 753 to 780 Ma, which suggests that the protolith of Huilanshan granulite is Neoproterozoic mafic rocks. The zircon mantles usually cut across the oscillatory zone of the zircon cores have 3―10 times lower REE, Th, U, Y, Nb and Ta contents than the igneous zircon cores but have high common Pb contents. These characteristics suggest that they were formed by hydrothermal alteration of the igneous zircons. The part of zircon mantles with little Pb loss give a similar SHRIMP U-Pb age (716―780 Ma) to the igneous zircon cores, which implies that the hydrothermal events occurred closely to the magmatic emplacement. In view of the strong early Cretaceous magmatism in the Luotian dome, consequently, the Huilanshan mafic granulite was formed by heating of the Neoproterozoic mafic rocks in mid-low crust, which caused the granulite-facies metamorphism underneath the Dabie Mountains. The similarity between the granulite metamorphic age (136±18 Ma) defined by Sm-Nd isochron and K-Ar age of 123―127 Ma given by amphible from the gneiss in Luotian dome suggests a rapid uplifting of the Luotian dome, which may result in further exhumation of the ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks in the Dabie Mountains.

  13. From a long-lived upper-crustal magma chamber to rapid porphyry copper emplacement: Reading the geochemistry of zircon crystals at Bajo de la Alumbrera (NW Argentina) (United States)

    Buret, Yannick; von Quadt, Albrecht; Heinrich, Christoph; Selby, David; Wälle, Markus; Peytcheva, Irena


    The formation of world class porphyry copper deposits reflect magmatic processes that take place in a deeper and much larger underlying magmatic system, which provides the source of porphyry magmas, as well as metal and sulphur-charged mineralising fluids. Reading the geochemical record of this large magmatic source region, as well as constraining the time-scales for creating a much smaller porphyry copper deposit, are critical in order to fully understand and quantify the processes that lead to metal concentration within these valuable mineral deposits. This study focuses on the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry copper deposit in Northwest Argentina. The deposit is centred on a dacitic porphyry intrusive stock that was mineralised by several pulses of porphyry magma emplacement and hydrothermal fluid injections. To constrain the duration of ore formation, we dated zircons from four porphyry intrusions, including pre-, syn- and post-mineralisation porphyries based on intersection relations between successive intrusion and vein generations, using high precision CA-ID-TIMS. Based on the youngest assemblages of zircon grains, which overlap within analytical error, all four intrusions were emplaced within 29 ka, which places an upper limit on the total duration of hydrothermal mineralisation. Re/Os dating of hydrothermal molybdenite fully overlaps with this high-precision age bracket. However, all four porphyries contain zircon antecrysts which record protracted zircon crystallisation during the ∼200 ka preceding the emplacement of the porphyries. Zircon trace element variations, Ti-in-zircon temperatures, and Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the four porphyry magmas record a common geochemical and thermal history, and that the four intrusions were derived from the same upper-crustal magma chamber. Trace element zoning within single zircon crystals confirms a fractional crystallisation trend dominated by titanite and apatite crystallisation. However, zircon

  14. Palaeoproterozoic continental arc magmatism, and Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the Aravalli-Delhi orogenic belt, NW India: New constraints from in situ zircon U-Pb-Hf isotope systematics, monazite dating and whole-rock geochemistry (United States)

    Kaur, Parampreet; Zeh, Armin; Chaudhri, Naveen


    Presently, the extent, origin and petrogenesis of late Palaeoproterozoic (ca. 1.85 Ga) magmatism in the north-central Aravalli-Delhi orogenic belt, NW India and subsequent metamorphic overprints are poorly constrained. Results of new in situ zircon U-Pb-Hf isotope analyses in combination with whole-rock elemental and isotopic data provide the first hard evidence that granitoid magmatism occurred in a continental magmatic arc setting between 1.86 and 1.81 Ga. The Hf-Nd model ages of 3.0-2.6 Ga and inherited zircon grains of 3.3-2.5 Ga indicate abundant reworking of Archaean crust. Flat HREE patterns with negative Eu anomalies furthermore reveal that the granitoids were generated from garnet-free and plagioclase-rich sources at shallow depths. Significant isotope variation among granitoid samples (εHft = -3.7 to -9.0; εNdt = -4.8 to -7.9) indicate that the reworked Archaean crust was not completely homogenised during the Palaeoproterozoic. This is best reflected by zircon Hf-isotope variation of ca. 9.5 epsilon units within the oldest granitoid sample. Zircon grains from this sample define three discrete Hf-isotope groups at εHf1.86Ga = -8.9, -4.8 and -1.6. These are interpreted to result from mixing of zircon-saturated magmas derived from three distinct sources within the crust prior to solidification. A monazite U-Pb isochron age of 868 ± 4 Ma from one of the granitoid samples furthermore indicates that the Aravalli fold belt was affected by an important post-magmatic overprint, perhaps related to the widespread metasomatic, granulite metamorphic and/or magmatic events during the same time span.

  15. What can zircon ages from the Jack Hills detrital zircon suite really tell us about Hadean geodynamics? (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander


    As the only direct sample of the Hadean Earth, detrital zircon grains from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, have been the subject of intense investigation over the almost three decades since their discovery. A wide variety of geochemical and isotopic analyses of these grains, as well as their mineral inclusions, have been used variously to support two fundamentally different models for Hadean geodynamics: (i) Some form of (not necessarily modern-style) plate recycling generating felsic (continental-type?) crust at the boundaries [1, 2], or conversely (ii) the persistence of a long-lived, stagnant basaltic lid within which magmatism occurred as a result of internal temperature perturbations and/or impacts [3, 4], a model also generally consistent with a wide range of observations from post-Hadean geochemical reservoirs. Despite the considerable time and resources expended, the majority of these studies uncritically accept the individual U-Pb zircon ages, even though their veracity is key to many of the interpretations [5, 6]. We report here the results of an in-depth evaluation of all published (and new) U-Pb ages from the Jack Hills zircon suite in order to define age populations that can be used with a high degree of confidence in geodynamic interpretations. A notable problem in the interpretation of U-Pb data from ancient zircon grains (including those as young as the Neoarchean) is that disturbance of the systematics even several 100 Ma after crystallization causes data to spread along the concordia curve without becoming discernably discordant within the relatively large error bounds associated with U/Pb ages from in situ dating methods (e.g. SIMS). While 207Pb/206Pb ages are typically more precise, individually they provide no means to detect Pb-loss-induced younging. However, if two or preferably more analyses have been made in the same zircon growth zone, a reasonable evaluation of the possibility of Pb-loss can be made. In the available Jack Hills zircon

  16. The Use and Abuse of Th-U Ratios in the Interpretation of Zircon (United States)

    Möller, A.; ÓBrien, P. J.; Kennedy, A.; Kröner, A.


    In the interpretation of geochronological data the distinction between magmatic and metamorphic zircon is mainly based on morphology, internal zoning or Th-U ratio. This distinction is of doubtful benefit in partially molten high grade metamorphic rocks where partial melting and zircon growth or dissolution may have occurred in several phases. It is proposed that instead of classifying zircon into magmatic and metamorphic groups, differences and changes in chemistry from inherited core to overgrowth can be attributed to growth or recrystallization mechanisms. Taking the distinction literally, only zircon grown by solid state (metamorphic) reactions may be called metamorphic, whereas zircon crystallized from melt is magmatic, and zircon crystallized from fluids is hydrothermal. Trace element characteristics together with the criteria mentioned above may help to link zircon growth to these environments or to other processes altering existing zircon (i.e. metamictisation, annealing, recrystallization, dissolution-reprecipitation). In-situ ion microprobe analysis has been used to track Th-U ratios of zircon through time in polymetamorphic rocks. Several different trends can be distinguished and attributed to different growth mechanisms when combined with cathodo-luminescence and backscatter electron imaging. Unchanged Th/U through time is interpreted to reflect closed system behaviour, lower Th/U in overgrowths can indicate competition for Th with high Th minerals (monazite, allanite etc.), higher Th/U is also observed and interpreted to reflect open system behaviour, breakdown of minerals with high Th/U, or competition with high U minerals (e.g. xenotime). In summary, zircon grown during metamorphic events may not be characterized by low Th/U, and classifying zircon as "metamorphic" solely based on its Th/U as occasionally seen in the literature can lead to gross misinterpretations.

  17. Mechanisms of radon loss from zircon: Microstructural controls on emanation and diffusion (United States)

    Eakin, Marty; Brownlee, S. J.; Baskaran, M.; Barbero, L.


    Understanding how radon escapes from minerals is important for many fields in Earth science, yet few studies have focused on the mechanisms for radon escape. We measured radon emanation rate and radon loss upon heating for crushed aliquots of three large zircon crystals from three localities: Mud Tank (Australia), Bancroft (Canada), and Malawi (Africa). Our study, in conjunction with published data, shows that the room temperature radon emanation coefficient (REC) varies over 5 orders of magnitude in zircon. For low U zircon, Mud Tank, there are variations in REC that appear to be related to annealing at different temperatures, possibly due to annealing of fission tracks, however, all REC values for Mud Tank zircon are within error of one another. Bancroft and Malawi zircons have higher U content and do not show any systematic relationship of REC to annealing temperature. Results from Mud Tank zircon suggest that partial annealing of fission tracks decreases REC, but when all fission tracks are annealed REC reaches a maximum. REC in zircons with high U content, Bancroft and Malawi, is slightly higher than in zircon with lower U, although results are within error. Results of measurements of radon loss upon heating suggest that radon diffusion is slow, ∼30% of the radon is lost during heating at 975 °C for 48 h. Samples heated a second time yield less fractional radon loss, ∼10%, suggesting that diffusion parameters are changed during heating at temperatures ⩾975 °C, which is likely the result of annealing of radiation damage. Diffusion parameters calculated from the fractional loss experiments reflect diffusion in highly radiation damaged or metamict zircons. Our results indicate that internal microstructures in zircon, such as fission tracks and alpha-radiation damage, influence radon escape for diffusion and recoil mechanisms, and hence if these effects can be further characterized, measurements of 222Rn escape have the potential to be useful for probing

  18. Petrography and U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology of metasedimentary strata dredged from the Chukchi Borderland, Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Brumley, K.; Miller, E. L.; Mayer, L. A.; Andronikov, A.; Wooden, J. L.; Dumitru, T. A.; Elliott, B.; Gehrels, G. E.; Mukasa, S. B.


    In 2008-2009, twelve dredges were taken aboard the USCGC Healy from outcrops along the Alpha Ridge, Northern Chukchi Borderland, Northwind Ridge and the Chukchi Plateau in the Arctic Ocean as part of the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf Project. To ensure sampling of outcrop, steep bathymetric slopes (>40°) with little mud cover were identified with multibeam sonar and targeted for dredging. The first dredge from Alpha Ridge yielded volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks deposited from a phreatomagmatic eruption in shallow water (<200m). This is inconsistent with tectonic reconstructions suggesting that the Alpha Ridge was created as an oceanic plateau on deep oceanic crust of the Canada Basin. Another dredge, taken from the northern tip of Northwind Ridge, yielded metasedimentary rocks deformed under greenschist facies conditions (chlorite+white mica). These rocks are intruded and/or overlain by mid-Cretaceous alkalic basalts, also taken in this dredge, and dated by 40Ar/39Ar (plagioclase separate) to be 112±1 Ma. The metasedimentary rocks, from this single dredge, range in grain size from mud to coarse sandstone and grit which all contain grains and sub-angular clasts of volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic and fine grained sedimentary rocks as well as monocrystalline quartz, potassium feldspar, and plagioclase. All of these samples display the same bedding to foliation angle and lithology, which further indicates that they were dredged from in situ outcrop and are not random samples of ice rafted debris. Based on grain size variations and graded beds, they are interpreted as Silurian gravity flow deposits fed by proximal syn-orogenic and/or magmatic arc sources. Detrital zircons were separated from four sandstone samples of the Northwind Ridge dredge, and their U-Pb single grain ages determined by LA-MC-ICPMS and SHRIMP, (N= 393). Their detrital zircon populations are dominated by euhedral first-cycle zircon ca. 430 and 980 Ma with lesser older recycled zircons between

  19. Ion Microprobe U-Th Ages of Zircon From Plutonic Rock Fragments Ejected by Mount Veniaminof Volcano, Alaska Peninsula (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.; Sisson, T. W.; Mazdab, F. K.


    . Its crystal- poor andesites and dacites have compositions that are readily explained by crystallization differentiation. The zircon ages indicate that crystal cumulates and complementary differentiated melts were freezing beneath Veniaminof as recently as ca. 10-20 kyr B.P. A small cone within the caldera historically has produced relatively benign strombolian eruptions and effusion of basaltic andesite lava rich in crystal-mush debris. However, existence of a substantial mush column in the recent past and a late Holocene explosive eruption of dacite pumice compositionally similar to granodiorite are evidence that evolved magmas are still forming at shallow levels and that hazardous explosive eruptions remain possible.

  20. Genesis and Multi-Episodic Alteration of Zircon-Bearing Chromitites from the Ayios Stefanos Mine, Othris Massif, Greece: Assessment of an Unconventional Hypothesis on the Origin of Zircon in Ophiolitic Chromitites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrios Kapsiotis


    source. Combined micro-textural and minerochemical data repeat the possibility of zircon derivation from limited volumes of high-T fluids emanating from the gabbroic intrusions. Once zircon is precipitated in cracks, it may be altered to Ca-rich Zr-bearing silicate phases (i.e., armstrongite, calciocatapleiite. Almost all zircons in these samples show evidence of gains in solvent compounds (CaO, Al2O3 and FeO possibly due to re-equilibration with late deuteric fluids.

  1. Tectonic evolution of the southern margin of the Amazonian craton in the late Mesoproterozoic based on field relationships and zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available New U-Pb zircon geochronological data integrated with field relationships and an airborne geophysical survey suggest that the Nova Brasilândia and Aguapeí belts are part of the same monocyclic, metaigneous and metasedimentary belt formed in the late Mesoproterozoic (1150 Ma-1110 Ma. This geological history is very similar to the within-plate origin of the Sunsás belt, in eastern Bolivia. Thus, we propose that the Nova Brasilândia, Aguapeí and Sunsás belts represent a unique geotectonic unit (here termed the Western Amazon belt that became amalgamated at the end of the Mesoproterozoic and originated through the reactivation of a paleo-suture (Guaporé suture zone in an intracontinental rift environment. Therefore, its geological history involves a short, complete Wilson cycle of ca. 40 Ma. Globally, this tectonic evolution may be related with the final breakup of the supercontinent Columbia. Mafic rocks and trondhjemites in the northernmost portion of the belt yielded U-Pb zircon ages ca. 1110 Ma, which dates the high-grade metamorphism and the closure of the rift. This indicates that the breakup of supercontinent Columbia was followed in short sequence by the assembly of supercontinent Rodinia at ca. 1.1-1.0 Ga and that the Western Amazon belt was formed during the accretion of the Arequipa-Antofalla basement to the Amazonian craton.

  2. Geologic evolution of the Serrinha nucleus granite–greenstone terrane (NE Bahia, Brazil) constrained by U–Pb single zircon geochronology


    Rios, Débora Correia; Davis, Donald Wayne; Conceicão, Herbet; Davis, W.J.; Rosa, Maria De Lourdes Da Silva; Dickin, A.P.


    p. 175–201 U–Pb single zircon crystallization ages were determined using TIMS and sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) on samples of granitoid rocks exposed in the Serrinha nucleus granite–greenstone terrane, in NE Brazil. Our data show that the granitoid plutons can be divided into three distinct groups. Group 1 consists of Mesoarchaean (3.2–2.9 Ga) gneisses and N-S elongated TTG (Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite) plutons with gneissic borders. Group 2 is represented by ca....

  3. The India-Asia collision in north Pakistan: Insight from the U-Pb detrital zircon provenance of Cenozoic foreland basin (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Qasim, Muhammad; Jadoon, Ishtiaq A. K.; Khan, Muhammad Asif; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Fulong; Wang, Houqi; Baral, Upendra; Yue, Yahui


    The northernmost exposures of sub-Himalayan Cenozoic strata in the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxial region of north Pakistan comprises the Paleocene-Eocene marine strata in the lower part and Oligocene-Miocene nonmarine strata in the upper part. This study provides the detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Cenozoic strata in this area. The strong resemblance of U-Pb age spectra of Paleocene Hangu, Lockhart and Patala formations with those of Himalayan strata indicate an Indian plate provenance. The first appearance of Pakistan at ca. 56-55 Ma.

  4. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age, geochemistry and Nd isotope of the Guandaoshan pluton in SW Sichuan: Petrogenesis and tectonic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xianhua(李献华); LI; Zhengxiang(李正祥); ZHOU; Hanwen(周汉文); LIU; Ying(刘颖); LIANG; Xirong(梁细荣); LI; Wuxian(李武显)


    SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age, geochemical and Nd isotopic data are reported for the Neoproterozoic Guandaoshan pluton in the Yanbian region, SW Sichuan. This pluton is of typical I-type granite and emplaced at (857±13) Ma. Geochemical and Nd isotopic characters suggest that the pluton was generated by partial melting of pre-existing, young (late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic) low-K tholeiitic protolith within an intraplate anorogenic setting. The Guandaoshan pluton probably records the earliest magmatism induced by the proposed ca. 860-750 Ma mantle superplume beneath the supercontinent Rodinia.

  5. Integrated in situ U-Pb Age and Hf-O Analyses of Zircon from the Northern Yangtze Block: New Insights into the Neoproterozoic Low-δ18O Magmas in the South China Block (United States)

    Yang, Y. N.; Wang, X. C.; Li, Q. L.; Li, X. H.


    The oxygen isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic magmas from the northern Yangtze Block holds a key for the origin of large-scale 18O depletion in the HP and UHP metamorphic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, northern margin of the South China Block. We report here the integrated in situ U-Pb dating and O-Hf isotope analyses of zircon grains from sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the late Neoproterozoic Suixian Group (SG) from the northern Yangtze Block. Detrital zircon grains display age peaks of 0.73-0.74 Ga, 0.79 Ga, and 2.0 Ga. Zircon U-Pb ages together with Hf-O isotopic composition indicate provenance of SG dominantly from proximal Neoproterozoic igneous rock and likely hidden Paleoproterozoic basement along the northern margin of the Yangtze Block. The zircon δ18O values from SG range from 10.5‰ to 1.3‰. Zircon grains with negative δ18O value, typical result of magma-ice interaction, were not identified in this study. The major phase of low-δ18O (< 4‰) magmas initiated at ca. 780 Ma, long before the first glaciation event (< 715 Ma) in the South China Block. Thus caution should be taken when using low-δ18O zircon grains to infer cold climate. Low-δ18O zircon grains have large ranges of ɛHf(t) values, varying from -15.5 to 10.7, concentrating on negative ɛHf(t). This strongly argues against the possibility that the low-δ18O magma was produced by partial melting of high-temperature hydrothermally altered oceanic crust because this model predicted MORB-like Hf isotopes for the resultant low-δ18O magmas. This study emphasizes that high-T water-rock interaction and continental rifting tectonic setting are essential to generate abundant low-δ18O magmas. The important application of our study is to confirm that most of negative-δ18O zircons identified in HP and UHP metamorphic rocks may not have been inherited from their Neoproterozoic protoliths.

  6. New assemly model of Jiangnan Orogen: insight from detrital zircon geochronology of pre-Cretaceous strata, South China (United States)

    Su, J.; Dong, S.


    The Jiangnan Orogen separates the Yangtze and Cathaysian Blocks in South China and provokes a longstanding debate on the amalgamation history between the two Blocks. The assembly of the two Blocks is termed Sibao orogeny marked by undeformed Late Neoproterozoic strata (Banxi Group) overlying on the deformed Early Neoproterozoic strata (Lengjiaxi Group) in China. Detrital zircons can provide critical links in recognizing the source history of a deposit, sedimentary dispersal systems and tectonic reconstructions. Therefore, fifteen sandstone samples taken from pre-Cretaceous strata of Yangtze Block are analyzed to constrain the evolution of the South China Block (SCB), especially the assembly between Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks. The results show that the detrital zircons from the Neoproterozoic Lengjiaxi Group (ca. 830 Ma) near the boundary of large detachment fault of Hengshan have similar age populations with that in the other sites of the Jiangnan Orogen, different from that of the Kunyang and Dahongshan Groups (>960 Ma) in the southwestern margin of the Yangtze Block. The detrital zircons from Paleozoic samples have similar age populations with that in the Cathaysia Block. We infer that they originate from the Cathaysia Block, together with paleogeography, paleocurrent and former research. The detrital zircons of middle-late Jurassic sandstones in southwestern and central Yangtze yield dominant populations at 2.0-1.7 Ga and subordinate Groups of 2.6-2.4Ga, 0.7-0.8Ga and 0.6-0.4Ga. The provenance of late Triassic strata may be derived from southern Yangtze and North China Block due to the collisions among the Indosina, South China and North China Blocks, whereas the Jurassic sediments may be partly derived from uplift erosion of Jiangnan Orogen due to intra-continental orogeny induced by pacific subduction towards Eurasia Plate. The tectothermal event occurred at ca. 1.1-0.8 Ga has long been attributed to the assembly or breakup of Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks

  7. Etching zircon age standards for fission-track analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garver, J.I. E-mail:


    Nineteen laboratories that routinely measure fission-track ages in zircon were surveyed as to their principal methodology used for track revelation using chemical attack and counting procedures. The survey results show the following: (a) researchers in most labs count fission tracks with a optical microscope using at a total magnification between 1250x and 1600x ({approx}80%) with about an equal number using either a dry or oil objective (b) the majority of laboratories etch zircon with a KOH:NaOH eutectic heated in an oven between temperatures of 210 deg. C and 230 deg. C; (c) ag standards in zircon analysis do not have uniformly accepted etch times. Etching times for the widely used 28 Ma Fish Canyon Tuff (FCT) (4-60 h) and the lesser-used 16 Ma Buluk Tuff (13-55 h) vary significantly from lab to lab. Between {approx}220 deg. C and 230 deg. C, the principal range fo etching times for the FCT is between 20 and 30 h, and the mode for the Buluk Tuff is between 30 and 55 h. Three or fewer labs report etching times for the Tardee Rhyolite (22-40 h), the Bishop Tuff (10-46 h), and the Mt. Dromedary Banite (5-24 h). Variation in etching times may result in a bias in U-content which affects counting statistics. If etching is successful, strict criteria must be followed to ensure that the analyst only counts well-etched grains and that all tracks are successfully identified.

  8. Extreme lithium isotopic fractionation in three zircon standards (Plešovice, Qinghu and Temora). (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Ya; Li, Xian-Hua; Griffin, William L; Tang, Yan-Jie; Pearson, Norman J; Liu, Yu; Chu, Mei-Fei; Li, Qiu-Li; Tang, Guo-Qiang; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y


    To understand the behavior of Li in zircon, we have analyzed the abundance and isotopic composition of Li in three zircon standards (Plešovice, Qinghu and Temora) widely used for microbeam analysis of U-Pb ages and O-Hf isotopes. We have mapped Li concentration ([Li]) on large grains, using a Cameca 1280HR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS). All zircons have a rim 5-20 μm wide in which [Li] is 5 to 20 times higher than in the core. Up to ~20‰ isotopic fractionation is observed on a small scale in the rims of a single zircon grain. The measured δ(7)Li values range from -14.3 to 3.7‰ for Plešovice, -22.8 to 1.4‰ for Qinghu and -4.7 to 16.1‰ for Temora zircon. The [Li] and δ(7)Li are highly variable at the rims, but relatively homogenous in the cores of the grains. From zircon rim to core, [Li] decreases rapidly, while δ(7)Li increases, suggesting that the large isotopic variation of Li in zircons could be caused by diffusion. Our data demonstrate that homogeneous δ(7)Li in the cores of zircon can retain the original isotopic signatures of the magmas, while the bulk analysis of Li isotopes in mineral separates and in bulk-rock samples may produce misleading data.

  9. Modelling of optically stimulated luminescence of zircon : assessment of the suitability for dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkin, A.A.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den


    The mineral zircon, ZrSiO4, is a candidate material for optical dating because it exhibits luminescence after exposure to natural radioactivity. The kinetic model of zircon thermally stimulated luminescence proposed before has been modified and used to investigate optically Stimulated luminescence (

  10. Detrital and volcanic zircon U-Pb ages from southern Mendoza (Argentina): An insight on the source regions in the northern part of the Neuquén Basin (United States)

    Naipauer, Maximiliano; Tapia, Felipe; Mescua, José; Farías, Marcelo; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Ramos, Victor A.


    The infill of the Neuquén Basin recorded the Meso-Cenozoic geological and tectonic evolution of the southern Central Andes being an excellent site to investigate how the pattern of detrital zircon ages varies trough time. In this work we analyze the U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS) zircon ages from sedimentary and volcanic rocks related to synrift and retroarc stages of the northern part of the Neuquén Basin. These data define the crystallization age of the synrift volcanism at 223 ± 2 Ma (Cerro Negro Andesite) and the maximum depositional age of the original synrift sediments at ca. 204 Ma (El Freno Formation). Two different pulses of rifting could be recognized according to the absolute ages, the oldest developed during the Norian and the younger during the Rhaetian-Sinemurian. The source regions of the El Freno Formation show that the Choiyoi magmatic province was the main source rock of sediment supply. An important amount of detrital zircons with Triassic ages was identified and interpreted as a source area related to the synrift magmatism. The maximum depositional age calculated for the Tordillo Formation in the Atuel-La Valenciana depocenter is at ca. 149 Ma; as well as in other places of the Neuquén Basin, the U-Pb ages calculated in the Late Jurassic Tordillo Formation do not agree with the absolute age of the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian boundary (ca. 152 Ma). The main source region of sediment in the Tordillo Formation was the Andean magmatic arc. Basement regions were also present with age peaks at the Carboniferous, Neoproterozoic, and Mesoproterozoic; these regions were probably located to the east in the San Rafael Block. The pattern of zircon ages summarized for the Late Jurassic Tordillo and Lagunillas formations were interpreted as a record of the magmatic activity during the Triassic and Jurassic in the southern Central Andes. A waning of the magmatism is inferred to have happened during the Triassic. The evident lack of ages observed around ca. 200 Ma suggests

  11. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of lead zirconate fine powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apinpus Rujiwatra


    Full Text Available A rapid synthesis of lead zirconate fine powders by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique is reported. The influences of type of lead precursor, concentration of potassium hydroxide mineraliser, applied microwave power and irradiation time are described. The synthesised powders were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis and light scattering technique. The merits of the microwave application in reducing reaction time and improving particle mono-dispersion and size uniformity as well as the drawbacks, viz. low purity of the desired phase and increasing demand of mineraliser, are discussed in relation to conventional heating method.

  12. Characterization and microstructure of porous lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Praveenkumar; H H Kumar; D K Kharat


    Porous lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics are widely used because of their low acoustic impedance, high figure of merit and high hydrostatic sensitivity. In the present work, porous PZT ceramics were fabricated by incorporating polyethylene oxide (PEO) as pore-forming agent. Both PZT powder and PEO were mixed with a binder at different ratios and compaction was carried out. The samples were slowly heated to remove the pore-forming agent and binder without cracks, followed by controlled sintering and electrode forming. Samples were poled using corona poling technique. The ferroelectric properties and microstructure of the prepared ceramics were characterized. The correlation of porosity with microstructure and ferroelectric properties were discussed.

  13. SHRIMP Dating and Recrystallization of Metamorphic Zircons from a Granitic Gneiss in the Sulu UHP Terrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongyan


    An unusual zircon SHRIMP dating result of a granitic gneiss from the Qinglongshan eclogite-gneiss roadcut section is presented in this paper. The very peculiar and complicated internal structures, as well as the very low Th/U ratios (0.01-0.08) of the zircons indicate that they were formed by metamorphic recrystallization. Strongly in contrast with previously published zircon U-Pb ages of the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic rocks where protolith ages of 600-800 Ma are commonly recorded, only metamorphic age of 218+5 Ma, defined by 18 analytical spots either in rim or in core of zircons, are recorded in this granitic gneiss. This age represents the time of the complete metamorphic recrystallization overprint on primary magmatic zircons. The recrystallization was derived by the UHP metamorphism,and was strengthened by the early stage of retrograde metamorphic fluid activity.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Diffusivity of Holmium and Praseodymium Zirconates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopyra M.


    Full Text Available A2B2O7 oxides with pyrochlore or defected fluorite structure are among the most promising candidates for insulation layer material in thermal barrier coatings. The present paper presents the procedure of synthesis of holmium zirconate Ho2Zr2O7 and praseodymium zirconate Pr2Zr2O7 via Polymerized-Complex Method (PCM. Thermal analysis of precursor revealed that after calcination at relatively low temperature (700°C fine-crystalline, single-phase material is obtained. Thermal diffusivity was measured in temperature range 25-200°C, Ho2Zr2O7 exhibits lower thermal diffusivity than Pr2Zr2O7. Additionally, PrHoZr2O7 was synthesized. The powder in as-calcined condition is single-phase, but during the sintering decomposition of solid solution took place and Ho-rich phase precipitated. This material exhibited the best insulating properties among the tested ones.

  15. Provenance of the Miocene Alto Tunuyán Basin (33°40‧S, Argentina) and its implications for the evolution of the Andean Range: Insights from petrography and U-Pb LA-ICPMS zircon ages (United States)

    Porras, Hernán; Pinto, Luisa; Tunik, Maisa; Giambiagi, Laura; Deckart, Katja


    The Alto Tunuyán Foreland Basin in western Argentina is located immediately south of the flat-slab segment of the Central Andes and its evolution is directly related to the propagation of structures to the east. Petrographic and geochronologic studies have been performed to determine the provenance of syntectonic sediments in the basin in order to establish their relationship to the Andean orogenic activity. The analysed detrital and igneous zircons in contrast with previous data, allow us to restrict the basin age between ca. 15 and 6 Ma. Sandstones record two main contributions, one from andesitic volcanic rocks and the other from an acidic igneous source, the first probably corresponding to Miocene volcanic rocks from the Principal Cordillera (Farellones Formation) and the second to Permo-Triassic, acidic, igneous rocks from the Frontal Cordillera (Choiyoi Magmatic Province, CMP). Two secondary sources have been recorded, sedimentary and metamorphic; the first one is represented by Mesozoic rocks in the Principal Cordillera and the second by the Proterozoic/early Carboniferous Guarguaráz Complex (GC) in the Frontal Cordillera, respectively. Sandstones from the lower basin deposits (15-11 Ma) register supply pulses from the Farellones Formation reflecting the unroofing of the Principal Cordillera by uplift pulses during the middle Miocene. Sandstones from the upper basin deposits (ca. 11-9 Ma) record an increase in material derived from the CMP, reflecting important uplift of the Frontal Cordillera. A thick, ca. 9 Ma old ignimbrite within the basin indicates an eruption in the Frontal Cordillera. Detrital zircons from the CMP have been detected also in the lower basin deposits, suggesting either recycling of Mesozoic deposits containing CMP zircons or an early paleorelief of the Frontal Cordillera. The good correlation between the age of the detrital zircons of the CMP and the GC in the lower basin deposits supports recycling of Mesozoic sedimentary deposits.

  16. Zircon U-Pb Geochronology, Hf Isotopic Composition and Geological Implications of the Neoproterozoic Huashan Group in the Jingshan Area, Northern Yangtze Block, China (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Yang, K.


    In the northern Yangtze Block, a clear angular unconformity between the Mesoproterozoic sequences (e.g. Dagushi Group) and the overlying Neoproterozoic strata (e.g. Huashan Group) marks the the Jinning orogeny. A combined study of Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb ages for detrital zircons from Huashan Group can provide information on the crustal evolution of sedimentary provenances and the timing of the Jinning orogeny. Detrital zircons from Huashan Group have two major U-Pb age populations of about 2.0Ga, 2.65Ga, and three subordinate age groups of about 0.82Ga, 2.5Ga, 2.9Ga with minor >3.0Ga ages. The youngest five analyses yield a weighted average age of 816±9Ma, which is consistent with that of interlayered basalt (824±9Ma, Deng et al., 2013) and roughly defines the minimum depositional age of Huashan Group. Detrital zircons of Huashan Group mostly have two stage Hf isotope model ages (TDM2) between 3.0 to 3.3Ga, indicating that the northern Yangtze Block experienced significant continental crustal growth during the Paleo- to Meso-archean. Similar U-Pb ages of detrital zircons have been obtained from Precambrian sedimentary rocks in the northern Yangtze Block from previous studies (Liu et al., 2008; Guo et al., 2014 and references therein). Recently, ca. 2.65Ga A-type granites had been reported from the Kongling and Huji area, which likely record the thermally stable lithosphere (Chen et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2015). In combination with this study, it documents the widespread 2.6-2.7Ga magmatic rocks in the northern Yangtze Block. Zhao et al. (2013) demonstrated both the ca. 850Ma tonalite and trondhjemite of the Huangling igneous complex were formed in a continental arc setting. This suggests the Miaowan-Huashan oceanic basin proposed by Bader et al. (2013) has not been closed at ca. 850Ma. This evidence, together with the depositional age of the Huashan Group, indicates the Jinning orogeny took place at 850-820 Ma. [1] Bader et al., 2013 Tectonics [2] Deng et al

  17. Significance of zircon trace element geochemistry, the Shihu gold deposit,western Hebei Province, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ye; LI Shengrong; ZHANG Huafeng; LIU Xiaobin; LI Zhenzhen; AO Chong; YAO Meijuan


    The Shihu gold deposit is characterized by gold-bearing quartz-polymetallic sulfides and quartz veins. Both Mapeng granitoids batholith and intermediate-basic dikes intruded the metamorphic basement rocks, and are spatially associated with gold mineralization. Trace element abundances in zircons from the Shihu gold deposit, determined by laser-ablation microprobe ICPMS analysis, are sensitive to source rock type and crystallization environment. Concentrations of 21 trace elements were determined for zircons from granitoid rocks, diorites,quartz diorite porphyrites and gold-bearing quartz veins revealed some elemental characteristics and chondrite-normalized trace element patterns from different samples. There were no distinctive differences in REE concentrations of zircons from plutonic rocks and quartz veins, indicating that they probably had the same origin. Relatively flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns with (Yb/Sm)N ratios less than 60 characterized zircons from quartz diorite porphyrites and quartz veins. The highest Nb/Ta ratios were found in zircons from quartz diorite porphyrites, whereas the lowest ratios were found in quartz vein zircons. The Nb/Ta ratios were broadly correlated with HREE+Y contents, and had weak positive correlations with the depth of the Eu negative anomalies. High values U up to 0.4% and Th up to 0.1%, as well as positive correlations with REE+Y characterized zircons from quartz vein. The lowest Th/U ratios of zircons present in quartz veins reflected the relatively high concentration of U in hydrothermal fluid, and high Pb concentrations only typified quartz vein grains relatively enriched in U and Th.Zircons from quartz diorite porphyrites showed the most pronounced Ce anomalies, whereas weak Ce anomalies were typical of zircons from quartz veins, in which Eu/Eu* of zircons had a broadly negative correlation with Ce/Ce*. Trace element geochemistry of zircons from mineralized quartz veins and plutonic rocks confirmed that the

  18. On the geometric relationship between deformation microstructures in zircon and the kinematic framework of the shear zone (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs; Habler, Gerlinde


    We present novel microstructural analyses of zircon from a variety of strained rocks. For the first time, multiple plastically deformed zircon crystals were analyzed in a kinematic context of the respective host shear zones. Our aim was to derive how the orientation of zircon grains in a shear zone affects their deformation, based on careful in situ observations. For sampling, we selected zircon-bearing rocks that were deformed by simple shear. Samples covered a range of P-T conditions and lithologies, including various meta-igneous and meta-sedimentary gneisses. Microstructural analyses of zircon crystals in situ with scanning electron backscatter diffraction mapping show strong geometrical relationships between orientations of: (i) the long axes of plastically deformed zircon crystals, (ii) the crystallographic orientation of misorientation axes in plastically deformed zircon crystals and (iii) the foliation and lineation directions of the respective samples. We assume that zircon crystals did not experience post-deformation rigid body rotation, and thus the true geometric link can be observed. The relationships are the following: (a) plastically deformed zircon crystals usually have long axes parallel to the mylonitic foliation plane; (b) crystals with axes oriented at an angle > 15° to the foliation plane are undeformed or fractured. Zircon crystals that have axes aligned parallel or normal to the stretching lineation within the foliation plane develop misorientation and rotation axes parallel to the [001] crystallographic direction. Zircon grains with the axis aligned at 30-60° to the lineation within the foliation plane often develop either two low Miller indices misorientation axes or one high Miller indices misorientation axis. Host phases have a significant influence on deformation mechanisms. In a relatively soft matrix, zircon is more likely to develop low Miller indices misorientation axes than in a relatively strong matrix. These relationships are

  19. Study on Preparation and Leaching Properties of Zirconate Synroc%锆酸盐人造岩石的制备及其浸出性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 赖振宇; 卢忠远; 潘社奇; 赵颜红


    Using the analysis reagent of oxygen cerium(CeO2) , zirconium oxide(ZrO2) and calcium oxide(CaO) , calcium carbonate(CaCO3) , calcium flouride(CaF2) as raw material, CaCeZr2O7 is synthetized though the solid phase reaction. By XRD, SEM, density, porosity and leaching rate to study synthesis and the leaching properties of zirconate. The results show that the zirconate mineral is more pure by CaO as calcium materials in 1 500 C heat preservation under three hours, its density and porosity show were 3. 26 g/cm3 and 32. 4%, respectively. The leaching rate of cerium is 7. 14 × 10-6 g/(m2·d) , and its capacity of Ce can reach to 24. 38% , so it can be used as base material for high level radioactive waste.%采用分析纯氧化铈(CeO2)、氧化锆(ZrO2)和氧化钙(CaO)、碳酸钙(CaCO3)、氟化钙(CaF2)为原料,经固相反应合成具有烧绿石结构的CaCeZr2O7.通过XRD、SEM、密度和显气孔率以及浸出率的测试,对锆酸盐矿物的合成以及对Ce的浸出性能进行了研究.结果表明,在1 500 ℃下保温3h用CaF2做钙质原料可得到浸出率较低的锆酸盐固化体样品,其密度和显气孔率分别为3.26 g/cm3和32.4%,铈的归一化浸出率为7.14×10-6 g/(m2·d),对Ce的包容量可达24.38%.由于其包容量大等优良性能,可作为高放废物人造岩石固化的基材.

  20. Deciphering tectonic provenance signatures from the trace element geochemistry of igneous zircon (United States)

    Grimes, C. B.; Wooden, J. L.; Vazquez, J. A.


    The ability to correlate stable isotope ratios and trace element signatures with age on single crystals, coupled with resistance to chemical and physical weathering make zircon a useful complement in a wide range of geologic investigations. Zircon trace element concentrations broadly reflect parental magma composition, although studies show that crystal chemistry also imparts a significant control on the shape of REE patterns. Concentrations of select elements (e.g., Hf) and various trace element ratios (e.g., Th/U, Yb/Gd, Eu/Eu*) commonly correlate with crystallization temperature (from Ti-in-zircon thermometry) for suites of zircon precipitated during magmatic fractionation in zircon-saturated systems. Other trace element ratios, primarily U/Yb and Th/Yb plotted against Hf or Y discriminate zircon sampled in situ from mid-ocean ridges from those formed in arc-related ('continental') settings. However, these geochemical discriminations are limited in that ~20% of published mid-ocean ridge zircon compositions plot within the 'continental' zircon field and they fail to distinguish zircon from other magmatic settings such as ocean islands. To improve geochemical zircon discrimination diagrams for diverse tectonic environments, trace element criteria that distinguish lavas from different tectonic settings are considered along with a broad suite of elements routinely measured by the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG ion probe. Arc-related magmas exhibit enrichment in large ion lithophile (LIL) elements (i.e., U, Th) with respect to typical MORB, and are depleted in niobium (Nb) with respect to both OIB and MORB lavas. OIB lavas are typically enriched in LIL with respect to MORB, but lack the Nb-depletion characteristic of arcs. The ratios U/Yb, Yb/Nb, and Th/Nb can therefore be used to discriminate lavas from these different settings. Discrimination diagrams based on these elemental ratios in zircon also define separate (though partly overlapping) fields for modern mid

  1. First fission-track dating of zircons from Mesozoic complexes of the Crimea (United States)

    Solov'ev, A. V.; Rogov, M. A.


    The fission-track dating of detrital zircon from Mesozoic terrigenous complexes of the Crimean mountains has been carried out for the first time. A young zircon population from the Tavria Group of sandstones of the Yaman ravine was dated at 220.1 ± 12.6 Ma, and the zircon population from the same deposits of the Crimea’s southern coast, at 193.6 ± 13.1, 167.1 ± 12.1, and 154.0 ± 10.2 Ma. Sandstones from the lowermost parts of the Demerdzhi Formation on Mount Yuzhnaya Demerdzhi comprise the Middle Jurassic young zircon population (169.9 ± 8.6 Ma). The age of the young zircon population from the Chenka Formation in the region of the Settlement of Observatoriya corresponds to the initial Middle Jurassic (178.9 ± 9.1 Ma). The timing of the cooling of the Mount Kastel massif was established at 149.0 ± 10.9 Ma. In all the considered cases, the age of terrigenous complexes is close to the age of enclosed zircons. Volcanic and/or magmatic rocks that formed synchronously with accumulation of terrigenous complexes in the sedimentary basin are likely to have been sources of zircons. Hence, the data obtained allow the timing of the Triassic-Jurassic magmatism in the Crimean mountains to be refined and three stages of magmatism to be distinguished: Late Triassic (Carnian?), poorly expressed Early Jurassic, and Middle Jurassic (Aalenian-Bathonian).

  2. U-Pb LA-SF-ICP-MS zircon geochronology of the Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece: palaeotectonic constraints for Gondwana-derived terranes in the Eastern Mediterranean (United States)

    Meinhold, Guido; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Frei, Dirk; Himmerkus, Felix; Reischmann, Thomas


    The Pirgadikia Terrane in northern Greece forms tectonic inliers within the Vardar suture zone bordering the Serbo-Macedonian Massif to the southwest. It comprises Cadomian basement rocks of volcanic-arc origin and very mature quartz-rich metasedimentary rocks. U-Pb laser ablation sector-field inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses of detrital zircons from the latter reveal a marked input from a Cadomian-Pan-African source with minor contribution from Mesoproterozoic, Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean sources. The metasedimentary rocks are correlated with Ordovician overlap sequences at the northern margin of Gondwana on the basis of their maturity and zircon age spectra. The Pirgadikia Terrane can be best interpreted as a peri-Gondwana terrane of Avalonian origin, which was situated close to the Cadomian terranes in the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Palaeozoic, very much like the Istanbul Terrane. The second unit investigated is the Vertiskos Terrane, which constitutes the major part of the Serbo-Macedonian Massif in Greece. It comprises predominantly igneous rocks of Silurian age and minor metasedimentary rocks of unknown age and provenance. U-Pb analyses of detrital zircons from a garnetiferous mica schist of the Vertiskos Terrane indicate derivation from 550 to 1,150 Ma-old source rocks with a major Cadomian peak. This, combined with minor input of >1,950 Ma-old zircons and the absence of ages between ca. 1.2 and 1.7 Ga suggests a NW Africa source. The protolith age of the garnetiferous mica schist is presumably Early Ordovician. One sample of garnet-bearing biotite gneiss, interpreted as meta-igneous rock, comprises predominantly subhedral zircons of igneous origin with late Middle Ordovician to Silurian ages. We suggest that the rock association of the Vertiskos Terrane is part of an ancient active-margin succession of the Hun superterrane, comparable to successions of the Austro- and Intra-Alpine Terranes. The new data of this study provide evidence

  3. Initial subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Oceanic plate in NE China: Constraints from whole-rock geochemistry and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes of the Khanka Lake granitoids (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jinjiang; Wilde, Simon A.; Zhou, Jianbo; Wang, Meng; Ge, Maohui; Wang, Jiamin; Ling, Yiyun


    Northeast China is located in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) and was influenced by Paleo-Pacific subduction during the Mesozoic. Abundant granitoids from the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic in NE China record this process, including the Khanka Lake granitoids, which resulted in extensive growth of continental crust in the area. However, the question of how and when the Paleo-Pacific tectonic system began to affect NE China is still highly controversial. The Khanka Lake granitoids can be subdivided into two main components based on their geochemical characteristics, namely granodiorite and syenogranite. The granodiorite has a U-Pb age of 249 Ma and is adakite-like (enriched in LREE and LILEs with high Mg#, Sr, La/Yb, Sr/Y and Na2O/K2O), with zircon εHf(t) values of - 0.65 to 1.61, produced by the magma mixing between melting of the lower continental crust and juvenile basaltic magma. The syenogranite has zircon U-Pb ages of 209 to 199 Ma and geochemical features of highly fractionated I-type granites, with high SiO2, total alkalis and low Mg (and Mg#), Fe, Cr and Ni, and positive zircon εHf(t) of 1.72 to 5.12, indicating an origin from remelting of juvenile crust. The granitoids were intruded by felsic veins between 195 and 184 Ma with positive zircon εHf(t) from 0.57 to 5.32. The εHf(t) values of the granitoids become more positive as the zircon U-Pb ages become younger, suggesting continuous melting of juvenile crust during subduction. It is concluded that the Khanka Lake granitoids record the early stage of subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Oceanic plate, which commenced at least ca. 250 Ma ago.

  4. Rhyolite magma evolution recorded in isotope and trace element composition of zircon from Halle Volcanic Complex (United States)

    Słodczyk, E.; Pietranik, A.; Breitkreuz, C.; Fanning, C. M.; Anczkiewicz, R.; Ehling, B.-C.


    Voluminous felsic volcanic magmas were formed in Central Europe at the Carboniferous/Permian boundary in numerous pull-apart basins; one of which is the Saale Basin, which holds the Halle Volcanic Complex (HVC), the focus of this study. The rhyolites in the HVC formed laccoliths and scarce lavas, and occur in two different textural types: fine and coarse porphyritic. Zircon isotope and trace element composition was analysed in four units, two per each textural type. Zircon from the different units shows similar ranges in εHf (- 4.1 to - 8.1) and δ18O values (6.51-8.26), indicating similar sources and evolution processes for texturally diverse rhyolites from the HVC. Scarce inherited zircon ranges from ~ 315 Ma to ~ 2100 Ma with the major groupings around 315-550 Ma. These ages are typical for Devonian arc magmatic activity (350-400 Ma) and Cadomian igneous rocks (500-600 Ma), which occur in the basement presently underlying the HVC. Therefore, the source of the rhyolites was multicomponent and probably represented by a basement composed of various crystalline rocks. Trace elements in zircon show similar distributions in all analysed samples, which is broadly consistent with zircon cores crystallizing in a less evolved magma undergoing limited fractional crystallization, whilst the zircon rims crystallized from a magma undergoing extensive fractional crystallization of major and accessory minerals. Interestingly, comparison of the zircon composition in HVC rhyolites and other rhyolites worldwide shows that the observed trends are similar in such rhyolites despite the values being different. This may suggest that most of the zircon in rhyolites crystallizes at a similar stage in the rhyolite magma evolution, from magmas undergoing extensive crystallization of major phases and apatite. The implication is that most of the zircon represents late stage crystallization, but also that antecrystic component may be present and preserve information on the development of

  5. Cosmogenic and nucleogenic 3He in apatite, titanite, and zircon (United States)

    Farley, K. A.; Libarkin, J.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Amidon, W.


    Cosmogenic 3He was measured in apatite, titanite, and zircon and cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz at 13 depth intervals in a 2.7-m long drill core in a Miocene ignimbrite from the Altiplano of Bolivia. All three 3He depth profiles as well as the 21Ne profile attenuate exponentially with depth, indicating that both of these isotopes are cosmogenic in origin with no significant contribution from other sources. The attenuation lengthscale for 3He production of Λ = 180 ± 11 g/cm 2 is consistent with expectations for neutron spallation, and is identical to that found for the cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz. By normalizing the measured 3He concentrations to 21Ne and using the independently known cosmogenic 21Ne production rate, the apparent cosmogenic 3He production rates in apatite, titanite, and zircon were respectively found to be 112, 97, and 87 atoms/g/yr at sea-level and high latitude. The formal uncertainty on these estimates is ˜ 20% (2 σ), and arises in equal parts from uncertainties in the measured 3He/ 21Ne ratios and the uncertainty in the 21Ne production rate. However an additional factor affecting the apparent 3He production rate in these phases arises from the long stopping range of spalled 3He and tritium (which decays to 3He). Because all three accessory phases have higher mean atomic number than major rock-forming minerals, they will have lower 3He production rates than their surroundings. As a consequence the long stopping ranges will cause a net implantation of 3He and therefore higher apparent production rates than would apply for purely in-situ production. Thus these apparent production rates apply only to the specific grain sizes analyzed. Analysis of sieved zircon aliquots suggests that a factor of 2 increase in grain size (from ˜ 50 to ˜ 100 μm cross-section) yields a 10% decrease in apparent production rate. While this effect warrants further study, the grain sizes analyzed here are typical of the accessory phases commonly encountered, so the apparent

  6. U-Pb (LA-ICPMS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for granitoids of the Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex, Ceara Central Domain: implication for neoproterozoic syncollisional magmatism in north Borborema Province, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Felipe Grandjean da; Araujo, Carlos Eduardo Ganade de; Vasconcelos, Antonio Maurilio, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Amaral, Wagner da Silva, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia; Rodrigues, Joseneusa Brilhante, E-mail: [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    The Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex (TSQC) is one of the largest Neoproterozoic plutonic manifestations in the north Borborema Province (NE Brazil). It represents an anatectic/igneous association characterized by a number of magmatic pulses that occurred in the 650-610 Ma interval. In this paper, we present U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for quartz monzonite and quartz diorites of the southern part of TSQC. The quartz monzonite belong to a hybrid granitoid association, including monzonite, syenites and quartz syenites, all with abundant mafic magmatic enclaves. A quartz monzonite sample yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 634 {+-} 10 Ma and a TDM age of 2.69 Ga. The quartz diorites are much more homogeneous in composition and yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 618 {+-} 23 Ma and a TDM age of 2.19 Ga. The presence of coeval mantle-derived magmatism and diatexites (crustal anatexis) post-dating high-pressure metamorphism (ca. 650 Ma), and together with high-temperature metamorphism (ca. 630-610 Ma), suggests that this large magmatic manifestation evolved in a collisional setting, probably related to slab break off during the Western Gondwana amalgamation. (author)

  7. Trace-element record in zircons during exhumation from UHP conditions, North-East Greenland Caledonides (United States)

    McClelland, W.C.; Gilotti, J.A.; Mazdab, F.K.; Wooden, J.L.


    Coesite-bearing zircon formed at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) conditions share general characteristics of eclogite-facies zircon with trace-element signatures characterized by depleted heavy rare earth elements (HREE), lack of an Eu anomaly, and low Th/ U ratios. Trace-element signatures of zircons from the Caledonian UHP terrane in North-East Greenland were used to examine the possible changes in signature with age during exhumation. Collection and interpretation of age and trace-element analyses of zircon from three samples of quartzofeldspathic gneiss and two leucocratic intrusions were guided by core vs. rim zoning patterns as imaged by cathodoluminesence. Change from igneous to eclogite-facies metamorphic trace-element signature in protolith zircon is characterized by gradual depletion of HREE, whereas newly formed metamorphic rims have flat HREE patterns and REE concentrations that are distinct from the recrystallized inherited cores. The signature associated with eclogite-facies metamorphic zircon is observed in coesite-bearing zircon formed at 358 ?? 4 Ma, metamorphic rims formed at 348 ?? 5 Ma during the initial stages of exhumation, and metamorphic rims formed at 337 ?? 5 Ma. Zircons from a garnet-bearing granite emplaced in the neck of an eclogite boudin and a leucocratic dike that cross-cuts amphibolite-facies structural fabrics have steeply sloping HREE patterns, variably developed negative Eu anomalies, and low Th/U ratios. The granite records initial decompression melting and exhumation at 347 ?? 2 Ma and later zircon rim growth at 329 ?? 5. The leucocratic dike was likely emplaced at amphibolite-facies conditions at 330 ?? 2 Ma, but records additional growth of compositionally similar zircon at 321 ??2 Ma. The difference between the trace-element signature of metamorphic zircon in the gneisses and in part coeval leucocratic intrusions indicates that the zircon signature varies as a function of lithology and context, thus enhancing its ability to aid in

  8. Annealing of natural metamict zircons: II high degree of radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Colombo, M


    In situ time-dependent high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction was used to study the amorphous to crystalline transition in natural zircons which are characterized by a high degree of radiation damage. It was possible to distinguish two stages of the annealing process: (i) the recovery of the heavily disturbed but still crystalline domains and (ii) the recrystallization of the amorphous regions. The first stage is very fast under the chosen experimental conditions and, at least apparently, is not thermally activated. The second stage is a diffusion-controlled process, whose products (zircon or zircon and zirconia phases) are strongly correlated to the annealing temperature.

  9. Paleozoic magmatism and metamorphism in the Central Tianshan block revealed by U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope studies of detrital zircons from the South Tianshan belt, NW China (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Zhao, Guochun; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Sun, Min; Han, Yigui; Hou, Wenzhu; Liu, Dongxing; Wang, Bo; Liu, Qian; Xu, Bing


    As a major Precambrian microcontinent in the southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), the Central Tianshan block (CTS) in the Chinese Tianshan is essential for understanding the final assembly of the southern CAOB. It experienced multistage Paleozoic magmatism and metamorphism, but the detailed processes are still controversial and far from being completely understood. This paper reports coupled U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data of detrital zircons from late Paleozoic (meta-)sedimentary strata in the South Tianshan belt, which can provide new insight into deciphering the Paleozoic evolution of the eastern segment of the CTS block. Characterized by typical oscillatory zoning and high Th/U ratios (> 0.2), detrital zircons in the Permian sedimentary samples yield dominant age populations at ca. 505-490 Ma, 475-440 Ma, 430-400 Ma and 340-250 Ma, pinpointing the development of four episodes of magmatism in the eastern CTS block. Particularly, Ordovician-Silurian (475-440 Ma) zircons, possessing low negative εHf(t) values, predominate in sedimentary strata in and surrounding the CTS block, indicating that the 475-440 Ma magmatic rocks probably constitute the main body of the CTS block. The origin of this (early Paleozoic) episode of magmatism was most likely related to the southward subduction of the Junggar Ocean beneath the CTS block. Carboniferous-Triassic (340-250 Ma) zircons have dominantly positive εHf(t) values, probably derived from the post-collisional juvenile rocks in the CTS block. Combined with previous studies, our data suggest that the single source terrane for the sampled strata was the CTS block, which had been a topographic high providing substantial detritus to the surrounding areas at least since the Early Permian. In the metasedimentary sample, detrital zircons mostly show partially/fully recrystallized internal textures and low Th/U ratios (isotopes and Ti-in-zircon thermometer of metamorphic zircons in this study, as well as previous

  10. Stages of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic magmatism in the Song Ma belt, NW Vietnam: evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope composition (United States)

    Hieu, Pham Trung; Li, Shuang-Qing; Yu, Yang; Thanh, Ngo Xuan; Dung, Le Tien; Tu, Vu Le; Siebel, Wolfgang; Chen, Fukun


    The Song Ma zone in NW Vietnam bears important tectonic implications as a potential subduction corridor between the Indochina and South China blocks. On the basis of U-Pb ages, the Hf isotopic characteristics of zircons and the geochemical composition of granitoids, a two-stage magmatic evolution process of the Song Ma zone at ~290-260 and ~245-230 Ma can be proposed. Isotopic analyses indicate magmatic contributions from Neoproterozoic oceanic island basalt, Proterozoic continental crust, and depleted mantle or juvenile lithosphere. By combining geochronological and geochemical data from the granitoid rocks, we suggest that the staged magmatic processes of Song Ma zone may be related to a long-lasting period of ocean subduction (ca. 290-260 Ma) and subsequent syn-/post-collisional evolution (ca. 245-230 Ma).

