WorldWideScience

Sample records for c9 control techniques

  1. CYP2C9 variants as a risk modifier of NSAID-related gastrointestinal bleeding: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estany-Gestal, Ana; Aguirre, Carmelo; Ruiz, Borja; Vidal, Xavier; Carvajal, Alfonso; Salado, Inés; Salgado-Barreira, Angel; Rodella, Luca; Moretti, Ugo; Ibáñez, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether the CYP2C9*2 and/or *3 variants might modify the risk for NSAID-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in NSAID users. Patients and methods We conducted a multicenter, case–control study in which cases were patients aged more than 18 years with a diagnosis of UGIB, and controls were matched (1 : 3) by sex, age, date of admission, and hospital. Exposure was defined as the mean number of defined daily doses (DDDs) of NSAIDs metabolized by CYP2C9 in the week preceding the index date. Three DDD categories were defined (0, ≤0.5, and >0.5). Exposure was constructed taking both NSAID use and CYP2C9 polymorphisms into account. Patients of non-European origin were excluded from the analysis. Results A total of 577 cases and 1343 controls were finally included in the analysis: 103 cases and 89 controls consumed NSAIDs metabolized by CYP2C9, and 88 cases and 177 controls were CYP2C9*3 carriers. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of UGIB associated with the CYP2C9*2 and wild-type alleles proved to be similar [OR=8.79 (4.50–17.17) and 10.15 (2.92–35.35), respectively] and lower than those of the CYP2C9*3 allele [aOR=18.07 (6.34–51.53)] for consumers taking more than 0.5 DDDs of NSAIDs metabolized by CYP2C9. Grouping genotypes into carriers and noncarriers of the CYP2C9*3 variant resulted in aORs of 16.92 (4.96–57.59) for carriers and 9.72 (4.55–20.76) for noncarriers, where DDDs were greater than 0.5. Conclusion The presence of the CYP2C9*3 variant increases the risk for UGIB associated with NSAID for DDDs greater than 0.5. The presence of the CYP2C9*2 allele shows no such effect. PMID:26544900

  2. Water solubility of selected C9-C18 alkanes using a slow-stir technique: Comparison to structure - property models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letinski, Daniel J; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Connelly, Martin J; Peterson, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous solubility is a fundamental physical-chemical substance property that strongly influences the distribution, fate and effects of chemicals upon release into the environment. Experimental water solubility was determined for 18 selected C9-C18 normal, branched and cyclic alkanes. A slow-stir technique was applied to obviate emulsion formation, which historically has resulted in significant overestimation of the aqueous solubility of such hydrophobic liquid compounds. Sensitive GC-MS based methods coupled with contemporary sample extraction techniques were employed to enable reproducible analysis of low parts-per billion aqueous concentrations. Water solubility measurements for most of the compounds investigated, are reported for the first time expanding available data for branched and cyclic alkanes. Measured water solubilities spanned four orders of magnitude ranging from 0.3 μg/L to 250 μg/L. Good agreement was observed for selected alkanes tested in this work and reported in earlier literature demonstrating the robustness of the slow-stir water solubility technique. Comparisons of measured alkane water solubilities were also made with those predicted by commonly used quantitative structure-property relationship models (e.g. SPARC, EPIWIN, ACD/Labs). Correlations are also presented between alkane measured water solubilities and molecular size parameters (e.g. molar volume, solvent accessible molar volume) affirming a mechanistic description of empirical aqueous solubility results and prediction previously reported for a more limited set of alkanes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural analysis of CYP2C9 and CYP2C5 and an evaluation of commonly used molecular modeling techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Lovisa; Raubacher, Florian; Karlén, Anders

    2004-01-01

    , newly built homology models, and repeated molecular dynamics simulations. The CPCA was based on molecular interaction fields focused on the active site regions of the proteins and include detailed amino acid analysis. The comparison of the CYP2C9 and CYP2C5 crystal structures revealed differences...... in the flexible regions such as the B-C and F-G loop and the N and C termini. Cross homology models of CYP2C9 and CYP2C5, using their respective crystal structures as templates, indicated that such models were more similar to their templates than to their target proteins. Inclusion of multiple templates slightly......This work had two separate aims: to evaluate different modeling techniques and to make a detailed structural characterization of CYP2C9. To achieve these goals, the consensus principal component analysis (CPCA) technique and distance measurements were used to explore available crystal structures...

  4. Update of the Picker C9 irradiator control system of the gamma II room of the secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration; Actualizacion del sistema de control del irradiador Picker C9 de la sala gamma II del laboratorio secundario de calibracion dosimetrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon S, L. E.

    2016-07-01

    The Picker C9 irradiator is responsible for the calibration of different radiological equipment and the control system that maintains it in operation is designed in the graphical programming software LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench), being its major advantages: the different types of communication, easy interconnection with other software and the recognition of different hardware devices, among others. Operation of the irradiator control system is performed with the NI-Usb-6008 (DAQ) data acquisition module of the National Instruments Company. The purpose of this work is to update the routines that make the Picker C9 control system of the gamma II room of the secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration, using the graphic programming software LabVIEW, as well as to configure the new acquisition hardware of data that is implemented to control the Picker C9 irradiator system and ensure its operation. (Author)

  5. Contamination Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  6. Advanced Wavefront Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Avicola, K; Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Winters, S; Hartley, R; Wihelmsen, J; Dowla, F V; Carrano, C J; Bauman, B J; Pennington, D M; Lande, D; Sawvel, R M; Silva, D A; Cooke, J B; Brown, C G

    2001-02-21

    Programs at LLNL that involve large laser systems--ranging from the National Ignition Facility to new tactical laser weapons--depend on the maintenance of laser beam quality through precise control of the optical wavefront. This can be accomplished using adaptive optics, which compensate for time-varying aberrations that are often caused by heating in a high-power laser system. Over the past two decades, LLNL has developed a broad capability in adaptive optics technology for both laser beam control and high-resolution imaging. This adaptive optics capability has been based on thin deformable glass mirrors with individual ceramic actuators bonded to the back. In the case of high-power lasers, these adaptive optics systems have successfully improved beam quality. However, as we continue to extend our applications requirements, the existing technology base for wavefront control cannot satisfy them. To address this issue, this project studied improved modeling tools to increase our detailed understanding of the performance of these systems, and evaluated novel approaches to low-order wavefront control that offer the possibility of reduced cost and complexity. We also investigated improved beam control technology for high-resolution wavefront control. Many high-power laser systems suffer from high-spatial-frequency aberrations that require control of hundreds or thousands of phase points to provide adequate correction. However, the cost and size of current deformable mirrors can become prohibitive for applications requiring more than a few tens of phase control points. New phase control technologies are becoming available which offer control of many phase points with small low-cost devices. The goal of this project was to expand our wavefront control capabilities with improved modeling tools, new devices that reduce system cost and complexity, and extensions to high spatial and temporal frequencies using new adaptive optics technologies. In FY 99, the second year of

  7. Novel clinical associations with specific C9ORF72 transcripts in patients with repeat expansions in C9ORF72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blitterswijk, Marka; Gendron, Tania F; Baker, Matthew C; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Finch, NiCole A; Brown, Patricia H; Daughrity, Lillian M; Murray, Melissa E; Heckman, Michael G; Jiang, Jie; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Edbauer, Dieter; Cleveland, Don W; Josephs, Keith A; Parisi, Joseph E; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Petrucelli, Leonard; Boeve, Bradley F; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Boylan, Kevin B; Dickson, Dennis W; Rademakers, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    The loss of chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) expression, associated with C9ORF72 repeat expansions, has not been examined systematically. Three C9ORF72 transcript variants have been described thus far; the GGGGCC repeat is located between two non-coding exons (exon 1a and exon 1b) in the promoter region of transcript variant 2 (NM_018325.4) or in the first intron of variant 1 (NM_145005.6) and variant 3 (NM_001256054.2). We studied C9ORF72 expression in expansion carriers (n = 56) for whom cerebellum and/or frontal cortex was available. Using quantitative real-time PCR and digital molecular barcoding techniques, we assessed total C9ORF72 transcripts, variant 1, variant 2, variant 3, and intron containing transcripts [upstream of the expansion (intron 1a) and downstream of the expansion (intron 1b)]; the latter were correlated with levels of poly(GP) and poly(GA) proteins aberrantly translated from the expansion as measured by immunoassay (n = 50). We detected a decrease in expansion carriers as compared to controls for total C9ORF72 transcripts, variant 1, and variant 2: the strongest association was observed for variant 2 (quantitative real-time PCR cerebellum: median 43 %, p = 1.26e-06, and frontal cortex: median 58 %, p = 1.11e-05; digital molecular barcoding cerebellum: median 31 %, p = 5.23e-10, and frontal cortex: median 53 %, p = 5.07e-10). Importantly, we revealed that variant 1 levels greater than the 25th percentile conferred a survival advantage [digital molecular barcoding cerebellum: hazard ratio (HR) 0.31, p = 0.003, and frontal cortex: HR 0.23, p = 0.0001]. When focusing on intron containing transcripts, analysis of the frontal cortex revealed an increase of potentially truncated transcripts in expansion carriers as compared to controls [digital molecular barcoding frontal cortex (intron 1a): median 272 %, p = 0.003], with the highest levels in patients pathologically diagnosed with frontotemporal lobar degeneration

  8. Statistical Techniques for Project Control

    CERN Document Server

    Badiru, Adedeji B

    2012-01-01

    A project can be simple or complex. In each case, proven project management processes must be followed. In all cases of project management implementation, control must be exercised in order to assure that project objectives are achieved. Statistical Techniques for Project Control seamlessly integrates qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques for project control. It fills the void that exists in the application of statistical techniques to project control. The book begins by defining the fundamentals of project management then explores how to temper quantitative analysis with qualitati

  9. Monitoring by Control Technique - Cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about cyclone control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  10. fuzzy control technique fuzzy control technique applied to modified

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1, 2 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE. NIGERIA. Email addresses: 1 patience.orukpe@uniben.edu, 2 abdu4engine91@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. In this paper, fuzzy control technique is applied to the modified mathematical model for malaria ...

  11. Part I---Evaluating Effects of Oligomer Formation on Cytochrome P450 2C9 Electron Transfer and Drug Metabolism, Part II---Utilizing Molecular Modeling Techniques to Study the Src-Interacting Proteins Actin Filament Associated Protein of 110 kDa (AFAP-110) and Cortactin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, John Edward, Jr.

    The dissertation has been divided into two parts to accurately reflect the two distinct areas of interest pursued during my matriculation in the School of Pharmacy at West Virginia University. In Part I, I discuss research probing the nature of electron transfer in the Cytochrome P450 family of proteins, a group of proteins well-known for their role in drug metabolism. In Part II, I focus on in silico and in vitro work developed in concert to probe protein structure and protein-protein interactions involved in actin filament reorganization and cellular motility. Part I. Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are an important class of enzymes known to metabolize a variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. P450s are most commonly found in liver and intestinal endothelial cells and are responsible for the metabolism of approximately 75% of pharmaceutical drugs on the market. CYP2C9---one of the six major P450 isoforms---is responsible for ˜20% of drug metabolism. Elucidation of the factors that affect in vitro drug metabolism is crucial to the accurate prediction of in vivo drug metabolism kinetics. Currently, the two major techniques for studying in vitro drug metabolism are solution-based. However, it is known that the results of solution-based studies can vary from in vivo drug metabolism. One reason suggested to account for this variation is the state of P450 oligomer formation in solution compared to the in vivo environment, where P450s are membrane-bound. To understand the details of how oligomer formation affects in vitro drug metabolism, it is imperative that techniques be developed which will allow for the unequivocal control of oligomer formation without altering other experimental parameters. Our long term goal of this research is to develop methods to more accurately predict in vivo drug metabolism from in vitro data. This section of the dissertation will discuss the development of a platform consisting of a doped silicon surface containing a large array of gold

  12. Project orientated planning, scheduling and controlling technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Project orientated planning, scheduling and controlling technique. ... In the past several years, there has been an explosive growth of management technique to be used for planning and controlling projects. ... Comparison of actual times with available times enables control to be exerted in the performance of the project.

  13. fuzzy control technique fuzzy control technique applied to modified

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    guarantee that malaria infection can be reduced to a tolerable limit. Keywords: Keywords: fuzzy control, malaria, drug effectiveness, mosquitoes, equilibrium state, dynamic equation. 1. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a vector borne infectious disease that has affected the human race since ...

  14. Clinical relevance of genetic polymorphism in CYP2C9 gene to pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of phenytoin in epileptic patients: validatory pharmacogenomic approach to pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousar, Shazia; Wafai, Zahoor A; Wani, Mushtaq A; Jan, Tariq R; Andrabi, Khurshid I

    2015-07-01

    Variations in drug metabolizing genes are known to have a clinical impact on AED therapy. We genotyped normal and epileptic patient cohorts of monoethnic population of Kashmir valley for CYP2C9 gene and allelic polymorphism and investigated the effect of CYP2C9*2 and *3 polymorphism on the Pharmacokinetic and therapeutic and/or adverse pharmacodynamic responses to Phenytoin in the idiopathic epilepsy patients. PCR-RFLP methods were used for genotyping of 121 normal controls and 92 idiopathic epilepsy patients for CYP2C9*2 and *3 polymorphism, the results were validated by direct sequencing. Phenytoin pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis in idiopathic epilepsy patients was done using a validated EMIT assay technique. Pharmacodynamic analysis was done by evaluating clinical response to phenytoin therapy and ADR monitoring. The respective frequencies of CYP2C9 *1, *2, and *3 alleles were 64%, 6.6%, 29.3%, and 58%, 9.8%, 32.6% in controls and idiopathic epilepsy patients from Kashmir valley. PK analysis revealed that AUC0–4 was a better surrogate biomarker of CYP2C9 metabolizer status compared to C4 and C0 concentrations alone. A comparison of “phenytoin response categories” among CYP2C9 Wild and Heterozygous groups did not reveal any significant difference between the groups (p=0.3800). CYP2C9* 3 was the most frequent mutant allele found in healthy controls and idiopathic epilepsy patients of ethnic Kashmiri population. CYP2C9 genotype based phenytoin therapy is highly relevant in Kashmiri population due to a high incidence of genetic variations associated with therapeutic and adverse responses to phenytoin. Phenytoin AUC0–4 tends to correlate better with genetic polymorphism of CYP2C9.

  15. Techniques of Ultrasound Cavitation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Skvortsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The control methods of ultrasonic cavitation applied now within the range from 20 kHz to 80 kHz use either control of ultrasound source parameters (amplitude, acoustic power, etc. or control of one of the cavitation effects (erosion of materials, sonoluminescence, power of acoustic noise, etc.. These methods provide effective management of technological processes, however, make it impossible to relate the estimated effect with parameters of pulsations of cavitation bubbles. This is, mainly, due to influence of a number of uncontrollable parameters, in particular, such as temperature, composition of liquid, gas content, etc. as well as because of the difficulty to establish interrelation between the estimated effect and parameters of pulsations. As a result, in most cases it is difficult to compare controlled parameters of ultrasonic cavitation among themselves, and quantitative characteristics of processes become depending on the type of ultrasonic installation and conditions of their measurement.In this regard, methods to determine parameters of bubble pulsations through sounding a cavitation area by low-intensity laser radiation or to record cavitation noise sub-harmonics reflecting dynamics of changing radius of cavitation bubbles are of interest. The method of optical sounding, via the analysis of spectral components of a scattered signal recorded by a photo-detector, allows us to define a phase of the bubbles collapse with respect to the sound wave and a moving speed of the bubbles wall, as well as to estimate a cavitation index within the light beam section.The method to record sub-harmonicas of cavitation noise allows us to define parameters of pulsations, average for cavitation areas.The above methods allow us both to study mechanisms of cavitation action and to form quantitative criteria of its efficiency based on the physical processes, rather than their consequences and are convenient for arranging a feedback in the units using

  16. Visible absorptions of potential diffuse ISM hydrocarbons: C$_9$H$_9$ and C$_9$H$_5$ radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Steglich, Mathias; Maity, Surajit; Maier, John P.

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory detection of previously unobserved resonance-stabilized C$_9$H$_5$ and C$_9$H$_9$ radicals in the supersonic expansion of a hydrocarbon discharge source is reported. The radicals are tentatively assigned as acetylenic-substituted cyclopentadienyl C$_9$H$_5$ and vinyl-substituted benzyl C$_9$H$_9$ species. They are found to feature visible absorption bands that coincide with a few very weak diffuse interstellar bands toward HD183143 and HD204827.

  17. Length of normal alleles of C9ORF72 GGGGCC repeat do not influence disease phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Nicola J.; Heckman, Michael G.; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Baker, Matt C.; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I.; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Stewart, Heather; Finger, Elizabeth; Volkening, Kathryn; Seeley, William W.; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kertesz, Andrew; Bigio, Eileen H.; Lippa, Carol; Knopman, David S.; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Neumann, Manuela; Caselli, Richard J.; White, Charles L.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Strong, Michael J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Uitti, Ryan J.; Boylan, Kevin; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Ross, Owen A.; Rademakers, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Expansions of the non-coding GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) gene were recently identified as the long sought-after cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on chromosome 9p. In this study we aimed to determine whether the length of the normal - unexpanded - allele of the GGGGCC repeat in C9ORF72 plays a role in the presentation of disease or affects age at onset in C9ORF72 mutation carriers. We also studied whether the GGGGCC repeat length confers risk or affects age at onset in FTD and ALS patients without C9ORF72 repeat expansions. C9ORF72 genotyping was performed in 580 FTD, 995 ALS and 160 FTD-ALS patients and 1444 controls, leading to the identification of 211 patients with pathogenic C9ORF72 repeat expansions and an accurate quantification of the length of the normal alleles in all patients and controls. No meaningful association between the repeat length of the normal alleles of the GGGGCC repeat in C9ORF72 and disease phenotype or age at onset was observed in C9ORF72 mutation carriers or non-mutation carriers. PMID:22840558

  18. Monitoring by Control Technique - Activated Carbon Adsorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Activated Carbon Adsorber control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  19. Monitoring by Control Technique - Electrostatic Precipitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about electrostatic precipitator control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  20. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  1. Correlations of CYP2C9*3/CYP2D6*10/CYP3A5*3 gene polymorphisms with efficacy of etanercept treatment for patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Yuan

    2017-03-01

    The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitor etanercept has been proven to be effective in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), while genetic polymorphism may affect drug metabolism or drug receptor, resulting in interindividual variability in drug disposition and efficacy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlations between CYP2C9*3/CYP2D6*10/CYP3A5*3 gene polymorphisms and the efficacy of etanercept treatment for patients with AS. From March 2012 to June 2015, 312 AS patients (174 males and 138 females, mean age: 35.2 ± 5.83 years) from 18 to 56 years old were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was applied to detect the allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C93, CYP2D610, and CYP3A53 gene polymorphisms. The joint swelling score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level of AS patients were compared before and after 24-week etanercept treatment. Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) and bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) scores were recorded to assess the efficacy of etanercept treatment. The AS patients with wild-type 1/1 and heterozygous 1/3 genotypes of CYP2C93 polymorphism accounted for 93.59% and 6.41%, respectively, without 3/3 genotype. The AS patients with wild-type CC, heterozygous CT, and mutation homozygous TT genotypes of CYP2D610 polymorphism accounted for 19.23%, 39.10%, and 41.67%, respectively. The AS patients with wild-type 1/1, heterozygous 1/3, and mutation homozygous 3/3 genotypes of CYP3A53 polymorphism accounted for 7.69%, 36.22%, and 56.09%, respectively. After 24-week treatment, AS patients with wild-type 1/1 genotype of CYP2C93, CC genotype of CYP2D610, and 3/3 genotype of CYP3A53 polymorphisms had lower joint swelling score, ESR, and CRP level. The joint swelling score, ESR, and CRP levels were significantly lower in the patients with CC genotype of CYP2D610 polymorphism than in CT and

  2. Predicting drug metabolism by cytochrome P450 2C9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydberg, Patrik; Olsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    By the use of knowledge gained through modeling of drug metabolism mediated by the cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 isoforms, we constructed a 2D-based model for site-of-metabolism prediction for the cytochrome P450 2C9 isoform. The similarities and differences between the models for the 2C9 and 2D6...

  3. Myoelectric Control Techniques for a Rehabilitation Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines two different types of myoelectric control schemes for the purpose of rehabilitation robot applications. The first is a commonly used technique based on a Gaussian classifier. It is implemented in real time for healthy subjects in addition to a subject with Central Cord Syndrome (CCS. The myoelectric control scheme is used to control three degrees of freedom (DOF on a robot manipulator which corresponded to the robot's elbow joint, wrist joint, and gripper. The classes of motion controlled include elbow flexion and extension, wrist pronation and supination, hand grasping and releasing, and rest. Healthy subjects were able to achieve 90% accuracy. Single DOF controllers were first tested on the subject with CCS and he achieved 100%, 96%, and 85% accuracy for the elbow, gripper, and wrist controllers respectively. Secondly, he was able to control the three DOF controller at 68% accuracy. The potential applications for this scheme are rehabilitation and teleoperation. To overcome limitations in the pattern recognition based scheme, a second myoelectric control scheme is also presented which is trained using electromyographic (EMG data derived from natural reaching motions in the sagittal plane. This second scheme is based on a time delayed neural network (TDNN which has the ability to control multiple DOF at once. The controller tracked a subject's elbow and shoulder joints in the sagittal plane. Results showed an average error of 19° for the two joints. This myoelectric control scheme has the potential of being used in the development of exoskeleton and orthotic rehabilitation applications.

  4. Allele frequency distribution of CYP2C9 2 and CYP2C9 3 polymorphisms in six Mexican populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Sandoval-García, Emmanuel; Sandoval-Ramírez, Lucila; González-Ibarra, Miriam; Solano-Solano, Gloria; Gómez-Díaz, Rita A; Parra, Esteban J; Cruz, Miguel; Valladares-Salgado, Adán

    2013-07-10

    Allele frequency differences of functional CYP2C9 polymorphisms are responsible for some of the variation in drug response observed in human populations. The most relevant CYP2C9 functional variants are CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853) and CYP2C9 3 (rs1057910). These polymorphisms show variation in allele frequencies among different population groups. The present study aimed to analyze these polymorphisms in 947 Mexican-Mestizo from Mexico City and 483 individuals from five indigenous Mexican populations: Nahua, Teenek, Tarahumara, Purepecha and Huichol. The CYP2C9*2 allele frequencies in the Mestizo, Nahua and Teenek populations were 0.051, 0.007 and 0.005, respectively. As for CYP2C9 3, the allelic frequencies in the Mestizo, Nahua and Teenek populations were 0.04, 0.005 and 0.005, respectively. The CYP2C9 2 and CYP2C9 3 alleles were not observed in the Tarahumara, Purepecha and Huichol populations. These findings are in agreement with previous studies reporting very low allele frequencies for these polymorphisms in American Indigenous populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Admission Control Techniques for UMTS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kejik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS is one of the 3rd generation (3G cell phone technologies. The capacity of UMTS is interference limited. Radio resources management (RRM functions are therefore used. They are responsible for supplying optimum coverage, ensuring efficient use of physical resources, and providing the maximum planned capacity. This paper deals with admission control techniques for UMTS. An own UMTS simulation program and several versions of proposed admission control algorithms are presented in this paper. These algorithms are based on fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. The performance of algorithms is verified via simulations.

  6. The metabolic signature of C9ORF72-related ALS: FDG PET comparison with nonmutated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cistaro, Angelina; Fania, Piercarlo [Positron Emission Tomography Center IRMET S.p.A, Torino (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Montuschi, Anna; Moglia, Cristina; Canosa, Antonio [University of Torino, ' Rita Levi Montalcini' Department of Neuroscience, Torino (Italy); Calvo, Andrea; Lopiano, Leonardo [University of Torino, ' Rita Levi Montalcini' Department of Neuroscience, Torino (Italy); Neuroscience Institute of Turin, Turin (Italy); Restagno, Gabriella; Brunetti, Maura [Azienda Ospedaliera Citta della Salute e della Scienza, Molecular Genetics Unit, Department of Clinical Pathology, Torino (Italy); Traynor, Bryan J. [National Institute on Ageing, National Institutes of Health, Neuromuscular Diseases Research Unit, Laboratory of Neurogenetics, Bethesda, MD (United States); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genova, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genova (Italy); Carrara, Giovanna; Valentini, M.C. [Azienda Ospedaliera Citta della Salute e della Scienza, Department of Neuroradiology, Torino (Italy); Chio, Adriano [University of Torino, ' Rita Levi Montalcini' Department of Neuroscience, Torino (Italy); Neuroscience Institute of Turin, Turin (Italy); ALS Center, ' Rita Levi Montalcini' Department of Neuroscience, Torino (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Recently, a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene, located on chromosome 9p21 has been demonstrated to be the commonest cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to account for 5 to 10 % of apparently sporadic ALS. Relatively little is known about the brain metabolism profile of patients carrying the expansion. Our aim was to identify the [{sup 18}F]FDG PET profile in ALS patients with the C9ORF72 expansion (C9ORF72-ALS). Fifteen C9ORF72-ALS patients were compared with 12 patients with ALS and comorbid frontotemporal dementia (FTD) without the C9ORF72 expansion (ALS-FTD) and 30 cognitively normal patients with ALS without mutations of ALS-related genes (sALS). The three groups were then cross-matched to 40 neurologically normal controls. All patients underwent FDG PET within 4 months of diagnosis. The C9ORF72-ALS patients compared with the sALS patients showed significant hypometabolism in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, insula, caudate and thalamus, the left frontal and superior temporal cortex, and hypermetabolism in the midbrain, bilateral occipital cortex, globus pallidus and left inferior temporal cortex. The ALS-FTD patients compared with the sALS patients showed more limited hypometabolic areas, including the orbitofrontal, prefrontal, anterior cingulate and insular cortex, and hypermetabolic areas, including the bilateral occipital cortex, the left precentral and postcentral cortex and superior temporal gyrus. The C9ORF72-ALS patients compared with the ALS-FTD patients showed hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex. ALS patients with the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion had a more widespread central nervous system involvement than ALS patients without genetic mutations, with or without comorbid FTD, consistent with their more severe clinical picture. (orig.)

  7. Hepatitis C virus suppresses C9 complement synthesis and impairs membrane attack complex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hangeun; Meyer, Keith; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M; Ray, Ranjit

    2013-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins inhibit complement component expression, which may attenuate immunity against infection. In this study, we examined whether HCV regulates the membrane attack complex (MAC) via complement component C9. MAC is composed of C5b to C9 (C5b-9) and mediates cell lysis of invaded pathogens. Liver biopsy specimens from chronically HCV-infected patients exhibited a lower level of C9 mRNA expression than liver biopsy specimens from unrelated disease or healthy control human liver RNA. Hepatocytes infected with cell culture-grown HCV or expressing HCV core protein also displayed significant repression of C9 mRNA and protein levels. Promoter analysis suggested that the T cell factor-4 (TCF-4E) transcription factor is responsible for HCV core-mediated C9 promoter regulation. Sera from chronically HCV-infected patients displayed a lower level of C5b-9 and a reduced antimicrobial effect on model organisms compared to unrelated patient sera or sera from healthy volunteers. Together, these results for C9 regulation by HCV core protein coupled with functional impairment of the membrane attack complex underscore HCV-mediated attenuation of immune mechanisms.

  8. C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion analysis in Chinese spastic paraplegia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingying; Jiao, Bin; Wang, Junling; Du, Juan; Yan, Xinxiang; Xia, Kun; Tang, Beisha; Shen, Lu

    2014-12-15

    Recently, a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene has been identified to cause frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis families and many other neurodegenerative diseases. Owing to the overlapping phenotypes among HSP, frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis we hypothesized that C9orf72 expansions might be a genetic risk factor or modifier of HSP. The aim of this study was to find out whether C9orf72 expansions also confer risk to spastic paraplegia (SPG). We recruited 112 genetically unidentified SPG patients, 68 SPG4 patients and 313 controls in mainland China to determine if hexanucleotide repeat of C9orf72 plays a role in spastic paraplegia. No large expansion was detected in all subjects. C9orf72 repeat expansions were not associated with onset of HSP. Our results support the notion that repeat expansions in C9orf72 may not be associated with HSP in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-04-24

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  10. Artificial intelligence techniques for voltage control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekwue, A.; Cheng, D.T.Y.; Macqueen, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    In electric power systems, the advantages of reactive power dispatching or optimisation include improved utilisation of reactive power sources and hence reduction in reactive power flows and real losses of the system; unloading of the system and equipment as a result of reactive flow reduction; the power factors of generation are improved and system security is enhanced; reduced voltage gradients and somewhat higher voltages which result across the system from improved operation; deferred capital investment is new reactive power sources as a result of improved utilisation of existing equipment; and for the National Grid Company plc (NGC), the main advantage is reduced out-of-merit operation. The problem of reactive power control has been studied and widely reported in the literature. Non-linear programming methods as well as linear programming techniques for constraint dispatch have been described. Static optimisation of reactive power sources by the use of sensitivity analysis was described by Kishore and Hill. Long range optimum var planning has been considered and the optimum amount and location of network reactive compensation so as to maintain the system voltage within the desired limits, while operating under normal and various insecurity states, have also been studied using several methods. The objective of this chapter is therefore to review conventional methods as well as AI techniques for reactive power control. (Author)

  11. Balancing Training Techniques for Flight Controller Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Training of ground control teams has been a difficult task in space operations. There are several intangible skills that must be learned to become the steely eyed men and women of mission control who respond to spacecraft failures that can lead to loss of vehicle or crew if handled improperly. And as difficult as training is, it can also be costly. Every day, month or year an operator is in training, is a day that not only they are being trained without direct benefit to the organization, but potentially an instructor or mentor is also being paid for hours spent assisting them. Therefore, optimization of the training flow is highly desired. Recently the Expedition Division (DI) at Johnson Space Flight Center has recreated their training flows for the purpose of both moving to an operator/specialist/instructor hierarchy and to address past inefficiencies in the training flow. This paper will discuss the types of training DI is utilizing in their new flows, and the balance that has been struck between the ideal learning environments and realistic constraints. Specifically, the past training flow for the ISS Attitude Determination and Control Officer will be presented, including drawbacks that were encountered. Then the new training flow will be discussed and how a new approach utilizes more training methods and teaching techniques. We will look at how DI has integrated classes, workshops, checkouts, module reviews, scenarios, OJT, paper sims, Mini Sims, and finally Integrated Sims to balance the cost and timing of training a new flight controller.

  12. Frontotemporal dementia associated with the C9ORF72 mutation: a unique clinical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenney, Emma; Hornberger, Michael; Irish, Muireann; Mioshi, Eneida; Burrell, James; Tan, Rachel; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R

    2014-03-01

    While advances have been made in characterizing the C9ORF72 clinical phenotype, the hallmark features that discriminate between carriers and noncarriers remain unclear. To determine the frequency of the C9ORF72 mutation in a frontotemporal dementia (FTD) cohort and to define the clinical, neuropsychological, behavioral, and imaging features of C9ORF72 mutation carriers in comparison with noncarriers in a well-defined behavioral-variant (bv)-FTD cohort. A prospective cohort study of patients assessed during a 5-year period from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2012, at an FTD specialist referral center (FRONTIER). A total of 114 consecutive patients with FTD, FTD-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and corticobasal syndrome were assessed at FRONTIER. Patients with bvFTD who carried the C9ORF72 mutation (n = 10) were compared with noncarriers (n = 19) and a healthy control group (n = 35). These were matched for age, sex, and education history. Blood sampling for gene analysis was performed after informed consent was obtained. Clinical, behavioral, cognitive, and neuropsychological deficits, cortical atrophy on a magnetic resonance imaging visual rating scale, and family history as quantified by the Goldman Scale. In a cohort of 114 FTD cases, 14 patients expressed the C9ORF72 mutation, representing a frequency rate of 34% in bvFTD and 17% in FTD-ALS. Family histories of ALS (P = .001) and psychiatric disorders (P = .02) were significantly more common in mutation carriers. The C9ORF72 carriers were also more likely to experience psychotic symptoms (P = .03). The degree of brain atrophy was significantly less in the C9ORF72 cohort, and in many the progression was slow. Presenting features of C9ORF72 carriers were compared against International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for bvFTD, and most cases failed to satisfy criteria for probable bvFTD. The C9ORF72 mutation appears to be a common cause of bvFTD. Many of the C9ORF72 carriers have a family history of ALS

  13. Ataxin-2 as potential disease modifier in C9ORF72 expansion carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blitterswijk, Marka; Mullen, Bianca; Heckman, Michael G.; Baker, Matthew C.; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Brown, Patricia H.; Murray, Melissa E.; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R.; Stewart, Heather; Karydas, Anna M.; Finger, Elizabeth; Kertesz, Andrew; Bigio, Eileen H.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marsel; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; White, Charles L.; Neumann, Manuela; Strong, Michael J.; Beach, Thomas G.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Lippa, Carol; Caselli, Richard; Petrucelli, Leonard; Josephs, Keith A.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Seeley, William W.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Miller, Bruce L.; Boylan, Kevin B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Rademakers, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Repeat expansions in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) are an important cause of both motor neuron disease (MND) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Currently, little is known about factors that could account for the phenotypic heterogeneity detected in C9ORF72 expansion carriers. In this study, we investigated four genes that could represent genetic modifiers: ataxin-2 (ATXN2), non-imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 1 (NIPA1), survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) and survival motor neuron 2 (SMN2). Assessment of these genes, in a unique cohort of 331 C9ORF72 expansion carriers and 376 controls, revealed that intermediate repeat lengths in ATXN2 possibly act as disease modifier in C9ORF72 expansion carriers; no evidence was provided for a potential role of NIPA1, SMN1 or SMN2. The effects of intermediate ATXN2 repeats were most profound in probands with MND or FTD/MND (2.1% versus 0% in controls, P=0.013), whereas the frequency in probands with FTD was identical to controls. Though intermediate ATXN2 repeats were already known to be associated with MND risk, previous reports did not focus on individuals with clear pathogenic mutations, such as repeat expansions in C9ORF72. Based on our present findings, we postulate that intermediate ATXN2 repeat lengths may render C9ORF72 expansion carriers more susceptible to the development of MND; further studies are needed, however, to validate our findings. PMID:24866401

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of a Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) Root Endophyte, Pseudomonas sp. Strain C9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugraud, Aurelie; Young, Sandra; Gerard, Emily; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Wakelin, Steven

    2017-04-13

    Pseudomonas sp. strain C9 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from the root tissue of Brassica oleracea L. grown in soil from Marlborough, New Zealand. Its draft genome of 6,350,161 bp contains genes associated with plant growth promotion and biological control. Copyright © 2017 Laugraud et al.

  15. A novel technique for active vibration control, based on optimal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last few decades, researchers have proposed many control techniques to suppress unwanted vibrations in a structure. In this work, a novel and simple technique is proposed for the active vibration control. In this technique, an optimal tracking control is employed to suppress vibrations in a structure by simultaneously ...

  16. A novel technique for active vibration control, based on optimal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BEHROUZ KHEIRI SARABI

    2017-07-11

    Jul 11, 2017 ... Abstract. In the last few decades, researchers have proposed many control techniques to suppress unwanted vibrations in a structure. In this work, a novel and simple technique is proposed for the active vibration control. In this technique, an optimal tracking control is employed to suppress vibrations in a ...

  17. State and data techniques for control of discontinuous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for structured analysis and design of automated control systems. The technique integrates control of continuous and discontinuous nuclear power plant subsystems and components. A hierarchical control system with distributed intelligence follows from applying the technique. Further, it can be applied to all phases of control system design. For simplicity, the example used in the paper is limited to phase 1 design (basic automatic control action), in which no maintenance, testing, or contingency capability is attempted. 11 figs.

  18. Cognition and gray and white matter characteristics of presymptomatic C9orf72 repeat expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papma, Janne M; Jiskoot, Lize C; Panman, Jessica L; Dopper, Elise G; den Heijer, Tom; Donker Kaat, Laura; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Meeter, Lieke H; van Minkelen, Rick; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Swieten, John C

    2017-09-19

    To investigate cognitive function, gray matter volume, and white matter integrity in the presymptomatic stage of chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 repeat expansion (C9orf72RE). Presymptomatic C9orf72RE carriers (n = 18) and first-degree family members without a pathogenic expansion (healthy controls [HC], n = 15) underwent a standardized protocol of neuropsychological tests, T1-weighted MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging within our cohort study of autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We investigated group differences in cognitive function, gray matter volume through voxel-based morphometry, and white matter integrity by means of tract-based spatial statistics. We correlated cognitive change with underlying gray or white matter. Our data demonstrate lower scores on letter fluency, Stroop card I, and Stroop card III, accompanied by white matter integrity loss in tracts connecting the frontal lobe, the thalamic radiation, and tracts associated with motor functioning in presymptomatic C9orf72RE compared with HC. In a subgroup of C9orf72RE carriers above 40 years of age, we found gray matter volume loss in the thalamus, cerebellum, and parietal and temporal cortex. We found no significant relationship between subtle cognitive decline and underlying gray or white matter. This study demonstrates that a decline in cognitive functioning, white matter integrity, and gray matter volumes are present in presymptomatic C9orf72RE carriers. These findings suggest that neuropsychological assessment, T1-weighted MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging might be useful to identify early biomarkers in the presymptomatic stage of FTD or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Flexible control techniques for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    The fundamental elements found in every terrestrial control system can be employed in all lunar applications. These elements include sensors which measure physical properties, controllers which acquire sensor data and calculate a control response, and actuators which apply the control output to the process. The unique characteristics of the lunar environment will certainly require the development of new control system technology. However, weightlessness, harsh atmospheric conditions, temperature extremes, and radiation hazards will most significantly impact the design of sensors and actuators. The controller and associated control algorithms, which are the most complex element of any control system, can be derived in their entirety from existing technology. Lunar process control applications -- ranging from small-scale research projects to full-scale processing plants -- will benefit greatly from the controller advances being developed today. In particular, new software technology aimed at commercial process monitoring and control applications will almost completely eliminate the need for custom programs and the lengthy development and testing cycle they require. The applicability of existing industrial software to lunar applications has other significant advantages in addition to cost and quality. This software is designed to run on standard hardware platforms and takes advantage of existing LAN and telecommunications technology. Further, in order to exploit the existing commercial market, the software is being designed to be implemented by users of all skill levels -- typically users who are familiar with their process, but not necessarily with software or control theory. This means that specialized technical support personnel will not need to be on-hand, and the associated costs are eliminated. Finally, the latest industrial software designed for the commercial market is extremely flexible, in order to fit the requirements of many types of processing

  20. TH-C-9A-01: Lean Tools and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangaraj, D [Baylor Scott and White Health, Temple, TX (United States); Chan, K [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Boddu, S [Temple, TX (United States); Pawlicki, T [UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Dieterich, S [UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Lean thinking has revolutionized the manufacturing industry. Toyota has pioneered and leveraged this aspect of Lean thinking. Application of Lean thinking and Lean Six Sigma techniques into Healthcare and in particular in Radiation Oncology has its merits and challenges. To improve quality, safety and patient satisfaction with available resources or reducing cost in terms of time, staff and resources is demands of today's healthcare. Radiation oncology treatment involves many processes and steps, identifying and removing the non-value added steps in a process can significantly improve the efficiency. Real projects undertaken in radiation oncology department in cutting down the procedure time for MRI guided brachytherapy to 40% less using lean thinking will be narrated. Simple Lean tools and techniques such as Gemba walk, visual control, daily huddles, standard work, value stream mapping, error-proofing, etc. can be applied with existing resources and how that improved the operation in a Radiation Oncology department's two year experience will be discussed. Lean thinking focuses on identifying and solving the root-cause of a problem by asking “Why” and not “Who” and this requires a culture change of no blame. Role of leadership in building lean culture, employee empowerment and trains and develops lean thinkers will be presented. Why Lean initiatives fail and how to implement lean successfully in your clinic will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Concepts of lean management or lean thinking. Lean tools and techniques applied in Radiation Oncology. Implement no blame culture and focus on system and processes. Leadership role in implementing lean culture. Challenges for Lean thinking in healthcare.

  1. Advanced Control Techniques for WEC Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Jasinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the ongoing work on control of the Wave Dragon wave energy converter. Research is being conducted in and between several centers across Europe. This is building upon the knowledge gained in the prototype project, and will enable much better performance of the future deployment...

  2. Immunohistochemical detection of C9orf72 protein in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and motor neurone disease: patterns of immunostaining and an evaluation of commercial antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Yvonne S; Robinson, Andrew C; Rollinson, Sara; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Xiao, Shangxi; Robertson, Janice; Mann, David M A

    2018-02-01

    We have employed as 'gold standards' two in-house, well-characterised and validated polyclonal antibodies, C9-L and C9-S, which detect the longer and shorter forms of C9orf72, and have compared seven other commercially available antibodies with these in order to evaluate the utility of the latter as credible tools for the demonstration of C9orf72. C9-L and C9-S antibodies immunostained cytoplasmic 'speckles', and the nuclear membrane, respectively, in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and in patients with ALS alone. Similar staining was seen in Purkinje cells in healthy control tissues and in other neurodegenerative disorders, and in pyramidal cells of CA4 and dentate gyrus of hippocampus. However, in the spinal cord there was little cytoplasmic staining with C9-L antibody. C9-S antibody immunostained the nuclear membrane of anterior horn cells in healthy neurons. In patients with bvFTD + ALS, or ALS alone, this C9-S nuclear staining was redistributed to the plasma membrane. In those patients with bvFTD + ALS or ALS bearing an expansion in C9orf72, none of the commercially available antibodies detected TDP-43 inclusions in anterior horn cells, nor were dipeptide repeat proteins demonstrated. Five of the commercial antibodies provided immunohistochemical staining patterns similar in morphological appearance to the in-house C9-L antibody, but distinct from C9-S antibody. However, only three showed sufficient specificity and intensity of staining for C9orf72 at acceptably low concentrations, to make them of practical value and sufficiently reliable for the detection of at least the longer form of C9orf72 protein.

  3. Active structural control with stable fuzzy PID techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed discussion of intelligent techniques to measure the displacement of buildings when they are subjected to vibration. It shows how these techniques are used to control active devices that can reduce vibration 60–80% more effectively than widely used passive anti-seismic systems. After introducing various structural control devices and building-modeling and active structural control methods, the authors propose offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques to solve some common problems of building-displacement measurement using accelerometers. The most popular control algorithms in industrial settings, PD/PID controllers, are then analyzed and then combined with fuzzy compensation. The stability of this combination is proven with standard weight-training algorithms. These conditions provide explicit methods for selecting PD/PID controllers. Finally, fuzzy-logic and sliding-mode control are applied to the control of wind-induced vibration. The methods described are support...

  4. TMEM106B protects C9ORF72 expansion carriers against frontotemporal dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blitterswijk, Marka; Mullen, Bianca; Nicholson, Alexandra M.; Bieniek, Kevin F.; Heckman, Michael G.; Baker, Matthew C.; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Finch, NiCole A.; Brown, Patricia H.; Murray, Melissa E.; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R.; Stewart, Heather; Karydas, Anna M.; Finger, Elizabeth; Kertesz, Andrew; Bigio, Eileen H.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marsel; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; White, Charles L.; Strong, Michael J.; Beach, Thomas G.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Lippa, Carol; Caselli, Richard; Petrucelli, Leonard; Josephs, Keith A.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Seeley, William W.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Miller, Bruce L.; Boylan, Kevin B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Rademakers, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Variants in transmembrane protein 106 B (TMEM106B) modify the disease penetrance of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in carriers of progranulin (GRN) mutations. We investigated whether TMEM106B is also a genetic modifier of disease in carriers of chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) expansions. We assessed the genotype of 325 C9ORF72 expansion carriers (cohort 1), 586 FTD patients lacking C9ORF72 expansions (with or without motor neuron disease [MND]; cohort 2), and a total of 1,302 controls for TMEM106B variants (rs3173615 and rs1990622) using MassArray iPLEX and Taqman genotyping assays. For our primary analysis, we focused on functional variant rs3173615, and employed a recessive genotypic model. In cohort 1, patients with C9ORF72 expansions showed a significantly reduced frequency of carriers homozygous for the minor allele as compared to controls (11.9% versus 19.1%, odds ratio (OR): 0.57, p=0.014; same direction as carriers of GRN mutations). The strongest evidence was provided by FTD patients (OR: 0.33, p=0.009) followed by FTD/MND patients (OR: 0.38, p=0.017), whereas no significant difference was observed in MND patients (OR: 0.85, p=0.55). In cohort 2, the frequency of carriers homozygous for the minor allele was not significantly reduced in patients as compared to controls (OR: 0.77, p=0.079); however, a significant reduction was observed when focusing on those patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP; OR: 0.26, p<0.001). Our study identifies TMEM106B as the first genetic factor modifying disease presentation in C9ORF72 expansion carriers. Homozygosity for the minor allele protects carriers from developing FTD, but not from developing MND; similar effects are seen in FTLD-TDP patients with yet unknown genetic causes. These new findings show that the protective effects of TMEM106B are not confined to carriers of GRN mutations, and might be relevant for prognostic testing, and as a promising

  5. C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions in the Italian sporadic ALS population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatelli, Mario; Conforti, Francesca Luisa; Zollino, Marcella; Mora, Gabriele; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Volanti, Paolo; Marinou, Kalliopi; Salvi, Fabrizio; Corbo, Massimo; Giannini, Fabio; Battistini, Stefania; Penco, Silvana; Lunetta, Christian; Quattrone, Aldo; Gambardella, Antonio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Simone, Isabella; Bartolomei, Ilaria; Pisano, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Conte, Amelia; Spataro, Rossella; La Bella, Vincenzo; Caponnetto, Claudia; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Mandich, Paola; Sola, Patrizia; Mandrioli, Jessica; Renton, Alan E.; Majounie, Elisa; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Marrosu, Francesco; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Murru, Maria Rita; Sotgiu, Maria Alessandra; Pugliatti, Maura; Rodolico, Carmelo; Moglia, Cristina; Calvo, Andrea; Ossola, Irene; Brunetti, Maura; Traynor, Bryan J.; Borghero, Giuseppe; Restagno, Gabriella; Chiò, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    It has been recently reported that a large proportion of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (familial ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are associated with a hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in the first intron of C9ORF72. We have assessed 1,757 Italian sporadic ALS cases, 133 from Sardinia, 101 from Sicily, and 1,523 from mainland Italy. Sixty (3.7%) of 1,624 mainland Italians and Sicilians and 9 (6.8%) of the 133 Sardinian sporadic ALS cases carried the pathogenic repeat expansion. None of the 619 regionally-matched control samples (1,238 chromosomes) carried the expansion. Twenty-five cases (36.2%) had behavioral FTD in addition to ALS. FTD or unspecified dementia was also detected in 19 pedigrees (27.5%) in first-degree relatives of ALS patients. Cases carrying the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide expansion survived one year less than cases who did not carry this mutation. In conclusion, we found that C9ORF72 hexanucloetide repeat expansions represents a sizeable proportion of apparent sporadic ALS in the Italian and Sardinian population, representing by far the commonest mutation in Italy and the second more common in Sardinia. PMID:22418734

  6. In Silico Investigation of Cytochrome P450 2C9 in relation to Aging Using Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Chieh Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9 metabolizes dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S, but in elderly people the amount of DHEA-S remaining after CYP2C9 metabolization may be insufficient for optimal health. A prediction model, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics were used to screen the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM database to determine molecular compounds that may inhibit CYP2C9. The candidate compounds apocynoside(I, 4-methoxymagndialdehyde, and prunasin have higher Dock Scores, and prediction bioactivity than warfarin (the control drug. The interaction between 4-methoxymagndialdehyde and CYP2C9 is more intense than with other TCM compounds, but the simulation is longer. In these compounds, apocynoside(I and prunasin have a greater number of pathways for their flexible structure, but these structures create weak interactions. These candidate compounds, which are known to have antioxidation and hypolipidemic functions that have an indirect effect on the aging process, can be extracted from traditional Chinese medicines. Thus, these candidate compounds may become CYP2C9 inhibitors and play an important role in providing optimal health in the elderly.