  11. Neoarchean-Early Paleoproterozoic and Early Neoproterozoic arc magmatism in the Lützow-Holm Complex, East Antarctica: Insights from petrology, geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology and Lu-Hf isotopes (United States)

    Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Yang, Qiong-Yan; Santosh, M.


    The Lützow-Holm Complex (LHC) of East Antarctica forms part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian high-grade metamorphic segment of the East African-Antarctic Orogen. Here we present new petrological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data for meta-igneous rocks including charnockite, felsic gneiss, metagabbro, and mafic granulite from the LHC and evaluate the Neoarchean to Early Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.5 Ga) and Early Neoproterozoic (ca. 1.0 Ga) arc magmatic events. The trace element geochemical signatures reveal a volcanic arc affinity for the charnockites from Sudare Rocks and Vesleknausen and felsic gneiss from Rundvågshetta, suggesting that the protoliths of these rocks were derived from felsic arc magmas. In contrast, metagabbros from Skallevikshalsen and Austhovde, occurring as boudins in metasediments, show non-arc signatures (within-plate basalt or mid-oceanic ridge basalt). The upper intercept ages of magmatic zircons in charnockite plotted on concordia diagrams yielded 2508 ± 14 Ma (Sudare Rocks) and 2490 ± 18 Ma (Vesleknausen), clearly suggesting a Neoarchean to Early Paleoproterozoic arc magmatic event. A subsequent thermal event during Early Neoproterozoic traced by 206Pb/238U age of oscillatory-zoned core of zircon in mafic granulite from Langhovde (973 ± 10 Ma) is consistent with a similar Early Neoproterozoic magmatic event reported from the LHC, suggesting a second stage of arc magmatism. The timing of peak metamorphism has been inferred from 206Pb/238U mean ages of structureless zircons in metagabbros from Skallevikshalsen and Austhovde, mafic granulite from Langhovde, and felsic gneiss from Rundvågshetta in the range of 551 ± 5.4 to 584 ± 5.0 Ma. Zircon Lu-Hf data of Neoarchean charnockites from Sudare Rocks and Vesleknausen indicate that the protolith magma was sourced from Paleo- to Neoarchean juvenile components mixed with reworked ancient crustal materials. Protolith magmatic rock of the felsic gneiss from Rundvågshetta might

  12. Positron annihilation lifetime study of radiation-damaged natural zircons (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Gaugliardo, P.; Farnan, I.; Zhang, M.; Vance, E. R.; Davis, J.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Knott, R. B.; Mudie, S.; Buckman, S. J.; Sullivan, J. P.


    Zircons are a well-known candidate waste form for actinides and their radiation damage behaviour has been widely studied by a range of techniques. In this study, well-characterised natural single crystal zircons have been studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). In some, but not all, of the crystals that had incurred at least half of the alpha-event damage of ∼1019 α/g required to render them structurally amorphous, PALS spectra displayed long lifetimes corresponding to voids of ∼0.5 nm in diameter. The long lifetimes corresponded to expectations from published Small-Angle X-ray Scattering data on similar samples. However, the non-observation by PALS of such voids in some of the heavily damaged samples may reflect large size variations among the voids such that no singular size can be distinguished or. Characterisation of a range of samples was also performed using scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, Raman scattering and X-ray scattering/diffraction, with the degree of alpha damage being inferred mainly from the Raman technique and X-ray diffraction. The observed void diameters and intensities of the long lifetime components were changed somewhat by annealing at 700 °C; annealing at 1200 °C removed the voids entirely. The voids themselves may derive from He gas bubbles or voids created by the inclusion of small quantities of organic and hydrous matter, notwithstanding the observation that no voidage was evidenced by PALS in two samples containing hydrous and organic matter.

  13. Paleoproterozoic tectonic transition from collision to extension in the eastern Cathaysia Block, South China: Evidence from geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology and Nd-Hf isotopes of a granite-charnockite suite in southwestern Zhejiang (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Xiwen; Zhai, Mingguo; Santosh, M.; Ma, Xudong; Shan, Houxiang; Cui, Xiahong


    The Badu complex and associated Paleoproterozoic granitoids are among the oldest known rocks in the Cathaysia Block in South China. The Paleoproterozoic units of the Badu complex are dominantly composed of metapelitic rocks and meta-greywackes. Here we report LA-SS-ICP-MS (laser ablation-split-stream inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) zircon U-Pb data from a newly discovered garnet-bearing granite which show an emplacement age of 1929 ± 15 Ma and metamorphism at 1872 ± 34 Ma. We also report U-Pb ages of 1886 ± 16 Ma, 1858 ± 7 Ma, 1848 ± 11 Ma from a gneissic granodiorite, and two charnockites respectively. The garnet-bearing granite is peraluminous with A/CNK range from 1.1 to 1.3. The rock shows relatively high SiO2, K2O and Rb contents, and low total REE, Sr, CaO and ferromagnesian components, typical of leucogranites. The whole rock Nd two-stage model age(TDM2(Nd)) of this rock is ca. 2.7 Ga, zircon Hf crustal model ages(TDMC(Hf)) peak at about 2.7 Ga, and abundant inherited zircons occur with U-Pb ages in the range of 2044 to 2803 Ma. Evidences from zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope compositions, whole rock Nd isotopes and whole rock major and trace elements suggest a metasedimentary protolith, and that the garnet-bearing granite (leucogranite) was derived by partial melting in a thickened crust at about 1.93 Ga. The gneissic granodiorite and charnockites show indistinguishable major and trace element features, as well as zircon Hf and whole rock Nd isotope compositions, indicating that they were generated from the same source rocks. The gneissic granodiorite and charnockites are ferroan, calc-alkalic and metaluminous with A/CNK range from 0.80 to 0.98. They display relatively low SiO2 contents and Ga/Al ratios, suggesting their A-type affinity. Their zircon TDMC(Hf) age-peak is 2.9 Ga and whole rock TDM2(Nd) ages range from 2.8 to 2.9 Ga. These high temperature rocks were generated possibly through the partial melting of ancient amphibolites (2

  14. Zircon from historic eruptions in Iceland: Reconstructing storage and evolution of silicic magmas (United States)

    Carley, T.L.; Miller, C.F.; Wooden, J.L.; Bindeman, I.N.; Barth, A.P.


    Zoning patterns, U-Th disequilibria ages, and elemental compositions of zircon from eruptions of Askja (1875 AD), Hekla (1158 AD), ??r??faj??kull (1362 AD) and Torfaj??kull (1477 AD, 871 AD, 3100 BP, 7500 BP) provide insights into the complex, extended, histories of silicic magmatic systems in Iceland. Zircon compositions, which are correlated with proximity to the main axial rift, are distinct from those of mid-ocean ridge environments and fall at the low-Hf edge of the range of continental zircon. Morphology, zoning patterns, compositions, and U-Th ages all indicate growth and storage in subvolcanic silicic mushes or recently solidified rock at temperatures above the solidus but lower than that of the erupting magma. The eruptive products were likely ascending magmas that entrained a zircon "cargo" that formed thousands to tens of thousands of years prior to the eruptions. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Shock Condition Forensics and Cryptic Phase Transformations from Crystallographic Orientation Relationships in Zircon (United States)

    Timms, N. E.; Erickson, T. M.; Cavosie, A. J.; Pearce, M. A.; Reddy, S. M.; Zanetti, M.; Tohver, E.; Schmieder, M.; Nemchin, A. A.; Wittmann, A.


    We present an approach to constrain pressure and temperature conditions during impact events involving identification of cryptic histories of phase transformations from orientation relationships in shocked zircon, linked to new P-T phase diagrams.

  16. A software tool to evaluate crystal types and morphological developments of accessory zircon (United States)

    Sturm, Robert


    Computer programs for an appropriate visualization of crystal types and morphological developments of accessory zircon are not available hitherto. Usually, typological computations are conducted by using simple calculation tools or spread-sheet programs. In practice, however, high numbers of data sets including information of numerous zircon populations have to be processed and stored. The paper describes the software ZIRCTYP, which is a macro-driven program within the Microsoft Access database management system. It allows the computation of zircon morphologies occurring in specific rock samples and their presentation in typology diagrams. In addition, morphological developments within a given zircon population are presented (1) statistically and (2) graphically as crystal sequences showing initial, intermediate, and final growth stages.

  17. U-Th-Pb Systematics in Zircon and Apatite from the Chicxulub Crater, Mexico (United States)

    Kring, D. A.; Shaulis, B. J.; Schmieder, M.; Lapen, T. J.


    We probe the U-Th-Pb systematics in zircon and apatite to determine if post-impact hydrothermal activity produced discernible effects that are related to the duration, thermal evolution, and chemistry of the hydrothermal system.

  18. Detrital Zircon Ages of Hanjiang River:Constraints on Evolution of Northern Yangtze Craton, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie; Gao Shan; Yuan Honglin; Gong Hujun; Zhang Hong; Xie Shiwen


    Clastic sedimentary rocks are natural samples of the exposed continental crust over large ideal sample for studying the formation and evolution of the northern Yangtze craton. Here we report laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer U-Pb ages of 122 detrital zircons from one sand sample of the Hanjiang River. The 110 concordant zircons reveal four major age groups of 768,444, 212, and 124 Ma, which well correlate with known magmatic events in the northern Yangtze craton. A minor group is present at 1 536 Ma, which is less known in the study area. Only seven zircons have ages of >1 750 Ma. Our results show that the Early Paleozoic, Late Triassic, and Early Cretaceous are important episodes of zircon growth and crustal growth/reworking in addition to the previously documented Neoproterozoic event. Our results suggest very limited exposures of Paleoproterozoic and Archean rocks in the northern parts of the Yangtze craton.

  19. Detrital Zircons U-Pb Age and Hf Isotope from the Western Side of the Taiwan Strait: Implications for Sediment Provenance and Crustal Evolution of the Northeast Cathaysia Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghang Xu


    Full Text Available In situ detrital zircons U-Pb and Hf isotope analyses from the Min and Jiulong River of Southeast China were carried out to identify sediment provenance and crustal evolution of the northeast Cathaysia Block. Detrital zircons from both rivers displayed similar spectrum peaks at 236, 155, and 110 Ma, but samples from the Min River displayed a distinct Caledonian peak (ca. 460 Ma and contained more Precambrian particles (ca. 1.8 Ga, which likely stemmed from the upstream area of the Wuyishan terrain. Interestingly, because Taiwan Island cannot supply Caledonian and Paleoproterozoic detrital materials and because the Ou and Jiulong River also lack components from these two populations, it is highly likely that the sediment in the western Taiwan coast partially originates from the Min River. The sediments from the Min River in Fujian are also considered the most likely source of the beach sands of western Taiwan (Chen et al. 2006. However, we stress that the ~1.8 Ga age source in the western Taiwan sediments was found and recognized. Combining U-Pb dating and Hf-isotope suggests that the northeast Cathaysia Block contains some Neoarchean detrital zircons, which derived from the incorporation of juvenile mantle materials and re-melting of ancient crustal substances. The wide ranges of εHf(t value in the Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic demonstrate the re-melting of ancient crustal materials with minor juvenile mantle materials. Phanerozoic zircons stemmed from re-melting and recycling of Proterozoic crustal materials with or without the invasion of juvenile mantle-derived magmas.

  20. Li zoning in zircon as a potential geospeedometer and peak temperature indicator (United States)

    Trail, Dustin; Cherniak, Daniele J.; Watson, E. Bruce; Harrison, T. Mark; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Szumila, Ian


    Zircon Li concentrations and δ7Li values may potentially trace crustal recycling because continental and mantle-derived zircons yield distinct values. The usefulness of these differences may depend upon the retentivity of zircon to Li concentrations and isotopic ratios. Given the relatively high Li diffusivities measured by Cherniak and Watson (Contrib Mineral Petrol 160: 383-390, 2010), we sought to discover the scenarios under which Li mobility might be inhibited by charge-compensating cations. Toward this end, we conducted "in" diffusion experiments in which Li depth profiles of synthetic Lu-doped, P-doped, and undoped zircon were determined by nuclear reaction analysis. In separate experiments, Li was ion-implanted at depth within polished natural zircon slabs to form a Gaussian Li concentration profile. Diffusively relaxed concentration profiles were measured after heating the slabs to determine diffusivities. In all experiments, which ranged from 920 to 650 °C, calculated diffusivities are in agreement with a previously established Arrhenius relationship calibrated on trace-element-poor Mud Tank zircon. Our revised Arrhenius relationship that includes both datasets is: D_{Li} = 9.60 × 10^{ - 7} exp [ {{ - 278 ± 8{{kJ}/{mol}^{ - 1} }}{RT}} ]{m}^{ 2} {{s}}^{ - 1} We also observed that synthetic sector-zoned zircon exhibits near-step-function Li concentration profiles across sectors that correlate with changes in the rare earth element (REE) and P concentrations. This allowed us to examine how Li diffusion might couple with REE diffusion in a manner different than that described above. In particular, re-heating these grains revealed significant Li migration, but no detectable migration of the rare earth elements. Thus, unlike most elements in zircon which are not mobile at the micrometer scale under most time-temperature paths in the crust, Li zoning, relaxation of zoning, or lack of zoning altogether could be used to reveal time-temperature information

  1. Characteristics of Rare Earth Elements of Zircons from Mesozoic Volcanic Rocks in Luanping Region, Hebei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong; Yuan Hongli; Hu Zhaochu; Liu Xiaoming


    Rare earth elements of the zircons from the Mesozoic volcanic rocks in Luanping region, Hebei, were analyzed the results reflect that the average values of δEu and (Lu/Gd)N are 0.49 and 21.8 respectively in the zircons from the top part of Tiaojishan Formation;but the average values of δEu and (Lu/Gd)N are 0.15, 0.06, 0.09 and 14.51, 15.66, 16.25 respectively in the zircons from the lower, and upper part of the Tuchengzi Formation and the bottom bed of the Zhangjiakou Formation. The results show that the characteristics of the zircons from the Tuchengzi Formation are coincident with those of the zircons from the Zhangjiakou Formation, but are different from those of the zircons from the Tiaojishan Formation, and imply that the Tuchengzi Formation has close relation with the Zhangjiakou Formation. Combining the results above with the former isotopic dating results of the volcanic rocks, the authors draw the conclusions as follows: The Tuchengzi Formation not only has a long interval period with the Tiaojishan Formation, but also is very different from the Tiaojishan Formation in zircon geochemical characteristics. The Tuchengzi Formation not only is nearly continuous with the Zhangjiakou Formation in time, but also is coincident with the Zhangjiakou Formation in geochemistry of zircons. The results imply that the Tuchengzi Formation and the Zhangjiakou Formation were formed in the same geological background, that is, there are not the boundary of the J3-K1 and the interface of the transition of tectonic framework between the Tuchengzi Formation and the Zhangjiakou Formation in the Luanping region. The research shows that the (Lu/Gd)N, δEu are two important parameters which are relatively stable in the analysis of zircons from Crust-source;but the values of ∑LREE of zircons from Crust-source change greatly, especially the abundance of La element, so some ratios of rare earth elements related with La (or ∑LREE) are not usable in determining the characteristics

  2. Provenance of zircon of the lowermost sedimentary cover, Estonia, East-European Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsa, M.


    Full Text Available Bulk and accessory mineral composition of fresh and weathered crystalline rocks, and sedimentary deposits overlying the crystalline-sedimentary unconformity have been examined in core samples from 28 drill holes in Estonia. Before the Late Vendian to Early Cambrian regional subsidence and sedimentation, the region represented a flat plateau within the Svecofennian Domain. Palaeo-and Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks, regardless their different initial mineral composition, subcrop under the Upper Vendian/Lower Cambrian sedimentary cover as usually intensely weathered rocks (saprolites composed of residual quartz, altered micas and prevailing clay minerals mainly of the kaolinite group. Thus, the bulk mineral composition of any basement crystalline rocks imparts no specific inherited rock-forming minerals into the covering sedimentary rocks. From the variety of accessory and opaque minerals of crystalline rocks, only zircon populations survived in saprolites. Crystalline rocks of different origin yield different zircons. Relationships between the zircon typology of the basement rocks having specific areas of distribution and the sedimentary rocks immediately overlying those crystalline rocks were the main subject of this study. The result is that siliciclastic sedimentary rocks covering weathered crystalline rocks only in places inherited zircons with typological features characteristic of specific basement areas. In northeastern Estonia, local lenses of the Oru Member (the earliest Upper Vendian sedimentary rocks in Estonia resembling the debris of weathered crystalline rocks yield accessory zircon which in a 1-2 m thick layer above the basement surface is similar to the zircons of the underlying weathering mantle of certain crystalline rocks. In the next unit, the Moldova Member, up to 43 m above the basement surface, a mixture of zircons resembling those of various local basement rocks has been found. Further upwards, in the Vendian and Lower

  3. Preparation of nanosized barium zirconate powder by precipitation in aqueous solution


    Boschini, Frédéric; Guillaume, Bernard; Rulmont, André; Cloots, Rudi


    Several ways were explored to synthesize barium zirconate by soft chemistry methods in aqueous solution. In the first method the synthesis of barium zirconate was initiated by urea decomposition, through an homogeneous precipitation of barium and zirconium salts followed by a "low temperature" thermal treatment. The kinetic of the reaction and the optimum urea/cation ratio have been determined by means of X-ray diffraction and Inductive Coupled Plasma analyses. It has been demonstrated that a...

  4. Zircon geochronology of intrusive rocks from Cap de Creus, eastern Pyrenees



    New petrological and U–Pb zircon geochronological information has been obtained from intrusive plutonic rocks and migmatites from the Cap de Creus massif (Eastern Pyrenees) in order to constrain the timing of the thermal and tectonic evolution of this northeasternmost segment of Iberia during late Palaeozoic time. Zircons from a deformed syntectonic quartz diorite from the northern Cap de Creus Tudela migmatitic complex yield a mean age of 298.8±3.8 Ma. A syntectonic granodiori...

  5. Comparison of SHRIMP U-Pb dating of monazite and zircon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yusheng; LIU Dunyi; JIAN Ping


    Monazite dating is an important technique in geochronological studies. However, monazite U-Pb dating by SHRIMP is much less popular than zircon in geochronological applications. This paper compares the results of SHRIMP U-Pb dating of monazites and zircons separated from two granite samples, indicating that monazite SHRIMP U-Pb dating at the Beijing SHRIMP Centre is feasible and provides identical results within error.

  6. Petrogenesis of keratophyes in the Pingshui Group,Zhejiang: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZhiHong; XING GuangFu; GUO KungaYi; DONG YongGuan; CHEN Rong; ZENG Yong; LI LongMing; HE ZhengYu; ZHAO Ling


    Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic as well as whole-rock geochemical data are reported for keratophyes in the Pingshui Group, Zhejiang. The results are used to discuss their petrogenesis and geological significance. The keratophyes were dated at 904±8 to 906±10 Ma. These intermediate-felsic rocks are characterized by high LREE contents end depletion of HREE and HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, P), resembling arc-derived rocks. The keratophyes exhibit positive εHf(t) values of 8.6 to 15.4, consistent with their εNd(t) values of 6.4 to 7.9 but far away from those of crust-derived rocks. Such features indicate that they were likely originated from prompt reworking of juvenile crust by arc-continent collision during the early-Neoproterozoic assembly between the Cathaysia and Yangtze Blocks. Combining with their Hf model ages, we suggest that there may exist not only remarkable growth of juvenile crust at ca.1.3-1.1 Ga but also production of juvenile arc-derived crust along the southeastern margin of the Yangtze Block (e.g., the Pingshui area) at ca.1.0-0.9 Ga.

  7. Geochronology of Zircon from Modern Plutons Beneath Two Contrasting Arc Volcanoes (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.


    Ion microprobe (SHRIMP RG) 238U-230Th zircon dating documents recent crystallization of shallow plutons beneath two caldera volcanoes where magmas evolved mainly by crystallization differentiation. Mount Mazama, Oregon, is a medium-K calc-alkaline Cascade arc volcano whose 7.7-ka climactic eruption ejected granodiorite and related plutonic blocks during formation of Crater Lake caldera. Mount Veniaminof, Alaska, is a medium-K tholeiitic Aleutian arc volcano that ejected granodiorite, diorite, and gabbro blocks in its 3.7-ka caldera-enlarging eruption. Zircons in four granodiorite blocks from Mazama crystallized at various times between 20 ka and greater than 300 ka, with concentrations of model ages near 50-70, 110, and 200 ka that correspond to periods of dacitic volcanism dated by K-Ar (Bacon and Lowenstern, 2005, EPSL 233:277-293). Multiple-age zircon populations are common. The youngest zircon model ages in blocks from different locations around the caldera are similar to ages of nearby volcanic vents and may help map the distribution of intrusions within a composite pluton. Mazama zircons typically have many 10's to 100's of ppm U and Th, and grew relatively late in high- crystallinity magmas. U-Th model ages of zircon from a 27-ka rhyodacite, the only eruptive unit known with common zircon, are similar to those from granodiorite. Survival of these recycled crystals in zircon- undersaturated hydrous rhyodacitic magma suggests little time from entrainment to the 27-ka eruption. In contrast, the voluminous 7.7-ka climactic rhyodacite is virtually lacking in zircon, indicating dissolution of any granodioritic debris in the hot, vigorously growing silicic magma body during the intervening period. Veniaminof erupted basaltic through rhyodacitic magmas over the past 250 kyr. Gabbro, diorite, and miarolitic granodiorite blocks from Veniaminof represent cumulate mush and vapor-saturated residual melt segregations (Bacon, Sisson, and Mazdab, 2006, EOS 87:36:U41B-05

  8. Role of mantle-derived magma in genesis of early Yanshanian granites in the Nanling Range, South China: in situ zircon Hf-O isotopic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Although a number of petrographic observations and isotopic data suggest that magma mixing is common in genesis of many granite plutons, it is still controversial whether the mantle-derived magmas were involved in granites. We carried out in this study a systematic analysis of in situ zircon Hf-O isotopes for three early Yanshanian intrusions dated at ca. 160 Ma from the Nanling Range of Southeast China. The Qinghu monzonite has very homogeneous zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions, εHf(t) =11.6±0.3 and δ18O=5.4‰±0.3‰. In combination with whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data, the parental magma of the Qinghu monzonite were likely derived from the partial melting of recently-metasomatized, phlogopite-bearing lithospheric mantle without appreciable crustal contamination. The Lisong and Fogang granites and the mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) within the Lisong granites have a wide range of zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions, with Hf and O isotopes being negatively correlated within each pluton. The Lisong MMEs were crystallized from a mantle-derived magma, similar to the parental magma of the Qinghu monzonite, with small amount of crustal assimilation. The Lisong and Fogang granites were formed by reworking of meta-sedimentary materials by mantle-derived magmas and mixing of the mantle-and sediment-derived melts to varying degrees. It is thus concluded that these two Yanshanian granites in the Nanling Range were formed associated with growth and differentiation of continental crust.

  9. Tracing long term tectonic evolution of accretionary orogens by U-Pb zircon geochronology: Proterozoic to Jurassic tectonics of the Santander Massif, northern Colombia (United States)

    Valencia, V. A.; Cardona, A.; Gehrels, G. E.; Ruiz, J.; Ibañez, M.


    Accurate orogenic models are nedded to reconstruct complex tectonic histories of long lived convergent margins. Integrated zircon U-Pb geochronology on igneous, sedimentary and metasedimentry rocks within single crustal domains is a powerful tool, as it can be used to trace the timing of rock forming events, magmatic style and episodity, and identify crustal recycling. U-Pb detrital zircon and magmatic geochronology was carried on multiple litostratigraphic units of the Santander Massif in the northeastern Andes, in order to reconstruct its long term Late Proterozoic to Early Mesozoic tectonic evolution. Major zircon forming events includ well defined Grenvillian, Late Neoproterozoic to Ordovician, Silurian, Early Permian and Jurassic events. Major peaks of activity at ca. 197 Ma, 440-410 Ma and 470-490 Ma and 950-1052 Ma, support the existence of continental scale tectonic cycles. Older Mesoproterozoic (1.3-1.5 Ga) crustal input in metasediments and magmatic rocks link these units to crustal recycling on the margins of the Amazon Craton, whereas the older 950-1052 Ma peak indicates the link of this crustal segment with other Andean Grenvillian remnant. Previous interpretations of the Paleozoic Silgara Formation seem incorrect, as acquired dates from this study includ different metamorphic units, deposited and formed after the Silurian and Permian during final stages of Pangea's assemblage, probably as Laurentia migrated to its final Alleghanian position. Finally the presence of the NW South America Jurassic arc is also present in the region by granitoid ages. The limited input of this arc signature within the contemporaneous and overlapping Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks suggest that this arc was developed in a back arc setting.

  10. Tectonic and sedimentary linkages between the Belt-Purcell basin and southwestern Laurentia during the Mesoproterozoic ca. 1.60-1.40 Ga (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Dainel, Christohper G; Doe, Michael F


    Mesoproterozoic sedimentary basins in western North America provide key constraints on pre-Rodinia craton positions and interactions along the western rifted margin of Laurentia. One such basin, the Belt-Purcell basin, extends from southern Idaho into southern British Columbia and contains a >18-km-thick succession of siliciclastic sediment deposited ca. 1.47–1.40 Ga. The ca. 1.47–1.45 Ga lower part of the succession contains abundant distinctive non-Laurentian 1.61–1.50 Ga detrital zircon populations derived from exotic cratonic sources. Contemporaneous metasedimentary successions in the southwestern United States–the Trampas and Yankee Joe basins in Arizona and New Mexico–also contain abundant 1.61–1.50 Ga detrital zircons. Similarities in depositional age and distinctive non-Laurentian detrital zircon populations suggest that both the Belt-Purcell and southwestern successions record sedimentary and tectonic linkages between western Laurentia and one or more cratons including North Australia, South Australia, and (or) East Antarctica. At ca. 1.45 Ga, both the Belt-Purcell and southwest successions underwent major sedimentological changes, with a pronounced shift to Laurentian provenance and the disappearance of the 1.61–1.50 Ga detrital zircon. Upper Belt-Purcell strata contain strongly unimodal ca. 1.73 Ga detrital zircon age populations that match the detrital zircon signature of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Yavapai province to the south and southeast. We propose that the shift at ca. 1.45 Ga records the onset of orogenesis in southern Laurentia coeval with rifting along its northwestern margin. Bedrock uplift associated with orogenesis and widespread, coeval magmatism caused extensive exhumation and erosion of the Yavapai province ca. 1.45–1.36 Ga, providing a voluminous and areally extensive sediment source–with suitable zircon ages–during upper Belt deposition. This model provides a comprehensive and integrated view of

  11. Morphological Characteristics of Detrital Zircon Grains from Source to Sink (Western Australia) (United States)

    Markwitz, V.; Kirkland, C.


    Detrital zircon studies have become the tool of choice to address a wide range of geological questions including basin evolution, geodynamic setting, paleogeographic reconstructions, and determining source-sink relationships. However, grain destruction during transportation may be critical in understanding the detrital zircon record, yet it has not been explored in detail. In the magmatic crystallization environment zircon crystal shape is effectively a function of the magma chemistry and temperature. We address to what extent the zircon population represents an artefact of preservation, or a meaningful record of the magmatic events within the source terrain. We use image analysis of previously SIMS U-Pb dated zircon crystals to quantify how zircon grain shapes relate to the chemical composition of magmatic and detrital zircon crystals. We achieve this by testing the correlation between shape factors and the uranium, thorium content, apparent alpha dose, and isotopic signature of individual zircons with statistical methods. We focus our investigation on two different areas of Western Australia: (1) the Archean of the Yilgarn Craton and (2) the Proterozoic of the Musgrave Province, and their associated Proterozoic basin sediments: (1) The Yilgarn craton represents a Neoarchean amalgamation of c. 3.8 Ga and 2.6 Ga granite-greenstone belts including a variety of gneisses, metasedimentary and metavolcanic rock formations, and granites. Along the northern edge of the craton a series of four Proterozoic basins, with variable tectonic and metamorphic overprinting overlay this basement. (2) The West Musgrave Province consists of an east-west trending Meso- to Neoproterozoic belt dominated by granites and volcanics deformed by several major orogenic events between c. 1.35 Ga and 350 Ma. Based on age and Hf isotopic relationships the bedrock of the Musgrave Province is the source for the Neoproterozoic to Early Carboniferous Amadeus Basin to its north. Using rigorous

  12. Recovering the primary geochemistry of Jack Hills zircons through quantitative estimates of chemical alteration (United States)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark


    Despite the robust nature of zircon in most crustal and surface environments, chemical alteration, especially associated with radiation damaged regions, can affect its geochemistry. This consideration is especially important when drawing inferences from the detrital record where the original rock context is missing. Typically, alteration is qualitatively diagnosed through inspection of zircon REE patterns and the style of zoning shown by cathodoluminescence imaging, since fluid-mediated alteration often causes a flat, high LREE pattern. Due to the much lower abundance of LREE in zircon relative both to other crustal materials and to the other REE, disturbance to the LREE pattern is the most likely first sign of disruption to zircon trace element contents. Using a database of 378 (148 new) trace element and 801 (201 new) oxygen isotope measurements on zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia, we propose a quantitative framework for assessing chemical contamination and exchange with fluids in this population. The Light Rare Earth Element Index is scaled on the relative abundance of light to middle REE, or LREE-I = (Dy/Nd) + (Dy/Sm). LREE-I values vary systematically with other known contaminants (e.g., Fe, P) more faithfully than other suggested proxies for zircon alteration (Sm/La, various absolute concentrations of LREEs) and can be used to distinguish primary compositions when textural evidence for alteration is ambiguous. We find that zircon oxygen isotopes do not vary systematically with placement on or off cracks or with degree of LREE-related chemical alteration, suggesting an essentially primary signature. By omitting zircons affected by LREE-related alteration or contamination by mineral inclusions, we present the best estimate for the primary igneous geochemistry of the Jack Hills zircons. This approach increases the available dataset by allowing for discrimination of on-crack analyses (and analyses with ambiguous or no information on spot placement or

  13. A study of complex discordance in zircons using step-wise dissolution techniques (United States)

    Mattinson, James M.


    Step-wise dissolution techniques applied to a variety of zircon samples, including those with combined inheritance plus later isotopic disturbance, reveal both the complexity of zircon isotopic systematics, and successfully “see through” this complexity to extract high-quality age information. The chemical procedures for the partial dissolution steps must be designed to extract completely all the U and Pb associated with the zircon digested in each step, in order to avoid large, laboratory-induced fluctuations in U/Pb ratio from step to step. In general, relatively short initial partial dissolution steps remove disturbed zircon domains characterized by very high U concentrations and low 206Pb/238U ages. In some cases the initial step yields the lowest 206Pb/238U age, reflecting both the high accessibility and solubility of the most disturbed domains. In other cases, disturbed domains evidently reside deep within the zircons, and are attacked only when the second or third steps penetrate to the interior via cracks or flaws to “mine out” these domains. In all the samples in this study, and regardless of the details of the steps, about a week of digestion time at 80°C removed most of the highly disturbed domains, leaving further partial dissolution steps and/or the total digestion of the final residue to sample highly refractory (i.e., highly insoluble), relatively low U zircon domains. The early partial digestion steps also remove virtually all the common Pb associated with the zircons. Study of partially digested zircons by scanning electron microscope reveals that at least in part, the disturbed, high-U, highly soluble domains and the less (un-?) disturbed, low-U, highly refractory domains are defined by primary igneous zoning on a micron or even sub-micron scale, well below the resolution of the “SHRIMP”, for example. In the case of zircons lacking any inheritance, the residue analyses yield near-concordant, highly precise results. In the case of

  14. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth's Sedimentary Cycle. (United States)

    Hadlari, Thomas; Swindles, Graeme T; Galloway, Jennifer M; Bell, Kimberley M; Sulphur, Kyle C; Heaman, Larry M; Beranek, Luke P; Fallas, Karen M


    Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provides clear evidence for erosion of Carboniferous strata in the northern Cordillera as a sediment source for Upper Cretaceous strata. Our results help to calibrate Earth's sedimentary cycle by showing that recycling dominates sedimentary provenance for the refractory mineral zircon.

  15. Magmatic oxygen fugacity estimated using zircon-melt partitioning of cerium (United States)

    Smythe, Duane J.; Brenan, James M.


    Using a newly-calibrated relation for cerium redox equilibria in silicate melts (Smythe and Brenan, 2015), and an internally-consistent model for zircon-melt partitioning of Ce, we provide a method to estimate the prevailing redox conditions during crystallization of zircon-saturated magmas. With this approach, oxygen fugacities were calculated for samples from the Bishop tuff (USA), Toba tuff (Indonesia) and the Nain plutonic suite (Canada), which typically agree with independent estimates within one log unit or better. With the success of reproducing the fO2 of well-constrained igneous systems, we have applied our Ce-in-zircon oxygen barometer to estimating the redox state of Earth's earliest magmas. Using the composition of the Jack Hills Hadean zircons, combined with estimates of their parental magma composition, we determined the fO2 during zircon crystallization to be between FMQ -1.0 to +2.5 (where FMQ is the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer). Of the parental magmas considered, Archean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) compositions yield zircon-melt partitioning most similar to well-constrained modern suites (e.g., Sano et al., 2002). Although broadly consistent with previous redox estimates from the Jack Hills zircons, our results provide a more precise determination of fO2, narrowing the range for Hadean parental magmas by more than 8 orders of magnitude. Results suggest that relatively oxidized magmatic source regions, similar in oxidation state to that of 3.5 Ga komatiite suites, existed by ∼4.4 Ga.

  16. Zircon-apatite U-Pb geochronology, zircon Hf isotope composition and geochemistry of granite batholith in the northern Mexico: Implications for Tectonomagmatic evolution of southern Cordillera. (United States)

    Mahar, M. A.; Goodell, P.


    We present the zircon-apatite U-Pb ages and zircon Hf isotope composition of the granite batholith exposed at the western boundary of Chihuahua. Granidiorite samples were analyzed from both, north and south of the Rio El Fuerte and Sinforosa Lineament. Based on previous studies, the WWN-EES trending Sinforosa Lineament is proposed as the manifestation of a terrane boundary between Seri in the north and Tahue terrane in the south. Zircon U-Pb data indicate that the magmatism spans a time period of 36 Ma from 89 to 53 Ma to the north of the Sinforosa Lineament while granodiorites in the south of the Sinforosa Lineament are dated at 59 Ma. The U-Pb apatite ages are variable in the north of the Sinforosa Lineament and range from 86-51 Ma. These apatite dates are 1-28 Ma younger than the corresponding zircon U-Pb crystallization ages. This indicates variable cooling rates and moderate to shallow emplacement. In contrast, in the south of the Sinforosa Lineament, the U-Pb apatite ages (64-59 Ma) are indistinguishable from the zircon U-Pb age (59 Ma), indicating rapid cooling and shallow emplacement. Zircon morphology and U-Pb dating revealed the absence of inherited component in the zircon ages, as no inheritance of any age has been observed. Most of the northwestern Mexico is underlain by Precambrian-Paleozoic-Jurassic basement. However, in the study area, U-Pb dating does not support the involvement of the older basement in generating the granite magmas. The weighted mean initial ɛHf (t) isotope composition of granodiorites on both sides of the Sinforosa Lineament varies from +2 to +5. However, Hf isotope composition in the south of the Sinforosa Lineament is more heterogeneous and relatively evolved with weighted Mean ɛHf (t) = +1.45. The Hf isotope composition is consistent with the previously reported near bulk silicate Sr-Nd isotope values. We suggest that the magmatic rocks in this region are not derived from melting of a felsic older crust beneath the batholith

  17. Formation history and protolith characteristics of granulite facies metamorphic rock in Central Cathaysia deduced from U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic studies of single zircon grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jinhai; ZHOU Xinmin; Y. S. O'Reilly; ZHAO Lei; W. L. Griffin; WANG Rucheng; WANG Lijuan; CHEN Xiaomin


    The petrochemical as well as zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic studies of granulite facies metamorphic rock from the Taoxi Group in eastern Nanling Range, Central Cathaysia indicate that its protolith is the sedimentary rock with low maturation index. The clastic materials are mostly from middle Neoproterozoic (~736 Ma) granitoid rocks with minor Neoarchaean and Paleoproterozoic rocks. The timing of this Neoproterozoic magmatism is in agreement with the second period of magmatism widespread surrounding the Yangtze Block. Hf isotopic data indicate that the Neoproterozoic granitoids resulted from the recycled Paleoproterozoic mantle-derived crustal materials. The sedimentary rock was deposited in Late Neoproterozoic Era, and carried into low crust in Early Paleozoic. The partial melting of the meta-sedimentary rock took place at about 480 Ma and subsequently granulite facies metamorphism occurred at ca. 443 Ma. The zircons forming during this time interval (Early Paleozoic) show large Hf isotope variations, and their -Hf(t) values increase from -13.2 to +2.36 with decreasing age, suggesting the injection of mantle-derived materials during partial melting and metamorphism processes in the Early Paleozoic. Calculation results show that this metamorphic rock, if evolved to Mesozoic, has similar isotopic composition to the nearby Mesozoic high Si peraluminous granites, implying that this kind of granulite facies metamorphic rock is probably the source material of some Mesozoic peraluminous granitoids in eastern Nanling Range.

  18. Silurian A-type granitoids in the southern margin of the Tongbai-Dabieshan: Evidence from SHRIMP zircon geochronology and geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Changqian; SHE; Zhenbing; XU; Pin; WANG; Lingyan


    SHRIMP U-Pb dating on magmatic zircons extracted from a riebeckite quartz syenite in the Huangyangshan pluton in Suizhou, the southern margin of Tongbai-Dabieshan yielded an age of 439±6Ma. According to the morphology and high Th/U ratios of the zircons, the age is interpreted as crystallization timing of the pluton. The Huangyangshan pluton is composed of peralkaline quartz syenite, alkaline granite and syenite. All of the rocks are characterized by high agpaitic index (A.I.=(Na+K)/Al, molar ratio) and Fe-number [FeOT/(FeOT+MgO)], low CaO and MgO contents, enrichment of high field strength elements (i.e. Nb, Zr, Ga, Y, Hf) and light REEs, evidently negative Eu anomalies and high Ga/Al ratios, which are consistent with anorogenic A-type granitoids. Being part of the South Qinling-South Dabieshan Paleozoic alkaline rock belt, the Huangyangshan A-type granitoid pluton results from the Paleozoic extension-initial rifting in the northern margin of the Yangtze Craton related to the opening of the eastern Paleo-Tethyan Ocean.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured CaZrO{sub 3} and BaZrO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibiapino, Amanda Laura; Figueiredo, Laysa Pires de [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, MT (Brazil); Lascalea, Gustavo E. [LISAMEN/CONICET, Ciudad de Mendoza (Argentina); Prado, Rogerio Junqueira, E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, Cuiaba - MT (Brazil)


    In this work, nanostructured samples of barium zirconate (BaZrO{sub 3}) and calcium zirconate (CaZrO{sub 3}) were synthesized by the gel-combustion method, using glycine as fuel. The ceramic powders were calcined at 550 Degree-Sign C for 2 h and subsequently heat treated at 1350 Degree-Sign C for 10 min (fast-firing). The X-ray diffraction technique was employed to identify and characterize the crystalline phases present in the synthesized powders, using the Rietveld method. Monophasic nanostructured samples of BaZrO{sub 3} and CaZrO{sub 3} presenting average crystallite sizes of around 8.5 and 10.3 nm, respectively, were found after fast-firing. (author)

  20. The tectonic evolution of the Irtysh tectonic belt: New zircon U-Pb ages of arc-related and collisional granitoids in the Kalaxiangar tectonic belt, NW China (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Klemd, Reiner; Gao, Jun; Xiang, Peng; Xu, Xing-Wang; You, Jun; Wang, Xin-Shui; Wu, Chu; Li, Hao; Ke, Qiang


    Precise geochronological constraints of the Irtysh tectonic belt situated between the Saur Island Arc and the Altay Terrane are crucial to a better understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Recently, we discovered repeatedly deformed arc-related and collisional granitoids in the Kalaxiangar tectonic belt (KTB), which is located in the eastern part of the Irtysh tectonic belt. In this study, we report new whole-rock geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of the arc-related and collisional granitoids. Our data reveal that 1) arc-related granodioritic porphyries formed at ca. 382-374 Ma. Recrystallized zircon grains from a (ultra-)mylonitic granodiorite of the Laoshankou zone in the southern KTB display a U-Pb age of ca. 360 Ma; 2) syn-collisional granodioritic porphyries, which distribute along faults and parallel to the cleavage, were emplaced at ca. 367-356 Ma, with εHf(t) values varying from + 7.8 to + 14.2 and Hf model ages from 873 to 459 Ma; 3) a post-collisional A-type granodioritic porphyry, which crosscuts the NW-NNW trending schistosity of the metasedimentary country rocks at a low angle, has an age of ca. 324-320 Ma, while the εHf(t) values range from + 7.6 to + 14.4 with Hf model ages from 850 to 416 Ma; 4) post-collisional strike-slip A-type granite dykes, exposed along strike-slip faults, gave ages between 287 and 279 Ma, whereas the εHf(t) values range from + 4.9 to + 12.7 and the Hf model ages from 995 to 500 Ma; and 5) A-type biotite granite dykes, which intruded along conjugate tension joints, have ages of 274-271 Ma, and εHf(t) values from + 1.5 to + 13.2 with Hf model ages from 1196 to 454 Ma. Consequently, we propose that the collision between the Saur Island Arc and the Altay Terrane occurred in the Early Carboniferous (ca. 367-356 Ma) and the subsequent post-collisional tectonic process continued to the Late Carboniferous (ca. 324-320 Ma). It is further suggested that the Irtysh tectonic belt

  1. Cretaceous-Cenozoic tectonic history of the Jiaojia Fault and gold mineralization in the Jiaodong Peninsula, China: constraints from zircon U-Pb, illite K-Ar, and apatite fission track thermochronometry (United States)

    Deng, Jun; Wang, Changming; Bagas, Leon; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Lu, Yongjun


    The Jiaojia Fault (JJF) in the Jiaodong area of eastern China is an important NNE-trending structure that is subsidiary to the regional Tancheng-Lujiang (Tan-Lu) Fault Zone, and hosts >1200 t of gold reserves contained in disseminated and stockwork ore, dominantly in the footwall of the fault. We present new zircon U-Pb, apatite fission track, and illite K-Ar data along the JJF and have delineated its tectonic history focusing on its formation and reactivation. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the Shangzhuang granite is a composite body with ages between 132 ± 1 and 127 ± 1 Ma. Illite K-Ar ages for the fault's gouge range from 83 ± 2 to 68 ± 2 Ma, and the measured apatite fission track ages for ores are between 55 and 21 Ma. Previous zircon U-Pb geochronology and structural studies suggest that the JJF was originally activated in the Jurassic during 160-150 Ma as a sinistral fault. The JJF was a normal fault in the Early Cretaceous due to NW-SE orientated tension and NE-SW compression, which lasted from 135 to 120 Ma. This was followed by sinistral strike-slip faulting due to NW-SE compression and NE-SW tension during 120-110 Ma, and it changed to normal displacement at ca. 110 Ma. Our apatite fission track data analysis and thermal modeling of representative samples suggest that there was a subsequent dextral reactivation of the fault at ca. 55 Ma. Previous age data of ca. 130-110 Ma for gold mineralization along the JJF coincides with the Early Cretaceous magmatism and is coeval with the transition from normal faulting to sinistral strike-slip faulting of the JJF in Early Cretaceous, which is interpreted to be due to changing direction of the subducting Pacific Plate.

  2. U-Pb dating by zircon dissolution method using chemical abrasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, Lucy, E-mail: [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Chemale Junior, Farid [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia; Hartmann, Leo A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Dussin, Ivo A.; Kawashita, Koji [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP, (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Geocronologicas


    Chemical abrasion was carried out on zircons grains of the Temora II standard for U-Pb dating prior to analyses using in situ Laser Ablation-Multi Collector Ion Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS) followed by the Isotope Dissolution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ID-TIMS) method. The proposed methodology was herein applied in order to reduce primarily the effects of secondary Pb loss, the presence of common lead and/or silicate impurities. Nine Temora II zircon grains were analyzed by the laser ablation method yielding an age of 418.3 +- 4.3 Ma. Zircon grains of a same population were separated for chemical abrasion before dissolution and mass spectrometry analyses. Six fractions of them were separated for isotope dissolution using {sup 235}U-{sup 205}Pb mixed spike after we have checked and assured the laboratory conditions of low blank values for total Pb of less than 2 pg/g. The obtained U-Pb zircon age by the ID-TIMS method was 415.7 +- 1.8 Ma (error 0.43 %) based on four successful determinations. The results are consistent with the published ages for the Temora diorite (Temora I - 416.75 +- 1.3 Ma; Temora II - 416.78 +- 0.33 Ma) and established as 416 +- 0.33 Ma. The technique is thus recommended for high precision U-Pb zircon analyses (error < 1 %), mainly for high resolution stratigraphic studies of Phanerozoic sequences. (author)

  3. Himalaya evolution at Paleogene-Neogene boundary unraveled by zircon age spectrum from Arabian Sea Sediments (United States)

    Feng, Han; Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Hanzhi


    Although virtually all the intensive orogenic activities of Himalaya occurred in Neogene, the tectonic evolution of this high mountain range in Paleogene is poorly understood. Investigations of tectonic change pattern at Paleogene-Neogene boundary are important to better understand the interaction between mountain building and climate evolution. Here we present new U-Pb ages of zircon grains from Indus Fan sediments to constrain the orogenic history of Himalaya at Paleogene-Neogene boundary. 11 samples between late Oligocene and early Miocene from ODP 117 cores are dated by the zircon U-Pb technique. We calculate relative contributions of potential sources by counting zircon grains for each sample, and the quantized results indicate Himalaya contributed sediments to the coring site, and an extremely high input from Great and Tethyan Himalaya during late Oligocene-early Miocene. Four samples in Pleistocene are also dated for comparison, which indicates that high proportion of Lesser Himalaya has contributed to the sediment in Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the high contribution of Great and Tethyan Himalaya at Paleogene-Neogene boundary might correlate with the beginning of activity of MCT and extension of STD with leucogranite intrusion along Himalaya, which give rise to the extensive Great Himalaya exhumation. Our study demonstrates that zircon U-Pb dating technique is a good tool to reconstruct erosional history of mountain building on a tectonic timescale. Key words: ODP, Himalaya, Indus Fan, zircon U-Pb dating, Paleogene-Neogene boundary

  4. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating in Jingshan "migmatitic granite", Bengbu and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wenliang; WANG Qinghai; YANG Debin; LIU Xiaochun; GUO Jinghui


    The petrographic characteristics of Jingshan "migmatitic granite" and the occurrence of the magmatic zircons indicate that the granite was formed by normal crystallization of felsic melts. All zircons in the granite have inherited cores and fine-scale oscillatory zoning rims of magmatic origin. It is realized that the granite was formed at 160.2±1.3 Ma through dating magmatic zircons. The generation of the granitic magma could be related to the lithospheric mantle and/or lower crust delamination after the ultrahigh pressure metamorphism (UHPM) in Triassic. Most inherited zircons yield the ages of 217.1±6.6 Ma, which is consistent with the peak UHPM in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt. Some of the inherited zircons (433-722 Ma) constitute a discordia line with the upper intercept age of 850+85/-68 Ma and a lower intercept age of 261+100/-140 Ma. These ages imply that the granite could be derived from the partial melting of the crustal materials of the South China Block that was intensively superimposed by the UHPM. The UHPM could be the reason for the major Pb loss at ±220 Ma.

  5. Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 Ma) magmatism in the southern Qiangtang subterrane, central Tibet: Product of slab break-off? (United States)

    Li, Yalin; He, Haiyang; Wang, Chengshan; Wei, Yushuai; Chen, Xi; He, Juan; Ning, Zijie; Zhou, Aorigele


    The lack of Early Cretaceous magmatic records with high-quality geochemical data in the southern Qiangtang subterrane has inhibited a complete understanding of the magmatic processes and geological evolution of central Tibet. In this study, we present zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb and zircon Hf isotopic data for the newly discovered Moku pluton in the southern Qiangtang subterrane. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the Moku granites were emplaced in the Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 Ma) and are coeval with the hosted dioritic enclaves. The granites are slightly peraluminous and high-K calc-alkaline I-type granites and characterized by initial (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70605-0.70658, negative ɛ Nd(t) values (-4.44 to -3.35), and Nd isotopic model ages of 1.19-1.29 Ga. The granites have a wide range of zircon ɛ Hf(t) values (-24.4 to 2.6) and concordant ratios of (206Pb/204Pb)t = 18.645-18.711, (207Pb/204Pb)t = 15.656-15.666, and (208Pb/204Pb)t = 38.751-38.836. The coeval dioritic enclaves are medium- to high-K calc-alkaline rocks with zircon ɛ Hf(t) values of -13.3 to +3.6. The geochemical signatures of the host granites and coeval dioritic enclaves indicate that the Moku pluton was most likely generated by partial melting of the ancient lower crust with contributions from mantle-derived melts. Our new data, together with other recently published data, indicate that the ca. 100 Ma magmatic rocks were derived from anatexis of the Qiangtang lower crust that mixed with upwelling asthenosphere materials in response to the slab break-off of the northward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang oceanic lithosphere.

  6. Constraints on the timing of Co-Cu ± Au mineralization in the Blackbird district, Idaho, using SHRIMP U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime plus zircon ages of related Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses and metasedimentary rocks (United States)

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.; Lund, Karen; Evans, Karl V.; Fanning, C. Mark; Mazdab, Frank K.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Pillers, Renee M.


    The Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, contains the largest known Co reserves in the United States. The origin of strata-hosted Co-Cu ± Au mineralization at Blackbird has been a matter of controversy for decades. In order to differentiate among possible genetic models for the deposits, including various combinations of volcanic, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic processes, we used U-Pb geochronology of xenotime, monazite, and zircon to establish time constraints for ore formation. New age data reported here were obtained using sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) microanalysis of (1) detrital zircons from a sample of Mesoproterozoic siliciclastic metasedimentary country rock in the Blackbird district, (2) igneous zircons from Mesoproterozoic intrusions, and (3) xenotime and monazite from the Merle and Sunshine prospects at Blackbird. Detrital zircon from metasandstone of the biotite phyllite-schist unit has ages mostly in the range of 1900 to 1600 Ma, plus a few Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic grains. Age data for the six youngest grains form a coherent group at 1409 ± 10 Ma, regarded as the maximum age of deposition of metasedimentary country rocks of the central structural domain. Igneous zircons from nine samples of megacrystic granite, granite augen gneiss, and granodiorite augen gneiss that crop out north and east of the Blackbird district yield ages between 1383 ± 4 and 1359 ± 7 Ma. Emplacement of the Big Deer Creek megacrystic granite (1377 ± 4 Ma), structurally juxtaposed with host rocks in the Late Cretaceous ca. 5 km north of Blackbird, may have been involved in initial deposition of rare earth elements (REE) minerals and, possibly, sulfides. In situ SHRIMP ages of xenotime and monazite in Co-rich samples from the Merle and Sunshine prospects, plus backscattered electron imagery and SHRIMP analyses of trace elements, indicate a complex sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Cretaceous events. On the basis of textural relationships

  7. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Barium Zirconate Titanate (BZT nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Mohseni


    Full Text Available So far, the antibacterial activity of some organic and inorganic compounds has been studied. Barium zirconate titanate [Ba(Zr xTi1-xO3] (x = 0.05 nanoparticle is an example of inorganic materials. In vitro studies have provided evidence for the antibacterial activity of this nanoparticle. In the current study, the nano-powder was synthesized by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction showed that the powder was single-phase and had a perovskite structure at the calcination temperature of 1000 ºC. Antibacterial activity of the desired nanoparticle was assessed on two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431 and Micrococcus luteus PTCC1625 and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c and clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria according to Radial Diffusion Assay (RDA. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of BZT nano-powder on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was acceptable. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this nano-powder was determined. The results showed that MIC values for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus were about 2.3 µg/mL, 7.3 µg/mL, 3 µg/mL and 12 µg/mL, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was also evaluated and showed that the growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus could be decreased at 2.3, 14, 3 and 18 µg/mL of BZT. Average log reduction in viable bacteria count in time-kill assay ranged between 6 Log10 cfu/mL to zero after 24 h of incubation with BZT nanoparticle.

  8. Age and compositional data of zircon from sepiolite drilling mud to identify contamination of ocean drilling samples (United States)

    Andrews, Graham D. M.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Busby, Cathy J.; Brown, Sarah R.; Blum, Peter; Harvey, Janet. C.


    Zircon extracted from drilled oceanic rocks is increasingly used to answer geologic questions related to igneous and sedimentary sequences. Recent zircon studies using samples obtained from marine drill cores revealed that drilling muds used in the coring process may contaminate the samples. The JOIDES Resolution Science Operator of the International Ocean Discovery Program has been using two types of clays, sepiolite and attapulgite, which both have salt water viscosifier properties able to create a gel-like slurry that carries drill cuttings out of the holes several hundred meters deep. The dominantly used drilling mud is sepiolite originating from southwestern Nevada, USA. This sepiolite contains abundant zircon crystals with U-Pb ages ranging from 1.89 to 2889 Ma and continental trace element, δ18O, and ɛHf isotopic compositions. A dominant population of 11-16 Ma zircons in sepiolite drilling mud makes identification of contamination in drilled Neogene successions particularly challenging. Interpretation of zircon analyses related to ocean drilling should be cautious of zircon ages in violation of independently constrained age models and that have age populations overlapping those in the sepiolite. Because individual geochronologic and geochemical characteristics lack absolute discriminatory power, it is recommended to comprehensively analyze all dated zircon crystals from cores exposed to drill mud for trace element, δ18O, and ɛHf isotopic compositions. Zircon analyzed in situ (i.e., in petrographic sections) are assumed to be trustworthy.

  9. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages for pre-variscan orthogneisses from Portugal and their bearing on the evolution of the Ossa-Morena tectonic zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordani Umberto G.


    Full Text Available New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages for the Portalegre and Alcáçovas orthogneisses document a complex pre- Variscan history for the Iberian basement in Portugal. The available geochemical and geochronological data for the Alcáçovas orthogneiss (ca. 540 Ma tend to favor its involvement in a Cadomian orogenic event. This is consistent with the development of an active continental margin setting at the end of the Proterozoic and supports a Gondwanan provenance for the Iberian crust. On the other hand, the Ordovician emplacement age obtained for the magmatic precursors of the Portalegre orthogneisses (497?10 Ma provides additional evidence for the occurrence of rift-related magmatic activity during the Lower Paleozoic.

  10. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages for pre-variscan orthogneisses from Portugal and their bearing on the evolution of the Ossa-Morena tectonic zone. (United States)

    Cordani, Umberto G; Nutman, Allen P; Andrade, Antonio S; Santos, José F; Azevedo, Maria do Rosário; Mendes, Maria Helena; Pinto, Manuel S


    New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages for the Portalegre and Alcáçovas orthogneisses document a complex pre- Variscan history for the Iberian basement in Portugal. The available geochemical and geochronological data for the Alcáçovas orthogneiss (ca. 540 Ma) tend to favor its involvement in a Cadomian orogenic event. This is consistent with the development of an active continental margin setting at the end of the Proterozoic and supports a Gondwanan provenance for the Iberian crust. On the other hand, the Ordovician emplacement age obtained for the magmatic precursors of the Portalegre orthogneisses (497 +/- 10 Ma) provides additional evidence for the occurrence of rift-related magmatic activity during the Lower Paleozoic.

  11. Demonstrating the potential of yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte for high-performance fuel cells (United States)

    Bae, Kiho; Jang, Dong Young; Choi, Hyung Jong; Kim, Donghwan; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won; Shim, Joon Hyung


    In reducing the high operating temperatures (>=800 °C) of solid-oxide fuel cells, use of protonic ceramics as an alternative electrolyte material is attractive due to their high conductivity and low activation energy in a low-temperature regime (fuel cells. However, poor sinterability of yttrium-doped barium zirconate discourages its fabrication as a thin-film electrolyte and integration on porous anode supports, both of which are essential to achieve high performance. Here we fabricate a protonic-ceramic fuel cell using a thin-film-deposited yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte with no impeding grain boundaries owing to the columnar structure tightly integrated with nanogranular cathode and nanoporous anode supports, which to the best of our knowledge exhibits a record high-power output of up to an order of magnitude higher than those of other reported barium zirconate-based fuel cells.

  12. Fabrication of Nanosized Lanthanum Zirconate Powder and Deposition of Thermal Barrier Coating by Plasma Spray Process (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jagdeesh, N.; Pathak, L. C.


    The present manuscript discusses our findings on fabrication of nanosized lanthanum zirconate powder for thermal barrier coating application and its coating by plasma spray on nickel-based superalloy substrate. Single-phase La2Zr2O7 coating of thickness of the order of 45 µm on the Ni-Cr-Al bond coat coated Ni-based superalloy substrate was deposited by plasma spray process. The layers at the interface did not show spallation and inter diffusion was very less. The microstructure, interface, porosity, and mechanical properties of different layers are investigated. The lanthanum zirconate hardness and modulus were 10.5 and 277 GPa, respectively. The load depth curve for lanthanum zirconate showed good elastic recovery around 74%.

  13. Nanocomposite Lanthanum Zirconate Thermal Barrier Coating Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spray Process (United States)

    Wang, Chaohui; Wang, You; Wang, Liang; Hao, Guangzhao; Sun, Xiaoguang; Shan, Fan; Zou, Zhiwei


    This work seeks to develop an innovative nanocomposite thermal barrier coating (TBC) exhibiting low thermal conductivity and high durability compared with that of current TBCs. To achieve this objective, nanosized lanthanum zirconate particles were selected for the topcoat of the TBC system, and a new process—suspension plasma spray—was employed to produce desirable microstructural features: the nanocomposite lanthanum zirconate TBC contains ultrafine splats and high volume porosity, for lower thermal conductivity, and better durability. The parameters of plasma spray experiment included two main variables: (i) spray distance varying from 40 to 80 mm and (ii) the concentration of suspension 20, 25, and 30 wt.%, respectively. The microstructure of obtained coatings was characterized with scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction. The porosity of coatings is in the range of 6-10%, and the single phase in the as-sprayed coatings was pyrochlore lanthanum zirconate.

  14. Silica-calcium zirconate nanocomposite, studying its thermal and electrical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neda Kermani; Maryam Kargar Razi; Seyed Saeed Mirzaee; Reza Tayebee


    Silica–calcium zirconate nanocomposite was prepared in a two-step procedure. First, nanocalcium zirconate was synthesized by the modified sol–gel method; then, silica was added to the prepared sol and the resulting product was calcined at 700–1000° C. Dilatometric measurements were performed to determine the coefficient of thermal expansion (). It was concluded that was decreased from 15.96 × 10−6 to 10.26 × 10−6 1° C−1 with the increase in calcium zirconate/silica ratio. Moreover, studies on the dielectric properties and calcination temperature showed that the dielectric constant (r) was increased from 3.9 to 5.7.

  15. Zircon SIMS ages and chemical compositions from Northern Dabie Terrain: Its implication for pyroxenite genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We present the results of a detailed micro-scale investigation of zircons from pyroxenites, Daoshicong Northern Dabie using a combination of SIMS and ICPMS. The SIMS measurements gave ages of 134-159 Ma. Its average of (144.5±6.2) Ma is interpreted as the best estimate of the pyroxenite intrusion. The crystallization of zircons continued for quite a long time and underwent slow cooling. The py-roxenites are products of post-collision magmatism. The REE pattern is HREE-enriched, and its HREE concentra-tions fall between the magmatic and metamorphic range of gneissic zircons from the Dabie area, which indicate the involvement of crust material in its mantle source.

  16. REE Geochemical Characteristics of Apatite,Sphene and Zircon from Alkaline Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲棣; 王杨传


    The accessory minerals apatite and sphene are the main carriers of REE in alkaline rocks.Their chondrite-normalized REE patterns decline sharply to the right as those of the host rocks,In the patterns an obvious negative Eu anomaly and a positive Ce anomaly can be seen in apatite and sphene,respectively.Zircon from alkaline rocks is different in REE pattern,I,e,. a nearly symmetric"V"-shaped pattern with a maximum negative Eu anomaly.Compared with the equivalents from granites,apatite,sphene and zircon from alkaline rocks are all characterized by higher (La/Yb)N ratio and less Eu depletion,As to the relative contents of REE in minerals,apatite,sphene and zircon are enriched in LREE,MREE and HREE respectively,depending on their crystallochemical properties.

  17. High-Precision U-Pb Zircon Dates as Benchmarks in Absolute Time (United States)

    Schmitz, M. D.; Bowring, S. A.; Schoene, B.


    High-precision IDTIMS U-Pb zircon dates provide the most precise and accurate isotopic benchmarks in absolute time, due to the concordancy check of the paired U-Pb decay schemes, the precisely measured 235U and 238U decay constants, very high initial parent/daughter ratios, and the robust nature of zircon to loss or gain of U and Pb over geologic time. However, caveats to the use of such zircon dates include the accurate assessment and minimization of random and systematic errors in the analytical methods, and decay constant uncertainties. Unfortunately, there exists little consensus within the U-Pb geochronological community regarding an international zircon standard for the external assessment of interlaboratory reproducibility, while residual questions remain regarding the potential for systematic error in the single available high-precision counting experiment of the U decay constants1. Stringent criteria are imposed on candidates for zircon geochronology standards including the absence of inheritance and Pb-loss at both the single grain scale and the resolution of microbeam techniques. We present an example of the potential and limitations of a possible zircon standard, AS3, from the Duluth Complex, North American Midcontinent Rift2. New data for 27 single zircons are indistinguishable from prior results, with 207Pb/206Pb and upper intercept dates identical within error to a U-Pb concordia date of 1099.1+/-0.2 Ma (+/-1.2 Ma with systematic errors) based on 12 concordant and equivalent analyses. However, we must reiterate that a zircon population exhibiting consistent concordancy remains elusive, as AS3 and all Paleozoic and older standard candidates so far examined contain grains exhibiting Pb-loss, although rigorous selection and preparation of zircons through diamagnetic separation and aggressive abrasion can mitigate this phenomenon. The continued screening of candidate standards by both IDTIMS and SHRIMP techniques should be an organized, international

  18. Scientific paper zircon-based coating for the applications in Lost Foam casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prstić Aurel


    Full Text Available In this work, a possibility to develop a new zircon-based refractory coating for casting applications was investigated. Optimization of the coating composition with controlled rheological properties was attained by application of different coating components, particularly by application of a new suspension agent and by alteration of coating production procedure. Zircon powder with particle size of 25x10-6 m was used as filler. The zircon sample was investigated by means of the following methods: X-ray diffraction analysis, diffraction thermal analysis and polarized microscope. The shape and grain size were analyzed by means of the PC program package OZARIA 2.5. It was shown that application of this type of water-alcohol-based coating had a positive influence on surface quality, structural and mechanical properties of the castings of cast iron obtained by pouring into sand molds by means of the expandable patterns method (Lost Foam casting process.

  19. Implications for the evolution of continental crust from Hf isotope systematics of Archean detrital zircons (United States)

    Stevenson, Ross K.; Patchett, P. Jonathan


    Results from the fractionation of zircon by sedimentary processes into continental margin sandstone yield information on the preservation of preexisting continental crust in the form of zircon, making it possible to distinguish between the contrasting theories of gradual growth versus constant volume of continental crust over geologic time. In this work, Hf-176/Hf-177 ratios were determined for detrital zircon fractions from 2.0-2.5, 2.6-3.0, and pre-3.0 Gyr old sandstones from the Canadian-Shield, the North-Atlantic, the Wyoming, and the Kaapvaal Cratons. Results pointed to small amounts of continental crust prior to 3.0 Gyr ago and a rapid addition of continental crust between 2.5 and 3.0 Gyr ago, consistent with the gradual growth of continental crust, and giving evidence against no-growth histories.

  20. Nanogeochronology of discordant zircon measured by atom probe microscopy of Pb-enriched dislocation loops. (United States)

    Peterman, Emily M; Reddy, Steven M; Saxey, David W; Snoeyenbos, David R; Rickard, William D A; Fougerouse, Denis; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R C


    Isotopic discordance is a common feature in zircon that can lead to an erroneous age determination, and it is attributed to the mobilization and escape of radiogenic Pb during its post-crystallization geological evolution. The degree of isotopic discordance measured at analytical scales of ~10 μm often differs among adjacent analysis locations, indicating heterogeneous distributions of Pb at shorter length scales. We use atom probe microscopy to establish the nature of these sites and the mechanisms by which they form. We show that the nanoscale distribution of Pb in a ~2.1 billion year old discordant zircon that was metamorphosed c. 150 million years ago is defined by two distinct Pb reservoirs. Despite overall Pb loss during peak metamorphic conditions, the atom probe data indicate that a component of radiogenic Pb was trapped in 10-nm dislocation loops that formed during the annealing of radiation damage associated with the metamorphic event. A second Pb component, found outside the dislocation loops, represents homogeneous accumulation of radiogenic Pb in the zircon matrix after metamorphism. The (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios measured from eight dislocation loops are equivalent within uncertainty and yield an age consistent with the original crystallization age of the zircon, as determined by laser ablation spot analysis. Our results provide a specific mechanism for the trapping and retention of radiogenic Pb during metamorphism and confirm that isotopic discordance in this zircon is characterized by discrete nanoscale reservoirs of Pb that record different isotopic compositions and yield age data consistent with distinct geological events. These data may provide a framework for interpreting discordance in zircon as the heterogeneous distribution of discrete radiogenic Pb populations, each yielding geologically meaningful ages.

  1. Resolving high precision U-Pb ages from Tertiary plutons with complex zircon systematics (United States)

    Mcclelland, William C.; Mattinson, James M.


    Success in establishing high precision crystallization ages with the U/Pb zircon method is highly dependent on the ability to isolate or remove the effects of inherited xenocrystic components or secondary lead-loss, or the combined effects of both. Current "conventional" single crystal and ion probe (SHRIMP) methods are successfully applied to Paleozoic and older samples but typically suffer from imprecision when applied to younger (Mesozoic-Cenozoic) samples due to generally reduced radiogenic lead concentrations. Here we apply a series of intense partial dissolution steps to multigrain zircon fractions from a series of Paleocene tonalitic to granodioritic intrusive rocks from southeastern Alaska. The zircon systematics are complicated by both minor inheritance and postcrystallization lead-loss. Physical and isotopic evidence demonstrate that the partial dissolution steps preferentially remove outer layers susceptible to lead loss, as well as core regions containing inherited components. The final residues are often hollow shells of low-U primary igneous zircon that yield highly precise, reproducible, and concordant ages. The resulting age determinations commonly statistically differ at the 95% confidence level from ages based on apparently concordant, but less precise conventional isotope dilution analyses, the uncertainties of which masked minor, subtle isotopic complexities. This observation strongly cautions against basing age assignments of samples yielding slightly discordant data on (1) single "concordant" analyses accompanied by an array of discordant data or (2) the mean of several 206Pb/ 238U or 207Pb/ 206Pb ages. The step-wise dissolution technique allows age determinations on young, relatively low U and Pb zircons at a resolution not currently possible with techniques such as single-grain conventional or spot ion probe analyses. Widespread application of the technique will likely prove instrumental in resolving detailed magmatic histories of igneous

  2. Elucidating the magmatic history of the Austurhorn silicic intrusive complex (southeast Iceland) using zircon elemental and isotopic geochemistry and geochronology (United States)

    Padilla, A. J.; Miller, C. F.; Carley, T. L.; Economos, R. C.; Schmitt, A. K.; Coble, M. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Fisher, C. M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Hanchar, J. M.


    The Austurhorn intrusive complex (AIC) in southeast Iceland comprises large bodies of granophyre and gabbro, and a mafic-silicic composite zone (MSCZ) that exemplifies magmatic interactions common in Icelandic silicic systems. Despite being one of Iceland's best-studied intrusions, few studies have included detailed analyses of zircon, a mineral widely recognized as a valuable tracer of the history and evolution of its parental magma(s). In this study, we employ high spatial resolution zircon elemental and isotopic geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology as tools for elucidating the complex construction and magmatic evolution of Austurhorn's MSCZ. The trace element compositions of AIC zircon crystals form a broad but coherent array that partly overlaps with the geochemical signature for zircons from Icelandic silicic volcanic rocks. Typical of Icelandic zircons, Hf concentrations are relatively low (mush-like material and a prolonged lifetime for the complex.

  3. U Pb zircon and monazite geochronology of Variscan magmatism related to syn-convergence extension in Central Northern Portugal (United States)

    Valle Aguado, B.; Azevedo, M. R.; Schaltegger, U.; Martínez Catalán, J. R.; Nolan, J.


    The Viseu area is located in the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Variscan Belt and hosts numerous post-thickening, collision-related granitoids intruded into upper and middle crustal levels. The present paper reports high precision U-Pb zircon and monazite ages for four plutons of the Viseu area: the syn-kinematic granitoids of Maceira (314±5 Ma), Casal Vasco (311±1 Ma) and Junqueira (307.8±0.7 Ma) and the late-kinematic biotite monzogranites of Cota (306±9 Ma). This points to a synchronous emplacement of the different syn-kinematic plutons shortly followed by the intrusion of the late-kinematic granites and shows that the Upper Carboniferous plutonism occurred within a short time span of ca. 10 million years. The ascent of granite magmas took place after an extensional tectonic event (D 2) and is coeval with dextral and sinistral crustal-scale transcurrent shearing (D 3). Field and petrographical evidence suggest a narrow time-span between peak T metamorphic conditions and the intrusion of granitic melts which implies very fast uplift rates accommodated through active tectonic exhumation. Magma compositions evolve through time, reflecting an increasing involvement of mid-crustal sources and the underplating effect of an upwelling asthenospheric mantle at the base of a thinning and stretching continental crust.

  4. Annealing of natural metamict zircons. I low degree of radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Colombo, M


    In-situ time dependent high temperature X-ray powder diffraction was used to investigate the ordering process occurring during annealing of natural zircons with a low degree of radiation damage. It was possible to distinguish two stages of this process. Firstly, the diffusion of defects induced by alpha-particles, this stage contributes only to a certain degree of relaxation in the unit cell. In the second stage there is some degree of recrystallization. A hkl-dependence in the variation of the integrated intensity is observed and the increase in the volume of crystalline zircon is therefore related to a process of migration of dislocations.

  5. DFT and two-dimensional correlation analysis methods for evaluating the Pu{sup 3+}–Pu{sup 4+} electronic transition of plutonium-doped zircon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Liang, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China); Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, South West University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Dong, Fa-qin; Song, Mian-xin [Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, South West University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Dong, Hai-liang [Department of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Li, Wei-Min [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China); Duan, Tao; Xu, Jin-bao [Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, South West University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Xiao-yan [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China); Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, South West University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China)


    Highlights: • Effect of Pu f-shell electron on the electronic property of zircon is calculated via DFT and 2D-CA techniques. • Reasons of Pu f-shell electron influencing on electronic properties are systematically discussed. • Phase transitions are found at two point 2.8 mol% and 7.5 mol%. - Abstract: Understanding how plutonium (Pu) doping affects the crystalline zircon structure is very important for risk management. However, so far, there have been only a very limited number of reports of the quantitative simulation of the effects of the Pu charge and concentration on the phase transition. In this study, we used density functional theory (DFT), virtual crystal approximation (VCA), and two-dimensional correlation analysis (2D-CA) techniques to calculate the origins of the structural and electronic transitions of Zr{sub 1−c}Pu{sub c}SiO{sub 4} over a wide range of Pu doping concentrations (c = 0–10 mol%). The calculations indicated that the low-angular-momentum Pu-f{sub xy}-shell electron excites an inner-shell O-2s{sup 2} orbital to create an oxygen defect (V{sub O-s}) below c = 2.8 mol%. This oxygen defect then captures a low-angular-momentum Zr-5p{sup 6}5s{sup 2} electron to form an sp hybrid orbital, which exhibits a stable phase structure. When c > 2.8 mol%, each accumulated V{sub O-p} defect captures a high-angular-momentum Zr-4d{sub z} electron and two Si-p{sub z} electrons to create delocalized Si{sup 4+} → Si{sup 2+} charge disproportionation. Therefore, we suggest that the optimal amount of Pu cannot exceed 7.5 mol% because of the formation of a mixture of ZrO{sub 8} polyhedral and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedral phases with the orientation (10-1). This study offers new perspective on the development of highly stable zircon-based solid solution materials.

  6. Trace-element study and age dating of zircon from chromitites of the Bushveld Complex (South Africa) (United States)

    Yudovskaya, Marina; Kinnaird, Judith; Naldrett, Anthony J.; Rodionov, Nickolay; Antonov, Anton; Simakin, Sergey; Kuzmin, Dmitry


    The layered Bushveld Complex hosts a number of chromitite layers, which were found to contain significant amounts of zircon grains compared with adjacent silicate rocks. Cathodoluminescent-dark, partially metamict cores and transparent rims of composite zircon grains were analyzed for trace elements with SIMS and LA-ICPMS techniques. The cores are enriched in REE, Y, Th and U and are characterized by distinctly flatter REE patterns in contrast to those of the rims and transparent homogenous crystals. Zircon from the different stratigraphic units has specific Th/U ratios, the highest of which (1.5-4) occurs in a Merensky Reef zircon core. The Ti content of Bushveld zircon ranges from 12 to 52 ppm correlating to a crystallization temperature range of 760-930 °C. The geochemical characteristics of the first zircon generation are consistent with its high-temperature crystallization as the first major U, Th and REE acceptor from a highly-evolved residue of the high-Mg basalt magma, whereas the rims and coreless crystals have crystallized from percolating intercumulus liquid of new influx of the same magma. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon cores and rims does not reveal a distinguishable difference between their ages indicating the absence of inherited zircon. Concordia ages of 2,051 ± 9 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 0.1) and 2,056 ± 5 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 0.05) for zircons from the Merensky Reef and the Upper Platreef located equally near the top of the Critical Zone are in agreement with published ages for the Merensky Reef. Zircon from the deeper-seated Lower Group, Middle Group and Lower Platreef chromitites yields younger concordia ages that may reflect prolonged late-stage volatile activity.

  7. The not-so-sublime early Earth recorded in Hadean zircons (United States)

    Cavosie, A. J.


    The first few hundred million years following accretion is the least understood eon in the geologic time scale- the Hadean. This poorly defined eon continues to both challenge and fascinate scientists seeking to understand the early Earth, as the most profound planet-wide transition in Earth history occurred during the Hadean: the post-accretion transformation from a meteorite impact dominated, partially molten, steam covered mafic surface on a 'Hot Earth', to a solidified, granitoid-bearing, water covered, life-supporting 'Cool Earth'. Intact rocks from the Hadean have not been identified; other means are thus required to study early Earth processes, such as the appearance, formation, and processing of evolved crust, duration of early impacts and magma oceans, the appearance of liquid water and oceans, and ultimately, stabilization of habitats for life. Hadean detrital zircons found in younger sedimentary rocks in Australia, China, and the USA constitute a mineral record from the early Earth that enables 'ground truth' constraints to be placed on early Earth processes. Hadean zircons are complicated and originate from myriad sources; identification of grains that preserve magmatic composition is critical (as evidenced by growth zoning in CL, concordant U-Pb systematics, trace element abundances and ratios), as many have been modified by secondary processes. Detailed documentation of analyzed material is paramount. A generally consistent understanding of processes on the Hadean Earth is emerging, based on data from well-documented igneous zircons with concordant U-Pb systems: (1) A record of continuous magmatism and rock-forming events starting at 4.4 Ga is recorded in U-Pb ages of Hadean zircons; no periods of magmatic quiescence occur in the Hadean. (2) Coupled Lu/Hf and U/Pb data require formation of evolved crust from extracted Hadean reservoirs by 4.5 to 4.4 Ga. (3) Mineral inclusion suites, low Ti and high Li abundances, trace elements (U-Yb), and elevated

  8. Zircon oxygen isotopes reveal Ivrea-Verbano Zone source characteristics of the Sesia Valley Caldera (United States)

    Economos, R. C.; Quick, J. E.; Sinigoi, S.; de Silva, S. L.


    The Sesia Valley, in the Italian Alpine foothills, contains >14 km diameter caldera adjacent to and structurally shallower than the famous Ivrea-Verbano Zone deep crustal section. The caldera and its associated eruptive sequence presents opportunity to explore volcanic magmatism in light of exposed and well characterized source candidates, namely lower crustal gabbros and the mid-crustal metasedimentary Kinzigite formation. Original geochemical characteristics of volcanic units have been obscured by the effects of subsequent hydrothermal alteration. The resistance of the mineral zircon to fluid alteration makes it a prime candidate for the preservation and exploration of these geochemical signals, such as O isotopes. Lower crustal gabbros in the Ivrea-Verbano Zone have broadly monotonic whole-rock δ18O values between +8 and +9‰VSMOW (Sinigoi et al., 1994). Kinzigites preserve a much higher and more heterogeneous δ18O values, typically ranging from +10‰ up to +15‰ (Baker, 1990). Zircons from the caldera-forming rhyolitic eruption units and a pre-caldera rhyodacitic unit were analyzed by ion microprobe at UCLA for in-situ oxygen isotope ratios. External reproducibility of within-mount standard R33 grains range from 0.27 to 0.36‰. Rhyolites from the caldera-forming eruption yield a range of δ18O(zircon) values from 6.3‰ to 8.3‰. This range displays rough correlation with CL activity - CL active grains have lower δ18O(zircon) values while CL dark grains have higher δ18O(zircon) values. This variation may correlate with U contents, which are notoriously low in zircons from Ivrea-Verbano Zone gabbros. We argue that the range in O isotope values suggests zircons are a good fit for magmas influenced by gabbro and Kinzigite sources. However, these zircons do not appear to be inherited directly from either the gabbro or Kinzigite sources as their O isotope signatures are typically intermediate between the two. The pre-caldera rhyodacite sample displays a

  9. U-Pb Zircon geochronology of the Cambro-Ordovician metagranites and metavolcanic rocks of central and NW Iberia (United States)

    Talavera, C.; Montero, P.; Bea, F.; González Lodeiro, F.; Whitehouse, M.


    New U-Pb zircon data from metagranites and metavolcanic rocks of the Schist-Graywacke Complex Domain and the Schistose Domain of Galicia Tras-os-Montes Zone from central and NW Iberia contribute to constrain the timing of the Cambro-Ordovician magmatism from Central Iberian and Galicia Tras-os-Montes Zones which occurred between 498 and 462 Ma. The crystallization ages of the metagranites and metavolcanic rocks from the northern Schist-Graywacke Complex Domain are as follows: (a) in west Salamanca, 489 ± 5 Ma for Vitigudino, 486 ± 6 Ma for Fermoselle and 471 ± 7 Ma for Ledesma; (b) in northern Gredos, 498 ± 4 Ma for Castellanos, 492 ± 4 Ma for San Pelayo and 488 ± 3 Ma for Bercimuelle; (c) in Guadarrama, 490 ± 5 Ma for La Estación I, 489 ± 9 Ma for La Cañada, 484 ± 6 Ma for Vegas de Matute (leucocratic), 483 ± 6 Ma for El Cardoso, 482 ± 8 Ma for La Morcuera, 481 ± 9 Ma for Buitrago de Lozoya, 478 ± 7 Ma for La Hoya, 476 ± 5 Ma for Vegas de Matute (melanocratic), 475 ± 5 Ma for Riaza, 473 ± 8 Ma for La Estación II and 462 ± 11 Ma for La Berzosa; and (d) in Toledo, 489 ± 7 Ma for Mohares and 480 ± 8 Ma for Polán. The crystallization ages of the metagranites from the Schistose Domain of Galicia Tras-os-Montes Zone are 497 ± 6 Ma for Laxe, 486 ± 8 Ma for San Mamede, 482 ± 7 Ma for Bangueses, 481 ± 5 Ma for Noia, 480 ± 10 for Rial de Sabucedo, 476 ± 9 Ma for Vilanova, 475 ± 6 Ma for Pontevedra, 470 ± 6 Ma for Cherpa and 462 ± 8 Ma for Bande. This magmatism is characterized by an average isotopic composition of (87Sr/86Sr)485Ma ≈ 0.712, (ɛNd)485Ma ≈ -4.1 and (TDM) ≈ 1.62 Ga, and a high zircon inheritance, composed of Ediacaran-Early Cambrian (65 %) and, to a lesser extent, Cryogenian, Tonian, Mesoproterozoic, Orosirian and Archean pre-magmatic cores. Combining our geochronological and isotopic data with others of similar rocks from the European Variscan Belt, it may be deduced that Cambro-Ordovician magmas from this belt were mainly

  10. Crustal evolution and recycling in a juvenile continent: Oxygen isotope ratio of zircon in the northern Arabian Nubian Shield (United States)

    Be'eri-Shlevin, Yaron; Katzir, Yaron; Valley, John W.


    Crustal recycling patterns during the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) were defined using the oxygen isotope ratio of zircon [ δ18O(Zrn)]. Evidence for early (~ 870-740 Ma) crustal recycling in the northernmost ANS (southern Israel and Sinai, Egypt) is given by laser fluorination analysis of bulk zircon separates, which yield higher than mantle δ18O(Zrn) values of several island arc complex (IAC) orthogneisses (6.9 to 8.2‰) and also from the average δ18O(Zrn) value of 6.4‰ determined for detrital zircons (~ 870-780 Ma) from the Elat-schist; the latter representing the oldest known rock sources in the region. These results indicate prolonged availability of surface-derived rocks for burial or subduction, melting, and assimilation at the very early stages of island arc formation in the ANS. Other IAC intrusions of ~ 800 Ma show mantle-like δ18O(Zrn) values, implying that not all magmas involved supracrustal contribution. Much younger (650-625 Ma) deformed syn-collisional calc-alkaline (CA1) intrusions are characterized by δ18O(Zrn) values of 5.0 to 7.9‰ indicating continued recycling of the felsic crust. The main sample set of this study comprises rocks from the mostly granitic, post-collisional calc-alkaline (CA2: ~ 635-590 Ma) and alkaline (AL: ~ 608-580 Ma) magmatic suites. Despite having distinct geochemical characteristics and petrogenetic paths and spans of magmatic activity, the two suites are indistinguishable by their average δ18O(Zrn) values of 5.7 and 5.8‰ pointing to the dominance of mantle-like δ18O sources in their formation. Nonetheless, grouping the two suites together reveals geographical zoning in δ18O(Zrn) where a large southeastern region of δ18O(Zrn) = 4.5 to 5.9‰ is separated from a northwestern belt with δ18O(Zrn) = 6 to 8‰ by a '6‰ line'. It is thus suggested that all CA2 and AL magmas of the northernmost ANS were derived from mantle-like δ18O reservoirs in the mafic lower-crust and the

  11. Zircon ages, geochemistry and Nd isotopic systematics for the Palaeoproterozoic 2.3-1.8 Ga Kuilyu Complex, East Kyrgyzstan - The oldest continental basement fragment in the Tianshan orogenic belt (United States)

    Kröner, A.; Alexeiev, D. V.; Kovach, V. P.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Mikolaichuk, A. V.; Xie, H.; Sobel, E. R.


    Precambrian microcontinents represent key tectonic units in the accretionary collages of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and their geological history is reasonably well established since the Mesoproterozoic but remains weakly constrained for older epochs due to a scarcity of exposed Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean rocks. Early Precambrian rocks were previously reported from several metamorphic complexes in the Kyrgyz Tianshan orogenic belt, mainly based on multigrain conventional zircon dating, but the present study only confirmed such rocks at one site, namely in the Kuilyu Complex of eastern Kyrgyzstan. New single grain SHRIMP II zircon ages, geochemical data, and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions for granitoid gneisses of the Kuilyu Complex elucidate the age, origin and tectonic settings of this oldest continental fragment in the Tianshan. The Kuilyu Complex is part of the basement in the Ishim - Middle Tianshan microcontinent. It consist of a strongly deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal assemblage of paragneisses and schists which are tectonically interlayered with amphibolites, migmatites and granitoid gneisses. Our zircon dating indicates that the Kuilyu Complex contains two suites of Palaeoproterozoic granitoid gneisses with magmatic protolith ages of ca. 2.32-2.33 Ga and 1.85 Ga. Granitoid magmatism at 1.85 Ga was almost immediately followed by amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ca 1.83 Ga, evidenced by growth of metamorphic zircon rims. The older, ca 2.3 Ga granitoid gneisses chemically correspond to calc-alkaline, metaluminous, I-type magnesian quartz diorite and granodiorite. The protolith of the younger, ca. 1.85 Ga granite-gneiss is an alkalic-calcic, metaluminous to peraluminous, ferroan medium-grained porphyric granite with chemical features resembling A-type granites. The 2.3 Ga and 1.85 Ga granitoid gneisses have slightly to distinctly negative initial εNd values of -1.2 and -6.6, and similar depleted mantle Nd model ages of 2

  12. Dating of zircon from high-grade rocks:Which is the most reliable method?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfred Kröner; Yusheng Wan; Xiaoming Liu; Dunyi Liu


    Magmatic zircon in high-grade metamorphic rocks is often characterized by complex textures as revealed by cathodoluminenscence (CL) that result from multiple episodes of recrystallization, over-growth, Pb-loss and modifications through fluid-induced disturbances of the crystal structure and the original U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics. Many of these features can be recognized in 2-dimensional CL images, and isotopic analysis of such domains using a high resolution ion-microprobe with only shallow penetration of the zircon surface may be able to reconstruct much of the magmatic and complex post-magmatic history of such grains. In particular it is generally possible to find original magmatic domains yielding concordant ages. In contrast, destructive techniques such as LA-ICP-MS consume a large volume, leave a deep crater in the target grain, and often sample heterogeneous domains that are not visible and thus often yield discordant results which are difficult to interpret. We provide examples of complex magmatic zircon from a southern Indian granulite terrane where SHRIMP II and LA-ICP-MS analyses are compared. The SHRIMP data are shown to be more precise and reliable, and we caution against the use of LA-ICP-MS in deciphering the chronology of complex zircons from high-grade terranes.

  13. Enhanced diffusion of Uranium and Thorium linked to crystal plasticity in zircon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Steven M


    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of crystal-plasticity on the U-Th-Pb system in zircon is studied by quantitative microstructural and microchemical analysis of a large zircon grain collected from pyroxenite of the Lewisian Complex, Scotland. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD mapping reveals a c.18° variation in crystallographic orientation that comprises both a gradual change in orientation and a series of discrete low-angle (207Pb/206Pb ages for individual analyses show no significant variation across the grain, and define a concordant, combined mean age of 2451 ± 14 Ma. This indicates that the grain was deformed shortly after initial crystallization, most probably during retrograde Inverian metamorphism at amphibolite facies conditions. The elevated Th over U and consistent 207Pb/206Pb ages indicates that deformation most likely occurred in the presence of a late-stage magmatic fluid that drove an increase in the Th/U during deformation. The relative enrichment of Th over U implies that Th/U ratio may not always be a robust indicator of crystallization environment. This study provides the first evidence of deformation-related modification of the U-Th system in zircon and has fundamental implications for the application and interpretation of zircon trace element data.

  14. U/Pb Dating of Zircon from the Suvasvesi Impact Structures, Finland (United States)

    Schwarz, W. H.; Breutmann, G.; Schmitt, A. K.; Trieloff, M.; Ludwig, T.; Hanel, M.; Buchner, E.; Schmieder, M.; Pesonen, L. J.; Moilanen, J.


    The two Suvasvesi impact structures (Finland), both covered by lakes, forming an apparent crater doublet, were analysed by in-situ U/Pb dating of zircon grains, concluding that the two craters were formed in separate events, ~600 Ma apart.

  15. Structure and stability of monazite- and zircon-type LaVO4 under hydrostatic pressure (United States)

    Cheng, Xuerui; Guo, Dongjie; Feng, Shiquan; Yang, Kun; Wang, Yongqiang; Ren, Yufen; Song, Yang


    Pure monazite (m)- and zircon (t)-type LaVO4 and LaVO4:Eu3+ were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The high pressure behavior of m- and t-LaVO4 nanoparticles has been investigated using Raman scattering techniques at room temperature. Raman measurements reveal a slight change for m-LaVO4 at 11.2 GPa because of an isostructural phase transition. However, striking changes in Raman spectra indicate a pressure-induced irreversible phase transition from the zircon to monazite structure for t-LaVO4 at around 5.9 GPa. The evolution of the luminescence spectra of t-LaVO4:Eu3+ has also been studied during the pressure-induced phase transition. It is observed that pressure has a great influence on the fluorescence intensity and the energy levels, which allows a more in-depth understanding of the nature of the pressure-induced phase transition for t-LaVO4. This result further confirms the conclusion that zircon-type RVO4 compounds with larger rare-earth cations will experience zircon to monazite phase transition.

  16. 信息动态%Zircon Fission-Track Thermochronology (ZFT): Advances and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Fission-track technique is a unique low-temperature thermochronology for assessment of timetemperature dependent evolution in various geological settings. Because of a higher closure temperature and partial annealing zone than apatite fission-track, zircon fission-track has a featured geological significance and application.Since the last decade of the 20th century, there has been a great number annealing research performed on zircon fission-track, including annealing properties, track measurement, annealing models, and annealing knowledge from samples of outcrops and boreholes. An investigation of zircon fission track has been made firstly in general covering various analytical procedures, measurement standards, experiment annealing models, coupled with a comparison between closure temperature and partial annealing zone obtained from different methods. Some major applications of zircon fission-track are summarized then, concerning analysis of sediment provenance and thermal history of the basin, cooling and exhumation of the orogen, and faulting thermal adjustment. It is pointed out that the combination of fission-track and (U-Th)/He is the future research trend.

  17. Demonstrating the potential of yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte for high-performance fuel cells. (United States)

    Bae, Kiho; Jang, Dong Young; Choi, Hyung Jong; Kim, Donghwan; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won; Shim, Joon Hyung


    In reducing the high operating temperatures (≥800 °C) of solid-oxide fuel cells, use of protonic ceramics as an alternative electrolyte material is attractive due to their high conductivity and low activation energy in a low-temperature regime (≤600 °C). Among many protonic ceramics, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has attracted attention due to its excellent chemical stability, which is the main issue in protonic-ceramic fuel cells. However, poor sinterability of yttrium-doped barium zirconate discourages its fabrication as a thin-film electrolyte and integration on porous anode supports, both of which are essential to achieve high performance. Here we fabricate a protonic-ceramic fuel cell using a thin-film-deposited yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte with no impeding grain boundaries owing to the columnar structure tightly integrated with nanogranular cathode and nanoporous anode supports, which to the best of our knowledge exhibits a record high-power output of up to an order of magnitude higher than those of other reported barium zirconate-based fuel cells.

  18. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon. (United States)

    Bell, Elizabeth A; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark; Mao, Wendy L


    Evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ∼ 3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ∼ 3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their δ(13)CPDB of -24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ∼ 300 My earlier than has been previously proposed.

  19. Archaean zircons in Miocene oceanic hotspot rocks establish ancient continental crust beneath Mauritius. (United States)

    Ashwal, Lewis D; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Torsvik, Trond H


    A fragment of continental crust has been postulated to underlie the young plume-related lavas of the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius based on the recovery of Proterozoic zircons from basaltic beach sands. Here we document the first U-Pb zircon ages recovered directly from 5.7 Ma Mauritian trachytic rocks. We identified concordant Archaean xenocrystic zircons ranging in age between 2.5 and 3.0 Ga within a trachyte plug that crosscuts Older Series plume-related basalts of Mauritius. Our results demonstrate the existence of ancient continental crust beneath Mauritius; based on the entire spectrum of U-Pb ages for old Mauritian zircons, we demonstrate that this ancient crust is of central-east Madagascar affinity, which is presently located ∼700 km west of Mauritius. This makes possible a detailed reconstruction of Mauritius and other Mauritian continental fragments, which once formed part of the ancient nucleus of Madagascar and southern India.

  20. U-Pb ages and morphology of zircons from different granites within the Saxonian Granulite Massif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagawe, Anja [Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden (Germany). Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit; Gaertner, Andreas; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf [Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden (Germany). Sektion Geochronologie


    The Saxonian Granulite Massif comprises various granitoid intrusions with different stages of deformation but of similar ages. However, there is only little knowledge about the magmatic source of these rocks. Combining the external and internal morphology of zircons and taking into consideration their Th-U values allows the differentiation of the granitoids into at least two groups of distinct evolution.

  1. Using multiple chemical systems in zircon to unravel the evolution of high-grade terranes (United States)

    Clark, Chris; Taylor, Richard


    Since the turn of the century the rare earth element (REE) partitioning between zircon and garnet has facilitated the coupling of U-Pb ages to metamorphism, particularly in the granulite facies. The combination of in situ analysis and rapid data acquisition, particularly through combined techniques such as Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS), means that complex terranes can be interrogated with increasing detail. However this detail provided by large datasets must also be combined with an understanding of the processes involved, for example the relative mobility of the REE and U-Pb systems with zircon grains that have withstood intense P-T conditions to varying degrees. For example, some high-temperature metapelites that seem to have all the right ingredients for the "equilibrium" to be achieved (e.g. they contain garnet, zircon, monazite and rutile, they've melted and experienced temperatures in excess of 900 °C) display variations in the REE partitioning between zircon and garnet that varies over the length-scale of a single thin section. This presentation seeks to highlight some complexities in the application of these undoublty useful techniques to high-temperature metamorphic rocks from a number of terranes and hopefully provide some useful comments on developing more efficient strategies to characterise the P-T-t evolution of high-grade terranes.

  2. Dating of zircon from high-grade rocks: Which is the most reliable method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Kröner


    Full Text Available Magmatic zircon in high-grade metamorphic rocks is often characterized by complex textures as revealed by cathodoluminenscence (CL that result from multiple episodes of recrystallization, overgrowth, Pb-loss and modifications through fluid-induced disturbances of the crystal structure and the original U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics. Many of these features can be recognized in 2-dimensional CL images, and isotopic analysis of such domains using a high resolution ion-microprobe with only shallow penetration of the zircon surface may be able to reconstruct much of the magmatic and complex post-magmatic history of such grains. In particular it is generally possible to find original magmatic domains yielding concordant ages. In contrast, destructive techniques such as LA-ICP-MS consume a large volume, leave a deep crater in the target grain, and often sample heterogeneous domains that are not visible and thus often yield discordant results which are difficult to interpret. We provide examples of complex magmatic zircon from a southern Indian granulite terrane where SHRIMP II and LA-ICP-MS analyses are compared. The SHRIMP data are shown to be more precise and reliable, and we caution against the use of LA-ICP-MS in deciphering the chronology of complex zircons from high-grade terranes.

  3. Zircon reveals protracted magma storage and recycling beneath Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Claiborne, L.L.; Miller, C.F.; Flanagan, D.M.; Clynne, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.


    Current data and models for Mount St. Helens volcano (Washington, United States) suggest relatively rapid transport from magma genesis to eruption, with no evidence for protracted storage or recycling of magmas. However, we show here that complex zircon age populations extending back hundreds of thousands of years from eruption age indicate that magmas regularly stall in the crust, cool and crystallize beneath the volcano, and are then rejuvenated and incorporated by hotter, young magmas on their way to the surface. Estimated dissolution times suggest that entrained zircon generally resided in rejuvenating magmas for no more than about a century. Zircon elemental compositions reflect the increasing influence of mafic input into the system through time, recording growth from hotter, less evolved magmas tens of thousands of years prior to the appearance of mafic magmas at the surface, or changes in whole-rock geochemistry and petrology, and providing a new, time-correlated record of this evolution independent of the eruption history. Zircon data thus reveal the history of the hidden, long-lived intrusive portion of the Mount St. Helens system, where melt and crystals are stored for as long as hundreds of thousands of years and interact with fresh influxes of magmas that traverse the intrusive reservoir before erupting. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  4. The zircon evidence of temporally changing sediment transport—the NW Gondwana margin during Cambrian to Devonian time (Aoucert and Smara areas, Moroccan Sahara) (United States)

    Gärtner, Andreas; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Villeneuve, Michel; Sagawe, Anja; Hofmann, Mandy; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; Linnemann, Ulf


    Detrital zircon provenance studies are an established tool to develop palaeogeographic models, mostly based on zircon of siliciclastic rocks and isotope data. But zircon is more than just istopes and features well definable morphological characteristics. The latter may indicate single grain transport histories independent of the individual grade of concordance. This additional tool for palaeogeoraphic reconstructions was tested on zircon from siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks of Palaeozoic age from the Aoucert and Smara areas of the Souttoufides, while findings of zircon in limestone generally open new archives for sedimentary provenance analysis. The morphologies—length, width, roundness, grain surfaces—of 834 detrital zircons from sediments of allochthonous Cambrian, and (par-)autochthonous Ordovician, and Devonian units were studied, while 772 of them were analysed for their U-Th-Pb isotopes by LA-ICP-MS. Mesoproterozoic zircon contents of more than 10% in the Cambrian sediments exclude the West African Craton (WAC) as exclusive source area. Thus, at least one additional external source is suggested. This is likely the western Adrar Souttouf Massif with its significant Mesoproterozoic zircon inheritance, or comparable, yet unknown sources. Decreasing Mesoproterozoic zircon age populations in Ordovician sediments are thought to be linked to the rifting of the terranes in the course of the Rheic Ocean opening and a predominant supply of WAC detritus. The Devonian sediments likely contain reworked material from the Cambrian siliciclastics, which is shown by the zircon age distribution pattern and the zircon morphologies. Therefore, multiple shifts in the direction of sedimentary transport are indicated.

  5. Structural recovery of self-irradiated natural and {sup 238}Pu-doped zircon in an acidic solution at 175 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, Thorsten [Institut fuer Mineralogie, University of Muenster, Corrensstrasse 24, 48149 Muenster (Germany)]. E-mail:; Burakov, Boris [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy and Radiogeochemistry, V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 28, 2nd Murinskiy ave., St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Yagovkina, Maria [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy and Radiogeochemistry, V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 28, 2nd Murinskiy ave., St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Garbuzov, Vladimir [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy and Radiogeochemistry, V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 28, 2nd Murinskiy ave., St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Zamoryanskaya, Maria [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy and Radiogeochemistry, V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 28, 2nd Murinskiy ave., St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Zirlin, Vladimir [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy and Radiogeochemistry, V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 28, 2nd Murinskiy ave., St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Nikolaeva, Larisa [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy and Radiogeochemistry, V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 28, 2nd Murinskiy ave., St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)


    We have investigated the aqueous stability of self-irradiated natural and synthetic {sup 238}Pu-doped zircon (4.7 wt% of {sup 238}Pu) in an acidic solution at 175 deg. C. Both zircon samples have suffered a similar deg.ree of self-irradiation damage, as given by their deg.ree of amorphization. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that during the hydrothermal treatment only the disordered crystalline remnants recovered in the natural zircon, whereas in the {sup 238}Pu-doped zircon the amorphous phase strongly recrystallized. Such a different alteration behavior of natural and Pu-doped zircon is discussed in terms of two fundamentally different alteration mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that further experimental studies with Pu-doped zircon are required before any reliable prediction about the long-term aqueous stability of an actinide waste form based on zircon can be made.

  6. Preliminary study of microscale zircon oxygen isotopes for Dabie-Sulu metamorphic rocks: Ion probe in situ analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Daogong; Deloule Etienne; CHENG Hao; XIA Qunke; WU Yuanbao


    151 in situ analyses of oxygen isotopes were carried out by ion micro-probe for zircons from 8 localities of HP-UHP metamorphic rocks including eclogites in the Dabie-Sulu terrane. The results show significant heterogeneity inδ18O values, with variation in different rocks from -8.5‰ to +9.7‰ and within one sample from 2‰ to 12‰. No measurable difference inδ18O was observed between protolith magmatic (detrital) zircons and metamorphic recrystallized zircons within analytical uncertainties from the ion micro-probe measurements. This indicates that the metamorphic zircons have inherited the oxygen isotopic compositions of protolith zircons despite the HP to UHP metamorphism. According to their protolith ages from zircon U-Pb in situ dating by the same ion micro-probe, two groups of oxygen isotope composition are recognized, with one having δ18O values of 6‰-7‰ for old protolith of 1.9-2.5 Ga ages and the other 0‰-2‰ for young protolith of 0.7-0.8 Ga ages. The latter anomalously lowδ18O values of zircons indicate that the magma has had the obvious involvement of meteoric water when forming the young protolith of high-grade metamorphic rocks. This may be correlated with the snowball Earth event occurring in South China and the world elsewhere during the Neoproterozoic.

  7. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry (United States)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.


    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at <900°C are dominated by early crystallization of hornblende and apatite, and late crystallization (~<780°C) of titanite

  8. Genetic Mechanism of Mineral Inclusions in Zircons from the Khondalite Series, Southeastern Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The early Precambrian khondalite series is widely distributed in the Jining-Zhuozi-Fengzhen- Liangcheng area, southeastern Inner Mongolia. The khondalite series mainly consists of sillimanite garnet potash feldspar (or two-feldspar) gneiss and garnet biotite plagioclase gneiss. These gneissic rocks have commonly experienced granulite-facies metamorphism. In zircons separated from sillimanite garnet potash feldspar gneisses, many mineral inclusions, including Sil, Grt, Ky, Kfs, Qtz and Ap, have been identified by the Laser Raman spectroscopy. Generally, prograde metamorphic mineral inclusion assemblages such as Ky + Kfs + Qtz + Ap and Ky + Grt + Kfs + Qtz are preserved in the core of zircon, while peak granulite-facies metamorphic minerals including Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz and Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz + Ap are identified in the mantle and rim of the same zircon. However, in some zircons are only preserved the peak metamorphic minerals such as Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz and Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz + Ap from core to rim, and in others are inherited the primary cores with minor mineral inclusions of Kfs + Qtz, with peak metamorphic mineral inclusions around the inherited cores. These data indicate that the mineral assemblage evolution of sillimanite garnet potash feldspar gneisses in the study are did experience a polymorphic transformation of kyanite to sillimanite. In garnet biotite plagioclase gneisses, secondary electron microscopic images reveal that most zircons display distinct zoning textures, which comprise cores and rims, each with distinctive inclusion assemblages. The inherited mineral inclusions, mainly consisting of Kfs + Pl + Qtz, Kfs + Qtz and Kfs + Qtz + Ap, are preserved in the primary cores, while peak granulite-facies mineral asemblages, including Grt + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Ap, Grt + Bt + Pl + Qtz and Grt + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Rt, are identified on the rims. The occurrence of peak metamorphic mineral inclusions in zircons indicates that these gneissic rocks, including

  9. On the valency state of radiogenic lead in zircon and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramers, J.; Frei, R; Newville, M.; Kober, B.; Villa, I.; (UCopenhagen); (Universitä); (t Bern); (UC); (University of Heidelberg)


    In zircon U-Pb systematics, extreme robustness up to the temperatures of granulite facies and anatexis contrasts with apparently easy loss of radiogenic Pb at low temperatures, often without any metamorphic event being in evidence. Here we propose that this paradoxical behaviour can be understood with the hypothesis that radiogenic Pb in zircon is tetravalent. We review data and arguments in favour of this hypothesis. Diffusion profiles calculated for Pb{sup 2+} in a 25 {micro}m radius zircon xenocryst in a melt at 1000 C, combined with the incompatibility of Pb{sup 2+}, or for a zircon core inside a younger zircon rim at this temperature, show age effects that should have been observed in SIMS dating. Further, in zircon evaporation as well as in leaching experiments, common Pb is generally released preferentially to radiogenic Pb. After removal of less radiogenic Pb, the evaporation record generally shows pure radiogenic Pb during the final evaporation steps. The distribution of residual Pb in a leached titanite, revealed by PIXE, is similar to that of Ti. Lastly, XANES spectra of a 1 Ga old titanite (predominantly radiogenic Pb) and an Alpine one (predominantly common Pb) are significantly different, although the former does not resemble that of PbO{sub 2}. The arguments why radiogenic Pb should be tetravalent are based on analogies with studies relating to the tetravalent state of {sup 234}Th and the hexavalent state of {sup 234}U, which show that {alpha}-recoil in silicates generates a strongly oxidizing environment at the site where the recoiling nucleus comes to rest. Further, a zircon grain, being small, should remain highly oxidizing in its interior by the constant loss of {beta}-particles, maintaining the 4+ state of radiogenic Pb. From its effective ion radius, similar to that of Zr{sup 4+}, and its charge, Pb{sup 4+} has to be compatible in the zircon lattice. Also, by analogy with U{sup 4+}, Th{sup 4+} and Hf{sup 4+}, its diffusivity should be several

  10. Th-rich zircon from peralka line A-type granite: Minera-logical features and petrological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Lei; WANG Rucheng; CHEN Xiaoming; QIU Jiansheng; WANG Dezi


    The Taohuadao, Qingtian and Laoshan granites are three typical late Yanshannian peralkaline granitic plutons in the coastal area, eastern China. In this paper, internal structures and chemical compositions of zircon from these A-type granites were investigated by electron microprobe. It is shown that zircon grains are mainly composed of two distinctly separated parts. One is rich in Th (ThO2 >1 wt%, and ThO2/UO2 >2), and attains ThO2 up to 10.1 wt%; such value exceeds the dissolution limit of Th in the zircon structure (ThO2=5.5(2.5 wt%) determined in previous experiment. On the other hand, the other part is poor in Th (ThO2<1 wt%), but contains many thorite micro-inclusions with sieved texture. By comparison, it is also implied that zircon in aluminous A-type granites is characterized by low content of ThO2 (<1 wt%), ThO2/UO2 <2 and absence of thorite inclusion. Based on mineralogical features, one is tempted to assume that the Th-rich zircon is formed during the early crystallization of deep-sourced, high-temperature and Th-enriched A-type granitic magma. Such zircon is then subjected to late dissolution owing to accumulation of fluids at the end of magmatic evolution of A-type granite. Recrystallization finally leads to formation of sieved low-Th zircon with thorite micro-inclusions, which may coexist with remnants of Th-rich zircons. The Th-rich zircon may be considered to be one of characteristic accessory minerals of peralkaline A-type granites.

  11. Hf isotopic compositions of the standard zircons for U-Pb dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ping; WU Fuyuan; XIE Liewen; YANG Yueheng


    Using the newly published Yb isotopic abundances and the mass bias relationship between Yb and Hf, we carried out an analysis of Hf isotopes in the standard zircon 91500 by means of 193 nm laser attached to Neptune multi-collector ICP-MS (LA-MC-ICPMS). The obtained Hf isotopic data, in either in situ or line scan modes, are not only identical for different spot sizes, but also are consistent with previously published results obtained on TIMS or other MC-ICPMS machines within errors. This indicates that it is possible to obtain reliable 176Hf/177Hf isotopic ratios for zircon in either in situ or line scan conditions on LA-MC-ICPMS machine, and the applied procedures in our study for elemental interfering correction are appropriate for the purpose of acquiring satisfactory accuracy for Hf isotope analyses. The Hf isotopic compositions of four zircon standards in high spatial resolution U-Pb dating, 91500, CZ3,CN92-1 and TEMORA, are measured, respectively. The obtained 176Hf/177Hf ratios are 0.282316+4 (n = 34, 2σ) for 91500, 0.281704±6 (n = 16, 2σ) for CZ3, 0.282200±6 (n = 20,2σ-) for CN92-1 and 0.282684±14 (n = 24, 2σ) for TEMORA,respectively, with 176Lu/177Hf ratios of ~0.00031, 0.000036,0.00083 and 0.00127. Zircons 91500 and CZ3 show narrower variations in 176Hf/177Hf and 176Lu/177Hf ratios than those of zircons CN92-1 and TEMORA, and thus are appropriate standards for the Hf isotope analysis.

  12. Depositional ages of clastic metasediments from Samos and Syros, Greece: results of a detrital zircon study (United States)

    Löwen, Kersten; Bröcker, Michael; Berndt, Jasper


    Siliciclastic metasediments from the islands of Samos and Syros, Cycladic blueschist unit, Greece, were studied to determine maximum sedimentation ages. Four samples from the Ampelos unit on Samos yielded age distribution spectra that range from ~320 Ma to ~3.2 Ga with a dominance of Cambrian-Neoproterozoic zircons (500-1,100 Ma). The youngest well-constrained age groups cluster at 500-550 Ma. Our results allow to link the Samos metasediments with occurrences showing similar age distribution patterns elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean region (Greece, Turkey, Libya, Israel and Jordan) that record the influx of `Pan-African' detritus. The lack of post-500-Ma zircons in the Samos samples is in marked contrast to the data from Syros that indicates Triassic to Cretaceous depositional ages. The samples from Syros were collected from the matrix of a meta-ophiolitic mélange that is exposed near the top of the metamorphic succession as well as from outcrops representing the basal part of the underlying marble-schist sequence. The zircon populations from Syros were mainly supplied by Mesozoic sources dominated by Triassic protolith ages. Subordinate is the importance of pre-Triassic zircons, but this may reflect bias induced by the research strategy. Sediment accumulation continued until Late Cretaceous time, but the overall contribution of Jurassic to Cretaceous detritus is more limited. Zircon populations are dominated by grains with small degree of rounding suggesting relatively short sediment transportation. Available observations are in accordance with a model suggesting deposition close to the magmatic source rocks.

  13. Rapid cooling rates at an active mid-ocean ridge from zircon thermochronology (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel K.; Perfit, Michael R.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Smith, Matthew C.; Cotsonika, Laurie A.; Zellmer, Georg F.; Ridley, W. Ian


    Oceanic spreading ridges are Earth's most productive crust generating environment, but mechanisms and rates of crustal accretion and heat loss are debated. Existing observations on cooling rates are ambiguous regarding the prevalence of conductive vs. convective cooling of lower oceanic crust. Here, we report the discovery and dating of zircon in mid-ocean ridge dacite lavas that constrain magmatic differentiation and cooling rates at an active spreading center. Dacitic lavas erupted on the southern Cleft segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge, an intermediate-rate spreading center, near the intersection with the Blanco transform fault. Their U–Th zircon crystallization ages (29.3-4.6+4.8 ka; 1δ standard error s.e.) overlap with the (U–Th)/He zircon eruption age (32.7 ± 1.6 ka) within uncertainty. Based on similar 238U-230Th disequilibria between southern Cleft dacite glass separates and young mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) erupted nearby, differentiation must have occurred rapidly, within ~ 10–20 ka at most. Ti-in-zircon thermometry indicates crystallization at 850–900 °C and pressures > 70–150 MPa are calculated from H2O solubility models. These time-temperature constraints translate into a magma cooling rate of ~ 2 × 10-2 °C/a. This rate is at least one order-of-magnitude faster than those calculated for zircon-bearing plutonic rocks from slow spreading ridges. Such short intervals for differentiation and cooling can only be resolved through uranium-series (238U–230Th) decay in young lavas, and are best explained by dissipating heat convectively at high crustal permeability.

  14. Fabrication of lead zirconate titanate actuator via suspension polymerization casting (United States)

    Miao, Weiguo


    The research presented herein has focused on the fabrication of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) telescopic actuator from Suspension Polymerization Casting (SPC). Two systems were studied: an acrylamide-based hydrogel, and an acrylate-based nonaqueous system. Analytical tools such as thermomechanical analysis (TMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), chemorheology, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to investigate the polymerization and burnout processes. The acrylamide hydrogel polymerization casting process used hydroxymethyl acrylamide (HMAM) monofunctional monomer with methylenebisacrylamide (MBAM) difunctional monomer, or used methacrylamide (MAM) as monofunctional monomer. High solid loading PZT slurries with low viscosities were obtained by optimizing the amounts of dispersant and the PZT powders. The overall activation energy of gelation was calculated to be 60--76 kJ/mol for the monomer solution, this energy was increased to 91 kJ/mol with the addition of PZT powder. The results show that the PZT powder has a retardation effect on gelation. Although several PZT tubes were made using the acrylamide-based system, the demolding and drying difficulties made this process unsuitable for building internal structures, such as the telescopic actuator. The acrylate-based system was used successfully to build telescopic actuator. Efforts were made to study the influence of composition and experimental conditions on the polymerization process. Temperature was found to have the largest impact on polymerization. To adjust the polymerization temperature and time, initiator and/or catalyst were used. PZT powder has a catalytic effect on the polymerization process. Compared with acrylamide systems, acrylate provided a strong polymer network to support the ceramic green body. This high strength is beneficial for the demolding process, but it can easily cause cracks during the burnout process. To solve the burnout issue

  15. U-Pb provenance ages of shocked zircons from the K-T boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado (United States)

    Premo, W. R.; Izett, G. A.