  7. Power system stabilizers based on modern control techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, O.P.; Chen, G.P.; Zhang, Y.; El-Metwally, K. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Developments in digital technology have made it feasible to develop and implement improved controllers based on sophisticated control techniques. Power system stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and artificial networks are being developed. Each of these control techniques possesses unique features and strengths. In this paper, the relative performance of power systems stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and neural network, both in simulation studies and real time tests on a physical model of a power system, is presented and compared to that of a fixed parameter conventional power system stabilizer. (author) 16 refs., 45 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Repetitive element transcripts are elevated in the brain of C9orf72 ALS/FTLD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudencio, Mercedes; Gonzales, Patrick K; Cook, Casey N; Gendron, Tania F; Daughrity, Lillian M; Song, Yuping; Ebbert, Mark T W; van Blitterswijk, Marka; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Jansen-West, Karen; Baker, Matthew C; DeTure, Michael; Rademakers, Rosa; Boylan, Kevin B; Dickson, Dennis W; Petrucelli, Leonard; Link, Christopher D

    2017-09-01

    Significant transcriptome alterations are detected in the brain of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), including carriers of the C9orf72 repeat expansion and C9orf72-negative sporadic cases. Recently, the expression of repetitive element transcripts has been associated with toxicity and, while increased repetitive element expression has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, little is known about their contribution to ALS. To assess whether aberrant expression of repetitive element sequences are observed in ALS, we analysed RNA sequencing data from C9orf72-positive and sporadic ALS cases, as well as healthy controls. Transcripts from multiple classes and subclasses of repetitive elements (LINEs, endogenous retroviruses, DNA transposons, simple repeats, etc.) were significantly increased in the frontal cortex of C9orf72 ALS patients. A large collection of patient samples, representing both C9orf72 positive and negative ALS, ALS/FTLD, and FTLD cases, was used to validate the levels of several repetitive element transcripts. These analyses confirmed that repetitive element expression was significantly increased in C9orf72-positive compared to C9orf72-negative or control cases. While previous studies suggest an important link between TDP-43 and repetitive element biology, our data indicate that TDP-43 pathology alone is insufficient to account for the observed changes in repetitive elements in ALS/FTLD. Instead, we found that repetitive element expression positively correlated with RNA polymerase II activity in postmortem brain, and pharmacologic modulation of RNA polymerase II activity altered repetitive element expression in vitro. We conclude that increased RNA polymerase II activity in ALS/FTLD may lead to increased repetitive element transcript expression, a novel pathological feature of ALS/FTLD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Implementation of hybrid pollution control techniques to regulate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    discharges of untreated heavy metal industrial effluents to the receiving environments. This paper describes the implementation and uses of hybrid pollution control techniques to regulate the metal finishing industries to reduce their environmental impact. The techniques used are a combination of environmental auditing ...

  10. Using statistical quality control techniques to monitor blood glucose levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Oniki, T. A.; Clemmer, T. P.; Arthur, L. K.; Linford, L.H.

    1995-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement techniques developed in industry are increasingly being applied to the medical field. Statistical process control charts are a CQI technique aimed at monitoring a process and its variability. At our hospital, statistical quality control charts are being constructed from laboratory blood glucose measurements of patients receiving enteral or parenteral nutrition. The charts will be used to monitor glucose levels, reveal variations, and illustrate the effects of ne...

  11. Active noise control technique and its application on ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Kean

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development during past three decades, Active Noise Control(ANC has become a highly complementary noise control approach in comparison with traditional approaches, and has formed a complete system including basic theory, investigation approach, key techniques and system implementation. Meanwhile, substantial progress has been achieved in such fields as the practical application, industrialization development and commercial popularization of ANC, and this developed technique provides a practical and feasible choice for the active control of ship noise. In this review paper, its sound field analysis, system setup and key techniques are summarized, typical examples of ANC-based engineering applications including control of cabin noise and duct noise are briefly described, and a variety of forefronts and problems associated with the applications of ANC in ship noise control, such as active sound absorption, active sound insulation and smart acoustic structure, are subsequently discussed.

  12. Classical controller design techniques for fractional order case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeroglu, Celaleddin; Tan, Nusret

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents some classical controller design techniques for the fractional order case. New robust lag, lag-lead, PI controller design methods for control systems with a fractional order interval transfer function (FOITF) are proposed using classical design methods with the Bode envelopes of the FOITF. These controllers satisfy the robust performance specifications of the fractional order interval plant. In order to design a classical PID controller, an optimization technique based on fractional order reference model is used. PID controller parameters are obtained using the least squares optimization method. Different PID controller parameters that satisfy stability have been obtained for the same plant. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of erosion control techniques on forest roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; Bob Rummer; Bryce J. Stokes; J. Wilhoit

    1998-01-01

    The cutslope and fillslope on a newly constructed forest road on the Talladega National Forest near Heflin, AL were treated with three erosion control techniques: wood excelsior erosion mat, native grass species, and exotic grass species. Bare soil plots were used as the experimental controls. Total sediment yield was measured during the period 21 September 1995 to 18...

  14. Effects of CYP2C9*1/*13 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of meloxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung-Woo; Choi, Chang-Ik; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To determine the effects of the CYP2C9*1/*13 genotype on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of meloxicam in Korean subjects. METHODS Meloxicam (15 mg) was orally administered to 21 healthy Korean volunteers with either the CYP2C9*1/*1 or the CYP2C9*1/*13 genotype. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were analysed by HPLC-UV for 72 h after drug administration. The pharmacodynamic effects of meloxicam were determined by measuring TXB2 generated in blood. RESULTS The AUC(0,∞) and Cmax of meloxicam were 2.43- and 1.46-fold higher in the CYP2C9*1/*13 group than in the CYP2C9*1/*1 group, respectively. The oral clearance of meloxicam was significantly lower in the CYP2C9*1/*13 group (37.9% of wild type) than in the CYP2C9*1/*1 group. The t1/2 of meloxicam was 1.84-fold longer in the CYP2C9*1/*13 group than in the CYP2C9*1/*1 group. The rate of TXB2 production was significantly lower in the CYP2C9*1/*13 group than in the CYP2C9*1/*1 group. CONCLUSIONS The CYP2C9*1/*13 genotype is associated with decreased metabolism and increased pharmacodynamic effects of meloxicam. PMID:21395648

  15. Genetic Polymorphism of CYP2C9 among Sistani Ethnic Group in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) is involved in metabolism of many important drugs and its genotype variations is thought to affect drug efficacy and the treatment process. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of CYP2C9 allele and genotypic variants in Sistani ethnic group, living in Gorgan, ...

  16. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(9)-5 - Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; recordkeeping requirements. 1.501(c)(9)-5 Section 1.501(c)(9)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.501(c)(9)-5 Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; recordkeeping requirements. (a) Records...

  17. Control Analysis and Feedback Techniques for Multi Agent Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salman; Karsiti, Mohd Noh; Robert N. K. Loh

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a simulation framework based on the kinematic model for the multi agent robots using the leader-follower formation was presented. The design of feedback controllers for leader-follower formation using feedback linearization techniques was also presented. The follower robots derived their inputs based on the control inputs sent by the leader robot. The leader robot transmitted its control inputs to the follower using the Bluetooth piconet profile. The posture stabilization contr...

  18. Network degeneration and dysfunction in presymptomatic C9ORF72 expansion carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzee E. Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9ORF72 are the most common known genetic cause of familial and sporadic frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous work has shown that patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia due to C9ORF72 show salience and sensorimotor network disruptions comparable to those seen in sporadic behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, but it remains unknown how early in the lifespan these and other changes in brain structure and function arise. To gain insights into this question, we compared 15 presymptomatic carriers (age 43.7 ± 10.2 years, nine females to matched healthy controls. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess gray matter, diffusion tensor imaging to interrogate white matter tracts, and task-free functional MRI to probe the salience, sensorimotor, default mode, and medial pulvinar thalamus-seeded networks. We further used a retrospective chart review to ascertain psychiatric histories in carriers and their non-carrier family members. Carriers showed normal cognition and behavior despite gray matter volume and brain connectivity deficits that were apparent as early as the fourth decade of life. Gray matter volume deficits were topographically similar though less severe than those in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia due to C9ORF72, with major foci in cingulate, insula, thalamus, and striatum. Reduced white matter integrity was found in the corpus callosum, cingulum bundles, corticospinal tracts, uncinate fasciculi and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. Intrinsic connectivity deficits were detected in all four networks but most prominent in salience and medial pulvinar thalamus-seeded networks. Carrier and control groups showed comparable relationships between imaging metrics and age, suggesting that deficits emerge during early adulthood. Carriers and non-carrier family members had comparable lifetime histories of psychiatric symptoms. Taken

  19. Trinidad Reservoir Salvage Archaeology, 1970. Sites: TC:C9:9B, TC:C9:23, TC:C9:24, TC:C9:302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-12

    represented by a complete right and a fragmentary left medial phalanx. -121 Dow ( Canis Inueu familiaris ) One adult dog is represented by a right mandible...University, Fort Collins. -147- _-0 J1 Messer Harold M. 1938 An Introduction to Vertebrate Anat . Maclllan Co., New York. Mosby, Rery S. 1963 Wildlife ...Investigational Techniques. The Wildlife Society, Ann Arbor. - ?Thmpoon. J. Arthur 1923 The Bioloqy of Birds. MacMillan Company, Ne York

  20. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shankar; Frazier, Timothy R.; Stanton, Donald W.; Xu, Yi; Bunting, Bruce G.; Wolf, Leslie R.

    2014-08-26

    A technique for engine control to account for fuel effects including providing an internal combustion engine and a controller to regulate operation thereof, the engine being operable to combust a fuel to produce an exhaust gas; establishing a plurality of fuel property inputs; establishing a plurality of engine performance inputs; generating engine control information as a function of the fuel property inputs and the engine performance inputs; and accessing the engine control information with the controller to regulate at least one engine operating parameter.

  1. Modeling C9ORF72 loss-of-function : a knockdown mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Herdoiza, Maria Belen

    2016-01-01

    The GGGGCC intronic repeat expansion within C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The precise mechanisms through which the C9ORF72 mutation causes “c9FTD/ALS” have not yet been elucidated, but several hypotheses have been proposed. For my PhD project, in order I investigated the role of a partial loss of function of C9orf72 in ALS and FTD disease pathogenesis. For this, we have generated C9orf72 knock-down mice by ta...

  2. Genetic variability of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 in seven indigenous groups from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pozos, Katy; Rivera-Santiago, Carolina; García-Rodríguez, María Helena; Ortiz-López, María Guadalupe; Peña-Espinoza, Barbara Itzel; Granados-Silvestre, María de Los Ángeles; Llerena, Adrian; Menjívar, Marta

    2016-10-28

    CYP2C9 is one of the major drug metabolizing enzymes, however, little is known about polymorphisms in CYP2C9 gene and pharmacological implications in Mexican indigenous populations. Thus, frequencies of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles were evaluated in indigenous groups located in northwest (Cora), center (Mazahua and Teenek), south (Chatino and Mixteco) and southeast (Chontal and Maya) regions Mexico. Allelic discrimination was performed by real-time PCR. CYP2C9*2 allele was found only in Chontal and Maya groups, despite the low contribution of Caucasian component in these populations. CYP2C9*3 allele was present in all populations except in Mazahua, showing a wide genetic variability in the studied populations. Interestingly, we found significant differences between indigenous groups in CYP2C9*3 allele, even in groups located at the same region and belonging to the same linguistic family. These results contribute to laying the pharmacogenetic bases in Mexico, in addition to improving treatment, taking into account the genetic interethnic differences.

  3. 78 FR 15895 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: North Carolina; Control Techniques...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...; Control Techniques Guidelines and Reasonably Available Control Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection...) Control Techniques Guidelines, for Shipbuilding and Ship Repair Operations (Surface Coating) (61 FR-44050...

  4. Review of control techniques for inverters parallel operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd, Alaa; Ortjohann, Egon [South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences/Division Soest, Luebecker Ring 2, 59494 Soest (Germany); Morton, Danny [The University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton (United Kingdom); Omari, Osama (The Arab American University, Jenin, Palestine)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents state-of-the-art review of control methods applied currently to parallel power electronic inverters. Different system architectures, their modes of operation, management and control strategies will be analyzed; advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. Though, it is not easy to give a general view at the state of the art for the research area since it is rapid and going in different directions, this paper will focus on the main streams. This paper will start by briefly reviewing the current trends in power supply systems and the increasing importance for including power electronic devices. Next, the different techniques to parallel inverters suggested in the literature will be checked. These can be categorized to the following main approaches: master/slave control techniques, current/power sharing control techniques, and frequency/voltage droop control techniques. Finally, based on the reviewed state of the art, the study concludes by comparing the different approaches reported. In addition, their weaknesses and strengths are strained. (author)

  5. A novel technique for active vibration control, based on optimal tracking control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiri Sarabi, Behrouz; Sharma, Manu; Kaur, Damanjeet

    2017-08-01

    In the last few decades, researchers have proposed many control techniques to suppress unwanted vibrations in a structure. In this work, a novel and simple technique is proposed for the active vibration control. In this technique, an optimal tracking control is employed to suppress vibrations in a structure by simultaneously tracking zero references for modes of vibration. To illustrate the technique, a two-degrees of freedom spring-mass-damper system is considered as a test system. The mathematical model of the system is derived and then converted into a state-space model. A linear quadratic tracking control law is then used to make the disturbed system track zero references.

  6. Automatic Level Control for Video Cameras towards HDR Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de With PeterHN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a comprehensive overview of the complete exposure processing chain for video cameras. For each step of the automatic exposure algorithm we discuss some classical solutions and propose their improvements or give new alternatives. We start by explaining exposure metering methods, describing types of signals that are used as the scene content descriptors as well as means to utilize these descriptors. We also discuss different exposure control types used for the control of lens, integration time of the sensor, and gain control, such as a PID control, precalculated control based on the camera response function, and propose a new recursive control type that matches the underlying image formation model. Then, a description of commonly used serial control strategy for lens, sensor exposure time, and gain is presented, followed by a proposal of a new parallel control solution that integrates well with tone mapping and enhancement part of the image pipeline. Parallel control strategy enables faster and smoother control and facilitates optimally filling the dynamic range of the sensor to improve the SNR and an image contrast, while avoiding signal clipping. This is archived by the proposed special control modes used for better display and correct exposure of both low-dynamic range and high-dynamic range images. To overcome the inherited problems of limited dynamic range of capturing devices we discuss a paradigm of multiple exposure techniques. Using these techniques we can enable a correct rendering of difficult class of high-dynamic range input scenes. However, multiple exposure techniques bring several challenges, especially in the presence of motion and artificial light sources such as fluorescent lights. In particular, false colors and light-flickering problems are described. After briefly discussing some known possible solutions for the motion problem, we focus on solving the fluorescence-light problem. Thereby, we propose an algorithm for

  7. LFC based adaptive PID controller using ANN and ANFIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I. Mosaad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive PID Load Frequency Control (LFC for power systems using Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN oriented by Genetic Algorithm (GA. PID controller parameters are tuned off-line by using GA to minimize integral error square over a wide-range of load variations. The values of PID controller parameters obtained from GA are used to train both ANFIS and ANN. Therefore, the two proposed techniques could, online, tune the PID controller parameters for optimal response at any other load point within the operating range. Testing of the developed techniques shows that the adaptive PID-LFC could preserve optimal performance over the whole loading range. Results signify superiority of ANFIS over ANN in terms of performance measures.

  8. Interpolation techniques in robust constrained model predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheawhom, Soorathep; Bumroongsri, Pornchai

    2017-05-01

    This work investigates interpolation techniques that can be employed on off-line robust constrained model predictive control for a discrete time-varying system. A sequence of feedback gains is determined by solving off-line a series of optimal control optimization problems. A sequence of nested corresponding robustly positive invariant set, which is either ellipsoidal or polyhedral set, is then constructed. At each sampling time, the smallest invariant set containing the current state is determined. If the current invariant set is the innermost set, the pre-computed gain associated with the innermost set is applied. If otherwise, a feedback gain is variable and determined by a linear interpolation of the pre-computed gains. The proposed algorithms are illustrated with case studies of a two-tank system. The simulation results showed that the proposed interpolation techniques significantly improve control performance of off-line robust model predictive control without much sacrificing on-line computational performance.

  9. Power electronic converters PWM strategies and current control techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Monmasson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.

  10. H(sub infinity) techniques for spacecraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frapard, B.; Leballois, S.; Champetier, C.

    1993-09-01

    The high performance Attitude and Orbit Control Systems (AOCS) and high accuracy Instrument Pointing Systems design require more and more control bandwidth: dynamic couplings can be no more neglected and control laws tend to be highly sensitive to the unmodeled dynamics. Multivariable systems analysis and optimal control synthesis tools, with robustness bounds/robustness constraints with respect to the unmodeled dynamics, are a major area of research for space applications. Among others, the large field of techniques provided by H(sub infinity) theory appears to be very promising. Two typical applications are presented in this paper, one concerning high accuracy pointing for observation satellites, with a particular interest in the SPOT Mark II platform, the other addressing the Drag Free Control problem for missions such as Aristoteles, STEP and Gravity Probe B.

  11. C9orf72 ablation in mice does not cause motor neuron degeneration or motor deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppers, Max; Blokhuis, Anna M.; Westeneng, Henk‐Jan; Terpstra, Margo L.; Zundel, Caroline A. C.; Vieira de Sá, Renata; Schellevis, Raymond D.; Waite, Adrian J.; Blake, Derek J.; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective How hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansions in C9ORF72 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains poorly understood. Both gain‐ and loss‐of‐function mechanisms have been proposed. Evidence supporting these mechanisms in vivo is, however, incomplete. Here we determined the effect of C9orf72 loss‐of‐function in mice. Methods We generated and analyzed a conditional C9orf72 knockout mouse model. C9orf72fl/fl mice were crossed with Nestin‐Cre mice to selectively remove C9orf72 from neurons and glial cells. Immunohistochemistry was performed to study motor neurons and neuromuscular integrity, as well as several pathological hallmarks of ALS, such as gliosis and TDP‐43 mislocalization. In addition, motor function and survival were assessed. Results Neural‐specific ablation of C9orf72 in conditional C9orf72 knockout mice resulted in significantly reduced body weight but did not induce motor neuron degeneration, defects in motor function, or altered survival. Interpretation Our data suggest that C9orf72 loss‐of‐function, by itself, is insufficient to cause motor neuron disease. These results may have important implications for the development of therapeutic strategies for C9orf72‐associated ALS. Ann Neurol 2015;78:426–438 PMID:26044557

  12. Evaluating the Graph-based Visualization Technique: A Controlled Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Oswaldo Cárdenas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have highlighted the scarcity of empirical studies that systematically examine the advantages and disadvantages of the use of visualization techniques for software understanding activities. Such studies are crucial for gathering and analyzing objective and quantifiable evidence about the usefulness of proposed visualization techniques and tools, and ultimately, for guiding the research in software visualization. This paper presents a controlled experiment aimed at assessing the impact of a graph-based visualization technique on comprehension tasks. Six common comprehension tasks were performed by 20 undergraduate software engineering students. The completion time and the accuracy of the participants’ responses were measured. The results indicate that on one hand the use of the graph-based visualization increases the correctness (by 21.45% in average but on the other hand it does not reduce the completion time in program comprehension tasks.

  13. Controlled Light Cross-Linking Technique to Prepare Healable Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman Abdalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection of defects, damages and cracks in structural polymers is very difficult, and even if they are detected, they will be very hard to be repaired. This is because different kinds of stress can reduce the mechanical efficiency of structural and functional thermosetting composite materials and they can damage the polymer matrix, thus reducing the purposed properties. General healing processes use thermal energy “alone” to heal these materials, thus impairing the intended properties of the materials. Therefore, we present a thermal healing ability that can be switched-on and/or -off at desire using illumination by photon energy (visible and ultra violet. By this technique, one can control local heal while keeping the efficiency of the material nearly unchanged. Furan-based cross-linker chemically reacts (forward- and reverse-reaction with short-chains of maleimide-substituted poly(lauryl methacrylate to form robust chemical bonds. This permits us to perform local control over thermally induced de- and/or re-cross-linking techniques. One can extend and apply this technique to cover micro-devices, coating-techniques, fine lithography, micro- and nano-fabrication processes, etc. Therefore, the present work developed a suitable technology with structural polymeric material, which has the ability to self-heal cracks (and damages and recover structural function.

  14. Distribution of polymorphisms in the CYP2C9 gene and CYP2C19/CYP2C9 haplotypes among Venezuelan populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Gutiérrez, Sara; Rodríguez-Larralde, Álvaro; Vívenes de Lugo, Merlyn; Castro de Guerra, Dinorah

    2017-03-01

    Polymorphisms with decreased enzyme activity of their gene products have been reported in region CYP2C with population variations in haplotype structure. To estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of variants CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 and of CYP2C9/CYP2C19 haplotypes in Venezuelan populations. Six hundred and thirty-four individuals from nine admixed populations (AP) and the Warao indigenous group were studied. Allelic frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and genetic distances for haplotypes were calculated and compared within Venezuela and with data available in the literature. Heterogeneity in the distribution of CYP2C9 alleles and CYP2C9/CYP2C19 haplotypes among the AP and the Warao was observed. The joint frequency of haplotypes, with at least one non-functional variant, shows values in AP between 21-41%, while in Warao it reaches 5%. The haplotype that includes the Asian and rare Latin America CYP2C19*3 allele was detected in most AP and in Warao. Pairwise Fst values showed that the Warao was an outlier compared with the AP, while these are closer to European-derived populations. No significant correlation was found between haplotype frequencies and admixture. These results support the need to understand the distribution of genomic biomarkers related to the metabolism of drugs, for planning national public health strategies.

  15. 77 FR 45307 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: Georgia; Control Techniques...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Techniques Guidelines and Reasonably Available Control Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... techniques guidelines (CTG) categories. Together, these four revisions establish reasonably available control...

  16. New approaches in intelligent control techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kountchev, Roumen

    2016-01-01

    This volume introduces new approaches in intelligent control area from both the viewpoints of theory and application. It consists of eleven contributions by prominent authors from all over the world and an introductory chapter. This volume is strongly connected to another volume entitled "New Approaches in Intelligent Image Analysis" (Eds. Roumen Kountchev and Kazumi Nakamatsu). The chapters of this volume are self-contained and include summary, conclusion and future works. Some of the chapters introduce specific case studies of various intelligent control systems and others focus on intelligent theory based control techniques with applications. A remarkable specificity of this volume is that three chapters are dealing with intelligent control based on paraconsistent logics.

  17. CYP2C9 polymorphism in patients with epilepsy: genotypic frequency analyzes andphenytoin adverse reactions correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Twardowschy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: CYP2C9 is a major enzyme in human drug metabolism and the polymorphism observed in the corresponding gene may affect therapeutic outcome during treatment. The distribution of variant CYP2C9 alleles and prevalence of phenytoin adverse reactions were hereby investigated in a population of patients diagnosed with epilepsy. METHOD: Allele-specific PCR analysis was carried out in order to determine frequencies of the two most common variant alleles, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 in genomic DNA isolated from 100 epileptic patients. We also analyzed the frequency of phenytoin adverse reactions among those different genotypes groups. The data was presented as mean±standard deviation. RESULTS: The mean age at enrollment was 39.6±10.3 years (range, 17-72 years and duration of epilepsy was 26.5±11.9 years (range 3-48 years. The mean age at epilepsy onset was 13.1±12.4 years (range, 1 month-62 years. Frequencies of CYP2C9*1 (84%, CYP2C9*2 (9% and CYP2C9*3 (7% were similar to other published reports. Phenytoin adverse reactions were usually mild and occurred in 15% patients, without correlation with the CYP2C9 polymorphism (p=0.34. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate an overall similar distribution of the CYP2C9 alleles in a population of patients diagnosed with epilepsy in the South of Brazil, compared to other samples. This sample of phenytoin users showed no drug related adverse reactions and CYP2C9 allele type correlation. The role of CYP2C9 polymorphism influence on phenytoin adverse reaction remains to be determined since some literature evidence and our data found negative results.

  18. Noncompetitive inhibition of human CYP2C9 in vitro by a commercial Rhodiola rosea product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Ole Kristian Forstrønen; Spigset, Olav; Hellum, Bent

    2017-08-01

    A commercial Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) product has previously demonstrated CYP2C9 inhibition in humans. The purpose of this study was to provide in vitro inhibitory data for this particular interaction and to classify the mechanism of the interaction. Another aim was to examine the in vitro influence of ethanol on the CYP2C9 activity. Human CYP2C9 (wild type) isolated from a baculovirus-infected cell system was incubated with 0.8 μmol/L losartan for 20 min. Sulfaphenazole was used as a positive control. The commercial R. rosea product "Arctic Root" was used as test inhibitor. Formation of the CYP2C9-produced losartan metabolite EXP-3174 was determined by validated LC-MS/MS methodology. Possible mechanism-based (irreversible) inhibition was evaluated using time- and NADPH-dependent inhibition assays. Kinetic constants (Km , Vmax , and Ki ) were calculated from a Lineweaver-Burk plot. Mode of inhibition was determined. CYP2C9 was inhibited by "Arctic Root" with an IC50 (extract concentration yielding 50% reduction in enzyme activity) of 19.2 ± 2.7 μg/mL. Inhibitor concentrations of 20 μg/mL and 40 μg/mL yielded Ki values of 16.37 μg/mL and 5.59 μg/mL, respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot showed noncompetitive inhibition mode. No time- or NADPH-dependent inhibition was observed. The presence of ethanol inhibited CYP2C9 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the commercial R. rosea product "Arctic Root" demonstrated noncompetitive inhibition of CYP2C9 in vitro. Further work identifying the constituents responsible for this inhibition is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Effect of CYP2C9*3 gene polymorphism on lipid-lowering efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    relation to cytochrome P450 2C9 variant alleles frequently distributed in the Czech population. Med Sci. Monit 2012; 18(8): 512-517. 2. Yasar U, Sain-Guven G, Yardimci Y, Kilicarslan A,. Babaoglu MO, Bozkurt A. Effect of atorvastatin on. CYP2C9 metabolic activity as measured by the formation rate of losartan metabolite in.

  20. L2-gain and passivity techniques in nonlinear control

    CERN Document Server

    van der Schaft, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    This standard text gives a unified treatment of passivity and L2-gain theory for nonlinear state space systems, preceded by a compact treatment of classical passivity and small-gain theorems for nonlinear input-output maps. The synthesis between passivity and L2-gain theory is provided by the theory of dissipative systems. Specifically, the small-gain and passivity theorems and their implications for nonlinear stability and stabilization are discussed from this standpoint. The connection between L2-gain and passivity via scattering is detailed. Feedback equivalence to a passive system and resulting stabilization strategies are discussed. The passivity concepts are enriched by a generalised Hamiltonian formalism, emphasising the close relations with physical modeling and control by interconnection, and leading to novel control methodologies going beyond passivity. The potential of L2-gain techniques in nonlinear control, including a theory of all-pass factorizations of nonlinear systems, and of parametrization...

  1. Control System Design for Cylindrical Tank Process Using Neural Model Predictive Control Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sridevi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical manufacturing and process industry requires innovative technologies for process identification. This paper deals with model identification and control of cylindrical process. Model identification of the process was done using ARMAX technique. A neural model predictive controller was designed for the identified model. The performance of the controllers was evaluated using MATLAB software. The performance of NMPC controller was compared with Smith Predictor controller and IMC controller based on rise time, settling time, overshoot and ISE and it was found that the NMPC controller is better suited for this process.

  2. Positron plasma control techniques for the production of cold antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Funakoshi, R; Bonomi, G; Bowe, P D; Canali, C; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Doser, M; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Jørgensen, L V; Kellerbauer, A G; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, R; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macrì, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Mitchard, D; Montagna, P; Posada, L G C; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Variola, A; Venturelli, L; Van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y; Zurlo, N

    2007-01-01

    An observation of a clear dependence of antihydrogen production on positron plasma shapes is reported. For this purpose a plasma control method has been developed combining the plasma rotating-wall technique with a mode diagnostic system. With the help of real-time and nondestructive observations, the rotating-wall parameters have been optimized. The positron plasma can be manipulated into a wide range of shapes (aspect ratio 6.5≤α≲80) and densities (1.5×108≤n≲7×109 cm−3) within a short duration (25 s) compatible with the ATHENA antihydrogen production cycle.

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Apigenin on Losartan Metabolism and CYP2C9 Activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Gong, Yun; Zeng, Da-Li; Chen, Lian-Guo; Lin, Gao-Tong; Huang, Cheng-Ke; Sun, Wei; Chen, Meng-Chun; Hu, Guo-Xin; Chen, Rui-Jie

    2016-01-01

    CYP2C9 is one of the most important phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of apigenin on the metabolism of losartan and human CYP2C9 and rat CYP2C11 activity in vitro. Different concentrations of apigenin were added to a 100 mmol/l Tris-HCl reaction mixture containing 2 pmol/ml recombinant human CYP2C9.1, 0.25 mg/ml human liver microsomes or 0.5 mg/ml rat liver microsomes to determine the half maximal inhibition or a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) on the metabolism of losartan. In addition, diclofenac used as CYP2C9 substrate was performed to determine the effects of apigenin on CYP2C9. The results showed that apigenin has the inhibitory effect on the metabolism of losartan in vitro, the IC50 was 7.61, 4.10 and 11.07 μmol/l on recombinant CYP2C9 microsomes, human liver microsomes and rat liver microsomes, respectively. Meanwhile, apigenin's mode of action on human CYP2C9 activity was competitive for the substrate diclofenac. In contrast to its potent inhibition of CYP2C9 in humans (9.51 μmol/l), apigenin had lesser effects on CYP2C11 in rat (IC50 = 15.51 μmol/l). The observations imply that apigenin has the inhibitory effect on the metabolism of losartan and CYP2C9 activity in vitro. More attention should be paid as to when losartan should be administrated combined with apigenin. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Control techniques for an automated mixed traffic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenholder, G. W.; Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an automated mixed traffic vehicle (AMTV), a driverless low-speed tram designed to operate in mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The vehicle is a six-passenger electric tram equipped with sensing and control which permit it to function on existing streets in an automatic mode. The design includes established wire-following techniques for steering and near-IR headway sensors. A 7-mph cruise speed is reduced to 2 mph or a complete stop in response to sensor (or passenger) inputs. The AMTV performance is evaluated by operation on a loop route and by simulation. Some necessary improvements involving sensors, sensor pattern, use of an audible signal, and control lag are discussed. It is suggested that appropriate modifications will eliminate collision incidents.

  5. Digital control of high performance aircraft using adaptive estimation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landingham, H. F.; Moose, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive signal processing algorithm is joined with gain-scheduling for controlling the dynamics of high performance aircraft. A technique is presented for a reduced-order model (the longitudinal dynamics) of a high performance STOL aircraft. The actual controller views the nonlinear behavior of the aircraft as equivalent to a randomly switching sequence of linear models taken from a preliminary piecewise-linear fit of the system nonlinearities. The adaptive nature of the estimator is necessary to select the proper sequence of linear models along the flight trajectory. Nonlinear behavior is approximated by effective switching of the linear models at random times, with durations reflecting aircraft motion in response to pilot commands.

  6. Demand Management Based on Model Predictive Control Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Davizón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand management (DM is the process that helps companies to sell the right product to the right customer, at the right time, and for the right price. Therefore the challenge for any company is to determine how much to sell, at what price, and to which market segment while maximizing its profits. DM also helps managers efficiently allocate undifferentiated units of capacity to the available demand with the goal of maximizing revenue. This paper introduces control system approach to demand management with dynamic pricing (DP using the model predictive control (MPC technique. In addition, we present a proper dynamical system analogy based on active suspension and a stability analysis is provided via the Lyapunov direct method.

  7. Antimisting kerosene: Base fuel effects, blending and quality control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavrouian, A. H.; Ernest, J.; Sarohia, V.

    1984-01-01

    The problems associated with blending of the AMK additive with Jet A, and the base fuel effects on AMK properties are addressed. The results from the evaluation of some of the quality control techniques for AMK are presented. The principal conclusions of this investigation are: significant compositional differences for base fuel (Jet A) within the ASTM specification DI655; higher aromatic content of the base fuel was found to be beneficial for the polymer dissolution at ambient (20 C) temperature; using static mixer technology, the antimisting additive (FM-9) is in-line blended with Jet A, producing AMK which has adequate fire-protection properties 15 to 20 minutes after blending; degradability of freshly blended and equilibrated AMK indicated that maximum degradability is reached after adequate fire protection is obtained; the results of AMK degradability as measured by filter ratio, confirmed previous RAE data that power requirements to decade freshly blended AMK are significantly higher than equilibrated AMK; blending of the additive by using FM-9 concentrate in Jet A produces equilibrated AMK almost instantly; nephelometry offers a simple continuous monitoring capability and is used as a real time quality control device for AMK; and trajectory (jet thurst) and pressure drop tests are useful laboratory techniques for evaluating AMK quality.

  8. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting: a new technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschy, Peter; Virnik, Sascha; Christ, Doris; Gaggl, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of periodontal therapy is the healing of periodontal inflammation; the protection of the attachment and the alveolar bone; and the regeneration of the periodontal structures. In the therapy of periodontitis, supra- and subgingival scaling and root planing plays a main role. The procedure described combines perfect root cleaning without scaling and root planing and minimal invasive periodontal surgery without a scalpel. Material and methods Glass beads of 90 μm were used with the kinetic preparation unit PrepStart® under a pressure of 0.5–5 bar. This technique was practised only under visual control using the OPMI® PRO Magis microscope. Seven examinations were carried out at baseline after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. Results Time shows a statistically significant influence on all of the considered target variables (P microscope-controlled glass bead blasting results in a perfectly clean root surface using visual control (magnification 20×). Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting is therefore a good alternative to periodontal surgery. PMID:23674909

  9. Bandwidth control of a Ti:PPLN Solc filter by a temperature-gradient-control technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Lak; Noh, Young-Chul; Kee, Chul-Sik; Yu, Nan Ei; Shin, Woojin; Jung, Changsoo; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Lee, Jongmin

    2008-09-01

    We have demonstrated the bandwidth control of a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO(3) (Ti:PPLN) Solc filter by a temperature-gradient-control technique. Up to 2.8 nm of filtering bandwidth was achieved with a simple temperature-gradient-control technique in a 78-mm-long of Ti:PPLN waveguide, which has a 0.2 nm filtering bandwidth at an uniform temperature. We have also analyzed the experimental results with the theoretical calculation which is derived from the codirectional coupled mode equations.

  10. Stability of corticosteroids under anaerobic conditions. C6 and C9 fluorine-containing corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, D.; Buijs, D.J.

    The decomposition of corticosteroids due to a fluorine atom at C6 and/or C9 is investigated. Chromatographic properties, the isolation and the structure elucidation of decomposition products are given.

  11. Spirastrellolide B: the synthesis of southern (C9-C25) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Srivari; Rambabu, Chegondi; Reddy, Annareddy Syamprasad

    2008-10-02

    A combination of "chiron" and "asymmetric" approaches is utilized to construct the southern (C 9-C 25) region of marine natural product spirastrellolide B. The key functionalities are derived from d-glucose and Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation and dihydroxylation.

  12. Synthesis of the C9–C25 Subunit of Spirastrellolide B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of the C9–C25 subunit of the marine natural product spirastrellolide B is reported. The key synthetic features included the union of the two key fragments 5 and 6 via a Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction and a late-stage, one-pot sequential deprotection/cascade Achmatowicz rearrangement–spiroketalization to install the key spirocyclic intermediate present in the C9–C25 fragment of spirastrellolide B. The synthesis of the C9–C16 fragment 6 was accomplished via a phosphate tether mediated ring-closing metathesis (RCM), a subsequent hydroboration–oxidation protocol, followed by other stereoselective transformations in a facile manner. The spirocyclic intermediate was further functionalized utilizing a Lindlar/NaBH4 reduction protocol to furnish the C9–C25 subunit 3. PMID:27300267

  13. Synthesis of the C9-C25 Subunit of Spirastrellolide B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Soma; Bodugam, Mahipal; Javed, Salim; Hanson, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of the C9-C25 subunit of the marine natural product spirastrellolide B is reported. The key synthetic features included the union of the two key fragments 5 and 6 via a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction and a late-stage, one-pot sequential deprotection/cascade Achmatowicz rearrangement-spiroketalization to install the key spirocyclic intermediate present in the C9-C25 fragment of spirastrellolide B. The synthesis of the C9-C16 fragment 6 was accomplished via a phosphate tether mediated ring-closing metathesis (RCM), a subsequent hydroboration-oxidation protocol, followed by other stereoselective transformations in a facile manner. The spirocyclic intermediate was further functionalized utilizing a Lindlar/NaBH4 reduction protocol to furnish the C9-C25 subunit 3.

  14. LA SPECTROSCOPIE DE MASSE PAR IONISATION CHIMIQUE AVEC LA DIETHYLAMINE COMME GAZ REACTANT DES IRIDOIDES GLUCOSIDIQUES DE TYPE C-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H SAADI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail s’intéresse à l’étude de la spectrométrie de masse par ionisation chimique de quelques composés des iridoïdes glucosidiques de type C-9 extraits des plantes de l’espèce Euplantago en utilisant la diéthylamine comme gaz réactant. Nous avons appliqué la même technique que précédemment à deux d’entre eux se trouvant en abondance dans ce type de plantes, après leur acétylation.

  15. Function of 38 variants CYP2C9 polymorphism on ketamine metabolism in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiang; Fang, Ping; Bao, Su-Su; Lin, Dan; Cai, Jian-Ping; Hu, Guo-Xin

    2017-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 proteins (CYP 450) is the most important enzyme system of drug phase I metabolism in liver. In previous reports, reduced efficiency or increased risk of adverse events can be affected by primary sequence mutation in CYP450. To investigate the effect of gene polymorphism on the metabolism of ketamine in vitro, including the new alleles: 2C9*58, *59 and *60. Incubation system which was contained insect microsome, b5, NADPH and 1M PBS incubated 10 μM-1000 μM ketamine in 37 °C for 40 min concentration of norketamine was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system (UPLC-MS/MS). Catalytic activity of thirty-eight CYP2C9 alleles on ketamine metabolism to norketamine was surveyed. Compared with 2C9*1, three alleles (2C9*40, *49 and *51) was demonstrated dramatically increased intrinsic clearance (1.2-fold-3.75-fold); four subtypes (2C9*27, *31, *41 and *56) exhibited no significantly change on enzyme activity. The resting 31 alleles expressed different degrees of reduction compared with wild type. The result of research warns that attention should be more paid on individual who carry on the special 2C9 alleles under the situation of administrating ketamine. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Possible approaches to CYP2C9-guided prescription of sulfonylureas in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosikian, Anna; Dolgorukova, Antonina; Zalevskaya, Alsu

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate a possible role of CYP2C9 genotyping for sulfonylureas (SUs) prescription in Russia. We have collected the current data on correlation between SUs pharmacodynamics and CYP2C9 polymorphisms. We have evaluated the frequency of CYP2C9 polymorphisms in Russia by reviewing the literature published from 2004 to 2015 on Russian CYP2C9. The genotype *1/*1, which confers risk for treatment failure, has a higher frequency (81.92%) in the non-Caucasians than that (64.92%) in the Caucasians. The Caucasians have a frequency (3.58%) of the poor metabolizers (*2/*2, *2/*3 and *3/*3) eight-times higher than that (0.44%) in the non-Caucasians, predisposing an increased risk of hypoglycemia. Considering the received data and the existed knowledge on CYP2C9 influence on SUs pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, we propose a possible approach to CYP2C9-guided SUs prescription for Russians.

  17. Technique for histological control of surgical margins in lip cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Satoru; Hata, Hiroo; Homma, Erina; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    To preserve oral function and achieve acceptable cosmetic results, intraoperative control of surgical margins with frozen section evaluation may help to determine surgical technique in lip cancer. However, frozen section analysis is usually limited to suspicious areas and has not been systematically performed among surgeons. The accuracy of such analysis for detecting histological surgical margins is highly dependent on the methods used to obtain and analyze the margins. Improving the pathodiagnostic reliability of conventional intraoperative frozen section evaluation is the most important goal of surgical management in our method. We describe the successful use of the "double-blade method" in lip cancer treatment. The technique we describe has the advantage of histologically confirming clear margins in lip cancer. This method appears to be time-saving and easy to apply with existing surgical systems. In addition, this method may be used as an alternative to complete evaluation of lateral surgical margins that is important in planning a suitable surgical reconstruction procedure in lip cancer at many institutions where Mohs micrographic surgery is difficult to perform. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Active control technique of fractional-order chaotic complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Gamal M.; Ahmed, Mansour E.; Abed-Elhameed, Tarek M.

    2016-06-01

    Several kinds of synchronization of fractional-order chaotic complex systems are challenging research topics of current interest since they appear in many applications in applied sciences. Our main goal in this paper is to introduce the definition of modified projective combination-combination synchronization (MPCCS) of some fractional-order chaotic complex systems. We show that our systems are chaotic by calculating their Lyapunov exponents. The fractional Lyapunov dimension of the chaotic solutions of these systems is computed. A scheme is introduced to calculate MPCCS of four different (or identical) chaotic complex systems using the active control technique. Special cases of this type, which are projective and anti C-C synchronization, are discussed. Some figures are plotted to show that MPCCS is achieved and its errors approach zero.

  19. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting: a new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kotschy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter Kotschy1, Sascha Virnik2, Doris Christ3, Alexander Gaggl21Private Practice, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Central Hospital, Klagenfurt, Austria; 3Klagenfurt, AustriaObjective: The aim of periodontal therapy is the healing of periodontal inflammation; the protection of the attachment and the alveolar bone; and the regeneration of the periodontal structures. In the therapy of periodontitis, supra- and subgingival scaling and root planing plays a main role. The procedure described combines perfect root cleaning without scaling and root planing and minimal invasive periodontal surgery without a scalpel.Material and methods: Glass beads of 90 µm were used with the kinetic preparation unit PrepStart® under a pressure of 0.5–5 bar. This technique was practised only under visual control using the OPMI® PRO Magis microscope. Seven examinations were carried out at baseline after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months.Results: Time shows a statistically significant influence on all of the considered target variables (P < 0.0001 for all. As the according estimate is negative, probing depth decreases over time. The major decrease seems to be during the first 6 months. Considering probing depth, plaque on the main effect root shows significant influence (again, P < 0.0001 for all. Observations with high probing depth at the beginning were faster than those with low probing depth. The same characteristic appears by attachment level. Patients with more loss of attachment show more gain.Conclusions: Using microscope-controlled glass bead blasting results in a perfectly clean root surface using visual control (magnification 20×. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting is therefore a good alternative to periodontal surgery.Keywords: periodontal therapy, microscope, periodontitis

  20. A C9ORF72 BAC mouse model recapitulates key epigenetic perturbations of ALS/FTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esanov, Rustam; Cabrera, Gabriela Toro; Andrade, Nadja S; Gendron, Tania F; Brown, Robert H; Benatar, Michael; Wahlestedt, Claes; Mueller, Christian; Zeier, Zane

    2017-06-12

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with identified genetic causes representing a significant minority of all cases. A GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) mutation within the C9ORF72 gene has recently been identified as the most frequent known cause of ALS. The expansion leads to partial heterochromatinization of the locus, yet mutant RNAs and dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) are still produced in sufficient quantities to confer neurotoxicity. The levels of these toxic HRE products positively correlate with cellular toxicity and phenotypic severity across multiple disease models. Moreover, the degree of epigenetic repression inversely correlates with some facets of clinical presentation in C9-ALS patients. Recently, bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) have been used to generate transgenic mice that harbor the HRE mutation, complementing other relevant model systems such as patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). While epigenetic features of the HRE have been investigated in various model systems and post-mortem tissues, epigenetic dysregulation at the expanded locus in C9-BAC mice remains unexplored. Here, we sought to determine whether clinically relevant epigenetic perturbations caused by the HRE are mirrored in a C9-BAC mouse model. We used complementary DNA methylation assessment and immunoprecipitation methods to demonstrate that epigenetic aberrations caused by the HRE, such as DNA and histone methylation, are recapitulated in the C9-BAC mice. Strikingly, we found that cytosine hypermethylation within the promoter region of the human transgene occurred in a subset of C9-BAC mice similar to what is observed in patient populations. Moreover, we show that partial heterochromatinization of the C9 HRE occurs during the first weeks of the mouse lifespan, indicating age-dependent epigenetic repression. Using iPSC neurons, we found that preventing R-loop formation did not impede

  1. Appendectomy Skin Closure Technique, Randomized Controlled Trial: Changing Paradigms (ASC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luis Angel Medina; Muñoz, Franz Yeudiel Pérez; Báez, María Valeria Jiménez; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; de Los Angeles Martinez Ferretiz, Maria; Ruiz, Brenda; Montes, Oscar; Woolf, Stephanie; Noriega, Jessica Gonzalez; Aparicio, Uriel Maldonado; Gonzalez, Israel Gonzalez

    2016-11-01

    Appendectomy is the most frequent and urgent gastrointestinal surgery. Overtime, the surgical techniques have been improved upon, in order to reduce complications, get better cosmetic results, and limit the discomfort associated with this procedure, by its high impact in the surgery departments. The traditional skin closure is associated with a poor cosmetic result and it requires stitches removal, alongside the pain associated with this procedure, and no benefits were demonstrated in the literature regarding separated stitches over intradermic stitch. This is a randomized controlled trial, and our objective is to compare two different skin closure techniques in open appendectomy. A prospective randomized trial method was used, with a total number of 208 patients participating in the study, after acute appendicitis diagnosis in the emergency department. They were randomized into two groups: patients who would receive skin closure with a unique absorbable intradermic stitch (Group A) and another group that would receive the traditional closure technique, consistent in non-absorbable separated stitches (Group B). General characteristics like gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI), comorbidities, and allergies were registered. Days of Evolution (DOE) until surgery, previous use of antibiotics, complicated or uncomplicated appendicitis, surgical time, and wound complications like skin infection, dehiscence, seroma or abscess were also registered in each case. 8 patients were excluded due to negative appendicitis during surgery and lack of follow-up. Two groups, each containing 100 patients, were formed. General characteristics and parity were compared, and no statistically significant differences were observed. Difference in the surgical time (Group A: 47.35 min vs Group B: 54.13 min, p  25 kg/m2 and seroma (p = .006), BMI > 25 kg/m2 and abscess (p = .02), surgical time >50 min and seroma (p 2 DOE and abscess (p = .001), and complicated appendicitis with

  2. The virtual microphone technique in active sound field control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, Iraklis E.; Shimizu, Yasushi

    2003-04-01

    Active Sound Field Control (AFC) has been proven very useful in reverberation enhancement applications in large rooms. However, feedback control is required in order to eliminate peaks in the frequency response of the system. The present research closely follows the studies of Shimizu in AFC, in which smoothing of the rooms transfer function is achieved by averaging the impulse responses of multiple microphones. ``The virtual or rotating microphone technique'' reduces the number of microphones in the aforementioned AFC technology, while still achieving the same acoustical effects in the room. After the impulse responses at previously specified pairs of microphone positions are measured, the ratio of transfer functions for every pair is calculated, thus yielding a constant K. Next, microphones are removed and their impulse responses are reproduced by processing the incoming signal of each pair through a convolver, where the computed K constants have been previously stored. Band limiting, windowing and time variance effects are critical factors, in order to reduce incoherence effects and yield reliable approximations of inverse filters and consequently calculations of K. The project is implemented in a church lacking low frequency reverberation for music and makes use of 2 physical and 2 virtual microphones.

  3. Phenotype difference between ALS patients with expanded repeats in C9ORF72 and patients with mutations in other ALS-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millecamps, Stéphanie; Boillée, Séverine; Le Ber, Isabelle; Seilhean, Danielle; Teyssou, Elisa; Giraudeau, Marine; Moigneu, Carine; Vandenberghe, Nadia; Danel-Brunaud, Véronique; Corcia, Philippe; Pradat, Pierre-François; Le Forestier, Nadine; Lacomblez, Lucette; Bruneteau, Gaelle; Camu, William; Brice, Alexis; Cazeneuve, Cécile; Leguern, Eric; Meininger, Vincent; Salachas, François

    2012-04-01

    Expanded GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeats in the promoter of the C9ORF72 gene have recently been identified in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and ALS-FTD and appear as the most common genetic cause of familial (FALS) and sporadic (SALS) forms of ALS. We searched for the C9ORF72 repeat expansion in 950 French ALS patients (225 FALS and 725 SALS) and 580 control subjects and performed genotype-phenotype correlations. The repeat expansion was present in 46% of FALS, 8% of SALS and 0% of controls. Phenotype comparisons were made between FALS patients with expanded C9ORF72 repeats and patients carrying another ALS-related gene (SOD1, TARDBP, FUS) or a yet unidentified genetic defect. SALS patients with and without C9ORF72 repeat expansions were also compared. The C9ORF72 group presented more frequent bulbar onset both in FALS (p<0.0001 vs SOD1, p=0.002 vs TARDBP, p=0.011 vs FUS, p=0.0153 vs other FALS) and SALS (p=0.047). FALS patients with C9ORF72 expansions had more frequent association with FTD than the other FALS patients (p<0.0001 vs SOD1, p=0.04 vs TARDBP, p=0.004 vs FUS, p=0.03 vs other FALS). C9ORF72-linked FALS patients presented an older age of onset than SOD1 (p=0.0139) or FUS mutation (p<0.0001) carriers. Disease duration was shorter for C9ORF72 expansion carriers than for SOD1 (p<0.0001) and TARDBP (p=0.0242) carriers, other FALS (p<0.0001) and C9ORF72-negative SALS (p=0.0006). Our results confirm the major role of expanded repeats in C9ORF72 as causative for ALS and provide evidence for specific phenotypic aspects compared to patients with other ALS-related genes.

  4. Association of CYP2C9*3 with phenytoin-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Liu, W; Zhou, W

    2017-12-23

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions that can be induced by phenytoin (PHT). CYP2C9*3 is the key enzyme in PHT metabolism. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between CYP2C9*3 and PHT-induced SJS/TEN. An extensive search was performed in multiple databases, including the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, OVID and EBSCO. Studies exploring the relationship between CYP2C9*3 and PHT-induced SJS and TEN were included. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for dichotomous data. Data analysis was performed using Review Manager (version 5.3). Four studies, with 117 PHT-induced SJS/TEN cases and 338 matched controls (PHT-tolerant patients) or 4231 population controls (general population), were identified. SJS and TEN were found to be significantly associated with the CYP2C9*3 allele, comparing both matched controls (OR, 8.93; 95% CI, 2.63-30.36; P = .0005) with substantial heterogeneity (I 2  = 46%) and population controls (OR, 8.88; 95% CI, 5.01-15.74; P < .00001). A significant association between CYP2C9*3 and PHT-induced SJS/TEN was identified, especially in a Thai population. CYP2C9*3 is thus a credible predictive genetic marker of PHT-induced SJS/TEN. Further multicenter studies and large prospective observational studies are, however, still required to determine the influence of CYP2C*3 on blood levels of PHT and its metabolites, and their association with SJS/TEN. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The in-vitro effect of complementary and alternative medicines on cytochrome P450 2C9 activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiman, Kim D; Goey, Andrew K L; Huijbregts, Tomy J; Maas-Bakker, Roel F; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to establish the inhibitory effects of 14 commonly used complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) on the metabolism of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates 7-methoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarine (MFC) and tolbutamide. CYP2C9 is important for the metabolism

  6. Corticobasal and ataxia syndromes widen the spectrum of C9ORF72 hexanucleotide expansion disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, S G; Dunø, Morten; Batbayli, M

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in the first intron of C9ORF72 was reported as the cause of chromosome 9p21-linked frontotemporal dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD-ALS). We here report the prevalence of the expansion in a hospital-based cohort and associated clinica...

  7. Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9ORF72 in the spectrum of motor neuron diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Wouter; van Blitterswijk, Marka; Huisman, Mark H. B.; Vlam, Lotte; van Doormaal, Perry T. C.; Seelen, Meinie; Medic, Jelena; Dooijes, Dennis; de Visser, Marianne; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; Raaphorst, Joost; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; van der Pol, W. Ludo; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the frequency and phenotype of hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9ORF72 in a large cohort of patients of Dutch descent with familial (fALS) and sporadic (sALS) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS).

  8. Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9ORF72 in the spectrum of motor neuron diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rheenen, W. van; Blitterswijk, M. van; Huisman, M.H.; Vlam, L.; Doormaal, P.T. van; Seelen, M.; Medic, J.; Dooijes, D.; Visser, M. de; Kooi, A.J. van der; Raaphorst, J.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Pol, W.L. van der; Veldink, J.H.; Berg, L.H. van den

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and phenotype of hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9ORF72 in a large cohort of patients of Dutch descent with familial (fALS) and sporadic (sALS) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS).

  9. Effect of CYP2C9 *3 gene polymorphism on lipid-lowering efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical data were collected prior to treatment with fluvastatin and 4 weeks after. Results: In 270 hyperlipidemic patients, the ... to increase the lipid-lowering effects of fluvastatin. Keywords: Hyperlipidemia, Gene, CYP2C9, Polymorphism, Polymerase chain reaction, Restriction fragment length polymorphism, Fluvastatin ...

  10. Screening for the C9ORF72 repeat expansion in a greek frontotemporal dementia cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartanou, Chrisoula; Karadima, Georgia; Koutsis, Georgios; Breza, Marianthi; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Paraskevas, George P; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Panas, Marios

    2018-02-01

    The C9orf72 repeat expansion is a common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in European populations. A previous study has reported a high frequency of the expansion in Greek ALS. However, no data have been reported on the frequency of the expansion in Greek FTD. Currently, we investigated the frequency of the C9orfF72 expansion in a well-characterized cohort of 64 Greek FTD patients. We detected the C9orf72 repeat expansion in 9.3% of cases. Overall, 27.7% of familial and 2.2% of sporadic cases were expansion-positive. Five out of 6 cases had a diagnosis of behavioral variant FTD. All expansion-positive cases had fairly typical FTD presentations. Clinical features included motor neuron disease, Parkinsonism and hallucinations. We conclude that the overall frequency of C9orf72-positive cases in Greek FTD is high, comparable to Greek ALS, similar to some Western European, but significantly higher than some Mediterranean FTD populations.

  11. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(9)-8 - Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations...(c)(9)-8 Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; effective date. (a) General rule. Except as... percent or more of the association's income consist of amounts collected from members and contributed by...

  12. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(9)-1 - Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations, in... Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations, in general. To be described in section 501(c)(9) an organization must meet all of the following requirements: (a) The organization is an employees' association, (b...

  13. Gene-specific mitochondria dysfunctions in human TARDBP and C9ORF72 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onesto, Elisa; Colombrita, Claudia; Gumina, Valentina; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Dusi, Sabrina; Doretti, Alberto; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Invernizzi, Federica; Moggio, Maurizio; Tiranti, Valeria; Silani, Vincenzo; Ratti, Antonia

    2016-05-05

    Dysregulation of RNA metabolism represents an important pathogenetic mechanism in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) due to the involvement of the DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS and, more recently, of C9ORF72. A potential link between dysregulation of RNA metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction is recently emerged in TDP-43 disease models. To further investigate the possible relationship between these two pathogenetic mechanisms in ALS/FTD, we studied mitochondria functionality in human mutant TARDBP(p.A382T) and C9ORF72 fibroblasts grown in galactose medium to induce a switch from a glycolytic to an oxidative metabolism. In this condition we observed significant changes in mitochondria morphology and ultrastructure in both mutant cells with a fragmented mitochondria network particularly evident in TARDBP(p.A382T) fibroblasts. From analysis of the mitochondrial functionality, a decrease of mitochondria membrane potential with no alterations in oxygen consumption rate emerged in TARDBP fibroblasts. Conversely, an increased oxygen consumption and mitochondria hyperpolarization were observed in C9ORF72 fibroblasts in association to increased ROS and ATP content. We found evidence of autophagy/mitophagy in dynamic equilibrium with the biogenesis of novel mitochondria, particularly in mutant C9ORF72 fibroblasts where an increase of mitochondrial DNA content and mass, and of PGC1-α protein was observed. Our imaging and biochemical data show that wild-type and mutant TDP-43 proteins do not localize at mitochondria so that the molecular mechanisms responsible for such mitochondria impairment remain to be further elucidated. For the first time our findings assess a link between C9ORF72 and mitochondria dysfunction and indicate that mitochondria functionality is affected in TARDBP and C9ORF72 fibroblasts with gene-specific features in oxidative conditions. As in neuronal metabolism mitochondria are actively used for ATP

  14. Control and switching synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique

    OpenAIRE

    Radwan, A.G.; Moaddy, K.; Salama, K. N.; S. Momani; Hashim, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the continuous effect of the fractional order parameter of the Lü system where the system response starts stable, passing by chaotic behavior then reaching periodic response as the fractional-order increases. In addition, this paper presents the concept of synchronization of different fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique. Four different synchronization cases are introduced based on the switching parameters. Also, the static and dynamic synchroni...

  15. Inhibitory effect of valproic acid on cytochrome P450 2C9 activity in epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Arzu; Bilir, Erhan; Zengil, Hakan; Babaoglu, Melih O; Bozkurt, Atila; Yasar, Umit

    2007-06-01

    Drug interactions constitute a major problem in the treatment of epilepsy because drug combinations are so common. Valproic acid is a widely used anticonvulsant drug with a broad therapeutic spectrum. Case reports suggest interaction between valproic acid and other drugs metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 isoforms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of valproic acid on cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) activity by using losartan oxidation as a probe in epilepsy patients. Patients were prescribed sodium valproate (mean 200 mg/day for the first week and 400 mg/day in the following period) according to their clinical need. A single oral dose of 25 mg losartan was given to patients before and after the first dose, first week and 4 weeks of valproic acid treatment. Losartan and E3174, the CYP2C9-derived carboxylic acid metabolite of losartan in 8 hr urine were assayed by using high pressure liquid chromatography. Urinary losartan/E3174 ratio did not change significantly on the first day (0.9, 0.3-3.5; median, range), and first week (0.6, 0.2-3.8; median, range), while a significant increase was observed after 4 weeks of valproic acid treatment (1.1, 0.3-5.7; median, range) as compared to that of measured before valproic acid administration (0.6, 0.1-2.1; median, range) (P = 0.039). The degree of inhibition was correlated with the steady-state plasma concentrations of valproic acid (r(2) = 0.70, P = 0.04). The results suggest an inhibitory effect of valproic acid on CYP2C9 enzyme activity in epilepsy patients at steady state. The risk of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions should be taken into account during concomitant use of valproic acid and CYP2C9 substrates.

  16. Forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests F57A10.2 and acp-4 as suppressors of C9ORF72 related phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIN WANG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An abnormally expanded GGGGCC repeat in C9ORF72 is the most frequent causal mutation associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. Both gain-of-function (gf and loss-of-function (lf mechanisms have been involved in C9ORF72 related ALS FTLD. The gf mechanism of C9ORF72 has been studied in various animal models but not in C. elegans. In the present study, we described mutant C9ORF72 modeling in C. elegans and report the finding of two suppressor genes.We made transgenes containing 9 or 29 repeats of GGGGCC in C9ORF72, driven by either the hsp-16 promoters or the unc 119 promoter.Transgenic worms were made to carry such transgenes.Phenotypic analysis of those animals revealed that Phsp 16::(G4C229::GFP transgenic animals (EAB 135 displayed severe paralysis by the second day of adulthood, followed by lethality, which phenotypes were less severe in Phsp 16::(G4C29::GFP transgenic animals (EAB242,and absent in control strains expressing empty vectors. Suppressor genes of this locomotor phenotype were pursued by introducing mutations with ethyl methanesulfonate in EAB135, screening mutant strains that moved faster than EAB135 by a food-ring assay, identifying mutations by whole-genome sequencing and testing the underlying mechanism of the suppressor genes either by employing RNA interference studies or C. elegans genetics. Three mutant strains, EAB164, EAB165 and EAB167, were identified. Eight suppressor genes carrying nonsense canonical splicing site mutations were confirmed, among which a nonsense mutation of F57A10.2 VAMP was found in all three mutant strains, and a nonsense mutation of acp-4 ACP2 was only found in EAB164. Knock down out of those two genes in EAB135 animals by feeding RNAi introducing a known acp-4 null allele phenocopied the suppression of the C9ORF72 variant related movement defect in the mutant strains. Translational conformation in a mammalian system is required, but our worm data

  17. The in-vitro effect of complementary and alternative medicines on cytochrome P450 2C9 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooiman, Kim D; Goey, Andrew K L; Huijbregts, Tomy J; Maas-Bakker, Roel F; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the inhibitory effects of 14 commonly used complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) on the metabolism of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates 7-methoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarine (MFC) and tolbutamide. CYP2C9 is important for the metabolism of numerous drugs and inhibition of this enzyme by CAM could result in elevated plasma levels of drugs that are CYP2C9 substrates. Especially for anticancer drugs, which have a narrow therapeutic window, small changes in their plasma levels could easily result in clinically relevant toxicities. The effects of CAM on CYP2C9-mediated metabolism of MFC were assessed in Supersomes, using the fluorometric CYP2C9 inhibition assay. In human liver microsomes (HLM) the inhibition of CYP2C9-mediated metabolism of tolbutamide was determined, using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated milk thistle as the most potent CYP2C9 inhibitor. For milk thistle, silybin (main constituent of milk thistle) was mainly responsible for the inhibition of CY2C9. Milk thistle and green tea were confirmed as potent inhibitors of CYP2C9-mediated metabolism of multiple substrates in vitro. Clinical studies with milk thistle are recommended to establish the clinical relevance of the demonstrated CYP2C9 inhibition. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Nonlinear systems techniques for dynamical analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Lefeber, Erjen; Arteaga, Ines

    2017-01-01

    This treatment of modern topics related to the control of nonlinear systems is a collection of contributions celebrating the work of Professor Henk Nijmeijer and honoring his 60th birthday. It addresses several topics that have been the core of Professor Nijmeijer’s work, namely: the control of nonlinear systems, geometric control theory, synchronization, coordinated control, convergent systems and the control of underactuated systems. The book presents recent advances in these areas, contributed by leading international researchers in systems and control. In addition to the theoretical questions treated in the text, particular attention is paid to a number of applications including (mobile) robotics, marine vehicles, neural dynamics and mechanical systems generally. This volume provides a broad picture of the analysis and control of nonlinear systems for scientists and engineers with an interest in the interdisciplinary field of systems and control theory. The reader will benefit from the expert participan...

  19. Profiling of Ubiquitination Pathway Genes in Peripheral Cells from Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia due to C9ORF72 and GRN Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serpente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the expression levels of 84 key genes involved in the regulated degradation of cellular protein by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in peripheral cells from patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD due to C9ORF72 and GRN mutations, as compared with sporadic FTD and age-matched controls. A SABiosciences PCR array was used to investigate the transcription profile in a discovery population consisting of six patients each in C9ORF72, GRN, sporadic FTD and age-matched control groups. A generalized down-regulation of gene expression compared with controls was observed in C9ORF72 expansion carriers and sporadic FTD patients. In particular, in both groups, four genes, UBE2I, UBE2Q1, UBE2E1 and UBE2N, were down-regulated at a statistically significant (p < 0.05 level. All of them encode for members of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. In GRN mutation carriers, no statistically significant deregulation of ubiquitination pathway genes was observed, except for the UBE2Z gene, which displays E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme activity, and was found to be statistically significant up-regulated (p = 0.006. These preliminary results suggest that the proteasomal degradation pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of FTD associated with TDP-43 pathology, although different proteins are altered in carriers of GRN mutations as compared with carriers of the C9ORF72 expansion.

  20. AC electric motors control advanced design techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Fouad

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of AC motor control lies in the multivariable and nonlinear nature of AC machine dynamics. Recent advancements in control theory now make it possible to deal with long-standing problems in AC motors control. This text expertly draws on these developments to apply a wide range of model-based control designmethods to a variety of AC motors. Contributions from over thirty top researchers explain how modern control design methods can be used to achieve tight speed regulation, optimal energetic efficiency, and operation reliability and safety, by considering online state var

  1. Quality control of textile yarn by optical filtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, F.; Longobardi, G.

    An optical filtering technique is used to improve the on-line quality characteristic of textile yarn. This enables measurements to be made of the size of the main body of the yarn and the variation in hairiness along the length of the yarn. This technique has been found to be entirely satisfactory in practice because the two parameters are parallel- recorded. A prototype system is described; it offers a wide range of benefits such as on-line recording results, easy measurements, very high operating velocity and compactness. Examples of results are presented.

  2. Cytochrome P-450 2C9 exerts a vasoconstrictor influence on coronary resistance vessels in swine at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhichao; Hemradj, Veemal; de Beer, Vincent J; Gao, Fen; Hoekstra, Maaike; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2012-04-15

    A significant endothelium-dependent vasodilation persists after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in the coronary vasculature, which has been linked to the activation of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenases expressed in endothelial cells and subsequent generation of vasodilator epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Here, we investigated the contribution of CYP 2C9 metabolites to regulation of porcine coronary vasomotor tone in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-six swine were chronically instrumented. Inhibition of CYP 2C9 with sulfaphenazole (5 mg/kg iv) alone had no effect on bradykinin-induced endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in vivo but slightly attenuated bradykinin-induced vasodilation in the presence of combined NOS/COX blockade with N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine (20 mg/kg iv) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg iv). Sulfaphenazole had minimal effects on coronary resistance vessel tone at rest or during exercise. Surprisingly, in the presence of combined NOS/COX blockade, a significant coronary vasodilator response to sulfaphenzole became apparent, both at rest and during exercise. Subsequently, we investigated in isolated porcine coronary small arteries (∼250 μm) the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the paradoxical vasoconstrictor influence of CYP 2C9 activity. The vasodilation by bradykinin in vitro in the presence of NOS/COX blockade was markedly potentiated by sulfaphenazole under control conditions but not in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-(2-mercaptoproprionyl)-glycine. In conclusion, CYP 2C9 can produce both vasoconstrictor and vasodilator metabolites. Production of these metabolites is enhanced by combined NOS/COX blockade and is critically dependent on the experimental conditions. Thus production of vasoconstrictors slightly outweighed the production of vasodilators at rest and during exercise. Pharmacological stimulation with bradykinin resulted in vasodilator CYP 2C9 metabolite production when administered in

  3. Mosquito Control Techniques Developed for the US Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA developed and field tested new techniques to reduce the risk to deployed military troops from vector-borne diseases. Some of the methods developed included (1) novel military personal protection methods, (2) barrier treatments of artificial materials and natural vegetation, and (3) ground a...

  4. Novel USDA Mosquito Control Techniques for the US Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel techniques that we developed at the USDA to protect deployed military troops from the threat of vector-borne diseases are described. Some of the methods developed included (1) novel military personal protection methods, (2) barrier treatments of artificial materials and natural vegetation, and...

  5. Higher-order techniques for some problems of nonlinear control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarychev Andrey V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A natural first step when dealing with a nonlinear problem is an application of some version of linearization principle. This includes the well known linearization principles for controllability, observability and stability and also first-order optimality conditions such as Lagrange multipliers rule or Pontryagin's maximum principle. In many interesting and important problems of nonlinear control the linearization principle fails to provide a solution. In the present paper we provide some examples of how higher-order methods of differential geometric control theory can be used for the study nonlinear control systems in such cases. The presentation includes: nonlinear systems with impulsive and distribution-like inputs; second-order optimality conditions for bang–bang extremals of optimal control problems; methods of high-order averaging for studying stability and stabilization of time-variant control systems.

  6. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors....../kg. Measurement compatibility is obtained by control of traceability to certified reference materials, (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  7. 75 FR 59180 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control... and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control Technique Guidelines for Paper... adopting the requirements of EPA's Control Technique Guidelines (CTG) for paper, film, and foil coatings...

  8. Loss of C9orf72 Enhances Autophagic Activity via Deregulated mTOR and TFEB Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Ugolino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia is a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72. Here we report a study of the C9orf72 protein by examining the consequences of loss of C9orf72 functions. Deletion of one or both alleles of the C9orf72 gene in mice causes age-dependent lethality phenotypes. We demonstrate that C9orf72 regulates nutrient sensing as the loss of C9orf72 decreases phosphorylation of the mTOR substrate S6K1. The transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal and autophagy genes, which is negatively regulated by mTOR, is substantially up-regulated in C9orf72 loss-of-function animal and cellular models. Consistent with reduced mTOR activity and increased TFEB levels, loss of C9orf72 enhances autophagic flux, suggesting that C9orf72 is a negative regulator of autophagy. We identified a protein complex consisting of C9orf72 and SMCR8, both of which are homologous to DENN-like proteins. The depletion of C9orf72 or SMCR8 leads to significant down-regulation of each other's protein level. Loss of SMCR8 alters mTOR signaling and autophagy. These results demonstrate that the C9orf72-SMCR8 protein complex functions in the regulation of metabolism and provide evidence that loss of C9orf72 function may contribute to the pathogenesis of relevant diseases.

  9. Design and Comparison Direct Torque Control Techniques for Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Zelechowski, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a comparison of two significant control methods of induction motor are presented. The first one is a classical Direct Torque and Flux Control (DTC) and is compared with a scheme, which uses Space Vector Modulator (DTC-SVM). A comparison in respect to dynamic and steady state...

  10. Fuzzy Control Technique Applied to Modified Mathematical Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The input domains are divided into 3 membership functions resulting in 7 fuzzy rules for each rule base and the output domains are partitioned with 5 membership functions. The Mamdani controllers use a standard max-min inference process and a fast centre of area method to calculate the crisp control signals. Numerical ...

  11. Software factory techniques applied to process control at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Dutour, Mathias D

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires constant monitoring and control of quantities of parameters to guarantee operational conditions. For this purpose, a methodology called UNICOS (UNIfied Industrial COntrols Systems) has been implemented to standardize the design of process control applications. To further accelerate the development of these applications, we migrated our existing UNICOS tooling suite toward a software factory in charge of assembling project, domain and technical information seamlessly into deployable PLC (Programmable logic Controller) - SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems. This software factory delivers consistently high quality by reducing human error and repetitive tasks, and adapts to user specifications in a cost-efficient way. Hence, this production tool is designed to encapsulate and hide the PLC and SCADA target platforms, enabling the experts to focus on the business model rather than specific syntaxes and grammars. Based on industry standard software, ...

  12. Software factory techniques applied to Process Control at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Dutour, MD

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires constant monitoring and control of quantities of parameters to guarantee operational conditions. For this purpose, a methodology called UNICOS (UNIfied Industrial COntrols Systems) has been implemented to standardize the design of process control applications. To further accelerate the development of these applications, we migrated our existing UNICOS tooling suite toward a software factory in charge of assembling project, domain and technical information seamlessly into deployable PLC (Programmable logic Controller) – SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems. This software factory delivers consistently high quality by reducing human error and repetitive tasks, and adapts to user specifications in a cost-efficient way. Hence, this production tool is designed to encapsulate and hide the PLC and SCADA target platforms, enabling the experts to focus on the business model rather than specific syntaxes and grammars. Based on industry standard software...

  13. Genotyping of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 in the Arabic Population of Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Alzahrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in the genes encoding CYP2C9 enzyme and VKORC1 reductase significantly influence the dose variability of coumarinic oral anticoagulants (COAs. Substantial inter- and intraethnic variability exists in the frequencies of CYP2C9∗2 and ∗3 and VKORC1 –1639A alleles. However, the prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic variants is less characterized in Arab populations. A total of 131 healthy adult subjects from the Al-Ahsa region of Saudi Arabia were genotyped for the CYP2C9∗2 and ∗3 and VKORC1 –1639G>A polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP method. The frequencies of the CYP2C9∗2 and ∗3 and VKORC1 –1639A alleles were 13.3%, 2.3%, and 42.4%, respectively, with no subjects carrying 2 defective alleles. The frequencies of the CYP2C9∗3 and VKORC1 –1639A alleles were significantly lower than those reported in different Arabian populations. None of the subjects with the VKORC1 –1639AA genotype were carriers of CYP2C9∗1/∗3 genotypes that lead to sensitivity to COAs therapy. The low frequency of the CYP2C9∗3 allele combined with the absence of subjects carrying 2 defective CYP2C9 alleles suggests that, in this specific population, pharmacogenetic COAs dosing may mostly rely upon VKORC1 genotyping.

  14. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  15. 78 FR 34306 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: North Carolina; Control Techniques...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: North Carolina; Control Techniques Guidelines and Reasonably Available Control Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  16. The technique of sand control with expandable screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P. [Petrochina, Liaohe (China). Liaohe Oilfield Co.

    2009-07-01

    Sand production in heavy oil reservoirs can limit the normal production of oil wells. In this study, expandable screens were used as a sand control mechanism by filtering the sand as it entered the wellbore. The screen systems consists of an expandable outer housing, an expandable base pipe and a filtering layer. The screen expands radially through an expandable cone and presses into the casing well. Axial tension is used to shrink the screens radially through a fishing anchor in order to remove them from the well. The lack of a sand ring between the screen and the casing increases the flow area of the oil and reduces flow resistance caused by fine silt blockages. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to study the expansion and shrinkage properties of the screens. A field test conducted at a well located in the Liaohe oilfield in China demonstrated that good sand control results can be obtained without the need for pump checking. It was concluded that the sand control method is easy to use and provides good sand control results in large open flow areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. A Review of Field Corrosion Control and Monitoring Techniques of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    This article discusses typical pipelines corrosion management strategies and detailed technical control and ... generation of current because of coupling two dissimilar metals with different energy levels or potentials. .... coating which consist of fusion bonded epoxy, an adhesive thermoplastic and a polypropylene top coating ...

  18. Evaluation of Different Weed Control Techniques in Soyabean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten weed control treatments consisting of wheel type weeder [3 and 6 weeks after planting (wap)]; hoe weeding (3 and 6 wap); Pre-emergence application of metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] + prometryn [N, N'-bis (1-methylethyl)-6-(methylthio)-1,3,5-triazine-2 ...

  19. Improving Accuracy of Processing by Adaptive Control Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Barbashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When machining the work-pieces a range of scatter of the work-piece dimensions to the tolerance limit is displaced in response to the errors. To improve an accuracy of machining and prevent products from defects it is necessary to diminish the machining error components, i.e. to improve the accuracy of machine tool, tool life, rigidity of the system, accuracy of adjustment. It is also necessary to provide on-machine adjustment after a certain time. However, increasing number of readjustments reduces the performance and high machine and tool requirements lead to a significant increase in the machining cost.To improve the accuracy and machining rate, various devices of active control (in-process gaging devices, as well as controlled machining through adaptive systems for a technological process control now become widely used. Thus, the accuracy improvement in this case is reached by compensation of a majority of technological errors. The sensors of active control can provide improving the accuracy of processing by one or two quality classes, and simultaneous operation of several machines.For efficient use of sensors of active control it is necessary to develop the accuracy control methods by means of introducing the appropriate adjustments to solve this problem. Methods based on the moving average, appear to be the most promising for accuracy control, since they contain information on the change in the last several measured values of the parameter under control.When using the proposed method in calculation, the first three members of the sequence of deviations remain unchanged, therefore 1 1 x  x , 2 2 x  x , 3 3 x  x Then, for each i-th member of the sequence we calculate that way: , ' i i i x  x  k x , where instead of the i x values will be populated with the corresponding values ' i x calculated as an average of three previous members:3 ' 1  2  3  i i i i x x x x .As a criterion for the estimate of the control

  20. CYP2C9 polymorphism in five autochthonous population of the same geographic area (Spanish Pyrenees).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borobia, Alberto M; López-Parra, Ana María; Tabarés, Beatriz; Ramirez, Elena; Baeza, Carlos; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Carcas, Antonio J

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the frequency of CYP2C9 polymorphisms in a cohort of Caucasians (Spanish Pyrenees), previously classified in autochthonous populations. Blood samples from 154 anonymous volunteer donors were collected. All the individuals were autochthonous to their respective populations (four grandparents born in the region): 23 from Valle de Arán (Lérida), 29 from Alto Urgel (Lérida), 32 from La Cerdaña (Gerona), 30 from Jacetania (Huesca) and 40 from Cinco Villas (Navarra). The analyses for allelic mutation, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, were identified with Taqman Allelic Discrimination kits. No statistical differences were found when allelic frequencies in the five autochthonous populations were compared. Frequency distribution of genotypic classes (wt/wt, wt/mut and mut/mut) in Alto Urgel was different from that in La Cerdaña, Cinco Villas and Jacetania samples. Comparison of Pyrenean and other European populations through exact test revealed significant differences in the distribution of genotypic classes: Alto Urgel, Barcelona, and Croatia yielded the highest significant differences. According to the exact test these populations were pooled in four groups. This classification produced a statistically significant percentage of variation explained by differences among groups (1.94%, P= 0.036), but not by differences among populations within groups (P=0.914), although most of the percentage of variance is explained by differences within populations (97.46%, P<0.001). This study increases the evidence of intra-population genotypic variability and highlights the significant genotypic heterogeneity when different autochthonous populations are considered, despite no clear differences in allelic frequencies do exist.

  1. Feasibility of Applying Controllable Lubrication Techniques to Reciprocating Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulido, Edgar Estupinan

    , the Reynolds equation is modified to accomodate the terms related to the controllable oil injection pressures and orifice distribution on the bearing surface. The active bearing forces and the dynamics of the oil injection system are coupled to the set of nonlinear equations that describes the dynamics......The use of active lubrication in journal bearings helps to enhance the thin fluid films by increasing the fluid film thickness and consequently reducing viscous friction losses and vibrations. One refers to active lubrication when conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with dynamically...... and a mechanical-actuated unit injector are developed. It is shown how the dynamics of the oil injection system is coupled to the dynamics of the bearing fluid film through equations. Applying controllable radial oil injection to dynamically loaded journal bearings helps: a) to reduce friction losses by increasing...

  2. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Controlling Spacecraft Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa T. El-Madany; Faten H. Fahmy; Ninet M. A. El-Rahman; Hassen T. Dorrah

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) made during this decade have forever changed the way we look at automating spacecraft subsystems including the electrical power system. AI have been used to solve complicated practical problems in various areas and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper, a mathematical modeling and MATLAB–SIMULINK model for the different components of the spacecraft power system is presented. Also, a control sys...

  3. Rotary inverted pendulum: Trajectory tracking via nonlinear control techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ramos-Velasco, Luis Enrique; Ruiz-León, J. J.; Čelikovský, Sergej

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2002), s. 217-232 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0709 Grant - others:CONACYT(MX) 31844-A Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : nonlinear systems * rotary inverted pendulum * output regulation * sliding modes Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.341, year: 2002

  4. Control and switching synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, A.G.; Moaddy, K.; Salama, K.N.; Momani, S.; Hashim, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the continuous effect of the fractional order parameter of the Lü system where the system response starts stable, passing by chaotic behavior then reaching periodic response as the fractional-order increases. In addition, this paper presents the concept of synchronization of different fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique. Four different synchronization cases are introduced based on the switching parameters. Also, the static and dynamic synchronizations can be obtained when the switching parameters are functions of time. The nonstandard finite difference method is used for the numerical solution of the fractional order master and slave systems. Many numeric simulations are presented to validate the concept for different fractional order parameters. PMID:25685479

  5. Control and switching synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Radwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the continuous effect of the fractional order parameter of the Lü system where the system response starts stable, passing by chaotic behavior then reaching periodic response as the fractional-order increases. In addition, this paper presents the concept of synchronization of different fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique. Four different synchronization cases are introduced based on the switching parameters. Also, the static and dynamic synchronizations can be obtained when the switching parameters are functions of time. The nonstandard finite difference method is used for the numerical solution of the fractional order master and slave systems. Many numeric simulations are presented to validate the concept for different fractional order parameters.

  6. Control and switching synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, A.G.

    2013-03-13

    This paper discusses the continuous effect of the fractional order parameter of the Lü system where the system response starts stable, passing by chaotic behavior then reaching periodic response as the fractional-order increases. In addition, this paper presents the concept of synchronization of different fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique. Four different synchronization cases are introduced based on the switching parameters. Also, the static and dynamic synchronizations can be obtained when the switching parameters are functions of time. The nonstandard finite difference method is used for the numerical solution of the fractional order master and slave systems. Many numeric simulations are presented to validate the concept for different fractional order parameters.

  7. Control and switching synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, A G; Moaddy, K; Salama, K N; Momani, S; Hashim, I

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the continuous effect of the fractional order parameter of the Lü system where the system response starts stable, passing by chaotic behavior then reaching periodic response as the fractional-order increases. In addition, this paper presents the concept of synchronization of different fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique. Four different synchronization cases are introduced based on the switching parameters. Also, the static and dynamic synchronizations can be obtained when the switching parameters are functions of time. The nonstandard finite difference method is used for the numerical solution of the fractional order master and slave systems. Many numeric simulations are presented to validate the concept for different fractional order parameters.

  8. Optimal PID control of a brushless DC motor using PSO and BF techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.E.A. Ibrahim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO technique and bacterial foraging (BF technique for determining the optimal parameters of (PID controller for speed control of a brushless DC motor (BLDC where the (BLDC motor is modeled in simulink in Matlab. The proposed technique was more efficient in improving the step response characteristics as well as reducing the steady-state error, rise time, settling time and maximum overshoot.

  9. Parameter Space Techniques for Robust Control System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    JSEP-NO0014- 79-C-0424 Juergen Ackermann, S. Norman Franklin, Christine FS-78-3633 AFOSR-78-3633 B. Chato, and Douglas P. Looze 9. PERFORMING...Ackermann, S. Norman Franklin, Christine B. Chato, and Douglas P. Looze P DThis work was supported in part by the Joint Services Electronics Program (U.S...example of a crane. In Chapter 5, it will be used to design a dynamic controller for the short period longitudinal mode of an F4-E aircraft with canards

  10. Use of Organoclays For Controlling The Bioavailability In Remediation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauth, Peter; Witthuhn, Barbara; Klumpp, Erwin; Narres, Hans-Dieter; Groeneweg, Joost; Vereecken, Harry

    Efficient bioremediation of areas contaminated with organic pollutants requires the control of factors which govern the bioavailability. In fact, biodegradation of pollutants can be hindered if contaminant concentrations are too low or too high. One approach for effective bioreme diation is the control of the available pollutant concentration by sorption. For example, reactive barriers can be based on the combi- nation of adsorption and biodegradation processes . Important requirements for this type of reactive barriers are fast and reversible sorption processes. Thus, coupled biotic and abiotic processes could provide contaminant degradation and sorbent regeneration. Organoclays could meet these requirements. Organoclays are formed by exchanging the mobile clay cations against cationic surfactants. This results in hydrophobic surfaces and high sorptive capacity for organic pollutants. We developed special organoclays in respect to the structure and amount of cationic surfactants and found them serving very well as a temporary depot for contami nants. The microbial activity was not influenced negatively by the addition of these organoclays. Sorption of pollutants on these organoclays is reversible and completed within a few minutes. Also at concentrations of the pollutant 2,4-dichlorophenol normally toxic, biodegra dation became possible in the presence of organoclay, because it reduces the temporary bioavailable amount. Declining concentration of the pollutant in the liquid phase caused by biodegradation leads to desorption from the organoclay and thus enables complete biodegradation and regeneration of the sorbent.

  11. C9.A/14 steelwork joints de poutres par plaque frontale : assemblages par gousset

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Les Tables de résistances ultimes des assemblages boulonnés par plaque frontale et par gousset, complétées par une description des modèles de calcul et des exemples d’application, ont pour but de faciliter la tâche de l'ingénieur et du constructeur. Cette première partie C9.A/14 contient les chapitres suivants: - Joints de poutres par plaque frontale en acier S235 et S355 - Assemblages par gousset en acier S235 et S355 Les Tables contiennent des données relatives à la géométrie ainsi que les valeurs de calcul correspondantes des résistances ultimes des assemblages ; elles remplacent le chapitre « Assemblages par plaques frontales et boulons HR » des anciennes Tables C9.1 de 1983 / 2002. Le calcul de ces assemblages par plaque frontale est basé sur les hypothèses du modèle de la méthode des composants décrite dans la norme SN EN 1993-1-8. Les vérifications sont effectuées selon la norme SIA 263:2013. Les assemblages par gousset remplacent les assemblages par double cornière, (telle...

  12. Exploring machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques in software defined optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibin; Wang, Yuqiao; Chen, Haoran; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie

    2017-12-01

    In software defined optical networks (SDON), the centralized control plane may encounter numerous intrusion threatens which compromise the security level of provisioned services. In this paper, the issue of control plane security is studied and two machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques are proposed for SDON with properly selected features such as bandwidth, route length, etc. We validate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed techniques by simulations. Results show an accuracy of 83% for intrusion detection can be achieved with the proposed machine-learning-based control plane intrusion detection techniques.

  13. Pharmacogenetic testing of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 alleles for warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, David A; O'Kane, Dennis; Williams, Marc S; Watson, Michael S; Flockhart, David A; Gage, Brian; Gandolfi, Roy; King, Richard; Lyon, Elaine; Nussbaum, Robert; O'Kane, Dennis; Schulman, Kevin; Veenstra, David; Williams, Marc S; Watson, Michael S

    2008-02-01

    American College of Medical Genetics statements and guidelines are designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other health care professionals to help them provide quality medical genetic services. Adherence to these standards and guidelines does not necessarily ensure a successful medical outcome. These statements and guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, the health care professional should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific clinical circumstances presented by the individual patient or specimen. It may be prudent, however, to document in the patient's record the rationale for any significant deviation from these standards and guidelines. Warfarin (Coumadin) is a potent drug that when used judiciously and monitored closely, leads to substantial reductions in morbidity and mortality from thromboembolic events. However, even with careful monitoring, initiation of warfarin dosing is associated with highly variable responses between individuals and challenges achieving and maintaining levels within the narrow therapeutic range that can lead to adverse drug events. Variants of two genes, CYP2C9 and VKORC1, account for 30-50% of the variability in dosing of warfarin; thus, many believe that testing of these genes will aid in warfarin dosing recommendations. Evidence about this test is evolving rapidly, as is its translation into clinical practice. In an effort to address this situation, a multidisciplinary expert group was organized in November 2006 to evaluate the role of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 testing in altering warfarin-related therapeutic goals and reduction of adverse drug events. A recently completed Rapid-ACCE (Analytical, Clinical Validity, Clinical Utility, and Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications

  14. Substrate Proton to Heme Distances in CYP2C9 Allelic Variants and Alterations by the Heterotropic Activator, Dapsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Matthew A.; Gannett, Peter M.; Aguilar, Jarrett; Tracy, Timothy S.

    2008-01-01

    CYP2C9 polymorphisms result in reduced enzyme catalytic activity and greater activation by effector molecules as compared to wild type protein, with the mechanism(s) for these changes in activity not fully elucidated. Through T1 NMR and spectral binding analyses, mechanism(s) for these differences in behavior of the variant proteins (CYP2C9.2, CYP2C9.3 and CYP2C9.5) as compared to CYP2C9.1 were assessed. Neither altered binding affinity nor substrate (flurbiprofen) proton to heme-iron distances differed substantially among the four enzymes. Co-incubation with dapsone resulted in reduced substrate proton to heme-iron distances for all enzymes, providing at least a partial mechanism for the activation of CYP2C9 variants by dapsone. In summary, neither altered binding affinity nor substrate orientation appear to be major factors in the reduced catalytic activity noted in the CYP2C9 variants, but dapsone co-incubation caused similar changes in substrate proton to heme-iron distances suggesting at least partial common mechanisms in the activation of the CYP2C9 forms. PMID:18485885

  15. Common polymorphisms in CYP2C9, subclinical atherosclerosis and risk of ischemic vascular disease in 52,000 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, D; Bojesen, S E; Nordestgaard, B G

    2009-01-01

    -reactive protein), ischemic vascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic cerebrovascular disease and ischemic stroke) and death after an ischemic heart disease diagnosis. We genotyped the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective study including 10 398 participants with 30-32 years....... Furthermore, the odds/hazard ratios for ischemic vascular disease did not differ from 1.0 for CYP2C9 carriers versus noncarriers. Finally, we found no altered risk of early death after a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. For all end points, we could exclude even minor changes in risk of disease with 90......Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) enzymes metabolize warfarin and arachidonic acid. We hypothesized that the CYP2C9(*)2 (rs.1799853) and CYP2C9(*)3 (rs.1057910) polymorphisms with decreased enzyme activity affect risk of subclinical atherosclerosis (reduced ankle brachial index and increased C...

  16. Self Tuning Techniques on PLC Background and Control Systems With Self Tuning Methods Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Koziorek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Process Control techniques have become standard functions of distributed control systems. Self tuning methods belong to Advanced Process Control (APC techniques. APC techniques contain software packages for advanced control based on mathematical methods. APC tools are designed to increase the process capacity, yield and quality of products. Most of nowadays digital industry regulators and PLCs are provided with some kind of the self tuning constant algorithm. Practical part of the paper deals with design of the control systems which contain self tuning regulator. A control system with PID Self Tuner by Siemens and with visualization in WinCC is designed. There is a description of an implementation of the PID regulator as a function block which can be also used for extension control functions. Control systems for relay and moment self tuner with visualizations in WinCC are also designed.

  17. HPLC-MS technique for radiopharmaceuticals analysis and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macášek, F.; Búriová, E.; Brúder, P.; Vera-Ruiz, H.

    2003-01-01

    Potentialities of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detector (MSD) were investigated with the objective of quality control of radiopharmaceuticals; 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) being an example. Screening of suitable MSD analytical lines is presented. Mass-spectrometric monitoring of acetonitrile— aqueous ammonium formate eluant by negatively charged FDG.HCO2 - ions enables isotope analysis (specific activity) of the radiopharmaceutical at m/z 227 and 226. Kryptofix® 222 provides an intense MSD signal of the positive ion associated with NH4 + at m/z 394. Expired FDG injection samples contain decomposition products from which at least one labelled by 18F and characterised by signal of negative ions at m/z 207 does not correspond to FDG fragments but to C5 decomposition products. A glucose chromatographic peak, characterised by m/z 225 negative ion is accompanied by a tail of a component giving a signal of m/z 227, which can belong to [18O]glucose; isobaric sorbitol signals were excluded but FDG-glucose association occurs in the co-elution of separation of model mixtures. The latter can actually lead to a convoluted chromatographic peak, but the absence of 18F makes this inconsistent. Quantification and validation of the FDG component analysis is under way.

  18. Allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in an Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordo, Maria Gabriella; Caputi, Achille P; D'Arrigo, Concetta; Fava, Giuseppina; Spina, Edoardo

    2004-08-01

    The polymorphic cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (CYPs) 2C9, 2C19 and 2D6 metabolise many important drugs, as well as other xenobiotics. Their polymorphism gives rise to important interindividual and interethnic variability in the metabolism and disposition of several therapeutic agents and may cause differences in the clinical response to these drugs. In this study, we determined the genotype profile of a random Italian population in order to compare the CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 allele frequencies among Italians with previous findings in other Caucasian populations. Frequencies for the major CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 mutated alleles and genotypes have been evaluated in 360 unrelated healthy Italian volunteers (210 males and 150 females, aged 19-52 years). Genotyping has been carried out on peripheral leukocytes DNA by molecular biology techniques (PCR, RFLP, long-PCR). CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 allele and genotype frequencies resulted in equilibrium with the Hardy-Weinberg equation. One hundred and fourteen subjects (31.7%) carried one and 23 subjects (6.4%) carried two CYP2C9 mutated alleles. Sixty-eight (18.9%) volunteers were found to be heterozygous and six (1.7%) homozygous for the CYP2C19*2, while no CYP2C19*3 was detected in the evaluated population. Volunteers could be divided into four CYP2D6 genotypes groups: 192 subjects (53.3%) with no mutated alleles (homozygous extensive metabolisers, EM), 126 (35.0%) with one mutated allele (heterozygous EM), 12 (3.4%) with two mutated alleles (poor metabolisers, PM) and 30 (8.3%) with extracopies of a functional gene (ultrarapid metabolisers, UM). Frequencies of both CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 allelic variants, as well as CYP2D6 detrimental alleles, in Italian subjects were similar to those of other Caucasian populations. Conversely, the prevalence of CYP2D6 gene duplication among Italians resulted very high, confirming the higher frequency of CYP2D6 UM in the Mediterranean area compared to Northern Europe. Copyright 2004

  19. 75 FR 59084 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control... Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Maryland. This SIP revision pertains to the control of... amending its regulations by adopting the requirements of EPA's Control Technique Guidelines (CTG) for Paper...

  20. Influence of admixture components on CYP2C9*2 allele frequency in eight indigenous populations from Northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Macías, M; Lazalde-Ramos, B P; Galaviz-Hernández, C; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Salazar-Flores, J; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; Martínez-Fierro, M L; Dorado, P; Wong, M L; Licinio, J; LLerena, A

    2013-12-01

    We previously documented the lowest frequency of CYP2C9*2 in Mexican indigenous Tepehuanos followed by Mestizos and Mexican-Americans populations, suggesting a negative correlation between the CYP2C9*2 frequency and the degree of Asian ancestry in indigenous Americans. We determined the influence of ethnic admixture components on the CYP2C9 allele distribution in 505 Amerindian from eight indigenous populations through genotyping CYP2C9*2, *3 and *6 alleles by real-time PCR and molecular evaluation of ancestry. The frequencies for CYP2C9*2 were 0.026 in Seris and 0.057 in Mayos, being higher than in Asians (PHuicholes (0.033) and Coras (0.037), with East Asians having lower frequencies than the former three groups (P<0.001). CYP2C9*6 was not found. The frequency of CYP2C9*2 was lower in Amerindians than in European populations, and higher than their Asian ancestors. The presence of this allele in ethnic groups in Mexico can be explained by European admixture.

  1. In vitro assessment of CYP1A2 and 2C9 inhibition potential of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica in human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savai, Jay; Varghese, Alice; Pandita, Nancy; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2015-06-01

    Several herbal drugs and allopathic medicines when co-administered can lead to severe herb-drug interactions. Hence, this study was undertaken in order to assess the in vitro inhibition potential of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica with cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and 2C9 enzyme using human liver microsomes. Inhibitory potential of crude extracts of both the medicinal plants along with their principal phytoconstituents were investigated using selective probe substrate technique. IC50, Ki values and mode of inhibition were determined. The results of the study revealed that W. somnifera showed no significant interaction with both the isoforms of CYP. However, ethanolic extract of C. asiatica significantly inhibited both CYP1A2 (IC50 value - 42.23±3.65 μg/mL/Ki value - 14.93±4.59 μg/mL) and 2C9 enzyme (IC50 value - 48.41±4.64 μg/mL/Ki value - 23.89±3.14 μg/mL) in a competitive manner. The flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol showed potent (IC50 values less than 10 μM) inhibition of CYP1A2 activity with no significant inhibition of CYP2C9 enzyme. Thus, these findings of the study might be helpful for safe and effective use of C. asiatica in clinical practice. However, its in vivo interaction study in humans is still warranted.