    U-Pb isotopic systematics from analyses of single zircons identify at least two provenance ages, approximately 575 Ma and approximately 330 Ma, for zircons from the impact layer of the K-T boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado. These data are a preliminary confirmation of results reported from the same layer. The zircon provenance ages provide a unique signature for identification of the source crater since igneous rocks of these ages (or sedimentary rocks derived from them) must characterize part of the impact stratigraphy.

  16. Evolution of the depleted mantle and growth of the continental crust: improving on the imperfect detrital zircon record (United States)

    Vervoort, J. D.; Kemp, A. I. S.; Patchett, P. J.


    One of the basic tenets of terrestrial geochemistry is that the continental crust has been extracted from the mantle leaving the latter depleted in incompatible elements. Nd and Hf isotopes have long shown that this process has been an essential feature of the Earth throughout its history. There is wide agreement on the general nature of this process, but the details of the isotopic record—and their implications for the depletion of the mantle and the extraction of continental crust—remain debated. Recently, much attention has been given to detrital zircons in both modern and ancient sediments. An advantage of this approach is the integration of the crystallization history of the zircon from the U-Pb chronometer with its Hf isotopic composition, which can provide important information on whether the zircons have been derived from juvenile or reworked crust. One essential requirement in this approach, however, is to unambiguously determine the crystallization ages of the zircons. We suggest that this represents an important—but generally ignored—source of uncertainty in the Hf isotopic record from detrital zircons. The quality filter most often used to assess the integrity of zircon U-Pb systematics is concordance; if a zircon is concordant, it is assumed that the U-Pb age is accurate. A concordance filter is less effective in old zircons, however, because ancient Pb loss, viewed today, parallels concordia. Without the benefit from the geological context of the host rock to the zircons, it is impossible to unambiguously determine it true crystallization age. Ancient Pb loss in zircons produces an apparent age less than the true magmatic age. The initial Hf isotopic composition of these zircons, as a result, will be calculated at the wrong age and will be anomalously low (by ~2.2 epsilon Hf units per 0.1 Ga). Hf model ages, calculated from these parameters, will be artificially old and spurious. The combination of unradiogenic Hf and Hf model ages > U-Pb ages

  17. Jurassic cooling ages in Paleozoic to early Mesozoic granitoids of northeastern Patagonia: 40Ar/39Ar, 40K-40Ar mica and U-Pb zircon evidence (United States)

    Martínez Dopico, Carmen I.; Tohver, Eric; López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Wemmer, Klaus; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Cawood, Peter A.


    U-Pb SHRIMP zircon crystallization ages and Ar-Ar and K-Ar mica cooling ages for basement rocks of the Yaminué and Nahuel Niyeu areas in northeastern Patagonia are presented. Granitoids that cover the time span from Ordovician to Early Triassic constitute the main outcrops of the western sector of the Yaminué block. The southern Yaminué Metaigneous Complex comprises highly deformed Ordovician and Permian granitoids crosscut by undeformed leucogranite dikes (U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 254 ± 2 Ma). Mica separates from highly deformed granitoids from the southern sector yielded an Ar-Ar muscovite age of 182 ± 3 Ma and a K-Ar biotite age of 186 ± 2 Ma. Moderately to highly deformed Permian to Early Triassic granitoids made up the northern Yaminué Complex. The Late Permian to Early Triassic (U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 252 ± 6 Ma) Cabeza de Vaca Granite of the Yaminué block yielded Jurassic mica K-Ar cooling ages (198 ± 2, 191 ± 1, and 190 ± 2 Ma). At the boundary between the Yaminué and Nahuel Niyeu blocks, K-Ar muscovite ages of 188 ± 3 and 193 ± 5 Ma were calculated for the Flores Granite, whereas the Early Permian Navarrete granodiorite, located in the Nahuel Niyeu block, yielded a K-Ar biotite age of 274 ± 4 Ma. The Jurassic thermal history is not regionally uniform. In the supracrustal exposures of the Nahuel Niyeu block, the Early Permian granitoids of its western sector as well as other Permian plutons and Ordovician leucogranites located further east show no evidence of cooling age reset since mica ages suggest cooling in the wake of crystallization of these intrusive rocks. In contrast, deeper crustal levels are inferred for Permian-Early Triassic granitoids in the Yaminué block since cooling ages for these rocks are of Jurassic age (198-182 Ma). Jurassic resetting is contemporaneous with the massive Lower Jurassic Flores Granite, and the Marifil and Chon Aike volcanic provinces. This intraplate deformational pulse that affected northeastern

  18. The timing of final closure along the Changchun-Yanji suture zone: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb dating of the Triassic Dajianggang Formation, NE China (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhou, Jian-Bo; Wilde, Simon A.; Zhang, Xing-Zhou; Ren, Shou-Mai


    The Dajianggang Formation is located in the Changchun-Yanji suture zone of central Jilin Province and unconformably overlies the Changchun-Yanji Accretionary Complex (CYAC), which is a mélange resulting from subduction of the Jiamusi-Khanka Block (JKB) beneath the North China Craton (NCC). LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of detrital zircon from four samples of the formation yields ages of 2516 to 216 Ma. Zircons with U-Pb ages at 2516-2501 Ma and 1897-1832 Ma indicate a provenance from Precambrian basement rocks of the NCC. The 525-482 Ma ages indicate a provenance from metamorphic rocks of Late Pan-African age in the JKB that have a tectonic affinity to the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Zircon grains with ages of 383-314 Ma and 275-250 Ma were likely derived from the underlying CYAC. The youngest population has a peak age of ca. 225 Ma, which together with Late Triassic fossils, suggests that deposition of the Dajianggang Formation was Late Triassic or younger. This result supports the view that the final collision of the JKB and NCC along the Changchun-Yanji suture took place before the Late Triassic. Furthermore, this closure time is at least 10-20 Ma later than closure along the Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun suture in the Late Permian. We thus establish that the Changchun-Yanji suture is not related to the collision between the Siberia Craton (SC) and the NCC but was instead related to the Paleo-Pacific plate subduction. Consequently, the Changchun-Yanji suture is not the eastward extension of the Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun suture as previously considered, but the southern margin of the Jilin-Heilongjiang high-pressure metamorphic belt (Ji-Hei HP belt), and resulted from westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. Thus, the Late Triassic marked the switch in subduction from the Paleo-Asian Ocean to the Paleo-Pacific Ocean in NE China.

  19. U-Pb zircon geochronology and phase equilibria modelling of a mafic eclogite from the Sumdo complex of south-east Tibet: Insights into prograde zircon growth and the assembly of the Tibetan plateau (United States)

    Weller, O. M.; St-Onge, M. R.; Rayner, N.; Waters, D. J.; Searle, M. P.; Palin, R. M.


    The Sumdo complex is a Permian-Triassic eclogitic metamorphic belt in south-east Tibet, which marks the location of a suture zone that separates the northern and southern Lhasa terranes. An integrated geochronological and petrological study of a mafic eclogite from the complex has constrained its tectonometamorphic history and provides a case study of zircon growth in eclogite as a product of prograde dissolution-precipitation. In situ U-Pb geochronology indicates that the eclogite contains a single population of zircon with a crystallisation age of 273.6 ± 2.8 Ma. The morphology and chemistry of the zircon grains are consistent with growth by dissolution-precipitation of protolith magmatic zircon. The presence of zircon grains as inclusions in the cores of peak phases indicates that zircon dissolution-precipitation occurred during prograde metamorphism, and calculated pressure and temperature conditions over which mineral inclusions in zircon are stable suggest that the zircon most likely precipitated at 15.5-16.5 kbar and 500-560 °C. Subsequent peak metamorphism is calculated to have reached pressure-temperature conditions of 27 ± 1 kbar and 670 ± 50 °C. Previous studies, which have documented a range of peak metamorphic conditions from high- to ultrahigh-pressure at c. 266-230 Ma, indicate that the Sumdo complex is a composite belt that experienced protracted eclogite exhumation. The results of this study are consistent with this interpretation, and extend the age range of high-pressure metamorphism in the complex to over 40 Myr. Analysis of published pressure-temperature-time data indicates two systematic behaviours within this spread. First, peak metamorphic temperatures declined over time. Second, eclogite exhumation occurred in two discrete intervals: soon after formation, and during the demise of the subduction zone. The latter behaviour serves as a reminder that eclogite exhumation is the exception rather than the rule.

  20. Petrology and SHRIMP zircon geochronology of granulites from Vesleknausen, Lützow-Holm Complex, East Antarctica:Neoarchean magmatism and Neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiaki Tsunogae; Daniel J. Dunkley; Kenji Horie; Takahiro Endo; Tomoharu Miyamoto; Mutsumi Kato


    We report new petrological data and geochronological measurements of granulites from Vesleknausen in the highest-grade section of the Lützow-Holm Complex, part of the Gondwana-assembling collisional orogen in East Antarctica. The locality is dominated by felsic to intermediate orthogneiss (charnockite and minor biotite gneiss), mafic orthogneiss, and hornblende-pyroxene granulite, with deformed and undeformed dykes of metagranite and felsic pegmatite. Pseudosection analysis of charnockite in the system NCKFMASHTO, supported by geothermometry of mafic orthogneiss, was used to infer peak metamorphic temperatures of 750e850 ?C, approximately 150 ?C lower than those estimated for met-asedimentary gneisses from Rundvågshetta, 6 km to the northeast. SHRIMP U-Pb analysis of zircons from feldspar-pyroxene gneiss, which corresponds to a partially molten patch around mafic orthogneiss, yielded a Concordia upper intercept ages of 2507.9 ? 7.4 Ma, corresponding to the time of formation of the magmatic protolith to the orthogneiss. Partial melting during peak metamorphism probably took place between 591 and 548 Ma, as recorded in rims overgrew around magmatic zircon. Our results suggest that Rundvågshetta-Vesleknausen-Strandnibba region in southwestern Lützow-Holm Bay, where orthogneisses are dominant, consists of a single crustal block, possibly formed by ca. 2.5 Ga arc mag-matism. The Neoarchean magmatic terrane was tectonically mingled with other fragments (such as metasedimentary units in northern Lützow-Holm Bay) by subduction/collision events during the as-sembly of Gondwana supercontinent, and subsequently underwent w850 ?C granulite-facies meta-morphosed during Neoproterozoic to Cambrian final collisional event.

  1. Petrology and SHRIMP zircon geochronology of granulites from Vesleknausen, Lützow-Holm Complex, East Antarctica: Neoarchean magmatism and Neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Tsunogae


    Full Text Available We report new petrological data and geochronological measurements of granulites from Vesleknausen in the highest-grade section of the Lützow-Holm Complex, part of the Gondwana-assembling collisional orogen in East Antarctica. The locality is dominated by felsic to intermediate orthogneiss (charnockite and minor biotite gneiss, mafic orthogneiss, and hornblende-pyroxene granulite, with deformed and undeformed dykes of metagranite and felsic pegmatite. Pseudosection analysis of charnockite in the system NCKFMASHTO, supported by geothermometry of mafic orthogneiss, was used to infer peak metamorphic temperatures of 750–850 °C, approximately 150 °C lower than those estimated for metasedimentary gneisses from Rundvågshetta, 6 km to the northeast. SHRIMP U-Pb analysis of zircons from feldspar-pyroxene gneiss, which corresponds to a partially molten patch around mafic orthogneiss, yielded a Concordia upper intercept ages of 2507.9 ± 7.4 Ma, corresponding to the time of formation of the magmatic protolith to the orthogneiss. Partial melting during peak metamorphism probably took place between 591 and 548 Ma, as recorded in rims overgrew around magmatic zircon. Our results suggest that Rundvågshetta-Vesleknausen-Strandnibba region in southwestern Lützow-Holm Bay, where orthogneisses are dominant, consists of a single crustal block, possibly formed by ca. 2.5 Ga arc magmatism. The Neoarchean magmatic terrane was tectonically mingled with other fragments (such as metasedimentary units in northern Lützow-Holm Bay by subduction/collision events during the assembly of Gondwana supercontinent, and subsequently underwent ∼850 °C granulite-facies metamorphosed during Neoproterozoic to Cambrian final collisional event.

  2. Zircon U-Pb age and geochemical constraints on the origin and tectonic implication of Cadomian (Ediacaran-Early Cambrian) magmatism in SE Turkey (United States)

    Beyarslan, Melahat; Lın, Yu-Chin; Bingöl, A. Feyzi; Chung, Sun-Lin


    The Bitlis-Pütürge Massifs and Derik volcanics that crop out in the Southeast Anatolian Belt are parts of the Cadomian domain in Anatolia where relicts of the oldest continental crust of Turkey are exposed. The Bitlis-Pütürge Massifs contain a Neoproterozoic basement, with overlying Phanerozoic rocks that were imbricated, metamorphosed and thrust over the edge of Arabia during the Alpine orogeny. The basement consists mainly of granitic to tonalitic augen gneisses and metagranites, associated with schists, amphibolites and paragneisses. Based on whole-rock geochemical data, the augen gneisses are interpreted to have protoliths crystallized from subduction zone magmas. This study conducted the first zircon dating on two augen gneisses that gave 206Pb/238U dates of 551 ± 6 and 544 ± 4 Ma, interpreted as the formation ages of the Pütürge Massif, broadly coeval to those of the Bitlis metagranites and the Derik volcanics that occurred from ca. 581 to 529 Ma (the Ediacaran-early Cambrian). The ɛHf(t) values (+1.2 to -5.3) of the dated zircons, with crustal model ages (TDMC) from 1.4 to 1.8 Ga, indicate that formation of the Pütürge Massif involves an older, most likely the Mesoproterozoic, continental crust component. Similar to the Bitlis-Pütürge gneisses, coeval basement rocks are widespread in the Tauride-Anatolide platform (e.g., the Menderes Massif). All these dispersed Cadomian basement rocks are interpreted as fragments of the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian continental arcs bordering the active margin of northern Gondwana.

  3. Zircon U-Pb geochronology of the volcanic rocks from Fanchang-Ningwu volcanic basins in the Lower Yangtze region and its geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; LIU HaiQuan; SONG ChuanZhong; XU XiSheng; AN YaJun; LIU Jia; DAI LiQun


    The latest eruptions in two important Mesozoic volcanic basins of Fanchang and Ningwu located in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River formed the bimodal volcanic rocks of the Kedoushan Formation and ultrapotassic volcanic rocks of the Niangniangshan Formation,respectively.The representative volcanic rocks of the two Formations were selected for LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating.The results indicate that there exist a large amount of magmatic zircons as indicated by high Th/U ratios in these volcanic rocks.The weighted mean age of 21 analyses is 130.7±1.1 Ma for the Kedoushan Formation,and that of 20 analyses is 130.6±1.1 Ma for the Niangniangshan Formation.These U-Pb ages are interpreted to represent the formation times of the volcanic rocks.In combination with other known geochronological data for Mesozoic volcanic rocks from the Lower Yangtze region,it is proposed that the latest volcanic activations in the Jinniu,Luzong,Fanchang and Ningwu volcanic basins probably came to end prior to ca.128 Me.There is no significant time interval between the early and later volcanic activities in the Luzong and Ningwu basins,suggesting e short duration of volcanic activities and thus implying the onset of an extensional tectonic setting at about 130 Ma in the Lower Yangtze region.Integrated studies reveal that the Early Cretaceous magmatic activities and their geochronological framework in the Lower Yangtze region are a response to progressively dynamic deep processes that started with the transformation of tectonic setting from compression to extension,followed by delaminating of the lower part of the thickened lithosphere,lithospheric thinning,asthenosphere upwelling,and crust-mantle interaction.

  4. A comparison of zircon U-Pb age results of the Red Clay sequence on the central Chinese Loess Plateau (United States)

    Gong, Hujun; Nie, Junsheng; Wang, Zhao; Peng, Wenbin; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yunxiang


    Single grain zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated great potentials in extracting tectonic and atmospheric circulation signal carried by aeolian, fluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments. A routine in this sort of studies is analyzing 100-150 grains and then compares zircon U-Pb age spectra between the measured sample and the potential sources. Here we compared the zircon U-Pb age results of the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence of two neighboring sites from the Chinese Loess Plateau where similar provenance signal is expected. Although the results from the 5.5 Ma sediment support this prediction, the results from the 3 Ma sediment at these two sites differ from each other significantly. These results emphasize the importance of increasing analysis number per sample and combining the zircon U-Pb geochronology with other provenance tools in order to get reliable provenance information.

  5. Zircon U-Pb geochronology of basement metamorphic rocks in the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI FuPing; XU WenLiang; YANG DeBin; ZHAO QuanGuo; LIU XiaoMing; HU ZhaoChu


    Zircon LA-ICP MS U-Pb dating of six metamorphic rocks and a metagranite (breccia) from southern basement of the Songliao Basin are reported in order to constrain the formation ages of basement. The basement metamorphic rocks in the Songliao Basin mainly consist of metagabbro (L45-1), amphibolite (SN117), metarhyolitical tuff (G190), sericite (Ser) schist (N103), chlorite (Chi) schist (T5-1), biotite (Bi)-actinolite (Act)-quartz (Q) schist (Y205), and metagranite (L44-1). The cathodoluminesence (CL)images of the zircons from metagabbro (L45-1) and metagranite (L44-1) indicate that they have cores of magmatic origin and rims of metamorphic overgrowths. Their U-Pb isotopic ages are 1808±21 Ma and 1873±13 Ma, respectively. The zircons with oscillatory zoning from amphibolite (SN117) and Chi schist (T5-1), being similar to those of mafic igneous rocks, yield ages of 274 ± 3.4 Ma and 264 ± 3.2 Ma, respectively. The zircons from metarhyolitical tuff (G190) and Ser schist (N103) display typical magmatic growth zoning and yield ages of 424 ± 4.5 Ma and 287 ± 5.1Ma, respectively. Most of zircons from Bi-Act-Q schist (Y2O5) are round in shape and different in absorption degree in the CL images, implying their sedimentary detritals. U-Pb dating yield concordant ages of 427 ± 3.1Ma, 455 ± 12 Ma, 696 ± 13 Ma,1384±62 Ma, 1649±36 Ma, 1778±18 Ma, 2450±9 Ma, 2579±10 Ma, 2793±4 Ma and 2953±14 Ma. The above-mentioned results indicate that the Precambrian crystalline basement (1808-1873 Ma) exists in the southern Songliao Basin and could be related to tectonic thrust, and that the Early Paleozoic (424-490 Ma) and Late Paleozoic magmatisms (264-292 Ma) also occur in the basin basement, which are consistent with the ages of the detrital zircons from Bi-Act-Q schist in the basement.

  6. What Hf isotopes in zircon tell us about crust-mantle evolution (United States)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takao; Itano, Keita; Hibiya, Yuki; Suzuki, Kazue


    The 176Lu-176Hf radioactive decay system has been widely used to study planetary crust-mantle differentiation. Of considerable utility in this regard is zircon, a resistant mineral that can be precisely dated by the U-Pb chronometer and record its initial Hf isotope composition due to having low Lu/Hf. Here we review zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic data mainly obtained over the last two decades and discuss their contributions to our current understanding of crust-mantle evolution, with emphasis on the Lu-Hf isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE), early differentiation of the silicate Earth, and the evolution of the continental crust over geologic history. Meteorite zircon encapsulates the most primitive Hf isotope composition of our solar system, which was used to identify chondritic meteorites best representative of the BSE (176Hf/177Hf = 0.282793 ± 0.000011; 176Lu/177Hf = 0.0338 ± 0.0001). Hadean-Eoarchean detrital zircons yield highly unradiogenic Hf isotope compositions relative to the BSE, providing evidence for the development of a geochemically enriched silicate reservoir as early as 4.5 Ga. By combining the Hf and O isotope systematics, we propose that the early enriched silicate reservoir has resided at depth within the Earth rather than near the surface and may represent a fractionated residuum of a magma ocean underlying the proto-crust, like urKREEP beneath the anorthositic crust on the Moon. Detrital zircons from world major rivers potentially provide the most robust Hf isotope record of the preserved granitoid crust on a continental scale, whereas mafic rocks with various emplacement ages offer an opportunity to trace the Hf isotope evolution of juvenile continental crust (from εHf[4.5 Ga] = 0 to εHf[present] = + 13). The river zircon data as compared to the juvenile crust composition highlight that the supercontinent cycle has controlled the evolution of the continental crust by regulating the rates of crustal generation and intra

  7. Zircons and fluids: An experimental investigation with applications for radioactive waste disposal. Hydrothermal stability of zircons: Progress report, January 1991--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, A.K.; Student, J.; Essex, R.


    The long-term stability of nuclear waste forms or barriers is related to changes in physical properties of the material induced through radiation damage and subsequent changes in solubility. Investigations conducted by us on natural zircons (ZrSiO{sub 4}) supports a positive correlation between level of alpha damage and fluid composition to enhanced levels of corrosion. New data are presented on the nature and rate of the solution process. We also present data on our continuing efforts to synthesize and characterize both pure ZrSiO{sub 4} and doped with U, Th, Hf, Dy and P.

  8. An in vitro evaluation of novel NHA/zircon plasma coating on 316L stainless steel dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Karamian


    Full Text Available The surface characteristics of an implant that influence the speed and strength of osseointegration include crystal structure and bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of a novel natural hydroxyapatite/zircon (NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite coating on 316L stainless steel (SS dental implants soaking in simulated body fluid. A novel NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite was fabricated with 0 (control, 5, 10, and 15 wt% of zircon in NHA using ball mill for 1 h. The composite mixture was coated on SS implants using a plasma spray method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to evaluate surface morphology, and X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to analyze phase composition and crystallinity (Xc. Further, calcium ion release was measured to evaluate the coated nanobiocomposite samples. The prepared NHA/zircon coating had a nanoscale morphological structure with a mean crystallite size of 30–40 nm in diameter and a bone-like composition, which is similar to that of the biological apatite of a bone. For the prepared NHA powder, high bioactivity was observed owing to the formation of apatite crystals on its surface. Both minimum crystallinity (Xc=41.1% and maximum bioactivity occurred in the sample containing 10 wt% of zircon because of minimum Xc and maximum biodegradation of the coating sample.

  9. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of garnet olivine pyroxenite at Hujialin in the Sulu terrane and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Tianshan; CHEN Jiangfeng; XIE Zhi; YANG Shenghong; YU Gang


    Garnet olivine pyroxenite at Hujialin is situated in the Sulu ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt, Shandong Province. Most of the zircon separated from the rock is well crystallized, prismatic and granular with a length to width ratio of 1︰1.3-1︰2.5. CL and BSE images show the magmatic oscillatory zoning in the zircon. Th/U ratio ranges from 0.99 to 2.81. These suggest a magmatic origin for the zircon studied. SHRIMP dating yields 206Pb/238U ages of 207-223 Ma, with a weighted average of 216±3 Ma. This age corresponds to zircon growth during exhumation of UHP slab and thus the timing of amphibolite-facies retrogression. The garnet olivine pyroxenite was wrapped and brought to the crust by the UHP slab during exhumation, and then suffered from metasomatism by fluid from the UHP slab itself. The zircon U-Pb age records the timing of the crystallization of metasomatic melt. Therefore, fluid that was released during exhumation of deeply subducted continental slab may be the important source for zircon growth.

  10. An in vitro evaluation of novel NHA/zircon plasma coating on 316L stainless steel dental implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebrahim Karamian; Mahmood Reza Kalantar Motamedi; Amirsalar Khandan; Parisa Soltani; Sahel Maghsoudi


    The surface characteristics of an implant that influence the speed and strength of osseointegration include crystal structure and bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of a novel natural hydroxyapatite/zircon (NHA/zircon) nanobiocomposite coating on 316L stainless steel (SS) dental implants soaking in simulated body fluid. A novel NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite was fabricated with 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 wt%of zircon in NHA using ball mill for 1 h. The composite mixture was coated on SS implants using a plasma spray method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate surface morphology, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze phase composition and crystallinity (Xc). Further, calcium ion release was measured to evaluate the coated nanobiocomposite samples. The prepared NHA/zircon coating had a nanoscale morphological structure with a mean crystallite size of 30-40 nm in diameter and a bone-like composition, which is similar to that of the biological apatite of a bone. For the prepared NHA powder, high bioactivity was observed owing to the formation of apatite crystals on its surface. Both minimum crystallinity (Xc = 41.1%) and maximum bioactivity occurred in the sample containing 10 wt%of zircon because of minimum Xc and maximum biodegradation of the coating sample.

  11. Critical scattering of synchrotron radiation in lead zirconate-titanate with low titanium concentrations (United States)

    Andronikova, D. A.; Bosak, A. A.; Bronwald, Iu. A.; Burkovsky, R. G.; Vakhrushev, S. B.; Leontiev, N. G.; Leontiev, I. N.; Tagantsev, A. K.; Filimonov, A. V.; Chernyshov, D. Yu.


    Diffuse scattering in the lead zirconate-titanate single crystal with a titanium concentration of 0.7 at % has been studied by the synchrotron radiation scattering method. Measurements have been performed both in the vicinity of the Brillouin zone center and at the M-point. Highly anisotropic diffuse scattering has been revealed in the paraelectric phase near the Brillouin zone center; diffuse scattering anisotropy is similar to that previously observed in pure lead zirconate. The temperature dependence of this diffuse scattering obeys a critical law with T c ≈ 480 K. Diffuse scattering in the vicinity of the M-point weakly depends on temperature; this dependence behaves differently at M-points with various indices.

  12. Anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of erbium and ytterbium in zircon, ZrSiO4 (United States)

    Thorpe, A.N.; Briggs, Charles; Tsang, T.; Senftle, F.; Alexander, Corrine


    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made for both Er- and Yb-doped (1̃03ppm) zircon single crystals with the magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to the [001] axis. Large susceptibility anisotropies were found in both cases. Our observed anisotropies of ZrSiO4: Yb indicate small populations (1̃9%) of Yb ions at the axial (tetragonal) sites, as the susceptibility of ZrSiO4: Yb would be nearly isotropic if the Yb ions only occupied the orthorhombic sites. For Er3+ in orthorhombic sites of zircon, our data indicate that the first excited state is paramagnetic with gx = 9 and gy 5̃ at 20 cm-1 above the ground state (gx 0̃, gy 1̃5). The first excited state is quite similar to the ground states observed for Er3+ in many host lattices. ?? 1977.

  13. Precise U-Pb Zircon Dating of the Syenite Phase from the Ditrau Alkaline Igneous Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pană Dinu


    Full Text Available The Ditrău igneous complex represents the largest alkaline intrusion in the Carpathian-Pannonian region consisting of a plethora of rock types formed by complicated magmatic and metasomatic processes. A detailed U-Pb zircon age study is currently underway and the results for the syenite intrusion phase is reported herein. The U-Pb zircon emplacement age of the syenite of 229.6 +1.7/-1.2 Ma documents the quasi-contemporaneous production and emplacement of the gabbro and syenite magmas. We suggest that the syenite and associated granite formed by crustal melting during the emplacement of the mantle derived gabbroic magma around 230 Ma. The thermal contact aureole produced by the Ditrău alkaline igneous complex constrains the main tectonism recorded by surrounding metamorphic lithotectonic assemblages to be pre-Ladinian.

  14. Investigation of zircon/zirconia ceramics doped with {sup 239}Pu and {sup 238}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burakov, B.E.; Anderson, E.B.; Zamoryanskaya, M.V.; Nikolaeva, E.V.; Strykanova, E.E.; Yagovkina, M.A. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Several samples of crystalline double-phase ceramics based on zircon, (Zr,Pu)SiO{sub 4} and zirconia, (Zr,Pu)O{sub 2}, were synthesized by sintering in air, precursors containing approximately 5-6 and 10 wt% {sup 239}Pu, respectively. One sample doped with 5-6 wt% {sup 238-39-40}Pu was also obtained under the same conditions. All ceramic samples were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and MCC-1 leach test in deionized water at 90 C. Results indicate that even radiation damaged zircon/zirconia ceramics retain high chemical resistance and mechanical durability. (author)

  15. PALEOMAGNETISM. A Hadean to Paleoarchean geodynamo recorded by single zircon crystals. (United States)

    Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Davis, William J; Nimmo, Francis; Bono, Richard K


    Knowing when the geodynamo started is important for understanding the evolution of the core, the atmosphere, and life on Earth. We report full-vector paleointensity measurements of Archean to Hadean zircons bearing magnetic inclusions from the Jack Hills conglomerate (Western Australia) to reconstruct the early geodynamo history. Data from zircons between 3.3 billion and 4.2 billion years old record magnetic fields varying between 1.0 and 0.12 times recent equatorial field strengths. A Hadean geomagnetic field requires a core-mantle heat flow exceeding the adiabatic value and is suggestive of plate tectonics and/or advective magmatic heat transport. The existence of a terrestrial magnetic field before the Late Heavy Bombardment is supported by terrestrial nitrogen isotopic evidence and implies that early atmospheric evolution on both Earth and Mars was regulated by dynamo behavior.

  16. On the valency state of radiogenic lead in zircon and its consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramers, J.; Frei, Robert; Newville, M.


    at this temperature, show age effects that should have been observed in SIMS dating. Further, in zircon evaporation as well as in leaching experiments, common Pb is generally released preferentially to radiogenic Pb. After removal of less radiogenic Pb, the evaporation record generally shows pure radiogenic Pb during...... not resemble that of PbO2. The arguments why radiogenic Pb should be tetravalent are based on analogies with studies relating to the tetravalent state of 234Th and the hexavalent state of 234U, which show that a-recoil in silicates generates a strongly oxidizing environment at the site where the recoiling......-recoil damaged sites could be leached out by any electrolyte solution that reduces it to the divalent state, making it both incompatible and soluble. Thus, discordia can be generated in weathering. The curious observation that discordant Archaean zircon suites generally define trends to lower intercepts at up...

  17. Late Triassic uplift of southern Norway revealed by detrital zircons in the Norwegian-Danish Basin (United States)

    Olivarius, Mette; Nielsen, Lars H.; Weibel, Rikke; Kristensen, Lars; Thomsen, Tonny B.


    Zircon U/Pb geochronometry is used to identify the sediment source areas of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic shallow marine to paralic Gassum Formation in the Norwegian-Danish Basin. The analyses of zircon grains from geographically and stratigraphically widely distributed cores take advantage of the detailed sequence stratigraphic framework existing for the succession. The zircon ages indicate that the sediment in the lower part of the Gassum Formation in the northern and central parts of the basin was supplied solely from the Telemarkia Terrane in the southern part of southern Norway. However, age signatures from other basement terranes were added during periods of transgression presumably as a result of longshore reworking. The sediment in the eastern part of the basin has a different provenance signature that reflects supply from various sources of which some or all seemingly include older sediments. The basinwide fluvial incision that occurred during a relative sea-level fall in the Rhaetian is interpreted to be related to uplift of southern Norway since a pronounced content of zircon grains with U/Pb ages of 1.65 Ga were introduced in the Norwegian-Danish Basin at the time. This age is dominant in the upper part of the Gassum Formation and is present in all studied younger sediments in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, whereas it is missing in older sediments in the basin. Rocks with corresponding ages are presently exposed in the Jotun Nappe Complex and the Western Gneiss Complex in the central and northern parts of southern Norway. Thus, major faulting activity must have occurred in southern Norway during the Late Triassic that made such rocks available for erosion with permanent southeastwards drainage.

  18. Displacive radiation effects in the monazite- and zircon-structure orthophosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldrum, A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-1116 (United States); Boatner, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennesee 37831-6056 (United States); Ewing, R.C. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-1116 (United States)


    Monazite-structure orthophosphates, including LaPO{sub 4}, PrPO{sub 4}, NdPO{sub 4}, SmPO{sub 4}, EuPO{sub 4}, GdPO{sub 4}, and natural monazite, and their zircon-structure analogs, including ScPO{sub 4}, YPO{sub 4}, TbPO{sub 4}, TmPO{sub 4}, YbPO{sub 4}, and LuPO{sub 4}, were irradiated by 800keVKr{sup 2+} ions in the temperature range of 20 to 600 K. The critical amorphization dose was determined {ital in situ} as a function of temperature using selected-area electron diffraction. Amorphization doses were in the range of 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 16}ions/cm{sup 2}, depending on the temperature. Materials with the zircon structure were amorphized at higher temperatures than those with the monazite structure. The critical amorphization temperature ranged from 350 to 485 K for orthophosphates with the monazite structure and from 480 to 580 K for those with the zircon structure. However, natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) can be amorphized at over 1000 K. Within each structure type, the critical temperature of amorphization increased with the atomic number of the lanthanide cation. Structural topology models are consistent with the observed differences between the two structure types, but do not predict the relative amorphization doses for different compositions. The ratio of electronic-to-nuclear stopping correlates well with the observed sequence of susceptibility to amorphization within each structure type, consistent with previous results that electronic-energy losses enhance defect recombination in the orthophosphates. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Lead zirconate titanate nanowire textile nanogenerator for wearable energy-harvesting and self-powered devices. (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Bai, Suo; Yuan, Miaomiao; Qin, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Jing, Tao


    Wearable nanogenerators are of vital importance to portable energy-harvesting and personal electronics. Here we report a method to synthesize a lead zirconate titanate textile in which nanowires are parallel with each other and a procedure to make it into flexible and wearable nanogenerators. The nanogenerator can generate 6 V output voltage and 45 nA output current, which are large enough to power a liquid crystal display and a UV sensor.

  20. Ferroelastic contribution to the piezoelectric response in lead zirconate titanate by in situ stroboscopic neutron diffraction (United States)

    Jones, Jacob L.; Hoffman, Mark; Daniels, John E.; Studer, Andrew J.


    Ferroelastic domain switching during dynamic actuation is measured in situ for a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic utilizing a new capability developed on The Australian Strain Scanner (TASS) at ANSTO. Diffraction patterns are obtained as a function of time during a 1 Hz cycle. The change in the 0 0 2 and 2 0 0 diffraction intensities indicates there is ferroelastic domain switching at sub-coercive (weak) fields.

  1. Small-Volume U-Pb Zircon Geochronology by Laser Ablation-Multicollector-ICP-MS (United States)


    detrital and metamorphic history of a granulite -facies paragneiss — demonstrate the utility of this technique to a variety of geologic problems and confirm... granulite -facies pelitic gneiss collected inn geochronology by laser ablation-multicollector-ICP-MS, Chemical Fig. 11. A) Concordia plot of all...zircons to unravel the detrital–metamorphic history of a granulite -facies paragneiss from east Greenland. In addition to the small spot diameter, the

  2. Possible Biosphere-Lithosphere Interactions Preserved in Igneous Zircon and Implications for Hadean Earth. (United States)

    Trail, Dustin; Tailby, Nicholas D; Sochko, Maggie; Ackerson, Michael R


    Granitoids are silicic rocks that make up the majority of the continental crust, but different models arise for the origins of these rocks. One classification scheme defines different granitoid types on the basis of materials involved in the melting/crystallization process. In this end-member case, granitoids may be derived from melting of a preexisting igneous rock, while other granitoids, by contrast, are formed or influenced by melting of buried sedimentary material. In the latter case, assimilated sedimentary material altered by chemical processes occurring at the near surface of Earth-including biological activity-could influence magma chemical properties. Here, we apply a redox-sensitive calibration based on the incorporation of Ce into zircon crystals found in these two rock types, termed sedimentary-type (S-type) and igneous-type (I-type) granitoids. The ∼400 Ma Lachlan Fold Belt rocks of southeastern Australia were chosen for investigation here; these rocks have been a key target used to describe and explore granitoid genesis for close to 50 years. We observe that zircons found in S-type granitoids formed under more reducing conditions than those formed from I-type granitoids from the same terrain. This observation, while reflecting 9 granitoids and 289 analyses of zircons from a region where over 400 different plutons have been identified, is consistent with the incorporation of (reduced) organic matter in the former and highlights one possible manner in which life may modify the composition of igneous minerals. The chemical properties of rocks or igneous minerals may extend the search for ancient biological activity to the earliest period of known igneous activity, which dates back to ∼4.4 billion years ago. If organic matter was incorporated into Hadean sediments that were buried and melted, then these biological remnants could imprint a chemical signature within the subsequent melt and the resulting crystal assemblage, including zircon.

  3. An apatite for progress:inclusions in zircon and titanite constrain petrogenesis and provenance


    Bruand, Emilie; Storey, Craig Darryl; Fowler, Michael


    Apatite has recently gained considerable attention as a mineral with many uses within the Earth and planetary sciences. Apatite chemistry has recently given new insight into a wide range of geological processes and tools, for example, magmatism, metasomatism, planetary geochemistry, and geochronology. We expand the utility of apatite here by presenting a novel way to fingerprint magma chemistry and petrogenesis using apatite inclusions within robust titanite and zircon. We present trace eleme...

  4. Monazite U-Th-Pb EPMA and zircon U-Pb SIMS chronological constraints on the tectonic, metamorphic, and thermal events in the inner part of the Variscan orogen, example from the Sioule series, French Massif Central (United States)

    Do Couto, Damien; Faure, Michel; Augier, Romain; Cocherie, Alain; Rossi, Philippe; Li, Xian-Hua; Lin, Wei


    In the northern Variscan French Massif Central, the Sioule metamorphic series exposes from top to bottom the tectonic superposition of the Upper Gneiss Unit (UGU), Lower Gneiss Unit (LGU), and Para-autochthonous Unit (PAU). The nappe stacking developed throughout two prograde syn-metamorphic events: D1 is a top-to-the-SW shearing coeval with a probable Devonian migmatization and D2 is a top-to-the-NW shearing event. Both events were completed before the unconformable deposition of the undeformed and unmetamorphosed "Tufs anthracifères" formation, dated at ca 330 Ma (Late Visean). Furthermore, the UGU experienced a high-pressure metamorphism ascribed to a D0 event during which eclogite or granulite crystallized in several parts of the UGU. Monazite U-Th-Pb and zircon U-Pb SIMS datings were carried out in order to constrain the ages of these D0, D1, and D2 tectono-metamorphic events. These new geochronological results are placed in a P-T-t diagram constructed for the UGU, LGU, and PAU. Monazite sampled in UGU, LGU, and PAU rocks yields similar 365-350 Ma ages consistent with the D2 event dated in other places of the French Massif Central. A zoned monazite grain from a granulitic paragneiss yields 416 ± 15 and 362 ± 14 Ma ages interpreted as those of the D0 and D2 events, respectively. Zircon from the same granulitic paragneiss yields SIMS ages at 343 ± 2 and 328 ± 2 Ma that are interpreted as recrystallization processes associated with post-thickening thermal events, possibly recording the onset of orogenic collapse of the Northern Massif Central. It is worth to note that neither monazite nor zircon recorded the D1 event.

  5. The Ca(2+)/Calmodulin/CaMKK2 Axis: Nature's Metabolic CaMshaft. (United States)

    Marcelo, Kathrina L; Means, Anthony R; York, Brian


    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential ligand that binds its primary intracellular receptor calmodulin (CaM) to trigger a variety of downstream processes and pathways. Central to the actions of Ca(2+)/CaM is the activation of a highly conserved Ca(2+)/CaM kinase (CaMK) cascade that amplifies Ca(2+) signals through a series of subsequent phosphorylation events. Proper regulation of Ca(2+) flux is necessary for whole-body metabolism and disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis has been linked to various metabolic diseases. Here we provide a synthesis of recent advances that highlight the roles of the Ca(2+)/CaMK axis in key metabolic tissues. An appreciation of this information is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent signaling contributes to metabolic homeostasis and disease.

  6. Synthesis of ZrO2 -SiC Composite by Carbothermal Reduction of Zircon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Zircon (mesh size ≤ 44μm ) and carbon black (mesh size≤30 μm) were used as the starting materials,weighed with m(zircon): m(carbon black) of 100:20 and mixed fully. The specimens with the diameter of 20mm and length of 5mm were prepared by pressing at 100 MPa, then dried at 120℃ for 12h, put into a furnace with 1. 5L · min-1 argon gas and fired at 1450℃, 1500℃, 1550℃, 1600℃ and 1650℃ for 4h, respectively. The chemical composition, phase composition and microstructure of the specimens were studied by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscope, and the carbothermal reduction reaction process was discussed by thermodynamic analysis.The results showed that the ZrO2-SiC composite could be synthesized by carbothermal reduction reaction using zircon and carbon black as the starting materials in argon atmosphere. The composite with different composition was obtained by controlling the firing temperature and partial pressure of CO gas. The proper temperature to synthesize ZrO2-SiC composite was 1600℃ in this experiment.

  7. Zirconate Pyrochlore Frustrated Magnets: Crystal Growth by the Floating Zone Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ciomaga Hatnean


    Full Text Available This article reviews recent achievements on the crystal growth of a new series of pyrochlore oxides—lanthanide zirconates, which are frustrated magnets with exotic magnetic properties. Oxides of the type A 2 B 2 O 7 (where A = Rare Earth, B = Ti, Mo have been successfully synthesised in single crystal form using the floating zone method. The main difficulty of employing this technique for the growth of rare earth zirconium oxides A 2 Zr 2 O 7 arises from the high melting point of these materials. This drawback has been recently overcome by the use of a high power Xenon arc lamp furnace for the growth of single crystals of Pr 2 Zr 2 O 7 . Subsequently, large, high quality single crystals of several members of the zirconate family of pyrochlore oxides A 2 Zr 2 O 7 (with A = La → Gd have been grown by the floating zone technique. In this work, the authors give an overview of the crystal growth of lanthanide zirconates. The optimum conditions used for the floating zone growth of A 2 Zr 2 O 7 crystals are reported. The characterisation of the crystal boules and their crystal quality is also presented.

  8. Zircon LA-ICPMS geochronology of the Cornubian Batholith, SW England (United States)

    Neace, Erika R.; Nance, R. Damian; Murphy, J. Brendan; Lancaster, Penelope J.; Shail, Robin K.


    Available Usbnd Pb age data for the Cornubian Batholith of SW England is based almost entirely on monazite and xenotime, and very little zircon Usbnd Pb age data has been published. As a result, no zircon inheritance data is available for the batholith, by which the nature of the unexposed basement of the Rhenohercynian Zone in SW England might be constrained. Zircon LA-ICPMS data for the Cornubian Batholith provides Concordia ages (Bodmin Moor granite: 316 ± 4 Ma, Carnmenellis granite: 313 ± 3 Ma, Dartmoor granite: ~ 310 Ma, St. Austell granite: 305 ± 5 Ma, and Land's End granite: 300 ± 5 Ma) that are consistently 20-30 Ma older than previously published emplacement ages for the batholith and unrealistic in terms of geologic relative age relationships with respect to the country rock. This discrepancy is likely as a consequence of minor pre-granitic Pb inheritance. Several of the batholith's granite plutons contain a component of late-Devonian inheritance that may record rift-related, lower crustal melting or arc-related magmatism associated with subduction of the Rheic Ocean. In addition, the older granites likely contain Mesoproterozoic inheritance, although the highly discordant nature of the Mesoproterozoic ages precludes their use in assigning an affinity to the Rhenohercynian basement in SW England.

  9. Young cumulate complex beneath Veniaminof caldera, Aleutian arc, dated by zircon in erupted plutonic blocks (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Mazdab, Frank K.


    Mount Veniaminof volcano, Alaska Peninsula, provides an opportunity to relate Quaternary volcanic rocks to a coeval intrusive complex. Veniaminof erupted tholeiitic basalt through dacite in the past ˜260 k.y. Gabbro, diorite, and miarolitic granodiorite blocks, ejected 3700 14C yr B.P. in the most recent caldera-forming eruption, are fragments of a shallow intrusive complex of cumulate mush and segregated vapor-saturated residual melts. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) analyses define 238U-230Th isochron ages of 17.6 ± 2.7 ka, 5 +11/-10 ka, and 10.2 ± 4.0 ka (2σ) for zircon in two granodiorites and a diorite, respectively. Sparse zircons from two gabbros give 238U-230Th model ages of 36 ± 8 ka and 26 ± 7 ka. Zircons from granodiorite and diorite crystallized in the presence of late magmatic aqueous fluid. Although historic eruptions have been weakly explosive Strombolian fountaining and small lava effusions, the young ages of plutonic blocks, as well as late Holocene dacite pumice, are evidence that the intrusive complex remains active and that evolved magmas can segregate at shallow levels to fuel explosive eruptions.

  10. Laser-Assisted Atom Probe Tomography of Deformed Minerals: A Zircon Case Study. (United States)

    La Fontaine, Alexandre; Piazolo, Sandra; Trimby, Patrick; Yang, Limei; Cairney, Julie M


    The application of atom probe tomography to the study of minerals is a rapidly growing area. Picosecond-pulsed, ultraviolet laser (UV-355 nm) assisted atom probe tomography has been used to analyze trace element mobility within dislocations and low-angle boundaries in plastically deformed specimens of the nonconductive mineral zircon (ZrSiO4), a key material to date the earth's geological events. Here we discuss important experimental aspects inherent in the atom probe tomography investigation of this important mineral, providing insights into the challenges in atom probe tomography characterization of minerals as a whole. We studied the influence of atom probe tomography analysis parameters on features of the mass spectra, such as the thermal tail, as well as the overall data quality. Three zircon samples with different uranium and lead content were analyzed, and particular attention was paid to ion identification in the mass spectra and detection limits of the key trace elements, lead and uranium. We also discuss the correlative use of electron backscattered diffraction in a scanning electron microscope to map the deformation in the zircon grains, and the combined use of transmission Kikuchi diffraction and focused ion beam sample preparation to assist preparation of the final atom probe tip.

  11. Determination of Gibbs Free Energy of Formation from Elements for Ca4Fe9O17 by Solid-state Galvanic Cell (United States)

    Li, Hui-Yu; Guo, Xing-Min


    Aiming to fill the thermodynamic blank in CaO-FeO-Fe2O3 system, the determination of the Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for ternary Ca4Fe9O17 was carried out using a solid-state galvanic cell with air and calcium zirconate material, respectively, as the reference electrode and electrolyte. The ternary system Ca2Fe2O5-CaFe2O4-Ca4Fe9O17 was selected as the measuring electrode and its equilibrium was confirmed. The essential thermodynamic data of Ca2Fe2O5 and CaFe2O4 were cited from the reassessed data from a previous investigation. The reversible electromotive forces of the cell were determined from 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 was derived and given by: The increment of enthalpy and entropy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 at 298 K (25 °C) are calculated to be and . The Ellingham diagram was developed in temperature range 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The oxygen potential of Ca4Fe9O17 was found to be slightly higher than CaFe2O4 and much higher than Ca2Fe2O5.

  12. Characteristic Features and U—Pb Isotopic Ages of Zircons in a Middle Proterozoic Granite Pluton from Baohan Area,Hainan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓铁殷; 陈毓蔚; 等


    The crystal form,chemical composition and U-Pb isotopic composition of various zircon fractions is a Middle Proterozoic granite pluton from the Baoban area suggest that the zircons are typically magmatogenic in nature,and different from those of sedimentary and epigenetic orgins.The various zircon fractions yielded and age of about 1440.87Ma,which may represent the ge of zircon crystallization.The so-called aoban-group migmatite is,as a matter of fact,a Middle Proterozoic granite pluton.

  13. Trace element geochemistry of zircons from mineralizing and non-mineralizing igneous rocks related to gold ores at Yanacocha, Peru (United States)

    Koleszar, A. M.; Dilles, J. H.; Kent, A. J.; Wooden, J. L.


    Zircons record important details about the evolution of magmatic systems, are relatively insensitive to alteration, and have been used to investigate the geochemistry, temperature, and oxidation state of volcanic and plutonic system. We examine zircons that span 6-7 m.y. of calc-alkaline volcanic activity in the Yanacocha district of northern Peru, where dacitic intrusions are associated with high-sulfidation gold deposits. The 14.5-8.4 Ma Yanacocha Volcanics include cogenetic lavas and pyroclastic rocks and are underlain by the andesites and dacites of the Calipuy Group, the oldest Cenozoic rocks in the region. We present data for magmatic zircons from the Cerro Fraile dacitic pyroclastics (15.5-15.1 Ma) of the Calipuy Group, and multiple eruptive units within the younger Yanacocha Volcanics: the Atazaico Andesite (14.5-13.3 Ma), the Quilish Dacite (~14-12 Ma), the Azufre Andesite (12.1-11.6 Ma), the San Jose Ignimbrite (11.5-11.2 Ma), and the Coriwachay Dacite (11.1-8.4 Ma). Epithermal high sulfidation (alunite-bearing) gold deposits are associated with the dacite intrusions of the Coriwachay and Quilish Dacites. Zircons from the non-mineralizing rocks typically have lower Hf concentrations and record Ti-in-zircon temperatures that are ~100°C hotter than zircons from the mineralizing intrusions. Temperatures recorded by zircons from the mineralizing intrusions are remarkably similar to those of the underlying Cerro Fraile dacite pyroclastics, but the zircons discussed here generally record SHRIMP-RG 206Pb/238U ages within error of previously published Ar-Ar eruption ages (eliminating antecrystic or xenocrystic origins). These observations suggest that zircons in the mineralizing intrusions form after greater extents of crystallization (and thus record elevated Hf concentrations and lower temperatures) than do zircons in the non-mineralized deposits. Unlike zircons from mineralized units associated with the porphyry Cu(Mo) deposits in Yerington, Nevada, which

  14. Geochronologic, Isotopic, and Trace Element Constraints on Zircon Recycling in Sierra Crest Intrusive Suites, Sierra Nevada Batholith, USA (United States)

    Miller, J. S.; Lackey, J.; Memeti, V.; Hirt, W. H.; Wooden, J. L.


    Owing to its ubiquity and chemical properties, zircon is the primary tool for obtaining age information from felsic igneous rocks. Numerous geochronologic studies in ancient and recent plutonic and volcanic rocks over the last decade have shown: (1) that assemblages of zircons from single hand samples rarely crystallized at the same time; (2) that zircons from single hand samples may have variable geochemistry and isotopic compositions requiring distinct growth environments. Nonetheless, the conditions under which diverse assemblages of magmatic zircons crystallize, are dispersed and then gathered within such magma systems are less well understood. We have initiated a systematic geochemical (trace element) and isotopic (δ18O, 176Hf/177Hf) investigation of zircons from dated plutons within several of the Cretaceous Sierran Crest zoned intrusive suites of the Sierra Nevada Batholith to better understand melt sources and zircon recycling within these large magma systems. Preliminary O and Hf isotopic results indicate that zircon assemblages between different intrusive suites have variable isotopic compositions with multiple crustal and mantle sources involved. Preliminary trace element analysis of some of the zircon suites also show appreciable variability but important trends have emerged from the data. In particular, there are pronounced differences between trace element patterns and ratios of the youngest, interior, K-feldspar megacryst-bearing granodiorites (e.g. Cathedral Peak, Mono Creek, Whitney) and the older outer units of the intrusive suites, which are generally more mafic granodiorites and tonalites. In contrast to the more mafic outer units, zircons from the inner megacryst-bearing intrusions are overwhelmingly characterized by low Ti-in-zircon (Tzrn,Ti) model temperatures (regardless of uncertainties in aTiO2), low concentrations of MREEs, high Yb/Gd, low Th/U, high Hf, and high Eu/Eu*. These characteristics, and generally low Zr contents of the

  15. Provenance from zircon U-Pb age distributions in crustally contaminated granitoids (United States)

    Bahlburg, Heinrich; Berndt, Jasper


    The basement of sedimentary basins is often entirely covered by a potentially multi-stage basin fill and therefore removed from direct observation and sampling. Melts intruding through the basin stratigraphy at a subsequent stage in the geological evolution of a region may assimilate significant volumes of country rocks. This component may be preserved in the intrusive body either as xenoliths or it may be reflected only by the age spectrum of incorporated zircons. Here we present the case of an Ordovician calc-alkaline intrusive belt in NW Argentina named the "Faja Eruptiva de la Puna Oriental" (Faja Eruptiva), which in the course of intrusion sampled the unexposed and unknown basement of the Ordovician basin in this region, and parts of the basin stratigraphy. We present new LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages on zircons from 9 granodiorites and granites of the Faja Eruptiva. The main part of the Faja Eruptiva intruded c. 445 Ma in the Late Ordovician. The zircon ages obtained from the intrusive rocks have a large spread between 2683.5 ± 21.6 and 440.0 ± 4.9 Ma and reflect the underlying crust and may be interpreted in several ways. The inherited zircons may have been derived from the oldest known unit in the region, the thick siliciclastic turbidite successions of the upper Neoproterozoic-lower Cambrian Puncoviscana Formation, which is inferred to represent the basement of the NW Argentina. The basement to the Puncoviscana Formation is not known. Alternatively, the inherited zircons may reflect the geochronological structure of the entire unexposed Early Paleozoic crust underlying this region of which the Puncoviscana Formation was only one component. This crust likely contained rocks pertaining to and detritus derived from earlier orogenic cycles of the southwestern Amazonia craton, including sources of Early Meso- and Paleoproterozoic age. Detritus derived, in turn, from the Faja Eruptiva intrusive belt reflects the origin of the granitoids as well as the inherited

  16. Detrital zircon geochronology of the Cretaceous succession from the Iberian Atlantic Margin: palaeogeographic implications (United States)

    Dinis, Pedro A.; Dinis, Jorge; Tassinari, Colombo; Carter, Andy; Callapez, Pedro; Morais, Manuel


    Detrital zircon U-Pb data performed on eight Cretaceous sandstone samples (819 age isotopic results) from the Lusitanian basin (west Portugal) constrain the history of uplift and palaeodrainage of western Iberia following break-up of Pangaea and opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. We examined the links between shifts in provenance and known basinwide unconformities dated to the late Berriasian, Barremian, late Aptian and Cenomanian-Turonian. The detrital zircon record of sedimentary rocks with wider supplying areas is relatively homogenous, being characterized by a clear predominance of late Palaeozoic ages (c. 375-275 Ma) together with variable proportions of ages in the range c. 800-460 Ma. These two groups of ages are diagnostic of sources within the Variscan Iberian Massif. A few samples also reveal significant amounts of middle Palaeozoic (c. 420-385 Ma) and late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic (c. 1.2-0.9 Ga) zircon, which are almost absent in the basement to the east of the Lusitanian basin, but are common in terranes with a Laurussia affinity found in NW Iberia and the conjugate margin (Newfoundland). The Barremian unconformity marks a sudden rise in the proportion of c. 375-275 Ma zircon ages accompanied by a decrease in the abundance of the c. 420-385 Ma and c. 1.2-0.9 Ga ages. This shift in the zircon signature, which is contemporaneous with the separation of the Galicia Bank from Flemish Cap, reflects increased denudation of Variscan crystalline rocks and a reduction in source material from NW Iberia and adjoining areas. The late Aptian unconformity, which represents the largest hiatus in the sedimentary record, is reflected by a shift in late Palaeozoic peak ages from c. 330-310 Ma (widespread in Iberia) to c. 310-290 Ma (more frequent in N Iberia). It is considered that this shift in the age spectra resulted from a westward migration of catchment areas following major uplift in northern Iberia and some transport southward from the Bay of

  17. New structural and U-Pb zircon data from Anafi crystalline basement (Cyclades, Greece): constraints on the evolution of a Late Cretaceous magmatic arc in the Internal Hellenides (United States)

    Martha, Silviu O.; Dörr, Wolfgang; Gerdes, Axel; Petschick, Rainer; Schastok, Janina; Xypolias, Paraskevas; Zulauf, Gernold


    The Asterousia Crystalline Complex consists of Late Cretaceous amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks and associated granitoids, which can be found in exposures on Crete and the Cyclades (Greece). It is attributed to the Uppermost Unit and therefore to the Pelagonian domain of the Internal Hellenides. The tectonometamorphic evolution of this unit is still a matter of debate. We present new structural and petrological data of Asterousia-type rocks and greenschist facies metamorphic rocks from the island of Anafi in the southern Aegean Sea as well as U-Pb zircon ages of granitoids from Anafi. The crystalline sequence of Anafi rests on top of Eocene flysch and comprises from bottom to top: (a) Anafi Greenschist; (b) Anafi Amphibolite Group (orthoamphibolite with intercalations of metasedimentary rocks at the base); and (c) Chalepa Group (amphibolite facies metasediments with slices of serpentinite and granitoids). LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS 206Pb/238U zircon ages of granodiorite from the Chalepa Group reveal several similar zircon populations suggesting continuous emplacement of granitoids inside a magmatic arc from ca. 72.5 to 79 Ma. The minimum emplacement age of granodioritic magma, deduced from the 206Pb/238U median age of the youngest zircon population, is 72.6 +0.1/-0.2 Ma. Deformation (micro)fabrics of granodiorite result from low strain obtained at T > 600 °C. This along with the U-Pb ages and published K-Ar ages indicates intrusion of the plutonic rocks at deep structural levels followed by very slow cooling. Monzogranitic dykes cutting through granodiorite in north-eastern Anafi are undeformed and yielded a 206Pb/238U median age of 69.9 +0.7/-0.7 Ma. Based on the new and published data, the following implications for the tectonometamorphic evolution on Anafi can be made: (1) obduction and accretion of mantle slices (serpentinite) to the Asterousia-type rocks were prior to amphibolite facies metamorphism; (2) intrusion of granitoids during the middle to late

  18. Protonic conduction domain of indium-doped calcium zirconate (United States)

    Kurita, Noriaki; Fukatsu, Norihiko; Ito, Kouhei; Ohashi, Teruo


    The conductivities of a protonic conductor, 10 mole percent (m/o) In2O3-doped CaZrO3, were measured in an atmosphere containing hydrogen or deuterium with the 4-wires ac impedance technique at temperatures ranging from 623 to 1673 K. In high oxygen activities, H(+)/D(+)-isotope effects were observed below about 1100 K. The ratio of conductivities of protons to deuterons increased as the temperature decreased and rose to about 1.6 at 673 K. It was made clear by this observation that at low temperatures electrical conduction is dominated by proton and at high temperatures by positive hole, respectively. On the other hand, at high hydrogen activities, the isotope effects were observed up to about 1600 K and it was concluded that proton is dominant below this temperature. Over that temperature, the isotope effects vanished and the electrical conductivities were independent of gas potentials. It was concluded that electrical conduction over 1600 K was dominated by oxide ions. As electrical carriers obey the thermally activated process, the activation energies were calculated by the least squares method. The obtained activation energies of protons, deuterons, positive holes, and oxide ion vacancies were 0.74 +/- 0.05, 0.70 +/- 0.05, 1.21 +/- 0.07, and 2.5 +/- 0.5 eV, respectively. Based on the model of defects equilibria and these experimental findings, the protonic conduction domain of the specimen was determined and is represented in temperature-potential diagrams.

  19. Tectonic evolution of the Irtysh collision belt: New zircon U-Pb ages of deformed and collisional granitoids in the Kalaxiangar area, NW China (United States)

    Tao, Hong; Jun, Gao; Xingwang, Xu; Klemd, Reiner


    The CAOB is thought to have formed by multiple accretion and collision of various microcontinents, island arcs, oceanic plateaus and accretionary wedges due to the closure of the Paleo-Asia Ocean [1, 2, 3]. The Irtysh collision belt is located at the middle-western part of the CAOB and generally thought to be the result of the collision of the Sawuer Island arc and the Altay Terrane, subsequent to the consumption of the Early Paleozoic Junggar Ocean, a branch of Paleo-Asia Ocean. Therefore, the exact timing of the Irtysh collision belt is crucial for a better understanding of the tectonic evolution of this collision belt and will provide constraints on the evolution of the CAOB. Recently, we discovered various collisional granitoids in the Kalaxiangar tectonic belt (KTB), which is located in the eastern part of the Irtysh collision belt. In this contribution, we report new geochemical whole-rock, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of the arc-related and collisional granitoids. Our new results reveal that 1) the arc-related granodioritic porphyries formed at ca. 374 Ma. Furthermore, recrystallized zircons from the granodioritic mylonite and ultramylonite of the Laoshankou ductile deformation zone have a similar U-Pb age of ca. 360 Ma; 2) the syn-collisional granodioritic porphyries, which distribute along cleavege, were emplaced at ca. 355 Ma; 3) the post-collisional A-type granodioritic porphyry, which cuts the NW-NNW trending schistosity at a low angle, has an age of ca. 323 Ma, ɛHf(t) values from + 7.5 to + 14.4, and young Hf model ages between 387 and 658 Ma; 4) the post-collisional A-type granite dykes, which are exposed along strike-slip faults, have ages between 282.5 and 279.2Ma, ɛHf(t) values from + 4.8 to + 12.6, and Hf model ages between 436 and 729 Ma; 5) the A-type biotite granite dykes that intruded along conjugate tension joints have ages between 273.9 and 271.4 Ma, ɛHf(t) values from + 1.1 to + 12.8, and Hf model ages between 393 and 979 Ma. In

  20. Zircon U-Pb Age Determination of Volcanic Eruptions in Lutao and Lanyu in the Northern Luzon Magmatic Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Shao


    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time zircon U-Pb ages of volcanic rocks and sands from Lutao and Lanyu, two islets off SE Taiwan in the north Luzon arc. The samples include (1 seven andesites from four volcanic units and three river/beach sands from Lutao and (2 five basaltic andesites from four volcanic units and two river/beach sands from Lanyu. The Lutao andesites contain abundant magmatic zircons, aging from ~1.54 to ~1.24 Ma for individual sample, which yielded an overall mean 206Pb/238U age of 1.31 ±± 0.03 Ma (n = 190, MSWD = 2.6. This is slightly older than, or broadly coincident with, a mean 206Pb/238U age of 1.23 ±± 0.03 Ma (n = 103, MSWD = 1.9 given by detrital zircons from the three sands. The Lanyu volcanics appear to have less abundant magmatic zircons, aging from ~2.72 to ~2.35 Ma for individual sample, which yielded an overall mean 206Pb/238U age of 2.61 ±± 0.13 Ma (n = 11, MSWD = 1.8. This accords with a mean 206Pb/238U age of 2.69 ±± 0.11 Ma (n = 34, MSWD = 4.7 obtained by detrital zircons from the two sands. The age data suggest that in Lutao and Lanyu the major volcanic eruptions occurred at ~1.3 and ~2.6 Ma, respectively. Moreover, volcanic samples from both islets contain various amounts of older inherited zircons, ~11% in Lutao and up to ~82% in Lanyu, which together with detrital zircons from the sands show main age peaks at ~150 Ma and ~1.9 and ~2.5 Ga, consistent with the notion for a _ continental crust involved in the genesis of the northern Luzon magmatic arc.

  1. Localized rejuvenation of a crystal mush recorded in zircon temporal and compositional variation at the Lassen Volcanic Center, northern California.

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    Erik W Klemetti

    Full Text Available Zircon ages and trace element compositions from recent silicic eruptions in the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC allow for an evaluation of the timing and conditions of rejuvenation (reheating and mobilization of crystals within the LVC magmatic system. The LVC is the southernmost active Cascade volcano and, prior to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, was the site of the only eruption in the Cascade arc during the last century. The three most recent silicic eruptions from the LVC were very small to moderate-sized lava flows and domes of dacite (1915 and 27 ka eruptions of Lassen Peak and rhyodacite (1.1 ka eruption of Chaos Crags. These eruptions produced mixed and mingled lavas that contain a diverse crystal cargo, including zircon. 238U-230Th model ages from interior and surface analyses of zircon reveal ages from ∼17 ka to secular equilibrium (>350 ka, with most zircon crystallizing during a period between ∼60-200 ka. These data support a model for localized rejuvenation of crystal mush beneath the LVC. This crystal mush evidently is the remnant of magmatism that ended ∼190 ka. Most zircon are thought to have been captured from "cold storage" in the crystal mush (670-725°C, Hf >10,000 ppm, Eu/Eu* 0.25-0.4 locally remobilized by intrusion of mafic magma. A smaller population of zircon (>730°C, Hf 0.4 grew in, and are captured from, rejuvenation zones. These data suggest the dominant method to produce eruptible melt within the LVC is small-scale, local rejuvenation of the crystal mush accompanied by magma mixing and mingling. Based on zircon stability, the time required to heat, erupt and then cool to background conditions is relatively short, lasting a maximum of 10 s-1000 s years. Rejuvenation events in the LVC are ephemeral and permit eruption within an otherwise waning and cooling magmatic body.

  2. A preliminary geochemical study of zircons and monazites from Deccan felsic dikes, Rajula, Gujarat, India: Implications for crustal melting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nilanjan Chatterjee; Somdev Bhattacharji


    Zircons of 10–100 m size and monazites of up to 10 m size are present in rhyolite and trachyte dikes associated with Deccan basalts around Rajula in the southern Saurashtra Peninsula of Gujarat. On the basis of structural conformity of the felsic and basaltic dikes, K-Ar ages and trace element considerations, a previous study concluded that the felsic rocks are coeval with the Deccan Volcanics and originated by crustal anatexis. The felsic rocks contain two populations of zircons and monazites, one that crystallized from the felsic melt and the other that contains inherited crustal material. Trace element variations in the rhyolites and trachytes indicate that zircons and monazites crystallized from the felsic melts, but compositional analysis of a zircon indicates the presence of a small core possibly inherited from the crust. Hf compositional zoning profile of this zircon indicates that it grew from the host rhyolitic melt while the melt differentiated, and Y and LREE contents suggest that this zircon crystallized from the host melt. Pb contents of some monazites also suggest the presence of inherited crustal cores. Hence, any age determination by the U-Th-Pb isotopic method should be interpreted with due consideration to crustal inheritance. Temperatures estimated from zircon and monazite saturation thermometry indicate that the crust around Rajula may have been heated to a maximum of approximately 900°C by the intruding Deccan magma. Crustal melting models of other workers indicate that a 1-2 million year emplacement time for the Deccan Traps may be appropriate for crustal melting characteristics observed in the Rajula area through the felsic dikes.

  3. Localized rejuvenation of a crystal mush recorded in zircon temporal and compositional variation at the Lassen Volcanic Center, northern California (United States)

    Klemetti, Erik W.; Clynne, Michael A.


    Zircon ages and trace element compositions from recent silicic eruptions in the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC) allow for an evaluation of the timing and conditions of rejuvenation (reheating and mobilization of crystals) within the LVC magmatic system. The LVC is the southernmost active Cascade volcano and, prior to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, was the site of the only eruption in the Cascade arc during the last century. The three most recent silicic eruptions from the LVC were very small to moderate-sized lava flows and domes of dacite (1915 and 27 ka eruptions of Lassen Peak) and rhyodacite (1.1 ka eruption of Chaos Crags). These eruptions produced mixed and mingled lavas that contain a diverse crystal cargo, including zircon. 238U-230Th model ages from interior and surface analyses of zircon reveal ages from ~17 ka to secular equilibrium (>350 ka), with most zircon crystallizing during a period between ~60–200 ka. These data support a model for localized rejuvenation of crystal mush beneath the LVC. This crystal mush evidently is the remnant of magmatism that ended ~190 ka. Most zircon are thought to have been captured from “cold storage” in the crystal mush (670–725°C, Hf >10,000 ppm, Eu/Eu* 0.25–0.4) locally remobilized by intrusion of mafic magma. A smaller population of zircon (>730°C, Hf 0.4) grew in, and are captured from, rejuvenation zones. These data suggest the dominant method to produce eruptible melt within the LVC is small-scale, local rejuvenation of the crystal mush accompanied by magma mixing and mingling. Based on zircon stability, the time required to heat, erupt and then cool to background conditions is relatively short, lasting a maximum of 10 s–1000 s years. Rejuvenation events in the LVC are ephemeral and permit eruption within an otherwise waning and cooling magmatic body.

  4. U/Pb detrital zircon provenance from late cretaceous metamorphic units of the Guajira Peninsula, Colombia: Tectonic implications on the collision between the Caribbean arc and the South American margin (United States)

    Weber, M.; Cardona, A.; Valencia, V.; García-Casco, A.; Tobón, M.; Zapata, S.


    Mesozoic metamorphic units exposed along the northern margin of the South American plate record the different stages of subduction evolution or arc-continent collision between the margins of the Caribbean plate and the South American continent. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology for provenance analysis was carried out on meta-sedimentary rocks of the Etpana formation and metamorphic boulders found within a nearby Tertiary conglomerate, including high-pressure rocks in the Colombian Caribbean. All samples have similar age populations, suggesting that they share a relatively common source and paleogeography. Prominent age peaks include Meso and Paleoproterozoic ages of ca. 1624 Ma and 1315 Ma, Cambrian to Neoproterozoic ages of ca. 630 Ma, 580 Ma and 547 Ma, and less abundant Jurassic and Permian ages of ca. 270 Ma and 160 Ma, which indicate that the South American margin is a major source for the sedimentary protoliths. There are also remnants of younger Cretaceous allocthonous Caribbean arc input at ca. 90-70 Ma. The deposition and metamorphism of these units records the ongoing Late Cretaceous continental subduction of the South American margin within the Caribbean intra-oceanic arc-subduction zone. This gave way to an arc-continent collision between the Caribbean and the South American plates, and sediments with continental signatures were incorporated into the subduction channel and the accretionary wedge. As convergence continued, sediments derived from a mix of South American and arc sources were deposited and included in the collisional wedge up until <71 Ma.

  5. Elemental and Isotopic Tomography at Single-Atom-Scale in 4.0 and 2.4 Ga Zircons (United States)

    Valley, J. W.; Reinhard, D. A.; Snoeyenbos, D.; Lawrence, D.; Martin, I.; Kelly, T. F.; Ushikubo, T.; Strickland, A.; Cavosie, A. J.


    Atom probe tomography can determine identity (mass/charge ratio) and 3-D position of individual atoms in minerals such as zircon. These data provide unique information for understanding the thermal history and mechanisms of mineral reaction and exchange, including radiation damage. Nine needle-shaped specimens ~100 nm in diameter (at the apex) were sampled from 2 zircons by FIB and analyzed with a local-electrode atom probe (LEAP), CAMECA LEAP 4000X HR. The LEAP uses pulsed-laser heating to field evaporate the tip of a zircon needle and accelerates the ions into a position-sensitive TOF-MS. With due care for complex isobaric interferences (molecules, multiple ionizations) and background correction, it is possible to individually identify up to 10E8 atoms/needle (36% detection efficiency) by mass/charge (MRP ~ 1000@ m/n=16Da) and position (X-Y-Z coordinates on 0.2 nm scale) (Kelly & Larson 2012). The 3-D distribution of Pb and Y differ at atom-scale in the 2 zircons. Zircon #1 (4007 Ma, Jack Hills, W. Australia, Cavosie 2005, Ushikubo et al. 2008, Bouvier et al. 2011) is homogeneous in Pb and Y. In contrast, incompatible elements, including Pb and Y, are concentrated in equant 5-10 nm dia. domains, spaced ~50 nm apart in zircon #2 (2438 Ma, Albion-Raft R-Grouse Ck core complex, Utah, Strickland et al. 2011). U is homogeneously distributed in both zircons. The analyzed domains suffered 4-8 x 10E15 α-decay events/mg due to U and Th decay and yet both zircons yield >97% concordant U-Pb ages by SIMS, suggesting annealing of radiation damage during the life of the zircons. The 207-Pb/206-Pb ratios for these nm-scale domains, as measured by LEAP, average 0.17 for the 2.4 Ga Zrc2 (3 needles) and 0.43 for the 4.0 Ga Zrc1 (5 needles). These ratios are less precise (±40% 2σ) due to ultra-small sample size, but are in excellent agreement with values measured by SIMS, 0.1684 and 0.4269, respectively. Thus Pb in both zircons is radiogenic. The Pb-Y-rich domains and lack of

  6. Protoliths of enigmatic Archaean gneisses established from zircon inclusion studies: Case study of the Caozhuang quartzite, E. Hebei, China

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    Allen P. Nutman


    Full Text Available A diverse suite of Archaean gneisses at Huangbaiyu village in the North China Craton, includes rare fuchsite-bearing (Cr-muscovite siliceous rocks – known as the Caozhuang quartzite. The Caozhuang quartzite is strongly deformed and locally mylonitic, with silica penetration and pegmatite veining common. It contains abundant 3880–3600 Ma and some Palaeoarchaean zircons. Because of its siliceous nature, the presence of fuchsite and its complex zircon age distribution, it has until now been accepted as a (mature quartzite. However, the Caozhuang quartzite sample studied here is feldspathic. The shape and cathodoluminescence petrography of the Caozhuang quartzite zircons show they resemble those found in immature detrital sedimentary rocks of local provenance or in Eoarchaean polyphase orthogneisses, and not those in mature quartzites. The Caozhuang quartzite intra-zircon mineral inclusions are dominated by quartz, with lesser biotite, apatite (7% and alkali-feldspar, and most inclusions are morphologically simple. A Neoarchaean orthogneiss from near Huangbaiyu displays morphologically simple inclusions with much more apatite (73%, as is typical for fresh calc-alkaline granitoids elsewhere. Zircons were also examined from a mature conglomerate quartzite clast and an immature feldspathic sandstone of the overlying weakly metamorphosed Mesoproterozoic Changcheng System. These zircons have oscillatory zoning, showing they were sourced from igneous rocks. The quartzite clast zircons contain only rare apatite inclusions (<1%, with domains with apatite habit now occupied by intergrowths of muscovite + quartz ± Fe-oxides ± baddeleyite. We interpret that these were once voids after apatite inclusions that had dissolved during Mesoproterozoic weathering, which were then filled with clays ± silica and then weakly metamorphosed. Zircons in the immature feldspathic sandstone show a greater amount of preserved apatite (11%, but with petrographic

  7. Protoliths of enigmatic Archaean gneisses established from zircon inclusion studies:Case study of the Caozhuang quartzite, E. Hebei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Allen P. Nutman; Ronni Maciejowski; Yusheng Wan


    A diverse suite of Archaean gneisses at Huangbaiyu village in the North China Craton, includes rare fuchsite-bearing (Cr-muscovite) siliceous rocks e known as the Caozhuang quartzite. The Caozhuang quartzite is strongly deformed and locally mylonitic, with silica penetration and pegmatite veining common. It contains abundant 3880e3600 Ma and some Palaeoarchaean zircons. Because of its siliceous nature, the presence of fuchsite and its complex zircon age distribution, it has until now been accepted as a (mature) quartzite. However, the Caozhuang quartzite sample studied here is feldspathic. The shape and cathodoluminescence petrography of the Caozhuang quartzite zircons show they resemble those found in immature detrital sedimentary rocks of local provenance or in Eoarchaean polyphase orthog-neisses, and not those in mature quartzites. The Caozhuang quartzite intra-zircon mineral inclusions are dominated by quartz, with lesser biotite, apatite (7%) and alkali-feldspar, and most inclusions are morphologically simple. A Neoarchaean orthogneiss from near Huangbaiyu displays morphologically simple inclusions with much more apatite (73%), as is typical for fresh calc-alkaline granitoids elsewhere. Zircons were also examined from a mature conglomerate quartzite clast and an immature feldspathic sandstone of the overlying weakly metamorphosed Mesoproterozoic Changcheng System. These zircons have oscillatory zoning, showing they were sourced from igneous rocks. The quartzite clast zircons contain only rare apatite inclusions (<1%), with domains with apatite habit now occupied by in-tergrowths of muscovite+quartz±Fe-oxides±baddeleyite. We interpret that these were once voids after apatite inclusions that had dissolved during Mesoproterozoic weathering, which were then filled with clays±±silica and then weakly metamorphosed. Zircons in the immature feldspathic sandstone show a greater amount of preserved apatite (11%), but with petrographic evidence of replacement of

  8. Seeing is believing: Visualization of He distribution in zircon and implications for thermal history reconstruction on single crystals (United States)

    Danišík, Martin; McInnes, Brent I. A.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; McDonald, Brad J.; Evans, Noreen J.; Becker, Thomas


    Zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry is an established radiometric dating technique used to place temporal constraints on a range of thermally sensitive geological events, such as crustal exhumation, volcanism, meteorite impact, and ore genesis. Isotopic, crystallographic, and/or mineralogical heterogeneities within analyzed grains can result in dispersed or anomalous (U-Th)/He ages. Understanding the effect of these grain-scale phenomena on the distribution of He in analyzed minerals should lead to improvements in data interpretation. We combine laser ablation microsampling and noble gas and trace element mass spectrometry to provide the first two-dimensional, grain-scale zircon He “maps” and quantify intragrain He distribution. These maps illustrate the complexity of intracrystalline He distribution in natural zircon and, combined with a correlated quantification of parent nuclide (U and Th) distribution, provide an opportunity to assess a number of crystal chemistry processes that can generate anomalous zircon (U-Th)/He ages. The technique provides new insights into fluid inclusions as potential traps of radiogenic He and confirms the effect of heterogeneity in parent-daughter isotope abundances and metamictization on (U-Th)/He systematics. Finally, we present a new inversion method where the He, U, and Th mapping data can be used to constrain the high- and low-temperature history of a single zircon crystal. PMID:28246632

  9. U-Pb zircon dating constraints on formation time of Qilian high-grade metamorphic rock and its tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU WangChun; ZHANG HongFei; LIU XiaoMing


    In order to constrain the formation time of high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Qilian Mountains, U-Pb zircon dating was carried out by using LA-ICPMS technique for a paragneiss of the Hualong Group in the Qilian Mountains basement series and a weakly foliated granite that intruds into the Hualong Group. Zircons from the paragneiss consist dominantly of detrital magma zircons with round or sub-round shape. They have 207Pb/206Pb ages mostly ranging from 880 to 900 Ma, with a weighted mean age of 891±9 Ma, which is interpreted as the magma crystallization age of its igneous provenance and can be taken as a lower age limit for the Hualong Group. Magma crystallization age for the weak-foliated granite is 875±8 Ma, which can be taken as an upper age limit for the Hualong Group. Accordingly, the formation time of the Hualong Group is constrained at sometime between 875 and 891 Ma. A few zircons from both paragneiss and weak-foliated granite display old inherited ages of 1000 to 1700 Ma and young metamorphic ages of Early Paleozoic. The zircon age distribution pattern confirms that the Qilian Mountains and the northern margin of Qaidam Basin had a united basement, with geotectonic affinity to the Yangtze Block. The results also reveal that sediments of the Hualong Group formed by rapid accumulation due to rapid crustal uplift-erosion. This process may result from intensive Neoproterozoic orogenesis due to assembly of the suppercontinent Rodinia.

  10. Trace element signature and U-Pb geochronology of eclogite-facies zircon, Bergen Arcs, Caledonides of W Norway (United States)

    Bingen, Bernard; Austrheim, Håkon; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Davis, William J.

    Secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb and trace element data are reported for zircon to address the controversial geochronology of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Lindås nappe, Bergen Arcs, Caledonides of W Norway. Caledonian eclogite-facies overprint in the nappe was controlled by fracturing and introduction of fluid in the Proterozoic-Sveconorwegian-granulite-facies meta-anorthosite-norite protolith. Zircon grains in one massive eclogite display a core-rim structure. Sveconorwegian cores have trace element signatures identical with those of zircon in the granulite protolith, i.e. 0.31<=Th/U<=0.89, heavy rare earth element (HREE) enrichment, and negative Eu anomaly. Weakly-zoned to euhedral oscillatory-zoned Caledonian rims are characterized by Th/U<=0.13, low LREE content (minimum normalized abundance for Pr or Nd), variable enrichment in HREE, and no Eu anomaly. A decrease of REE towards the outermost rim, especially HREE, is documented. This signature reflects co-precipitation of zircon with garnet and clinozoisite in a feldspar-absent assemblage, and consequently links zircon to the eclogite-facies overprint. The rims provide a mean 206Pb/238U crystallization age of 423+/-4 Ma. This age reflects eclogite-forming reactions and fluid-rock interaction. This age indicates that eclogite-facies overprint in the Lindås nappe took place at the onset of the Scandian (Silurian) collision between Laurentia and Baltica.

  11. Zircon LA-ICPMS study and petrogenesis simulation of Dahuabei pluton in the Wulashan area,Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dapeng Li; Yuelong Chen; Liemeng Chen; Zhong Wang; Jinbao Liu


    Dahuabei pluton in the Wulashan area,Inner Mongolia,is an alkaline and peraluminous granitic pluton.LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of zircons indicates that this pluton crystallized at 330±10 Myr.The pluton did not experience apparent zircon fractionation.The consistent temperatures between Zr saturation (765℃) and the average zircon-rutile Ti equilibrium (780℃),together with zircon ages and their CL images,indicated that there were no inherited zircons in this pluton.Through the simulation of the dry-system crystallization process of magma cooling at 200 MPa and 1100-709℃,the phase diagram and composition evolution tendency of different phases were obtained.The magma reached its liquidus at 1069℃.Sanidine was the first crystallized phase;at 709℃ the residual magma was less than 4%,and the range of 1069-719℃ should be the most suitable approach to the real condition.It is shown that at least some part of the pluton underwent such isobaric equilibrium crystallization processes during its crystallization.

  12. Annealing of radiation damage in zircons from Apollo 14 impact breccia 14311: Implications for the thermal history of the breccia (United States)

    Pidgeon, R. T.; Merle, R. E.; Grange, M. L.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.


    Impact breccia 14311, was collected from the Apollo 14 landing site as a potential sample of the underlying Fra Mauro Formation. Published zircon U-Pb ages of >4000 Ma date the source material of the breccia and the apatite U-Pb age of ~3940 Ma is interpreted as dating thermal resetting of the apatite U-Pb systems. In this contribution we present new age information on the late stage thermal history of the breccia based on the annealing of radiation damage in the zircons. From Raman spectroscopic determination of the radiation damage within SIMS analytical spots on the zircons and the U and Th concentrations determined on these spots, we demonstrate that the radiation damage in the zircons has been annealed and we estimate the age of annealing at 3410 ± 80 Ma. This age is interpreted as a cooling age following heating of the breccia to above the annealing temperature of ~230 °C for stage 1 radiation damage in zircon, but below the temperature needed to reset the U-Pb system of apatite (~500 °C). It is proposed that this thermal event was associated with the prolonged period of Mare volcanism, from 3150 to 3750 Ma, that generated massive basalt flows in the vicinity of the sample location.

  13. A combined study of SHRIMP U-Pb dating, trace element and mineral inclusions on high-pressure metamorphic overgrowth zircon in eclogite from Qinglongshan in the Sulu terrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiuli; LI Shuguang; HOU Zhenhui1; HONG Jian; YANG Wei1


    Methods recently advanced for discrimination on the genesis of metamorphic zircon, such as analysis of mineral inclusions and trace elements, provide us powerful means to distinguish zircon overgrowth during high-pressure metamorphism. Zircons in ultrahigh-pressure eclogite from Qinglongshan in the Sulu terrane were studied by the SHRIMP U-Pb method in combining with trace element and mineral inclusion analyses. No inherited core was identified in the analyzed zircons by means of cathodoluminescence images. The occurrence of high-pressure metamorphic mineral inclusions in zircon, such as garnet, omphacite, rutile, and the flat HREE pattern in zircon indicate that the zircon formed at high-pressure metamorphic conditions. Therefore, a weighted average U-Pb age of 227.4 ± 3.5 Ma obtained from such a kind of zircon is interpreted to represent the timing of peak metamorphism for the Qinglongshan eclogite.

  14. 有关CA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 什么是CA? CA(Certificaton Authority)是认证机构的国际通称,是指对数字证书的申请者发放、管理、取消数字证书的机构.CA的作用是检查证书持有者身份的合法性,并签发证书(在证书上签字),以防证书被伪造或篡改.

  15. Detrital zircon evidence for Hf isotopic evolution of granitoid crust and continental growth (United States)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Rino, Shuji; Maruyama, Shigenori; Hirata, Takafumi


    We have determined U-Pb ages, trace element abundances and Hf isotopic compositions of approximately 1000 detrital zircon grains from the Mississippi, Congo, Yangtze and Amazon Rivers. The U-Pb isotopic data reveal the lack of >3.3 Ga zircons in the river sands, and distinct peaks at 2.7-2.5, 2.2-1.9, 1.7-1.6, 1.2-1.0, 0.9-0.4, and uniformitarian secular change in Hf isotopes of granitoid crusts; Hf isotopic compositions of granitoid crusts deviate from the mantle evolution line from about 3.3 to 2.0 Ga, the deviation declines between 2.0 and 1.3 Ga and again increases afterwards. Consideration of mantle-crust mixing models for granitoid genesis suggests that the noted isotopic trends are best explained if the rate of crust generation globally increased in two stages at around (or before) 3.3 and 1.3 Ga, whereas crustal differentiation was important in the evolution of the continental crust at 2.3-2.2 Ga and after 0.6 Ga. Reconciling the isotopic secular change in granitoid crust with that in sedimentary rocks suggests that sedimentary recycling has essentially taken place in continental settings rather than active margin settings and that the sedimentary mass significantly grew through addition of first-cycle sediments from young igneous basements, until after ˜1.3 Ga when sedimentary recycling became the dominant feature of sedimentary evolution. These findings, coupled with the lack of zircons older than 3.3 Ga in river sands, imply the emergence of large-scale continents at about 3.3 Ga with further rapid growth at around 1.3 Ga. This resulted in the major growth of the sedimentary mass between 3.3 and 1.3 Ga and the predominance of its cannibalistic recycling later.

  16. Rapid magma evolution constrained by zircon petrochronology and 40Ar/39Ar sanidine ages for the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, Yellowstone, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Schmitz, Mark;


    volcanic activity, zircon morphological zoning patterns coupled to strongly correlated changes in Ti-in-zircon thermometry and trace element indicators of progressive differentiation provide a proxy record for the evolution of the HRT member B magma body. Tandem in situ and isotope dilution U-Pb dating...

  17. Synthesis, microstructural and mechanical properties of ex situ zircon particles (ZrSiO4 reinforced Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Thandalam


    This review article details the current development on the synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of zircon reinforced MMCs, with specific attention on the abrasive wear behavior of the composites. This review also summarizes the work done by various research groups on zircon reinforced MMCs in achieving higher hardness and wear resistance in these composites.

  18. Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: An example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada (United States)

    Lowery, Claiborne L.E.; Miller, C.F.; Walker, B.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Bea, F.


    Zirconium and Hf are nearly identical geochemically, and therefore most of the crust maintains near-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios of ???35-40. By contrast, many high-silica rhyolites and granites have anomalously low Zr/Hf (15-30). As zircon is the primary reservoir for both Zr and Hf and preferentially incorporates Zr, crystallization of zircon controls Zr/ Hf, imprinting low Zr/Hf on coexisting melt. Thus, low Zr/Hf is a unique fingerprint of effective magmatic fractionation in the crust. Age and compositional zonation in zircons themselves provide a record of the thermal and compositional histories of magmatic systems. High Hf (low Zr/ Hf) in zircon zones demonstrates growth from fractionated melt, and Ti provides an estimate of temperature of crystallization (TTiZ) (Watson and Harrison, 2005). Whole-rock Zr/Hf and zircon zonation in the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada, document repeated fractionation and thermal fluctuations. Ratios of Zr/Hf are ???30-40 for cumulates and 18-30 for high-SiO2 granites. In zircons, Hf (and U) are inversely correlated with Ti, and concentrations indicate large fluctuations in melt composition and TTiZ (>100??C) for individual zircons. Such variations are consistent with field relations and ion-probe zircon geochronology that indicate a >1 million year history of repeated replenishment, fractionation, and extraction of melt from crystal mush to form the low Zr/Hf high-SiO2 zone. ?? 2006 The Mineralogical Society.

  19. Chemical characterisation of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments; Caracterizacion quimica de pigmentos ceramicos a base de sulfoseleniuro de cadmio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazulla Barreda, M. F.; Rodrigo Edo, M.; Blasco Roca, E.; Orduna Cordero, M.


    The present paper addresses the development of a methodology that allows the complete chemical characterisation of zircon cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments including minor and major elements. To develop the methodology, five zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide pigments with different hues were selected, studying the different measurement process steps, from sample preparation to the optimisation of the measurement of the different components of the pigments by spectroscopic techniques (WD-XRF and elemental analysis by combustion and IR detection). The chemical characterisation method developed was validated with synthetic standards prepared from the mixture of certified reference materials and pure oxides because no certified referenced materials of this type of pigments were commercially available. The developed method can be used for a complete chemical characterization of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments with a very low uncertainty for all the elements analysed. (Author)

  20. A new generation of more pH stable reversed phases prepared by silanization of zirconized silica. (United States)

    Silva, César R; Airoldi, Claudio; Collins, Kenneth E; Collins, Carol H


    To further extend our studies in the search for reversed phases with enhanced durability at high pH, zirconized silica has now been explored as an alternative support. The synthesis of the new stationary phases involves silanization of a zirconium-modified silica support with a C(18) trifunctional silane, followed by endcapping. The chromatographic properties of the C(18) phases based on zirconized silica are similar to their titanized silica counterparts. Accelerated high pH stability tests, using phosphate mobile phases and elevated temperature, have shown that the zirconized silica phases have promising advantages not only over similarly prepared non-metalized phases but also over titanized silica C(18) phases.

  1. Cenozoic foreland basins of Central Andes: a preliminary provenance U-Pb zircon analysis of sedimentary sequences of Calchaqui Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Alisson Lopes; Hauser, Natalia; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Matteini, Massimo, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Laboratorio de Geocronologia; Galli, Claudia Ines [Faculdad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Jujuy (Argentina); Coira, Beatriz [CIT Jujuy, CONICET. Instituto de Geologia y Mineria (Argentina); Alonso, Ricardo; Barrientos, Andrea [Instituto CEGA, CONICET. Universidad Nacional de Salta (Argentina)


    The Eocene of northwestern Argentina records complex basin and structural evolution, including continental sedimentation of the post-rift Salta Basin and the beginning of the Andean uplift and foreland system evolution. This illuminates a significant period of evolutionary history of this and surrounding basins in northwestern Argentina. U-Pb zircon analyses by LA-ICP-MS for three formations representing post-rift to foreland stages allowed interpretation about provenance terrains. The Lumbrera Formation, representing the post-rift stage, shows bimodal sources with a main zircon population around 462 Ma, and a second population around 1023 Ma. The Los Colorados and Angastaco Formations representing the sedimentation in a foreland basin, show a unimodal source around 490 Ma, and 517 Ma respectively. Zircons younger than 50 Ma were not identified during this study. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zamani Foroshani


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of fluorine and chlorine ions on the formation of mullite during the reaction sintering of mechanically activated zircon-alumina powder mixture. The results showed that mechanical activation of zirconalumina powder mixture for 20 h led to grain refinement and partial amorphization. In the presence of fluorine and chlorine ions, complete formation of mullite in the mechanically activated sample occurred after 2 h of reaction sintering at 1300oC and 1400oC, respectively. In the sample lacking fluorine and chlorine ions, mullitization was not completed even after 2 h of reaction sintering at 1400oC. It was concluded that presence of fluorine and chlorine ions enhance the dissociation of zircon and formation of mullite during the reaction sintering of mechanically activated zircon-alumina mixture.

  3. Widespread Occurrence of Zircon in Slow- and Ultraslow Spreading Ocean Crust: A Tool for Studying Ocean Lithospheric Processes (United States)

    Grimes, C. B.; John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; Schwartz, J. J.


    The presence of igneous zircon in oceanic gabbro and peridotite provides a new opportunity to constrain absolute ages, and the processes and rates of crustal accretion in oceanic environments. Our recent investigations show zircon to be common in slow and ultraslow spreading oceanic crust including several locations along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), and in rock types ranging from trondjhemite dikes to peridotite. Zircon is typically found in felsic intrusions and oxide gabbro, and in many cases may be due to late stage saturation in small pockets of residual melt. We report the morphologic and chemical characteristics of zircon grains collected from >100 rock samples recovered both from the seafloor by manned submersible and ROV, and with depth by ODP/IODP drilling. Grains range from euhedral and faceted to anhedral and fractured, with internal zonation that may be homogeneous, concentric, or patchy, and rarely contain relict cores. Sizes range from 1 mm. Measurements of major, minor, and trace element concentrations and high-resolution Pb/U ages were collected with the SHRIMP-RG. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns for more than 50 zircon grains are uniform in shape and closely resemble patterns for known terrestrial igneous zircon. This is in contrast to mantle affinity zircon (e.g. kimberlite), which typically show depleted and relatively unfractionated patterns. Observed total REE concentrations range from 330-3765 ppm. Patterns are convex upward and rise sharply towards the HREE, with normalized Sm/La ratios = 16-320 and Lu/Gd ratios = 20-51. Positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies are ubiquitous. Hf abundances range from 5988 to 14,266 ppm. Other elements occurring at minor abundance levels include Y (463-6949 ppm), P (253-2288 ppm), U (7-2827 ppm), and Th (3-7403 ppm). Preliminary Ti concentrations range from 13 to 270 ppm, indicating crystallization temperatures of 765 to 1147°C based on Ti in zircon

  4. Zircons and fluids: An experimental investigation with applications for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, A.K.; Student, J.; Essex, R.


    The long-term stability of nuclear waste forms or barriers is related to changes in physical properties of the material induced through radiation damage and subsequent changes in solubility. Investigations conducted by us on natural zircons (ZrSiO{sub 4}) supports a positive correlation between level of alpha damage and fluid composition to enhanced levels of corrosion. New data are presented on the nature and rate of the solution process. We also present data on our continuing efforts to synthesize and characterize both pure ZrSiO{sub 4} and doped with U, Th, Hf, Dy and P.

  5. U-Pb zircon geochronology of Caledonian age orthogneisses dredged from the Chukchi Borderland, Arctic Ocean. (United States)

    Brumley, K.; Miller, E. L.; Mayer, L. A.; Wooden, J.; Grove, M.


    Over 500 kilos of metamorphic rock was dredged from outcrops along a steep normal fault scarp in the central Chukchi Borderland in 2009 (HLY0905) from water depths of between about 2500-1400m. The rocks in the dredge included broken angular cobbles and boulder-sized samples of amphibolites, orthogneisses, and granitoids of the same amphibolite facies metamorphic grade, as well as gravel to small cobble-sized ice rafted debris of various rock types. Zircons were separated from two of the orthogneiss samples, and single grain zircon U-Pb ages were determined by SHRIMP analysis to be 428 Ma ± 3.4 for both samples (N=60). Several zircon grains had distinct igneous cores that ranged in age from about 928-1200 Ma (n=7) with two older grains (1700, 1760 Ma). The Caledonian orogenic belt developed in the Ordovician to Devonian affecting northern Europe, Greenland and Arctic Canada. Caledonian deformational trends continue into the Arctic and disappear at the rifted margin of the Arctic Ocean. Syn-orogenic magmatism in the Barents region date deformation in this region during the Caledonian event to have occurred between about 450-410 Ma (Johansson et al., 2005; Gee et al., 2006; Gee and Tebenkov, 2004). Grenville age plutons (900-1250Ma) that were later involved in Caledonian deformation and intruded by 410-450 Ma aged plutons are found on western and eastern Svalbard (Johansson et al., 2005), eastern Greenland, and the Pearya Terrane of northern Ellesmere Island (Trettin,1986, 1992). The Franklinian basement of Arctic Alaska and Canada do not share these Grenvillian ages (Trentin et al, 1987). This suggests that the inherited zircon cores in the Chukchi Borderland orthogneisses were derived, at least in part, from an older Grenvillian basement like that of Pearya, Svalbard and parts of Greenland, or through sediments eroded from these sources, and later intruded by Caledonian aged granites. This constrains the pre-rift location of the Chukchi Borderland to be within the

  6. The formation of Luoboling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit: Constraints from zircon and apatite (United States)

    Li, Cong-ying; Hao, Xi-luo; Liu, Ji-qiang; Ling, Ming-xing; Ding, Xing; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Wei-dong


    The Luobuling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit belongs to the Late Cretaceous Zijinshan Cu-Au-Mo mineralization field in southeastern China. Due to intensive hydrothermal alteration and weathering, it is very difficult to collect fresh whole rock samples for geochemical and isotopic studies in Luobuling. Zircon and apatite are accessory minerals that are resistant to hydrothermal alterations. In this study, we compared the trace element and isotope compositions of zircon and apatite from ore-bearing and barren samples to understand the formation of the Luoboling Cu-Mo deposit. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating shows that the Luoboling porphyries formed at 100 Ma (100.3 ± 1.2 Ma, 100.6 ± 1.5 Ma and 98.6 ± 1.2 Ma), which belongs to the late stage mineralization of the Zijinshan mineralization field. Zhongliao porphyritic granodiorite has the same age as the deposit (99.5 ± 1.6 Ma). The age of barren Sifang granodiorite is slightly older (109.7 ± 0.8 Ma). All these zircon grains have high Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios, indicating high oxygen fugacities. The ore-bearing samples show variable εHf(t) of - 7.3 to 0.2, suggesting either heterogeneous sources or mixing of two different magmas. Interestingly, the Hf isotope composition of barren samples is systematically higher (εHf(t) of - 3.6 to 5.5), implying a lower contribution of crustal materials. The OH mole percent of apatite grains from barren samples (LBL22-03 and SF09-05) is 0.5, which is higher than that of apatite from the ore-bearing samples (LBL20-01 LBL20-02 and LBL22-02), indicating lower F, Cl contents or higher water contents in the magma. In apatite from the ore-bearing samples, Sr is high, indicating the absence of plagioclase crystallization. In contrast, barren samples have varied and lower Sr, indicating that apatite crystallization was accompanied by plagioclase. These patterns were controlled by water contents because the crystallization of plagioclase is suppressed by high water contents in magmas. It also suggests

  7. Zircon U-Pb ages of the basement rocks beneath the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The basement of the Songliao Basin is mainly composed of slightly-metamorphosed or unmetamorphosed Paleozoic strata, granites and gneiss. Petrographical studies indicate that the gneiss was originally the granitic intrusions which were deformed in the later stage. One undeformed granitic rock sample gives a U-Pb age of (305±2) Ma, and the mylonitic granite yields a U-Pb age of (165±3) Ma. Both of the two samples contain no inherited zircon, which suggests that there is no large-scale Precambrian crystalline basement beneath the Songliao Basin.

  8. Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies (United States)

    Kueter, Nico; Soesilo, Joko; Fedortchouk, Yana; Nestola, Fabrizio; Belluco, Lorenzo; Troch, Juliana; Wälle, Markus; Guillong, Marcel; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Driesner, Thomas


    Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources. The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo (Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia) provide the largest known deposit of these so-called "headless" diamond deposits. Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation. Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area (247 stones) and in West Borneo (Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones) points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds. Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Pressure of formation estimates for the peridotitic garnet at independently derived temperatures of 930-1250 °C are between 4.8 and 6.0 GPa. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material. By analyzing almost 1400 zircons for trace element concentrations with laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) we tested the mineral's potential as an alternative kimberlite indicator. The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Subsequent U-Pb dating resulting in Cretaceous ages plus a detailed chemical reflection make

  9. Trace element features of hydrothermal and inherited igneous zircon grains in mantle wedge environment: A case study from the Myanmar jadeitite (United States)

    Lei, Weiyan; Shi, Guanghai; Santosh, M.; Ng, Yinok; Liu, Yingxin; Wang, Jing; Xie, Gen; Ju, Yan


    Jadeitites are considered to crystallise in ultramafic rocks in the subduction channel presumably from the overlying mantle wedge, and therefore zircons from these rocks provide important insights into mantle wedge processes. Here we investigate hydrothermal zircon (Group II) formed within a subduction zone and compare these with the igneous zircon cores (Group I) from the Myanmar jadeitite. Previous U-Pb studies reported ages of Groups I and II zircons as 163 Ma, and 147 Ma respectively, and both show isotope signature of the depleted mantle. Group I zircons have much higher total concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) (500-1945 ppm) than those of Group II zircon (112-307 ppm), and contains relatively higher abundance of Y, Nb, Ta, Ti, Th and U with higher (Sm/La)N ratios (25.3-501) and Ce-anomalies (8.04-140) but lower (Yb/Gd)N ratios (9.76-57.0) than those of the Group II ((Sm/La)N ratios = 2.12-32.2, Ce-anomalies = 1.63-19.6, (Yb/Gd)N ratios = 44.8-142). Hf concentrations are broadly similar in both Groups. The Group I zircons are considered to be magmatic and crystallised from H2O-rich basaltic melt at relatively high pressure in the mantle wedge, whereas the Group II zircon overgrowth took place through recrystallisation and precipitation with distinct dissolution of the Group I zircons. Variation in the concentration of trace elements in zircons from Groups I to II in the mantle wedge is related to an intra-oceanic subduction system in the presence of Na-rich hydrothermal fluids under high-pressure and low-temperature. The Ti-in-zircon thermometer yield a mean crystallisation temperature of 742 ± 141 °C for Group I zircons, whereas the Group II zircons yield 339 ± 33 °C. The two groups of zircons also provide insights into the probable protolith involved in formation of the Myanmar jadeitite.

  10. Provenance and sediment dynamics within river basins in Western Peru through detrital zircons U-Pb ages (United States)

    Camille, Litty; Pierre, Lanari; Marco, Burn; Fritz, Schlunegger


    U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from clastic sediments by LA-ICPMS has become a popular method in sedimentary correlation and provenance studies. Because of remarkable durability, detrital zircons may be reworked through multiple sedimentary cycles and provide an ideal material to study the sedimentary provenance in rivers and the erosional characteristics. The Western side of the Peruvian Andes has experienced multiple pluvial periods induced phases of erosion and the formation of subsequent cut-and-fill terrace sequences since the Pleistocene. The aim of the study is to estimate the source areas of the terrace and modern deposits to infer changes in sediment dynamics through time and correlate them with the climatic change and especially precipitation patterns. To this extent, we determined the provenance of 4 dated terrace deposits along with modern sediments from the same streams by matching detrital-zircon ages with crystallization ages of source rocks. Age populations of detrital zircons are derived using U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analysis of about 50 zircons. Results show changes in the sediment provenance through time. Nowadays, sediment source areas are mainly located on the uppermost reach of the rivers whereas during the Pleistocene, sediment source areas were both located in the headwaters and along the middle reach of the rivers. These differences in terms of provenance could correlate with a change in precipitation locations and rates. Indeed a scenario where the locus of precipitation occurrence shifted from the middle reaches including the Altiplano during the past, to the Altiplano only as observed today, along with higher precipitation rates during the periods of terraces formation, offers an explanation to explain the erosional patterns recorded by detrital zircons.

  11. Long-term tectonothermal history of Laramide basement from zircon-He age-eU correlations (United States)

    Orme, Devon A.; Guenthner, William R.; Laskowski, Andrew K.; Reiners, Peter W.


    The long-term (>1 Ga) thermal histories of cratons are enigmatic, with geologic data providing only limited snapshots of their evolution. We use zircon (U-Th)/He (zircon He) thermochronology and age-composition correlations to understand the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic thermal history of Archean Wyoming province rocks exposed in the northern Laramide ranges of western North America. Zircon He ages from the Wind River Range (54 dates) and Bighorn Mountains (32 dates) show negative correlations with effective uranium (eU), a proxy for radiation damage. Zircon dates from the Bighorns are between 960 Ma (low-eU) and 20 Ma (high-eU) whereas samples from the Wind Rivers are between 582 Ma (low-eU) and 33 Ma (high-eU). We applied forward modeling using the zircon radiation damage and annealing model ZrDAAM to understand this highly variable dataset. A long-term t-T path that is consistent with the available geologic constraints successfully reproduced age-eU correlations. The best fit to the Wind Rivers data involves two phases of rapid cooling at 1800-1600 Ma and 900-700 Ma followed by slower cooling until 525 Ma. During the Phanerozoic, these samples were heated to maximum temperatures between 160 and 125 °C prior to Laramide cooling to 50 °C between 60 and 40 Ma. Data from the Bighorn Mountains were successfully reproduced with a similar thermal history involving cooler Phanerozoic temperatures of ∼115 °C and earlier Laramide cooling between 85 and 60 Ma. Our results indicate that age-eU correlations in zircon He datasets can be applied to extract long-term thermal histories that extend beyond the most recent cooling event. In addition, our results constrain the timing, magnitude and rates of cooling experienced by Archean Wyoming Province rocks between recognized deformation events, including the >1 Ga period represented by the regionally-extensive Great Unconformity.

  12. Super color purity green organic light-emitting diodes with ZrO2/zircone nanolaminates as a distributed Bragg reflector deposited by atomic layer deposition (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Yanqiong; Wei, Mengjie; Ding, He; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Zhilin


    ZrO2/zircone nanolaminate thin films fabricated by atomic layer deposition were used for a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) in green organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). It is found that the novel ZrO2/zircone DBR structure significantly improves the light purity of green OLEDs without interfering with intrinsic electroluminescence properties. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the EL spectral band for the green OLEDs decreases with respect to increasing the ZrO2/zircone pairs. The FWHMs of OLEDs with 0, 2, 4, and 6 pairs of ZrO2/zircone layers are 72 nm, 48 nm, 24 nm, and 12 nm, respectively. A super-narrow FWHM of 12 nm is achieved by using six pairs of the DBR structure. The EQE is increased from 10.7% to 16.1% with four pairs of ZrO2/zircone layers.

  13. Chronological record of the Early Mesozoic underplating in the northern margin of North China-U-Pb chronometry of zircons in the Late Mesozoic andesite from Western Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cathodoluminescence spectroscopic analysis of zircons in the uppermost sanukites of the early Cretaceous Yixian Formation in Western Liaoning reveals zoning structures of the zircons in the volcanic rocks. LA-ICP-MS chronometry shows that the central part of the zircons is remnant zircon with a U-Pb dating of 254 Ma, which is consistent with the age of the Early Mesozoic underplating granulites, and that the periphery is zircon crystallizing out of the host magma with a U-Pb dating of 116 Ma, which is highly consistent with the Ar-Ar dating of the host volcanic rocks. Compositions of the clinopyroxenes xenocrystals in the sanukites are similar to those of the clinopyroxenes in the underplating granulites, indicating that the granulites accreted to the lower crust in the Early Mesozoic have been reformed and disrupted by the upwelling diapers of the asthenosphere and taken part in formation of the sanukites in the Late Mesozoic.

  14. Identification of 3.5 Ga detrital zircons from Yangtze craton in south China and the implication for Archean crust evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoming; GAO Shan; LING Wenli; YUAN Honglin; HU Zhaochu


    The LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of hundreds of detrital zircon grains from the Sinian sandstones of Liantuo formation and tillites of Nantuo formation at Sanxia area in Yichang identified 3319-3508 Ma zircon grains. Their 207pb/206pb and 206pb/238U ages show excellent agreement (concordia degree 99 %-100 % ). Their CL images exhibit well-developed oscillatory zoning and the Th/U ratios are within 0. 46-0. 76, implying that they are igneous zircons which formed during middle-early Archean. These zircons are the oldest ones discovered in Yangtze craton until now. However, the detrital zircons with ages older than 3.3 Ga in the metamorphic rocks of Kongling group were not found by further investigation, which suggests the presence of crust older than high-grade metamorphic Kongling terrain in Yangtze craton.

  15. Topological organization of CA3-to-CA1 excitation. (United States)

    Hongo, Yoshie; Ogawa, Koichi; Takahara, Yuji; Takasu, Keiko; Royer, Sebastien; Hasegawa, Minoru; Sakaguchi, Gaku; Ikegaya, Yuji


    The CA1-projecting axons of CA3 pyramidal cells, called Schaffer collaterals, constitute one of the major information flow routes in the hippocampal formation. Recent anatomical studies have revealed the non-random structural connectivity between CA3 and CA1, but little is known regarding the functional connectivity (i.e. how CA3 network activity is functionally transmitted downstream to the CA1 network). Using functional multi-neuron calcium imaging of rat hippocampal slices, we monitored the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous CA3 and CA1 burst activity under pharmacological GABAergic blockade. We found that spatially clustered CA3 activity patterns were transformed into layered CA1 activity sequences. Specifically, synchronized bursts initiated from multiple hot spots in CA3 ensembles, and CA1 neurons located deeper in the pyramidal cell layer were recruited during earlier phases of the burst events. The order of these sequential activations was maintained across the bursts, but the sequence velocity varied depending on the inter-burst intervals. Thus, CA3 axons innervate CA1 neurons in a highly topographical fashion.

  16. Geochemistry and zircon ages of mafic dikes in the South Qinling, central China: evidence for late Neoproterozoic continental rifting in the northern Yangtze block (United States)

    Zhu, Xiyan; Chen, Fukun; Liu, Bingxiang; Zhang, He; Zhai, Mingguo


    Neoproterozoic volcanic-sedimentary sequences of the southern Qinling belt, central China, were intruded by voluminous mafic dikes. secondary ion mass spectrometry zircon U-Pb dating indicates that these dikes were emplaced at 650.8 ± 5.2 Ma, coeval with mafic rocks occurring at the northern margin of the Yangtze block. The dikes are characterized by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements, high Ti contents (up to 3.73 wt%) and Nb/Ta ratios between 14.5 and 19.6, suggesting a mantle source of oceanic island basalt affinity. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios show positive correlation with SiO2 contents and negative correlation with Zr/Nb ratios, implying that these rocks were affected by crustal contamination during the magma ascend and emplacement process. The dikes have initial ɛ Nd values of +0.2 to +3.3, low 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 16.96-17.45, and moderate 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7043-0.7076, likely pointing to the involvement of an enriched mantle source. The mafic dikes and coeval mafic volcanic equivalents in the South Qinling and the northern Yangtze are hypothesized to be related with the prolonged breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia, suggesting that continental rifting lasted until ca. 650 Ma.

  17. Devonian alkaline magmatism in the northern North China Craton: Geochemistry, SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingling Huang


    Full Text Available The Wulanhada pluton is among the rare suite of Devonian alkaline plutons occurring along the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC. The intrusion is mainly composed of quartz-monzonite. Here we report zircon SHRIMP U-Pb data from this intrusion which shows emplacement age of ca. 381.5 Ma. The rock is metaluminous with high (Na2O + K2O values ranging from 8.46 to 9.66 wt.%. The REE patterns of the rocks do not show any Eu anomaly whereas the primitive-mantle-normalized spider diagram shows strong positive Sr and Ba anomalies. The Wulanhada rocks exhibit high initial values of (87Sr/86Srt = 0.70762–0.70809, low ɛNd(t = −12.76 to −12.15 values and negative values of ɛHf(t = −23.49 to −17.02 with small variations in (176Hf/177Hft (0.281873–0.282049. These geochemical features and quantitative isotopic modeling results suggest that the rocks might have been formed through the partial melting of Neoarchean basic rocks in the lower crust of the NCC. The Wulanhada rocks, together with the Devonian alkaline rocks and mafic-ultramafic complex from neighboring regions, constitute a post-collisional magmatic belt along the northern NCC.