  2. Fuzzy Controller Design Using Evolutionary Techniques for Twin Rotor MIMO System: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, H. A.; Abido, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO) system (TRMS) considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), artificial bee colony (ABC), and differential evolution (DE). In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD) controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed. PMID:25960738

  3. Fuzzy Controller Design Using Evolutionary Techniques for Twin Rotor MIMO System: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO system (TRMS considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, artificial bee colony (ABC, and differential evolution (DE. In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed.

  4. Can ALS-associated C9orf72 repeat expansions be diagnosed on a blood DNA test alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pamphlett

    Full Text Available Gene mutations that preferentially affect the CNS have been implicated in a number of neurological disorders. This leads to the possibility that a disease-causing mutation present only in CNS tissues could be missed if it were tested in a blood DNA sample only. The commonest mutation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an expansion of the hexanucleotide repeats of C9orf72. To find out if CNS-specific mutations of this gene could cause some cases of ALS we looked for differences in the size of C9orf72 repeats between DNA from the CNS and from white blood cells (WBCs of 38 sporadic ALS patients, using a repeat-primed PCR screening test. We also looked for differences in C9orf72 repeats in WBC DNA from 6 ALS-discordant and 1 ALS-concordant monozygotic twins. Abnormally expanded C9orf72 repeats were found in 13% of the ALS CNS samples, as well as in their paired WBC DNA. The 87% of ALS CNS samples with normal-sized C9orf72 repeats had the same number of repeats in paired WBC samples. All ALS-discordant twins had the same normal numbers of WBC C9orf72 repeats. Although previous work suggests some tissue mosaicism in C9orf72 repeat size is probably present, this study indicates that this is not likely to be of sufficient magnitude to result in a normal C9orf72 repeat length in blood but an abnormally expanded repeat length in the CNS. This suggests that a blood DNA test alone will usually be sufficient to make a diagnosis of C9orf72 repeat-related ALS.

  5. Backstepping Based Formation Control of Quadrotors with the State Transformation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Uk Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a backstepping-based formation control of quadrotors with the state transformation technique is proposed. First, the dynamics of a quadrotor is derived by using the Newton–Euler formulation. Next, a backstepping-based formation control for quadrotors using a state transformation technique is presented. In the position control, which is the basis of formation control, it is possible to derive the reference attitude angles employing a state transformation technique without the small angle assumption or the simplified dynamics usually used. Stability analysis based on the Lyapunov theorem shows that the proposed formation controller can provide a quadrotor formation error system that is asymptotically stabilized. Finally, we verify the performance of the proposed formation control method through comparison simulations.

  6. Triage quality control is missing tools-a new observation technique for ED quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmström, Tomi; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Torkki, Paulus; Kumpulainen, Salla; Malmström, Raija

    2017-04-01

    Correct assessment of patient urgency is critical to ensuring patient safety in emergency departments (EDs). Although significant time and effort have been devoted to developing triage systems, less attention has been paid to the development of quality control. The aim of this study is to introduce and test observation technique, which enables identifying of patient groups at risk of erroneous assessment in triage. The introduced technique is aimed to be less laborious to use than existing triage quality control methods. The study developed an observation technique for identifying patients with possible erroneous assessments in triage. Data sample for the observation technique is carried out with survey form filled in by nurse. Hospital ED with ~74 000 patient visits annually. Consecutive adult patients in an ED for baseline study period of 14 days (1774 patients) in 2010 and control study period of 4 days (541 patients) in 2012. Triage observation technique for continuous improvement of triage performance. Primary measures of triage improvement were triage accuracy and nurses' ability to predict patient admissions. With the observation technique the ED staff was able to identify patient groups at risk for erroneous triage. Under-triage related mostly to patients with chest pain, shortness of breath, collapse, stomach pain and infections. Instead injures and muscular skeletal symptoms were seldom undertriaged even though they are common. EDs can control triage quality with simple observation technique. The usability of observation technique and triage quality improvement process were good.

  7. Maternal Verbal Control Techniques with Young Infants during Mutual Gaze and Visual Co-Orientation Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Patricia L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examines periods of mutual gaze and visual coorientation between mothers and their two- to four-month-old infants as contexts for the utilization of maternal verbal control techniques. Additional questions involve the impact of infant sex and maternal sensitivity upon the utilization of these techniques. (Author/MP)

  8. Controlled Palatal Harvest Technique for Harvesting a Palatal Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatavadekar, Neel B; Gharpure, Amit S

    2018-02-01

    Subepithelial connective tissue grafts (SCTGs) have been extensively used to augment soft-tissue volume on dental implants and natural teeth. The authors present a technique called the controlled palatal harvest (CPH) to obtain SCTGs. CPH provides an alternative to the trap-door and single-incision techniques currently utilized. The objective of this article is to describe this harvesting technique for SCTGs. A case report is presented in which the CPH technique was successfully used to obtain a SCTG. Contrary to current techniques where the SCTG is usually taken from the palatal (bone) side, this technique involves the dissection of a thick split-thickness flap in which the graft is harvested from the raised flap. Further, an L-shaped incision (with an anterior release) improves visibility and dexterity during dissection of the connective tissue graft. This technique enables the operator to maintain a certain minimum overlying flap thickness, and excellent control is ensured over the thickness of the harvested SCTG. The thickness of theremaining connective tissue overlying the palatal can also be controlled by the operator. Thus, the chances of leaving behind a thin tissue covering the palatal bone are reduced, minimizing necrosis and flap sloughing, which further improves grafting success. While the CPH can be used as an alternative to currently employed conventional harvest techniques, it may require greater operator skill. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report that documents such a technique.

  9. Fact Sheet: Control Techniques Guidelines (CTG) for Shipbuilding and Ship Repair Facilities Operation (Surface Coating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 1996 fact sheet with information regarding the CTG and Alternative Control Techniques (ACT) for Surface Coating at Shipbuilding and Ship Repair Facilities Operations. This document provides a summary of this guidance

  10. Robust Control and Motion Planning for Nonlinear Underactuated Systems Using H infinity Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toussaint, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents new techniques for planning and robustly controlling the motion of nonlinear underactuated vehicles when disturbances are present and only imperfect state measurements are available for feedback...

  11. Application of a sensitivity analysis technique to high-order digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduano, James D.; Downing, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis technique for multiloop flight control systems is studied. This technique uses the scaled singular values of the return difference matrix as a measure of the relative stability of a control system. It then uses the gradients of these singular values with respect to system and controller parameters to judge sensitivity. The sensitivity analysis technique is first reviewed; then it is extended to include digital systems, through the derivation of singular-value gradient equations. Gradients with respect to parameters which do not appear explicitly as control-system matrix elements are also derived, so that high-order systems can be studied. A complete review of the integrated technique is given by way of a simple example: the inverted pendulum problem. The technique is then demonstrated on the X-29 control laws. Results show linear models of real systems can be analyzed by this sensitivity technique, if it is applied with care. A computer program called SVA was written to accomplish the singular-value sensitivity analysis techniques. Thus computational methods and considerations form an integral part of many of the discussions. A user's guide to the program is included. The SVA is a fully public domain program, running on the NASA/Dryden Elxsi computer.

  12. The neural correlates and clinical characteristics of psychosis in the frontotemporal dementia continuum and theC9orf72expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenney, Emma M; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Irish, Muireann; Hornberger, Michael; Mioshi, Eneida; Halliday, Glenda M; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R

    2017-01-01

    This present study aims to address the gap in the literature regarding the severity and underlying neural correlates of psychotic symptoms in frontotemporal dementia with and without the C9orf72 gene expansion. Fifty-six patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (20 with concomitant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and 23 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological assessments, detailed clinical interview for assessment of psychosis symptoms, brain MRI and genetic testing. Carers underwent a clinical interview based upon the neuropsychiatric inventory. Patients were assessed at ForeFront, the Frontotemporal Dementia Research Group at Neuroscience Research Australia or at the Brain and Mind Centre, between January 2008 and December 2013. An index of psychosis was calculated, taking into account the degree and severity of psychosis in each case. Voxel-based morphometry analyses were used to explore relationships between the psychosis index and grey matter changes. Thirty-four percent of frontotemporal dementia patients showed psychotic features. C9orf72 expansion cases were more likely to exhibit psychotic symptoms than non-carriers (64% vs. 26%; p  = 0.006), which were also more severe (psychotic index 23.1 vs. 8.1; p  = 0.002). Delusions comprised persecutory, somatic, jealous and grandiose types and were present in 57% of C9orf72 carriers and 19% of non-carriers ( p  = 0.006). Auditory, visual or tactile hallucinations were present in 36% of C9orf72 carriers and 17% of non-carriers ( p  = 0.13). Increased psychotic symptoms in C9orf72 expansion carriers correlated with atrophy in a distributed cortical and subcortical network that included discrete regions of the frontal, temporal and occipital cortices, as well as the thalamus, striatum and cerebellum. This study underlines the need to consider and assess for psychotic symptoms in the frontotemporal dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis continuum particularly in those with C9orf72 gene

  13. Temperature Control of Gas Chromatograph Based on Switched Delayed System Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the temperature control problem of the gas chromatograph. We model the temperature control system of the gas chromatograph into a switched delayed system and analyze the stability by common Lyapunov functional technique. The PI controller parameters can be given based on the proposed linear matrix inequalities (LMIs condition and the designed controller can make the temperature of gas chromatograph track the reference signal asymptotically. An experiment is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the stability criterion.

  14. A quality control technique based on UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy for tequila distillery factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Garcia, O.; Ramos Ortiz, G.; Maldonado, J. L.; Pichardo Molina, J.; Meneses Nava, M. A.; Landgrave, Enrique; Cervantes, M. J.

    2006-02-01

    A low cost technique based on the UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy is presented for the quality control of the spirit drink known as tequila. It is shown that such spectra offer enough information to discriminate a given spirit drink from a group of bottled commercial tequilas. The technique was applied to white tequilas. Contrary to the reference analytic methods, such as chromatography, for this technique neither special personal training nor sophisticated instrumentations is required. By using hand-held instrumentation this technique can be applied in situ during the production process.

  15. Poly(GP) proteins are a useful pharmacodynamic marker for C9ORF72-associated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Tania F; Chew, Jeannie; Stankowski, Jeannette N; Hayes, Lindsey R; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Prudencio, Mercedes; Carlomagno, Yari; Daughrity, Lillian M; Jansen-West, Karen; Perkerson, Emilie A; O'Raw, Aliesha; Cook, Casey; Pregent, Luc; Belzil, Veronique; van Blitterswijk, Marka; Tabassian, Lilia J; Lee, Chris W; Yue, Mei; Tong, Jimei; Song, Yuping; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Rousseau, Linda; Phillips, Virginia; Dickson, Dennis W; Rademakers, Rosa; Fryer, John D; Rush, Beth K; Pedraza, Otto; Caputo, Ana M; Desaro, Pamela; Palmucci, Carla; Robertson, Amelia; Heckman, Michael G; Diehl, Nancy N; Wiggs, Edythe; Tierney, Michael; Braun, Laura; Farren, Jennifer; Lacomis, David; Ladha, Shafeeq; Fournier, Christina N; McCluskey, Leo F; Elman, Lauren B; Toledo, Jon B; McBride, Jennifer D; Tiloca, Cinzia; Morelli, Claudia; Poletti, Barbara; Solca, Federica; Prelle, Alessandro; Wuu, Joanne; Jockel-Balsarotti, Jennifer; Rigo, Frank; Ambrose, Christine; Datta, Abhishek; Yang, Weixing; Raitcheva, Denitza; Antognetti, Giovanna; McCampbell, Alexander; Van Swieten, John C; Miller, Bruce L; Boxer, Adam L; Brown, Robert H; Bowser, Robert; Miller, Timothy M; Trojanowski, John Q; Grossman, Murray; Berry, James D; Hu, William T; Ratti, Antonia; Traynor, Bryan J; Disney, Matthew D; Benatar, Michael; Silani, Vincenzo; Glass, Jonathan D; Floeter, Mary Kay; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Boylan, Kevin B; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2017-03-29

    There is no effective treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating motor neuron disease. However, discovery of a G4C2 repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene as the most common genetic cause of ALS has opened up new avenues for therapeutic intervention for this form of ALS. G4C2 repeat expansion RNAs and proteins of repeating dipeptides synthesized from these transcripts are believed to play a key role in C9ORF72-associated ALS (c9ALS). Therapeutics that target G4C2 RNA, such as antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and small molecules, are thus being actively investigated. A limitation in moving such treatments from bench to bedside is a lack of pharmacodynamic markers for use in clinical trials. We explored whether poly(GP) proteins translated from G4C2 RNA could serve such a purpose. Poly(GP) proteins were detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from c9ALS patients and, notably, from asymptomatic C9ORF72 mutation carriers. Moreover, CSF poly(GP) proteins remained relatively constant over time, boding well for their use in gauging biochemical responses to potential treatments. Treating c9ALS patient cells or a mouse model of c9ALS with ASOs that target G4C2 RNA resulted in decreased intracellular and extracellular poly(GP) proteins. This decrease paralleled reductions in G4C2 RNA and downstream G4C2 RNA-mediated events. These findings indicate that tracking poly(GP) proteins in CSF could provide a means to assess target engagement of G4C2 RNA-based therapies in symptomatic C9ORF72 repeat expansion carriers and presymptomatic individuals who are expected to benefit from early therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Stable adaptive PI control for permanent magnet synchronous motor drive based on improved JITL technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiqi; Tang, Xiaoqi; Song, Bao; Lu, Shaowu; Ye, Bosheng

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a stable adaptive PI control strategy based on the improved just-in-time learning (IJITL) technique is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive. Firstly, the traditional JITL technique is improved. The new IJITL technique has less computational burden and is more suitable for online identification of the PMSM drive system which is highly real-time compared to traditional JITL. In this way, the PMSM drive system is identified by IJITL technique, which provides information to an adaptive PI controller. Secondly, the adaptive PI controller is designed in discrete time domain which is composed of a PI controller and a supervisory controller. The PI controller is capable of automatically online tuning the control gains based on the gradient descent method and the supervisory controller is developed to eliminate the effect of the approximation error introduced by the PI controller upon the system stability in the Lyapunov sense. Finally, experimental results on the PMSM drive system show accurate identification and favorable tracking performance. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Indirect robust control of agile missile via Theta-D technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An agile missile with tail fins and pulse thrusters has continuous and discontinuous control inputs. This brings certain difficulty to the autopilot design and stability analysis. Indirect robust control via Theta-D technique is employed to handle this problem. An acceleration tracking system is formulated based on the nonlinear dynamics of agile missile. Considering the dynamics of actuators, there is an error between actual input and computed input. A robust control problem is formed by treating the error as input uncertainty. The robust control is equivalent to a nonlinear quadratic optimal control of the nominal system with a modified performance index including uncertainty bound. Theta-D technique is applied to solve the nonlinear optimal control problem to obtain the final control law. Numerical results show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed strategy.

  18. C9orf72’s interaction with Rab GTPases - modulation of membrane traffic and autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor Luen Tang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in an intron of Chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD. While functional haploinsufficiency of C9orf72 resulting from the mutation may play a role in ALS/FTD, the actual cellular role of the protein has been unclear. Recent findings have now shown that C9orf72 physically and functionally interacts with multiple members of the Rab small GTPases family, consequently exerting important influences on cellular membrane traffic and the process of autophagy. Loss of C9orf72 impairs endocytosis in neuronal cell lines, and attenuated autophagosome formation. Interestingly, C9orf72 could influence autophagy both as part of a Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF complex, or as a Rab effector that facilitates transport of the Unc-51-like Autophagy Activating Kinase 1 (Ulk1 autophagy initiation complex. The cellular function of C9orf72 is discussed in the light of these recent findings

  19. Fabrication of Polymeric Coatings with Controlled Microtopographies Using an Electrospraying Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongyu Guo

    Full Text Available Surface topography of medical implants provides an important biophysical cue on guiding cellular functions at the cell-implant interface. However, few techniques are available to produce polymeric coatings with controlled microtopographies onto surgical implants, especially onto implant devices of small dimension and with complex structures such as drug-eluting stents. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop a new strategy to fabricate polymeric coatings using an electrospraying technique based on the uniqueness of this technique in that it can be used to produce a mist of charged droplets with a precise control of their shape and dimension. We hypothesized that this technique would allow facile manipulation of coating morphology by controlling the shape and dimension of electrosprayed droplets. More specifically, we employed the electrospraying technique to coat a layer of biodegradable polyurethane with tailored microtopographies onto commercial coronary stents. The topography of such stent coatings was modulated by controlling the ratio of round to stretched droplets or the ratio of round to crumped droplets under high electric field before deposition. The shape of electrosprayed droplets was governed by the stability of these charged droplets right after ejection or during their flight in the air. Using the electrospraying technique, we achieved conformal polymeric coatings with tailored microtopographies onto conductive surgical implants. The approach offers potential for controlling the surface topography of surgical implant devices to modulate their integration with surrounding tissues.

  20. Application of Optimisation-Based Data Mining Techniques to Tobacco Control Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dzalilov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is one of the leading causes of death around the world. Consequently, control of tobacco use is an important global public health issue. Tobacco control may be aided by development of theoretical and methodological frameworks for describing and understanding complex tobacco control systems. Linear regression and logistic regression are currently very popular statistical techniques for modeling and analyzing complex data in tobacco control systems. However, in tobacco markets, numerous interrelated factors nontrivially interact with tobacco control policies, such that policies and control outcomes are nonlinearly related.

  1. An MRAC-based current control technique for a PWM inverter-fed PMSM drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.H. [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Jung, I.S. [Korea Electronics Technology Inst., Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Intelligent Mechatronics Research Center

    2008-07-01

    Hysteresis control, ramp comparison control, synchronous frame proportional integral (PI) control, and predictive control are the different classes of current control schemes for a PWM inverter-fed PMSM drive. The fundamental requirements for the current controller are the fast dynamic response, zero steady-state error, stable PWM inverter operation, and robustness against the variations of machine parameters. This paper presented a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) based current control technique for a PWM inverter-fed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive that was designed to improve current control performance. Although the predictive current control is known to give ideal transient and steady-state responses, its steady-state response may be degraded as a result of motor parameter variations, particularly at high speed operation. To overcome this problem, the disturbances caused by the parameter variations were estimated in this study using an MRAC technique. A feedforward manner was used to improve the steady-state control performance while retaining good dynamic performance. The asymptotic stability of the proposed control scheme was confirmed and the adaptation laws were derived by the Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed control scheme does not require the measurement of the phase voltage, unlike the conventional disturbance estimation scheme. It was concluded that a systematic design approach can be accomplished using the proposed scheme. The overall control system was implemented using DSP TMS320C31 and its effectiveness was verified through experiments. 14 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  2. A Technique for Controlling Matric Suction on Filter Papers Used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moist filter papers are widely usedfor seed gennination tests but their water confent and matric suction are not usually controlled. A technique for controlling filter paper matric suction is described and usedfor germination studies involving fresh and aged sorghum seed (Sorghummcolor (L) Moench). Filter papers wetted to ...

  3. A Technique for Controlling Matric Suction on Filter Papers . GroWth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Abstract. Moist filter papers are widely usedfor seed gennination tests but their water confent and matric suction are not usually controlled. A technique for controlling filter paper matric suction is described and usedfor germination studies involving fresh and aged sorghum seed (Sorghummcolor (L) Moench). Filter papers ...

  4. PERFORMANCE OF PID CONTROLLER OF NONLINEAR SYSTEM USING SWARM INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Jain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper swarm intelligence based PID controller tuning is proposed for a nonlinear ball and hoop system. Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial bee colony (ABC, Bacterial foraging optimization (BFO is some example of swarm intelligence techniques which are focused for PID controller tuning. These algorithms are also tested on perturbed ball and hoop model. Integral square error (ISE based performance index is used for finding the best possible value of controller parameters. Matlab software is used for designing the ball and hoop model. It is found that these swarm intelligence techniques have easy implementation & lesser settling & rise time compare to conventional methods.

  5. Switching Control of Wind Turbine Sub-Controllers Based on an Active Disturbance Rejection Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancai Xiao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind power generation systems require complex control systems with multiple working conditions and multiple controllers. Under different operating conditions, switching without disturbancebetweenthesub-controllersplaysacriticalroleinensuringthestabilityofpowersystems. The sub-controllers of two typical cases in the permanent magnet direct drive (PMDD wind turbine running process are studied, one is the proportional integral (PI controller in the maximum power points tracking (MPPT stage, the other is the fuzzy pitch angle controller in the constant power stage. The switching strategy of the two sub-controllers is the emphasis in this research. Based on the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC, the switching mode of the sub-controllers is proposed, which can effectively restrain the sudden changes of the rotor current during the switching process, and improve the quality of power generation. The feasibility and effectiveness of the sub-controller switching strategy is verified by Matlab/Simulink simulation for a 2 MW PMDD wind turbine.

  6. Development of Active DNA Control Technique for DNA Sequencer With a Solid-state Nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahori, Rena; Harada, Kunio; Goto, Yusuke; Yanagi, Itaru; Yokoi, Takahide; Oura, Takeshi; Shibahara, Masashi; Takeda, Ken-Ichi

    We have developed a technique that can control the arbitrary speeds of DNA passing through a solid-state nanopore of a DNA sequencer. For this active DNA control technique, we used a DNA-immobilized Si probe, larger than the membrane with a nanopore, and used a piezoelectric actuator and stepper motor to drive the probe. This probe enables a user to adjust the relative position between the nanopore and DNA immobilized on the probe without the need for precise lateral control. In this presentation, we demonstrate how DNA (block copolymer ([(dT)25-(dC)25-(dA)50]m)), immobilized on the probe, slid through a nanopore and was pulled out using the active DNA control technique. As the DNA-immobilized probe was being pulled out, we obtained various ion-current signal levels corresponding to the number of different nucleotides in a single strand of DNA.

  7. Absolutely Exponential Stability and Temperature Control for Gas Chromatograph System Under Dwell Time Switching Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xi-Ming; Wang, Xue-Fang; Tan, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a design strategy for temperature control of the gas chromatograph. Usually gas chromatograph is modeled by a simple first order system with a time-delay, and a proportion integration (PI) controller is widely used to regulate the output of the gas chromatograph to the desired temperature. As the characteristics of the gas chromatograph varies at the different temperature range, the single-model based PI controller cannot work well when output temperature varies from one range to another. Moreover, the presence of various disturbance will further deteriorate the performance. In order to improve the accuracy of the temperature control, multiple models are used at the different temperature ranges. With a PI controller designed for each model accordingly, a delay-dependent switching control scheme using the dwell time technique is proposed to ensure the absolute exponential stability of the closed loop. Experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed switching technique.

  8. Implementasi Fuzzy Logic Controller Untuk Mengatur Ph Nutrisi Pada Sistem Hidroponik Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

    OpenAIRE

    Pancawati, Dian; Yulianto, Andik

    2016-01-01

    One solution to solve limited agricultural land is applying hydroponics Nutrient Film Technique (NFT). The advantage of NFT is using water circulated as a growing medium in order to obtain water, nutrients and oxygen to accelerate the growth of plants with good results. The most important parameter is the pH of nutrients. This article discusses how to design an automatic nutritional pH control system by implementing the method of Fuzzy Logic Controller. The control system use Arduino Mega2560...

  9. Implementasi Fuzzy Logic Controller untuk Mengatur Ph Nutrisi pada Sistem Hidroponik Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Pancawati; Andik Yulianto

    2016-01-01

    One solution to solve limited agricultural land is applying hydroponics Nutrient Film Technique (NFT). The advantage of NFT is using water circulated as a growing medium in order to obtain water, nutrients and oxygen to accelerate the growth of plants with good results. The most important parameter is the pH of nutrients. This article discusses how to design an automatic nutritional pH control system by implementing the method of Fuzzy Logic Controller. The control system use Arduino Mega2560...

  10. Robust excitation control design using sliding-mode technique for multimachine power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbia-Vega, A.; de Leon-Morales, J.; Salas-Pena, O.; Mata-Jimenez, M.T. [Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Faculty, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Fridman, L. [Department of Control, Division of Electrical Engineering Faculty, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    An output feedback controller is proposed to enhance the transient stability of nonlinear multimachine power systems considered as a classical model with flux decay dynamics. Combining high-order sliding-mode techniques with a robust high-order sliding-mode differentiator, a robust decentralized controller is obtained. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed control scheme and its robustness properties. (author)

  11. Brain white matter demyelinating lesions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a patient with C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Santos, Miguel; Caldeira, Inês; Gromicho, Marta; Pronto-Laborinho, Ana; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2017-10-01

    A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. It has been described before four patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and C9orf72-ALS. However, C9orf72 positivity is not associated with increased risk of MS. Inflammatory pathways related to NF-κB have been linked to ALS and MS, and appear to be important in C9orf72-ALS patients. A 42-year-old woman presented with progressive bulbar symptoms for 9 months. Neurological examination disclosed spastic dysarthria, atrophic tongue with fasciculations, brisk jaw and limb tendon reflexes, and bilateral Hoffman sign. Electrophysiological assessment confirmed ALS. Brain MRI revealed multiple and bilateral juxtacortical and periventricular inflammatory changes, some with gadolinium-enhancement, configuring a probable MS-like pattern. CSF evaluation was unremarkable, with no oligoclonal bands. Visual and somatosensory evoked potentials were normal. Follow-up brain MRI 6 months later showed two new lesions in two relatively characteristic locations of MS, with no gadolinium-enhancement. Genetic screening revealed a C9orf72 expansion. As patient had no clinical manifestation of MS, a diagnosis of radiologically isolated syndrome was considered. We speculate that these demyelinating lesions might facilitate expressivity of C9orf72 expansion, through NF-κB activation. This plausible association may lead to the identification of a therapeutic target in this subgroup of C9orf72-ALS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. C9ORF72 repeat expansions in the frontotemporal dementias spectrum of diseases: a flow-chart for genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ber, Isabelle; Camuzat, Agnès; Guillot-Noel, Lena; Hannequin, Didier; Lacomblez, Lucette; Golfier, Véronique; Puel, Michèle; Martinaud, Olivier; Deramecourt, Vincent; Rivaud-Pechoux, Sophie; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Vercelletto, Martine; Couratier, Philippe; Sellal, François; Pasquier, Florence; Salachas, François; Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Didic, Mira; Pariente, Jérémie; Seilhean, Danielle; Ruberg, Merle; Wargon, Isabelle; Blanc, Frédéric; Camu, William; Michel, Bernard-François; Berger, Eric; Sauvée, Mathilde; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Mondon, Karl; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth; Goizet, Cyril; Fleury, Marie; Viennet, Gabriel; Verpillat, Patrice; Meininger, Vincent; Duyckaerts, Charles; Dubois, Bruno; Brice, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) refers to a disease spectrum including the behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD), primary progressive aphasia (PPA), progressive supranuclear palsy/corticobasal degeneration syndrome (PSP/CBDS), and FTD with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD-ALS). A GGGGCC expansion in C9ORF72 is a major cause of FTD and ALS. C9ORF72 was analyzed in 833 bvFTD, FTD-ALS, PPA, and PSP/CBDS probands; 202 patients from 151 families carried an expansion. C9ORF72 expansions were much more frequent in the large subgroup of patients with familial FTD-ALS (65.9%) than in those with pure FTD (12.8%); they were even more frequent than in familial pure ALS, according to estimated frequencies in the literature (23-50%). The frequency of carriers in non-familial FTD-ALS (12.7%) indicates that C9ORF72 should be analyzed even when family history is negative. Mutations were detected in 6.8% of PPA patients, and in 3.2% of patients with a clinical phenotype of PSP, thus enlarging the phenotype spectrum of C9ORF72. Onset was later in C9ORF72 (57.4 years, 95%CI: 55.9-56.1) than in MAPT patients (46.8, 95%CI: 43.0-50.6; p = 0.00001) and the same as in PGRN patients (59.6 years; 95%CI: 57.6-61.7; p = 0.4). ALS was more frequent in C9ORF72 than in MAPT and PGRN patients; onset before age 50 and parkinsonism were indicative of MAPT mutations, whereas hallucinations were indicative of PGRN mutations; prioritization of genetic testing is thus possible. Penetrance was age- and gender-dependent: by age 50, 78% of male carriers were symptomatic, but only 52% of females. This can also guide genetic testing and counseling. A flowchart for genetic testing is thus proposed.

  13. Warfarin dose and INR related to genotypes of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 in patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seljeflot Ingebjørg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Warfarin treatment has a narrow therapeutic range, requiring meticulous monitoring and dosage titration. Individual dosage requirement has recently partly been explained by genetic variation of the warfarin metabolizing enzyme CYP2C9 and the Vitamin K-activating enzyme VKORC1. In the WARIS-II study, comparing three different antithrombotic regimens after myocardial infarction, warfarin treatment reduced thrombotic events, but was associated with more frequent bleeding than use of acetylsalisylic acid (ASA alone. Aims The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between genotypes of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 and warfarin maintenance dose in myocardial infarction. The secondary aim was to relate the genotypes to international normalized ratio (INR. Methods Genotyping was performed in 212 myocardial infarction patients from the WARIS-II study by robotic isolation of DNA from EDTA whole blood (MagNa Pure LC before PCR amplification (LightCycler and melting point analysis. Results The 420 C>T substitution of CYP2C9*2, the 1075 A>C substitution of CYP2C9*3 and the 1173 C>T substitution of VKORC1 had minor allele frequencies of, 11.3%, 5.7% and 36.6% respectively. Warfarin weekly dose varied between 17 mg and 74 mg among the patients. INR did not vary between genotypes. Warfarin dosage requirement was significantly associated with CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes, treatment group and age. The VKORC1 genotype contributed 24.5% to the interindividual variation in warfarin dosage, whereas the combined CYP2C9 genotypes were only responsible for 7.2% of the dose variation. Conclusion CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype frequencies in myocardial infarction patients appear similar to other patient groups and have similar impact on warfarin maintenance dose.

  14. Microsomal prediction of in vivo clearance of CYP2C9 substrates in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, D J; Hakooz, N; Bayliss, M K; Houston, J B

    1999-06-01

    To assess the utility of human hepatic microsomes for predicting in vivo intrinsic clearance (CLint ) via the use of four cytochrome P450 2C9 substrates: phenytoin, tolbutamide (S)-ibuprofen (two pathways) and diclofenac, and to examine the role of exogenous albumin within the microsomal incubation. V max, Km and CLint (defined as V max/Km ratio) were estimated under initial rate conditions for five pathways of metabolism in a bank of 15 human hepatic microsomal samples and were scaled to in vivo units using the microsomal protein index. Non-metabolic related binding in microsomes was measured for phenytoin and tolbutamide in the presence and absence of albumin. Microsomal CLint values differed by over two orders of magnitude, with the means ranging from 0.18 (phenytoin) to 40.70 (diclofenac) microl min-1 mg-1 microsomal protein. When these data were scaled and compared with published in vivo studies a similar rank order was obtained, however, the actual CLint tended to be underpredicted. While the in vivo unbound Km for phenytoin, 1-5 micron is substantially lower than the value determined in microsomes based on total concentrations (56 micron), correction for the in vitro binding reduces this value to 20 micron and 6 micron in the absence and presence of albumin, respectively. Similar trends were seen with tolbutamide Km. An appreciation of the utility of in vitro prediction can be best achieved when the range of CLint values predicted from the individual hepatic microsomal samples are compared with the range of individual in vivo CLint values reported in the literature. The degree of underprediction is less evident using the range than the mean data and no consistent advantage in adding albumin to the incubation media is apparent.

  15. Nonlinear control of an activated sludge aeration process: use of fuzzy techniques for tuning PID controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, M A; Seco, A; Ferrer, J; Penya-roja, J M; Valverde, J L

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, several tuning algorithms, specifically ITAE, IMC and Cohen and Coon, were applied in order to tune an activated sludge aeration PID controller. Performance results of these controllers were compared by simulation with those obtained by using a nonlinear fuzzy PID controller. In order to design this controller, a trial and error procedure was used to determine, as a function of error at current time and at a previous time, sets of parameters (including controller gain, integral time and derivative time) which achieve satisfactory response of a PID controller actuating over the aeration process. Once these sets of data were obtained, neural networks were used to obtain fuzzy membership functions and fuzzy rules of the fuzzy PID controller.

  16. DC Microgrids–Part I: A Review of Control Strategies and Stabilization Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Lu, Xiaonan; Vasquez, Juan; Guerrero, Josep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of control strategies, stability analysis, and stabilization techniques for dc microgrids (MGs). Overall control is systematically classified into local and coordinated control levels according to respective functionalities in each level. As opposed to local control, which relies only on local measurements, some line of communication between units needs to be made available in order to achieve the coordinated control. Depending on the communication method, three basic coordinated control strategies can be distinguished, i.e., decentralized, centralized, and distributed control. Decentralized control can be regarded as an extension of the local control since it is also based exclusively on local measurements. In contrast, centralized and distributed control strategies rely on digital communication technologies. A number of approaches using these three coordinated control strategies to achieve various control objectives are reviewed in this paper. Moreover, properties of dc MG dynamics and stability are discussed. This paper illustrates that tightly regulated point-of-load converters tend to reduce the stability margins of the system since they introduce negative impedances, which can potentially oscillate with lightly damped power supply input filters. It is also demonstrated that how the stability of the whole system is defined by the relationship of the source and load impedances, referred to as the minor loop gain. Several prominent specifications for the minor loop gain are reviewed. Finally, a number of active stabilization techniques are presented.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Virtualization Techniques for Control and Access of Storage Systems in Data Center Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-09-01

    Virtualization is a new technology that creates virtual environments based on the existing physical resources. This article evaluates effect of virtualization techniques on control servers and access method in storage systems [1, 2]. In control server virtualization, we have presented a tile based evaluation based on heterogeneous workloads to compare several key parameters and demonstrate effectiveness of virtualization techniques. Moreover, we have evaluated the virtualized model using VMotion techniques and maximum consolidation. In access method, we have prepared three different scenarios using direct, semi-virtual, and virtual attachment models. We have evaluated the proposed models with several workloads including OLTP database, data streaming, file server, web server, etc. Results of evaluation for different criteria confirm that server virtualization technique has high throughput and CPU usage as well as good performance with noticeable agility. Also virtual technique is a successful alternative for accessing to the storage systems especially in large capacity systems. This technique can therefore be an effective solution for expansion of storage area and reduction of access time. Results of different evaluation and measurements demonstrate that the virtualization in control server and full virtual access provide better performance and more agility as well as more utilization in the systems and improve business continuity plan.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF PREDICTIVE CONTROL STRATEGY USING SELF-IDENTIFICATION MATRIX TECHNIQUE (SMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULRAHMAN A. A.EMHEMED

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an easy to use predictive control strategy using selfidentification matrix technique (SMT. A description for the condition number effect for suitable tracking behaviour has been analyzed. Simple rules based on the step response of the process are applied for the proposed matrix T. A new formula is produced for the main controller tuning parameter . In the novel formula, is mainly extracted by regression analysis of first order plus dead time processes. Several plants are used to compare the proposed controller as function of the tuning parameters and tuning strategy. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy in wide ranging plants parameters has been compared with other techniques. Simulation results show that the use of the proposed strategy results in superior performance compared to previous techniques. Even though the tuning is based on approximation of actual processes with a first order plus dead time model. However, this strategy would not be suitable for systems with strong nonlinearities.

  19. Application of Multivariable Statistical Techniques in Plant-wide WWTP Control Strategies Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodríguez-Roda, I.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the application of selected multivariable statistical techniques in plant-wide wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) control strategies analysis. In this study, cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) and discriminant...... analysis (DA) are applied to the evaluation matrix data set obtained by simulation of several control strategies applied to the plant-wide IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2). These techniques allow i) to determine natural groups or clusters of control strategies with a similar behaviour, ii......) to find and interpret hidden, complex and casual relation features in the data set and iii) to identify important discriminant variables within the groups found by the cluster analysis. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariable statistical techniques for both analysis and interpretation...

  20. Oligonucleotide-Based Therapy for FTD/ALS Caused by the C9orf72 Repeat Expansion: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive and lethal disease of motor neuron degeneration, leading to paralysis of voluntary muscles and death by respiratory failure within five years of onset. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD is characterised by degeneration of frontal and temporal lobes, leading to changes in personality, behaviour, and language, culminating in death within 5–10 years. Both of these diseases form a clinical, pathological, and genetic continuum of diseases, and this link has become clearer recently with the discovery of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene that causes the FTD/ALS spectrum, that is, c9FTD/ALS. Two basic mechanisms have been proposed as being potentially responsible for c9FTD/ALS: loss-of-function of the protein encoded by this gene (associated with aberrant DNA methylation and gain of function through the formation of RNA foci or protein aggregates. These diseases currently lack any cure or effective treatment. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs are modified nucleic acids that are able to silence targeted mRNAs or perform splice modulation, and the fact that they have proved efficient in repeat expansion diseases including myotonic dystrophy type 1 makes them ideal candidates for c9FTD/ALS therapy. Here, we discuss potential mechanisms and challenges for developing oligonucleotide-based therapy for c9FTD/ALS.

  1. RNA toxicity from the ALS/FTD C9ORF72 expansion is mitigated by antisense intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Christopher J; Zhang, Ping-Wu; Pham, Jacqueline T; Haeusler, Aaron R; Heusler, Aaron R; Mistry, Nipun A; Vidensky, Svetlana; Daley, Elizabeth L; Poth, Erin M; Hoover, Benjamin; Fines, Daniel M; Maragakis, Nicholas; Tienari, Pentti J; Petrucelli, Leonard; Traynor, Bryan J; Wang, Jiou; Rigo, Frank; Bennett, C Frank; Blackshaw, Seth; Sattler, Rita; Rothstein, Jeffrey D

    2013-10-16

    A hexanucleotide GGGGCC repeat expansion in the noncoding region of the C9ORF72 gene is the most common genetic abnormality in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The function of the C9ORF72 protein is unknown, as is the mechanism by which the repeat expansion could cause disease. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-differentiated neurons from C9ORF72 ALS patients revealed disease-specific (1) intranuclear GGGGCCexp RNA foci, (2) dysregulated gene expression, (3) sequestration of GGGGCCexp RNA binding protein ADARB2, and (4) susceptibility to excitotoxicity. These pathological and pathogenic characteristics were confirmed in ALS brain and were mitigated with antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapeutics to the C9ORF72 transcript or repeat expansion despite the presence of repeat-associated non-ATG translation (RAN) products. These data indicate a toxic RNA gain-of-function mechanism as a cause of C9ORF72 ALS and provide candidate antisense therapeutics and candidate human pharmacodynamic markers for therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. c9RAN translation: a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Tania F; Cosio, Danielle M; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2013-09-01

    A hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion within a non-coding region of the C9ORF72 gene is the most common mutation associated with both frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Elucidating how these expanded repeats (GGGGCCexp) cause 'c9FTD/ALS' has since become an important goal of the FTD/ALS field. GGGGCCexp transcripts aggregate into discrete nuclear structures, termed RNA foci. This phenomenon, observed in various repeat expansion disorders, is associated with RNA-binding protein sequestration. Of note, recent findings show that GGGGCCexp transcripts also succumb to an alternative fate: repeat-associated non-ATG translation (RAN translation). This unconventional mode of translation, which occurs in the absence of an initiating codon, results in the production of polyGA, polyGP and polyGR peptides. Antibodies generated against these peptides detect high molecular weight, insoluble material in brain homogenates, as well as neuronal inclusions throughout the central nervous system of c9FTD/ALS cases. Given that both foci formation and RAN translation in c9FTD/ALS require the synthesis of GGGGCCexp RNA, therapeutic strategies that target these transcripts and result in their neutralization or degradation could effectively block these two potential pathogenic mechanisms and provide a much needed treatment for c9FTD/ALS.

  3. Systematic characterization and comparison of the CYP2C9 variability of the Orang Asli in Malaysia with 12 populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lay Kek; Subramaniam, Vinothini; Tuan Abdu Aziz, Tuan Azlin; Lee, Lian Shien; Ismail, Mohamed Izwan; Yu, Choo Yee; Ang, Geik Yong; James Johari, Richard; Ismet, Rose Iszati; Sahak, Noor Saadah; Ahmad, Aminuddin; Rahman, Thuhairah Abdul; Nor Ghazali, Fadzilah Mohd; Shaari, SyahrulAzlin; Omar, Mustaffa; Ismail, Adzrool Idzwan; Md Isa, Kamarudzaman; Salleh, Hood; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a systematic characterization of CYP2C9 variants in 61 Orang Asli and 96 Singaporean Malays using the whole genome sequences data and compared the variants with the other 11 HapMap populations. The frequency of rs1057910 (CYP2C9*3) is the highest in the Orang Asli compared to other populations. Three alleles with clinical implication were detected in the Orang Asli while 2 were found in the Singaporean Malays. Large numbers of the Orang Asli are predicted to have reduced metabolic capacity and therefore they would require a lower dose of drugs which are metabolized by CYP2C9. They are also at increased risks of adverse effects and therapeutic failures. A large number of CYP2C9 variants in the Orang Asli were not in the Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium which could be due to small sample size or mutations that disrupt the equilibrium of allele frequencies. In conclusion, different polymorphism patterns, allele frequencies, genotype frequencies and LD blocks are observed between the Orang Asli, the Singaporean Malays and the other populations. The study provided new information on the genetic polymorphism of CYP2C9 which is important for the implementation of precision medicine for the Orang Asli. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Minimal-Learning-Parameter Technique Based Adaptive Neural Sliding Mode Control of MEMS Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an adaptive neural sliding mode controller for MEMS gyroscopes with minimal-learning-parameter technique. Considering the system uncertainty in dynamics, neural network is employed for approximation. Minimal-learning-parameter technique is constructed to decrease the number of update parameters, and in this way the computation burden is greatly reduced. Sliding mode control is designed to cancel the effect of time-varying disturbance. The closed-loop stability analysis is established via Lyapunov approach. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  5. Efficiency of Software Testing Techniques: A Controlled Experiment Replication and Network Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S. Gómez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common approaches to software verification include static testing techniques, such as code reading, and dynamic testing techniques, such as black-box and white-box testing. Objective: With the aim of gaining a~better understanding of software testing techniques, a~controlled experiment replication and the synthesis of previous experiments which examine the efficiency of code reading, black-box and white-box testing techniques were conducted. Method: The replication reported here is composed of four experiments in which instrumented programs were used. Participants randomly applied one of the techniques to one of the instrumented programs. The outcomes were synthesized with seven experiments using the method of network meta-analysis (NMA. Results: No significant differences in the efficiency of the techniques were observed. However, it was discovered the instrumented programs had a~significant effect on the efficiency. The NMA results suggest that the black-box and white-box techniques behave alike; and the efficiency of code reading seems to be sensitive to other factors. Conclusion: Taking into account these findings, the Authors suggest that prior to carrying out software verification activities, software engineers should have a~clear understanding of the software product to be verified; they can apply either black-box or white-box testing techniques as they yield similar defect detection rates.

  6. Sliding mode pulse-width modulation technique for direct torque controlled induction motor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounadja, M.; Belarbi, A. W.; Belmadani, B.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a novel pulse-width modulation technique based sliding mode approach for direct torque control of an induction machine drive. Methodology begins with a sliding mode control of machine's torque and stator flux to generate the reference voltage vector and to reduce parameters sensitivity. Then, the switching control of the three-phase inverter is developed using sliding mode concept to make the system tracking reference voltage inputs. The main features of the proposed methodologies are the high tracking accuracy and the much easier implementation compared to the space vector modulation. Simulations are carried out to confirm the effectiveness of proposed control algorithms.

  7. Control techniques of tilt rotor unmanned aerial vehicle systems: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The tilt rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (TRUAV exhibits special application value due to its unique rotor structure. However, varying dynamics and aerodynamic interference caused by tiltable rotors are great technical challenges and key issues for TRUAV’s high-powered flight controls, which have attracted the attention of many researchers. This paper outlines the concept of TRUAV and some typical TRUAV platforms while focusing on control techniques. TRUAV structural features, dynamics modeling, and flight control methods are discussed, and major challenges and corresponding developmental tendencies associated with TRUAV flight control are summarized.

  8. Common polymorphisms in CYP2C9, subclinical atherosclerosis and risk of ischemic vascular disease in 52 000 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2009-01-01

    -reactive protein), ischemic vascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic cerebrovascular disease and ischemic stroke) and death after an ischemic heart disease diagnosis. We genotyped the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective study including 10 398 participants with 30-32 years....... Furthermore, the odds/hazard ratios for ischemic vascular disease did not differ from 1.0 for CYP2C9 carriers versus noncarriers. Finally, we found no altered risk of early death after a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. For all end points, we could exclude even minor changes in risk of disease with 90......% power. In conclusion, in three independent studies totaling more than 52 000 individuals, we found no association between CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis, ischemic vascular disease or death after ischemic heart disease. The Pharmacogenomics Journal (2009) 9...

  9. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques for the Control of the Asynchronous Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khammar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The induction machine is experiencing a growing success for two decades by gradually replacing the DC machines and synchronous in many industrial applications. This paper is devoted to the study of advanced methods applied to the command of the asynchronous machine in order to obtain a system of control of high performance. While the criteria for response time, overtaking, and static error can be assured by the techniques of conventional control, the criterion of robustness remains a challenge for researchers. This criterion can be satisfied only by applying advanced techniques of command. After mathematical modeling of the asynchronous machine, it defines the control strategies based on the orientation of the rotor flux. The results of the different simulation tests highlight the properties of robustness of algorithms proposed and suggested to compare the different control strategies.

  10. A blinded international study on the reliability of genetic testing for GGGGCC-repeat expansions in C9orf72 reveals marked differences in results among 14 laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Chizuru; Volk, Alexander E; van Blitterswijk, Marka; Van den Broeck, Marleen; Leblond, Claire S; Lumbroso, Serge; Camu, William; Neitzel, Birgit; Onodera, Osamu; van Rheenen, Wouter; Pinto, Susana; Weber, Markus; Smith, Bradley; Proven, Melanie; Talbot, Kevin; Keagle, Pamela; Chesi, Alessandra; Ratti, Antonia; van der Zee, Julie; Alstermark, Helena; Birve, Anna; Calini, Daniela; Nordin, Angelica; Tradowsky, Daniela C; Just, Walter; Daoud, Hussein; Angerbauer, Sabrina; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Konno, Takuya; Lloyd-Jani, Anjali; de Carvalho, Mamede; Mouzat, Kevin; Landers, John E; Veldink, Jan H; Silani, Vincenzo; Gitler, Aaron D; Shaw, Christopher E; Rouleau, Guy A; van den Berg, Leonard H; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Rademakers, Rosa; Andersen, Peter M; Kubisch, Christian

    2014-06-01

    The GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most frequent mutation found in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Most of the studies on C9orf72 have relied on repeat-primed PCR (RP-PCR) methods for detection of the expansions. To investigate the inherent limitations of this technique, we compared methods and results of 14 laboratories. The 14 laboratories genotyped DNA from 78 individuals (diagnosed with ALS or FTD) in a blinded fashion. Eleven laboratories used a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR, whereas three laboratories used RP-PCR alone; Southern blotting techniques were used as a reference. Using PCR-based techniques, 5 of the 14 laboratories got results in full accordance with the Southern blotting results. Only 50 of the 78 DNA samples got the same genotype result in all 14 laboratories. There was a high degree of false positive and false negative results, and at least one sample could not be genotyped at all in 9 of the 14 laboratories. The mean sensitivity of a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR was 95.0% (73.9-100%), and the mean specificity was 98.0% (87.5-100%). Overall, a sensitivity and specificity of more than 95% was observed in only seven laboratories. Because of the wide range seen in genotyping results, we recommend using a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR as a minimum in a research setting. We propose that Southern blotting techniques should be the gold standard, and be made obligatory in a clinical diagnostic setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Feedback control for fuel-optimal descents using singular perturbation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    In response to rising fuel costs and reduced profit margins for the airline companies, the optimization of the paths flown by transport aircraft has been considered. It was found that application of optimal control theory to the considered problem can result in savings in fuel, time, and direct operating costs. The best solution to the aircraft trajectory problem is an onboard real-time feedback control law. The present paper presents a technique which shows promise of becoming a part of a complete solution. The application of singular perturbation techniques to the problem is discussed, taking into account the benefits and some problems associated with them. A different technique for handling the descent part of a trajectory is also discussed.

  12. A control technique for integration of DG units to the electrical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Miguel-Espinar, Carlos; Massot-Campos, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a multiobjective control technique for integration of distributed generation (DG) resources to the electrical power network. The proposed strategy provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic load current components during connection of DG link to the grid. The d...

  13. Monitoring by Control Technique - Compliant (Low/No VOC/HAP) Inks and Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Compliant (Low/No VOC/HAP) Inks and Coatings control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  14. Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis Thomas M. Mascari1... Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of...zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis . Methods and Findings: We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

  15. Techniques for High Contrast Imaging in Multi-Star Systems II: Multi-Star Wavefront Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, D.; Thomas, S.; Belikov, R.

    2017-01-01

    Direct imaging of exoplanets represents a challenge for astronomical instrumentation due to the high-contrast ratio and small angular separation between the host star and the faint planet. Multi-star systems pose additional challenges for coronagraphic instruments because of the diffraction and aberration leakage introduced by the additional stars, and as a result are not planned to be on direct imaging target lists. Multi-star wavefront control (MSWC) is a technique that uses a coronagraphic instrument's deformable mirror (DM) to create high-contrast regions in the focal plane in the presence of multiple stars. Our previous paper introduced the Super-Nyquist Wavefront Control (SNWC) technique that uses a diffraction grating to enable the DM to generate high-contrast regions beyond the nominal controllable region. These two techniques can be combined to generate high-contrast regions for multi-star systems at any angular separations. As a case study, a high-contrast wavefront control (WC) simulation that applies these techniques shows that the habitable region of the Alpha Centauri system can be imaged reaching 8 times 10(exp -9) mean contrast in 10 percent broadband light in one-sided dark holes from 1.6-5.5 lambda (wavelength) divided by D (distance).

  16. Site-controlled quantum dots fabricated using an atomic-force microscope assisted technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakuma Y

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAn atomic-force microscope assisted technique is developed to control the position and size of self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs. Presently, the site precision is as good as ± 1.5 nm and the size fluctuation is within ± 5% with the minimum controllable lateral diameter of 20 nm. With the ability of producing tightly packed and differently sized QDs, sophisticated QD arrays can be controllably fabricated for the application in quantum computing. The optical quality of such site-controlled QDs is found comparable to some conventionally self-assembled semiconductor QDs. The single dot photoluminescence of site-controlled InAs/InP QDs is studied in detail, presenting the prospect to utilize them in quantum communication as precisely controlled single photon emitters working at telecommunication bands.

  17. Study and development of advanced control techniques for nuclear reactors and robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, C.

    1989-08-01

    This report studies and develops some aspects of the optimal control theory with the objective of evaluating benefits that the nuclear industry could obtain by applying advanced control techniques. First, the basic relationship between optimal control theory and closed-loop control design has been identified. As a result of this work, new algorithms have been developed for feedback implementations. The applicability of these new algorithms to problems such as state estimation, filtering, model update, and model decoupling has been studied. In addition, new alternatives to control design that are not based on optimal control theory have been developed. A broad range of application examples has been presented for several physical systems, including pressurized water nuclear reactors, boiling water nuclear reactors, steam generators, and robotics. 22 refs., 26 figs.

  18. Comparative analysis of third harmonic injection PWM and SPWM control techniques for UPS inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanjekeche, T.; Nicolae, D.V.; Jimoh, A.A. [Tshwane Univ. of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) applications were investigated. The results of analytical and simulation studies were studied in order to determine the equivalence between sinusoidal PWM and third harmonic PWM control technologies in relation to the high conversion factor (CF) and total harmonic distortion (THD) of UPS applications. The inverter simulation used a 3-phase 3-wire topology with a 3-level voltage source inverter. PI controller compensators were included in each of the voltage and current controllers. A voltage major loop controller was used to ensure sinusoidal output voltage. The capacitor voltage, inductor current, and load current were used as feedback control signals. Fourier transform equations were used to characterize harmonic components for double variable controlled waveforms. Results of the study demonstrated that THD-PWMs reduced the peak size of the envelope of each phase leg voltage and increased the modulation index without causing modulation. 9 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  19. Cytochrome P450 1B1 and 2C9 genotypes and risk of ischemic vascular disease, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize present knowledge of genetic variation in cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and 2C9 (CYP2C9) genes and risk of tobacco-related cancer, female cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ischemic vascular disease. The CYP1B1 and CYP2C9 enzymes metabolize pol...

  20. Graphical Evaluation of Time-Delay Compensation Techniques for Digitally Controlled Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Minghui; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2018-01-01

    A main design constraint of the digitally controlled power electronics converters is the time delay of control systems, which may lead to the reduced control loop bandwidth and even unstable dynamics. Numerous time-delay compensation methods have been developed, of which the model-free schemes...... are independent to model accuracy whereas the model-based alternatives are sensitive to system modeling. This paper first presents a graphical illustration of four model-free delay compensation techniques, where their principles and performances are intuitively elaborated and compared by means of the impulse area....... Simulations and experimental test results validate the effectiveness of the graphical comparisons and the proposed approach....

  1. Synopsis of Soft Computing Techniques used in Quadrotor UAV Modelling and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Nemes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to give an introduction to quadrotor systems with an overview of soft computing techniques used in quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV control, modelling, object following and collision avoidance. The quadrotor system basics, its structure and dynamic model definitions are recapitulated. Further on synopsis is given of previously proposed methods, results evaluated and conclusions drown by authors of referenced publications. The result of this article is a summary of multiple papers on fuzzy logic techniques used in position and altitude control systems for UAVs. Also an overview of fuzzy system based visual servoing for object tracking and collision avoidance is given together with a briefing of quadrotor UAV control techniques efficiency study. Conclusion is that though soft computing methods are widely used with good results, there is still place for much research to be done on find more efficient soft computing tools for simple modelling, robust dynamic control and fast collision avoidance in quadrotor UAV control.

  2. On PID Controller Design by Combining Pole Placement Technique with Symmetrical Optimum Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Nicolau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aspects of analytical design of PID controllers are studied, by combining pole placement technique with symmetrical optimum criterion. The proposed method is based on low-order plant model with pure integrator, and it can be used for both fast and slow processes. Starting from the desired closed-loop transfer function, which contains a second-order oscillating system and a lead-lag compensator, it is shown that the zero value depends on the real-pole value of closed-loop transfer function. In addition, there is only one pole value, which satisfies the assumptions of symmetrical optimum criterion imposed to open-loop transfer function. In these conditions, by combining the pole placement technique with symmetrical optimum criterion, the analytical expressions of the controller parameters can be simplified. For simulations, PID autopilot design for heading control problem of a conventional ship is considered.

  3. A hybrid firefly algorithm and pattern search technique for SSSC based power oscillation damping controller design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanta Mahapatra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (h-FAPS technique is proposed for a Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC-based power oscillation damping controller design. The proposed h-FAPS technique takes the advantage of global search capability of FA and local search facility of PS. In order to tackle the drawback of using the remote signal that may impact reliability of the controller, a modified signal equivalent to the remote speed deviation signal is constructed from the local measurements. The performances of the proposed controllers are evaluated in SMIB and multi-machine power system subjected to various transient disturbances. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach, simulation results are presented and compared with some recently published approaches such as Differential Evolution (DE and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. It is observed that the proposed approach yield superior damping performance compared to some recently reported approaches.

  4. A Comparative Modelling Study of PWM Control Techniques for Multilevel Cascaded Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TAHRI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multilevel converters has been in increase since the last decade. These new types of converters are suitable for high voltage and high power application due to their ability to synthesize waveforms with better harmonic spectrum. Numerous topologies have been introduced and widely studied for utility and drive applications. Amongst these topologies, the multilevel cascaded inverter was introduced in Static Var compensation and drive systems. This paper investigates several control techniques applied to the Multilevel Cascaded Inverter in order to ensure an efficient voltage utilization and better harmonic spectrum. A modelling and control strategy of a single phase Multilevel Cascaded Inverter is also investigated. Computer simulation results using Matlab program are reported and discussed together with a comparative study of the different control techniques of multilevel cascaded inverter.Moreover, experimental results are carried out on a scaled down prototype to prove the effectiveness of the proposed analysis.

  5. Controller Design of DFIG Based Wind Turbine by Using Evolutionary Soft Computational Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Bharti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript illustrates the controller design for a doubly fed induction generator based variable speed wind turbine by using a bioinspired scheme. This methodology is based on exploiting two proficient swarm intelligence based evolutionary soft computational procedures. The particle swarm optimization (PSO and bacterial foraging optimization (BFO techniques are employed to design the controller intended for small damping plant of the DFIG. Wind energy overview and DFIG operating principle along with the equivalent circuit model is adequately discussed in this paper. The controller design for DFIG based WECS using PSO and BFO are described comparatively in detail. The responses of the DFIG system regarding terminal voltage, current, active-reactive power, and DC-Link voltage have slightly improved with the evolutionary soft computational procedure. Lastly, the obtained output is equated with a standard technique for performance improvement of DFIG based wind energy conversion system.

  6. Values of Kp Indices, Ap Indices, Cp Indices, C9 Indices, Sunspot Number, and 10.7 cm Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data file consists of Kp indices, Ap indices, Cp indices, C9 indices, sunspot number, and 10.7 cm flux. The most often requested parameter of this file are the...

  7. Identification of cytochrome P450 2D6 and 2C9 substrates and inhibitors by QSAR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsdóttir, Svava Ósk; Ringsted, Tine; Nikolov, Nikolai G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents four new QSAR models for CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 substrate recognition and inhibitor identification based on human clinical data. The models were used to screen a large data set of environmental chemicals for CYP activity, and to analyze the frequency of CYP activity among these com...

  8. RAN translation at C9orf72-associated repeat expansions is selectively enhanced by the integrated stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Katelyn M; Glineburg, M Rebecca; Kearse, Michael G; Flores, Brittany N; Linsalata, Alexander E; Fedak, Stephen J; Goldstrohm, Aaron C; Barmada, Sami J; Todd, Peter K

    2017-12-08

    Repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation allows for unconventional initiation at disease-causing repeat expansions. As RAN translation contributes to pathogenesis in multiple neurodegenerative disorders, determining its mechanistic underpinnings may inform therapeutic development. Here we analyze RAN translation at G4C2 repeat expansions that cause C9orf72-associated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9RAN) and at CGG repeats that cause fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. We find that C9RAN translation initiates through a cap- and eIF4A-dependent mechanism that utilizes a CUG start codon. C9RAN and CGG RAN are both selectively enhanced by integrated stress response (ISR) activation. ISR-enhanced RAN translation requires an eIF2α phosphorylation-dependent alteration in start codon fidelity. In parallel, both CGG and G4C2 repeats trigger phosphorylated-eIF2α-dependent stress granule formation and global translational suppression. These findings support a model whereby repeat expansions elicit cellular stress conditions that favor RAN translation of toxic proteins, creating a potential feed-forward loop that contributes to neurodegeneration.

  9. CYP2C9 genotype does not affect risk of tobacco-related cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Bojesen, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    .9/1.1 in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and below/above 0.8/1.3 and 0.9/1.1 in the Copenhagen General Population Study for tobacco-related cancer and all cancer, respectively. Conclusion: Genetic variations in CYP2C9 do not affect risk of tobacco-related cancers. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  10. Warfarin Dosing in a Patient with CYP2C9*3*3 and VKORC1-1639 AA Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors most correlated with warfarin dose requirements are variations in the genes encoding the enzymes cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9 and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR. Patients receiving warfarin who possess one or more genetic variations in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 are at increased risk of adverse drug events and require significant dose reductions to achieve a therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR. A 74-year-old white female with atrial fibrillation was initiated on a warfarin dose of 2 mg PO daily, which resulted in multiple elevated INR measurements and three clinically significant hemorrhagic events and four vitamin K antidote treatments over a period of less than two weeks. Genetic analysis later revealed that she had the homozygous variant genotypes of CYP2C9*3*3 and VKORC1-1639 AA. Warfarin dosing was subsequently restarted and stabilized at 0.5 mg PO daily with therapeutic INRs. This is the first case report of a white female with these genotypes stabilized on warfarin, and it highlights the value of pharmacogenetic testing prior to the initiation of warfarin therapy to maximize efficacy and minimize the risk of adverse drug events.

  11. Research progress in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene polymorphism and individualized warfarin therapeutic regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-ping LIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Warfarin is still the most clinically used oral anti-coagulant despite of its narrow therapeutic index and high risk of hemorrhage. The mean daily dose of warfarin varies widely from patient to patient, and to achieve the same therapeutic effect, the daily dose of warfarin could be varied over 20-fold. The variability in warfarin dosage depends on several factors, including gene polymorphisms, index of body mass, age and other drugs, and these factors compelled the clinicians to individualize warfarin dosage in order to optimize the therapeutic regimen. A number of genes are involved in metabolism of warfarin, such as cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9, vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1, cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2, gamma-glutamylcarboxylase (GGCX, etc. Of them CYP2C9 and VKORC1 are the emphasis of current researches. The association between the polymorphism of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 and individualized warfarin therapeutic regimen are mainly discussed in this paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.02.16

  12. C9ORF72 repeat expansion is not a significant cause of late onset cerebellar ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Cheng-Tsung; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Liao, Yi-Chu; Lee, Yi-Chung; Soong, Bing-Wen

    2014-12-15

    The GGGGCC hexanucleotide expansion in the C9ORF72 gene is the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in Caucasian populations. The phenotypic spectrum of C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion mutation has been reported to include parkinsonian syndrome, Huntington's disease-like syndrome and dementia syndrome. Although few individuals with cerebellar ataxia have also anecdotally been found to harbor the mutation, the relationship between the mutation and cerebellar ataxia awaits further clarification. We hereby screened for the presence of the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in 331 patients with multiple system atrophy-cerebellar variant and 98 unrelated patients with molecularly un-assigned spinocerebellar ataxia in Taiwan utilizing a repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction assay. We found that none of the 429 patients had the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion mutation. Therefore, our study does not support that the mutation plays a significant role in cerebellar ataxia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Hereditary spastic paraplegia is not associated with C9ORF72 repeat expansions in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T T; Svenstrup, K; Duno, M

    2014-01-01

    ) in C9ORF72 have been found to cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and FTD with motor neuron disease. Owing to the overlapping phenotypes among HSP, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and FTD with motor neuron disease along with shared pathological findings, we hypothesized...

  14. Power System Control Study. Phase I. Integrated Control Techniques. Phase II. Detail Design and System Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    status data is exchanged between generator channels. 195 TABLE 37 EMX/GENERATOR CONTROL - CONCEPT 3 ADVATAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. Localized processing at main...FORTRAN allows BLOCK IR structures that eliminate the need for GO TO statements. Extensive use of the BLOCK IR structure was made in writing this code for...the firing logic. After the state of the switches have been determined by the firing logic, it is necessary to write the system equations for that

  15. CYP2C9 Genotypes Modify Benzodiazepine-Related Fall Risk: Original Results From Three Studies With Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Annelies C; Ziere, Gijsbertus; Broer, Linda; Swart, Karin M A; Enneman, Anke W; van Dijk, Suzanne C; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; van Schoor, Natasja M; Zillikens, M Carola; van Gelder, Teun; de Vries, Oscar J; Lips, Paul; Deeg, Dorly J H; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Hofman, Albert; Witkamp, Renger F; Uitterlinden, André G; Stricker, Bruno H; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants modify benzodiazepine-related fall risk. Three prospective studies; the Rotterdam Study, B-PROOF, and LASA. Community-dwelling individuals living in or near five Dutch cities. There were 11,485 participants aged ≥55 years. Fall incidents were recorded prospectively. Benzodiazepine use was determined using pharmacy dispensing records or interviews. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age and sex were applied to determine the association between benzodiazepine use and fall risk stratified for CYP2C9 genotype and comparing benzodiazepine users to nonusers. The results of the three studies were combined applying meta-analysis. Within benzodiazepine users, the association between genotypes and fall risk was also assessed. Three thousand seven hundred five participants (32%) encountered a fall during 91,996 follow-up years, and 4% to 15% (depending on the study population) used benzodiazepines. CYP2C9 variants had frequencies of 13% for the *2 allele and 6% for the *3 allele. Compared to nonusers, current benzodiazepine use was associated with an 18% to 36% increased fall risk across studies with a combined hazard ratio (HR) = 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13; 1.40). CYP2C9*2 or *3 allele variants modified benzodiazepine-related fall risk. Compared to nonusers, those carrying a CYP2C9*2 or *3 allele and using benzodiazepines had a 45% increased fall risk (HR, 1.45 95% CI, 1.21; 1.73), whereas CYP2C9*1 homozygotes using benzodiazepines had no increased fall risk (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.90; 1.45). Within benzodiazepine users, having a CYP2C9*2 or *3 allele was associated with an increased fall risk (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.06; 1.72). Additionally, we observed an allele dose effect; heterozygous allele carriers had a fall risk of (HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05; 1.61), and homozygous allele carriers of (HR = 1.91 95% CI, 1.23; 2.96). CYP2C9*2 and *3 allele variants modify benzodiazepine-related fall risk. Those

  16. PID feedback controller used as a tactical asset allocation technique: The G.A.M. model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, G.; Sabatini, A.; Rossolini, M.

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate a tactical asset allocation technique utilizing the PID controller. The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is widely applied in most industrial processes; it has been successfully used for over 50 years and it is used by more than 95% of the plants processes. It is a robust and easily understood algorithm that can provide excellent control performance in spite of the diverse dynamic characteristics of the process plant. In finance, the process plant, controlled by the PID controller, can be represented by financial market assets forming a portfolio. More specifically, in the present work, the plant is represented by a risk-adjusted return variable. Money and portfolio managers’ main target is to achieve a relevant risk-adjusted return in their managing activities. In literature and in the financial industry business, numerous kinds of return/risk ratios are commonly studied and used. The aim of this work is to perform a tactical asset allocation technique consisting in the optimization of risk adjusted return by means of asset allocation methodologies based on the PID model-free feedback control modeling procedure. The process plant does not need to be mathematically modeled: the PID control action lies in altering the portfolio asset weights, according to the PID algorithm and its parameters, Ziegler-and-Nichols-tuned, in order to approach the desired portfolio risk-adjusted return efficiently.

  17. Numerical simulation about orthogonal single frequency dithering technique used in tilt control of fiber laser array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Beam combination of fiber laser array is an effective technique contributed to improve the brightness of fiber lasers. In order to realize high-efficiency CBC, challenges like phase distortion (mainly including piston and tilt phase aberrations) should be taken into consideration. Resent years, tilt phase aberrations control has been come true by adaptive fiber optics collimator using the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. However, the convergence rate of tilt control system still cannot satisfy the needs of practical application. In order to increase the tilt control bandwidth, a new idea is put forward that applying the orthogonal single frequency dithering (OSFD) technique into tilt control, and numerical simulation has been completed. A hexagonal laser array with 7 elements has been simulated, and each element has a pair of initial tilt angles in horizontal and vertical direction. The initial tilt angles comply with normal distribution. In the same condition, tilt phase control has been realized through SPGD and OSFD individually, and the convergence steps (defined as the iteration steps that improve the normalized PIB above 0.9) with appropriate parameters are respectively about 20 (SPGD) and 7 (OSFD). Furthermore, tilt phase control of large number hexagonal array is simulated, and the results are as follows: for 19/37 elements, the least convergence steps are about 80/160(SPGD) and 19/55(OSFD). Comparing with SPGD algorithm, it is obvious that the OSFD has higher convergence rate and greater potential for tilt control application in large number coherent fiber laser array.

  18. On the Active and Passive Flow Separation Control Techniques over Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Tohid; Banazadeh Neishabouri, Nafiseh

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, recent advances in the field of the active and passive flow separation control, particularly blowing and suction flow control techniques, applied on the common airfoils are briefly reviewed. This broad research area has remained the point of interest for many years as it is applicable to various applications. The suction and blowing flow control methods, among other methods, are more technically feasible and market ready techniques. It is well established that the uniform and/or oscillatory blowing and suction flow control mechanisms significantly improve the lift-to-drag ratio, and further, postpone the boundary layer separation as well as the stall. The oscillatory blowing and suction flow control, however, is more efficient compared to the uniform one. A wide range of parameters is involved in controlling the behavior of a blowing and/or suction flow control, including the location, length, and angle of the jet slots. The oscillation range of the jet slot is another substantial parameter.

  19. Open abdomen in gastrointestinal surgery: Which technique is the best for temporary closure during damage control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Junior, Marcelo A F; Barros, Emily Alves; de Carvalho, Sabrina Marques; Nascimento, Vinicius Pereira; Cruvinel Neto, José; Fonseca, Alexandre Zanchenko

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the 3 main techniques of temporary closure of the abdominal cavity, vacuum assisted closure (vacuum-assisted closure therapy - VAC), Bogota bag and Barker technique, in damage control surgery. METHODS After systematic review of the literature, 33 articles were selected to compare the efficiency of the three procedures. Criteria such as cost, infections, capacity of reconstruction of the abdominal wall, diseases associated with the technique, among others were analyzed. RESULTS The Bogota bag and Barker techniques present as advantage the availability of material and low cost, what is not observed in the VAC procedure. The VAC technique is the most efficient, not only because it reduces the tension on the boarders of the lesion, but also removes stagnant fluids and debris and acts at cellular level increasing cell proliferation and division. Bogota bag presents the higher rates of skin laceration and evisceration, greater need for a stent for draining fluids and wash-ups, higher rates of intestinal adhesion to the abdominal wall. The Barker technique presents lack of efficiency in closing the abdominal wall and difficulty on maintaining pressure on the dressing. The VAC dressing can generate irritation and dermatitis when the drape is applied, in addition to pain, infection and bleeding, as well as toxic shock syndrome, anaerobic sepsis and thrombosis. CONCLUSION The VAC technique, showed to be superior allowing a better control of liquid on the third space, avoiding complications such as fistula with small mortality, low infection rate, and easier capability on primary closure of the abdominal cavity. PMID:27648164

  20. Contribution of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms in the interethnic variability of warfarin dose in Malaysian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Gin Gin; Phipps, Maude E; Lee, Michael M T; Lu, Liang S; Subramaniam, Rajallectchumy Y; Bee, Ping C; Chang, Sean H

    2011-06-01

    Within the Asian populations, Indian patients had been reported to require higher warfarin dose compared with the Chinese and Malay patients, and this could not entirely be explained by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 gene variants. Genetic variants of vitamin K epoxide oxidase reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) has been well established as one of key determinants in the different responses of warfarin amongst patients. Adult patients who attended an anticoagulation clinic with stable INR were recruited. VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype were sequenced, and clinical characteristics were assessed. A total of 91 Malays, 96 Chinese, and 46 Indian patients were recruited. The mean age was 55 years and 51.5% were males. The mean dose of warfarin for all patients was 3.7 mg, and the mean daily dose of warfarin was significantly higher in Indians compared with the Chinese and Malay patients, 4.9 versus 3.5 and 3.3 mg, respectively (p < 0.001). VKORC1 GG genotype was more commonly seen in Indian patients. The mean warfarin dose in patients with GG genotype required a significant higher warfarin dose compared with those with AG and AA genotype (4.9 vs. 3.7 vs. 3.1 mg, respectively; p < 0.001). CYP2C9*2 and *3 is associated with a lower maintenance dose, 2.9 versus 3.7 mg in CYP2C9*1; p < 0.01. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnic groups, and genotypes had a significant influence on the required warfarin dose. In conclusion, VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphism contribute to the difference dose requirement amongst the patients but other additional possible factors may play a role in the Indian race.

  1. The controlled placement and delayed polymerization technique for the direct Class 2 posterior composite restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Alan M

    2005-11-01

    Adhesion dentistry and its application to the direct posterior composite restoration is the most controversial topic in dentistry today. The concepts behind this procedure are now the backbone of restorative dentistry. Adhesion dentistry influences basic fillings, crown buildups, post-and-core restorations, cementation, orthodontics, and endodontics. Yet, controversy remains about the correct way to place a direct Class 2 posterior composite restoration. This article will examine the scientific evidence to determine which materials and placement techniques will achieve the optimum direct Class 2 posterior composite restoration at or below the cementoenamel junction using the controlled placement and delayed polymerization technique.

  2. Multi-focus two-photon polymerization technique based on individually controlled phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Kotaro; Koch, Jürgen; Hinze, Ulf; Chichkov, Boris N

    2010-08-02

    Multi-focus two-photon polymerization with a spatial light modulator is demonstrated. The spatial light modulator generates multi-focus spots via phase modulation technique controlled by a computer generated hologram (CGH) pattern. Each focus spot can be individually addressed in position and laser intensity. The multi-focus two-photon polymerization technique allows the fabrication of complex 2-D and 3-D structures both symmetric and asymmetric. Smooth sine curved polymerized lines with amplitude of 5 microm and a period of 200 microm were obtained by fast switching of the CGH patterns.

  3. Modern techniques for the emissions control in thermal electric stations; Tecnicas modernas para el control de emisiones en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, C. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the techniques and the control equipment for emissions in thermal stations that have the highest possibilities of being considered in the immediate future in the national energy panorama and the established frame for the environmental normativity. The pollutant compounds subject to revision are the nitrogen and sulfur oxides and unburned particles. [Espanol] Se presentan las tecnicas y equipos de control de emisiones para centrales termoelectricas que tienen mayores posibilidades de ser consideradas en el futuro inmediato dentro del panorama energetico nacional y el marco establecido por la normatividad ambiental. Los compuestos contaminantes sujetos a revision son los oxidos de nitrogeno y azufre y las particulas inquemadas.

  4. Passivity-based control technique for integration of DG resources into the power grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrasa, Majid; Adabi, M. Ebrahim; Pouresmaeil, Edris

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with a control method for integration of Distributed Generation (DG) sources to the power grid. The proposed control strategy has been designed based on passivity technique and provides compensation for the active, reactive, and harmonic current components of loads during...... the connection of DG link to the grid. The proper switching functions of interfaced converter have been defined based on the passivity method through the achieving space equations and suitable series damping injection. The proposed control plan is completed by setting suitable reference current components...... for the d and q axis in the control loop of DG, which are defined based on the objectives of proposed method. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is validated with injection of maximum available power from the DG resources to the power grid, correction of power factor between the grid current...

  5. Effectiveness of teaching cognitive-behavioral techniques on locus of control in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtak, Mohammad; Habibzadeh, Shahram; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Rjaei-Khiavi, Abdollah

    2017-10-01

    Many of the cognitive behavioral models and therapeutic protocols developed so far for psychological disorders and chronic diseases have proved effective through clinical research. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of teaching cognitive-behavioral techniques on locus of control in hemodialysis patients. This controlled clinical trial study was conducted in 2015 with 76 patients selected by census and treated with a hemodialysis machine in the dialysis department of Vali-Asr Hospital in the city of Meshkinshahr. A total of four patients were excluded because of their critical conditions while the rest, who were recruited, were randomly divided into two equal groups of 36 patients as the intervention and control groups. First, the locus of control was measured in both groups through a pretest, and cognitive-behavioral techniques were then taught to the intervention group during eight 45 to 90-minute sessions. The locus of control in patients of both groups was finally re-measured through a posttest. Data were collected using Rotter's Locus of Control Inventory. The Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney U test were respectively used in SPSS18 for data analysis. In the pretest and posttest stages respectively, 4.8% and 14.3% of samples in the control group as well as 14.3% and 33.3% of samples in the intervention group enjoyed internal locus of control. The difference between the pretest and posttest scores of internal locus of control in the intervention group was significant (p=0.004), which indicates the positive effect of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic intervention on internalization of locus of control in this group. Given the external locus of control in most of the study patients and also the positive significant effect of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy on internalization of locus of control in this group of patients, it appears necessary to have a psychology resident present in the hemodialysis department to teach the necessary cognitive

  6. Parental stress management using relaxation techniques in a neonatal intensive care unit: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Catherine; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Bakoula, Chrysa; Papagaroufalis, Konstantinos; Bakoyannis, George; Darviri, Christine; Chrousos, George

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of relaxation techniques on the stress/anxiety of parents with hospitalised premature infants, three months following discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary maternity hospital including 59 parents, who were randomised into two groups: 31 in the intervention group and 28 in the control group. Parents in the intervention group practiced three different relaxation techniques, in addition to undergoing the same information-based training courses as did the parents of the control group. Data were collected 10-15 days post delivery and three months post discharge. The assessment measures included the Perceived Stress Scale, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory 1 and 2 and salivary cortisol levels. The psychometric assessment at baseline was comparable between the two groups. The intervention group showed a significant reduction in trait anxiety (p=0.02) compared with the control group three months post discharge. The perceived stress decreased in both groups (p=0.699). No difference in salivary cortisol levels was detected. The multivariate analysis revealed that higher initial stress levels (pintensive care unit experience could assess more delayed effects of stress management by relaxation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Digital Control Techniques Based on Voltage Source Inverters in Renewable Energy Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Tahir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the modern era, distributed generation is considered as an alternative source for power generation. Especially, need of the time is to provide the three-phase loads with smooth sinusoidal voltages having fixed frequency and amplitude. A common solution is the integration of power electronics converters in the systems for connecting distributed generation systems to the stand-alone loads. Thus, the presence of suitable control techniques, in the power electronic converters, for robust stability, abrupt response, optimal tracking ability and error eradication are inevitable. A comprehensive review based on design, analysis, validation of the most suitable digital control techniques and the options available for the researchers for improving the power quality is presented in this paper with their pros and cons. Comparisons based on the cost, schemes, performance, modulation techniques and coordinates system are also presented. Finally, the paper describes the performance evaluation of the control schemes on a voltage source inverter (VSI and proposes the different aspects to be considered for selecting a power electronics inverter topology, reference frames, filters, as well as control strategy.

  8. A simulation benchmark to evaluate the performance of advanced control techniques in biological wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A.Z. Sotomayor

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP are complex systems that incorporate a large number of biological, physicochemical and biochemical processes. They are large and nonlinear systems subject to great disturbances in incoming loads. The primary goal of a WWTP is to reduce pollutants and the second goal is disturbance rejection, in order to obtain good effluent quality. Modeling and computer simulations are key tools in the achievement of these two goals. They are essential to describe, predict and control the complicated interactions of the processes. Numerous control techniques (algorithms and control strategies (structures have been suggested to regulate WWTP; however, it is difficult to make a discerning performance evaluation due to the nonuniformity of the simulated plants used. The main objective of this paper is to present a benchmark of an entire biological wastewater treatment plant in order to evaluate, through simulations, different control techniques. This benchmark plays the role of an activated sludge process used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen from domestic effluents. The development of this simulator is based on models widely accepted by the international community and is implemented in Matlab/Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc. platform. The benchmark considers plant layout and the effects of influent characteristics. It also includes a test protocol for analyzing the open and closed-loop responses of the plant. Examples of control applications in the benchmark are implemented employing conventional PI controllers. The following common control strategies are tested: dissolved oxygen (DO concentration-based control, respirometry-based control and nitrate concentration-based control.

  9. [Analysis of color gamut of LCD system based on LED backlight with area-controlling technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Wen; Jin, Wei-Qi; Shao, Xi-Bin; Zhang, Li-Lei; Wan, Li-Fang

    2010-05-01

    Color gamut as a significant performance index for display system describes the color reproduction ability IN real scenes. Liquid crystal display (LCD) is the most popular technology in flat panel display. However, conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlight of LCD can not behave high color gamut compared with cathode ray tube (CRT). The common used method of color gamut measuring for LCD system is introduced at the beginning. According to the inner structure and display principle of LCD system, there are three major factors deciding LCD's color gamut: spectral properties of backlight, transmittance properties of color filters and performance of liquid crystal panel. Instead of conventional backlight CCFL, RGB-LED backlight is used for improving color reproduction of LCD display system. Due to the imperfect match between RGB-LED' s spectra and color filter's transmittance, the color filter would reduce the color gamut of LCD system more or less. Therefore, LCD system based on LED backlight with area-control technique is introduced which modifies backlight control signal according to the input signal After analyzing and calculating the spectra of LED backlight which passes through the color filters using method of colorimetry, the area sizes of color gamut triangles of RGB-LED backlight with area-control and RGB-LED backlight without area-control LCD systems are compared and the relationship between color gamut and varying contrast of liquid crystal panel is analyzed. It is indicated that LED backlight with area-control technique can avoid color saturation dropping and have little effects on the contrast variation of liquid crystal panel. In other words, LED backlight with area-control technique relaxes the requirements of both color filter performance and liquid crystal panel. Thus, it is of importance to improve the color gamut of the current LCD system with area-control LED backlight.

  10. The Trojan female technique: a novel, effective and humane approach for pest population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Neil J; Jalilzadeh, Aidin; Didham, Raphael K; Soboleva, Tanya; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2013-12-22

    Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such 'fertility control' strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. 'Trojan females' carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce 'sterile-male'-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan female technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control.

  11. Infrared vision techniques in quality control of surface-mount circuit board solder paste printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alander, Jarmo T.; Huusko, Mikko; Karonen, Aimo; Kuusrainen, Jari; Unonius, Lars

    1995-01-01

    In this work we have applied infrared camera techniques in a prototype of a quality control system for surface mount circuit board solder paste printing. The prototype system consists of a stepper motor controlled conveyor for board transportation and indexing, an infrared camera for paste pad temperature profile recording, a CCD camera for board and pad registration and recording, a pulse heating set-up, a video frame grabber and signal processor unit for preliminary image processing, and a PC for operator control, high level autonomous control and processing of preprocessed infrared and visual image data and communications with the other shop floor information and quality control systems. The operator interface is built on top of Windows 3.1, which makes it easy to operate and to connect to other programs at will. The prototype system was capable to process the locations and areas at over 100 solder paste pads per second speed and to evaluate the volumes of the pads within error tolerance of approximately equals 20%. The most severe obstacle in applying IR techniques in SMT product lines seems to be the current high cost of suitable IR scanning devices. Only slightly modified, the developed infrared quality control and testing system prototype can be used also in other electronics assembly line applications like solder checking and functional checking of boards by monitoring the thermal properties of solders and components correspondingly.

  12. Associations between HLA class I and cytochrome P450 2C9 genetic polymorphisms and phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions in a Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra; Prabmeechai, Napat; Sukasem, Chonlaphat; Kongpan, Thachanan; Konyoung, Parinya; Chumworathayi, Pansu; Tiamkao, Somsak; Khunarkornsiri, Usanee; Kulkantrakorn, Kongkiat; Saksit, Niwat; Nakkam, Nontaya; Satapornpong, Patompong; Vannaprasaht, Suda; Sangviroon, Alisara; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Wichukchinda, Nuanjun; Rerkpattanapipat, Ticha; Tassaneeyakul, Wongwiwat

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is one of the most common causative drugs of several types of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Genetic polymorphisms of the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and cytochromes P450 (CYP) have been proposed as key elements for the susceptibility to phenytoin-related SCAR in certain ethnicities. This study investigated the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of HLA class I and CYP2C9 and phenytoin-related SCAR in a Thai population. Sixty phenytoin-related SCAR (i.e. 39 SJS/TEN and 21 DRESS) and 92 phenytoin-tolerant patients were enrolled in the study. The genotypes of HLA class I and CYP2C9 were determined. Six HLA alleles including HLA-A*33:03, HLA-B*38:02, HLA-B*51:01, HLA-B*56:02, HLA-B*58:01, and HLA-C*14:02 were significantly associated with phenytoin-related SJS/TEN, whereas only the HLA-B*51:01 was significantly associated with phenytoin-related DRESS. The odds ratios of phenytoin-related SJS/TEN in the patients who carried one of these alleles ranged from 4- to 10-fold. The frequencies of patients who carried the HLA-B*15:02 in the SJS/TEN (12.82%) or the DRESS (9.52%) groups were not significantly different from that of the controls (14.13%). The higher risk of phenytoin-related SJS/TEN was observed in the patients with CYP2C9*3 (odds ratio=4.30, 95% confidence interval=1.41-13.09, Pcaused by phenytoin was significantly associated with the HLA-B*15:02. The CYP2C9*3 variant was significantly associated with phenytoin-related SJS/TEN, but not DRESS. Certain alleles of HLA, particularly HLA-B*56:02, were significantly associated with phenytoin-related SCAR in the study population.

  13. Nonlinear adaptive control based on fuzzy sliding mode technique and fuzzy-based compensator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sy Dzung; Vo, Hoang Duy; Seo, Tae-Il

    2017-09-01

    It is difficult to efficiently control nonlinear systems in the presence of uncertainty and disturbance (UAD). One of the main reasons derives from the negative impact of the unknown features of UAD as well as the response delay of the control system on the accuracy rate in the real time of the control signal. In order to deal with this, we propose a new controller named CO-FSMC for a class of nonlinear control systems subjected to UAD, which is constituted of a fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) and a fuzzy-based compensator (CO). Firstly, the FSMC and CO are designed independently, and then an adaptive fuzzy structure is discovered to combine them. Solutions for avoiding the singular cases of the fuzzy-based function approximation and reducing the calculating cost are proposed. Based on the solutions, fuzzy sliding mode technique, lumped disturbance observer and Lyapunov stability analysis, a closed-loop adaptive control law is formulated. Simulations along with a real application based on a semi-active train-car suspension are performed to fully evaluate the method. The obtained results reflected that vibration of the chassis mass is insensitive to UAD. Compared with the other fuzzy sliding mode control strategies, the CO-FSMC can provide the best control ability to reduce unwanted vibrations. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Position and Speed Control of Brushless DC Motors Using Sensorless Techniques and Application Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez-Gil

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a technical review of position and speed sensorless methods for controlling Brushless Direct Current (BLDC motor drives, including the background analysis using sensors, limitations and advances. The performance and reliability of BLDC motor drivers have been improved because the conventional control and sensing techniques have been improved through sensorless technology. Then, in this paper sensorless advances are reviewed and recent developments in this area are introduced with their inherent advantages and drawbacks, including the analysis of practical implementation issues and applications. The study includes a deep overview of state-of-the-art back-EMF sensing methods, which includes Terminal Voltage Sensing, Third Harmonic Voltage Integration, Terminal Current Sensing, Back-EMF Integration and PWM strategies. Also, the most relevant techniques based on estimation and models are briefly analysed, such as Sliding-mode Observer, Extended Kalman Filter, Model Reference Adaptive System, Adaptive observers (Full-order and Pseudoreduced-order and Artificial Neural Networks.

  15. Position and speed control of brushless DC motors using sensorless techniques and application trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo-Real, José Carlos; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto; Gómez-Gil, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a technical review of position and speed sensorless methods for controlling Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motor drives, including the background analysis using sensors, limitations and advances. The performance and reliability of BLDC motor drivers have been improved because the conventional control and sensing techniques have been improved through sensorless technology. Then, in this paper sensorless advances are reviewed and recent developments in this area are introduced with their inherent advantages and drawbacks, including the analysis of practical implementation issues and applications. The study includes a deep overview of state-of-the-art back-EMF sensing methods, which includes Terminal Voltage Sensing, Third Harmonic Voltage Integration, Terminal Current Sensing, Back-EMF Integration and PWM strategies. Also, the most relevant techniques based on estimation and models are briefly analysed, such as Sliding-mode Observer, Extended Kalman Filter, Model Reference Adaptive System, Adaptive observers (Full-order and Pseudoreduced-order) and Artificial Neural Networks.

  16. Comparison of the pain levels of computer-controlled and conventional anesthesia techniques in prosthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yenisey

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the pain levels on opposite sides of the maxilla at needle insertion during delivery of local anesthetic solution and tooth preparation for both conventional and anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA technique with the Wand computer-controlled local anesthesia application. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pain scores of 16 patients were evaluated with a 5-point verbal rating scale (VRS and data were analyzed nonparametrically. Pain differences at needle insertion, during delivery of local anesthetic, and at tooth preparation, for conventional versus the Wand technique, were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test (p=0.01. RESULTS: The Wand technique had a lower pain level compared to conventional injection for needle insertion (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The AMSA technique using the Wand is recommended for prosthodontic treatment because it reduces pain during needle insertion and during delivery of local anaesthetic. However, these two techniques have the same pain levels for tooth preparation.

  17. Prospects of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals loaded microparticles prepared by double emulsion technique for controlled delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Tapan Kumar; Choudhary, Chhatrapal; Ajazuddin; Alexander, Amit; Badwaik, Hemant; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

    2013-04-01

    Several methods and techniques are potentially useful for the preparation of microparticles in the field of controlled drug delivery. The type and the size of the microparticles, the entrapment, release characteristics and stability of drug in microparticles in the formulations are dependent on the method used. One of the most common methods of preparing microparticles is the single emulsion technique. Poorly soluble, lipophilic drugs are successfully retained within the microparticles prepared by this method. However, the encapsulation of highly water soluble compounds including protein and peptides presents formidable challenges to the researchers. The successful encapsulation of such compounds requires high drug loading in the microparticles, prevention of protein and peptide degradation by the encapsulation method involved and predictable release, both rate and extent, of the drug compound from the microparticles. The above mentioned problems can be overcome by using the double emulsion technique, alternatively called as multiple emulsion technique. Aiming to achieve this various techniques have been examined to prepare stable formulations utilizing w/o/w, s/o/w, w/o/o, and s/o/o type double emulsion methods. This article reviews the current state of the art in double emulsion based technologies for the preparation of microparticles including the investigation of various classes of substances that are pharmaceutically and biopharmaceutically active.

  18. Prospects of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals loaded microparticles prepared by double emulsion technique for controlled delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Tapan Kumar; Choudhary, Chhatrapal; Ajazuddin; Alexander, Amit; Badwaik, Hemant; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Several methods and techniques are potentially useful for the preparation of microparticles in the field of controlled drug delivery. The type and the size of the microparticles, the entrapment, release characteristics and stability of drug in microparticles in the formulations are dependent on the method used. One of the most common methods of preparing microparticles is the single emulsion technique. Poorly soluble, lipophilic drugs are successfully retained within the microparticles prepared by this method. However, the encapsulation of highly water soluble compounds including protein and peptides presents formidable challenges to the researchers. The successful encapsulation of such compounds requires high drug loading in the microparticles, prevention of protein and peptide degradation by the encapsulation method involved and predictable release, both rate and extent, of the drug compound from the microparticles. The above mentioned problems can be overcome by using the double emulsion technique, alternatively called as multiple emulsion technique. Aiming to achieve this various techniques have been examined to prepare stable formulations utilizing w/o/w, s/o/w, w/o/o, and s/o/o type double emulsion methods. This article reviews the current state of the art in double emulsion based technologies for the preparation of microparticles including the investigation of various classes of substances that are pharmaceutically and biopharmaceutically active. PMID:23960828

  19. Randomized controlled trial of the Alexander technique for idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallibrass, C; Sissons, P; Chalmers, C

    2002-11-01

    To determine whether the Alexander Technique, alongside normal treatment, is of benefit to people disabled by idiopathic Parkinson's disease. A randomized controlled trial with three groups, one receiving lessons in the Alexander Technique, another receiving massage and one with no additional intervention. Measures were taken pre- and post-intervention, and at follow-up, six months later. The Polyclinic at the University of Westminster, Central London. Ninety-three people with clinically confirmed idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The Alexander Technique group received 24 lessons in the Alexander Technique and the massage group received 24 sessions of massage. The main outcome measures were the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale (SPDDS) at best and at worst times of day. Secondary measures included the Beck Depression Inventory and an Attitudes to Self Scale. The Alexander Technique group improved compared with the no additional intervention group, pre-intervention to post-intervention, both on the SPDDS at best, p = 0.04 (confidence interval (CI) -6.4 to 0.0) and on the SPDDS at worst, p = 0.01 (CI -11.5 to -1.8). The comparative improvement was maintained at six-month follow-up: on the SPDDS at best, p = 0.04 (CI -7.7 to 0.0) and on the SPDDS at worst, p = 0.01 (CI -11.8 to -0.9). The Alexander Technique group was comparatively less depressed post-intervention, p = 0.03 (CI -3.8 to 0.0) on the Beck Depression Inventory, and at six-month follow-up had improved on the Attitudes to Self Scale, p = 0.04 (CI -13.9 to 0.0). There is evidence that lessons in the Alexander Technique are likely to lead to sustained benefit for people with Parkinson's disease.

  20. [High-resolution patch-clamp technique based on feedback control of scanning ion conductance microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Fan; Lu, Hu-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Jun

    2010-06-25

    The ion channels located on the cell fine structures play an important role in the physiological functions of cell membrane. However, it is impossible to achieve precise positioning on the nanometer scale cellular microstructures by conventional patch-clamp technique, due to the 200 nm resolution limit of optical microscope. To solve this problem, we have established a high-resolution patch-clamp technique, which combined commercial scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) and patch-clamp recording through a nanopipette probe, based on SICM feedback control. MDCK cells were used as observation object to test the capability of the technique. Firstly, a feedback controlled SICM nanopipette (approximately 150 MOmega) non-contactly scanned over a selected area of living MDCK cells monolayer to obtain high-resolution topographic images of microvilli and tight-junction microstructures on the MDCK cells monolayer. Secondly, the same nanopipette was non-contactly moved and precisely positioned over the microvilli or tight-junction microstructure under SICM feedback control. Finally, the SICM feedback control was switched off, the nanopipette slowly contacted with the cell membrane to get a patch-clamp giga-ohm sealing in the cell-attached patch-clamp configuration, and then performed ion channel recording as a normal patch-clamp electrode. The ion channel recordings showed that ion channels of microvilli microstructure opened at pipette holding potential of -100, -60, -40, 0, +40, +60, +100 mV (n=11). However, the opening of ion channels of tight-junction microstructure was not detected at pipette holding potential of -100, -40, 0, +40, +100 mV (n=9). These results suggest that our high-resolution patch-clamp technique can achieve accurate nanopipette positioning and nanometer scale high-resolution patch-clamp recording, which may provide a powerful tool to study the spatial distribution and functions of ion channel in the nanometer scale microstructures of living

  1. Intelligent techniques for system identification and controller tuning in pH process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Valarmathi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Genetic Algorithm (GA for system identification for controller tuning in a pH process. In this paper, the ANN based approach is applied to estimate the system parameters. Once the variations in parameters are identified frequently, GA optimally tunes the controller. The simulation results show that the proposed intelligent technique is effective in identifying the parameters and has resulted in a minimum value of the Integral Square Error, peak overshoot and minimum settling time as compared to conventional methods. The experimental results show that their performance is superior and it matches favorably with the simulation results.