  18. Zircon Geochronology (U-Pb, Petrography, Geochemistry and Radioisotopes of Bornaward Metarhyolites (Central Taknar Zone-Northwest of Bardaskan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Monazzami Bagherzadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction The Bornaward area is located in the Northeastern Iran (in the Khorasan Razavi province 28 km northwest of the city of Bardaskan at 57˚ 46΄ to 57˚ 52΄ N latitude and 35˚ 21΄ to 35˚ 24΄E longitude. The Taknar structural zone, situated in the North central Iranian micro continent, is part of the Lut block (Forster, 1978. The Taknar zone is an allochthonous block bounded by the Darouneh and Taknar major faults. Much of this zone consists of metarhyolite-rhyodacite volcanic rocks, and rhyolitic tuff with interlayers of sandstone and dolomite (Taknar Formation. Analytical Results ICP-MS analysis of REE and minor elements of samples of the Bornaward metarhyolites was carried out at the ACME Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada. U-Pb dating of the metarhyolites was performed on isolated zircons in Crohn's Laser Lab, in Arizona (Gehrels et al., 2008. Measurement of Rb, Sr, Sm and Nd isotopes and (143Nd/144Ndi and (87Sr/86Sri ratios took place in the radioisotope laboratory of the University of Aveiro in Portugal. Petrography The volcanic rocks are porphyritic, commonly containing phenocrysts of orthoclase and rarely sanidine, quartz and intermediate plagioclase in a groundmass of fine-grained quartz and feldspar. An alteration has produced oriented needles of sericite and clay minerals, clusters of fine-grained green biotite and clots of epidote and chlorite. Geochemistry The compositions of the volcanic rocks are calc alkaline and high K- calc alkaline. The obtained Shand index (Al2O3/( CaO+Na2O+K2O is above 1.1, in the peraluminous S-type granite field (Chappell and White, 2001. Plotted on the TAS diagram (Middlemost, 1994, all the metarhyolite-rhyodacite samples are located in the sub-alkaline field and the majority fall into the rhyolite group. The metarhyolite-rhyodacites show enrichment of LREE with a moderately ascending pattern ((La/YbN=2.51-10.11 and La=46.45-145.48. Europium shows a negative anomaly (Eu/Eu*=0.23-0.71. U

  19. Age and timing of the Permian mass extinctions: U/Pb dating of closed-system zircons. (United States)

    Mundil, Roland; Ludwig, Kenneth R; Metcalfe, Ian; Renne, Paul R


    The age and timing of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction have been difficult to determine because zircon populations from the type sections are typically affected by pervasive lead loss and contamination by indistinguishable older xenocrysts. Zircons from nine ash beds within the Shangsi and Meishan sections (China), pretreated by annealing followed by partial attack with hydrofluoric acid, result in suites of consistent and concordant uranium/lead (U/Pb) ages, eliminating the effects of lead loss. The U/Pb age of the main pulse of the extinction is 252.6 +/- 0.2 million years, synchronous with the Siberian flood volcanism, and it occurred within the quoted uncertainty.

  20. Timing and sources of granite magmatism in the Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil: Insights from zircon in situ U-Pb dating and Hf isotope geochemistry in granites from the São Roque Domain (United States)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Andrade, Sandra; Vasconcellos, Antonio Carlos B. C.; Henrique-Pinto, Renato; Ulbrich, Horstpeter H. G. J.


    Eight new in situ U-Pb zircon age determinations by SHRIMP and LA-MC-ICPMS reveal that the main granitic magmatism in the São Roque Domain, which is largely dominated by metaluminous high-K calc-alkaline monzogranites with subordinate peraluminous leucogranites, occurred between 604 ± 3 and 590 ± 4 Ma. This small temporal range is ca. 20-30 Ma younger than previously admitted based on U-Pb TIMS dates from literature, some of which obtained in the same occurrences now dated. The observed discrepancy seems related to the presence of small Paleoproterozoic inherited cores in part of the zircon populations used for TIMS multigrain dating, which could also respond for the unusually high (up to 10 Ma) uncertainty associated with most of these dates. The younger age range now identified for the São Roque granite magmatism has important implications for the evolution of the Ribeira Fold Belt. Whilst previously admitted ages ca. 620-630 Ma substantiated correlations with the widespread and intensely foliated high-K calc-alkaline granitoid rocks of the neighbor Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (potentially associated with an accretionary continental margin), the ˜600-590 Ma interval seems more consistent with a late deformation tectonic setting. Strongly negative ɛHf(t) characterize the magmatic zircons from the São Roque Domain granites. An eastward increase from -22 in the São Roque Granite to -11 in the Cantareira Granite and neighboring stocks suggests an across-domain shift in granite sources. Such eastward younging of sources, also indicated by Sm-Nd isotope data from granites and supracrustal sequences in neighboring domains, is suggestive that some of the first-order limits and discontinuities in this belt are not defined by the strike-slip fault systems traditionally taken to separate distinct domains. Although the negative ɛHf(t) and ɛNd(t) indicate sources with long crustal residence for all studied granite plutons, the observed range is more radiogenic than the

  1. Electrodeposition of Ca Metal in CaCl2-CaO Molten Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jun-kang; WANG; Chang-shui; CAO; Long-hao; OUYANG; Ying-gen


    To realize the continuouscalciothermic reduction in molten salts,the electrodeposition behavior of Ca metal in CaCl2-CaO molten salt was investigated by cylic voltammetry.The cyclic voltammograms at the scan rate of 100 mV/s are shown in Fig.1.As is shown,the electrodeposition potential of Ca deviated from-1.66 V to-0.97 V after CaO was added to molten CaCl2 and the decomposition of CaO

  2. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology of Indosinian granites in Hunan Province and its petrogenetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuejun; FAN Weiming; LIANG Xinquan; PENG Touping; SHI Yuruo


    The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology of three typically Indosinian granitic plutons with peraluminous and potassium-rich affinities (Tangshi ultraunit for Weishan and Baimashan, and Longtan ultraunit for Guandimiao) is presented in Hunan Province, South China. The analyses of zircons from biotite monozonite granites for Weishan, Baimashan and Guandimiao plutons show the single and tight clusters on the concordia, and yield the weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 244±4, 243±3 and 239±3 Ma, respectively, representing the crystallized ages of these Indosinian granites. These data suggest that the Indosinian granitic plutons as previously thought formed at a narrow age span. In combination with other data, it is inferred that the Indosinian granites within the South China Block probably distributed in Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces as planar shape, and were the derivation of the crustal materials in the intracontinental thickening setting. These precisely geochronological data provide important constraints for better understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of the Indosinian peraluminous granites and early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Block.

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of a Lead Zirconate Titanate Micro Energy Harvester Based on Eutectic Bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-Gui; SUN Jian; YANG Chun-Sheng; LIU Jing-Quan; SUGIYAMA Susumu; TANAKA Katsuhiko


    A lead zirconate titanate(PZT)-Si energy harvester cantilever with PZT bulk ceramics is fabricated by eutectic bonding, polishing and dicing processes. The feasibility of this process is studied using a successful operation of the cantilever in both actuation and harvesting modes. The first prototype made from a PZT-Au-Si cantiliever is tested. The testing results show the voltage output of 632mV at the frequency of 815Hz when the excitation acceleration is 0.5 g. The PZT and silicon layers are bonded together to form a sandwiched structure using a gold layer as an intermediate layer.%@@ A lead zirconate titanate(PZT)-Si energy harvester cantilever with PZT bulk ceramics is fabricated by eutectic bonding, polishing and dicing processes.The feasibility of this process is studied using a successful operation of the cantilever in both actuation and harvesting modes.The first prototype made from a PZT-Au-Si cantiliever is tested.The testing results show the voltage output of 632mV at the frequency of 815 Hz when the excitation acceleration is 0.5 g.The PZT and silicon layers are bonded together to form a sandwiched structure using a gold layer as an intermediate layer.

  4. Effect of rheological properties of zircon-alumina suspensions on density of green casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Garrido


    Full Text Available Rheological properties of aqueous suspensions (48 vol% of zircon-alumina mixtures containing different amounts of polyelectrolyte as dispersant were studied. Slip casting in a plaster mold and pressure filtration at 8 MPa experiments were performed to correlate the rheological properties of the suspensions with the relative density of green casts. Flow curves fitted satisfactorily to the Casson model. The Casson viscosity values remained nearly constant whereas Casson yield stress parameter decreased to a minimum and then increased with increasing the amount of dispersant added. The influence of particle size distribution (PSD of the powder mixtures on Casson yield stress parameter and on the minimum viscosity was also examined. Green densities increased as yield stress Casson parameter decreased. The mixture of alumina and zircon as fine and coarse powders produced bimodal PSD which maximized the green density of the compacts. Some weakly flocculated suspensions having low apparent viscosity and small yield stress produced casts with relatively high densification. This is attributed to a slight higher viscosity at low shear rates of these suspensions in which settling of particles and /or segregation of components can not occur.

  5. Water-Induced Degradation in Lead Zinc Niobate-Lead Zirconate Titanate Soft Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiang-Ping; CHEN Wan-Ping; PENG Zhi; ZENG Min; CHANWANG Li-Hua; YIN Qing-Rui


    @@ Water-induced degradation of lead zinc niobate-lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(ZrTi)O3) soft piezoelectric ceramics is studied using electrochemical hydrogen charging, in which the silver electrodes of the piezoelectric ceramics constitute a cathode in 0.01-M NaOH solution to evolve hydrogen by electrolysis of water.It is found that with the increasing hydrogen charging time, the resonance impedance increases, the difference between the resonance frequency and the anti-resonance frequency decreases, the spontaneous polarization, the remanent polarization and the piezoelectric coefficient d33 decrease. The degradation behaviour of the soft piezoelectric ceramics can be explained to hydrogen incorporating into the lattice and forming hydroxy (OH-)bonds in the perovskite structure, which prevents the Ti ions from switching and increases the coercive field Ec.The degradation characteristics of the soft piezoelectric ceramics are quite different from that of lead zirconate titanate hard piezoelectric ceramics.

  6. 胶东谭格庄地区奥长花岗质片麻岩和斜长角闪岩的野外地质和锆石SHRIMP定年%Geology and zircon dating of trondhjemitic gneiss and amphibolite in the Tangezhuang area, eastern Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颉颃强; 万渝生; 王世进; 刘敦一; 谢士稳; 刘守偈; 董春艳; 马铭株


    ~2. 5Ga and ~ 1.9Ga metamorphic events are widely recorded all over the North China Craton, being important for understanding the formation and evolution of the craton. Eastern Shandong is located in the eastern North China Craton and contains metamorphic rocks with ca. 2. 5Ga and ca. 1. 9Ga metamorphic zircon ages. For further constraining the Early Precambrian tectono-thermal events in the area, we carried out detailed field observation and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating in a road cutting section near Tangezhuang, Laixi County, eastern Shandong. The outcrop consists of interlayered and folded trondhjemitic gneisses and amphibolites. The foliation of the rocks is completely parallel to each other and shows thin interlayer in strong deformation domain, suggesting that thin interlayers of different components cannot be considered as a fact that the protoliths are sedimentary in origin. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating yielded an age of 2496 ± 10Ma (MSWD = 0. 45) for magmatic zircons from a trondhjemitic gneiss sample ( S1105), with metamorphic rims having ages of ca. 2. 5Ga and ca. 1. 9Ga. Two amphibolite samples ( S1238 and S0812) contain metamorphic zircons with ages of 1842 ± 3Ma ( MSWD = 1.6) and 1833 ± 13Ma (MSWD = 1. 0) , respectively, but no magmatic zircons have been identified. Combining with previous researches, we suggest that the Late Neoarchean raetamorphism widespread over the whole Jiaodong terrane, leading to anatexis and recycling of older crust material, and the Late Paleoproterozoic metamorphism shows a zonal feature as a result of orogenesis.%对胶东谭格庄地区一地质剖面进行了详细野外观察和锆石SHRIMP年代学研究.剖面主要是由奥长花岗质片麻岩和斜长角闪岩组成,两者互层产出并一起发生褶皱变形,在强变形域两者完全平行化.所以,在强变形地区,不同成分岩性的薄层状互层产出不能作为变质沉积岩的识别标志.奥长花岗质片麻岩(S1105)形成于2496±10Ma,遭

  7. U-Pb zircon geochronology of Paleoproterozoic plutons from the northern midcontinent, USA: Evidence for subduction flip and continued convergence after geon 18 Penokean orogenesis (United States)

    Holm, D.K.; Van Schmus, W. R.; MacNeill, L.C.; Boerboom, Terrence; Schweitzer, D.; Schneider, D.


    We propose that the late Paleoproterozoic igneous and deformational history preserved in the northern midcontinent United States can be explained by a change in subduction-polarity from geon 18 south-dipping subduction during Penokean accretion to geon 17 north-dipping subduction as convergence continued after Penokean orogenesis. New U-Pb zircon ages indicate that late to post-Penokean magmatism occurred at ca. 1800, 1775, and 1750 Ma and generally migrated southeastward across the newly accreted Penokean terrane. We suggest that geon 17 Yavapai slab rollback caused continental arc magmatism to step southeastward between 1800 and 1750 Ma. As the slab steepened, reduced compressional stresses and magma-induced thermal weakening allowed for collapse of the overthickened portions of the Penokean crust. Postcollapse crustal stabilization (the 1750-1650 Ma Baraboo interval) was followed by geon 16 Mazatzal arc accretion further south. The 1900-1600 Ma tectonic history of the north-central United States, not surprisingly, records events related to the southward growth and tectonic development of the southern Laurentian margin. New and published 40Ar/ 39Ar mineral ages delineate the northern and western extent of geon 16 Mazatzal deformation. Interestingly, only little exhumed crust intruded by a small volume of shallow-level ca. 1750 Ma plutons (and associated rhyolites) was deformed significantly during geon 16. In contrast, more deeply exhumed crust and crust pervasively invaded by a large volume of post-Penokean magma (i.e., East-Central Minnesota Batholith) were largely unaffected by Mazatzal deformation and reheating. We suggest that posttectonic intrusions and crustal thinning were an important step in strengthening and stabilizing the crust in the southern Lake Superior region. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  8. Impact of hydrothermal alteration on the U-Pb isotopic system of zircons from the Fangcheng syenites in the Qinling orogen, Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Zhiwei; WANG Qiang; BAI Guodian; ZHAO Zhenhua


    Disturbance of the zircon U-Pb isotopic system has been investigated extensively, but mostly in lab, in the last decades. Here, we reported a field-based study on intensive sericitization, K-feldsparthization and the impacts of mylonitization on zircons from the Fangcheng syenites.The Fangcheng syenites occur in the eastern part of the Qinling orogen and consist mainly of aegirine-augite syenite, aegirine nepheline syenite, biotite syenite and hornblende nepheline syenite. Zircons from the slightly sericitized aegirine augite syenite are colorless, transparent crystals and exhibit well-developed oscillatory and sector zoning on the cathodoluminescence (CL) images which are typical of magmatic zircons from alkaline rocks. Zircon U-Pb determinations by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) showed that the syenite was formed in Neoproterozoic time, the weighted average of 206Pb/238U ages is 844.3±1.6 Ma (MSWD=0.86). In contrast, the hydrothermally altered zircons (hydrothermal zircon) from the intensively sericitized, K-feldsparthized, and weakly mylonitized aegirine augite syenite are conglomerates, yellowish to brown in color, generally translucent and internally textureless. The CL and backscatter electron (BSE) images of hydrothermal zircons exhibit fractured, textureless or mosaic textures, and occasionally show "sponge texture" with the veinlets and inclusions of K-feldspar; however, relicts of magmatic oscillatory zoning can still be discerned locally in individual grains. LA-ICPMS analyses of the hydrothermal zircons demonstrated that the zircons are chemically inhomogeneous, with enhanced and widely varied Pb, U, and Th contents. The U and Th contents of the hydrothermal zircons are estimated to be 32×10-6-1550×10-6 and 188×10-6-4059×10-6, respectively, with Th/U ratios within the range of 0.7-44.9. 206Pb/238U apparent ages of the hydrothermal zircons are negatively correlated with the contents of U, and radiogenic and

  9. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology: Implications for the provenance and tectonic setting of Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Zhucheng Basin (Jiaodong peninsula, North China)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jin-Long Ni; Jun-Lai Liu; Xiao-Ling Tang; Xiao-Xiao Shi; Hong Zhang; Shuai Han


    This paper conducts a petrogeochemical analysis of the Lower Cretaceous Laiyang Group’s sandstones, compares the results with the Neoproterozoic and Mesozoic intrusive rocks in the southern Sulu Orogen (also called the Jiaonan Orogen), and performs an LA-ICP-MS zircon geochronology analysis of the granitic gneisses in the conglomerates of the Laiyang Group and the intrusive rocks in the JiaonanOrogen. The results show that the major element proportions of the Longwangzhuang Formation (LWZ Fm) and Qugezhuang Formation (QGZ Fm) of the Laiyang Group in the Zhucheng Basin are similar. The values of various indices for the LWZ Fm are similar to the average sandstone content of activecontinental margins, whereas, the values for the QGZ Fm are similar to those of continental island arcs. The comparison shows that the REE characteristics of the LWZ Fm and QGZ Fm of Laiyang Group are similar to those of the Neoproterozoic granitic gneisses in the Jiaonan Orogen but obviously different from those of the Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks. A tectonic setting discrimination diagram revealsthat the provenance of the Laiyang Group includes features of active continental margins and continental island arcs. A number of indicators, e.g., the sandstone type, the Chemical Index of Alteration, the Chemical Index of Weathering, the Plagioclase Index of Alteration and the Index of Chemical Constituent Variation, indicated that the sandstones did not undergo intense weathering and were deposited near the source area. The zircon ages of the granitic gneiss material in the conglomerates at the base of the Laiyang Group are 790±8.4 Ma, close to the ages of the Neoproterozoic granitic gneiss in the Jiaonan Orogen (739–819 Ma), and very different from the ages of the Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks. Combiningwith paleocurrent directions, geochemical character, the Neoproterozoic granitic gneisses in the Jiaonan Orogen may represent the primary provenance of the Laiyang Group in the

  10. Zircon U-Pb age, Hf isotope and geochemistry of Carboniferous intrusions from the Langshan area, Inner Mongolia: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Da; Xiong, Guangqiang; Zhao, Hongtao; Di, Yongjun; Wang, Zhong; Zhou, Zhiguang


    Late Paleozoic was a critical period for the tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the Alxa-North China craton, but the evolutionary history is not well constrained. The Carboniferous intrusions in the Langshan area in the western part of the northern margin of the Alxa-North China craton are mainly composed of tonalite, quartz diorite, olivine gabbro and pyroxene peridotite. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating indicates that the Langshan Carboniferous intrusions were emplaced at ca. 338-324 Ma. The quartz diorites are characterized by high amounts of compatible trace elements (Cr, Ni and V) and high Mg# values, which may suggest a significant mantle source. The positive Pb and negative Nb-Ta-Ti anomalies, the variable εHf(t) (-6.9 to 2.0) values and the old Hf model ages (1218-1783 Ma) imply some involvement of ancient continental materials in its petrogenesis. The tonalite has relatively high Sr/Y ratios, low Mg#, Yb and Y contents, features of adakite-like rocks, negative εHf(t) values (-9.8 to -0.1) and older Hf model ages (1344-1953 Ma), which suggest significant involvement of ancient crust materials and mantle-derived basaltic component in its petrogenesis. The high Mg# values, high Cr and Ni contents, and low Zr and Hf contents of the mafic-ultramafic rocks show evidence of a mantle source, and the relatively low zircon εHf(t) values (-5.9 to 3.2) might point to an enriched mantle. The trace element characteristics indicate the influence of subducted sediments and slab-derived fluids. In the tectonic discrimination diagrams, all the rocks plot in subduction-related environment, such as volcanic arc and continental arc. Considering the regional geology, we suggest that the Carboniferous intrusions in the Langshan area were likely emplaced during the late stage of the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean plate, which formed a continental arc along the northern margin of the Alxa-North China craton.

  11. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology: Implications for the provenance and tectonic setting of Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Zhucheng Basin (Jiaodong peninsula, North China) (United States)

    Ni, Jin-Long; Liu, Jun-Lai; Tang, Xiao-Ling; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Hong; Han, Shuai


    This paper conducts a petrogeochemical analysis of the Lower Cretaceous Laiyang Group's sandstones, compares the results with the Neoproterozoic and Mesozoic intrusive rocks in the southern Sulu Orogen (also called the Jiaonan Orogen), and performs an LA-ICP-MS zircon geochronology analysis of the granitic gneisses in the conglomerates of the Laiyang Group and the intrusive rocks in the Jiaonan Orogen. The results show that the major element proportions of the Longwangzhuang Formation (LWZ Fm) and Qugezhuang Formation (QGZ Fm) of the Laiyang Group in the Zhucheng Basin are similar. The values of various indices for the LWZ Fm are similar to the average sandstone content of active continental margins, whereas, the values for the QGZ Fm are similar to those of continental island arcs. The comparison shows that the REE characteristics of the LWZ Fm and QGZ Fm of Laiyang Group are similar to those of the Neoproterozoic granitic gneisses in the Jiaonan Orogen but obviously different from those of the Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks. A tectonic setting discrimination diagram reveals that the provenance of the Laiyang Group includes features of active continental margins and continental island arcs. A number of indicators, e.g., the sandstone type, the Chemical Index of Alteration, the Chemical Index of Weathering, the Plagioclase Index of Alteration and the Index of Chemical Constituent Variation, indicated that the sandstones did not undergo intense weathering and were deposited near the source area. The zircon ages of the granitic gneiss material in the conglomerates at the base of the Laiyang Group are 790 ± 8.4 Ma, close to the ages of the Neoproterozoic granitic gneiss in the Jiaonan Orogen (739-819 Ma), and very different from the ages of the Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks. Combining with paleocurrent directions, geochemical character, the Neoproterozoic granitic gneisses in the Jiaonan Orogen may represent the primary provenance of the Laiyang Group in the

  12. Sulfide capacities of CaO-CaF2-CaCl2 melts (United States)

    Simeonov, Simeon; Sakai, Toshihiko; Maeda, Masafumi


    The sulfide capacityC_{s^{2 - } } = ({text{pct S}}^{{text{2 - }}} )(p_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } /p_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } )^{1/2} ) of CaO-CaF2-CaCl2 slag was determined at temperatures from 1000 °C to 1300 °C by equilibrating molten slag, molten silver, and CO-CO2-Ar gas mixture. The sulfide capacity increases with replacing CaCl2 by CaF2 in slags of constant CaO contents. The sulfide capacity also increases with increasing temperature as well as with increasing CaO content at a constant ratio of CaF2/CaCl2 of unity. A linear relationship between the sulfide capacity and carbonate capacity in literature was observed on a logarithmic scale.

  13. Effect of Post-Precipitation Treatment on the Pore-Structure Stability of Sol-Gel-Derived Lanthanum Zirconate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, Jalajakumari; Nair, Padmakumar; Ommen, van Jan G.; Ross, Julian R.H.; Burggraaf, Anthonie J.


    The importance of post-precipitation treatments (pore-fluid exchange and its removal) on the evolution of the texture of coprecipitated lanthanum zirconate has been investigated. The nature of the pore fluid and the type of fluid-removal (drying) process have shown a profound effect on the aggregate

  14. U-Pb zircon in situ dating with LA-MC-ICP-MS using a mixed detector configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemale Junior, Farid, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Kawashita, Koji; Dussin, Ivo A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas; Avila, Janaina N. [Australian National University, Canberra, (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Justino, Dayvisson; Bertotti, Anelise [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias


    The LA-MC-ICP-MS method applied to U-Pb in situ dating is still rapidly evolving due to improvements in both lasers and ICP-MS. To test the validity and reproducibility of the method, 5 different zircon samples, including the standard Temora-2, ranging in age between 2.2 Ga and 246 Ma, were dated using both LA-MC-ICP-MS and SHRIMP. The selected zircons were dated by SHRIMP and, after gentle polishing, the laser spot was driven to the same site or on the same zircon phase with a 213 nm laser microprobe coupled to a multi-collector mixed system. The data were collected with a routine spot size of 25 {mu}m and, in some cases, of 15 and 40 {mu}m. A careful cross-calibration using a diluted U-Th-Pb solution to calculate the Faraday reading to counting rate conversion factors and the highly suitable GJ-1 standard zircon for external calibrations were of paramount importance for obtaining reliable results. All age results were concordant within the experimental errors. The assigned age errors using the LA-MC-ICP-MS technique were, in most cases, higher than those obtained by SHRIMP, but if we are not faced with a high resolution stratigraphy, the laser technique has certain advantages. (author)

  15. Mechanical properties and 95 ° aging characteristics of zircon-reinforced Zn-4AI-3Cu alloy (United States)

    Li, Bj.; Chao, Cg.


    A process for preparing zinc alloy castings containing dispersions of zircon particles is described. Composites were prepared by stirring zircon particles in Zn-4Al-3Cu (ZAS) alloy melts and subsequently casting these melts in permanent molds. It was found that additions of zircon resulted in an increase in the sliding wear resistance and in the proportional limit in compression. The aging characteristics of the ZAS alloy have also been investigated by hardness tests, dilatometry technique, and transmission electron microscopy observations. There are two kinds of precipitates that occur during the aging process. The α-phase precipitates from the ŋ phase in the early stage of aging and the copper-rich ɛ-phase precipitates from the ŋ phase in the later stage of aging. Therefore, there are two peaks in the hardening curve caused by both a-phase and ŋ-phase precipitation. The a-phase precipitation induces the dimensional shrinkage, and the copper-rich ŋ phase precipitation results in dimensional expansion. Zircon particles existing in ZAS alloy reduce the maximum shrinkage from 353 × 10-6 for the monolith to 167 × 10-6 for the composite. Two groups of parallel a-phase plates had formed within the ŋ dendrite during aging at 95 °. The orientation relationship between the a phase and matrix was determined as [άcr1l01]ŋ//[lάrc10]a, (1120)ŋ/(lll)α.

  16. Age and genesis of the Myanmar jadeite: Constraints from U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU ZhiLi; WU FuYuan; YANG ShuFeng; ZHU Min; SUN JinFeng; YANG Ping


    Myanmar jadeite (jadeitite) is well known for its economical value and distinctive tectonic locality within the collisional belt between India and Eurasian plates. However, it is less studied for its genesis and geodynamic implications due to precipitous topography, adverse weather and local military conflicts in the area. By means of combined ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICPMS techniques, we have carried out in-situ trace elements, U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes for zircon inclusions in a piece of jadeite gem sample. CL imaging suggests that the zircons are metasomatic in origin, and contain mineral inclusions of jadeite and omphacite. Seventy-five analyses on 16 grains of the zircons yield a U-Pb age of 158±2 Ma. The Myanmar zircons differ from other types in that they have no significant Eu anomalies despite high HREE concentrations. Measured 176Hf/177Hf ratios range from 0.282976 to 0.283122, with an average value of 0.283066±7;εHf(t) value of 13.8±0.3 (n=75). These results indicate that the Myanmar jadeite was formed in the Late Jurassic, probably by interaction of fluid released from subducted oceanic slab with mantle wedge. Therefore, its formation has no genetic relationship to the continental collision between Indian and Euroasian plates.

  17. Electrochemical characterization of praseodymia doped zircon. Catalytic effect on the electrochemical reduction of molecular oxygen in polar organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, Antonio, E-mail: [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Montoya, Noemi; Alarcon, Javier [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)


    Highlights: > Electrochemical characterization of Pr centers in praseodymia-doped zircon. > Study of the catalytic effect on the reduction of peroxide radical anion in nonaqueous solvents. > Assessment of non-uniform distribution of Pr centers in the zircon grains. - Abstract: The voltammetry of microparticles and scanning electrochemical microscopy methodologies are applied to characterize praseodymium centers in praseodymia-doped zircon (Pr{sub x}Zr{sub (1-y)}Si{sub (1-z)}O{sub 4}; y + z = x; 0.02 < x < 0.10) specimens prepared via sol-gel synthetic routes. In contact with aqueous electrolytes, two overlapping Pr-centered cathodic processes, attributable to the Pr (IV) to Pr (III) reduction of Pr centers in different sites are obtained. In water-containing, air-saturated acetone and DMSO solutions as solvent, Pr{sub x}Zr{sub (1-y)}Si{sub (1-z)}O{sub 4} materials produce a significant catalytic effect on the electrochemical reduction of peroxide radical anion electrochemically generated. These electrochemical features denote that most of the Pr centers are originally in its 4+ oxidation state in the parent Pr{sub x}Zr{sub (1-y)}Si{sub (1-z)}O{sub 4} specimens. The variation of the catalytic performance of such specimens with potential scan rate, water concentration and Pr loading suggests that Pr is not uniformly distributed within the zircon grains, being concentrated in the outer region of such grains.

  18. LA-ICPMS U-Pb Ages of Zircon from Metaleucosomes, Olongbuluke Microcontinent,North Qaidam, and Implications on the Response to the Global Rodinia Supercontinent Assembly Event in NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuqing; Li Xiaoyan; Chen Nengsong; Wang Xinyu; Wang Qinyan; Liu Xiaoming


    U-Pb dating was conducted on different domains of zircons from metamorphosed leucosomes in Delingha (德令哈) complex, the lower basement rocks of the Olongbuluke (欧龙布鲁克) microcontinent, North Qaidam, in order to review its complex tectonothermal history. The zircon core is comprised of highly-modified magmatic zircon relicts, the zircon mantle was produced in response to anatexis of a Late Protoproterozoic thermal event; age and isotopic composition of both the zircon core and the zircon mantle have been seriously disturbed due to the thermal event related with growth of the zircon overgrowth rim. The 207 Pb/206 Pb apparent age of the overgrowth rim was estimated to be ~ 1 030 Ma. This Late Mesoproterozoic thermal event has been interpreted as a response to the global Rodinia supercontinent assembly event in the Olongbuluke microcontinent,Northwest China.

  19. Constraining a SHRIMP U-Pb age: micro-scale characterization of zircons from Saxonian Rotliegend rhyolites (United States)

    Nasdala, Lutz; Götze, Jens; Pidgeon, Robert T.; Kempe, Ulf; Seifert, Thomas

    We present results of a detailed investigation of zircons from two rhyolites from St. Egidien and Chemnitz, Saxony, using a combination of microprobe techniques (SHRIMP ion probe, Raman microprobe, SEM: SE, BSE, and CL imaging). These rhyolites belong to the so-called ``lower volcanics'', which is the older of two series of Late Variscan volcanic rocks occurring in the Saxonian Sub-Erzgebirge basin (Germany). The purpose of the present contribution is to demonstrate that detailed characterization of zircons, as provided by the different micro-techniques, facilitates soundest interpretation of geochronological data. The zircons (at most 40 to 80 m in size) show oscillatory growth zoning, with reversely correlated CL and BSE signal intensities. These zircons are interpreted to have grown during crystallization of the rhyolite because, apart from some cracking, they do not appear to have experienced any alteration since the time of their growth: The shapes of the zircons and their internal structures revealed by CL and BSE imaging appear to be magmatic, and neither annealing of the accumulated alpha-decay damage nor disturbance of the U-Pb system is observed. The SHRIMP ion probe measurements on the zircons gave a Permian 206Pb/238U age of 278 +/- 5 Ma (95% confidence). The concordance of this age is supported by the correlation between the low degrees of metamictization (estimated from Raman parameters) and the accumulated alpha fluxes (calculated from SHRIMP data). The 278 Ma zircon age is interpreted to represent the age of the ``lower rhyolites'' series and, with that, the age of postkinematic Late Variscan volcanism in the Sub-Erzgebirge basin, which has been related to anorogenic extension and uplift as a result of intracontinental rifting. Because of genetic association of rhyolites in the Sub-Erzgebirge basin and Li-F granites and lamprophyres in the neighbouring Erzgebirge, the rhyolite age also indirectly contributes to the understanding of the geological

  20. Tracing magma sources of three different S-type peraluminous granitoid series by in situ U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope zircon composition: The Variscan Montes de Toledo batholith (central Spain) (United States)

    Merino Martínez, E.; Villaseca, C.; Orejana, D.; Pérez-Soba, C.; Belousova, E.; Andersen, T.


    Zone. Nevertheless, the highly negative initial Nd isotopic signature measured in some type-1 granitoids (ƐNd300 up to - 9.4) also suggests a contribution of more mature metasedimentary sequences, such as those described in the northern Central Iberian Zone. On the contrary, the high Ca, Na and Sr bulk-rock contents in type-3 granitoids, together with the presence of Ordovician magmatic inherited zircons, and the absence of inheritances older than Cryogenian ages, suggest the involvement of a metaigneous protolith. This conclusion is also supported by the similar mean whole-rock ƐNd300 isotopic values, TDM ages, ƐHf isotope zircon composition and trace-element modelling of type-3 granitoids when compared to data from outcropping augen orthogneisses from Central Spain. The estimated crystallisation temperatures for the granitoids from the Montes de Toledo batholith (750°-880 °C) suggest that the partial melting of the crustal protoliths could be induced by the own heat generated by the thickening of a highly radiogenic crust, such is that from central Spain. Our results not only indicate that the implication of metasedimentary and/or metaigneous sources contributes to enhance geochemical and isotopic differences in S-type peraluminous granitoid series in intracontinental orogenic settings, but also fractional crystallisation processes are responsible for the geochemical variability through the evolution of these felsic magmas.

  1. Estimates of volume and magma input in crustal magmatic systems from zircon geochronology: the effect of modelling assumptions and system variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca eCaricchi


    Full Text Available Magma fluxes in the Earth’s crust play an important role in regulating the relationship between the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, the chemical evolution of magmatic systems and the distribution of geothermal energy and mineral resources on our planet. Therefore, quantifying magma productivity and the rate of magma transfer within the crust can provide valuable insights to characterise the long-term behaviour of volcanic systems and to unveil the link between the physical and chemical evolution of magmatic systems and their potential to generate resources. We performed thermal modelling to compute the temperature evolution of crustal magmatic intrusions with different final volumes assembled over a variety of timescales (i.e., at different magma fluxes. Using these results, we calculated synthetic populations of zircon ages assuming the number of zircons crystallising in a given time period is directly proportional to the volume of magma at temperature within the zircon crystallisation range. The statistical analysis of the calculated populations of zircon ages shows that the mode, median and standard deviation of the populations varies coherently as function of the rate of magma injection and final volume of the crustal intrusions. Therefore, the statistical properties of the population of zircon ages can add useful constraints to quantify the rate of magma injection and the final volume of magmatic intrusions.Here, we explore the effect of different ranges of zircon saturation temperature, intrusion geometry, and wall rock temperature on the calculated distributions of zircon ages. Additionally, we determine the effect of undersampling on the variability of mode, median and standards deviation of calculated populations of zircon ages to estimate the minimum number of zircon analyses necessary to obtain meaningful estimates of magma flux and final intrusion volume.

  2. Estimates of volume and magma input in crustal magmatic systems from zircon geochronology: the effect of modelling assumptions and system variables (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy; Schaltegger, Urs


    Magma fluxes in the Earth's crust play an important role in regulating the relationship between the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, the chemical evolution of magmatic systems and the distribution of geothermal energy and mineral resources on our planet. Therefore, quantifying magma productivity and the rate of magma transfer within the crust can provide valuable insights to characterise the long-term behaviour of volcanic systems and to unveil the link between the physical and chemical evolution of magmatic systems and their potential to generate resources. We performed thermal modelling to compute the temperature evolution of crustal magmatic intrusions with different final volumes assembled over a variety of timescales (i.e., at different magma fluxes). Using these results, we calculated synthetic populations of zircon ages assuming the number of zircons crystallising in a given time period is directly proportional to the volume of magma at temperature within the zircon crystallisation range. The statistical analysis of the calculated populations of zircon ages shows that the mode, median and standard deviation of the populations varies coherently as function of the rate of magma injection and final volume of the crustal intrusions. Therefore, the statistical properties of the population of zircon ages can add useful constraints to quantify the rate of magma injection and the final volume of magmatic intrusions. Here, we explore the effect of different ranges of zircon saturation temperature, intrusion geometry, and wall rock temperature on the calculated distributions of zircon ages. Additionally, we determine the effect of undersampling on the variability of mode, median and standards deviation of calculated populations of zircon ages to estimate the minimum number of zircon analyses necessary to obtain meaningful estimates of magma flux and final intrusion volume.

  3. Detrital zircon geochronology and Nd isotope geochemistry of an early Paleozoic succession in Korea: (United States)

    Lee, Yong Il; Choi, Taejin; Lim, Hyoun Soo; Orihashi, Yuji


    This study reports the results of an analysis of U-Pb ages of detrital zircons and Nd isotope compositions from the well-established lower Paleozoic platform succession developed on the Precambrian gneiss and metasedimentary rocks in South Korea. The three stratigraphic units in the basal part of the succession are the Jangsan, Myeonsan, and Myobong Formations. The unfossiliferous Jangsan (white­to­pink quartz sandstone) and Myeonsan (dark-gray ilmenite-rich sandstone/shale) Formations are in fault contact and are generally considered to be coeval (Early Cambrian). Both formations are also generally considered to be conformably overlain by the dark­ gray, fossiliferous, fine-grained Myobong Formation (late Early-early Middle Cambrian). We here report U-Pb ages of detrital zircons and Nd isotopic data from the Jangsan, Myeonsan, and Myobong Formations. The Jangsan and Myeonsan Formations provide Archean-Paleoproterozoic U-Pb ages, but the former is characterized by Archean Sm-Nd model ages and the latter by late Paleoproterozoic Sm-Nd model ages, which is indicative of a significant change in provenance. This suggests that the Jangsan Formation predates the Myeonsan Formation. The Myobong Formation provides dominantly Meso- to Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages and Sm-Nd model ages that are slightly younger than those of the Myeonsan Formation. Contrary to the conventional wisdom, the combined evidence of unconformable contact and marked changes in zircon U-Pb ages and Nd isotopic compositions suggests that the Myobong Formation overlies the Jangsan and Myeonsan Formations unconformably. Considering the metamorphic age of the immediately underlying Precambrian basement metasediments (0.8 to 0.9 Ga), this stratigraphic relationship strongly suggests that the Jangsan Formation may be Neoproterozoic in age and that the Myeonsan Formation may be latest Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian and calls for reevaluation of Precambrian-Paleozoic history of the Korean Peninsula. The

  4. Uranium-lead isotope systematics and apparent ages of zircons and other minerals in precambrian granitic rocks, Granite Mountains, Wyoming (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Stuckless, J.S.


    Zircon suites from the two main types of granite in the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, yielded concordia-intercept ages of 2,640??20 m.y. for a red, foliated granite (granite of Long Creek Mountain) and 2,595??40 m.y. for the much larger mass of the granite of Lankin Dome. These ages are statistically distinct (40??20 m.y. difference) and are consistent with observed chemical and textural differences. The lower intercepts of the zircon chords of 50??40 and 100+ 75 m.y. for the granite of Long Creek Mountain and granite of Lankin Dome, respectively, are not consistent with reasonable continuous diffusion lead-loss curves but do correspond well with the known (Laramide) time of uplift of the rocks. Epidote, zircon, and apatite from silicified and epidotized zones in the granites all record at least one postcrystallization disturbance in addition to the Laramide event and do not define a unique age of silicification and epidotization. The lower limit of ???2,500 m.y. provided by the least disturbed epidote, however, suggests that these rocks were probably formed by deuteric processes shortly after emplacement of the granite of the Lankin Dome. The earlier of the two disturbances that affected the minerals of the silicified-epidotized rock can be bracketed between 1,350 and 2,240 m.y. ago and is probably the same event that lowered mineral K-Ar and ages in the region. Zircon suites from both types of granite show well-defined linear correlations among U content, common-Pb content, and degree of discordance. One of the zircon suites has an extremely high common-Pb content (up to 180 ppm) and exhibits a component of radiogenic-Pb loss that is apparently unrelated to radiation damage. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Provenance and drainage system of the Early Cretaceous volcanic detritus in the Himalaya as constrained by detrital zircon geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Mian Hu; Eduardo Garzanti; Wei An


    The age range of the major intra-plate volcanic event that affected the northern Indian margin in the Early Cretaceous is here deifned precisely by detrital zircon geochronol-ogy. U–Pb ages of Early Cretaceous detrital zircons found in the Cretaceous to the Paleocene sandstones cluster mainly between 142 Ma and 123 Ma in the northern Tethys Himalayan unit, and between 140 Ma and 116 Ma in the southern Tethys Himalayan unit. The youngest and oldest detrital zircons within this group indicate that volcanism in the source areas started in the latest Jurassic and ended by the early Albian. Stratigraphic data indicate that volcaniclastic sedimentation began signiifcantly earlier in southern Tibet (Tithonian) than in Nepal (Valangin-ian), and considerably later in Spiti and Zanskar (Aptian/Albian) to the west. This apparent westward migration of magmatism was explained with progressive westward propagation of extensional/transtensional tectonic activity and development of fractures cutting deeply across the Indian continental margin crust. However, detrital zircon geochronology provides no indi-cation of heterochroneity in magmatic activity in the source areas from east to west, and thus lends little support to such a scenario. Westward migration of volcaniclastic sedimentation may thus relfect instead the westward progradation of major drainage systems supplying vol-canic detritus sourced from the same volcanic centers in the east. Development of multiple radial drainage away from the domal surface uplift associated with magmatic upwelling, as observed for most large igneous provinces around the world, may also explain why U–Pb ages of detrital zircons tend to cluster around 133–132 Ma (the age of the Comei igneous province) in Tethys Himalayan units, but around 118–117 Ma (the age of the Rajmahal igneous province) in Lesser Himalayan units.

  6. Post-peak, fluid-mediated modification of granulite facies zircon and monazite in the Trivandrum Block, southern India (United States)

    Taylor, Richard J. M.; Clark, Chris; Fitzsimons, Ian C. W.; Santosh, M.; Hand, M.; Evans, Noreen; McDonald, Brad


    The quarry at Kottavattom in the Trivandrum Block of southern India contains spectacular examples of fluid-assisted alteration of high-grade metamorphic rocks. Garnet-biotite gneiss has undergone a change in mineral assemblage to form submetre scale orthopyroxene-bearing patches, later retrogressed to form an amphibole-bearing lithology. These patches, often referred to as arrested or incipient charnockite, crosscut the original metamorphic foliation and are typically attributed to passage of a low aH2O fluid through the rock. Whilst this conversion is recognised as a late stage process, little detailed chronological work exists to link it temporally to metamorphism in the region. Zircon and monazite analysed from Kottavattom not only record metamorphism in the Trivandrum Block but also show internal, lobate textures crosscutting the original zoning, consistent with fluid-aided coupled dissolution-reprecipitation during formation of the orthopyroxene-bearing patches. High-grade metamorphism at the quarry occurred between the formation of metamorphic monazite at ~585 Ma and the growth of metamorphic zircon at ~523 Ma. The fluid-assisted alteration of the garnet-biotite gneiss is poorly recorded by altered zircon with only minimal resetting of the U-Pb system, whereas monazite has in some cases undergone complete U-Pb resetting and records an age for fluid infiltration at ~495 Ma. The fluid event therefore places the formation of the altered patches at least 25 Myr after the zircon crystallisation in the garnet-biotite gneiss. The most likely fluid composition causing the modification and U-Pb resetting of zircon and monazite is locally derived hypersaline brine.

  7. Evidence of Thermal Evolution History of Northeast Sichuan Basin (U-Th)/He Low Temperature Thermochronometry of Apatite and Zircon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jianzhong; Wang Jie; Qiu Nansheng


    (U-Th)/He dating is a newly developed low temperature thermochronometry,and it elaborately reflects cooling history of geologic body under low temperature.It can be applied to analyze thermal evolution of the sedimentary basin,combining with vitrinite reflectance and fission track.(U-Th)/He dating of apatite and zircon from drilling cores in Puguang (普光)-Maoba (毛坝) area and outcrops in Tongjiang (通江) area indicates that the Northeast Sichuan (四川) basin underwent great uplift and denudation during the Tertiary and the Quaternary.During the period,denudation rates changed from 74.8 to 172.5 m/Ma and denudation thickness was between 2 800 and 3 000 m,geotemperature gradually declined into the current temperature,passing through helium closure temperature of apatite.The uplift and denudation relate to new tectonic movement response in the Sichuan basin aroused by the Qinghai (青海)-Tibet plateau.Drilling samples above 4 000 m did not undergo closure temperature of zircon,but the samples nearly 4 000 m might approach closure temperature of zircon and all the samples underwent closure temperature of apatite.According to (U-Th)/He ages of zircon,it is concluded that the Northeast Sichuan basin began to uplift in the Late Jurassic.From the Late Jurassic to the Paleogene,Northeast Sichuan basin was in slow uplift and denudation,but the denudation of Puguang-Maoba area was earlier than that of Tongjiang area.(U-Th)/He ages of zircon indicate the denudation time of provenance areas.On the basis of paleodrainage characteristics,provenance transport and other related data,provenance areas of the clastic rocks are decided,which is worthy to be investigated further.

  8. REE distribution in zircon from reference rocks of the Arctic region: Evidence from study by the LA-ICP-MS method (United States)

    Nikolaev, A. I.; Drogobuzhskaya, S. V.; Bayanova, T. B.; Kaulina, T. V.; Lyalina, L. M.; Novikov, A. I.; Steshenko, E. N.


    The results of the LA-ICP-MS analysis of the concentrations of REEs, U, Th, and Hf in zircon from Paleo- and Neoarchean reference rocks of the Kola region (garnet-amphibole gneiss, basic and acid granulites, and granite pegmatite) are reported. A new methodology of the study of accessory zircons has been validated and modified. The accuracy of the results is confirmed by analysis of standard zircons Temora 1 and 91 500 and by comparison with the data obtained in other laboratories.

  9. Experimental measurement of stress at a four-domain junction in lead zirconate titanate (United States)

    MacLaren, Ian; Schmitt, Ljubomira A.; Fuess, Hartmut; Kungl, Hans; Hoffmann, Michael J.


    A junction between two lamellar bands of ferroelectric domains in a lead zirconate titanate ceramic is analyzed using Kikuchi diffraction patterns in the transmission electron microscope. Indexing of the diffraction patterns allowed the determination of the three-dimensional relative orientation of the four different domains at the junction and thus the characterization of the domain boundaries. The local c /a ratio could also be determined from the misorientations at the domain boundaries. Analysis of the data showed that large stresses were concentrated at the junction, and that this is inevitable at such band junctions. Such stress concentrations could act as nuclei for cracking of the ceramic under additional loading in service, perhaps particularly as a consequence of extended electromechanical cycling. Moreover, the stresses would increase with increasing c /a, making the issues all the more serious for Ti-rich compositions having larger c /a ratios.

  10. Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP Ages from the Late Paleozoic Turpan-Hami Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Mao; Jianghai Li; Huatian Zhang


    Permian volcanic rocks are widely distributed in the Turpan-Hami Basin, which is part of the Central Asian orogenic belt. Here we present SHRIMP zircon data for the rhyolite in Well Baocan 1, one of the deepest wells in the basin. The 283.9±2.7 Ma reported in our study provides the best precise age determination for the Yierxitu Formation, the oldest Permian layer of Hami Depression, one of the three substructural units of the Turpan-Hami Basin, and a potential hydrocarbon reservoir in this ba-sin. Our data refines earlier imprecise39Ar-40Ar ages and shows that the volcanic rocks both inside the Turpan-Hami Basin and along its margin are almost coeval. We delineate a collisional orogenesis, and the new age of 283.9±2.7 Ma may limit the latest time of the collision orogenesis.

  11. Tectonic implications of U-Pb zircon ages of the himalayan orogenic belt in nepal (United States)

    DeCelles; Gehrels; Quade; LaReau; Spurlin


    Metasedimentary rocks of the Greater Himalaya are traditionally viewed as Indian shield basement that has been thrust southward onto Lesser Himalayan sedimentary rocks during the Cenozoic collision of India and Eurasia. Ages determined from radioactive decay of uranium to lead in zircon grains from Nepal suggest that Greater Himalayan protoliths were shed from the northern end of the East African orogen during the late Proterozoic pan-African orogenic event. These rocks were accreted onto northern Gondwana and intruded by crustal melts during Cambrian-Ordovician time. Our data suggest that the Main Central thrust may have a large amount of pre-Tertiary displacement, that structural restorations placing Greater Himalayan rocks below Lesser Himalayan rocks at the onset of Cenozoic orogenesis are flawed, and that some metamorphism of Greater Himalayan rocks may have occurred during early Paleozoic time.

  12. Provisional zircon and monazite uranium-lead geochronology for selected rocks from Vermont (United States)

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Walsh, Gregory J.


    This report presents the results of zircon and monazite uranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronologic analyses of 24 rock samples. The samples in this study were collected from mapped exposures identified while conducting either new, detailed (1:24,000-scale) geologic quadrangle mapping or reconnaissance mapping, both of which were used for compilation of the bedrock geologic map of Vermont. All of the collected samples were judged to be igneous rocks (either intrusive or extrusive) on the basis of field relations and geochemistry. The one exception is the Okemo Quartzite on Ludlow Mountain. These geochronologic data were used to supplement regional correlations between igneous suites on the basis of similar geochemistry and geologic mapping.

  13. Zircon U-Pb ages for Wulian granites in northwest Sulu and their tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Wulian complex occurring in the north-western part of the Sulu orogen consists of metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks at greenschist-facies. Zircon U-Pb dating for three granite intrusions within it yields concordant ages of (672±4), (742±9) and (747±14) Ma, respectively. These ages indicate that the granites are the Neoproterozoic intrusions in the northern margin of the Yangtze plate, and correspond to the magmatic complex at Luzhenguan in the eastern part of the Beihuaiyang belt in the Dabie orogen. They were tectonic slices scraped off from the Yangtze plate during Triassic subduction and thus belong to a part of the accretionary wedge of the Yangtze plate subduction. The discovery of extensive Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks in the Wulian area suggests that the suture location between the North China and the Yangtze plates lies north of the Wulian complex.

  14. Processing of Lead Zirconate Titanate-graphite 3-3 Piezocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Praveenkumar


    Full Text Available The lead zirconate titanate (PZT-graphite piezocomposites have potential for higherpiezoelectric sensitivity, lower acoustic impedance, higher piezoelectric voltage constants, higherelectromechanical coupling coefficient, and higher hydrostatic coefficients as compared to densePZT materials. In addition, the properties of piezocomposites can be tailored for various weightpercentage of graphite powder. To study the phenomena, PZT-graphite 3-3 composites wereprepared by mixing calcined PZT and commercially available graphite powder. The mixed powderwas compacted, sintered, and poled by corona poling technique. Scanning electron microstructureswere recorded to study the effect of graphite on processing of 3-3 piezocomposites. The polarisingbehaviour, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of PZT-graphite composites were studied.

  15. U/Pb zircon geochronology and tempo of the end-permian mass extinction (United States)

    Bowring; Erwin; Jin M W Martin YG; Davidek; Wang


    The mass extinction at the end of the Permian was the most profound in the history of life. Fundamental to understanding its cause is determining the tempo and duration of the extinction. Uranium/lead zircon data from Late Permian and Early Triassic rocks from south China place the Permian-Triassic boundary at 251.4 +/- 0.3 million years ago. Biostratigraphic controls from strata intercalated with ash beds below the boundary indicate that the Changhsingian pulse of the end-Permian extinction, corresponding to the disappearance of about 85 percent of marine species, lasted less than 1 million years. At Meishan, a negative excursion in delta13C at the boundary had a duration of 165,000 years or less, suggesting a catastrophic addition of light carbon.

  16. Occupational exposure to natural radioactivity in a zircon sand milling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Luisa [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail:; Zarza, Isidoro [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail:; Ortiz, Josefina [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail:; Serradell, Vicente [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail:


    Raw zirconium sand is one of the substances (naturally occurring radioactive material, NORM) which is widely used in the ceramic industry. This sand contains varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: mostly U-238 but also Th-232 and U-235, together with their daughters, and therefore may need to be regulated by Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This paper describes the method used to perform the radiological study on a zircon sand milling plant and presents the results obtained. Internal and external doses were evaluated using radioactivity readings from sand, airborne dust, intermediate materials and end products. The results on total effective dose show the need for this type of industry to be carefully controlled, since values near to 1 mSv were obtained.

  17. Mechanical behavior, properties and reliability of tin-modified lead zirconate titanate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Chad Samuel


    The influences of temperature and processing conditions (unpoled or poled-depoled) on strength, fracture toughness and the stress-strain behavior of tin-modified lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) were evaluated in four-point bending. PSZT exhibits temperature-dependent non-linear and non-symmetric stress-strain behavior. A consequence of temperature dependent non-linearity is an apparent reduction in the flexural strength of PSZT as temperature increases. At room temperature the average stress in the outer-fiber of bend bars was 84 MPa, whereas, for specimens tested at 120 C the average failure stress was only 64 MPa. The load-carrying capacity, however, does not change with temperature, but the degree of deformation tolerated by PSZT prior to failure increased with temperature.

  18. Oxygen isotopic compositions of zircons from pyroxenite of Daoshichong, Dabieshan: Implications for crust-mantle interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Oxygen isotopic compositions of zircons from pyroxenite (~145 Ma) of Daoshichong, Dabieshan have been measured by an ion microprobe. Both within the single grain and among different grains, oxygen isotopic ratios are homogeneous, δ 18O = (7.66‰±0.46)‰ (1 SD, 1 σ = 0.10, n = 22). High δ 18O values indicate that the mantle-derived parent magma of Daoshichong pyroxenite have undergone interaction with crustal materials. Combing with other geochemical constraints, the way of crust-mantle interaction is suggested to be source mixing other than crustal contamination. The time interval between crust-mantle interaction and formation of the parent magma of Daoshichong pyroxenite is less than several million years. The crustal component involving in crust-mantle interaction is mafic lower crust, and the parent magma of pyroxenite possibly contain large proportion (>37%) of such lower crust.

  19. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of the youngest exposed pluton in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Analysis using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) shows that the Yongsheng pluton, located to the south of Huadian County, Jilin Province, in the North China Craton, has a zircon U-Pb isotopic emplacement age of (31.6±13) Ma. It is therefore the youngest exposed pluton so far recognized in eastern China. Although geochemical data indicate intensive crystal fractionation, the Sr-Nd isotopic features suggest that the magmatic source region of the lithospheric mantle was weakly depleted. This implies that the previous enriched lithospheric mantle had been replaced by juvenile asthenospheric mantle before or during the Palaeogene. This recognition has great significance for future work on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geological evolution and deep geological processes in eastern China.

  20. Fabrication of Lead Zirconate Titanate Powder Using Ultrasonic Ball Milling Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this research, the ultrasonic ball milling technique has been used to fabricate lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics.PZT with the composition nearly the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB): Pb(Zr0.52 Ti0.48 )O3 was studied. The effect of milling time on phase formation of sample powder was examined by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). Moreover, the physical, dielectric, piezoelectric properties and microstructure of PZT ceramics were investigated. The present results reveal that the ultrasonic ball milling technique results the homogeneous and small size of PZT powder. Furthermore, there is a significantly change occurs in the size of the particles with the short time of milling process.

  1. Accessing probable thermal histories through dispersed, partially-reset zircon (U-Th)/He ages (United States)

    Powell, Jeremy; Schneider, David


    We have applied the ZRDAAM model (Guenthner et al., 2013; Am. J. Sci. 313) to assess the thermal evolution of the Neoproterozoic stratigraphy of the Mackenzie Mountain fold-thrust belt (NWT, Canada), which witnessed protracted (100's m.y.) cooling through the uppermost crust. Single crystal ZHe dates from rocks in the cores of anticlines span 432 ± 35 Ma to 46 ± 4 Ma, with intrasample ZHe date dispersion as great as 350 m.y., indicating that the strata have not been heated sufficiently to fully reset the zircon (U-Th)/He system. The modeling has its most utility in samples where self-irradiation of zircon has occurred over long geologic timescales without significant annealing of damaged zones. Partially- to fully-reset detrital datasets can contain a tremendous amount of T-t information, due to the wide range in grain size, eU, and potential for variable pre-depositional histories and inherited radiation damage in the zircon population. These variables result in a broad spectrum of closure temperatures within a single sample, and in tectonic settings where strata are never buried to sufficiently high temperatures can potentially record more than the most recent thermal event. Additionally, modeling of these datasets has added value in strata where apatite is absent or too small for (U-Th)/He analysis, as highly damaged zircon can record similar parts of the cooling history as the apatite He system. However, several factors complicate interpretation of these datasets including the influences of pre-depositional history (e.g. inherited 4He and radiation damage, on ZHe dates and date-eU relationships). As a result of these variables, sampling from the same stratigraphic succession can yield substantially different ZHe date populations, despite having experienced the same T-t history, should the strata have different grain sizes or provenance. For these reasons, we believe that detailed thermal modeling is required to understand the probable geologic history

  2. Zircon age and heavy mineral constraints on provenance of North Sea Carboniferous sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, A.C. [HM Research Associates, Woodhouse Eaves (United Kingdom); University of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology and Petroleum Geology; Hallsworth, C.R. [HM Research Associates, Woodhouse Eaves (United Kingdom); Claoue-Long, J.C. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra (Australia)


    The understanding of sediment provenance and sediment transport routes is a key element in establishing reservoir presence in clastic petroleum systems. Determination of sediment provenance is particularly difficult in structurally complex areas and in sequences that have undergone extensive burial diagenesis. This paper describes a method that overcomes these problems, by combining quantitative heavy mineral analysis with detrital zircon age dating. Quantitative heavy mineral analysis identifies differences in sediment provenance within the sample set, and zircon age data provide diagnostic criteria for the identification of the various source terrains. The high degree of resolution shown by this approach is demonstrated using the North Sea Carboniferous as an example. The Carboniferous of the North Sea has suffered extensive diagenetic modification during its complex burial history, is difficult to image with seismic data, and in some areas, notably the central and northern North Sea, preservation is patchy. The understanding of Carboniferous sand provenance is therefore rudimentary. The Tayport and Firth Coal formations (latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous) of the Outer Moray Firth (central North Sea) were derived from a source area to the north of the British Isles, with sediment transported along the proto-Viking Graben. Some local input is recognised in the Firth Coal Formation. The Westoe Coal Formation (Westphalian B) in the southern North Sea was derived from the southeast, probably from the Saxo-Thuringian Zone of the central European Variscides. The Lower Ketch Member (Westphalian C) in the southern North Sea has a northern provenance, with abundant chrome spinel suggesting derivation from ophiolitic material on the Rinkoebing-Fyn High. (author)

  3. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of Pedras Grandes Suite, southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa R. Jelinek


    Full Text Available Two major magmatic pulses of the granitic Florianópolis Batholith in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, occurred between 613±5Ma and 595±5 Ma, during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle. These ages were obtained by U-Pb isotopic determinations with the sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe on igneous zircons from Pedras Grandes Suite in Santa Catarina State. Euhedral zircons remained unaltered close to a fluorite vein deposited at 180?C or more. These ages suggest a northern limit for the Pedras Grandes Suite, explaining the spatial relationship between the fluorite veins and the source rock.Dois dos principais pulsos da atividade granítica no Batólito Florianópolis em Santa Catarina ocorreram entre 613 ±5 Ma e 595 ±5 Ma, durante o Neoproterozóico do Ciclo Brasiliano. Estas idades foram obtidas a partir dedeterminações isotópicas U-Pb em cristais de zircão da Suite Pedras Grandes por "Sensitive high-resolution íon microprobe" - SHRIMP II. Os cristais de zircão permaneceram inalterados mesmo mediante condições hidrotermais com temperaturas iguais e, até mesmo, superiores a 180ºC. Estas idades sugerem a delimitação norte do Maciço Pedras Grandes, explicando a relação espacial existente entre os filões de fluorita e a rocha fonte destas mineralizações.