  2. New techniques for the analysis of manual control systems. [mathematical models of human operator behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Studies are summarized on the application of advanced analytical and computational methods to the development of mathematical models of human controllers in multiaxis manual control systems. Specific accomplishments include the following: (1) The development of analytical and computer methods for the measurement of random parameters in linear models of human operators. (2) Discrete models of human operator behavior in a multiple display situation were developed. (3) Sensitivity techniques were developed which make possible the identification of unknown sampling intervals in linear systems. (4) The adaptive behavior of human operators following particular classes of vehicle failures was studied and a model structure proposed.

  3. Sensorless AC electric motor control robust advanced design techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Glumineau, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This monograph shows the reader how to avoid the burdens of sensor cost, reduced internal physical space, and system complexity in the control of AC motors. Many applications fields—electric vehicles, wind- and wave-energy converters and robotics, among them—will benefit. Sensorless AC Electric Motor Control describes the elimination of physical sensors and their replacement with observers, i.e., software sensors. Robustness is introduced to overcome problems associated with the unavoidable imperfection of knowledge of machine parameters—resistance, inertia, and so on—encountered in real systems. The details of a large number of speed- and/or position-sensorless ideas for different types of permanent-magnet synchronous motors and induction motors are presented along with several novel observer designs for electrical machines. Control strategies are developed using high-order, sliding-mode and quasi-continuous-sliding-mode techniques and two types of observer–controller schemes based on backstepping ...

  4. Tracking Control Design Using Sliding Mode Techniques for Satellite Formation Flying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Chu Lim

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite formation flying is currently an active area of research in the aerospace engineering. So it has been researched by various authors. In this study, a tracking controller using sliding mode techniques was designed to control a satellite for the satellite formation flying. In general, Hill's equations are used to describe the relative motion of the follower satellite with respect to the leader satellite. However the modified Hill's equations considering the J_2 perturbation were used for the design of sliding mode controller. The extended Kalman filter was applied to estimate the state vector based on the measurements of relative distance and velocity between two satellites. The simulation results show that the follower satellite tracks the desired trajectory well by thruster operations based on the sliding mode control law.

  5. Effects of Active and Passive Control Techniques on Mach 1.5 Cavity Flow Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Aradag

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic flow over cavities has been of interest since 1960s because cavities represent the bomb bays of aircraft. The flow is transient, turbulent, and complicated. Pressure fluctuations inside the cavity can impede successful weapon release. The objective of this study is to use active and passive control methods on supersonic cavity flow numerically to decrease or eliminate pressure oscillations. Jet blowing at several locations on the front and aft walls of the cavity configuration is used as an active control method. Several techniques are used for passive control including using a cover plate to separate the flow dynamics inside and outside of the cavity, trailing edge wall modifications, such as inclination of the trailing edge, and providing curvature to the trailing edge wall. The results of active and passive control techniques are compared with the baseline case in terms of pressure fluctuations, sound pressure levels at the leading edge, trailing edge walls, and cavity floor and in terms of formation of the flow structures and the results are presented. It is observed from the results that modification of the trailing edge wall is the most effective of the control methods tested leading to up to 40 dB reductions in cavity tones.

  6. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques to improve predictions of laser beam control performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Richard A.

    2017-05-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the study of the effects of uncertainty on the values of analytical results and the predictions of scientific models. Sources of uncertainty include imprecise knowledge of the exact values of parameters, lack of confidence in the physical models, use of imperfectly calibrated models, and irreducible uncertainties due to physical characteristics. The Air Force Research Laboratory has undertaken the challenge of understanding, developing and analyzing the techniques of UQ as they apply to Laser Beam Control. This paper proposes a simple methodology and simple results with our first attempt of applying UQ as a new analysis tool. The software toolkit which was chosen was an analytical group of algorithms from a Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) package called DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications). The specific application of interest to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is the analytical prediction of the performance of a Laser Beam Control systems under various scenarios, conditions, and missions. The application of rigorous UQ techniques to the models used to predict beam control performance could greatly improve our confidence in these predictions and also improve the acceptance of advanced Laser Beam Control systems within the science and engineering communities1,2. The proposed work would follow a multi-step approach, analyzing the more easily quantified sources of uncertainty, and then including increasingly complicated physical phenomena as the work progresses. Will present the initial results, and the first steps in the incorporation of UQ into our Laser Beam Control Modeling and Simulation environments.

  7. Carrier-Based Common Mode Voltage Control Techniques in Three-Level Diode-Clamped Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradyumn Chaturvedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching converters are used in electric drive applications to produce variable voltage, variable frequency supply which generates harmful large dv/dt and high-frequency common mode voltages (CMV. Multilevel inverters generate lower CMV as compared to conventional two-level inverters. This paper presents simple carrier-based technique to control the common mode voltages in multilevel inverters using different structures of sine-triangle comparison method such as phase disposition (PD, phase opposition disposition (POD by adding common mode voltage offset signal to actual reference voltage signal. This paper also presented the method to optimize the magnitude of this offset signal to reduce CMV and total harmonic distortion in inverter output voltage. The presented techniques give comparable performance as obtained in complex space vector-based control strategy, in terms of number of commutations, magnitude, and rate of change of CMV and harmonic profile of inverter output voltage. Simulation and experimental results presented confirm the effectiveness of the proposed techniques to control the common mode voltages.

  8. A smart rotary technique versus conventional pulpectomy for primary teeth: A randomized controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Negar; Shirazi, Alireza-Sarraf; Ebrahimi, Masoumeh

    2017-11-01

    Techniques with adequate accuracy of working length determination along with shorter duration of treatment in pulpectomy procedure seems to be essential in pediatric dentistry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of root canal length measurement with Root ZX II apex locator and rotary system in pulpectomy of primary teeth. In this randomized control clinical trial complete pulpectomy was performed on 80 mandibular primary molars in 80, 4-6-year-old children. The study population was randomly divided into case and control groups. In control group conventional pulpectomy was performed and in the case group working length was determined by electronic apex locator Root ZXII and instrumented with Mtwo rotary files. Statistical evaluation was performed using Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square tests (Protary files (P=0.000). Considering the comparable results in accuracy of root canal length determination and the considerably shorter instrumentation time in Root ZXII apex locator and rotary system, it may be suggested for pulpectomy in primary molar teeth. Key words:Rotary technique, conventional technique, pulpectomy, primary teeth.

  9. Metabolic rate control during extravehicular activity simulations and measurement techniques during actual EVAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A description of the methods used to control and measure metabolic rate during ground simulations is given. Work levels attained at the Space Environment Simulation Laboratory are presented. The techniques and data acquired during ground simulations are described and compared with inflight procedures. Data from both the Skylab and Apollo Program were utilized and emphasis is given to the methodology, both in simulation and during flight. The basic techniques of work rate assessment are described. They include oxygen consumption, which was useful for averages over long time periods, heart rate correlations based on laboratory calibrations, and liquid cooling garment temperature changes. The relative accuracy of these methods as well as the methods of real-time monitoring at the Mission Control Center are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the metabolic measurement techniques are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the problem of utilizing oxygen decrement for short time periods and heart rate at low work levels. A summary is given of the effectiveness of work rate control and measurements; and current plans for future EVA monitoring are discussed.

  10. A Novel BLDC-Like DTC Control Technique for Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available DC brushless motors are widely adopted for their simplicity of control, even in sensorless configuration, and their high torque density. On the other hand, induction motors are very economical due to the absence of permanent magnets; for the same reason they can easily be driven in the flux-weakening region to attain a wide speed range. Nevertheless, high dynamic induction motors drives, based on field-oriented (FOC or predictive control, require large amounts of computing power and are rather sensitive to motor parameter variations. This paper presents a simple DTC induction motor control algorithm based on a well-known BLDC control technique, which allows to realize a high dynamic induction motor speed control with wide speed range. The firmware implementation is very compact and occupies a low amount of program memory, comparable to volt-per-Hertz- (V/f- based control algorithms. The novel control algorithm presents also good performance and low current ripple and can be implemented on a low-cost motion control DSP without resorting to high-frequency PWM.

  11. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Switching EKF technique for rotor and stator resistance estimation in speed sensorless control of IMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barut, Murat; Bogosyan, Seta [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Gokasan, Metin [Istanbul Technical University, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Faculty, 34390 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-12-15

    High performance speed sensorless control of induction motors (IMs) calls for estimation and control schemes that offer solutions to parameter uncertainties as well as to difficulties involved with accurate flux/velocity estimation at very low and zero speed. In this study, a new EKF based estimation algorithm is proposed for the solution of both problems and is applied in combination with speed sensorless direct vector control (DVC). The technique is based on the consecutive execution of two EKF algorithms, by switching from one algorithm to another at every n sampling periods. The number of sampling periods, n, is determined based on the desired system performance. The switching EKF approach, thus applied, provides an accurate estimation of an increased number of parameters than would be possible with a single EKF algorithm. The simultaneous and accurate estimation of rotor, R{sub r}{sup '} and stator, R{sub s} resistances, both in the transient and steady state, is an important challenge in speed sensorless IM control and reported studies achieving satisfactory results are few, if any. With the proposed technique in this study, the sensorless estimation of R{sub r}{sup '} and R{sub s} is achieved in transient and steady state and in both high and low speed operation while also estimating the unknown load torque, velocity, flux and current components. The performance demonstrated by the simulation results at zero speed, as well as at low and high speed operation is very promising when compared with individual EKF algorithms performing either R{sub r}{sup '} or R{sub s} estimation or with the few other approaches taken in past studies, which require either signal injection and/or a change of algorithms based on the speed range. The results also motivate utilization of the technique for multiple parameter estimation in a variety of control methods. (author)

  13. Dicloxacillin induces CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Graff, Magnus; Wong, Susan

    2017-01-01

    -time curve from 0-24h of omeprazole (CYP2C19) (geometric mean ratio (GMR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 0.33 [0.24-0.45]), tolbutamide (CYP2C9) (GMR [95% CI]: 0.73 [0.65-0.81]) and midazolam (CYP3A4) (GMR [95% CI]: 0.54 [0.41-0.72]). Additionally, other relevant pharmacokinetic parameters were affected...

  14. Structural basis and enzymatic mechanism of the biosynthesis of C9- from C10-monoterpenoid indole alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Hill, Marco; Wang, Meitian; Panjikar, Santosh; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Cutting carbons: The three-dimensional structure of polyneuridine aldehyde esterase (PNAE) gives insight into the enzymatic mechanism of the biosynthesis of C(9)- from C(10)-monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (see scheme). PNAE is a very substrate-specific serine esterase. It harbors the catalytic triad S87-D216-H244, and is a new member of the alpha/beta-fold hydrolase superfamily. Its novel function leads to the diversification of alkaloid structures.

  15. The neural correlates and clinical characteristics of psychosis in the frontotemporal dementia continuum and the C9orf72 expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Devenney

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This study underlines the need to consider and assess for psychotic symptoms in the frontotemporal dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis continuum particularly in those with C9orf72 gene expansions. The network of brain regions identified in this study is strikingly similar to that identified in other psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, which suggests that treatment strategies in psychiatry may be beneficial for the management of psychotic symptoms in frontotemporal dementia.

  16. Cell-to-Cell Transmission of Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Linked to C9orf72-ALS/FTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Westergard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common genetic change underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. RNA transcripts containing these expansions undergo repeat-associated non-ATG translation (RAN-T to form five dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs. DPRs are found as aggregates throughout the CNS of C9orf72-ALS/FTD patients, and some cause degeneration when expressed in vitro in neuronal cultures and in vivo in animal models. The spread of characteristic disease-related proteins drives the progression of pathology in many neurodegenerative diseases. While DPR toxic mechanisms continue to be investigated, the potential for DPRs to spread has yet to be determined. Using different experimental cell culture platforms, including spinal motor neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from C9orf72-ALS patients, we found evidence for cell-to-cell spreading of DPRs via exosome-dependent and exosome-independent pathways, which may be relevant to disease.

  17. Cell-to-Cell Transmission of Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Linked to C9orf72-ALS/FTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergard, Thomas; Jensen, Brigid K; Wen, Xinmei; Cai, Jingli; Kropf, Elizabeth; Iacovitti, Lorraine; Pasinelli, Piera; Trotti, Davide

    2016-10-11

    Aberrant hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common genetic change underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). RNA transcripts containing these expansions undergo repeat-associated non-ATG translation (RAN-T) to form five dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs). DPRs are found as aggregates throughout the CNS of C9orf72-ALS/FTD patients, and some cause degeneration when expressed in vitro in neuronal cultures and in vivo in animal models. The spread of characteristic disease-related proteins drives the progression of pathology in many neurodegenerative diseases. While DPR toxic mechanisms continue to be investigated, the potential for DPRs to spread has yet to be determined. Using different experimental cell culture platforms, including spinal motor neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from C9orf72-ALS patients, we found evidence for cell-to-cell spreading of DPRs via exosome-dependent and exosome-independent pathways, which may be relevant to disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of inhaler technique on asthma and COPD control: a multicenter experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudvarski Ilic A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandra Dudvarski Ilic,1,2 Vladimir Zugic,1,2 Biljana Zvezdin,3,4 Ivan Kopitovic,3,4 Ivan Cekerevac,5,6 Vojislav Cupurdija,5,6 Nela Perhoc,7 Vesna Veljkovic,7 Aleksandra Barac8 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 2Clinic for Pulmonology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, 3Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, 4Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina, Sremska Kamenica, 5Faculty of Medicine, University of Kragujevac, 6Clinic for Pulmonology, Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Kragujevac, 7Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases Knez Selo, Clinical Centre Nis, Nis, 8Faculty of Stomatology, University Academy of Business Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia Background: The successful management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD mostly depends on adherence to inhalation drug therapy, the usage of which is commonly associated with many difficulties in real life. Improvement of patients’ adherence to inhalation technique could lead to a better outcome in the treatment of asthma and COPD.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of inhalation technique in clinical and functional control of asthma and COPD during a 3-month follow-up.Methods: A total of 312 patients with asthma or COPD who used dry powder Turbuhaler were enrolled in this observational study. During three visits (once a month, training in seven-step inhalation technique was given and it was practically demonstrated. Correctness of patients’ usage of inhaler was assessed in three visits by scoring each of the seven steps during administration of inhaler dose. Assessment of disease control was done at each visit and evaluated as: fully controlled, partially controlled, or uncontrolled. Patients’ subjective perception of the simplicity of inhalation technique, disease control, and quality of life were assessed by using specially designed questionnaires.Results: Significant improvement in inhalation technique was achieved after the

  19. Brief Group Intervention Using Emotional Freedom Techniques for Depression in College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Church

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred thirty-eight first-year college students were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Thirty students meeting the BDI criteria for moderate to severe depression were randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. The treatment group received four 90-minute group sessions of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques, a novel treatment that combines exposure, cognitive reprocessing, and somatic stimulation. The control group received no treatment. Posttests were conducted 3 weeks later on those that completed all requirements (N=18. The EFT group (n=9 had significantly more depression at baseline than the control group (n=9 (EFT BDI mean=23.44, SD=2.1 versus control BDI mean=20.33, SD=2.1. After controlling for baseline BDI score, the EFT group had significantly less depression than the control group at posttest, with a mean score in the “nondepressed” range (P=.001; EFT BDI mean=6.08, SE=1.8 versus control BDI mean=18.04, SE=1.8. Cohen's d was 2.28, indicating a very strong effect size. These results are consistent with those noted in other studies of EFT that included an assessment for depression and indicate the clinical usefulness of EFT as a brief, cost-effective, and efficacious treatment.

  20. MATLAB Simulation of UPQC for Power Quality Mitigation Using an Ant Colony Based Fuzzy Control Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kumarasabapathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fuzzy logic based new control scheme for the Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC for minimizing the voltage sag and total harmonic distortion in the distribution system consequently to improve the power quality. UPQC is a recent power electronic module which guarantees better power quality mitigation as it has both series-active and shunt-active power filters (APFs. The fuzzy logic controller has recently attracted a great deal of attention and possesses conceptually the quality of the simplicity by tackling complex systems with vagueness and ambiguity. In this research, the fuzzy logic controller is utilized for the generation of reference signal controlling the UPQC. To enable this, a systematic approach for creating the fuzzy membership functions is carried out by using an ant colony optimization technique for optimal fuzzy logic control. An exhaustive simulation study using the MATLAB/Simulink is carried out to investigate and demonstrate the performance of the proposed fuzzy logic controller and the simulation results are compared with the PI controller in terms of its performance in improving the power quality by minimizing the voltage sag and total harmonic distortion.

  1. MATLAB Simulation of UPQC for Power Quality Mitigation Using an Ant Colony Based Fuzzy Control Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasabapathy, N; Manoharan, P S

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a fuzzy logic based new control scheme for the Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) for minimizing the voltage sag and total harmonic distortion in the distribution system consequently to improve the power quality. UPQC is a recent power electronic module which guarantees better power quality mitigation as it has both series-active and shunt-active power filters (APFs). The fuzzy logic controller has recently attracted a great deal of attention and possesses conceptually the quality of the simplicity by tackling complex systems with vagueness and ambiguity. In this research, the fuzzy logic controller is utilized for the generation of reference signal controlling the UPQC. To enable this, a systematic approach for creating the fuzzy membership functions is carried out by using an ant colony optimization technique for optimal fuzzy logic control. An exhaustive simulation study using the MATLAB/Simulink is carried out to investigate and demonstrate the performance of the proposed fuzzy logic controller and the simulation results are compared with the PI controller in terms of its performance in improving the power quality by minimizing the voltage sag and total harmonic distortion.

  2. Vibration control of a class of semiactive suspension system using neural network and backstepping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapateiro, M.; Luo, N.; Karimi, H. R.; Vehí, J.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of designing the semiactive controller for a class of vehicle suspension system that employs a magnetorheological (MR) damper as the actuator. As the first step, an adequate model of the MR damper must be developed. Most of the models found in literature are based on the mechanical behavior of the device, with the Bingham and Bouc-Wen models being the most popular ones. These models can estimate the damping force of the device taking the control voltage and velocity inputs as variables. However, the inverse model, i.e., the model that computes the control variable (generally the voltage) is even more difficult to find due to the numerical complexity that implies the inverse of the nonlinear forward model. In our case, we develop a neural network being able to estimate the control voltage input to the MR damper, which is necessary for producing the optimal force predicted by the controller so as to reduce the vibrations. The controller is designed following the standard backstepping technique. The performance of the control system is evaluated by means of simulations in MATLAB/Simulink.

  3. Individual CLA Isomers, c9t11 and t10c12, Prevent Excess Liver Glycogen Storage and Inhibit Lipogenic Genes Expression Induced by High-Fructose Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Maslak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of individual conjugated linoleic acid isomers, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA, on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and systemic endothelial dysfunction in rats fed for four weeks with control or high-fructose diet. The high-fructose diet hampered body weight gain (without influencing food intake, increased liver weight and glycogen storage in hepatocytes, upregulated expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1, and increased saturated fatty acid (SFA content in the liver. Both CLA isomers prevented excessive accumulation of glycogen in the liver. Specifically, t10c12-CLA decreased concentration of serum triacylglycerols and LDL + VLDL cholesterol, increased HDL cholesterol, and affected liver lipid content and fatty acid composition by downregulation of liver SCD-1 and FAS expression. In turn, the c9t11-CLA decreased LDL+VLDL cholesterol in the control group and downregulated liver expression of FAS without significant effects on liver weight, lipid content, and fatty acid composition. In summary, feeding rats with a high-fructose diet resulted in increased liver glycogen storage, indicating the induction of gluconeogenesis despite simultaneous upregulation of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis. Although both CLA isomers (c9t11 and t10c12 display hepatoprotective activity, the hypolipemic action of the t10c12-CLA isomer proved to be more pronounced than that of c9t11-CLA.

  4. Dental Students' Perceptions of Digital and Conventional Impression Techniques: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, Nicola U; Kovaltschuk, Irina; Lenherr, Patrik; Dedem, Philipp; Joda, Tim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to analyze inexperienced dental students' perceptions of the difficulty and applicability of digital and conventional implant impressions and their preferences including performance. Fifty undergraduate dental students at a dental school in Switzerland were randomly divided into two groups (2×25). Group A first took digital impressions in a standardized phantom model and then conventional impressions, while the procedures were reversed for Group B. Participants were asked to complete a VAS questionnaire (0-100) on the level of difficulty and applicability (user/patient-friendliness) of both techniques. They were asked which technique they preferred and perceived to be more efficient. A quotient of "effective scan time per software-recorded time" (TRIOS) was calculated as an objective quality indicator for intraoral optical scanning (IOS). The majority of students perceived IOS as easier than the conventional technique. Most (72%) preferred the digital approach using IOS to take the implant impression to the conventional method (12%) or had no preference (12%). Although total work was similar for males and females, the TRIOS quotient indicated that male students tended to use their time more efficiently. In this study, dental students with no clinical experience were very capable of acquiring digital tools, indicating that digital impression techniques can be included early in the dental curriculum to help them catch up with ongoing development in computer-assisted technologies used in oral rehabilitation.

  5. Comparative study of abdominal cavity temporary closure techniques for damage control

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    MARCELO A. F. RIBEIRO JR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The damage control surgery, with emphasis on laparostomy, usually results in shrinkage of the aponeurosis and loss of the ability to close the abdominal wall, leading to the formation of ventral incisional hernias. Currently, various techniques offer greater chances of closing the abdominal cavity with less tension. Thus, this study aims to evaluate three temporary closure techniques of the abdominal cavity: the Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC, the Bogotá Bag and the Vacuum-pack. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, selecting 28 articles published in the last 20 years. The techniques of the bag Bogotá and Vacuum-pack had the advantage of easy access to the material in most centers and low cost, contrary to VAC, which, besides presenting high cost, is not available in most hospitals. On the other hand, the VAC technique was more effective in reducing stress at the edges of lesions, removing stagnant fluids and waste, in addition to acting at the cellular level by increasing proliferation and cell division rates, and showed the highest rates of primary closure of the abdominal cavity.

  6. New Diagnostic, Launch and Model Control Techniques in the NASA Ames HFFAF Ballistic Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents new diagnostic, launch and model control techniques used in the NASA Ames HFFAF ballistic range. High speed movies were used to view the sabot separation process and the passage of the model through the model splap paper. Cavities in the rear of the sabot, to catch the muzzle blast of the gun, were used to control sabot finger separation angles and distances. Inserts were installed in the powder chamber to greatly reduce the ullage volume (empty space) in the chamber. This resulted in much more complete and repeatable combustion of the powder and hence, in much more repeatable muzzle velocities. Sheets of paper or cardstock, impacting one half of the model, were used to control the amplitudes of the model pitch oscillations.

  7. A new technique to control brushless motor for blood pump application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jeison; Andrade, Aron; Nicolosi, Denys E C; Biscegli, José F; Legendre, Daniel; Bock, Eduardo; Lucchi, Júlio César

    2008-04-01

    This article presents a back-electromotive force (BEMF)-based technique of detection for sensorless brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) drivers. The BLDCM has been chosen as the energy converter in rotary or pulsatile blood pumps that use electrical motors for pumping. However, in order to operate properly, the BLDCM driver needs to know the shaft position. Usually, that information is obtained through a set of Hall sensors assembled close to the rotor and connected to the electronic controller by wires. Sometimes, a large distance between the motor and controller makes the system susceptible to interference on the sensor signal because of winding current switching. Thus, the goal of the sensorless technique presented in this study is to avoid this problem. First, the operation of BLDCM was evaluated on the electronic simulator PSpice. Then, a BEMF detector circuitry was assembled in our laboratories. For the tests, a sensor-dependent system was assembled where the direct comparison between the Hall sensors signals and the detected signals was performed. The obtained results showed that the output sensorless detector signals are very similar to the Hall signals at speeds of more than 2500 rpm. Therefore, the sensorless technique is recommended as a responsible or redundant system to be used in rotary blood pumps.

  8. Heating and thermal control of brazing technique to break contamination path for potential Mars sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Campos, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    The potential return of Mars sample material is of great interest to the planetary science community, as it would enable extensive analysis of samples with highly sensitive laboratory instruments. It is important to make sure such a mission concept would not bring any living microbes, which may possibly exist on Mars, back to Earth's environment. In order to ensure the isolation of Mars microbes from Earth's Atmosphere, a brazing sealing and sterilizing technique was proposed to break the Mars-to-Earth contamination path. Effectively, heating the brazing zone in high vacuum space and controlling the sample temperature for integrity are key challenges to the implementation of this technique. The break-thechain procedures for container configurations, which are being considered, were simulated by multi-physics finite element models. Different heating methods including induction and resistive/radiation were evaluated. The temperature profiles of Martian samples in a proposed container structure were predicted. The results show that the sealing and sterilizing process can be controlled such that the samples temperature is maintained below the level that may cause damage, and that the brazing technique is a feasible approach to breaking the contamination path.

  9. Dual measurement self-sensing technique of NiTi actuators for use in robust control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Austin; Lambert, Tyler Ross; Beale, David; Broughton, Royall

    2017-10-01

    Using a shape memory alloy actuator as both an actuator and a sensor provides huge benefits in cost reduction and miniaturization of robotic devices. Despite much effort, reliable and robust self-sensing (using the actuator as a position sensor) had not been achieved for general temperature, loading, hysteresis path, and fatigue conditions. Prior research has sought to model the intricacies of the electrical resistivity changes within the NiTi material. However, for the models to be solvable, nearly every previous technique only models the actuator within very specific boundary conditions. Here, we measure both the voltage across the entire NiTi wire and of a fixed-length segment of it; these dual measurements allow direct calculation of the actuator length without a material model. We review previous self-sensing literature, illustrate the mechanism design that makes the new technique possible, and use the dual measurement technique to determine the length of a single straight wire actuator under controlled conditions. This robust measurement can be used for feedback control in unknown ambient and loading conditions.

  10. Adaptive-Compression Based Congestion Control Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joa-Hyoung Lee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Congestion in a wireless sensor network causes an increase in the amount of data loss and delays in data transmission. In this paper, we propose a new congestion control technique (ACT, Adaptive Compression-based congestion control Technique based on an adaptive compression scheme for packet reduction in case of congestion. The compression techniques used in the ACT are Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT, Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM, and Run-Length Coding (RLC. The ACT first transforms the data from the time domain to the frequency domain, reduces the range of data by using ADPCM, and then reduces the number of packets with the help of RLC before transferring the data to the source node. It introduces the DWT for priority-based congestion control because the DWT classifies the data into four groups with different frequencies. The ACT assigns priorities to these data groups in an inverse proportion to the respective frequencies of the data groups and defines the quantization step size of ADPCM in an inverse proportion to the priorities. RLC generates a smaller number of packets for a data group with a low priority. In the relaying node, the ACT reduces the amount of packets by increasing the quantization step size of ADPCM in case of congestion. Moreover, in order to facilitate the back pressure, the queue is controlled adaptively according to the congestion state. We experimentally demonstrate that the ACT increases the network efficiency and guarantees fairness to sensor nodes, as compared with the existing methods. Moreover, it exhibits a very high ratio of the available data in the sink.

  11. Study of Event-based Sampling Techniques and Their Influence on Greenhouse Climate Control with Wireless Sensors Network

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlowski, Andrzej; Guzman, Jose L.; Rodriguez, Francisco; Berenguel, Manuel; Sanchez, Jose; Dormido, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study of event-based sampling techniques and their application to the greenhouse climate control problem. It was possible to obtain important information about data transmission and control performance for all techniques. As conclusion, it was deduced

  12. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  13. C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions as the causative mutation for chromosome 9p21-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Hussein; Suhail, Hamid; Sabbagh, Mike; Belzil, Veronique; Szuto, Anna; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Khoris, Jawad; Camu, William; Salachas, Francois; Meininger, Vincent; Mathieu, Jean; Strong, Michael; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A

    2012-09-01

    To further assess the presence of a large hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the first intron of the C9orf72 gene identified as the genetic cause of chromosome 9p21-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (c9ALS/FTD) in 4 unrelated families with a conclusive linkage to c9ALS/FTD. A repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction assay. Academic research. Affected and unaffected individuals from 4 ALS/FTD families. The amplified C9orf72 repeat expansion. We show that the repeat is expanded in and segregated perfectly with the disease in these 4 pedigrees. Our findings further confirm the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion as the causative mutation for c9ALS/FTD and strengthen the hypothesis that ALS and FTD belong to the same disease spectrum.

  14. A 540-[Formula: see text] Duty Controlled RSSI With Current Reusing Technique for Human Body Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaeeun; Lee, Yongsu; Cho, Hyunwoo; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2016-08-01

    An ultra-low-power duty controlled received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is implemented for human body communication (HBC) in 180 nm CMOS technology under 1.5 V supply. The proposed RSSI adopted 3 following key features for low-power consumption; 1) current reusing technique (CR-RSSI) with replica bias circuit and calibration unit, 2) duty controller, and 3) reconfigurable gm-boosting LNA. The CR-RSSI utilizes stacked amplifier-rectifier-cell (AR-cell) to reuse the supply current of each blocks. As a result, the power consumption becomes 540 [Formula: see text] with +/-2 dB accuracy and 75 dB dynamic range. The replica bias circuit and calibration unit are adopted to increase the reliability of CR-RSSI. In addition, the duty controller turns off the RSSI when it is not required, and this function leads 70% power reduction. At last, the gm-boosting reconfigurable LNA can adaptively vary its noise and linearity performance with respect to input signal strength. Fro current reusing technique m this feature, we achieve 62% power reduction in the LNA. Thanks to these schemes, compared to the previous works, we can save 70% of power in RSSI and LNA.

  15. Three-Trocar Sleeve Gastrectomy vs Standard Five-Trocar Technique: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalvo, Vincenzo; Salsano, Vincenzo; Sarno, Gerardo; Chaze, Iphigenie

    2017-12-01

    Bariatric surgery is a treatment for morbid obesity. Different surgical procedures have been described in order to obtain excess weight loss (EWL), but currently laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is the most commonly performed procedure throughout the world. Reducing abdominal wall trauma and increasing the aesthetic result are important goals for all bariatric surgeons. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in order to assess if the three-trocar sleeve gastrectomy can be safely carried out or should be abandoned. From September 2016 to February 2017, 90 patients were enrolled in our trial. Each patients was evaluated by a multidisciplinary team before surgery. Two groups were created after application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was to define the features of early post-operative complications of patients in group 1 (the three-trocar technique-the experimental group) compared to group 2 (five-trocar technique-the control group). The secondary endpoints were to evaluate any differences between the two groups concerning post-operative pain and patients' satisfaction with the aesthetic results. There was no difference between the two groups concerning age, sex distribution, weight, and BMI. The rate of co-morbidities was similar in both groups. Operative time was inferior in the control group, but patient satisfaction was better in the three-trocar sleeve gastrectomy group. The three-trocar sleeve gastrectomy can be safely carried out with a modest increase in operative time, without additional early surgical complications and with a greater patient aesthetic satisfaction. researchregistry2386.

  16. TU-C-9A-01: IROC Organization and Clinical Trial Credentialing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Followill, D; Molineu, A [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    As a response to recommendations from a report from the Institute of Medicine, NCI is reorganizing it clinical trial groups into a National Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) that consists of four adult groups (Alliance, ECOGACRIN, NRG, and SWOG) and one children’s group (COG). NRG will house CIRO, a center to promote innovative radiation therapy research and intergroup collaboration in radiation. The quality assurance groups that support clinical trials have also been restructured. ITC, OSU Imaging corelab, Philadelphia Imaging core-lab, QARC, RPC, and RTOGQA have joined together to create the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Group. IROC’s mission is to provide integrated radiation oncology and diagnostic imaging quality control programs in support of the NCI’s NCTN thereby assuring high quality data for clinical trials designed to improve the clinical outcomes for cancer patients worldwide. This will be accomplished through five core services: site qualification, trial design support, credentialing, data management, case review.These changes are important for physicist participating in NCI clinical trials to understand. We will describe in detail the IROC’s activities and five core services so that as a user, the medical physicist can learn how to efficiently utilize this group. We will describe common pitfalls encountered in credentialing for current protocols and present methods to avoid them. These may include the which benchmarks are required for NSABP B-51/RTOG 1304 and how to plan them as well as tips for phantom planning. We will explain how to submit patient and phantom cases in the TRIAD system used by IROC. Learning Objectives: To understand the basic organization of IROC, its mission and five core services To learn how to use TRIAD for patient and phantom data submission To learn how to avoid common pitfalls in credentialing for current trials.

  17. Three-dimensional imaging of trabecular bone using the computer numerically controlled milling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J D; Canfield, B L; Haddock, S M; Chen, T J; Kothari, M; Keaveny, T M

    1997-09-01

    Although various techniques exist for high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of trabecular bone, a common limitation is that resolution depends on specimen size. Most techniques also have limited availability due to their expense and complexity. We therefore developed a simple, accurate technique that has a resolution that is independent of specimen size. Thin layers are serially removed from an embedded bone specimen using a computer numerically controlled (CNC) milling machine, and each exposed cross section is imaged using a low-magnification digital camera. Precise positioning of the specimen under the camera is achieved using the programmable feature of the CNC milling machine. Large specimens are imaged without loss of resolution by moving the specimen under the camera such that an array of field-of-views spans the full cross section. The images from each field-of-view are easily assembled and registered in the postprocessing. High-contrast sections are achieved by staining the bone black with silver nitrate and embedding it in whitened methylmethacrylate. Due to the high contrast nature and high resolution of the images, thresholding at a single value yielded excellent predictions of morphological parameters such as bone volume fraction (mean +/- SD percent error = 0.70 +/- 4.28%). The main limitations of this fully automated "CNC milling technique" are that the specimen is destroyed and the process is relatively slow. However, because of its accuracy, independence of image resolution from specimen size, and ease of implementation, this new technique is an excellent method for ex situ imaging of trabecular architecture, particularly when high resolution is required.

  18. Comparison of four techniques of nasogastric tube insertion in anaesthetised, intubated patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Chandra Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Insertion of nasogastric tubes (NGTs in anaesthetised, intubated patients with a conventional method is sometimes difficult. Different techniques of NGT insertion have been tried with varying degree of success. The aim of this prospective, randomised, open-label study was to evaluate three modified techniques of NGT insertion comparing with the conventional method in respect of success rate, time taken for insertion and the adverse events. Methods: In the operation theatre of general surgery, the patients were randomly allocated into four groups: Group C (control group, n = 54, Group W (ureteral guide wire group, n = 54, Group F (neck flexion with lateral pressure, n = 54 and Group R (reverse Sellick′s manoeuvre, n = 54. The number of attempts for successful NGT insertion, time taken for insertion and adverse events were noted. Results: All the three modified techniques were found more successful than the conventional method on the first attempt. The least time taken for insertion was noted in the reverse Sellick′s method. However, on intergroup analysis, neck flexion and reverse Sellick′s methods were comparable but significantly faster than the other two methods with respect to time taken for insertion. Conclusion: Reverse Sellick′s manoeuver, neck flexion with lateral neck pressure and guide wire-assisted techniques are all better alternatives to the conventional method for successful, quick and reliable NGT insertion with permissible adverse events in anaesthetised, intubated adult patients. Further studies after eliminating major limitations of the present study are warranted to establish the superiority of any one of these modified techniques.

  19. Measurement and control techniques for electric equipment development; Tecnicas de medicion y control para el desarrollo de equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In broad outlines the measuring and control techniques that are used in the electric equipment development in the short circuit laboratories, are described. In this article the utilization criteria of the traditional and modern (analogical and digital) instruments are described as well as the tendency towards the system`s integration for the automation of the measurement and control processes. Also, mention is made of the systems currently being developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to be applied at the Short Circuit Laboratories of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the IIE. [Espanol] Se describen a grandes rasgos las tecnicas de medicion y control que se emplean para el desarrollo de equipos electricos en los laboratorios de corto circuito. En este articulo se describen los criterios de utilizacion de los instrumentos tradicionales y modernos (analogicos y digitales), asi como la tendencia hacia la integracion de sistemas para la automatizacion de los procesos de medicion y control. Tambien se mencionan los sistemas que actualmente se desarrollan en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para aplicarlos en los Laboratorios de Corto Circuito de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto.

  20. The comparative study of evaluating human error assessment and reduction technique and cognitive reliability and error analysis method techniques in the control room of the cement industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Babaei Pouya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the assessment methods of human errors and compare the results of these techniques in order to introduce the precise method of human error assessment, and recognize the factors affecting the occurrence of these errors. Materials and Methods: This case study was done at three workstation control room of a cement industry in 2014. After determining the responsibilities and critical jobs by hierarchical task analysis, cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM and human error assessment and reduction technique (HEART were used in order to analyze the human errors. Results: The results showed that in the CREAM method, the highest probability of error occurrence is related to monitoring and control (operator with a probability of 0.207, and that of in the HEART method, is related to control signs (operator with a probability of 0.416. The number of errors detected by CREAM and HEART method were 85 and 80, respectively. Time and cost of applying the CREAM methods were 235 h and 1175($, while those in the HEART techniques were 215 h and 1075($. Conclusion: We concluded that the highest probability of calculated errors relates to "monitoring and control (operator," "controlling warning signs (operators," and "cooperation in solving the problem (supervisor" for both techniques. By considering the time and cost factors, HEART has superiority, while CREAM is better due to its extensive evaluation and the number of detected errors.

  1. A Polar Fuzzy Control Scheme for Hybrid Power System Using Vehicle-To-Grid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel polar fuzzy (PF control approach for a hybrid power system is proposed in this research. The proposed control scheme remedies the issues of system frequency and the continuity of demand supply caused by renewable sources’ uncertainties. The hybrid power system consists of a wind turbine generator (WTG, solar photovoltaics (PV, a solar thermal power generator (STPG, a diesel engine generator (DEG, an aqua-electrolyzer (AE, an ultra-capacitor (UC, a fuel-cell (FC, and a flywheel (FW. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the battery energy storage system (BESS, a new idea of vehicle-to-grid (V2G control is applied to use the battery of the electric vehicle (EV as equivalent to large-scale energy storage units instead of small batteries to improve the frequency stability of the system. In addition, EV customers’ convenience is taken into account. A minimal-order observer is used to estimate the supply error. Then, the area control error (ACE signal is calculated in terms of the estimated supply error and the frequency deviation. ACE is considered in the frequency domain. Two PF approaches are utilized in the intended system. The mission of each controller is to mitigate one frequency component of ACE. The responsibility for ACE compensation is shared among all parts of the system according to their speed of response. The performance of the proposed control scheme is compared to the conventional fuzzy logic control (FLC. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control technique are verified by numerical simulations under various scenarios.

  2. Control techniques of thrust vector for magnetic nozzle in laser fusion rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimura, Yoshihiro [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan)]. E-mail: kajimura@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Kawabuchi, Ryo [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Nakashima, Hideki [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    An analysis of plasma behavior in a magnetic nozzle would be very useful for designing plasma propulsion systems using a laser fusion. We examine by using a three-dimensional (3D) hybrid code how a thrust vector varies with changing positions of the fusion explosion (off-axis explosion) for the one-coil system of a laser fusion rocket. Furthermore, we investigate plasma behaviors and the thrust efficiency, and optimize the thrust efficiency by changing the current and the position of a rear coil for two-coil system. We also discuss the possibility of control techniques of the thrust vector for a two-coil system.

  3. Development of an Active Flow Control Technique for an Airplane High-Lift Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Dickey, Eric D.; Hartwich, Peter M.; Khodadoust, Abdi

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on Active Flow Control methods used in conjunction with airplane high-lift systems. The project is motivated by the simplified high-lift system, which offers enhanced airplane performance compared to conventional high-lift systems. Computational simulations are used to guide the implementation of preferred flow control methods, which require a fluidic supply. It is first demonstrated that flow control applied to a high-lift configuration that consists of simple hinge flaps is capable of attaining the performance of the conventional high-lift counterpart. A set of flow control techniques has been subsequently considered to identify promising candidates, where the central requirement is that the mass flow for actuation has to be within available resources onboard. The flow control methods are based on constant blowing, fluidic oscillators, and traverse actuation. The simulations indicate that the traverse actuation offers a substantial reduction in required mass flow, and it is especially effective when the frequency of actuation is consistent with the characteristic time scale of the flow.

  4. Transient stability improvement: a review and comparison of conventional and renewable-based techniques for preventive and emergency control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at reviewing and summarizing the vast variety of techniques to improve transient stability of power systems. A qualitative comparison of the techniques is presented and the future outlook is discussed. The techniques are categorized into conventional and renewable-based techniques....... Conventional techniques are well established and have been employed in the past. Renewable techniques investigate how generators based on renewable energy sources (RES) can contribute to improving stability. Moreover, it is distinguished between techniques applying preventive and emergency controls...... increases the voltage setpoint of the units in order to increase the synchronizing power, is reported. Regarding renewable energy source based emergency control, low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability including voltage support is a well established method. Nevertheless, it is also highlighted that high...

  5. Copper electrocrystallization on titanium electrodes: Controlled growth of copper nuclei using a potential step technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, V.; Graves, J.; Paniwnyk, L.; Mason, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Copper nanoparticles were synthesized using a pulsed sonoelectrochemical (20 kHz, 78 Wcm-2) method. Two electrolytes used were a copper salt dissolved in Na2SO4 (pH=3.80) or H2SO4 (pH=0.6). For both electrolytes and in the absence of any surfactant, monodispersed spherical copper nanoparticles were strongly aggregated in three-dimensional clusters of about 200nm. The particle size is controlled by varying reaction parameters such as duration of the experiment, current density, temperature and ultrasound power. A potential step technique is proposed to synthesize copper nanoparticules. Under potentiostatic conditions the aim is to control and decrease the nanoparticle size and reduce production costs by avoiding gas evolution and other adverse reactions.

  6. Automatic diameter control system applied to the laser heated pedestal growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeta M.R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We described an automatic diameter control system (ADC, for the laser heated pedestal growth technique, that reduces the diameter fluctuations in oxide fibers grown from unreacted and non-sinterized pedestals, to less than 2% of the average fiber diameter, and diminishes the average diameter fluctuation, over the entire length of the fiber, to less than 1%. The ADC apparatus is based on an artificial vision system that controls the pulling speed and the height of the molten zone within a precision of 30 mum. We also show that this system can be used for periodic in situ axial doping the fiber. Pure and Cr3+ doped LaAlO3 and pure LiNbO3 were usedas model materials.

  7. Harness Traction Technique (HARNESS): Novel Method for Controlling the Transection Plane During Laparoscopic Hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itano, Osamu; Oshima, Go; Kitago, Minoru; Suzuki, Keiichi; Hayatsu, Shigeo; Shinoda, Masahiro; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Ikoma, Naruhiko; Aiko, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-08-01

    We present our experience using a novel method for controlling the transection plane, which we termed as the Harness Traction Technique (HARNESS) and evaluate its usefulness. From May 2009 to March 2012, laparoscopic hepatectomies using HARNESS were performed on 35 patients. After the superficial hepatic parenchyma on the line was transected at 1 to 2 cm depth, 5 mm tape was placed along the groove of the line and tied to prevent it from slipping off. Tape was tied and pulled using a forceps toward the best direction for minimizing the bleeding, moving the transection point to the appropriate position and creating good tension for parenchymal transection at the transection point. There were no conversions to laparotomy or intraoperative complications. HARNESS is useful for controlling the dissection line during laparoscopic hepatectomy, leading to precise and safe laparoscopic liver parenchymal dissection.

  8. One-step electro-spinning/netting technique for controllably preparing polyurethane nano-fiber/net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Juanping; Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Lin, Jinyou; Yu, Jianyong; Sun, Gang

    2011-11-01

    Electro-spinning/netting (ESN) as a cutting-edge technique evokes much interest because of its ability in the one-step preparation of versatile nano-fiber/net (NFN) membranes. Here, a controllable fabrication of polyurethane (PU) NFN membranes with attractive structures, consisting of common electrospun nanofibers and two-dimensional (2D) soap bubble-like structured nano-nets via an ESN process is reported. The unique nanoscaled NFN architecture can be finely controlled by regulating the solution properties and several ESN process parameters. The versatile PU nano-nets comprising interlinked nanowires with ultrathin diameters (5-40 nm) mean that the NFN structured membranes possess several excellent characteristics, such as an extremely large specific surface area, high porosity and large stacking density, which would be particularly useful for applications in ultrafiltration, special protective clothing, ultrasensitive sensors, catalyst support and so on. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Under-Actuated Robot Manipulator Positioning Control Using Artificial Neural Network Inversion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali T. Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to solve the positioning control problem of underactuated robot manipulator. Artificial Neural Networks Inversion technique was used where a network represents the forward dynamics of the system trained to learn the position of the passive joint over the working space of a 2R underactuated robot. The obtained weights from the learning process were fixed, and the network was inverted to represent the inverse dynamics of the system and then used in the estimation phase to estimate the position of the passive joint for a new set of data the network was not previously trained for. Data used in this research are recorded experimentally from sensors fixed on the robot joints in order to overcome whichever uncertainties presence in the real world such as ill-defined linkage parameters, links flexibility, and backlashes in gear trains. Results were verified experimentally to show the success of the proposed control strategy.

  10. Initial results on fault diagnosis of DSN antenna control assemblies using pattern recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P.; Mellstrom, J.

    1990-01-01

    Initial results obtained from an investigation using pattern recognition techniques for identifying fault modes in the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70 m antenna control loops are described. The overall background to the problem is described, the motivation and potential benefits of this approach are outlined. In particular, an experiment is described in which fault modes were introduced into a state-space simulation of the antenna control loops. By training a multilayer feed-forward neural network on the simulated sensor output, classification rates of over 95 percent were achieved with a false alarm rate of zero on unseen tests data. It concludes that although the neural classifier has certain practical limitations at present, it also has considerable potential for problems of this nature.

  11. A Review of Statistical Disclosure Control Techniques Employed by Web-Based Data Query Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gregory J; Harel, Ofer; Aseltine, Robert H

    We systematically reviewed the statistical disclosure control techniques employed for releasing aggregate data in Web-based data query systems listed in the National Association for Public Health Statistics and Information Systems (NAPHSIS). Each Web-based data query system was examined to see whether (1) it employed any type of cell suppression, (2) it used secondary cell suppression, and (3) suppressed cell counts could be calculated. No more than 30 minutes was spent on each system. Of the 35 systems reviewed, no suppression was observed in more than half (n = 18); observed counts below the threshold were observed in 2 sites; and suppressed values were recoverable in 9 sites. Six sites effectively suppressed small counts. This inquiry has revealed substantial weaknesses in the protective measures used in data query systems containing sensitive public health data. Many systems utilized no disclosure control whatsoever, and the vast majority of those that did deployed it inconsistently or inadequately.

  12. Human motion planning based on recursive dynamics and optimal control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Janzen; Huang, Gang; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient optimal control and recursive dynamics-based computer animation system for simulating and controlling the motion of articulated figures. A quasi-Newton nonlinear programming technique (super-linear convergence) is implemented to solve minimum torque-based human motion-planning problems. The explicit analytical gradients needed in the dynamics are derived using a matrix exponential formulation and Lie algebra. Cubic spline functions are used to make the search space for an optimal solution finite. Based on our formulations, our method is well conditioned and robust, in addition to being computationally efficient. To better illustrate the efficiency of our method, we present results of natural looking and physically correct human motions for a variety of human motion tasks involving open and closed loop kinematic chains.

  13. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  14. Enhanced retention of drop vertical jump landing technique: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Wouter; Benjaminse, Anne; Gokeler, Alli; Otten, Bert

    2016-02-01

    External focus instructions have been shown to result in superior motor performance compared to internal focus instructions. Using an EF may help to optimize current anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of instructions on landing technique and performance by comparing an external focus (EF), internal focus (IF), video (VI) and control (CTRL) group. Subjects (age 22.50±1.62years, height 179.70±10.43cm, mass 73.98±12.68kg) were randomly assigned to IF (n=10), EF (n=10), VI (n=10) or CTRL group (n=10). Landing was assessed from a drop vertical jump (DVJ) in five sessions: pretest, two training blocks (TR1 and TR2) and directly after the training sessions (post test) and retention test 1week later. Group specific instructions were offered in TR1 and TR2. Landing technique was assessed with the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) and jump height was taken as performance measure. The results show that males in the VI group and females both in the VI and EF groups significantly improved jump-landing technique. Retention was achieved and jump height was maintained for males in the VI group and females both in the VI and EF groups. It is therefore concluded that EF and VI instructions have great potential in ACL injury prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  16. Acute phase proteins, C9, factor B, and lysozyme in recurrent oral ulceration and Behçet's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, T; Adinolfi, M

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations and sequential changes of some acute phase proteins, factor B, and lysozyme have been assayed in recurrent oral ulceration and Behçet's syndrome. C9 was elevated in both groups of patients and was the sensitive index of disease activity; however, it failed to discriminate between the three types of recurrent oral ulcers and four types of Behçet's syndrome. The level of alpha 1 acid glycoprotein and lysozyme were significantly increased predominantly in the ocular type, wher...

  17. Assisted reproductive techniques and risk of exstrophy-epispadias complex: a German case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwink, Nadine; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Hirsch, Karin; Reifferscheid, Peter; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Schmidt, Dominik; Reckin, Sabrina; Obermayr, Florian; Boemers, Thomas M; Stein, Raimund; Reutter, Heiko; Rösch, Wolfgang H; Brenner, Hermann; Ebert, Anne-Karoline

    2013-04-01

    We assessed the risk of exstrophy-epispadias complex in children conceived by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Data from the German Network for Congenital Uro-REctal malformations were compared to nationwide data from the German In Vitro Fertilization Register and the German Federal Statistical Office. Odds ratios (95% CI) were determined to quantify associations using logistic regression. A total of 123 patients with exstrophy-epispadias complex born in Germany between 1997 and 2011 were recruited through participating departments of pediatric urology and pediatric surgery throughout the country as well as the German self-help organizations Blasenekstrophie/Epispadie e.V. and Kloakenekstrophie. All German live births (10,069,986) between 1997 and 2010 comprised the controls. Overall, 12 subjects (10%) and 129,982 controls (1%) were conceived by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Conception by assisted reproductive technique was associated with a more than eightfold increased risk of exstrophy-epispadias complex compared to spontaneous conception (OR 8.3, 95% CI 4.6-15.0, p assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are associated with a markedly increased risk of having a child born with exstrophy-epispadias complex. However, it remains unclear whether this finding may be due to assisted reproduction per se and/or underlying infertility/subfertility etiology or parent characteristics. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Review of Heating and Temperature Control in Microfluidic Systems: Techniques and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Caroline Jullien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an overview of the different techniques developed over the last decade to regulate the temperature within microfluidic systems. A variety of different approaches has been adopted, from external heating sources to Joule heating, microwaves or the use of lasers to cite just a few examples. The scope of the technical solutions developed to date is impressive and encompasses for instance temperature ramp rates ranging from 0.1 to 2,000 °C/s leading to homogeneous temperatures from −3 °C to 120 °C, and constant gradients from 6 to 40 °C/mm with a fair degree of accuracy. We also examine some recent strategies developed for applications such as digital microfluidics, where integration of a heating source to generate a temperature gradient offers control of a key parameter, without necessarily requiring great accuracy. Conversely, Temperature Gradient Focusing requires high accuracy in order to control both the concentration and separation of charged species. In addition, the Polymerase Chain Reaction requires both accuracy (homogeneous temperature and integration to carry out demanding heating cycles. The spectrum of applications requiring temperature regulation is growing rapidly with increasingly important implications for the physical, chemical and biotechnological sectors, depending on the relevant heating technique.

  19. AN OVERVIEW OF POWER DISSIPATION AND CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN CMOS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. ROMLI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Total power dissipation in CMOS circuits has become a huge challenging in current semiconductor industry due to the leakage current and the leakage power. The exponential growth of both static and dynamic power dissipations in any CMOS process technology option has increased the cost and efficiency of the system. Technology options are used for the execution specifications and usually it depends on the optimisation and the performance constraints over the chip. This article reviews the relevant researches of the source or power dissipation, the mechanism to reduce the dynamic power dissipation as well as static power dissipation and an overview of various circuit techniques to control them. Important device parameters including voltage threshold and switching capacitance impact to the circuit performance in lowering both dynamic and static power dissipation are presented. The demand for the reduction of power dissipation in CMOS technology shall remain a challenging and active area of research for years to come. Thus, this review shall work as a guideline for the researchers who wish to work on power dissipation and control techniques.

  20. Alternative methodologies in the integrated control of urban mosquito larvae: water surface obliteration techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Eritja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The public health risk associated to mosquitoes has increased in Spain by the introduction of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus which is a well-known disease vector. Integrated control methodologies basically rely on larviciding by weekly applications of microbial biocides that have no residual effect. In some special cases, such as swimming pools in abandoned estates, this weekly schedule cannot be achieved due to difficulties of access and operational reasons. In these circumstances, there are no appropriate biocidal options except for Insect Growth Regulators (IGR, which do not provide more than a few weeks of residual efficiency. We present here the practical application of a well-known technique for controlling mosquito larvae in urban environments by altering the water/air interface. The adding to the water surface of a thick layer of beads made from inert, floating materials is described. The layer of beads impedes oviposition and adversely affects the breathing of the larvae. This technique avoids the regular application of chemical pesticides, as well as providing improved sustainability and higher efficiency times. Caution notes and side effects are also discussed.

  1. A Review of Heating and Temperature Control in Microfluidic Systems: Techniques and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Vincent; Huerre, Axel; Malloggi, Florent; Jullien, Marie-Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the different techniques developed over the last decade to regulate the temperature within microfluidic systems. A variety of different approaches has been adopted, from external heating sources to Joule heating, microwaves or the use of lasers to cite just a few examples. The scope of the technical solutions developed to date is impressive and encompasses for instance temperature ramp rates ranging from 0.1 to 2,000 °C/s leading to homogeneous temperatures from −3 °C to 120 °C, and constant gradients from 6 to 40 °C/mm with a fair degree of accuracy. We also examine some recent strategies developed for applications such as digital microfluidics, where integration of a heating source to generate a temperature gradient offers control of a key parameter, without necessarily requiring great accuracy. Conversely, Temperature Gradient Focusing requires high accuracy in order to control both the concentration and separation of charged species. In addition, the Polymerase Chain Reaction requires both accuracy (homogeneous temperature) and integration to carry out demanding heating cycles. The spectrum of applications requiring temperature regulation is growing rapidly with increasingly important implications for the physical, chemical and biotechnological sectors, depending on the relevant heating technique. PMID:26835667

  2. Advanced Materials and Fabrication Techniques for the Orion Attitude Control Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Holmes, Richard; O'Dell, John; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy

    2013-01-01

    Rhenium, with its high melting temperature, excellent elevated temperature properties, and lack of a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), is ideally suited for the hot gas components of the ACM (Attitude Control Motor), and other high-temperature applications. However, the high cost of rhenium makes fabricating these components using conventional fabrication techniques prohibitive. Therefore, near-net-shape forming techniques were investigated for producing cost-effective rhenium and rhenium alloy components for the ACM and other propulsion applications. During this investigation, electrochemical forming (EL-Form ) techniques were evaluated for producing the hot gas components. The investigation focused on demonstrating that EL-Form processing techniques could be used to produce the ACM flow distributor. Once the EL-Form processing techniques were established, a representative rhenium flow distributor was fabricated, and samples were harvested for material properties testing at both room and elevated temperatures. As a lower cost and lighter weight alternative to an all-rhenium component, rhenium- coated graphite and carbon-carbon were also evaluated. The rhenium-coated components were thermal-cycle tested to verify that they could withstand the expected thermal loads during service. High-temperature electroforming is based on electrochemical deposition of compact layers of metals onto a mandrel of the desired shape. Mandrels used for electro-deposition of near-net shaped parts are generally fabricated from high-density graphite. The graphite mandrel is easily machined and does not react with the molten electrolyte. For near-net shape components, the inner surface of the electroformed part replicates the polished graphite mandrel. During processing, the mandrel itself becomes the cathode, and scrap or refined refractory metal is the anode. Refractory metal atoms from the anode material are ionized in the molten electrolytic solution, and are deposited

  3. New smart readout technique performing edge detection designed to control vision sensors dataflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amhaz, Hawraa; Sicard, Gilles

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a new readout strategy for CMOS image sensors is presented. It aims to overcome the excessive output dataflow bottleneck; this challenge is becoming more and more crucial along with the technology miniaturization. This strategy is based on the spatial redundancies suppression. It leads the sensor to perform edge detection and eventually provide binary image. One of the main advantages of this readout technique compared to other techniques, existing in the literature, is that it does not affect the in-pixel circuitry. This means that all the analogue processing circuitry is implemented outside the pixel, which keeps the pixel area and Fill Factor unchanged. The main analogue block used in this technique is an event detector developed and designed in the CMOS 0.35μm technology from Austria Micro Systems. The simulation results of this block as well as the simulation results of a test bench composed of several pixels and column amplifiers using this readout mode show the capability of this readout mode to reduce dataflow by controlling the ADCs. We must mention that this readout strategy is applicable on sensors that use a linear operating pixel element as well as for those based on logarithmic operating pixels. This readout technique is emulated by a MATLAB model which gives an idea about the expected functionalities and dataflow reduction rates (DRR). Emulation results are shown lately by giving the pre and post processed images as well as the DRR. This last cited does not have a fix value since it depends on the spatial frequency of the filmed scenes and the chosen threshold value.

  4. Advantages of Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair With a Transosseous Suture Technique: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Stoppani, Carlo Alberto; Zaolino, Carlo; Menon, Alessandra; Randelli, Filippo; Cabitza, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    Rotator cuff tear is a common finding in patients with painful, poorly functioning shoulders. The surgical management of this disorder has improved greatly and can now be fully arthroscopic. To evaluate clinical and radiological results of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using 2 different techniques: single-row anchor fixation versus transosseous hardware-free suture repair. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Sixty-nine patients with rotator cuff tears were enrolled: 35 patients were operated with metal anchors and 34 with standardized transosseous repair. The patients were clinically evaluated before surgery, during the 28 days after surgery, and at least 1 year after the operation by the use of validated rating scores (Constant score, QuickDASH, and numerical rating scale [NRS]). Final follow-up was obtained at more than 3 years by a QuickDASH evaluation to detect any difference from the previous follow-up. During the follow-up, rotator cuff integrity was determined through magnetic resonance imaging and was classified according to the 5 Sugaya categories. Patients operated with the transosseous technique had significantly less pain, especially from the 15th postoperative day: In the third week, the mean NRS value for the anchor group was 3.00 while that for transosseous group was 2.46 ( P = .02); in the fourth week, the values were 2.44 and 1.76, respectively ( P < .01). No differences in functional outcome were noted between the 2 groups at the final evaluation. In the evaluation of rotator cuff repair integrity, based on Sugaya magnetic resonance imaging classification, no significant difference was found between the 2 techniques in terms of retear rate ( P = .81). No significant differences were found between the 2 arthroscopic repair techniques in terms of functional and radiological results. However, postoperative pain decreased more quickly after the transosseous procedure, which therefore emerges as a possible improvement in the surgical

  5. Improving reliability of non-volatile memory technologies through circuit level techniques and error control coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengen; Emre, Yunus; Cao, Yu; Chakrabarti, Chaitali

    2012-12-01

    Non-volatile resistive memories, such as phase-change RAM (PRAM) and spin transfer torque RAM (STT-RAM), have emerged as promising candidates because of their fast read access, high storage density, and very low standby power. Unfortunately, in scaled technologies, high storage density comes at a price of lower reliability. In this article, we first study in detail the causes of errors for PRAM and STT-RAM. We see that while for multi-level cell (MLC) PRAM, the errors are due to resistance drift, in STT-RAM they are due to process variations and variations in the device geometry. We develop error models to capture these effects and propose techniques based on tuning of circuit level parameters to mitigate some of these errors. Unfortunately for reliable memory operation, only circuit-level techniques are not sufficient and so we propose error control coding (ECC) techniques that can be used on top of circuit-level techniques. We show that for STT-RAM, a combination of voltage boosting and write pulse width adjustment at the circuit-level followed by a BCH-based ECC scheme can reduce the block failure rate (BFR) to 10-8. For MLC-PRAM, a combination of threshold resistance tuning and BCH-based product code ECC scheme can achieve the same target BFR of 10-8. The product code scheme is flexible; it allows migration to a stronger code to guarantee the same target BFR when the raw bit error rate increases with increase in the number of programming cycles.

  6. Gimbal system configurations and line-of-sight control techniques for small UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rick; Mooty, Greg; Hilkert, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    The proliferation of small Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) in the past decade has been driven, in part, by the diverse applications that various industries have found for these platforms. Originally, these applications were predominately military in nature but now include law enforcement/security, environmental monitoring/remote sensing, agricultural surveying, movie making and others. Many of these require sensors/payloads such as cameras, laser pointers/ illuminators/rangefinders and other systems that must be pointed and/or stabilized and therefore require a precision miniature gimbal or other means to control their line-of-sight (LOS). Until now, these markets have been served by traditional/larger gimbals; however, the latest class of small UAVs demands much smaller gimbals while maintaining high-performance. The limited size and weight of these gimbaled devices result in design challenges unique to the small-gimbal design field. In the past five years, Ascendant Engineering Solutions has engaged in designing, analyzing and building several small-gimbal systems to meet these challenges and has undertaken a number of trade studies to investigate techniques to achieve optimal performance within the inherent limitations mentioned above. These have included investigating various gimbal configurations, feedback sensors such as gyros, IMUs and encoders, drive train configurations, control system techniques, packaging and interconnect, as well as technology such as fast-steering mirrors and image-stabilization algorithms. This paper summarizes the results of these trade studies, attempts to identify inherent trends and limitations in the various design approaches and techniques, and discusses some practical issues such as test and verification.

  7. High efficiency and simple technique for controlling mechanisms by EMG signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarte, N.; Álvarez, A.; Balacco, J.; Mercado, G.; Gonzalez, A.; Dugarte, E.; Javier, F.; Ceballos, G.; Olivares, A.

    2016-04-01

    This article reports the development of a simple and efficient system that allows control of mechanisms through electromyography (EMG) signals. The novelty about this instrument is focused on individual control of each motion vector mechanism through independent electronic circuits. Each of electronic circuit does positions a motor according to intensity of EMG signal captured. This action defines movement in one mechanical axis considered from an initial point, based on increased muscle tension. The final displacement of mechanism depends on individual’s ability to handle the levels of muscle tension at different body parts. This is the design of a robotic arm where each degree of freedom is handled with a specific microcontroller that responds to signals taken from a defined muscle. The biophysical interaction between the person and the final positioning of the robotic arm is used as feedback. Preliminary tests showed that the control operates with minimal positioning error margins. The constant use of system with the same operator showed that the person adapts and progressively improves at control technique.

  8. Older adult Alexander Technique practitioners walk differently than healthy age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Kate A; Ross, Christopher; Schultz, Brooke; O'Neill, Matthew; Anderson, David I

    2016-10-01

    The Alexander Technique (AT) seeks to eliminate harmful patterns of tension that interfere with the control of posture and movement and in doing so, it may serve as a viable intervention method for increasing gait efficacy in older adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the comfortable pace gait kinematics of older AT practitioners with those of healthy, age-matched controls. Participants were six licensed AT practitioners and seven healthy age-matched controls between the ages of 61-76. During the stance phase, AT participants exhibited significantly greater ankle stance range of motion (ROM) and plantar flexion at toe off, as well as lower ROM of the trunk and head compared to controls. During the swing phase, the AT practitioners had significantly increased hip and knee flexion and a trend toward significantly increased dorsiflexion. The findings suggest that the older AT practitioners walked with gait patterns more similar to those found in the literature for younger adults. These promising results highlight the need for further research to assess the AT's potential role as an intervention method for ameliorating the deleterious changes in gait that occur with aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Palatal harvesting technique modification for better control of the connective tissue graft dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Danilo Maeda; Novaes, Arthur Belém; Grisi, Márcio Fernando de Moraes; Maia, Luciana Prado; de Souza, Sérgio Luis Scombatti

    2013-01-01

    Subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) has been extensively used for a variety of clinical applications. However, the surgical procedure may not allow control of graft thickness. The purpose of this case series is to illustrate a modification to the single incision palatal harvesting technique in order to control the SCTG thickness without increasing patient discomfort. Fifty cases from thirty systemically and periodontally healthy patients with at least one multiple gingival recession were treated with coronally advanced flaps combined with a SCTG. The palatal area served as the donor site, from where a single perpendicular incision was made to obtain a full thickness flap. Next, 1-2 mm of the flap was elevated and dissected to obtain a partial thickness flap. The graft remained attached to the full-partial thickness flap. After determining the desired SCTG thickness, the graft was harvested from the palatal flap. The patients healed uneventfully at 7 days postoperatively and primary closure was obtained for all palatal donor sites. The SCTG length and width varied depending on the needs of each case, but the SCTG thickness was well controlled with only 0.24 mm standard deviation. The suggested modification granted control of the SCTG dimensions and achieved complete wound closure within a week.

  10. Implementasi Fuzzy Logic Controller untuk Mengatur Ph Nutrisi pada Sistem Hidroponik Nutrient Film Technique (NFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Pancawati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One solution to solve limited agricultural land is applying hydroponics Nutrient Film Technique (NFT. The advantage of NFT is using water circulated as a growing medium in order to obtain water, nutrients and oxygen to accelerate the growth of plants with good results. The most important parameter is the pH of nutrients. This article discusses how to design an automatic nutritional pH control system by implementing the method of Fuzzy Logic Controller. The control system use Arduino Mega2560, Analog pH Meter Kit as input, and the solenoid valve as actuators. The best response of the implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller with the system which has 25 rules. The response shows that the system has in 1200 millisecond rise time and the steady state in 5530 milliseconds to increase the pH. While to decrease the pH system has response of rise time at 2000 milliseconds and steady state at the time of 3000 milliseconds. The system is able to maintain the pH at 5.5, with the result of the growth of lettuce as high as 20 cm and seven leaves for 54 days.

  11. Frequency Adaptive Control Technique for Periodic Runout and Wobble Cancellation in Optical Disk Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Pien Yang

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodic disturbance occurs in various applications on the control of the rotational mechanical systems. For optical disk drives, the spirally shaped tracks are usually not perfectly circular and the assembly of the disk and spindle motor is unavoidably eccentric. The resulting periodic disturbance is, therefore, synchronous with the disk rotation, and becomes particularly noticeable for the track following and focusing servo system. This paper applies a novel adaptive controller, namely Frequency Adaptive Control Technique (FACT, for rejecting the periodic runout and wobble effects in the optical disk drive with dual actuators. The control objective is to attenuate adaptively the specific frequency contents of periodic disturbances without amplifying its rest harmonics. FACT is implemented in a plug-in manner and provides a suitable framework for periodic disturbance rejection in the cases where the fundamental frequencies of the disturbance are alterable. It is shown that the convergence property of parameters in the proposed adaptive algorithm is exponentially stable. It is applicable to both the spindle modes of constant linear velocity (CLV and constant angular velocity (CAV for various operation speeds. The experiments showed that the proposed FACT has successful improvement on the tracking and focusing performance of the CD-ROM, and is extended to various compact disk drives.

  12. Genotypes associated with reduced activity of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 and their modification of acenocoumarol anticoagulation during the initial treatment period.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichert, M.; Schaik, R.H. van; Hofman, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Stricker, B.H.C.; Visser, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of genotypes associated with reduced activity of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) and cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) on anticoagulation with acenocoumarol during the first 6 weeks of treatment. In 1,525 patients from

  13. P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase Gene (POR) Common Variant (POR*28) Significantly Alters CYP2C9 Activity in Swedish, But Not in Korean Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    CYP2C9 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics and yet displays large person-to-person and interethnic variation. Understanding the mechanisms of CYP2C9 variation is thus of immense importance for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. A genetic variant of P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR), a CYP450 redox partner, is reported to influence CYP2C9 metabolic activity in vitro. We investigated the impact of a common variant, POR*28, on CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. 148 healthy Swedish and 146 healthy Korean volunteers were genotyped for known CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (CYP2C9*2, *3). The CYP2C9 phenotype was determined using a single oral dose of 50 mg losartan. Excluding oral contraceptive (OC) users and carriers of 2C9*2 and *3 alleles, 117 Korean and 65 Swedish were genotyped for POR*5, *13 and *28 using Taqman assays. The urinary losartan to its metabolite E-3174 metabolic ratio (MR) was used as an index of CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The allele frequency of the POR*28 variant allele in Swedes and Koreans was 29% and 44%, respectively. POR*5 and *13 were absent in both study populations. Considering the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotypes only, the CYP2C9 metabolic activity was 1.40-fold higher in carriers of POR*28 allele than non-carriers among Swedes (p = 0.02). By contrast, no influence of the POR*28 on CYP2C9 activity was found in Koreans (p = 0.68). The multivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, POR genotype, and smoking were strong predictors of CYP2C9 MR (p < 0.05). This is the first report to implicate the importance of POR*28 genetic variation for CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. These findings contribute to current efforts for global personalized medicine and using medicines by taking into account pharmacogenetic and phenotypic variations.

  14. The effects of progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control technique on blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalami, Mahboobeh; Jafarnejad, Farzaneh; ModarresGharavi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are the main cause of maternal and fetal mortality; however, they have no definite effective treatment. The researchers aimed to study the effects of progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control technique on blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy. This three-group clinical trial was conducted in Mashhad health centers and governmental hospitals. Sixty pregnant (after 20 weeks of gestational age) women with systolic BP ≥ 135 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg were assigned to three groups. Progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control exercises were administered to the two experimental groups once a week in person and in the rest of the days by instructions given on a CD for 4 weeks. BP was checked before and after the interventions. BP was measured before and after 15 min subjects' waiting without any especial intervention in the control group. After 4 weeks of intervention, the systolic (by a mean of 131.3 to 117.2, P = 0.001 and by a mean of 131.05 to 120.5, P = 0.004, respectively) and diastolic (by a mean of 79.2 to 72.3, P = 0.001 and by a mean of 80.1 to 76.5, P = 0.047, respectively) BPs were significantly decreased in progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control groups, but they were not statistically significant in the control group. The interventions were effective on decreasing systolic and diastolic BP to normal range after 4 weeks in both the groups. The effects of both the interventions were more obvious on systolic BP compared to diastolic BP.

  15. A New Hybrid BFOA-PSO Optimization Technique for Decoupling and Robust Control of Two-Coupled Distillation Column Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkarim, Noha; Mohamed, Amr E; El-Garhy, Ahmed M; Dorrah, Hassen T

    2016-01-01

    The two-coupled distillation column process is a physically complicated system in many aspects. Specifically, the nested interrelationship between system inputs and outputs constitutes one of the significant challenges in system control design. Mostly, such a process is to be decoupled into several input/output pairings (loops), so that a single controller can be assigned for each loop. In the frame of this research, the Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC) forms the control structure for each decoupled loop. The paper's main objective is to develop a parameterization technique for decoupling and control schemes, which ensures robust control behavior. In this regard, the novel optimization technique Bacterial Swarm Optimization (BSO) is utilized for the minimization of summation of the integral time-weighted squared errors (ITSEs) for all control loops. This optimization technique constitutes a hybrid between two techniques, which are the Particle Swarm and Bacterial Foraging algorithms. According to the simulation results, this hybridized technique ensures low mathematical burdens and high decoupling and control accuracy. Moreover, the behavior analysis of the proposed BELBIC shows a remarkable improvement in the time domain behavior and robustness over the conventional PID controller.

  16. A New Hybrid BFOA-PSO Optimization Technique for Decoupling and Robust Control of Two-Coupled Distillation Column Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Abdelkarim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-coupled distillation column process is a physically complicated system in many aspects. Specifically, the nested interrelationship between system inputs and outputs constitutes one of the significant challenges in system control design. Mostly, such a process is to be decoupled into several input/output pairings (loops, so that a single controller can be assigned for each loop. In the frame of this research, the Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC forms the control structure for each decoupled loop. The paper’s main objective is to develop a parameterization technique for decoupling and control schemes, which ensures robust control behavior. In this regard, the novel optimization technique Bacterial Swarm Optimization (BSO is utilized for the minimization of summation of the integral time-weighted squared errors (ITSEs for all control loops. This optimization technique constitutes a hybrid between two techniques, which are the Particle Swarm and Bacterial Foraging algorithms. According to the simulation results, this hybridized technique ensures low mathematical burdens and high decoupling and control accuracy. Moreover, the behavior analysis of the proposed BELBIC shows a remarkable improvement in the time domain behavior and robustness over the conventional PID controller.

  17. A New Hybrid BFOA-PSO Optimization Technique for Decoupling and Robust Control of Two-Coupled Distillation Column Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amr E.; Dorrah, Hassen T.

    2016-01-01

    The two-coupled distillation column process is a physically complicated system in many aspects. Specifically, the nested interrelationship between system inputs and outputs constitutes one of the significant challenges in system control design. Mostly, such a process is to be decoupled into several input/output pairings (loops), so that a single controller can be assigned for each loop. In the frame of this research, the Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC) forms the control structure for each decoupled loop. The paper's main objective is to develop a parameterization technique for decoupling and control schemes, which ensures robust control behavior. In this regard, the novel optimization technique Bacterial Swarm Optimization (BSO) is utilized for the minimization of summation of the integral time-weighted squared errors (ITSEs) for all control loops. This optimization technique constitutes a hybrid between two techniques, which are the Particle Swarm and Bacterial Foraging algorithms. According to the simulation results, this hybridized technique ensures low mathematical burdens and high decoupling and control accuracy. Moreover, the behavior analysis of the proposed BELBIC shows a remarkable improvement in the time domain behavior and robustness over the conventional PID controller. PMID:27807444

  18. Investigation on creep behavior of geo-materials with suction control technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The compacted bentonite which has typical couple problem associated to thermal - hydration - mechanical – chemical (THMC consist of one component of engineered barrier. Recently, the couple THMC formulation modelling suggested by some researchers can be predicted basically phenomena for engineered barrier that approach to correct evaluate satisfied facilities. The compacted bentonite is essentially unsaturated condition, some behaviors for bentonite has similar or close with generally expansive unsaturated soils. Therefore, hydrations have given significant influence on deformation of compacted bentonite such as swelling. There are many researches for swelling behavior of compacted bentonite within soaking. Extended theoretical or experimental investigations for unsaturated soil mechanics are possible to describe the strength-deformation behavior of compacted bentonite with suction controlling principle. A new method of determining the failure phase such as great axis deformation and destructions like strip of surface in the laboratory is described and the creep behavior of compacted bentonite is considered under maintain of high relative humidity environment. The creep deformation measured using improved cyclic relative humidity control apparatus in terms of specific suction control technique.

  19. Improved ITOS attitude control system with Hall generator brushless motor and earth-splitting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, W. M.

    1971-01-01

    The ITOS with an improved attitude control system is described. A Hall generator brushless dc torque motor will replace the brush dc torque motor on ITOS-I and ITOS-A (NOAA-1). The four attitude horizon sensors will be replaced with two CO2 sensors for better horizon definition. An earth horizon splitting technique will be used to keep the earth facing side of the satellite toward earth even if the desired circular orbit is not achieved. The external appearance of the pitch control subsystem differs from TIROS-M (ITOS-1) and ITOS-A (NOAA-1) in that two instead of one pitch control electronics (PCE) boxes are used. Two instead of four horizon sensors will be used and one instead of two mirrors will be used for sensor scanning. The brushless motor will eliminate the requirement for brushes, strain gages and the telemetry for the brush wear. A single rotating flywheel, supported by a single bearing provides the gyroscopic stability and the required momentum interchange to keep one side of the satellite facing the earth. Magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field eliminates the requirement for expendable propellants which would limit satellite life in orbit.

  20. Sensorless Speed/Torque Control of DC Machine Using Artificial Neural Network Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakan Kh. Antar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Artificial Neural Network (ANN technique is implemented to improve speed and torque control of a separately excited DC machine drive. The speed and torque sensorless scheme based on ANN is estimated adaptively. The proposed controller is designed to estimate rotor speed and mechanical load torque as a Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS method for DC machine. The DC drive system consists of four quadrant DC/DC chopper with MOSFET transistors, ANN, logic gates and routing circuits. The DC drive circuit is designed, evaluated and modeled by Matlab/Simulink in the forward and reverse operation modes as a motor and generator, respectively. The DC drive system is simulated at different speed values (±1200 rpm and mechanical torque (±7 N.m in steady state and dynamic conditions. The simulation results illustratethe effectiveness of the proposed controller without speed or torque sensors.

  1. Develop and implement preconditioning techniques to control face ejection rockbursts for safer mining in seismically hazardous areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Toper, AZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This research report discusses the development of preconditioning techniques to control face bursts, for safer mining in seismically hazardous areas. Preconditioning involves regularly setting off carefully tailored blasts in the fractured rock...

  2. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-06-14

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed. (PCS)

  3. Optimum and Controllable Multi-stage Proton Acceleration Manipulated by Double Beam Image Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenpeng

    2017-10-01

    With the development of ultra-intense laser technology, laser intensity can increase up to the order of 1022 W/cm2 in the laboratory. Ion beams in the MeV range and even the GeV range, driven by terawatt or petawatt lasers, exhibit ultra-short pulse duration, excellent emission, and ultra-high peak current. Thus, they can potentially be applied in fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion, medical therapy, proton imaging, and pre-accelerators for conventional acceleration devices. However, the generation of quasi-monoenergetic proton beams for realistic applications is still an experimental challenge. Here, the optimum and controllable two-stage proton acceleration is realized for the first time by a novel double beam image (DBI) technique in experiment. Two laser pulses are successfully tuned on two separated foils with both spatial collineation and time synchronizing, resulting in spectrum tailoring and an energy increase at the same time. Such a novel DBI technique can help us to realize the optimum two-stage acceleration in a feasible way, which opens the door for the exact manipulation of multi-stage acceleration to further improve the energy and spectra of particle beams.

  4. A New Step Size Control Technique for Blind and Non-Blind Equalization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tuğcu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new variable step size (VSS control technique employing cross correlation between channel output and error signal has been proposed as a solution to the problem of slow convergence of blind and non-blind equalization algorithms. The new method resolves the conflict between the convergence rate and low steady state error of the fixed step-size conventional blind and non-blind equalization algorithms, such as Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA and Least Mean Squares (LMS algorithm. Computer simulations have been performed to verify the performance of the proposed method in frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels. The proposed technique has been compared with the popular non-blind equalizers, LMS and Recursive Least Squares (RLS algorithms, and blind equalizers, the conventional CMA, Zhao’s VSS-CMA and Demir’s VSS-CMA as benchmarks. The obtained simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed VSS-CMA and VSS-LMS algorithms have considerably better performance than the conventional CMA, Zhao’s VSS-CMA and Demir’s VSS-CMA blind equalization algorithms, and the conventional LMS non-blind equalization algorithm.

  5. Computed tomography: a powerful imaging technique in the fields of dimensional metrology and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Gabriel; Boeckmans, Bart; Dewulf, Wim; Kruth, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is slowly conquering its space in the manufacturing industry for dimensional metrology and quality control purposes. The main advantage is its non-invasive and non-destructive character. Currently, CT is the only measurement technique that allows full 3D visualization of both inner and outer features of an object through a contactless probing system. Using hundreds of radiographs, acquired while rotating the object, a 3D representation is generated and dimensions can be verified. In this research, this non-contact technique was used for the inspection of assembled components. A dental cast model with 8 implants, connected by a screwed retained bar made of titanium. The retained bar includes a mating interface connection that should ensure a perfect fitting without residual stresses when the connection is fixed with screws. CT was used to inspect the mating interfaces between these two components. Gaps at the connections can lead to bacterial growth and potential inconvenience for the patient who would have to face a new surgery to replace his/hers prosthesis. With the aid of CT, flaws in the design or manufacturing process that could lead to gaps at the connections could be assessed.

  6. Effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tongue cleaning is an important aspect of oral hygiene maintenance along with other mechanical and chemical aids. These methods have an influence on microorganism count in saliva. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial with 45 study subjects aged between 14 and 16 years and were randomly allocated into three groups: Group A - plastic tongue scraper, Group B - chlorhexidine mouthwash along with plastic tongue scraper, and Group C - chlorhexidine mouthwash. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected on the 1st, 7th, and 15th day before routine oral hygiene practices. Saliva samples were collected and incubated for 48 h on itis Salivarius(MS agar. Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus salivarius were counted. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean count of S. mitis, S. mutans, and S. salivarius for Group A, B, and C was found to be significant (P < 0.001 when compared between 1st, 7th, and 15th day. Between-groups comparisons revealed a significant difference between Groups A and C, B and C (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in bacterial count in all the participants indicating that all the three methods are useful in improving oral hygiene. Combination technique was found to be most effective.

  7. Leading research on artificial techniques controlling cellular function; Saibo zoshoku seigyo gijutsu no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Advanced research and its applicability were surveyed to apply the advanced functional cells to industry. The basic target was set to develop, produce, control and utilize the functional cells, such as intelligent materials and self-regulation bioreactors. The regulation factors regarding apotosis, which is a process of cell suicide programmed within the cell itself of multicellular organisms, cell cycle and aging/ageless were investigated. Furthermore, the function of regulatory factors was investigated at the protein level. Injection of factors regulating cellular function and tissue engineering required for the regulation of cell proliferation were investigated. Tissue engineering is considered to be the intracellular regulation by gene transduction and the extracellular regulation by culture methods, such as coculture. Analysis methods for cell proliferation and function of living cells were investigated using the probes recognizing molecular structure. Novel biomaterials, artificial organ systems, cellular therapy and useful materials were investigated for utilizing the regulation techniques of cell proliferation. 425 refs., 85 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Modeling, Control and Analyze of Multi-Machine Drive Systems using Bond Graph Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Belhadj

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a system viewpoint method has been investigated to study and analyze complex systems using Bond Graph technique. These systems are multimachine multi-inverter based on Induction Machine (IM, well used in industries like rolling mills, textile, and railway traction. These systems are multi-domains, multi-scales time and present very strong internal and external couplings, with non-linearity characterized by a high model order. The classical study with analytic model is difficult to manipulate and it is limited to some performances. In this study, a “systemic approach” is presented to design these kinds of systems, using an energetic representation based on Bond Graph formalism. Three types of multimachine are studied with their control strategies. The modeling is carried out by Bond Graph and results are discussed to show the performances of this methodology

  9. Mechanical pre-planting weed control in short rotation coppice using deep forestry ploughing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report describes a trial by Border biofuels to investigate the deep forestry plough as a mechanical pre-planting weed control method to reduce weed infestations in willow coppice and thus contribute to improved establishment and eventual yield. The results suggest that there was a considerable increase in biomass productivity from the deep ploughed area compared to the conventionally cultivated area at all three SRC sites tested. This technique also suggests that the deep forestry ploughing provides the benefit of much reduced levels of seed germination of many annual weed species and a reduction in levels of perennial weed infestation. It is not possible at this stage to predict the longer term benefits in terms of harvestable biomass productivity but it may be considered that the improved establishment and lack of weed competition would consistently produce higher yields of biomass than plantations which suffer from persistent and invasive weed competition. (author)

  10. Redundant manipulator techniques for partially decentralized path planning and control of a platoon of autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Daniel J; Bishop, Bradley E; Sylvester, Caleb A

    2005-08-01

    An approach to real-time trajectory generation for platoons of autonomous vehicles is developed from well-known control techniques for redundant robotic manipulators. The partially decentralized structure of this approach permits each vehicle to independently compute its trajectory in real-time using only locally generated information and low-bandwidth feedback generated by a system exogenous to the platoon. Our work is motivated by applications for which communications bandwidth is severely limited, such for platoons of autonomous underwater vehicles. The communication requirements for our trajectory generation approach are independent of the number of vehicles in the platoon, enabling platoons composed of a large number of vehicles to be coordinated despite limited communication bandwidth.

  11. Randomized controlled trial: hybrid technique using balloon dilation of the frontal sinus drainage pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorn, Iain F; Pace-Asciak, Pia; Habib, Al-Rahim R; Sunkaraneni, Vishnu; Javer, Amin R

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to evaluate frontal sinus ostial patency following balloon dilation with the Ventera Sinus Dilation System, compared with frontal sinusotomy (Draf 2a); and (2) to compare mean blood loss and mean surgical time for frontal sinusotomy using balloon dilation compared with traditional surgical methods. A single blinded, randomized, controlled, prospective study was performed at St. Paul's Sinus Center, Vancouver, a tertiary referral rhinology center. Thirty patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were randomized to a hybrid approach with exposure of the frontal recess using standard instrumentation and then balloon dilation of 1 frontal sinus drainage pathway and traditional frontal sinusotomy for the opposite side. Blood loss and surgical time for opening the frontal sinus drainage pathway was recorded for each side. Patients acted as their own controls. Ostial patency and size were assessed 5 weeks and 3 months postoperatively using endoscopy. Ostial patency was also recorded at 1 year following surgery. All frontal sinus ostia in both groups (n = 30) were successfully opened and were patent with both techniques 3 months postoperatively. All frontal sinus ostia assessed at 1 year (73%) remained patent and none required revision frontal surgery. Balloon dilation showed a mean surgical time of 655 seconds compared to 898 seconds for traditional FESS (p = 0.03). Mean blood loss was less with balloon dilation (58 mL vs 91 mL; p = 0.008). A hybrid balloon technique successfully dilates the frontal sinus drainage pathway with reduced blood loss. Also, short-term patency appears to be comparable to traditional frontal sinusotomy. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  12. The Alexander Technique and musicians: a systematic review of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabine D; Bayard, Claudine; Wolf, Ursula

    2014-10-24

    Musculoskeletal disorders, stress and performance anxiety are common in musicians. Therefore, some use the Alexander Technique (AT), a psycho-physical method that helps to release unnecessary muscle tension and re-educates non-beneficial movement patterns through intentional inhibition of unwanted habitual behaviours. According to a recent review AT sessions may be effective for chronic back pain. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of AT sessions on musicians' performance, anxiety, respiratory function and posture. The following electronic databases were searched up to February 2014 for relevant publications: PUBMED, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO and RILM. The search criteria were "Alexander Technique" AND "music*". References were searched, and experts and societies of AT or musicians' medicine contacted for further publications. 237 citations were assessed. 12 studies were included for further analysis, 5 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 5 controlled but not randomised (CTs), and 2 mixed methods studies. Main outcome measures in RCTs and CTs were music performance, respiratory function, performance anxiety, body use and posture. Music performance was judged by external experts and found to be improved by AT in 1 of 3 RCTs; in 1 RCT comparing neurofeedback (NF) to AT, only NF caused improvements. Respiratory function was investigated in 2 RCTs, but not improved by AT training. Performance anxiety was mostly assessed by questionnaires and decreased by AT in 2 of 2 RCTs and in 2 of 2 CTs. A variety of outcome measures has been used to investigate the effectiveness of AT sessions in musicians. Evidence from RCTs and CTs suggests that AT sessions may improve performance anxiety in musicians. Effects on music performance, respiratory function and posture yet remain inconclusive. Future trials with well-established study designs are warranted to further and more reliably explore the potential of AT in the

  13. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ant Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®, providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1 are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2 display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3 induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D

  14. A novel oscillation control for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Lin, Yiyu; Liu, Siqi; Zheng, Xudong; Jin, Zhonghe

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports a novel oscillation control algorithm for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation (MEAM) technique, which enhances the robustness against the frequency variation of the driving mode, compared to the conventional EAM (CEAM) scheme. In this approach, the carrier voltage exerted on the proof mass is frequency-modulated by the drive resonant frequency. Accordingly, the pick-up signal from the interface circuit involves a constant-frequency component that contains the amplitude and phase information of the vibration displacement. In other words, this informational detection signal is independent of the mechanical resonant frequency, which varies due to different batches, imprecise micro-fabrication and changing environmental temperature. In this paper, the automatic gain control loop together with the phase-locked loop are simultaneously analyzed using the averaging method and Routh-Hurwitz criterion, deriving the stability condition and the parameter optimization rules of the transient response. Then, a simulation model based on the real system is set up to evaluate the control algorithm. Further, the proposed MEAM method is tested using a field-programmable-gate-array based digital platform on a capacitive vibratory gyroscope. By optimizing the control parameters, the transient response of the drive amplitude reveals a settling time of 45.2 ms without overshoot, according well with the theoretical prediction and simulation results. The first measurement results show that the amplitude variance of the drive displacement is 12 ppm in an hour while the phase standard deviation is as low as 0.0004°. The mode-split gyroscope operating under atmospheric pressure demonstrates an outstanding performance. By virtue of the proposed MEAM method, the bias instability and angle random walk are measured to be 0.9° h-1 (improved by 2.4 times compared to the CEAM method) and 0.068° (√h)-1 (improved by 1.4 times

  15. Motion-Based Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Control Allocation Technique to Recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Robert W.; Acosta, Diana M.; Beard, Steven D.; Leonard, Michael W.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Weinstein, Michael; Yildiz, Yildiray

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the maturation of a control allocation technique designed to assist pilots in the recovery from pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). The Control Allocation technique to recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations (CAPIO) is designed to enable next generation high efficiency aircraft designs. Energy efficient next generation aircraft require feedback control strategies that will enable lowering the actuator rate limit requirements for optimal airframe design. One of the common issues flying with actuator rate limits is PIOs caused by the phase lag between the pilot inputs and control surface response. CAPIO utilizes real-time optimization for control allocation to eliminate phase lag in the system caused by control surface rate limiting. System impacts of the control allocator were assessed through a piloted simulation evaluation of a non-linear aircraft simulation in the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. Results indicate that CAPIO helps reduce oscillatory behavior, including the severity and duration of PIOs, introduced by control surface rate limiting.

  16. Effectiveness of a Treatment Involving Soft Tissue Techniques and/or Neural Mobilization Techniques in the Management of Tension-Type Headache: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Velasco-Roldán, Olga; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Jesús; Llabrés-Bennasar, Bartomeu; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of a protocol involving soft tissue techniques and/or neural mobilization techniques in the management of patients with frequent episodic tension-type headache (FETTH) and those with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled before and after trial. Rehabilitation area of the local hospital and a private physiotherapy center. Patients (N=97; 78 women, 19 men) diagnosed with FETTH or CTTH were randomly assigned to groups A, B, C, or D. (A) Placebo superficial massage; (B) soft tissue techniques; (C) neural mobilization techniques; (D) a combination of soft tissue and neural mobilization techniques. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) in the temporal muscles (points 1 and 2) and supraorbital region (point 3), the frequency and maximal intensity of pain crisis, and the score in the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) were evaluated. All variables were assessed before the intervention, at the end of the intervention, and 15 and 30 days after the intervention. Groups B, C, and D had an increase in PPT and a reduction in frequency, maximal intensity, and HIT-6 values in all time points after the intervention as compared with baseline and group A (P<.001 for all cases). Group D had the highest PPT values and the lowest frequency and HIT-6 values after the intervention. The application of soft tissue and neural mobilization techniques to patients with FETTH or CTTH induces significant changes in PPT, the characteristics of pain crisis, and its effect on activities of daily living as compared with the application of these techniques as isolated interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetic interaction between ticagrelor and tolbutamide, a cytochrome P450 2C9 substrate, in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Renli; Mitchell, Patrick; Butler, Kathleen

    2013-04-01

    To assess the effect of ticagrelor on the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide (a CYP2C9 substrate), and the effect of tolbutamide on ticagrelor pharmacokinetics. In this randomized, double-blind, two-period, crossover study, 23 healthy volunteers received either placebo or ticagrelor 180 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) for 9 days, with a single open-label oral dose of tolbutamide 500 mg on Day 5. After washout (14 days), volunteers received the alternate treatment. Plasma concentrations of tolbutamide, 4-hydroxytolbutamide, ticagrelor, and AR-C124910XX were determined for pharmacokinetic analyses. Ticagrelor had no effect on tolbutamide or 4-hydroxytolbutamide pharmacokinetic parameters. The geometric least square mean ratios for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from Time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞) were lose to unity, and the 90% confidence intervals (CI) were within the range 0.80 - 1.25 for both tolbutamide and 4-hydroxytolbutamide. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2), and time to maximal plasma concentrations (tmax) for tolbutamide and its metabolite were unaffected by ticagrelor coadministration. Tolbutamide had no effect on the Cmax, area under the concentration curve over the 2-hour dosing interval (AUC0-τ), t1/2 or tmax of either ticagrelor or AR-C124910XX. Coadministration of ticagrelor and tolbutamide was well tolerated. These results suggest that ticagrelor does not affect tolbutamide metabolism and is therefore unlikely to affect CYP2C9-mediated metabolism of drugs.

  18. A New V2G Control Strategy for Load Factor Improvement Using Smoothing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANHOM, P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new vehicle-to-grid (V2G control strategy for improving the load factor in the power network. To operate the proposed strategy, the available storage capacity of the PEVs’ batteries is considered as a battery energy storage system (BESS for charging and discharging an amount of power corresponding to the V2G power command. Due to the remarkable advantages of the technique so-called simple moving average, it is selected for applying in the proposed V2G control strategy. In this research, for investigating the load factor improvement, the essential data including the daily-load profiles with 7-day and 14-day periods are used for the 3 studied cases. These 3 studied cases present the power network with variation of the PEVs locations for describing the PEVs usage and charging or discharging behavior. The performance of the proposed strategy is simulated and verified by the MATPOWER software. The simulation results show that the load factors of the 3 studied cases are improved. Moreover, the encouragement of energy arbitrage for the PEVs owners is also discussed in this paper.

  19. Controlling the Adhesion of Superhydrophobic Surfaces Using Electrolyte Jet Machining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xin; Lu, Yao; Zhou, Shining; Gao, Mingqian; Song, Jinlong; Xu, Wenji

    2016-04-01

    Patterns with controllable adhesion on superhydrophobic areas have various biomedical and chemical applications. Electrolyte jet machining technique (EJM), an electrochemical machining method, was firstly exploited in constructing dimples with various profiles on the superhydrophobic Al alloy surface using different processing parameters. Sliding angles of water droplets on those dimples firstly increased and then stabilized at a certain value with the increase of the processing time or the applied voltages of the EJM, indicating that surfaces with different adhesion force could be obtained by regulating the processing parameters. The contact angle hysteresis and the adhesion force that restricts the droplet from sliding off were investigated through experiments. The results show that the adhesion force could be well described using the classical Furmidge equation. On account of this controllable adhesion force, water droplets could either be firmly pinned to the surface, forming various patterns or slide off at designed tilting angles at specified positions on a superhydrophobic surface. Such dimples on superhydrophopbic surfaces can be applied in water harvesting, biochemical analysis and lab-on-chip devices.