  4. Zircon U-Pb age, Lu-Hf isotope, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of Sundamalai peralkaline pluton from the Salem Block, southern India: Implications for Cryogenian adakite-like magmatism in an aborted-rift (United States)

    Renjith, M. L.; Santosh, M.; Li, Tang; Satyanarayanan, M.; Korakoppa, M. M.; Tsunogae, T.; Subba Rao, D. V.; Kesav Krishna, A.; Nirmal Charan, S.


    The Sundamalai peralkaline pluton is one among the Cryogenian alkaline plutons occurring in the Dharmapuri Rift Zone (DRZ) of the Salem Block in the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) of India. Here we present zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotopic composition, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the pluton to explore the petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. Systematic modal variation of orthoclase, Na-plagioclase, Ca-amphibole (ferro-edenite and hastingsite) and quartz developed quartz-monzonite and granite litho units in the Sundamalai pluton. Thermometry based on amphibole-plagioclase pair suggests that the pluton was emplaced and solidified at around 4.6 kbar pressure with crystallization of the major phases between 748 and 661 °C. Estimated saturation temperature of zircon (712-698 °C) is also well within this range. However, apatite saturation occurred at higher temperatures between 835 and 870 °C, in contrast with monazite saturation (718-613 °C) that continued up to the late stage of crystallization. Estimated oxygen fugacity values (log fO2: -14 to -17) indicate high oxidation state for the magma that stabilized titanite and magnetite. The magmatic zircons from Sundamalai pluton yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 832.6 ± 3.2 Ma. Geochemically, the Sundamalai rocks are high-K to shoshonitic, persodic (Na2O/K2O ratio > 1), silica-saturated (SiO2:65-72 wt.%), and peralkaline in composition (aluminum saturation index, ASI effect) controlled differentiation between quartz-monzonite and granite. Both rock types have high content of Na2O (5.1-6.3 wt.%), Ba (350-2589 ppm) and Sr (264-1036 ppm); low content of Y (8.7-17 ppm) and Yb (0.96-1.69 ppm); elevated ratios of La/Yb (11-46) and Sr/Y (46-69) and are depleted in Ti, with a positive Sr anomaly suggesting an adakite-like composition and garnet controlled melting of a plagioclase-poor source. The low content of MgO (aborted rifting along the DRZ generating the magma that crystallized the Sundamalai

  5. U-Pb zircon dating, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of mafic intrusive rocks in the Motuo, SE Tibet constrain on their petrogenesis and tectonic implication (United States)

    Pan, Fa-Bin; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Xu, Wang-Chun; Guo, Liang; Luo, Bi-Ji; Wang, Shuai


    Mafic intrusive rocks are widely exposed in the Motuo tectono-magmatic belt, southeast Lhasa terrane. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating shows that they have magma crystallization ages of 69 and ca. 50 Ma. These mafic intrusive rocks are characterized by variable SiO2 (44.60-57.60 wt.%), high Al2O3 (17.19-20.86 wt.%), and low MgO (1.85-5.38 wt.%) with Mg# of 31-55. Their chemical composition is comparable with low-MgO high-Al basalts to basaltic andesites. They are enriched in LILEs (Rb, Ba, K) and LREE and depleted in HFSEs (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti), with weakly evolved Sr-Nd-Hf compositions (whole-rock (87Sr/86Sr)0 = 0.7064 to 0.7086, εNd(t) = - 3.41 to + 1.22, and zircon εHf(t) = - 3.8 to + 6.4). The mafic rocks were derived from partial melting of metasomatized lithospheric mantle. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data show that they were insignificantly modified during magma emplacement. We provide a different secular evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the eastern part relative to the central part of the southern Lhasa terrane. Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the Motuo Late Cretaceous-Eocene mafic rocks argues that they were derived from partial melting of a relatively homogeneous and depleted lithospheric mantle. We propose that the Late Cretaceous delamination resulted in the replacement of ancient lithospheric mantle by the juvenile homogeneous lithospheric mantle in the eastern Lhasa terrane. The foundered ancient materials may subsequently re-fertilize the lithospheric mantle not only in the eastern Lhasa terrane but also in the surrounding areas.

  6. Sequence of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatic-hydrothermal events in the Xiong'ershan region, Central China: An overview with new zircon U-Pb geochronology data on quartz porphyries (United States)

    Deng, Jun; Gong, Qingjie; Wang, Changming; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Santosh, M.


    Recent investigations have revealed several large Au and Mo deposits in the Xiong'ershan region, Central China. Most quartz porphyries associated with the mineralization occur as dikes and apophyses, or as rubbles cemented in mineralized breccia pipes. Three types of quartz porphyries were sampled from the Leimengou Mo deposit, the Qiyugou Au deposit, and the Niutougou Au deposit. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb analysis was performed in zircons from two quartz porphyries; the results yielded ages of 125.4 ± 0.77 Ma for Leimengou Mo deposit and 150.1 ± 1.1 Ma for Qiyugou Au deposit. The magma source of Leimengou quartz porphyry is similar to that of the mineralized cementing material in breccia pipes of the Qiyugou Au deposit, whereas the magma source of Qiyugou quartz porphyry is the same as that of quartz porphyries in Niutougou Au deposit. Based on the new U-Pb isotopic ages of granitic plutons reported in this study, together with the age data in the literature, we identify distinct magmatic pulses in the Xiong'ershan region at ca.160, 150, 143, 133, 125, and 115 Ma during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The ages of Au and Mo mineralization coincide with the thermal events at about 115, 125, 133, and 143 Ma are considered to be co-eval with granitic magmatism. No mineralization ages of 150 and 160 Ma thermal events have been previously reported. Our study demonstrates Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous multiple magmatic pulses and mineralization in the Xiong'ershan region.

  7. Paleoproterozoic basement beneath the southern Jiangxi Province: Evidence from U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopes in zircons from the Doushui Iamprophyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU JinHai; WANG LiJuan; O'REILLY S Y; SHU LiangShu; UN Tao


    This paper presents geochemical analyses of a lamprophyre intruding the Caledonian Doushui granite body in Shangyou County, southern Jiangxi Province. U-Pb dating and Hf-isotope analyses are especially carried out for zircons from it. Petrological and geochemical features show that the lamprophyre belongs to a high-K, weakly alkaline pyroxene-biotite iamprophyre. It is characterized by high Mg# (0.74),Ni (253 μg/g) and Cr (893 μg/g) contents, and also enriched in incompatible elements, such as REE, Rb, Sr, Ba and K. It is suggested that its primitive melt probably derived from enriched mantle metasomatized by non-crust-derived agent. Morphology and LAM-ICPMS dating results of zircons in the lam prophyre indicate that they are xenocrysts captured from deep crustal rocks. Most xenocrystic zircons formed at -1.86 Ga, and a few in different Phanerozoic periods. The Paleoproterozoic zircons are of magmatic origin and have similar 176Hf/177Hf and 176Lu/177Hf ratios, indicating that they probably are from the same igneous basement rock. The ages and Hf-isotope compositions of zircons from this basement rock are similar to those of Paleoproterozoic Danzhu granite in the southern Zhejiang Province, but extremely distinguished from the Nanling basement, suggesting that the study area probably is a westward extension part of Paleoproterozoic Wuyishan terrane in the eastern Cathaysia Block. These Paleoproterozoic zircons have low Hf-isotope compositions, characteristic of crustal source. Hf model ages of these zircons and the presence of older inherited cores within them, coupled with available other data reported by previous studies, suggest that the source of Paleoproterozoic magma is Neoarchaean crust, implying the existence of older basement in the Wuyishan terrane. U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of five Phanerozoic zircons indicate that Paleoproterozoic basement underwent multi-reworking occurring in Caledonian, Indosinian and early Yanshanian, respectively. The Caledonian

  8. Zircon record of fractionation, hydrous partial melting and thermal gradients at different depths in oceanic crust (ODP Site 735B, South-West Indian Ocean) (United States)

    Pietranik, A.; Storey, C.; Koepke, J.; Lasalle, S.


    Felsic veins (plagiogranites) are distributed throughout the whole oceanic crust section and offer insight into late-magmatic/high temperature hydrothermal processes within the oceanic crust. Despite constituting only 0.5% of the oceanic crust section drilled in IODP Site 735B, they carry a significant budget of incompatible elements, which they redistribute within the crust. Such melts are saturated in accessory minerals, such as zircon, titanite and apatite, and often zircon is the only remaining phase that preserves magmatic composition and records processes of felsic melt formation and evolution. In this study, we analysed zircon from four depths in IODP Site 735B; they come from the oxide gabbro (depth approximately 250 m below sea floor) and plagiogranite (depths c. 500, 860, 940 m below sea floor). All zircons have similar ɛHf composition of c. 15 units indicating an isotopically homogenous source for the mafic magmas forming IODP Site 735B gabbro. Zircons from oxide gabbro are scarce and variable in composition consistent with their crystallization from melts formed by both fractionation of mafic magmas and hydrous remelting of gabbro cumulate. On the other hand, zircon from plagiogranite is abundant and each sample is characterized by compositional trends consistent with crystallization of zircon in an evolving melt. However, the trends are different between the plagiogranite at 500 m bsf and the deeper sections, which are interpreted as the record of plagiogranite formation by two processes: remelting of gabbro cumulate at 500 m bsf and fractionation at deeper sections. Zircon from both oxide gabbro and plagiogranite has δ18O from 3.5 to 6.0‰. Values of δ18O are best explained by redistribution of δ18O in a thermal gradient and not by remelting of hydrothermally altered crust. Tentatively, it is suggested that fractionation could be an older episode contemporaneous with gabbro crystallization and remelting could be a younger one, triggered by

  9. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Chihuahua-Sinaloa border region in northern Mexico: Insights from zircon-apatite U-Pb geochronology, zircon Hf isotope composition and geochemistry of granodiorite intrusions (United States)

    Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Goodell, Philip C.; Feinstein, Michael Nicholas


    We present the whole-rock geochemistry, LA-ICP-MS zircon-apatite U-Pb ages and zircon Hf isotope composition of the granodioritic plutons at the southwestern boundary of Chihuahua with the states of Sinaloa and Sonora. These granodiorites are exposed in the north and south of the Rio El Fuerte in southwest Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. The magmatism spans over a time period of 37 Ma from 90 to 53 Ma. Zircons are exclusively magmatic with strong oscillatory zoning. No inheritance of any age has been observed. Our new U-Pb dating ( 250 analyses) does not support the involvement of older basement lithologies in the generation of the granitic magmas. The U-Pb apatite ages from granodiorites in southwest Chihuahua vary from 52 to 70 Ma. These apatite ages are 1 to 20 Ma younger than the corresponding zircon U-Pb crystallization ages, suggesting variable cooling rates from very fast to 15 °C/Ma ( 800 °C to 500 °C) and shallow to moderate emplacement depths. In contrast, U-Pb apatite ages from the Sinaloa batholith are restricted from 64 to 61 Ma and are indistinguishable from the zircon U-Pb ages range from 67 to 60 Ma within the error, indicating rapid cooling and very shallow emplacement. However, one sample from El Realito showed a larger difference of 20 Ma in zircon-apatite age pair: zircon 80 ± 0.8 Ma and apatite 60.6 ± 4 Ma, suggesting a slower cooling rate of 15 °C/Ma. The weighted mean initial εHf (t) isotope composition (2σ) of granodiorites varies from + 1.8 to + 5.2. The radiogenic Hf isotope composition coupled with previous Sr-Nd isotope data demonstrates a significant shift from multiple crustal sources in the Sonoran batholithic belt to the predominant contribution of the mantle-derived magmas in the southwest Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. Based on U-Pb ages, the absence of inheritance, typical high Th/U ratio and radiogenic Hf isotope composition, we suggest that the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatic rocks in this region are not derived from

  10. Uplift of Northwest Margin of Tibetan Plateau: Indicated by Zircon LA ICP-MS U-Pb Dating of Conglomerate from Mazartagh, Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si Jialiang; Li Haibing; Pei Junling; Pan Jiawei


    Radiometric age dating of detrital zircons is highly advantageous for analysis of the depositional environment and to identify source areas. Aiming at the uplift and denudation of the surrounding ranges, LA ICP-MS U-Pb analysis has been performed on zircon grains from a conglomerate collected at the Lower Pilocene of Mazartagh, which is in the center of the Tarim basin, Xinjinng (新疆), China. A wide range of ages mainly failing into three groups was yielded: 200-500, 800-1 100, and 1 800-2 000 Ma. Zircon features principally indicate magmatic origin. According to the comparison between the analyzed zircons with those from surrounding orogenic belts, the younger grains are mainly related to the west while the older ones are to the regions more eastward. The variations might imply the W-E propagation tectonic activation and uplift of the surrounding orogenic belts. The west segment uplifted and was denuded firstly, driven by the approximate W-E height difference, upon the denudation, transportation and deposition, acting as the source of young zircons analyzed. With the eastward spreading of tectonic movement, the segment more to the east rose, the meridional relief in creased rapidly and began to control the flow direction, then more zircons joined in the Pliocene in Mazartagh. It is difficult to definitely explain the source of grains with similar values to that from the Altyn Mountain region, more detailed data and chronological ages with higher precision will be helpful for making more credible conclusion.

  11. Pb-Pb zircon ages of the Porto Nacional high-grade metamorphic terrain, northern portion of the Goias Massif, central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorayeb, Paulo Sergio de Sousa; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias]. E-mail:;; Barros, Gisele Ribeiro de [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica (PIBIC)]. E-mail:


    Single zircon Pb-evaporation ages were determined for a mafic granulite, two enderbites and a kinzigite of the Porto Nacional High-Grade Metamorphic Terrain (PNHGT) in the Goias massif. Zircons from mafic granulites and one of the enderbites of yielded average {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb ages of 2125{+-}3 Ma and 2153{+-}1 Ma, respectively, being interpreted as minimum ages of the igneous protoliths. The other enderbite, whose zircons presented round terminations, yielded an average {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb age of 2097 {+-} 2 Ma. Zircons from the kinzigite, displaying cores and rims overgrowth, presented {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb ages ranging between 2027 and 2115 Ma. However, a very homogeneous zircon crystal without overgrowth yielded age of 2100 {+-} 2 Ma, with a distinctive low Th/U value (0.02). This zircon is interpreted as a metamorphic crystal and its age probably sets the age of the granulite facies metamorphism, indicating that the PNHGT is a result of the Transamazonian thermotectonic event. (author)

  12. Zircon SHRIMP dating of sodium alkaline rocks from Maomaogou area of Huili County in Panxi,SW China and its geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongying; XIA Bin; ZHANG Yuquan


    Alkali-feldspar syenites from the Maomaogou area of Huili County in Panxi of Sichuan Province, SW China are sodium alkaline rocks, the minerals of which are mainly composed of calcic ferroaugite, ferroamphibole and biotite. Most of the zircons (>80%) selected for SHRIMP U-Pb dating are magmatic compound zircons and they have relict inner cores and growing outer shells. The age of zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating is 224±8 Ma, suggesting that the Maomaogou alkali-feldspar syenite was formed in the late Triassic period. At the same time, two old age periods of relict cores of zircon are determined, they are the Archean age (2692-2818 Ma) and Neoproterozoic age (622-691 Ma),respectively. These periods indicate that the cores derived from the crystal basement. Furthermore, the Archean age of zircon provides the first reliable SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating evidence of >2.8 Ga basement in the Xikang-Yunnan Axis of southwest China.

  13. Zircon U-Pb dating of Maherabad porphyry copper-gold prospect area: evidence for a late Eocene porphyry-related metallogenic epoch in east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Malekzadeh Shafaroudi


    Full Text Available Eastern Iran has great potential for porphyry copper deposits, as a result of its past subduction zone tectonic setting that lead to extensive alkaline to calc-alkaline magmatic activity in Tertiary time. Maherabad is the first porphyry Cu-Au prospecting area which is discovered in eastern Iran. This is related to a succession o f monzonitic to dioritic porphyries stocks that were emplaced within volcanic rocks. Monzonitic porphyries have basic role in mineralization. Hydrothermal alteration zones are well developed including potassic, sericitic-potassic, quartz-sericite-carbonate-pyrite, quartz-carbonate-pyrite, silicified-propylitic, propylitic, carbonate and silicified zones. Mineralization occurs as Disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. Based on early stage of exploration, Cu is between 179- 6830 ppm (ave. 3200 ppm and Au is up to 1000 ppb (ave. 570 ppb. This prospect is gold- rich porphyry copper deposit. Laser-ablation U-Pb dating of two samples from ore-related intrusive rocks indicate that these two monzonitic porphyries crystallized at 39.0 ± 0.8 Ma to 38.2 ± 0.8 Ma, within a short time span of less than ca. 1 Ma during the middle Eocene. This provides the first precise ages for metallogenic episode of porphyry-type mineralization. Also, the initial 87Sr/86Sr and (143Nd/144Ndi was recalculated to an age of 39 Ma. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios for monzonitic rocks are 0.7047-0.7048. The (143Nd/144Ndi isotope composition are 0.512694-0.512713. Initial ε Nd isotope values 1.45-1.81. Based on isotopic data the magma had originated beyond the continental crust. The study will be used for tectonic-magmatic setting and evolution of eastern Iran. Keywords: Lut block, Middle Eocene, Zircon, Geochronology, Laser ablation ICP-MS,

  14. Large-scale displacement along the Altyn Tagh Fault (North Tibet) since its Eocene initiation: Insight from detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and subsurface data (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Jolivet, Marc; Fu, Suotang; Zhang, Changhao; Zhang, Qiquan; Guo, Zhaojie


    Marking the northern boundary of the Tibetan plateau, the Altyn Tagh fault plays a crucial role in accommodating the Cenozoic crustal deformation affecting the plateau. However, its initiation time and amount of offset are still controversial despite being key information for the understanding of Tibet evolution. In this study, we present 1122 single LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon U-Pb ages obtained from 11 Mesozoic to Cenozoic sandstone samples, collected along two sections in the northwestern Qaidam basin (Eboliang and Huatugou). These data are combined with new 3D seismic reflection profiles to demonstrate that: (1) from the Paleocene to early Eocene, the Eboliang section was approximately located near the present position of Anxi, 360 ± 40 km southwest from its current location along the Altyn Tagh fault, and sediments were mainly derived from the Altyn Tagh Range. At the same period, the Huatugou section was approximately located near the present position of Tula, ca. 360 km southwest from its current location along the Altyn Tagh fault, and the Eastern Kunlun Range represented a significant sediment source. (2) Left-lateral strike-slip movement along the Altyn Tagh fault initiated during the early-middle Eocene, resulting in northeastward displacement of the two sections. (3) By early Miocene, the intensive deformation within the Altyn Tagh Range and northwestern Qaidam basin strongly modified the drainage system, preventing the materials derived from the Altyn Tagh Range to reach the Eboliang and the Huatugou sections. The post-Oligocene clastic material in the western Qaidam basin is generally derived from local sources and recycling of the deformed Paleocene to Oligocene strata. From these data, we suggest enhanced tectonic activity within the Altyn Tagh Range and northwestern Qaidam basin since Miocene time, and propose an early-middle Eocene initiation of left-lateral strike-slip faulting leading to a 360 ± 40 km offset along the Altyn Tagh fault.

  15. U-Pb dating by zircon dissolution method using chemical abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Takehara


    Full Text Available Chemical abrasion was carried out on zircons grains of the Temora II standard for U-Pb dating prior to analyses using in situ Laser Ablation-MultiCollector Ion Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS followed by the Isotope Dissolution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ID-TIMS method. The proposed methodology was herein applied in order to reduce primarily the effects of secondary Pb loss, the presence of common lead and/or silicate impurities. Nine Temora II zircon grains were analyzed by the laser ablation method yielding an age of 418.3±4.3 Ma. Zircon grains of a same population were separated for chemical abrasion before dissolution and mass spectrometry analyses. Six fractions of them were separated for isotope dissolution using 235U-205Pb mixed spike after we have checked and assured the laboratory conditions of low blank values for total Pb of less than 2 pg/g. The obtained U-Pb zircon age by the ID-TIMS method was 415.7±1.8 Ma (error 0.43 % based on four successful determinations. The results are consistent with the published ages for the Temora diorite (Temora I – 416.75±1.3 Ma; Temora II – 416.78±0.33 Ma and established as 416±0.33 Ma. The technique is thus recommended for high precision U-Pb zircon analyses (error Este trabalho apresenta a técnica de abrasão química em zircões do padrão Temora II aplicada em datação de U-Pb por Dissolução Isotópica e Espectrometria de Massa por Ionização Térmica, método DI-ESIT. O emprego deste método tem como princípio diminuir os efeitos da perda secundária de Pb radiogênico antes da dissolução. Em primeira instância, os zircões foram analisados pelo método in situ com uso de Microssonda Laser acoplada a um Espectrômetro de Massa Multicoletor com Plasma Acoplado Indutivamente (MC-ICP-MS, cujo objetivo foi identificar os grãos de zircão de fase de cristalização simples sem sobrecrescimento. Nove cristais de zircão analisados com microssonda a

  16. Accessing the nuclear symmetry energy in Ca+Ca collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chbihi A.


    Full Text Available The status of the analysis of the INDRA-VAMOS experiement performed at GANIL, using the reactions 40,48Ca+40,48Ca reactions at 35AMeV, are presented. Isotopic distributions of fragments produced in multifragmentation events provide information on the importance of the surface term contribution in the symmetry energy by comparison to AMD predictions.

  17. U-Pb zircon age data for selected sedimentary, metasedimentary, and igneous rocks from northern and central Alaska (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.


    This publication contains the complete results of U-Pb zircon age dating studies of sedimentary and metasedimentary units from northern and central Alaska that are discussed and interpreted in other reports by the author. Most of the U-Pb ages are of detrital zircons from sandstones, although U-Pb ages from igneous and sedimentary clasts from conglomerates in some of those same units are also included. In addition to the data presented in the interpretive reports, this publication includes data that were excluded due to discordance, analytical problems, and publication space limitations. The U-Pb age data are reported in Excel-file format so that they can be easily downloaded and referenced or reinterpreted by future workers.

  18. SHRIMP U-Pb in zircon geochronology of granitoids from Myanmar: temporal constraints on the tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia (United States)

    Barley, M. E.; Zaw, Khin


    The Mesozoic to Tertiary tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia is the result of the convergence and collision of fragments of Gondwanaland with Eurasia culminating in the collision of India. A rapidly growing geochronological database is placing tight constraints on the timing and duration of magmatic episodes, metallogenic and tectonic events in the Himalayas, Tibet and eastern Indochina. However, there is little comparable geochronology for Myanmar. This SHRIMP U-Pb in zircon geochronology focuses on granitoids from the Mogok Metamorphic Belt (MMB, a belt of high grade metamorphic rocks at the edge of the Shan-Thai Terrane), the Myeik Archipelago (Shan-Thai Terrane) and the west Myanmar Terrane. Strongly deformed granitic orthogneisses in the MMB near Mandalay contain Jurassic (~170 Ma) zircons that have partly recrystallised during ~43 Ma high-grade metamorphism. A hornblende syenite from Mandalay also contains Jurassic zircons with evidence of Eocene metamorphism rimmed by thin zones of 30.9 ±0.7 Ma magmatic zircon. The relative abundance of Jurassic zircons in these rocks is consistent with suggestions that southern Eurasia had an Andean-type margin at that time. Mid-Cretaceous to earliest Eocene (120 to 50 Ma). I-type granitoids in the MMB, Myeik Archipelago and west Myanmar confirm that prior to the collision of India, an up to 200km wide magmatic belt extended along the Eurasian margin. The primitive I-type Khanza Chaung granodiorite in the Wuntho batholith in the west Myanmar terrane hosts porphyry-style mineralisation and has a magmatic age of 94  1 Ma. Triassic (~240 Ma), Jurassic (~170 Ma) and Early Cretaceous xenocryst zircons in this granitoid correspond with peaks of granitoid magmatism in the Shan-Thai terrane and establish that west Myanmar was part of the margin of Eurasia during the Mesozoic. A suite of highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous I-type granitoids with associated Sn-W-Ta mineralisation emplaced in the Myeik Archipelago of

  19. Synthesis and characterization of mixture of nanozirconia and nanosilica obtained from commercially available zircon flour by sol–gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A J K Prasad; S M Shashidhara; B K Muralidhara


    In this paper we present the results of our patented (application filed in India) process for synthesizing a mixture of nanozirconia and nanosilica, obtained by the sol–gel method from commercially available zircon flour and hydrofluoric acid at low temperatures (∼ 100°C). Within the scope of this study, 99.2% dissolution of zircon was obtained by using 40% HF for a solid–liquid (S/L) ratio of 0.05 for a digestion period of 120 h. The nanoparticles, characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM techniques, were found to be largely spherical in shape and the average size of the particles was found to be less than 5 nm. Within the product, zirconiarich and silica-rich regions were found to exist.

  20. Timing of the granulite facies metamorphism in the Sanggan area, North China craton: zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Zircon U-Pb ages are reported for three samples of intrusive rocks in Khondalite series in the Sanggan area, North China craton. The age of meta-granite is dated as 2005±9 Ma, implying that the sedimentary sequences in Khondalites series formed before 2.0Ga. The age of 1921 ±1Ma for the meta-diorite constrain the age of granulite facies metamorphism younger than this date. The age of 1892±10 Ma for garnet granite is obtained, but the granite crystallization age seems a little younger than the date considering the morphology of zircons. On the basis of these dates and of a concise review of previous age data, it is inferred that the Khondalite series was subjected to granulite facies metamorphism at about 1.87Ga together with tonalitic granulites and HP basic granulites in the Sanggan area.

  1. Early Paleozoic ridge subduction in the Chinese Altai: Insight from the abrupt change in zircon Hf isotopic compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Zircons were separated from granitoids, gneisses, and sedimentary rocks of the Chinese Altai. Those with igneous characteristics yielded U-Pb ages of 280-2800 Ma, recording a long history of magmatic activity in the region. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions show an abrupt change at ~420 Ma, indicating that prior to that time the magmas came from both ancient and juvenile sources, whereas younger magmas were derived mainly from juvenile material. This may imply that the lithosphere was signifi- cantly modified in composition by a rapid addition of melt from the mantle. We suggest that this dramatic change was due to the onset of ridge subduction, which can account not only for the formation of voluminous granitoids, mafic rocks with complex compositions, and the association of adakite + high-Mg andesite + boninite + Nb-enriched basalt, but also for the coeval high-T, low-P metamorphism.

  2. Early Paleozoic ridge subduction in the Chinese Altai:Insight from the abrupt change in zircon Hf isotopic compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Min; LONG XiaoPing; CAI KeDa; JIANG YingDe; WANG BuYun; YUAN Chao; ZHAO GuoChun; XIAO WenJiao; WU FuYuan


    Zircons were separated from granitoids,gneisses,and sedimentary rocks of the Chinese Altai.Those with igneous characteristics yielded U-Pb ages of 280-2800 Ma,recording a long history of magmatic activity in the region.Zircon Hf isotopic compositions show an abrupt change at ~420 Ma,indicating that prior to that time the magmas came from both ancient and juvenile sources,whereas younger magmas were derived mainly from juvenile material.This may imply that the lithosphere was significantly modified in composition by a rapid addition of melt from the mantle.We suggest that this dramatic change was due to the onset of ridge subduction,which can account not only for the formation of voluminous granitoids,mafic rocks with complex compositions,and the association of adakite + high-Mg andesite+boninite + Nb-enriched basalt,but also for the coeval high-T,Iow-P metamorphism.

  3. Palaeoproterozoic U Pb SHRIMP zircon age from basement rocks in Bangladesh: A possible remnant of the Columbia supercontinent (United States)

    Hossain, Ismail; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Rajesh, Hariharan M.; Chen, Bin; Arakawa, Yoji


    We present new U-Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronological data for basement rocks in Bangladesh, and discuss the relationship with the formation of the Columbia supercontinent. Euhedral zircons from a diorite sample yield a concordia age of 1730 ± 11 Ma, which is interpreted as the crystallization age. The Palaeoproterozoic age of the examined basement rock and the common occurrences of similar ˜1.7-Ga geologic units in the Central Indian Tectonic Zone and Meghalaya-Shillong Plateau in Indian Shield suggest their apparent continuation. This, together with the occurrence of similar ˜1.7-Ga geologic units in the Albany-Fraser belt in Australia and East Antarctica, are used to suggest that the basement rocks in Bangladesh formed towards the final stages of the assembly of the Columbia supercontinent.

  4. Influence of high-temperature annealing on the orientation of the unipolarity vector in lead zirconate titanate thin films (United States)

    Kanareikin, A. G.; Kaptelov, E. Yu.; Senkevich, S. V.; Pronin, I. P.; Sergienko, A. Yu.; Sergeeva, O. N.


    The factors responsible for the change in the orientation of the natural unipolarity vector due to heating to the Curie temperature of a Pt/PZT/Pt thin-film capacitor (PZT—lead zirconate titanate) formed on a TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate have been considered. Lead zirconate titanate thin layers containing a small excess of lead oxide have been formed ex situ using high-frequency magnetron sputtering with a variation in the annealing temperature (crystallization of the perovskite phase) in the range from 580 to 650°C. It has been assumed that the reorientation of the unipolarity vector in the PZT layer is caused by the change in the mechanism of crystallization of the perovskite phase with an increase in the annealing temperature.

  5. Fifty Shades of Grey: Zircon Perspectives on the Timing and Chemistry of Magma Interactions Reflected in the Bishop Tuff (United States)

    Chamberlain, K. J.; Wilson, C. J.; Wooden, J. L.; Baker, J. A.; Charlier, B. L.


    The ~0.76 Ma Bishop Tuff eruption in eastern California is an archetypal example of the products of a compositionally stratified magma chamber. Key issues regarding the melt-dominant magma body that have arisen from recent studies include the role of horizontal variability versus vertical stratification, and the nature and timing of a late-stage ingress of compositionally contrasting melt. The latter is reflected in, for example, CL-bright rims on quartz, and Sr- and Ba-rich rims on sanidines, both of which are reported in samples from ignimbrite erupted from vents along the northern caldera rim. Various studies have placed contrasting temporal constraints on assembly and evacuation of the Bishop Tuff magma body and the processes occurring within it from one or two mineral phases. Although the overall crystal specific record is more complex, it has the potential to distinguish between mixing, in-situ crystallisation and other magmatic processes, and resolve the associated timings of these events. Zircon has been widely utilised in the Bishop Tuff and other silicic systems because of its unique records of information about the ages and P-T-X environments of growth. Here we present SHRIMP-RG ion probe data from Bishop Tuff zircons, collected from samples spanning the full eruptive sequence. A combination of age data, textural analysis and trace element analysis is used to yield insights into magma chamber development and the pre-eruptive state of the melt-dominant magma body, as evidenced in material erupted from different vent areas around what became the Long Valley caldera. U-Pb dating of 307 spots from all zones in crystals from all samples yields a strongly unimodal age spectrum, with a mean age of 794+/-3 ka (10 spots rejected, MSWD = 2.0). CL images of the dated zircon suites show the appearance of bright-rimmed zircons in later-erupted ignimbrite packages (accompanied generally by bright-rimmed sanidine and quartz crystals), but with diversity in the

  6. Provenance and Detrital-Zircon Studies of the Mint Canyon Formation and its Correlation to the Caliente Formation, Southern California


    hoyt, johanna


    The Middle Miocene Mint Canyon and Caliente formations represent sedimentation after triple-junction extension in southern California. Sandstone and conglomerate petrology, combined with detrital-zircon analysis, determines provenance of the Mint Canyon and Caliente formations. These data indicate that most detritus is locally derived, rather than being derived from the Chocolate Mountains across the San Andreas fault. The Mint Canyon and Caliente formations received Proterozoic anorthosite-s...

  7. In situ simultaneous determination of trace elements,U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes in zircon and baddeleyite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE LieWen; ZHANG YanBin; ZHANG HuiHuang; SUN JingFeng; WU FuYuan


    This paper describes a combined method of simultaneously measuring U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes as well as trace elements in Phalaborwa baddeleyite and 91500, GJ-1, TEMORA-1 and SK10-2 zircons by means of Neptune MC-ICPMS and Agilent Q-ICPMS connected to a 193 nm excimer laser ablation system. Material ablated by laser was carried in different proportions into Q-ICPMS for U-Pb isotopic and trace elemental and MC-ICPMS for Lu-Hf isotopic compositions. Experiments indicate that different propor-tions of ablated material for the Q-ICPMS and MC-ICPMS (6∶4, 5∶5 and 4∶6 respectively) do not show any bias for the zircon/baddeleyite U-Pb age, Lu-Hf isotope and trace elemental compositions within ana-lytical errors. Using 40-60 μm spot size, the obtained U-Pb ages of Phalaborwa baddeleyite, 91500, GJ-1, TEMORA and SK10-2 zircons are 2065~15 (2σ, n=20), 1063±6 (2σ, n=19), 613±6 (2σ,=20), 416±5 (2σ, n=20) and 32.6±0.5 (2σ, n=20) Ma, respectively. The 176Hf/177Hf ratios are 0.281231±24 (2SD, n=20), 0.282310±35 (2SD, n=19), 0.282028±34 (2SD, n=20), 0.282687±34 (2SD, n=20) and 0.282752±53 (2SD, n=20), respectively. The obtained trace elemental compositions are identical to the reference values. Therefore, this kind of technique makes it possible to simultaneously obtain the U-Pb age, Lu-Hf iso-topes and trace elemental compositions of zircon and baddeleyite, which could be an important tool in solving problems in earth sciences.

  8. Monazite and zircon as major carriers of Th, U, and Y in peraluminous granites: examples from the Bohemian Massif (United States)

    Breiter, Karel


    The chemical compositions of zircon and monazite and the relationships between the contents of Th, U, Y, and REE in both minerals and in the bulk samples of their parental rocks were studied in three Variscan composite peraluminous granite plutons in the Bohemian Massif. It was established that granites of similar bulk composition contain zircon and monazite of significantly different chemistry. Monazite typically contains 5-13 wt% (rarely up to 28 wt%) ThO2, 0.4-2 wt% (up to 8.2 wt%) UO2, and 0.5-2 wt% (up to 5 wt%) Y2O3, whereas zircon typically contains less than 0.1 wt% (rarely up to 1.7 wt%) ThO2, less than 1 wt% UO2 (in the Plechý/Plockenstein granite, commonly, 1-2 wt% and scarcely up to 4.8 wt% UO2), and less than 1 wt% Y2O3 (in the Nejdek pluton often 2-5, maximally 7 wt% Y2O3). Monazite is an essential carrier of thorium, hosting more than 80 % of Th in all studied granites. Monazite also appears to be an important carrier of Y (typically 14-16 %, and in the Melechov pluton, up to 81 % of the total rock content) and U (typically 18-35 % and occasionally 6-60 % of the total rock budget). The importance of zircon for the rock budget of all the investigated elements in granites is lower: 4-26 % U, 5-17 % Y, and less than 5 % Th.

  9. Petrography and U-Pb zircon geochronology of Caledonian age orthogneisses dredged from the Chukchi Borderland, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Brumley, K.; Miller, E. L.; Mayer, L. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Dumitru, T. A.


    The Caledonian orogenic belt developed in the Ordovician to Devonian affecting northern Europe, Greenland and Arctic Canada. Caledonian deformational trends continue into the Arctic region disappearing at the rifted margin of the Arctic Ocean. Syn-orogenic magmatism in the Barents region date deformation of Grenvillian basement during the Caledonian event to be between about 450-410 Ma (Johansson et al., 2005; Gee et al., 2006; Gee and Tebenkov, 2004). Over 500 kilos of metamorphic rock was dredged from outcrops in the central Chukchi Borderland in 2009 (HLY0905) that included amphibolites and orthogneisses metamorphosed to amphibolite facies continuing to deform under greenschist conditions. Zircons were separated from two orthogneiss samples from this dredge, and single grain zircon U-Pb ages were determined by SHRIMP analysis be 428 Ma ± 3.4 for both samples (N=60). One sample had several zircon grains with distinct igneous cores that ranged in age from about 850-1000 Ma. Grenville age plutons (1000-910 Ma) that were later involved in Caledonian deformation and intruded by 450-410 Ma aged plutons are found on western and eastern Svalbard (Johansson et al., 2005), eastern Greenland, and the Pearya Terrane of northern Ellesmere Island (Trettin,1986, 1992). The Franklinian basement of Arctic Alaska and Canada do not share these Grenvillian ages (Trentin et al, 1987). This suggests that the inherited zircon cores in the Chukchi Borderland orthogneisses were derived, at least in part, from an older Grenvillian basement like that of Pearya, Svalbard and parts of Greenland and later intruded by Caledonian aged granites.

  10. Zircon U-Pb age of the Shacun gabbro body,Yuexi,Dabie orogen and its geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The single grain zircon U-Pb age of the Shacun mafic-ultramafic intrusion,Yuexi,North Dabie is (128.1±2.0) Ma.This date indicates that the intrusion was implaced at Yanshanian when most Mesozoic granitoids were intruded.It was not the syn-collisional intrusion related to the subduction of the Yangtze Block and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism at Indosinian.

  11. Zircon dating and mineralogy of the Mokong Pan-African magmatic epidote-bearing granite (North Cameroon) (United States)

    Tchameni, R.; Sun, F.; Dawaï, D.; Danra, G.; Tékoum, L.; Nomo Negue, E.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Nzolang, C.; Dagwaï, Nguihdama


    We present the mineralogy and age of the magmatic epidote-bearing granite composing most of the Mokong pluton, in the Central Africa orogenic belt (North Cameroon). This pluton intrudes Neoproterozoic (~830 to 700 Ma) low- to high-grade schists and gneisses (Poli-Maroua group), and is crosscut or interleaved with bodies of biotite granite of various sizes. The pluton is weakly deformed in its interior, but solid-state deformation increases toward its margins marked by narrow mylonitic bands trending NNE-SSW. The magmatic epidote granitic rocks are classified as quartz monzodiorite, granodiorite, monzogranite, and syenogranite. They are medium- to coarse-grained and composed of K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + amphibole + epidote + magnetite + titanite + zircon + apatite. In these granites, the pistacite component [atomic Fe+3/(Fe3+ + Al)] in epidote ranges from 16 to 29 %. High oxygen fugacity (log ƒO2 - 14 to -11) and the preservation of epidote suggest that the magma was oxidized. Al-in hornblende barometry and hornblende-plagioclase thermometry indicate hornblende crystallization between 0.53 and 0.78 GPa at a temperature ranging from 633 to 779 °C. Zircon saturation thermometry gives temperature estimates ranging from 504 to 916 °C, the latter being obtained on samples containing inherited zircons. U/Pb geochronology by LA-ICP-MS on zircon grains characterized by magmatic zoning yields a concordia age of 668 ± 11 Ma (2 σ). The Mokong granite is the only known occurrence magmatic epidote in Cameroon, and is an important milestone for the comparison of the Central Africa orogenic belt with the Brasiliano Fold Belt, where such granites are much more abundant.

  12. Protolith age of Santa Maria Chico granulites dated on zircons from an associated amphibolite-facies granodiorite in southernmost Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Leo A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Liu, Dunyi; Wang, Yenbin [Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing (China); Massonne, Hans-Joachim [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie und Kristallchemie; Santos, Joao O.S. [University of Western Australia, Perth, WA (Australia). Centre for Global Targeting


    U-Pb dating of zircon was undertaken with the Beijing SHRIMP II (sensitive high resolution ion microprobe) on an amphibolite facies granodiorite and an almandine-albite granulite from the Santa Maria Chico Granulitic Complex, southern Brazilian Shield. This work was also done to unravel protolith ages which are often hidden in the array of partly reset data. The obtained metamorphic ages of the granodiorite gneiss and the granulite are 2035 {+-} 9 Ma and 2006 {+-} 3 Ma, respectively. These data are within the range of metamorphic ages determined in previous studies (2022 {+-} 18 Ma and 2031 {+-} 40 Ma). However, protolith ages for the granodiorite (2366 {+-} 8 Ma) and the granulite (2489 {+-} 6 Ma) were obtained which are outside the previously recognized range (> 2510-2555 Ma). The magmatic protolith age of the granodiorite refers to a previously little known magmatic event in the shield. Further investigations may demonstrate that amphibolite facies zircon crystals are useful as a window into geological events in associated granulites, because zircon ages are blurred in the studied granulites. (author)

  13. Bonding characteristics, thermal expansibility, and compressibility of RXO(4) (R = rare earths, X = P, As) within monazite and zircon structures. (United States)

    Li, Huaiyong; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhou, Shihong; Cao, Xueqiang


    Systematically theoretical research was performed on the monazite- and zircon-structure RXO(4) (R = Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu; X = P, As) series by using the chemical bond theory of dielectric description. The chemical bond properties of R-O and X-O bonds were presented. In the zircon phase, the covalency fractions of X-O bonds increased in the order of V-O < As-O < P-O, which was in accordance with the ionic radii and electronegative trends, and the covalency fractions of R-O bonds varied slightly due to the lanthanide contraction. While in the monazite phase, both R-O and X-O bonds were divided into two groups by their covalency fractions. The contributions from the bond to the lattice energy, linear thermal expansion coefficient (LTEC), and bulk modulus were explored. The X-O bonds with short bond lengths and high chemical valence made greater contributions to the lattice energy and performed nearly rigidly during the deformation. A regular variation of lattice energy, LTEC, and bulk modulus with the ionic radii of the lanthanides was observed in both monazite and zircon phases.

  14. Optical processes in YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}across zircon-to-scheelite phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlik, Sebastian, E-mail: [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdansk, WitaStwosza 57, 80-952 Gdańsk (Poland); Lazarowska, Agata; Szczodrowski, Karol [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdansk, WitaStwosza 57, 80-952 Gdańsk (Poland); Grinberg, Marek, E-mail: [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdansk, WitaStwosza 57, 80-952 Gdańsk (Poland); Cavalli, Enrico [Department of Chemistry, Università di Parma, Parma (Italy); Boutinaud, Philippe [Clermont Université, ENSCCF, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France)


    The luminescence processes across zircon-to-scheelite phase transition in undoped YVO{sub 4} and Eu{sup 3+}-doped YVO{sub 4} are investigated by measuring the Raman, excitation and emission spectra and decay characteristics of the compounds with respect to high hydrostatic pressure up to 200 kbar. The scheelite polymorphs obtained after releasing the high pressure show no luminescence when undoped, even down to 10 K, but when activated with Eu{sup 3+} exhibit the characteristic scheelite-related Eu{sup 3+} emission but with low intensity. This emission is produced upon UV excitation in zircon inclusions that remain after the pressure treatment. - Highlights: • We present the pressure dependence of luminescence properties of YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}. • The application of a hydrostatic pressure of ≈7.5 GPa leads to a phase transition from zircon to scheelite phase YVO{sub 4}. • Eu{sup 3+} luminescence in scheelite YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} cannot be produced upon excitation in the fundamental states.

  15. Geochemical behavior of radionuclides in highly altered zircon above the Bangombé natural fission reactor, Gabon (United States)

    Kikuchi, Makiko; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Horie, Kenji

    The isotopic compositions of rare earth elements (REE), Pb and U of highly altered zircons from the clay and black shale layers above the Bangombé natural reactor, Gabon, were determined by a sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) to discuss the redistribution processes of elements into zircons under the supergene weathering. The clay layer trapped most of the fissiogenic Nd, Sm and Eu derived from the reactor and prevented them migrating into the black shale layer. On the other hand, only the Ce isotopic ratios of the clay and black shale layers have about 2 times larger variations than the other REE. This result suggests that a large chemical fractionation between Ce and other REE above the reactor occurred under the oxidizing condition. The U-Pb data of zircons suggest that the U-Pb system was largely disturbed by migration of chemically fractionated Pb and U from the 2.0 Ga-old uraninite in association with recent weathering.

  16. Multi-stage evolution of gneiss from North Dabie:evidence from zircon U-Pb chronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zhi; GAO Tianshan; CHEN Jiangfeng


    TTG gneiss is a common rock to outcrop in the northern part of the Dabie orogen, a few of which are closely associated with eclogites that experienced the Triassic ultrahigh pressure metamorphism. Although they were thermally metamorphosed by a large-scale magma activity in this region at the Early Cretaceous, it is unclear whether or not they are also affected by the Triassic metamorphism during continental subduction and exhumation. In order to resolve this issue, SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating was carried out for the host gneiss of eclogites in North Dabie. The results show that cores from the gneiss have an age of 746±31 Ma, consistent with the protolith ages of granitic gneisses in the Dabie orogen. Zircon overgrowing with different U and Th concentrations give concordant ages of 212±21 and 120±11 Ma, respectively. Th/U ratios of overgrown zircons are both lower than 0.1, suggesting a metamorphic genesis. The present results suggest that the gneiss in North Dabie has the similar protolith ages of Neoproterozoic to those granitic gneisses elsewhere in the Dabie orogen, and experienced not only the Triassic metamorphism but also the thermal metamorphism due to the Early Cretaceous magmatism. This provides an important insight into the geodynamic evolution of gneissic rocks in the Dabie orogen.

  17. An ion microprobe U-Th- Pb study of zircon xenocrysts from the Lahtojoki kimberlite pipe, eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Peltonen


    Full Text Available Eleven relatively large (diameter 1–2 mm zircon grains extracted from the Lahtojoki kimberlite pipe (Eastern Finland Kimberlite Province have been analysed by the ion microprobe NORDSIM for their U- and Pb- isotopic composition. The 207Pb/206Pb ages fall into two concordant age groups: 2.7 Ga and 1.8 Ga. Discordant ages between these two groups are believed to result from partial resetting of Archaean grains in the 1.8 Ga thermal event. Since other datingmethods imply that kimberlites emplaced c. 0.6 Ga ago it is clear that the analysed zircons are xenocrysts inherited from older sources and do not provide the age of the kimberlite magmatism. Their unusual size and morphology, together with very low U- and Pb-concentrations, suggest, however, that these zircon grains are not derived from typical Archaean gneisses. More likely, they originate from lower crustal mafic pegmatites and from hydrous coarse-grained veins within the uppermost lithospheric mantle. The predominance of 1.8 Ga old xenocrystic grains, together with the recovery of mafic granulite xenoliths of similar age in the kimberlites (Hölttä et al. 2000, emphasises the importance of post-collisional lower crustal growth and reworking in central Fennoscandia.

  18. Protolith age of Santa Maria Chico granulites dated on zircons from an associated amphibolite-facies granodiorite in southernmost Brazil. (United States)

    Hartmann, Léo A; Liu, Dunyi; Wang, Yenbin; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Santos, João O S


    U-Pb dating of zircon was undertaken with the Beijing SHRIMP II (sensitive high resolution ion microprobe) on anamphibolite facies granodiorite and an almandine-albite granulite from the Santa Maria Chico Granulitic Complex, southern Brazilian Shield. This work was also done to unravel protolith ages which are often hidden in the array of partly reset data. The obtained metamorphic ages of the granodiorite gneiss and the granulite are 2035 +/- 9 Ma and 2006 +/- 3 Ma, respectively. These data are within the range of metamorphic ages determined in previous studies (2022 +/- 18 Ma and 2031 +/- 40 Ma). However, protolith ages for the granodiorite (2366 +/- 8 Ma) and the granulite (2489 +/- 6 Ma) were obtained which are outside the previously recognized range (> 2510-2555 Ma). The magmatic protolith age of the granodiorite refers to a previously little known magmatic event in the shield. Further investigations may demonstrate that amphibolite facies zircon crystals are useful as a window into geological events in associated granulites, because zircon ages are blurred in the studied granulites.

  19. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of the detrital zircons from the Longshoushan Group and its tectonic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KuoAn TUNG; HoungYi YANG; LIU DunYi; ZHANG JianXin; ChienYuan TSENG; WAN YuSheng


    Sixty-two geologically meaningful U-Pb dates were obtained by using SHRIMP technique for the detrital zircons in three mettasedimentary rocks from stratigraphically uppermost parts of the Longshoushan Group in the present study.Eighty percents of these dates range from 1.7 Ga to 2.2 Ga with a peak at 1.8-2.0 Ga and twenty percents from 2.3 Ga to 2.7 Ga.The youngest detrital zircon is dated at 1724±19Ma which is interpreted as the maximum depositional age of the metasedimentary rocks.Therefore,the age for the diagenesis and lithification of the original sedimentary rocks of the Longshoushan Group before the metamorphism must be younger than 1724±19 Ma.Comparison of the age histograms of these detrital zircons with the ages of the igneous rocks on the surrounding older massifs suggests that the sediments of the Longshoushan Group were most likely derived from the Alaxa Block and Tarim Craton.This implies that the affinity between Alaxa Block and Tarim Craton was strong and that they might have been a unified craton during middle-early Proterozoic time

  20. Zircon syenite pegmatites in the Finero peridotite (Ivrea zone): evidence for a syenite from a mantle source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, V.; Frenzel, G. (Mineralogisch-Petrographisches Inst., Univ. Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Kober, B. (Lab. fuer Geochronologie, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Michard, A. (Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, 54 - Vandoeuvre (France)); Puchelt, H. (Inst. fuer Petrographie und Geochemie, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)); Schneider, W. (Inst. fuer Geologie und Palaeontologie, Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.))


    Zircon syenite pegmatite dikes in the phlogopite peridotite of Finero are rich in volatiles, incompatible elements and in rare earths with (La/Yb){sub N} ratios in the range of 14-15. The main mineral constituents in the alkaline dikes (Na>K) are albite and magnesium-rich biotites whereas nepheline, cancrinite, sodalite, zircon and apatite are minor or accessory. With their initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of 0.70371 the non-contaminated syenite pegmatites originate from partial melts of the upper mantle. The magma is derived from a depleted mantle source with isotopic signatures ({epsilon}Nd(T)=5.7 and 5.1) of ocean island basalts (OIB). The ascent of the syenite pegmatites and the marginal uplift of the granulitic crust in the northern Ivrea zone may be correlated with the intrusion of alkaline melts at depth. The Triassic zircon age of 225+-13 Ma is interpreted as the time of the dikes' emplacement. From geochemistry and setting it is concluded, that the syenites are related to a rift magmatic stage at the early Mesozoic in the southern Alps. (orig.).

  1. Eruption and magma crystallization ages of Las Tres Vírgenes (Baja California) constrained by combined 230Th/ 238U and (U-Th)/He dating of zircon (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Hausback, Brian P.


    Las Tres Vírgenes volcano is a calc-alkaline composite cone located near the main Gulf of California escarpment on the E coast of the Baja California peninsula. High-sensitivity ion microprobe U-series ( 230Th/ 238U) ages for zircon from La Vírgen tephra average 121 - 10 + 12 ka (1σ; MSWD = 2.7), with discrete age peaks at ˜ 100 and 160 ka. The noble gas mass spectrometric (U-Th)/He zircon age, corrected for disequilibrium and pre-eruptive storage, is 36 ± 3 ka. This result for the eruption age of La Vírgen tephra is significantly older than previously postulated historic or Holocene ages that were based on an 18th century map reference and 14C dating of accidental charcoal, respectively. The new (U-Th)/He zircon age is consistent with a > 26 ± 4 ka age derived from cosmogenic He exposure dating of an overlying basaltic lava flow [Hausback, B.P. and Abrams, M.J., 1996. Plinian eruption of La Virgen Tephra, Volcán Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 77(46, Suppl.): 813-814.]. U-Pb zircon analysis of ignimbrites erupted from the adjacent Early Pleistocene La Reforma and El Aguajito calderas yielded ages of 1.38 ± 0.03 Ma ( n = 12; MSWD = 1.0) and 1.17 ± 0.07 Ma ( n = 23; MSWD = 1.3), respectively. No evidence for these ages is found among La Vírgen zircons, whereas pre-Quaternary zircon xenocrysts are common. The La Vírgen magma, therefore, evolved unrelated to Early Pleistocene magmatism in adjacent calderas, but assimilated local basement rocks. A gap between average Th-U and (U-Th)/He zircon ages suggests that zircon crystallization was discontinuous in the La Vírgen magma chamber. In addition, partial resorption of zircon suggests episodic thermal rejuvenation, most likely by basaltic recharge. Based on the zircon record, the > 100 ka lifetime of the thermal anomaly that sustained repeated intrusive pulses significantly exceeds the age of the last eruption. This strengthens the view that Tres

  2. Mixing and melt sources in the Miocene Aztec Wash pluton (Nevada, USA) as revealed by zircon Hf and O and whole rock Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopes (United States)

    Ryan, M.; Miller, J. S.; Miller, C. F.; Bromley, S.; Davies, G. R.; Schmitt, A. K.


    The 15.6 Ma Aztec Wash Pluton (AWP) is one of several Miocene intrusions located within the northern Colorado River extensional corridor. Extensive E-W tilting of fault blocks has exposed the pluton from the roof to 5 km structural depth. Earlier field and petrologic studies subdivided the AWP into two distinct zones: (1) a Granite Zone (GZ) comprised of relatively homogeneous granite with subtle differences in textures and mineralogy; (2) a Heterogeneous Zone (HZ), which interfingers the GZ, contains evidence for mafic and felsic magma input with a wide compositional range (42-78 wt% SiO2), and abundant field evidence for hybridization. Previous whole rock geochemistry and zircon trace element analyses indicated that compositional variation was produced by multi-component mixing between mafic and felsic melts within the HZ. New whole rock Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope data from the HZ show that all rocks (including high-silica granites) formed by mixing Precambrian crust and enriched mantle, with mixtures having a large mantle fraction (≥50%). New Hf (n=189) and O (n=241) isotope analyses of zircon from samples in the HZ confirm these melt sources and provide a broader perspective on hybridization processes within the AWP. Zircon grains from all samples show heterogeneous Hf and O isotopic compositions (-5 to -18 ɛHf; 4.5-7.5% δ18O), but despite the clear signature of Precambrian crust in the whole rock data, obvious Precambrian zircons (or cores) were mostly absent; only one zircon was clearly Precambrian (ɛHf = -25). Resolvable intragrain variability is relatively limited (including the Precambrian grain, which is unzoned). Zircons from hand samples and from compositional groups also show heterogeneous ɛHf and δ18O values, although the spreads are more restricted than in the whole data set (6-10 ɛHf in granites, 5-7 ɛHf in intermediate "hybrids", 5-6 ɛHf in gabbro/diorite sheets). Oxygen isotope values for the zircons also show intra-handsample heterogeneity

  3. Inherited igneous zircons in jadeitite predate high-pressure metamorphism and jadeitite formation in the Jagua Clara serpentinite mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex (Dominican Republic) (United States)

    Hertwig, Andreas; McClelland, William C.; Kitajima, Kouki; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Maresch, Walter V.; Stanek, Klaus; Valley, John W.; Sergeev, Sergey A.


    This study utilizes zircon SIMS U-Pb dating, REE and trace-element analysis as well as oxygen isotope ratios of zircon to distinguish jadeite-rich rocks that formed by direct crystallization from a hydrous fluid from those that represent products of a metasomatic replacement process. Zircon was separated from a concordant jadeitite layer and its blueschist host, as well as from loose blocks of albite-jadeite rock and jadeitite that were all collected from the Jagua Clara serpentinite-matrix mélange in the northern Dominican Republic. In the concordant jadeitite layer, three groups of zircon domains were distinguished based on both age as well as geochemical and oxygen isotope values: age groups old (117.1 ± 0.9 Ma), intermediate (three dates: 90.6, 97.3, 106.0 Ma) and young (77.6 ± 1.3 Ma). Zircon populations from the blueschist host as well as the other three jadeite-rich samples generally match zircon domains of the old age group in age as well as geochemistry and oxygen isotope ratios. Moreover, these older zircon populations are indistinguishable from zircon typical of igneous oceanic crust and hence are probably inherited from igneous protoliths of the jadeite-rich rocks. Therefore, the results suggest that all investigated jadeite-rich rocks were formed by a metasomatic replacement process. The younger domains might signal actual ages of jadeitite formation, but there is no unequivocal proof for coeval zircon-jadeite growth.

  4. Determining Mechanics of Segregating Small Crystals from Melt Using Modeling and SHRIMP-RG Trace Element Analysis of Zircons: Application to the Spirit Mountain Batholith, Nevada (United States)

    Claiborne, L. L.; Furbish, D. J.; Miller, C. F.


    Melt segregation from crystal mush is commonly cited as generating the highly differentiated melts that form leucogranites and high-silica rhyolites (i.e. Bachmann and Bergantz, 2004). The Spirit Mountain batholith in southern Nevada appears to be a prime example of an intrusion that records this process. It is composed primarily of a thick (more than 7 km) sequence of cumulate granite overlain by 2 km of high-silica leucogranite, interpreted to have been extracted from the cumulate below (Walker et al., in press). Using SHRIMP geochronology, Ti-in-zircon thermometry (Watson et al., 2006), and trace element analysis of the strongly zoned zircons, we have suggested that the batholith accumulated and evolved through repeated episodes of recharge, reheating, and fractionation via melt expulsion from mush (Walker et al., in press; Lowery Claiborne et al., in press). In the leucogranites, interiors of zircons commonly are similar to much of the zircon in cumulate granites, exhibiting the trace element signature of hotter, less fractionated melt; rims of leucogranite zircons generally reflect low T and fractionated melt compositions, consistent with the highly felsic melt represented by their host rocks. These interiors likely represent zircon crystals that were entrained in the upward moving differentiated melt during segregation from the crystal mush. However, the low bulk rock Zr and Zr/Hf of the leucogranite and the high whole rock Zr concentration of the cumulate indicate that most zircon was retained in the cumulate (Lowery Claiborne et al., in press). So, what determines whether zircon (and other small) crystals are entrained in the upward migrating differentiated melt, or whether they are captured in the cumulate mush and segregated from the high-silica melt? What can this tell us about the mechanics of cumulate-melt segregation? Following Bachmann and Bergantz (2004), we have modeled the critical size of crystals and the critical size to mush porosity ratio

  5. Zircon typology combined with SmNd whole-rock isotope analysis to study Brioverian sediments from the Armorican Massif (United States)

    Dabard, M. P.; Loi, A.; Peucat, J. J.


    The identification of source materials contributing to mature terrigenous clastic deposits is made difficult due to a lack of useful discriminant criteria. SmNd isotope analysis can provide some indication of the present of mantle-derived constituents in clastic rocks. However, since this method is based on whole-rock samples, it is only possible to obtain the averaged composition of the different source materials involved. Moreover, SmNd isotope systematics can be strongly influenced by the presence of heavy minerals rich in rare earth elements and/or displaying isotopic ratios very different to the sedimentary host. In this manner, 0.1% of zircon or 0.01% of monazite from an extraneous source is sufficient to modify significatively the SmNd signature of the whole-rock. The typological study of zircon populations is an extremely valuable tool, especially since this mineral is highly resistant and exhibits a morphology controlled by the physical and chemical conditions under which it crystallized. Zircons that have been reworked in a sedimentary deposit display typologies that make it possible to identify the different igneous rock-types present in the source region. Moreover the typological study can be associated with a single-grain PbPb dating. This twofold approach was applied to Brioverian sedimentary rocks (Neoproterozoic III to Early Palaeozoic in age) from the Central Brittany Domain (Armorican Massif, NW France). It is proposed that these deposits inherited a major component from juvenile crustal materials ( ɛND(540) = - 1.4 to - 6.3), reflecting the presence of igneous precursors with a dominantly mantle-derived origin (zircon sub-types S19, S20, S24, S25 etc.), to which was added another component of crustal anatectic affinity (zircon sub-types S2, S6, S7 etc.). Two igneous source regions are identified on the basis of the present study: the anatectic granitic massifs of the Mancellian Batholith (540 Ma), along with a coeval ignimbritic

  6. Process-Property Relationship for Air Plasma-Sprayed Gadolinium Zirconate Coatings (United States)

    Dwivedi, Gopal; Tan, Yang; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay


    The continuous need of elevating operating temperature of gas turbine engines has introduced several challenges with the current state-of-the-art yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), requiring examination of new TBC material with high temperature phase stability, lower thermal conductivity, and resistance to environmental ash particles. Gadolinium zirconate (Gd2Zr2O7) (GDZ) has been shown to meet many of these requirements, and has, in fact, been successfully implemented in to engine components. However, several fundamental issues related to the process-ability, toughness, and microstructural differences for GDZ when compared to equivalent YSZ coating. This study seeks to critically address the process-structure-property correlations for plasma-sprayed GDZ coating subjected to controlled parametric exploration. Use of in-flight diagnostics coupled with in situ and ex situ coating property monitoring allows examination and comparison of the process-property interplay and the resultant differences between the two TBC compositions. The results indicate that it is feasible to retain material chemistry and fabricate relevant microstructures of interest with GDZ with concomitant performance advantages such as low conductivity, mechanical compliance, sintering resistance, and suppression of environmentally induced damage from ash particles. This study provides a framework for optimal design and manufacturing of emergent multi-layer and multi-material TBCs.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of Rh-based lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores for higher alcohol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelsayed, Victor; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Poston, James A.; Spivey, James J.


    Two lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}; LZ) were prepared by Pechini method and tested for higher alcohols selectivity. In one, Rh was substituted into the pyrochlore lattice (LRZ, 1.7 wt%) while for the second, Rh was supported on an unsubstituted La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (R/LZ, 1.8 wt%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) results show that the surface reducibility depends on whether the Rh is in (or supported on) the LZ pyrochlore. Rhodium in the LRZ is more reducible than rhodium supported on the R/LZ pyrochlore, likely due to the presence of a perovskite phase (LaRhO{sub 3}; identified by XRD), in which rhodium is more reducible. The formation of the perovskite accompanies that of the pyrochlore. CO hydrogenation results show higher ethanol selectivity for R/LZ than LRZ, possibly due to the strong interaction between Rh and LZ on the R/LZ, forming atomically close Rh{sup +}/Rh{sup 0} sites, which have been suggested to favor ethanol production.

  8. Fatigue of extracted lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuators under unipolar high field electric cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong, E-mail:; Lee, Sung-Min; Wang, James L. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lin, Hua-Tay [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China)


    Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 10{sup 8} cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and the fatigue index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications, such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Matsunaga, Tadashi [ORNL; Zhang, Kewei [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL


    PZT (lead zirconate titanate), particularly PZT-5A, is used in a variety of critical actuation and sensing systems because of its high Curie temperature and large piezoelectric coefficients. However, PZT is susceptible to mechanical failure. The evaluation of the mechanical strength of the material under the target working conditions is very important. This study presents part of the recent experimental developments in mechanical testing and evaluation of PZT materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Ball-on-ring and four-point bending testing setups were used, with modifications made to account for testing requirements from high-level electric field and elevated temperature. The poled PZT-5A or equivalent material was tested under various specimen and testing conditions. The parameters of the distribution of strengths (characteristic strength and Weibull modulus) are discussed in relation to the testing conditions. Fractographic results based on scanning electron microscopy are also presented and discussed. The related data can serve as input for the design of piezoceramic devices, not only those used in energy systems like fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines, but also those used in structural health monitoring, energy harvesting, and other critical systems in aerospace and civil engineering.

  10. A Piezoelectric Plethysmograph Sensor Based on a Pt Wire Implanted Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate Bulk Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Suaste-Gómez


    Full Text Available This work reports on the development of a Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate (PLZT bulk ferroelectric poled ceramic structure as a Piezoelectric Plethysmograph (PZPG sensor. The ceramic was implanted during its fabrication with a platinum (Pt wire which works as an internal electrode. The ceramic was then submitted to an experimental setup in order to validate and determine the Pt-wire mechanical effects. This PZPG sensor was also mounted on a finger splint in order to measure the blood flow that results from the pulsations of blood occurring with each heartbeat. Fingertip pulses were recorded jointly with an ECG signal from a 25 year old male to compare the time shift; the PZPG sensor guarantees the electrical isolation of the patient. The proposed PZPG has several advantages: it can be adjusted for fingertip measurements, but it can easily be extended by means of spare bands, therefore making possible PZPG measurements from different body locations, e.g., forehead, forearm, knee, neck, etc.

  11. Strength Properties of Aged Poled Lead Zirconate Titanate Subjected to Electromechanical Loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kewei [ORNL; Zeng, Fan W [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL


    Electric field and aging time are two important factors that affect the mechanical strength and long-term reliability of lead zirconate titanate or PZT actuators. In the present work, a commercial PZT-5A aged four years was examined using ball-on-ring (BoR) mechanical testing under coupled electric fields. The electric field range of -3E{sub c} to +3E{sub c} (E{sub c}, coercive electric field) was studied (i.e., -3E{sub c}, -E{sub c}, 0, +E{sub c}, +2E{sub c}, and +3E{sub c}) with a controlled electric loading path. A Weibull distribution was used to interpret the mechanical strength data. With an electric field preloaded from 0 to -3E{sub c}, it was found that subsequent increases in the electric field resulted in an asymmetrical V-shaped curve of mechanical strength against the electric field. The bottom of the V curve was located near the zero electric field level. Microscopy analysis showed that pores were the strength limiter for the tested PZT under electromechanical loadings.

  12. Sandwich Magnetoelectric Composites of Polyvinylidene Fluoride, Tb-Dy-Fe Alloy, and Lead Zirconate Titanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The novel sandwich composites were prepared by sandwiching a polyvinylidene fluoride/Tb-Dy-Fe alloy composite (PVDF/Terfenol-D) between polyvinylidene fluoride/lead zirconate titanate composites(PVDF/PZT). The maximum magnetoelectric effect voltage coefficient, (dE/dH)33max, of the sandwich composites is higher than that of three-phase composites at their own optimal loading level of Terfenol-D. This is attributed to less interface relaxations of strain and better polarization of the sandwich composites. When the volume fraction of Terfenol-D is higher than 0.10, no coupling interaction for three-phase composites could intensity, the magnetoelectric effect voltage coefficient, (dE/dH)33, of sandwich composites is higher than that of three-phase composites; at low magnetic field intensity, (dE/dH)33 of sandwich composites is lower than that of three-phase composites. At their resonance frequency, the (dE/dH)33max of the sandwich composites and the dH)33max at resonance frequency confirms the improvement of maximum magnetoelectric effect coefficient via sandwich-structured composites.

  13. Image-based multi-scale simulation and experimental validation of thermal conductivity of lanthanum zirconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xingye; Hu, Bin; Wei, Changdong; Sun, Jiangang; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Li, Li; Knapp, James; Zhang, Jing


    Lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) is a promising candidate material for thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications due to its low thermal conductivity and high-temperature phase stability. In this work, a novel image-based multi-scale simulation framework combining molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element (FE) calculations is proposed to study the thermal conductivity of La2Zr2O7 coatings. Since there is no experimental data of single crystal La2Zr2O7 thermal conductivity, a reverse non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (reverse NEMD) approach is first employed to compute the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of single crystal La2Zr2O7. The single crystal data is then passed to a FE model which takes into account of realistic thermal barrier coating microstructures. The predicted thermal conductivities from the FE model are in good agreement with experimental validations using both flash laser technique and pulsed thermal imaging-multilayer analysis. The framework proposed in this work provides a powerful tool for future design of advanced coating systems. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Atmospheric Plasma Spraying of Single Phase Lanthanum Zirconate Thermal Barrier Coatings with Optimized Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Mauer


    Full Text Available The shortcomings at elevated operation temperatures of the standard material yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs have initiated many research activities seeking alternatives. One candidate is the pyrochlore lanthanum zirconate La2Zr2O7 (LZ, which is phase-stable to its melting point. At the same time, it shows a lower thermal conductivity and a lower sintering tendency when compared to YSZ. Because of its low thermal expansion coefficient and poor toughness, it is applied in combination with YSZ in double layer TBC systems. It is the current state of knowledge that LZ is prone to lanthanum depletion if processed by plasma spraying. The process conditions have to be selected carefully to avoid this. Furthermore, the amount and morphology of the coating porosity is essential for a good thermo-mechanical performance. In this work, the development and testing of LZ/YSZ double layer TBC systems is described. Initially, suitable basic parameters (torch, plasma gas composition, and power were tested with respect to coating stoichiometry. Then, microstructures were optimized by adjusting feed rate, spray distance, and by selecting a more appropriate feedstock. Powder particles and coatings were characterized by digital image analysis.

  15. First principles study of nanoscale mechanism of oxygen adsorption on lanthanum zirconate surfaces (United States)

    Guo, Xingye; Wu, Linmin; Zhang, Yi; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Li, Li; Knapp, James; Zhang, Jing


    Lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) is a rare-earth pyrochlore material, which has been proposed as a promising thermal barrier coating (TBC) material due to its low thermal conductivity and high temperature phase stability. At elevated temperatures, degradation of La2Zr2O7 may occur due to adsorption of oxygen (O2) on La2Zr2O7 surfaces. This paper investigates nanoscale mechanism of O2 adsorption on La2Zr2O7 coating surfaces using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. La2Zr2O7 surface energies on (001), (011) and (111) planes are calculated. The surface free energy of (011) plane is lower than those of (001) and (111) planes. On (001), (011) and (111) planes of La2Zr2O7, the lowest adsorption energy occurs at 4-fold site, bridge site, and 3-fold-FCC site, respectively. Among all calculated cases, the lowest adsorption energy site is 3-fold-FCC on (111) plane, which is confirmed by the Bader charge transfer analyses. Charge density difference analyses show that the 3-fold-FCC site on (111) surface has the largest charge density, suggesting the strongest interaction between O2 and La2Zr2O7 surface.

  16. Cretaceous Volcanic Events in Southeastern Jilin Province, China: Evidence from Single Zircon U-Pb Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuejun; SUN Chunlin; SUN Yuewu; SUN Wei


    Mesozoic volcanic rocks in southeastern Jilin Province are an important component of the huge Mesozoic volcanic belt in the northeastern area. Study of the age of their formation is of great significance to recognize Mesozoic volcanic rule in northeastern China. Along with the research of rare Mesozoic biota and extensive Mesozoic mineralization in western Liaoning, a number of researchers have focused on Mesozoic volcanic events. The authors studied the ages of the Cretaceous volcanic rocks in southeastern Jilin Province using single Zircon U-Pb. The result shows that the Sankeyushu Formation volcanic rocks in the Tonghua area are 119.2 Ma in age, the Yingcheng Formation in the Jiutai area 113.4±3.1 Ma, the Jinjiatun Formation in Pinggang Town of Liaoyuan City and the Wufeng volcanic rocks in the Yanji area 103.2±4.7 Ma and 103.6±1 Ma, respectively. Combined with the data of recent publication on volcanic rocks ages; the Cretaceous volcanic events in southeastern Jilin Province can be tentatively subdivided into three eruption periods: 119 Ma, 113 Ma and 103 Ma. The result not only provides important chronology data for subdividing Mesozoic strata in southeastern Jilin Province, establishing Mesozoic volcanic event sequence, discussing geological tectonic background, and surveying the relation between noble metals to the Cretaceous volcanic rocks, but also otters important information of Mesozoic volcanism in northeastern China.

  17. Effect of temperature on polarization reversal of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Nwathore; C M Lonkar; D K Kharat


    The effect of temperature on polarization reversal of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate ceramics was studied. The piezoelectric properties viz. dielectric constant and piezoelectric coupling coefficient, were used for polarization reversal characteristic. These properties and apparent coercive field weremeasured during polarization reversal at different temperatures. Results indicated that at higher temperature apparent coercive field decreased. Polarization reversal and further polarization reversal was quite asymmetric. After polarization reversal, dielectric constant was found to increase at all temperatures while piezoelectric coupling coefficient increased above the temperature of polarization. The trend shown by dielectric constant indicates that at 25°C, 1.5 kV/mm field can be applied safely to this material without much compromising the properties. D.c. field of 3.0 kV/mm and 100°C temperature can be predicted as poling parameters from their effect on kp. Apparent coercive field has shown non-linear relationship with temperature. It was of exponential decay type.

  18. Develop techniques for ion implantation of PLZT (lead-lanthanum-zirconate-titanate) for adaptive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Brimhall, J.L.; Pawlewicz, W.T.; Stahl, K.A.; Toburen, L.H.


    Research was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop high photosensitivity adaptive optical elements utilizing ion implanted lanthanum-doped lead-zirconate-titanate (PLZT). One centimeter square samples were prepared by implanting ferroelectric and anti-ferroelectric PLZT with a variety of species or combinations of species. These included Ne, O, Ni, Ne/Cr, Ne/Al, Ne/Ni, Ne/O, and Ni/O, at a variety of energies and fluences. An indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode coating was designed to give a balance of high conductivity and optical transmission at near uv to near ir wavelengths. Samples were characterized for photosensitivity; implanted layer thickness, index of refraction, and density; electrode (ITO) conductivity; and in some cases, residual stress curvature. Thin film anti-ferroelectric PLZT was deposited in a preliminary experiment. The structure was amorphous with x-ray diffraction showing the beginnings of a structure at substrate temperatures of approximately 550/sup 0/C. This report summarizes the research and provides a sampling of the data taken during the report period.

  19. Raman analysis of ferroelectric switching in niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, P. [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Ramos-Moore, E., E-mail: [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Guitar, M.A. [Functional Materials, Materials Science Department, Saarland University, Saarbrücken D-66123 (Germany); Cabrera, A.L. [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436 (Chile)


    Characteristic Raman vibration modes of niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PNZT) are studied as a function of ferroelectric domain switching. The microstructure of PNZT is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Ferroelectric switching is achieved by applying voltages between the top (Au) and bottom (Pt) electrodes, while acquiring the Raman spectra in situ. Vibrational active modes associated with paraelectric and ferroelectric phases are identified after measuring above and below the ferroelectric Curie temperature, respectively. Changes in the relative intensities of the Raman peaks are observed as a function of the switching voltage. The peak area associated with the ferroelectric modes is analyzed as a function of the applied voltage within one ferroelectric polarization loop, showing local maxima around the coercive voltage. This behavior can be understood in terms of the correlation between vibrational and structural properties, since ferroelectric switching modifies the interaction between the body-centered atom (Zr, Ti or Nb) and the Pb–O lattice. - Highlights: • Electric fields induce structural distortions on ferroelectric perovskites. • Ferroelectric capacitor was fabricated to perform hysteresis loops. • Raman analysis was performed in situ during ferroelectric switching. • Raman modes show hysteresis and inflections around the coercive voltages. • Data can be understood in terms of vibrational–structural correlations.

  20. U-Pb (Zircon Ages of Metavolcanic Rocks From the Itaiacoca Group: Tectonic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Siga Jr.


    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to present and discuss the U-Pb ages obtained for zircon grains from metavolcanic rocks of theItaiacoca Group. The Itaiacoca Group is a metavolcano-sedimentary sequence, which occurs as a narrow belt between theCunhaporanga granitic batholith to the northwest and the Itapirapuã shear zone to the south and southwest, which separates thesequence from the Três Córregos granite batholith and metasedimentary rocks of the Açungui Group. Geological studies of thesouthern part of the Itaiacoca belt led to the recognition of three units, represented (from base to top by metawackes with animportant volcanic component, metacarbonate, and metapelitic and metapsammitic rocks. The U-Pb geochronological analyses ofzircon grains from two outcrops of metavolcanic rocks yield ages of 628 ± 18 Ma (SHRIMP and 636 ± 30 Ma (conventional multigrainanalyses. These ages are quite close to the metamorphic event recorded in the Itaiacoca Group (628 – 610 Ma, suggesting ashort interval between the formation of these rocks and closure of the basin. Furthermore, this volcanism is very close to the age offormation of the Três Córregos (630 Ma and Cunhaporanga (590 Ma granitic batholiths, admitted as associated with a probablemagmatic arc. Such an isotopic pattern characterizes a Neoproterozoic tectonic scenario involving volcanism, metamorphism andgranitic plutonism, interpreted here as the final stages in the evolution of the Itaiacoca Basin.

  1. Crystal structure and electrical properties of bismuth sodium titanate zirconate ceramics. (United States)

    Rachakom, Ampika; Jaiban, Panupong; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda; Watcharapasorn, Anucha


    Lead-free bismuth sodium titanate zirconate (Bi0.5Na0.5Ti1-xZrxO3 where x = 0.20, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.80 mole fraction) [BNTZ] ceramics were successfully prepared using the conventional mixed-oxide method. The samples were sintered for 2 h at temperatures lower than 1,000°C. The density of the BNTZ samples was at least 95% of the theoretical values. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that small grains were embedded between large grains, causing a relatively wide grain size distribution. The density and grain size increased with increasing Zr concentration. A peak shift in X-ray diffraction patterns as well as the disappearance of several hkl reflections indicated some significant crystal-structure changes in these materials. Preliminary crystal-structure analysis indicated the existence of phase transition from a rhombohedral to an orthorhombic structure. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties were also found to correlate well with the observed phase transition.

  2. Zircon SHRIMP Dating for the Weiya Pluton, Eastern Tianshan: Its Geological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zunzhong; GU Lianxing; WU Changzhi; LI Weiqiang; XI Aihua; WANG Shuo


    The timing of the emplacement of the Weiya pluton remains controversial due to the absence of systematic and precise dating.This paper reports zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of different lithologic phases in the Weiya pluton,and discusses the genesis and tectonic environment.The ages of gabbro,quartz syenite,diorite porphyrite and fine-grained granite are 236±6 Ma,246±6 Ma,233±8 Ma and 237±8 Ma,respectively.All these phases were formed in early-middle Indosinian (Triassic) in a post-orogenic environment.In addition to underplating,intraplating of mantle-derived magmas is also a substantial mechanism for magma generation and vertical accretion of the continental crust.Granitoid rocks are important products of vertical continental accretion as underplating evolves gradually to intraplating.The existence of post-orogenic Indosinian granites shows that the middle Tianshan orogenic belt underwent an important tectonic conversion from the Paleo-Asian ocean subduction-collision system to the Paleo-Tethys ocean regime.

  3. Bashikaogong-Shimierbulake granitic complex,north Altun,NW China: Geochemistry and zircon SHRIMP ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Cailai; YAO; Sunzhi; ZENG; Lingsen; YANG; Jingsui; Joseph; L.Wooden; CHEN; Songyong; Frank; K.Mazdab


    The Bashikaogong-Shimierbulake granitoid complex is about 30 km long and 2-6 km wide,with an area of 140 km2,located at the north margin of the Bashikaogong Basin in the north Altun terrain.It intruded into schist,metapelite and metatuff of Precambrian ages.This granitoid complex consists of darkish quartz diorite,grey granite,pink granite and pegmatite.Geochemically,the quartz diorite has I-type granite affinity and belongs to Calc-alkaline sereies,and the other granites have S-type affinity and to high-K calc-alkaline series.Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating shows that the quartz diorite has a bigger age than those of other granites,which is 481.6±5.6 Ma for quartz diorite,437.0±3.0 Ma-433.1±3.4 Ma for grey granite and 443±11 Ma-434.6±1.6 Ma for pink granite,respectively.Combined with regional geology,we think that the quartz diorite formed in tectonic environment related to oceanic crust subduction and the granites in post-collision.

  4. Prolonged magmatism on 4 Vesta inferred from Hf-W analyses of eucrite zircon (United States)

    Roszjar, J.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Srinivasan, G.; Mezger, K.; Scherer, E. E.; Van Orman, J. A.; Bischoff, A.


    The asteroid 4 Vesta is the second most massive planetesimal in the Solar System and a rare example of a planetary object that possibly can be linked to a specific group of differentiated meteorites, the howardite-eucrite-diogenite suite. The 182Hf-182W chronometry of individual zircon grains from six basaltic eucrites revealed distinct growth episodes ranging from 4532 - 11 / + 6 Ma to 4565.0 ± 0.9 Ma and constrains the early thermal history of 4 Vesta, indicating that its mantle generated basaltic melts for at least 35 million years (Myr). Initially, the energy needed for melting was provided by decay of short-lived isotopes, mostly 26Al. The long duration of magmatism despite the short lifetime of 26Al implies that the asteroid must have accreted within the first ∼4 Myr of Solar System formation, similar to the formation of iron meteorite parent bodies, and that its interior must have been thermally well insulated by an early-formed crust that prevented heat loss.

  5. Petrology, geochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology of a layered igneous complex from Akarui Point in the Lützow-Holm Complex, East Antarctica: Implications for Antarctica-Sri Lanka correlation (United States)

    Kazami, Sou; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Takamura, Yusuke


    The Lützow-Holm Complex (LHC) of East Antarctica forms part of a complex subduction-collision orogen related to the amalgamation of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent Gondwana. Here we report new petrological, geochemical, and geochronological data from a metamorphosed and disrupted layered igneous complex from Akarui Point in the LHC which provide new insights into the evolution of the complex. The complex is composed of mafic orthogneiss (edenite/pargasite + plagioclase ± clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene ± spinel ± sapphirine ± K-feldspar), meta-ultramafic rock (pargasite + olivine + spinel + orthopyroxene), and felsic orthogneiss (plagioclase + quartz + pargasite + biotite ± garnet). The rocks show obvious compositional layering reflecting the chemical variation possibly through magmatic differentiation. The metamorphic conditions of the rocks were estimated using hornblende-plagioclase geothermometry which yielded temperatures of 720-840 °C. The geochemical data of the orthogneisses indicate fractional crystallization possibly related to differentiation within a magma chamber. Most of the mafic-ultramafic samples show enrichment of LILE, negative Nb, Ta, P and Ti anomalies, and constant HFSE contents in primitive-mantle normalized trace element plots suggesting volcanic arc affinity probably related to subduction. The enrichment of LREE and flat HREE patterns in chondrite-normalized REE plot, with the Nb-Zr-Y, Y-La-Nb, and Th/Yb-Nb/Yb plots also suggest volcanic arc affinity. The felsic orthogneiss plotted on Nb/Zr-Zr diagram (low Nb/Zr ratio) and spider diagrams (enrichment of LILE, negative Nb, Ta, P and Ti anomalies) also show magmatic arc origin. The morphology, internal structure, and high Th/U ratio of zircon grains in felsic orthogneiss are consistent with magmatic origin for most of these grains. Zircon U-Pb analyses suggest Early Neoproterozoic (847.4 ± 8.0 Ma) magmatism and protolith formation. Some older grains (1026-882 Ma) are regarded as

  6. A tale of two eras: Pliocene-Pleistocene unroofing of Cenozoic and late Archean zircons from active metamorphic core complexes, Solomon Sea, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Ireland, Trevor R.


    U/Pb ion microprobe analyses of zircons from gneisses and granodiorites exposed in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, and from conglomerate sections of the Goodenough No. 1 well in the adjacent Trobriand Basin, provide constraints on the age of magmatism, peak metamorphism, and nature of rocks unroofed during initial stages of metamorphic core complex formation in the Solomon Sea. The youngest populations of zircons from felsic gneisses and granodiorites indicate late Pliocene 206Pb*/238U ages. No inherited zircons were identified in the granodiorites, and the 206Pb*/238U ages (1.65 ± 0.18 Ma; 1.98 ± 0.08 Ma [2σ]) are interpreted as crystallization ages. These synkinematically emplaced granodiorites, intruded into actively extending continental crust, are some of the youngest known granitoids currently exposed at the Earth' surface. Zircon ages from felsic gneisses (2.63 ± 0.16 Ma; 2.72 ± 0.28 Ma [2σ]) are interpreted to date zircon growth subsequent to eclogite facies metamorphism. Felsic gneiss samples also contained zircon xenocrysts from Cretaceous-Miocene protoliths. In striking contrast, zircons from igneous and metamorphic clasts from the Goodenough No. 1 well indicate a single population with a 207Pb*/206/Pb* age of 2781 ± 9 Ma (2σ). We speculate that they are derived from basement rocks unroofed during initial stages of development of the D&Entrecasteaux metamorphic core complexes. These results provide the first direct evidence for the existence of Archean protoliths in the basement rocks of southeastern Papua New Guinea.

  7. U-Pb isotopic ages and Hf isotope composition of zircons in Variscan gabbros from central Spain: evidence of variable crustal contamination (United States)

    Villaseca, Carlos; Orejana, David; Belousova, Elena; Armstrong, Richard A.; Pérez-Soba, Cecilia; Jeffries, Teresa E.


    Ion microprobe U-Pb analyses of zircons from three gabbroic intrusions from the Spanish Central System (SCS) (Talavera, La Solanilla and Navahermosa) yield Variscan ages (300 to 305 Ma) in agreement with recent studies. Only two zircon crystals from La Solanilla massif gave slightly discordant Paleoproterozoic ages (1,848 and 2,010 Ma). Hf isotope data show a relatively large variation with the juvenile end-members showing ɛHfi values as high as +3.6 to +6.9 and +1.5 to +2.9 in the Navahermosa and Talavera gabbros, respectively. These positive ɛHfi values up to +6.9 might represent the composition of the subcontinental mantle which generates these SCS gabbros. This ɛHfi range is clearly below depleted mantle values suggesting the involvement of enriched mantle components on the origin of these Variscan gabbros, and is consistent with previous whole-rock studies. The presence of zircons with negative ɛHfi values suggest variable, but significant, crustal contamination of the gabbros, mainly by mixing with coeval granite magmas. Inherited Paleoproterozoic zircons of La Solanilla gabbros have similar trace element composition (e.g. Th/U ratios), but more evolved Hf-isotope signatures than associated Variscan zircons. Similar inherited ages have been recorded in zircons from coeval Variscan granitoids from the Central Iberian Zone. Granitic rocks have Nd model ages (TDM) predominantly in the range of 1.4 to 1.6 Ga, suggesting a juvenile addition during the Proterozoic. However, Hf crustal model ages of xenocrystic Proterozoic zircons in La Solanilla gabbro indicate the presence of reworked Archean protoliths (TDM2 model ages of 3.0 to 3.2 Ga) incorporated into the hybridized mafic magma.

  8. Detrital zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology of intercalated baked sediments: a new approach to dating young basalts (United States)

    Cooper, F. J.; van Soest, M. C.; Hodges, K.


    Placing accurate age constraints on young volcanic eruptions, particularly in populated areas such as New Mexico, is important for not only tectonic and climate studies, but also for geohazard analysis. A primary lack of zircon and apatite crystals in basaltic rocks leaves K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating as the most favored methods, though extraneous Ar and low K contents can often reduce precision. Alternative techniques suggested in recent years include (U-Th)/He dating of U and Th rich inclusions in olivine phenocrysts and other phenocrysts (Min et al., 2006; Aciego et al., 2007), (U-Th)/He dating of zircon xenocrysts (Blondes et al., 2007), and (U-Th)/He dating of magnetite phenocrysts (Blackburn et al., 2007). Unfortunately, zircon xenocrysts are not very abundant in basalts, and not all basalts contain suitably sized olivine, magnetite, or other phenocrysts. Here, we present a new application of the (U-Th)/He method to dating young volcanic eruptions in an area where the emplacement of basalt flows has reset the (U-Th)/He systematics of zircons and apatites in intercalated baked sediments. The Taos Plateau volcanic field (TPVF) in New Mexico formed in Middle to Late Miocene time in association with extensional processes in the Rio Grande Rift. The voluminous (>200 km3) basalt flows of the TPVF have been carefully dated with 40Ar/39Ar (Appelt, 1998) and therefore provide a sound basis for comparison with the (U-Th)/He results. Two fluvial sand and gravel samples were collected from directly beneath the Upper member of the Servilleta Basalt (40Ar/39Ar age: 3.57 ± 0.19 Ma [2 S.E., n = 3]; Appelt, 1998) in the Rio Grande River Gorge just west of Taos. These two samples yielded a distinct population of single-crystal (U-Th)/He zircon and apatite ages of 3.54 ± 0.11 Ma [2 S.E., n = 4] and 3.44 ± 0.25 Ma [2 S.E., n = 2] respectively. Sixteen additional grains (6 zircons and 10 apatites) gave significantly older dates (~ 9 to 27 Ma). We interpret the older dates as

  9. Mid-Neoproterozoic (ca. 830-800 Ma) metamorphic P-T paths link Tarim to the circum-Rodinia subduction-accretion system (United States)

    Ge, Rongfeng; Zhu, Wenbin; Wilde, Simon A.


    Long-lived exterior accretionary orogeny shapes tectonothermal evolution of the peripheral building blocks of supercontinents and leads to considerable crustal growth. However, such accretionary orogeny has only been locally recognized for the Rodinia supercontinent. Here a suite of newly discovered mid-Neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphic rocks in the northern Tarim Craton, NW China, are used to test the exterior accretion hypothesis for Rodinia. These rocks occur as dark-colored mafic and calc-silicate boudins in impure marbles and mica schists. Geochemical data suggest a protolith of arc-related basalts metasomatized by Ca-rich fluids. Mineral assemblages, phase diagram modeling, and mineral compositions for a garnet pyroxenite and a garnet clinopyroxene gneiss reveal upper amphibolite to high-pressure granulite facies peak metamorphism (660-700°C, 11-12 kbar) following a counterclockwise P-T path, which is characterized by prograde burial and heating, followed by near-isothermal burial and retrograde exhumation and cooling. This P-T path is interpreted to have recorded crustal thickening of an earlier magmatic arc transformed to a fore arc by subduction erosion and subsequent burial along bent isotherms near the subduction channel. All studied samples record ca. 830-800 Ma metamorphic zircon U-Pb ages, which probably date the early exhumation and cooling according to Ti-in-zircon temperatures, zircon rare earth element patterns, and Hf isotopes. This is the first mid-Neoproterozoic P-T-t path in Tarim, and it provides metamorphic evidence for a mid-Neoproterozoic advancing-type accretionary orogeny, which is coeval with the initial breakup events of Rodinia and thus links Tarim to the circum-Rodinia accretion system, supporting the peripheral subduction model.

  10. Impact of volcanism on the evolution of Lake Van (eastern Anatolia) III: Periodic (Nemrut) vs. episodic (Süphan) explosive eruptions and climate forcing reflected in a tephra gap between ca. 14 ka and ca. 30 ka (United States)

    Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari


    Fifteen Lateglacial to Holocene rhyolitic, dominantly primary tephra layers piston-cored and drilled (ICDP Paleovan drilling project) in western Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey) were precisely correlated to either of the two adjacent and active large volcanoes Nemrut and Süphan based on shard textures, mineralogy and mineral and glass compositions. The young peralkaline (comenditic to pantelleritic) primary rhyolitic Nemrut tephras are characterized by anorthoclase, hedenbergitic to augitic clinopyroxene, fayalitic olivine, minor quartz, and rare accessory chevkinite and zircon. Phenocrysts in subalkaline primary rhyolitic Süphan tephras are chiefly oligoclase-labradorite, with minor K-rich sanidine in some, biotite, amphibole, hypersthene, rare augitic clinopyroxene, relatively common allanite and rare zircon. Two contrasting explosive eruptive modes are distinguished from each other: episodic (Süphan) and periodic (Nemrut). The Lateglacial Süphan tephra swarm covers a short time interval of ca. 338 years between ca. 13,078 vy BP and 12,740 vy BP, eruptions having occurred statistically every ca. 42 years with especially short intervals between V-11 (reworked) and V-14. Causes for the strongly episodic Süphan explosive behavior might include seismic triggering of a volcano-magma system unable to erupt explosively without the benefit of external triggering, as reflected in pervasive faulting preceding the Süphan tephra swarm. Seismic triggering may have caused the rise of more mafic ("trachyandesitic") parent magma, heating near-surface pockets of highly evolved magma - that might have formed silicic domes during this stage of volcano evolution - resulting in ascent and finally explosive fragmentation of magma essentially by external factors, probably significantly enhanced by magma-water/ice interaction. Explosive eruptions of the Nemrut volcano system, interpreted to be underlain by a large fractionating magma reservoir, follow a more periodic mode of (a

  11. The effect of weathering on U-Th-Pb and oxygen isotope systems of ancient zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia (United States)

    Pidgeon, R. T.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.


    We report the result of a SIMS U-Th-Pb and O-OH study of 44 ancient zircons from the Jack Hills in Western Australia with ages ranging from 4.3 Ga to 3.3 Ga. We have investigated the behaviour of oxygen isotopes and water in the grains by determining δ18O and OH values at a number of locations on the polished surfaces of each grain. We have divided the zircons into five groups on the basis of their U-Th-Pb and OH-oxygen isotopic behaviour. The first group has concordant U-Th-Pb ages, minimal common Pb, δ18O values consistent with zircons derived from mantle source rocks and no detectable OH content. U-Th-Pb systems in zircons from Groups 2, 3 and 4 vary from concordant to extremely discordant where influenced by cracks. Discordia intercepts with concordia at approximately zero Ma age are interpreted as disturbance of the zircon U-Th-Pb systems by weathering solutions during the extensive, deep weathering that has affected the Archean Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia since at least the Permian. Weathering solutions entering cracks have resulted in an influx of Th and U. δ18O values of Group 2 grains fall approximately within the "mantle" range and OH is within background levels or slightly elevated. δ18O values of Group 3 grains are characterised by an initial trend of decreasing δ18O with increasing OH content. With further increase in OH this trend reverses and δ18O becomes heavier with increasing OH. Group 4 grains have a distinct trend of increasing δ18O with increasing OH. These trends are explained in terms of the reaction of percolating water with the metamict zircon structure and appear to be independent of analytical overlap with cracks. Group five zircons are characterised by U-Pb systems that appear to consist of more than one age but show only minor U-Pb discordance. Nevertheless trends in δ18O versus OH in this group of grains resemble trends seen in the other groups. The observed trends of δ18O with OH in the Jack Hills zircons are similar

  12. Sonoma County, CA, 2013 Lidar (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sonoma County Vegetation Mapping and LiDAR Consortium retained WSI to provide lidar and Orthophoto data and derived products in Sonoma County, CA. A classified LAS...

  13. CA125 in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, M J; Bonfrer, J M; Kulpa, J


    value in the detection of early ovarian cancer. At present, therefore, CA125, either alone or in combination with other modalities, cannot be recommended for screening for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women outside the context of a randomized controlled trial. Preoperative levels in postmenopausal...... women, however, may aid the differentiation of benign and malignant pelvic masses. Serial levels during chemotherapy for ovarian cancer are useful for assessing response to treatment. Although serial monitoring following initial chemotherapy can lead to the early detection of recurrent disease......CA125 is currently the most widely used tumor marker for ovarian epithelial cancer. The aim of this article is to provide guidelines for the routine clinical use of CA125 in patients with ovarian cancer. Due to lack of sensitivity for stage I disease and lack of specificity, CA125 is of little...

  14. U-Pb Ages and Hf Isotope Compositions of Detrital Zircons from the Sandstone in the Early Cretaceous Wawukuang Formation in the Jiaolai Basin, Shandong Province and its Tectonic Implications%胶莱盆地早白垩世瓦屋夼组砂岩中碎屑锆石U-Pb-Hf同位素组成及其构造意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍腾飞; 杨德彬; 许文良; 王枫; 刘海彬; 师江朋


    LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and in situ Hf isotope analysis were carried out for the detrital zircons to constrain the depositional age and provenance of the Wawukuang Formation, which is believed as the earliest unit of the Laiyang Group in the Jiaolai Basin, and its implications. Most of these detrital zircons from the feldspar quartz sandstone in the Wawukuang Formation are magmatic in origin, which are euhedral-subhedral and display oscillatory zoning in CL images; whereas few Late Triassic detrital zircons are metamorphic in origin and structureless in CL images. U-Pb isotopic dating of 82 zircon grains yields age populations at ca. 129 Ma, 158 Ma, 224 Ma, 253 Ma, 461 Ma, 724 Ma, 1851 Ma and 2456 Ma. U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic results indicate that:1) the Wawukuang Formation deposited during the Early Cretaceous (129–106 Ma);2) the detrital zircons with the ages of 1851 Ma and 2456 Ma mainly sourced from the Precambrian basement rocks of the North China Craton;the Neoproterozoic (729–721 Ma) magmatic zircons and the Late Triassic (226–216 Ma) metamorphic zircons sourced from the Su-Lu terrane; The Late Paleozoic detrital zircons could source from the Late Paleozoic igneous rocks in the northern margin of the North China Craton;the Late Triassic (231–223 Ma) magmatic zircons and the 158–129 Ma zircons sourced from the coeval igneous rocks in the Jiaobei and Jiaodong;3) the deposition age and provenance of the Jiaolai Basin are different from those of the Hefei Basin; 4) the recognition of clastic sediments from the Su-Lu terrane in the Wawukuang Formation suggests that the Su-Lu terrane was under denudation in the Early Cretaceous.%本文报道了胶莱盆地莱阳群最底部瓦屋夼组长石石英砂岩中碎屑锆石的LA-ICP-MS U-Pb年代学和原位Hf同位素分析结果,进而约束了瓦屋夼组砂岩的沉积时代和物源及其构造意义。碎屑锆石多数呈自形–半自形晶,发育岩浆生长环带,暗示它们为岩浆成因

  15. Sun Lixin, Ren Bangfang, Zhao Fengqing, et al. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope characteristics of Taipingchuan large porphy-ritic granite pluton of Erguna Massif in the Great Xing'an Range.%额尔古纳地块太平川巨斑状花岗岩的锆石U-Pb年龄和Hf同位素特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立新; 任邦方; 赵凤清; 彭丽娜


    大兴安岭北段额尔古纳地块莫尔道嘎—太平川一带分布有大量的新元古代巨斑状花岗岩,该岩体形成的确切时代及成因尚不清楚。笔者等运用LA-ICP-MS技术进行了锆石U-Pb定年和锆石Hf同位素组成测定。锆石U-Pb年龄结果揭示太平川巨斑状花岗岩形成时代为791.4Ma。锆石Hf同位素研究显示εHf(t)为1.4~6.4,均〉0,反映亏损地幔来源新生地壳物质在花岗岩的形成中起主导作用,锆石Hf单阶段的模式年龄tDM为1.09~1.28Ga,与岩石的形成时间791.4Ma有较长的时间间隔,表明该区花岗岩的母岩来自具有较长地壳滞留时间的地壳物质的部分熔融。结合额尔古纳已有的花岗岩锆石Hf同位素资料,认为额尔古纳地块在中、新元古代曾发生过地壳增生事件,存在1.09~1.28Ga的中元古代晚期增生地壳。%Taipingchuan large porphyritic granite pluton was developed in the Erguna Massif in the northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China. The precise age of the formation and genesis of this pluton are unclear. The authors have carried out zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotope studies by means of LA-ICP-MS. Zircon U-Pb dating results revealed that the age of Taipingchuan granite is 791.4 Ma. Zircon Hf isotope characteristics indicate that the zircon enf (t)values of the granite range from 1.4 to 6. 4, implying that the depleted-mantle- derived juvenile crustal material played an important role in the formation of the granite magma. The 2-stage model ages t~,~of 1.09 - 1.28 Ca, as revealed by Hf composition in zircon, showed rather large interval with the formation age 791.4 Ma of the granite. It indicates that the parental magma of the granitic rock in this region was derived from the partial melting of the crustal material which had a long resident time within the crust. Combined with the previous zircon Hf isotope data obtained from Erguna Massif, the authors hold that there had been crustal accretion event in

  16. Amplifying Earth history: Zircon U-Pb geochronology by ID-TIMS at the 0.1 ‰ level using new 1013 ohm resistors (United States)

    Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; von Quadt, Albrecht


    Precise and accurate radiometric dating of volcanic ash beds in sedimentary successions is the backbone of the numerical calibration of Earth history. Uranium-lead geochronology by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) is the most precise and accurate dating technique and is applicable to most of Earth history from the Hadean to the Pleistocene. The accessory mineral zircon is the prime target material due to its commonly high U concentration, virtually no initial Pb and high daughter-product retentivity. However, complex crystallization histories as well as magmatic and sedimentary recycling of zircons require the analysis of single crystals resulting in small amounts of radiogenic Pb (Pb* usually dates with uncertainties <0.2 ‰ for high-Pb* zircons and weighted mean ages for populations of closed system zircons with uncertainties <0.1 ‰ . This level of temporal resolution will allow to better quantify the timing and durations of critical intervals in Earth history, evaluate causalities between different events such as flood basalt eruptions and mass extinctions, quantify rates of changes in biodiversity and assess the origin of cyclic patterns in the sedimentary records. [1] von Quadt, A., Wotzlaw, J.F., Buret, Y., Large, S., Peytcheva, I., Trinquier, A., 2016, High-precision zircon U/Pb geochronology by ID-TIMS using new 1013 ohm resistors. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., DOI: 10.1039/C5JA00457H

  17. SHRIMP zircon dating and LA-ICPMS Hf analysis of early Precambrian rocks from drill holes into the basement beneath the Central Hebei Basin, North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusheng Wan; Runlong Fan; Huiyi Sun; Xianzheng Zhao; Zejiu Wang; Dunyi Liu; Alfred Kröner; Chunyan Dong; Hangqian Xie; Yuansheng Geng; Yuhai Zhang


    The Central Hebei Basin (CHB) is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the North China Craton, extending in a northeastesouthwest direction with an area of>350 km2. We carried out SHRIMP zircon dating, Hf-in-zircon isotopic analysis and a whole-rock geochemical study on igneous and metasedi-mentary rocks recovered from drill holes that penetrated into the basement of the CHB. Two samples of gneissic granodiorite (XG1-1) and gneissic quartz diorite (J48-1) have magmatic ages of 2500 and 2496 Ma, respectively. Their zircons also record metamorphic ages of 2.41e2.51 and w2.5 Ga, respec-tively. Compared with the gneissic granodiorite, the gneissic quartz diorite has higher SREE contents and lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Yb)n values. Two metasedimentary samples (MG1, H5) mainly contain w2.5 Ga detrital zircons as well as late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic grains. The zircons of different origins haveεHf (2.5 Ga) values and Hf crustal model ages ranging from 0 to 5 and 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, respectively. Therefore, w2.5 Ga magmatic and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic and late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events have been identified in the basement beneath the CHB. Based on regional comparisons, we conclude that the early Precambrian basement beneath the CHB is part of the North China Craton.

  18. Hf isotopes of the 3.8 Ga zircons in eastern Hebei Province, China: Implications for early crustal evolution of the North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fuyuan; YANG Jinhui; LIU Xiaoming; LI Tiesheng; XIE Liewen; YANG Yueheng


    Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the fuchsite quartzite in eastern Hebei Province was derived from weathering and erosion of the 3.6-3.8 Ga granitic rocks. In-situ zircon Hf analyses show that the Lu-Hf isotopic system remained closed during later thermal disturbances. Zircons with concordant ages have Hf isotopic model ages of about 3.8 Ga, suggesting a recycling of this ancient crust. The ~3.8 Ga zircons have similar Hf isotopic compositions to those of chondrite, indicating that their source rocks (granitic rocks) were derived from partial melting of the juvenile crust which originated from a mantle without significant crust-mantle differentiation. Therefore, it is proposed that there was no large-scale crustal growth before ~3.8 Ga in eastern Hebei Province. Considering zircon Hf isotopic data from other areas, it is concluded that the most ancient crust in the North China Craton probably formed at about 4.0 Ga, and the possibility to find crust older than 4.0 Ga is very limited.

  19. Micro-analytical uranium isotope and chemical investigations of zircon crystals from the Chernobyl “lava” and their nuclear fuel inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pöml, P., E-mail: [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Burakov, B. [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy and Radiogeochemistry, V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 28, 2-nd Murinskiy Ave., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Geisler, T. [Steinmann Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, University of Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Walker, C.T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Grange, M.L.; Nemchin, A.A. [Department of Applied Geology, Western Australian School of Mines, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Berndt, J. [Institut für Mineralogie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Corrensstraße 24, 48149 Münster (Germany); Fonseca, R.O.C. [Steinmann Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, University of Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Bottomley, P.D.W.; Hasnaoui, R. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    U isotope data measured on real fragments of the Chernobyl nuclear fuel included in zircon crystals crystallised from the Chernobyl “lava” are presented for the first time. The U isotope data show no anomalies and lie within the expected burnup values for the Chernobyl nuclear fuel. However, the U concentration, the U isotopic composition, and the Ti concentration in the host zircon vary significantly within single crystals as well as between single crystals. Our results indicate that during the time of melt activity temperature and melt composition likely varied considerably. New melt was formed progressively (and solidified) during the accident that reacted and mixed with pre-existing melt that never fully equilibrated. In such an environment zircon crystals crystallised at temperatures below 1250 °C, as estimated from thermodynamic considerations along with the observation that the centre of the investigated zircon crystal contains monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} inclusions. Since the zircon crystals crystallised before the silicate melt spread out into the reactor block basement, the flow of the melt into the basement must also have occurred at temperatures below 1250 °C.

  20. Grenvillian orogeny in the Southern Cathaysia Block: Constraints from U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopes in zircon from metamorphic basement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG LiJuan; YU JinHai; S.Y. O'REILLY; W.L. GRIFFIN; SUN Tao; WEI ZhenYang; JIANG ShaoYong; SHU LiangShu


    Metamorphic basement rocks in the Cathaysia Block are composed mainly of meta-sediments with different ages. New zircon U-Pb geochronological results from the meta-sedimentary rocks exposed in the Zengcheng and Hezi areas, southern Cathaysia Block, show that they consist dominantly of early Neoproterozoic (1.0-0.9 Ga) materials with minor Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic and late Neoproterozoic (0.8-0.6 Ga) components, suggesting that the detritus mostly come from a Grenvillian orogen. The youngest detrital zircon ages place a constraint on the deposition time of these sediments in Late Neoproterozoic. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the Grenvillian zircons were derived from the reworking of Mesoproterozoic arc magmatic rocks and Paleoproterozoic continental crust, implying an arc-continent collisional setting. Single-peak age spectra and the presence of abundant euhedral Grenvillian zircons suggest that the sedimentary provenance is not far away from the sample location. Thus, the Grenvillian orogen probably preexisted along the southern margin of the Cathaysia Block, or very close to the south. Similarity in the ages of Grenvillian orogeny and the influence of the assembly of Gondwana in South China with India and East Antarctic are discussed, with suggestion that South China was more likely linked with the India-East Antarctica continents in Early Neoproterozoic rather than between western Laurentia and eastern Australia.

  1. Chronology and Sources of Mesozoic Intrusive Complexes in the Xuzhou-Huainan Region, Central China:Constraints from SHRIMP Zircon U-Pb Dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wenliang; WANG Qinghai; LIU Xiaochun; WANG Dongyan; GUO Jinghui


    SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating in the Liguo and Jiagou intmsives indicates that they were formed at ~130 Ma in the Early Cretaceous. Most inherited zircons in the Liguo intrusive were formed at 2509±43 Ma. Most inherited and detrital zircons in the Jiagou intrusive were formed at ~2500 Ma, ~2000 Ma and ~1800 Ma. The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating in two gneiss xenoliths from the Jiagou intrusive yields the ages of 2461+22 Ma and 2508±15 Ma, respectively. The dating results from inherited and detrital zircons in the intmsives and the gneiss xenoliths imply that the magmas could be derived from the partial melting of the basement of the North China Block (NCB). The magmatism is strong and extensive in the periods from 115 to 132 Ma, which is of typical bimodal characteristics. It is suggested that the lithospheric thinning in the eastern North China Block reached its peak in 115-132 Ma.

  2. Fluid inclusions hidden in coesite-bearing zircons in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks from southwestern Sulu terrane in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fulai; XU Zhiqin


    Primary fluid inclusions, together with coesite mineral inclusions, are identified in the same zircon domains by laser Raman spectroscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL) image and micro-texture analysis in paragneiss and eclogite from the main drilling hole of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in southwestern Sulu terrane. Most fluid inclusions are characterized by CO2 (gas)-H2O (liquid) two-phase, a few by H2O one-phase liquid inclusions. These features indicate that the eclogite and its country-rocks may be located in the "wet system" rather than in the "dry system" during UHP metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Pb dating indicates that the timing of trapping the fluid and coesite inclusions in metamorphic zircon domains is about 233.7 ± 4.3 Ma, which may represent the age of zircon growth in the stage of pressure decrease but temperature increase during the retrograde period of UHP metamorphism thus indicating the fluid activity still under the UHP conditions. The zircons further overgrew at about 213.2 ± 5.2 Ma in response to amphibolite-facies retrogression. Therefore, fluid activity in the Sulu UHP metamorphic rocks principally occurred during the exhumation of UHP slab in the Middle to Late Triassic. The present results not only provide insight into the fluid property and fluid-rock interaction mechanism in the Sulu-Dabie UHP terrane, but also present a new means to exactly identify the primary fluid inclusions preserved in zircons from the UHP metamorphic rocks.

  3. Provenance records of the North Jiangsu Basin,East China:Zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry from the Paleogene Dainan Formation in the Gaoyou Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ming; Lin; Xia; Zhang; Ni; Zhang; Shun-Yong; Chen; Jian; Zhou; Yu-Rui; Liu


    Detailed zircon U-Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analyses were carried out on the sedimentary rocks of the Paleogene Dainan Formation from Gaoyou Sag in the North Jiangsu Basin,East China.Whole-rock rare earth element characteristics suggest that the provenance was mainly from the Late Proterozoic low-grade metamorphic felsic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt,with the parent rocks probably being the I-type high-potassium granite gneiss.Cathodoluminescence images indicate that most of the detrital zircons are originally magmatic.A few zircons show overgrowths,indicating multiple-episode tectonic events.The U-Pb age distribution patterns of the detrital zircons suggest four main magmatic episodes in the provenance:Late Archean-Early Proterozoic(2450-2600 Ma),Early Proterozoic(1700-1900 Ma),Late Proterozoic(700-850 Ma),and Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic(100-300 Ma).These zircon U-Pb age and whole-rock geochemical results suggest that the sediments of the Dainan Formation were mainly sourced from the recycled orogenic belts within and/or around the North Jiangsu Basin,including the basement of the Yangtze Block,the Neoproterozoic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt,and the Mesozoic igneous rocks in the south part of Zhangbaling Uplift.

  4. Roundness of heavy minerals (zircon and apatite) as a provenance tool for unraveling recycling: A case study from the Sefidrud and Sarbaz rivers in N and SE Iran (United States)

    Zoleikhaei, Yousef; Frei, Dirk; Morton, Andrew; Zamanzadeh, S. Mohammad


    In order to improve techniques for provenance studies, and