  20. Evaluating Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques and computing the uncertainty of force calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navard, Sharon E.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years there has been a push within NASA to use statistical techniques to improve the quality of production. Two areas where statistics are used are in establishing product and process quality control of flight hardware and in evaluating the uncertainty of calibration of instruments. The Flight Systems Quality Engineering branch is responsible for developing and assuring the quality of all flight hardware; the statistical process control methods employed are reviewed and evaluated. The Measurement Standards and Calibration Laboratory performs the calibration of all instruments used on-site at JSC as well as those used by all off-site contractors. These calibrations must be performed in such a way as to be traceable to national standards maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and they must meet a four-to-one ratio of the instrument specifications to calibrating standard uncertainty. In some instances this ratio is not met, and in these cases it is desirable to compute the exact uncertainty of the calibration and determine ways of reducing it. A particular example where this problem is encountered is with a machine which does automatic calibrations of force. The process of force calibration using the United Force Machine is described in detail. The sources of error are identified and quantified when possible. Suggestions for improvement are made.

  1. A multi-criteria optimization technique for SSSC based power oscillation damping controller design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Chandra Swain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II technique is applied to obtain Pareto optimal set of solutions pertaining to the tuning of lead-lag structured SSSC-based stabilizer. The design objective is to get maximum damping (performance with minimum control effort (cost. Further a fuzzy based membership function value assignment method is employed to choose the best compromise solution. Simulation results are presented under various loading conditions and disturbances for various control signals to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach. The effectiveness and superiority of the proposed design approach are illustrated for both single machine infinite bus and multi-machine power systems by comparing the proposed approach with some recently published single objective and evolutionary multi-objective approaches such as Differential Evolution (DE, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm. It is observed that the proposed approach yields superior damping performance compared to some recently published approaches.

  2. Controlling the Adhesion of Superhydrophobic Surfaces Using Electrolyte Jet Machining Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xin; Lu, Yao; Zhou, Shining; Gao, Mingqian; Song, Jinlong; Xu, Wenji

    2016-04-05

    Patterns with controllable adhesion on superhydrophobic areas have various biomedical and chemical applications. Electrolyte jet machining technique (EJM), an electrochemical machining method, was firstly exploited in constructing dimples with various profiles on the superhydrophobic Al alloy surface using different processing parameters. Sliding angles of water droplets on those dimples firstly increased and then stabilized at a certain value with the increase of the processing time or the applied voltages of the EJM, indicating that surfaces with different adhesion force could be obtained by regulating the processing parameters. The contact angle hysteresis and the adhesion force that restricts the droplet from sliding off were investigated through experiments. The results show that the adhesion force could be well described using the classical Furmidge equation. On account of this controllable adhesion force, water droplets could either be firmly pinned to the surface, forming various patterns or slide off at designed tilting angles at specified positions on a superhydrophobic surface. Such dimples on superhydrophopbic surfaces can be applied in water harvesting, biochemical analysis and lab-on-chip devices.

  3. Mental techniques during manual stretching in spasticity--a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovend'Eerdt, Thamar J H; Dawes, Helen; Sackley, Cath; Izadi, Hooshang; Wade, Derick T

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effects of using motor imagery during therapeutic stretching in individuals with spasticity. Randomized single-blind controlled pilot trial. Chronic day care unit, neurological rehabilitation unit and in the community. Eleven individuals with spasticity in the arm requiring stretching as part of their normal routine. In addition to their normal stretching routine, subjects in the experimental group received motor imagery during their stretches (n = 6). The control group received progressive muscle relaxation during their stretches (n = 5). The dose varied between 8 and 56 sessions over eight weeks. Resistance to passive movement, measured with a torque transducer, passive range of movement, measured with an electro-goniometer, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and level of discomfort during the MAS were assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by an independent assessor. These measures were recorded before and after a stretch intervention on both assessments. Participants, therapists and carers tolerated the techniques well. Compliance was variable and adherence was good. Mixed ANOVA showed no difference over time and no difference between the motor imagery and progressive muscle relaxation group on the primary and secondary outcome measures (P>0.05). It is feasible to use motor imagery during therapeutic stretching. Statistical power was low due to the large variability in the population and the small sample size. Post-hoc sample size calculation suggests that future studies of this subject should include at least 54 participants per group. Further research is warranted.

  4. Application of Linear Quadratic Gaussian and Coefficient Diagram Techniques to Distributed Load Frequency Control of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Hassan Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented both the linear quadratic Gaussian technique (LQG and the coefficient diagram method (CDM as load frequency controllers in a multi-area power system to deal with the problem of variations in system parameters and load demand change. The full states of the system including the area frequency deviation have been estimated using the Kalman filter technique. The efficiency of the proposed control method has been checked using a digital simulation. Simulation results indicated that, with the proposed CDM + LQG technique, the system is robust in the face of parameter uncertainties and load disturbances. A comparison between the proposed technique and other schemes is carried out, confirming the superiority of the proposed CDM + LQG technique.

  5. The Association between C9orf72 Repeats and Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD in Caucasian populations. However, the relationship between C9orf72 repeats and Alzheimer’s disease (AD was not clear. Additionally, there were few articles assessing C9orf72 in other ethnicities with ALS. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate the relationship between C9orf72 repeat expansions (≥30 repeats and intermediate repeat copies (20–29 repeats and AD or ALS. The results suggested positive correlations between C9orf72 repeat expansions and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (OR = 6.36, 95% CI = 3.13–12.92, and p<0.00001, while intermediate repeat copies of C9orf72 gene were not associated with the risk of the disease. C9orf72 repeat expansions were positively correlated with the risk of familial and sporadic ALS (OR = 293.25, 95% CI = 148.17–580.38, and p<0.00001; OR = 35.57, 95% CI = 19.61–64.51, and p<0.00001. There was a positive correlation between the gene variations and ALS risk among Caucasians and Asians (OR = 57.56, 95% CI = 36.73–90.22, and p<0.00001; OR = 6.35, 95% CI = 1.39–29.02, and p=0.02.

  6. Discovery of a biomarker and lead small molecules to target r(GGGGCC)-associated defects in c9FTD/ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yongjie; Gendron, Tania F; Bauer, Peter O; Chew, Jeannie; Yang, Wang-Yong; Fostvedt, Erik; Jansen-West, Karen; Belzil, Veronique V; Desaro, Pamela; Johnston, Amelia; Overstreet, Karen; Oh, Seok-Yoon; Todd, Peter K; Berry, James D; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Boeve, Bradley F; Dickson, Dennis; Floeter, Mary Kay; Traynor, Bryan J; Morelli, Claudia; Ratti, Antonia; Silani, Vincenzo; Rademakers, Rosa; Brown, Robert H; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Boylan, Kevin B; Petrucelli, Leonard; Disney, Matthew D

    2014-09-03

    A repeat expansion in C9ORF72 causes frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (c9FTD/ALS). RNA of the expanded repeat (r(GGGGCC)exp) forms nuclear foci or undergoes repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, producing "c9RAN proteins." Since neutralizing r(GGGGCC)exp could inhibit these potentially toxic events, we sought to identify small-molecule binders of r(GGGGCC)exp. Chemical and enzymatic probing of r(GGGGCC)8 indicate that it adopts a hairpin structure in equilibrium with a quadruplex structure. Using this model, bioactive small molecules targeting r(GGGGCC)exp were designed and found to significantly inhibit RAN translation and foci formation in cultured cells expressing r(GGGGCC)66 and neurons transdifferentiated from fibroblasts of repeat expansion carriers. Finally, we show that poly(GP) c9RAN proteins are specifically detected in c9ALS patient cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings highlight r(GGGGCC)exp-binding small molecules as a possible c9FTD/ALS therapeutic and suggest that c9RAN proteins could potentially serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker to assess efficacy of therapies that target r(GGGGCC)exp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conserved DNA methylation combined with differential frontal cortex and cerebellar expression distinguishes C9orf72-associated and sporadic ALS, and implicates SERPINA1 in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbert, Mark T W; Ross, Christian A; Pregent, Luc J; Lank, Rebecca J; Zhang, Cheng; Katzman, Rebecca B; Jansen-West, Karen; Song, Yuping; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Palmucci, Carla; Desaro, Pamela; Robertson, Amelia E; Caputo, Ana M; Dickson, Dennis W; Boylan, Kevin B; Rademakers, Rosa; Ordog, Tamas; Li, Hu; Belzil, Veronique V

    2017-11-01

    We previously found C9orf72-associated (c9ALS) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) brain transcriptomes comprise thousands of defects, among which, some are likely key contributors to ALS pathogenesis. We have now generated complementary methylome data and combine these two data sets to perform a comprehensive "multi-omic" analysis to clarify the molecular mechanisms initiating RNA misregulation in ALS. We found that c9ALS and sALS patients have generally distinct but overlapping methylome profiles, and that the c9ALS- and sALS-affected genes and pathways have similar biological functions, indicating conserved pathobiology in disease. Our results strongly implicate SERPINA1 in both C9orf72 repeat expansion carriers and non-carriers, where expression levels are greatly increased in both patient groups across the frontal cortex and cerebellum. SERPINA1 expression is particularly pronounced in C9orf72 repeat expansion carriers for both brain regions, where SERPINA1 levels are strictly down regulated across most human tissues, including the brain, except liver and blood, and are not measurable in E18 mouse brain. The altered biological networks we identified contain critical molecular players known to contribute to ALS pathology, which also interact with SERPINA1. Our comprehensive combined methylation and transcription study identifies new genes and highlights that direct genetic and epigenetic changes contribute to c9ALS and sALS pathogenesis.

  8. Error Control Techniques for Efficient Multicast Streaming in UMTS Networks: Proposals andPerformance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rossi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce techniques for efficient multicast video streaming in UMTS networks where a video content has to be conveyed to multiple users in the same cell. Efficient multicast data delivery in UMTS is still an open issue. In particular, suitable solutions have to be found to cope with wireless channel errors, while maintaining both an acceptable channel utilization and a controlled delivery delay over the wireless link between the serving base station and the mobile terminals. Here, we first highlight that standard solutions such as unequal error protection (UEP of the video flow are ineffective in the UMTS systems due to its inherent large feedback delay at the link layer (Radio Link Control, RLC. Subsequently, we propose a local approach to solve errors directly at the UMTS link layer while keeping a reasonably high channel efficiency and saving, as much as possible, system resources. The solution that we propose in this paper is based on the usage of the common channel to serve all the interested users in a cell. In this way, we can save resources with respect to the case where multiple dedicated channels are allocated for every user. In addition to that, we present a hybrid ARQ (HARQ proactive protocol that, at the cost of some redundancy (added to the link layer flow, is able to consistently improve the channel efficiency with respect to the plain ARQ case, by therefore making the use of a single common channel for multicast data delivery feasible. In the last part of the paper we give some hints for future research, by envisioning the usage of the aforementioned error control protocols with suitably encoded video streams.

  9. Comparative study of abdominal cavity temporary closure techniques for damage control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marcelo A F; Barros, Emily Alves; Carvalho, Sabrina Marques DE; Nascimento, Vinicius Pereira; Cruvinel, José; Fonseca, Alexandre Zanchenko

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery, with emphasis on laparostomy, usually results in shrinkage of the aponeurosis and loss of the ability to close the abdominal wall, leading to the formation of ventral incisional hernias. Currently, various techniques offer greater chances of closing the abdominal cavity with less tension. Thus, this study aims to evaluate three temporary closure techniques of the abdominal cavity: the Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC, the Bogotá Bag and the Vacuum-pack. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, selecting 28 articles published in the last 20 years. The techniques of the bag Bogotá and Vacuum-pack had the advantage of easy access to the material in most centers and low cost, contrary to VAC, which, besides presenting high cost, is not available in most hospitals. On the other hand, the VAC technique was more effective in reducing stress at the edges of lesions, removing stagnant fluids and waste, in addition to acting at the cellular level by increasing proliferation and cell division rates, and showed the highest rates of primary closure of the abdominal cavity. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos, com ênfase em peritoneostomia, geralmente resulta em retração da aponeurose e perda da capacidade de fechar a parede abdominal, levando à formação de hérnias ventrais incisionais. Atualmente, várias técnicas oferecem maiores chances de fechamento da cavidade abdominal, com menor tensão. Deste modo, este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar três técnicas de fechamento temporário da cavidade abdominal: fechamento a vácuo (Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC), Bolsa de Bogotá e Vacuum-pack. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura com seleção de 28 artigos publicados nos últimos 20 anos. As técnicas de Bolsa de Bogotá e Vacuum-pack tiveram como vantagem o acesso fácil ao material, na maioria dos centros, e baixo custo, ao contrário do que se observa na terapia a vácuo, VAC, que além de apresentar

  10. A study on the Horizontal Control of a Seat for Heavy Machinery using a Phase Adjusting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chae-sil.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a dynamic plant model to simulate the performance of a heavy equipment vehicle seat system. The system controls the transmission of vibration using a phase adjustment control method. First, a dynamic model for the flexible heavy equipment seat is proposed using a commercial multi-body dynamic analysis tool, ADAMS. This model is used as a plant model. Then a phase adjustment control mechanism for reducing the vibration and shock transmitted by the seat is applied to the driving dynamics control plant model. Angle control using the phase adjustment control was confirmed. This technique is expected to be the basis for a future commercial system.

  11. Introduction of fractional elements for improvising the performance of PID controller for heating furnace using AMIGO tuning technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Basu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates about melioration of integer order and fractional order model of heating furnace. Both models are being placed in closed loop along with the proportional integral derivative (PID controller and fractional order proportional integral derivative (FOPID controller so that the various time domain performance characteristics of the heating furnace can be meliorated. The tuning parameters (Kp, Ki and Kd of the controllers has been found using the Astrom-Hagglund tuning technique and the differ-integrals (λ and μ are found using the Nelder-Mead optimisation technique.

  12. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  13. The DNA 'comet assay' as a rapid screening technique to control irradiated food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, H; Delincée, H; Haine, H; Rupp, H

    1997-04-29

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests, and to extend shelf-life, thereby contributing to a safer and more plentiful food supply. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labelled as such, and to enforce labelling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In particular, there is a need for simple and rapid screening methods for the control of irradiated food. The DNA comet assay offers great potential as a rapid tool to detect whether a wide variety of foodstuffs have been radiation processed. In order to simplify the test, the agarose single-layer set-up has been chosen, using a neutral protocol. Interlaboratory blind trials have been successfully carried out with a number of food products, both of animal and plant origin. This paper presents an overview of the hitherto obtained results and in addition the results of an intercomparison test with seeds, dried fruits and spices are described. In this intercomparison, an identification rate of 95% was achieved. Thus, using this novel technique, an effective screening of radiation-induced DNA fragmentation is obtained. Since other food treatments also may cause DNA fragmentation, samples with fragmented DNA suspected to have been irradiated should be analyzed by other validated methods for irradiated food, if such treatments which damage DNA cannot be excluded.

  14. The DNA `comet assay` as a rapid screening technique to control irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda, H. [Department of Radioecology, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Delincee, H. [Institute of Nutritional Physiology, Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haine, H. [Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom); Rupp, H. [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Section of Food Chemistry, Berne (Switzerland)

    1997-04-29

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests, and to extend shelf-life, thereby contributing to a safer and more plentiful food supply. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labelled as such, and to enforce labelling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In particular, there is a need for simple and rapid screening methods for the control of irradiated food. The DNA comet assay offers great potential as a rapid tool to detect whether a wide variety of foodstuffs have been radiation processed. In order to simplify the test, the agarose single-layer set-up has been chosen, using a neutral protocol. Interlaboratory blind trials have been successfully carried out with a number of food products, both of animal and plant origin. This paper presents an overview of the hitherto obtained results and in addition the results of an intercomparison test with seeds, dried fruits and spices are described. In this intercomparison, an identification rate of 95% was achieved. Thus, using this novel technique, an effective screening of radiation-induced DNA fragmentation is obtained. Since other food treatments also may cause DNA fragmentation, samples with fragmented DNA suspected to have been irradiated should be analyzed by other validated methods for irradiated food, if such treatments which damage DNA cannot be excluded.

  15. Recent advances in controlled synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides via vapour deposition techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yumeng

    2014-10-20

    In recent years there have been many breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, among which the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) attract significant attention owing to their unusual properties associated with their strictly defined dimensionalities. TMD materials with a generalized formula of MX2, where M is a transition metal and X is a chalcogen, represent a diverse and largely untapped source of 2D systems. Semiconducting TMD monolayers such as MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2 and WS2 have been demonstrated to be feasible for future electronics and optoelectronics. The exotic electronic properties and high specific surface areas of 2D TMDs offer unlimited potential in various fields including sensing, catalysis, and energy storage applications. Very recently, the chemical vapour deposition technique (CVD) has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMD layers with a scalable size, controllable thickness and excellent electronic properties. Wafer-scale deposition of mono to few layer TMD films has been obtained. Despite the initial success in the CVD synthesis of TMDs, substantial research studies on extending the methodology open up a new way for substitution doping, formation of monolayer alloys and producing TMD stacking structures or superlattices. In this tutorial review, we will introduce the latest development of the synthesis of monolayer TMDs by CVD approaches.

  16. A modified sol-gel technique for pore size control in porous aluminum oxide nanowire templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel N; Wakabayashi, Ryo H; Stacy, Angelica M

    2014-11-26

    A modified sol-gel technique was developed to continuously vary the pore diameters in porous alumina templates for the purpose of growing nanowires. To coat the pore walls, the porous alumina film is initially soaked in a methanol/water solution to fill the pores with the desired concentration of water. The porous alumina film is then exposed to a solution of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in toluene, creating a surface layer of APTES. The concentration of water in the pores correlates with the thickness of the APTES polymer coating that is obtained. This approach exerts greater control over the extent of silane polymerization than traditional sol-gel reactions by limiting the amount of water present for reaction. Factors such as the APTES concentration, exposure time, and organic cosolvent choice did not influence the coating thickness. However, the density and thickness of the APTES coating can be manipulated by varying the pH of the methanol/water solution as well as post-treatment annealing. Further modification of the pore size was achieved by subsequent reaction of the APTES coating with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The PMMA couples to amine groups on the APTES polymer surface by an aminolysis reaction. Bismuth telluride nanowires were electrodeposited in the polymer-coated porous alumina templates using previously established methods. Nanowire diameters were smaller when the nanowires were prepared in modified templates as anticipated.

  17. Optimal hand washing technique to minimize bacterial contamination before neuraxial anesthesia: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, N; Friedman, Z; McGeer, A; Yousefzadeh, A; Carvalho, J C; Davies, S

    2017-02-01

    Infectious complications related to neuraxial anesthesia may result in adverse outcomes. There are no best practice guidelines regarding hand-sanitizing measures specifically for these procedures. The objective of this study was to compare the growth of microbial organisms on the operator's forearm between five common techniques of hand washing for labor epidurals. In this single blind randomized controlled trial, all anesthesiologists performing labor epidurals in a tertiary care hospital were randomized into five study groups: hand washing with alcohol gel only up to elbows (Group A); hand washing with soap up to elbows, sterile towel to dry, followed by alcohol gel (Group B); hand washing with soap up to elbows, non-sterile towel to dry, followed by alcohol gel (Group C); hand washing with soap up to elbows, non-sterile towel to dry (Group D) or hand washing with soap up to elbows, sterile towel to dry (Group E). The number of colonies for each specimen/rate per 100 specimens on one or both arms per group was measured. The incidence of colonization was 2.5, 23.0, 18.5, 114.5, and 53.0 in Groups A, B, C, D and E, respectively. Compared to Group A, the odds ratio of bacterial growth for Group B was 1.52 (P=0.519), Group C 5.44 (P=0.003), Group D 13.82 (Phand-sanitizing practices among epidural practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth of CdZnTe Crystals the Bridgman Technique with Controlled Overpressures of Cd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hu; Lehoczky, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te crystals with x = 0.15 and 0.20, were grown in this study by closed-ampoule directional solidification (Bridgman) technique with a controlled Cd overpressure. The growth ampoule was made of quartz with inner diameter from 20 to 40 mm and a tapered length of 2.5 cm at the growth tip. Both unseeded and seeded growths were performed with total material charges up to 400 g. After the loading of starting CdZnTe material, a typical amount of 2 g of Cd was also loaded inside a Cd reservoir basket, which was attached beneath the seal-off cup. The ampoule was sealed off under a vacuum below lxl0(exp -5) Torr. The sealed ampoule was placed inside a 4-zone Bridgman furnace - a Cd reservoir zone with a heat-pipe furnace liner on the top, followed by a hot zone, a booster heating zone and a cold zone at the bottom. The Cd zone was typically 300 to 400 C below the hot zone setting. High resistivity material has been obtained without any intentional dopants but has been reproducibly obtained with In doping. The crystalline and the electrical properties of the crystals will be reported.

  19. Second-Order Harmonic Reduction Technique for Photovoltaic Power Conditioning Systems Using a Proportional-Resonant Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Gwang Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a second-order harmonic reduction technique using a proportional-resonant (PR controller for a photovoltaic (PV power conditioning system (PCS. In a grid-connected single-phase system, inverters create a second-order harmonic at twice the fundamental frequency. A ripple component unsettles the operating points of the PV array and deteriorates the operation of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT technique. The second-order harmonic component in PV PCS is analyzed using an equivalent circuit of the DC/DC converter and the DC/AC inverter. A new feed-forward compensation technique using a PR controller for ripple reduction is proposed. The proposed algorithm is advantageous in that additional devices are not required and complex calculations are unnecessary. Therefore, this method is cost-effective and simple to implement. The proposed feed-forward compensation technique is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  20. "The comparison between effects of two general anesthesia techniques; Intermittent apenic technique and continuous controlled ventilation in upper airway Laser therapy "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khagavy MR "

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laser beam due to finest of incision and reduction of postoperative complication, facilitates airway surgery, but at the same time it increases the danger or firing and the airway management and protection becomes difficult during anesthesia. In this study, two general anesthesia methods; (Intermittent Apneic Technique And Continuous Controlled Ventilation With Enveloped Endotracheal Tube have been compared with each other mater. Materials and methods: two groups, each consist of 25 patients 10 to 60 years old, and ASA I-II class and below 100kg weight who have been candidate for laser therapy, were given two mentioned methods of anesthesia. All patients were suffering from subglotic stenosis, vocal cord nodules, papillomatosis and oropharyngeal obstruction. Induction and maintenance of anesthesia, and monitoring during surgery (EGG, PETCO2, SaPo2, BP, PR in both groups were the same. Results: Homodynamic stability in the both groups were the same and there was no hypoxia and dysrhythmia. In apneic technique group, most of the surgeries needed 2-3 time of apnea, and each apnea duration was 2-4 minutes, without any hypercaphic (Peteco 2>47 mmHg and hypoxic (Spo2<90 percent state and duration of laser surgery was about 9-10 minutes. More satisfaction was gained with apneic technique because of having a better surgery filed. All the patients had no recall at the end of anesthesia and patietn's expenses were much lower with no danger of firing. Conclusion: It has been concluded that intermittent apneic technique in upper airway laser therapy is a better technique of anesthesia.

  1. Control of a deareador level of a thermoelectric power station using modern control techniques; Control de nivel de un deareador de una central termoelectrica utilizando tecnicas de control moderno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Estrada, Jose Israel

    1997-01-01

    The present work shows the implementation of the scheme of predictive control IMC (Internal Model Control) in order to control the level of the deareador of a combined cycle thermoelectric power station of (C.C.T.S.). The implementation has the purpose of looking for alternative strategies of control to the classic ones (PID`s) that more efficiently control the variables of interest, in addition to getting into the new control techniques of control. Following the philosophy of predictive control IMC the form to applying this technique is shown, as well as the implementation of this type of controllers. A comparison of predictive control IMC is made with the scheme of conventional control (three control elements PID`s ) used at present to control the level of the deareador in the Combined Cycle Thermoelectric Power stations of Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Mexico and of Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra la implementacion del esquema de control predictivo IMC (Control con Modelo Interno) con el objeto de controlar el nivel del deareador de una Central Termoelectrica de Ciclo Combinado (C.T.C.C.). La implementacion tiene la finalidad de buscar estrategias de control alternas a las clasicas (PID`s) que controlen mas eficientemente la variable de interes, ademas de incursionar en las nuevas tecnicas de control. Siguiendo la filosofia del control predictivo IMC se muestra la forma de aplicar esta tecnica, asi como la implementacion de este tipo de controladores. Se hace una comparacion del control predictivo IMC con el esquema de control convencional (control de tres elementos PID`s) utilizando actualmente para controlar el nivel del deareador en las centrales termoelectricas de ciclo combinado de Dos Bocas, Veracruz y de Gomez Palacio, Durango en Mexico.

  2. Metabolic inhibition of meloxicam by specific CYP2C9 inhibitors in Cunninghamella blakesleeana NCIM 687: in silico and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G Shyam; Srisailam, K; Sashidhar, R B

    2016-01-01

    Specific inhibitors of Cytochrome P4502C9 enzyme (CYP2C9) viz. clopidogrel, fenofibrate fluvoxamine and sertraline at concentration of 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM were employed to investigate the nature of enzyme involved in bioconversion of meloxicam to its main metabolite 5-OH methyl meloxicam by Cunninghamella blakesleeana. Virtual screening for interaction of specific CYP2C9 inhibitors with human CYP2C9 enzyme was performed by molecular docking using Auto dock vina 4.2 version. The in silico studies were further substantiated by in vitro studies, which indicated fenofibrate to be a potent inhibitor of CYP2C9 enzyme followed by sertraline, clopidogrel and fluvoxamine, respectively. Two-stage fermentation protocol was followed to study metabolism of meloxicam and its inhibition by different CYP2C9 inhibitors. Meloxicam metabolites were identified using HPLC, LC-MS analysis and based on previous reports, as 5-OH methyl meloxicam (M1), 5-carboxy meloxicam (M2) and an unidentified metabolite (M3). All the inhibitors tested in the study showed a clear concentration dependent inhibition of meloxicam metabolism. The results suggest that the enzymes involved in metabolism of meloxicam in C. blakesleeana are akin to mammalian metabolism. Hence, C. blakesleeana can be used as a model organism in studying drug interactions and also in predicting mammalian drug metabolism.

  3. The use of immobilized cytochrome P4502C9 in PMMA-based plug flow bioreactors for the production of drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Lance A; Kabulski, Jarod L; Powell, Matthew J; Chen, Jifeng; Flora, Darcy R; Tracy, Timothy S; Gannett, Peter M

    2014-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a key role in the metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. To determine metabolite toxicity, it is necessary to obtain P450 metabolites from various pharmaceutical agents. Here, we describe a bioreactor that is made by immobilizing cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) to a poly(methyl methacrylate) surface and, as an alternative to traditional chemical synthesis, can be used to biosynthesize P450 metabolites in a plug flow bioreactor. As part of the development of the CYP2C9 bioreactor, we have studied two different methods of attachment: (1) coupling via the N-terminus using N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide and (2) using the Ni(II) chelator 1-acetato-4-benzyl-triazacyclononane to coordinate the enzyme to the surface using a C-terminal histidine tag. Additionally, the propensity for metabolite production of the CYP2C9 proof-of-concept bioreactors as a function of enzyme attachment conditions (e.g., time and enzyme concentration) was examined. Our results show that the immobilization of CYP2C9 enzymes to a PMMA surface represents a viable and alternative approach to the preparation of CYP2C9 metabolites for toxicity testing. Furthermore, the basic approach can be adapted to any cytochrome P450 enzyme and in a high-throughput, automated process.

  4. The Use of Immobilized Cytochrome P4502C9 in PMMA-Based Plug-Flow Bioreactors for the Production of Drug Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Lance A.; Kabulski, Jarod L.; Powell, Matthew J.; Chen, Jifeng; Flora, Darcy R.; Tracy, Timothy S.; Gannett, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a key role in the metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. To determine metabolite toxicity, it is necessary to obtain P450 metabolites from various pharmaceutical agents. Here, we describe a bioreactor that is made by immobilizing cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) to a poly (methyl methacrylate) surface and, as an alternative to traditional chemical synthesis, can be used to biosynthesize P450 metabolites in a plug-flow bioreactor. As part of the development of the CYP2C9 bioreactor, we have studied two different methods of attachment: 1) coupling via the N-terminus using N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide and 2) using the Ni(II) chelator 1-acetato-4-benzyl-triazacyclononane to coordinate the enzyme to the surface using a C-terminal histidine tag. Additionally, the propensity for metabolite production of the CYP2C9 proof-of-concept bioreactors as a function of enzyme attachment conditions (e.g., time and enzyme concentration) was examined. Our results show that the immobilization of CYP2C9 enzymes to a PMMA surface represents a viable and alternative approach to the preparation of CYP2C9 metabolites for toxicity testing. Furthermore, the basic approach can be adapted to any cytochrome P450 enzyme and in a high-throughput, automated process. PMID:24166101

  5. CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 Allele and Haplotype Distributions in Four Mestizo Populations from Western Mexico: An Interethnic Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Cruz, Ana Miriam; León-Moreno, Lilia Carolina; Sánchez-Corona, José; Santiago, Daniel Alejandro Márquez-de; Mendoza-Carrera, Francisco; Castro-Martínez, Xochitl Helga; García-Zapién, Alejandra Guadalupe; Morán-Moguel, María Cristina; Flores-Martínez, Silvia Esperanza

    2016-11-01

    Polymorphisms in the CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes confer potential risk for specific adverse drug reactions and therapeutic effect failure. Their frequencies differ among ethnic groups. This study was aimed to describe the distribution of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 alleles and haplotypes in four Mestizo populations from Western Mexico and their comparison with the reported data from other ethnic groups. The CYP2C alleles (CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2, and CYP2C19*3) were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms analyses using DNA samples from 477 healthy Mestizo individuals of Colima (n = 100), Jalisco (n = 147), Michoacán (n = 117), and Nayarit (n = 113). Frequencies ranged from 2.2-3.0% and 4.8-8.9% for CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*2 alleles, respectively, and 5.4-12.0% for CYP2C19*2, whereas the CYP2C19*3 allele was not found. Haplotype GACA, which harbors the loss-of-function allele CYP2C19*2, was the second most frequent (8.7%). Genetic heterogeneity between the Western Mexican populations studied here and the global population was evident (p drugs that are substrates for CYP2C enzymes in the Western Mexican population.

  6. Early onset behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia due to the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion: psychiatric clinical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arighi, Andrea; Fumagalli, Giorgio G; Jacini, Francesca; Fenoglio, Chiara; Ghezzi, Laura; Pietroboni, Anna M; De Riz, Milena; Serpente, Maria; Ridolfi, Elisa; Bonsi, Rossana; Bresolin, Nereo; Scarpini, Elio; Galimberti, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the first intron of C9ORF72 has been shown to be responsible for a high number of familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or frontotemporal lobar degeneration with or without concomitant motor neuron disease phenotype and TDP-43 based pathology. Here, we report on three cases carrying the hexanucleotide repeat expansion with an atypical presentation consisting in the development of psychiatric symptoms. Patient #1, a 53 year old man with positive family history for dementia, presented with mood deflection, characterized by apathy, social withdraw, and irritability in the last two years. He was diagnosed with "mild cognitive impairment due to depressive syndrome" six months later and subsequently with Alzheimer's disease. Patient #2, a woman with positive family history for dementia, developed behavioral disturbances, aggressiveness, and swearing at 57 years of age. Patient #3 presented, in the absence of brain atrophy, with mystical delirium with auditory hallucinations at 44 years of age, and did not present neurological symptoms over a 7-year follow up. The description of these cases underlines that the hexanucleotide repeat expansion in chromosome 9 could be associated with early onset psychiatric presentations.

  7. Short-baseline electron antineutrino disappearance study by using neutrino sources from 13C + 9Be reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Won; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Hayakawa, Takehito

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the existence of sterile neutrino, we propose a new neutrino production method using 13C beams and a 9Be target for short-baseline electron antineutrino (bar nue) disappearance study. The production of secondary unstable isotopes which can emit neutrinos from the 13C + 9Be reaction is calculated with three different nucleus-nucleus (AA) reaction models. Different isotope yields are obtained using these models, but the results of the neutrino flux are found to have unanimous similarities. This feature gives an opportunity to study neutrino oscillation through shape analysis. In this work, expected neutrino flux and event rates are discussed in detail through intensive simulation of the light ion collision reaction and the neutrino flux from the beta decay of unstable isotopes followed by this collision. Together with the reactor and accelerator anomalies, the present proposed bar nue source is shown to be a practically alternative test of the existence of the Δ m2 ~ 1 eV2 scale sterile neutrino.

  8. Human iPSC-derived motoneurons harbouring TARDBP or C9ORF72 ALS mutations are dysfunctional despite maintaining viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Anna-Claire; Burr, Karen; Borooah, Shyamanga; Foster, Joshua D.; Cleary, Elaine M.; Geti, Imbisaat; Vallier, Ludovic; Shaw, Christopher E.; Chandran, Siddharthan; Miles, Gareth B.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease for which a greater understanding of early disease mechanisms is needed to reveal novel therapeutic targets. We report the use of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motoneurons (MNs) to study the pathophysiology of ALS. We demonstrate that MNs derived from iPSCs obtained from healthy individuals or patients harbouring TARDBP or C9ORF72 ALS-causing mutations are able to develop appropriate physiological properties. However, patient iPSC-derived MNs, independent of genotype, display an initial hyperexcitability followed by progressive loss of action potential output and synaptic activity. This loss of functional output reflects a progressive decrease in voltage-activated Na+ and K+ currents, which occurs in the absence of overt changes in cell viability. These data implicate early dysfunction or loss of ion channels as a convergent point that may contribute to the initiation of downstream degenerative pathways that ultimately lead to MN loss in ALS. PMID:25580746

  9. Neurodegeneration in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and motor neurone disease associated with expansions in C9orf72 is linked to TDP-43 pathology and not associated with aggregated forms of dipeptide repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Y; Robinson, A C; Liu, X; Wu, D; Troakes, C; Rollinson, S; Masuda-Suzukake, M; Suzuki, G; Nonaka, T; Shi, J; Tian, J; Hamdalla, H; Ealing, J; Richardson, A; Jones, M; Pickering-Brown, S; Snowden, J S; Hasegawa, M; Mann, D M A

    2016-04-01

    A hexanucleotide expansion in C9orf72 is the major genetic cause of inherited behavioural variant Frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and motor neurone disease (MND), although the pathological mechanism(s) underlying disease remains uncertain. Using antibodies to poly-GA, poly-GP, poly-GR, poly-AP and poly-PR proteins, we examined sections of cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum and spinal cord, from 20 patients with bvFTD and/or MND bearing an expansion in C9orf72 for aggregated deposits of dipeptide repeat proteins (DPR). Antibodies to poly-GA, poly-GP and poly-GR detected numerous rounded cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) within granule cells of hippocampal dentate gyrus and those of the cerebellum, as well as 'star-burst' shaped NCI in pyramidal neurones of CA3/4 region of hippocampus. NCI were uncommon in Purkinje cells, and only very rarely seen in anterior horn cells. Poly-PA antibody detected occasional NCI within CA3/4 neurones alone, whereas poly-PR antibody did not identify any NCI but immunostained the nucleus of anterior horn cells, CA3/4 neurones and Purkinje cells, in patients with or without expansion in C9orf72, as well as in normal controls. Poly-GA antibody generally detected more DPR than poly-GP, which in turn was greater than poly-GR. All patients with bvFTD + MND or MND showed plentiful p62/TDP-43 positive inclusions in remaining anterior horn cells. Degeneration and loss of anterior horn cells associated with expansions in C9orf72 occurs in the absence of DPR, and implies that changes involving loss of nuclear staining for and a cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 are more likely to be the cause of this. © 2015 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  10. Metabolic versatility and antibacterial metabolite biosynthesis are distinguishing genomic features of the fire blight antagonist Pantoea vagans C9-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo H M Smits

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pantoea vagans is a commercialized biological control agent used against the pome fruit bacterial disease fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Compared to other biocontrol agents, relatively little is currently known regarding Pantoea genetics. Better understanding of antagonist mechanisms of action and ecological fitness is critical to improving efficacy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genome analysis indicated two major factors Contribute to biocontrol activity: competition for limiting substrates and antibacterial metabolite production. Pathways for utilization of a broad diversity of sugars and acquisition of iron were identified. Metabolism of sorbitol by P. vagans C9-1 may be a major metabolic feature in biocontrol of fire blight. Biosynthetic genes for the antibacterial peptide pantocin A were found on a chromosomal 28-kb genomic island, and for dapdiamide E on the plasmid pPag2. There was no evidence of potential virulence factors that could enable an animal or phytopathogenic lifestyle and no indication of any genetic-based biosafety risk in the antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying key determinants contributing to disease suppression allows the development of procedures to follow their expression in planta and the genome sequence contributes to rationale risk assessment regarding the use of the biocontrol strain in agricultural systems.

  11. Design and Simulation of Control Technique for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mansoor; Yong, Wang; Mustafa, Ehtasham

    2017-07-01

    After the rapid advancement in the field of power electronics devices and drives for last few decades, there are different kinds of Pulse Width Modulation techniques which have been brought to the market. The applications ranging from industrial appliances to military equipment including the home appliances. The vey common application for the PWM is three phase voltage source inverter, which is used to convert DC to AC in the homes to supply the power to the house in case electricity failure, usually named as Un-interrupted Power Supply. In this paper Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation techniques is discussed and analysed under the control technique named as Field Oriented Control. The working and implementation of this technique has been studied by implementing on the three phase bridge inverter. The technique is used to control the Permanente Magnet Synchronous Motor. The drive system is successfully implemented in MATLAB/Simulink using the mathematical equation and algorithm to achieve the satisfactory results. PI type of controller is used to tuned ers of the motothe parametr i.e. torque and current.

  12. Cascaded multi-dithering technique using PZT modulators for high control bandwidth in coherent laser beam combining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee Kyung; Kong, Hong Jin

    2017-09-01

    A cascaded multi-dithering (CMD) technique using piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) tubes as phase modulators is proposed as a tool for obtaining high control bandwidth in coherent laser beam combination. To prove its validity, eight coherent fiber beam elements were combined using the CMD technique with PZT tubes. As a result, residual phase error was recorded to be λ/54 at 100 Hz control bandwidth, which is comparable to that of a four laser beam combination in the previous experiment. To our knowledge, this is the first case to date of combining eight laser beam elements using PZT tubes as phase modulators and achieving such good results.

  13. Mindlessness revisited : Sequential request techniques foster compliance by draining self-control resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Janssen, L.

    The present research extends previous findings suggesting that sequential request techniques, such as the Foot-in-the-Door (FITD) or Door-in-the-Face (DITF) technique, are primarily effective under conditions conducive of mindlessness. We forward that this mindlessness may be the product of the

  14. The technique of controlled delivery as a weapon in dealing with illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, P D

    1983-01-01

    The technique of controlled delivery is used when a consignment of illicit drugs is detected and allowed to go forward under the control and surveillance of law enforcement officers in order to secure evidence against the organizers of such illicit drug traffic. This technique has been proved effective in some countries in identifying and bringing to justice principals, organizers and financiers of the illicit drug traffic. The controlled delivery technique is compatible with the requirements of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, but its application depends on the particular legal and administrative provisions in the countries concerned. The technique merits wider use, and it does not involve any element of entrapment. It has been used most effectively when illicit drugs are discovered in unaccompanied freight consignments or in the post. Controlled deliveries involving a courier present special difficulties and should be treated with caution. In a controlled delivery, security of information is of paramount importance as is the appropriate knowledge and co-operation of the law enforcement authorities. Such co-operation is essential between the country in which the initial detection of drugs has occurred, transit countries and the country of final destination. A number of important detections have been made as a result of speedy international co-operation of this type between law enforcement authorities.

  15. Adaptive/learning control of large space structures - System identification techniques. [for multi-configuration flexible spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thau, F. E.; Montgomery, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques developed for the control of aircraft under changing operating conditions are used to develop a learning control system structure for a multi-configuration, flexible space vehicle. A configuration identification subsystem that is to be used with a learning algorithm and a memory and control process subsystem is developed. Adaptive gain adjustments can be achieved by this learning approach without prestoring of large blocks of parameter data and without dither signal inputs which will be suppressed during operations for which they are not compatible. The Space Shuttle Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) experiment is used as a sample problem for the testing of adaptive/learning control system algorithms.

  16. Rate constants of nine C6-C9 alkanes with OH from 230 to 379 K: chemical tracers for [OH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengnether, Michele M; Demerjian, Kenneth L; Dransfield, Timothy J; Clarke, James S; Anderson, James G; Donahue, Neil M

    2009-04-30

    We report absolute rate-constant measurements for the reactions of nine C(6)-C(9) alkanes with OH in 8-10 torr of nitrogen from 230 to 379 K in the Harvard University High-Pressure Flow System. Hydroxyl concentrations were measured using laser-induced fluorescence, and alkane concentrations were measured using Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy. Ethane's reactivity was simultaneously measured as a test of experimental performance. Results were fit to a modified Arrhenius equation based on transition state theory (ignoring tunneling), k(T) = Be(-E(a)/T)/(T(1 - e(- 1.44nu(1)/T))(2)(1 - e(- 1.44nu(2)/T)), with nu(1) and nu(2) bending frequencies, set to 280 and 500 cm(-1). Results were as follows for B (10(-9) K cm(3) s(-1)), E(a) (K), and k(298) (10(-12) cm(3) s(-1)): cyclohexane, 3.24 +/- 0.14, 332 +/- 12, 7.13; cyclo-octane, 3.47 +/- 0.30, 149 +/- 26, 14.1; 2-methylhexane, 1.45 +/- 0.08, 110 +/- 15, 6.72; 3-methylhexane, 1.50 +/- 0.08, 128 +/- 16, 6.54; methylcyclopentane, 1.65 +/- 0.07, 109 +/- 13, 7.65; methylcyclohexane, 1.86 +/- 0.09, 83 +/- 14, 9.43; methylcycloheptane, 3.45 +/- 0.45, 142 +/- 36, 14.4; n-propylcyclohexane, 2.83 +/- 0.14, 112 +/- 15, 13.0; isopropylcyclohexane, 1.79 +/- 0.11, -44 +/- 34, 13.9. Uncertainties are one sigma results from linear regression fits and are likely underestimated. Room temperature rate coefficients of reaction are accurate to within 10% at two sigma. A comprehensive fit to 17 separate studies including the present work for cyclohexane gives good agreement with the present results: terms as above, 3.09 +/- 0.12, 326 +/- 12, 6.96. Five of these compounds are routinely measured in urban air within a suite of atmospheric nonmethane hydrocarbons and reach parts per billion levels. The remaining four are C8-C9 cycloalkanes with low anthropogenic emissions. Because of their high, specific reactivity with OH, their concentration decays may be used as an indirect measurement of [OH] in the atmosphere or laboratory. This data

  17. Effect of cytochrome P450 2C19 and 2C9 amino acid residues 72 and 241 on metabolism of tricyclic antidepressant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Tamer Zekry; Yamashita, Taku; Hammad, Mohamed Abdelkhalek; Hayasaki, Akinori; Sato, Takumi; Miyamoto, Masayoshi; Yasuhara, Yuki; Nakamura, Takashi; Kagawa, Yusuke; Tsujino, Hirofumi; Omar, Mahmoud Ahmed; Abdelmageed, Osama Hassan; Derayea, Sayed Mohamed; Uno, Tadayuki

    2014-01-01

    Although cytochromes P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and 2C19 (CYP2C19) have 91% amino acid identity, they have different substrate specificities. Previous studies have suggested that several amino acid residues may be involved in substrate specificity. In this study, we focused on the roles of two amino acids, residues 72 and 241. The amino acids in these positions have opposite charges in CYP2C9 and 2C19; the former has lysines in both positions (Lys72 and Lys241), and the latter has glutamic acids (Glu72 and Glu241). Reciprocal mutants for both CYP2C19 and 2C9 were produced, and their metabolic activities and spectroscopic properties were examined using three tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) drugs: amitriptyline, imipramine, and dothiepin. Although CYP2C19 wild-type (WT) had a high metabolic activity for all three drugs, the E72K mutation decreased enzymatic activity by 29-37%, while binding affinities were diminished 2.5- to 20-fold. On the other hand, low activity and low affinity of CYP2C9 WT were recovered notably by K72E mutation. The metabolic activities and binding affinities were minimally affected by CYP2C19 E241K and CYP2C9 K241E mutations. We could also show linear correlations between metabolic activities and binding affinities, and hence we conclude that amino acid residue 72 plays a key role in TCA drug metabolism by limiting the binding affinities of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9.

  18. Influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 Polymorphisms on Daily Acenocoumarol Dose Requirement in South Indian Patients With Mechanical Heart Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, S R; Bharath, G; Manjunath, C N; Christopher, Rita

    2017-10-01

    Chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) patients who undergo valve replacement with mechanical valves require lifelong anticoagulation. Acenocoumarol, a vitamin K antagonist has a narrow therapeutic range and wide inter-individual variability. Our aim was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genes on the mean daily dose requirement of acenocoumarol. 205 chronic RHD patients, with mechanical heart valves and on acenocoumarol therapy, were recruited. Genotyping for VKORC1 (-1639G>A and 1173C>T) and CYP2C9 (*2 & *3 alleles) polymorphisms was done by PCR-RFLP. There was complete linkage disequilibrium between VKORC1 polymorphisms (r 2 = 0.98, D' = 1.0, LOD = 74.02). VKORC1 genotype distribution for GG/CC, GA/CT, and AA/TT were 57.6%, 36.1%, and 6.3%, respectively. CYP2C9 genotype distribution for *1/*1, *1/*3, *1/*2, *2/*2, and *2/*3 were 78.5%, 14.1%, 6.3%, 0.5%, and 0.5%, respectively. Patients with a wild type of both VKORC1 (-1639GG and 1173CC) and CYP2C9 gene variants required higher acenocoumarol dose compared to those with mutant genotype ( P = 0.023 and P = 0.008 respectively). On combined genotype analysis, patients having a combination of wild type of VKORC1 with wild type of CYP2C9 (44.4%) required higher daily dose compared to patients bearing heterozygous VKORC1 (-1639GA & 1173CT) with wild type of CYP2C9 (30.2%, P = 0.008). Presence of a mutant allele of VKORC1 (-1639A & 1173T) and CYP2C9 genes increased the odds of requiring a lower mean dosage of acenocoumarol. Studying the combination of genotypes in RHD patients could predict acenocoumarol dose requirement more accurately.

  19. Computer optimization techniques for NASA Langley's CSI evolutionary model's real-time control system. [Controls/Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kenny B.; Ugoletti, Roberto; Sulla, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    The evolution and optimization of a real-time digital control system is presented. The control system is part of a testbed used to perform focused technology research on the interactions of spacecraft platform and instrument controllers with the flexible-body dynamics of the platform and platform appendages. The control system consists of Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) standard data acquisition equipment interfaced to a workstation computer. The goal of this work is to optimize the control system's performance to support controls research using controllers with up to 50 states and frame rates above 200 Hz. The original system could support a 16-state controller operating at a rate of 150 Hz. By using simple yet effective software improvements, Input/Output (I/O) latencies and contention problems are reduced or eliminated in the control system. The final configuration can support a 16-state controller operating at 475 Hz. Effectively the control system's performance was increased by a factor of 3.

  20. Dynamic Stability Improvement of Grid Connected DFIG Using Enhanced Field Oriented Control Technique for High Voltage Ride Through

    OpenAIRE

    Ananth Duggirala, V.N.; Nagesh Kumar Gundavarapu, V.

    2015-01-01

    Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is a better alternative to increased power demand. Modern grid regulations force DFIG to operate without losing synchronism during overvoltages called high voltage ride through (HVRT) during grid faults. Enhanced field oriented control technique (EFOC) was proposed in Rotor Side Control of DFIG converter to improve power flow transfer and to improve dynamic and transient stability. Further electromagnetic oscillations are damped, improved voltage mitigati...

  1. Nonlinear torque and air-to-fuel ratio control of spark ignition engines using neuro-sliding mode techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting; Javaherian, Hossein; Liu, Derong

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the calibration and control of spark ignition engines using a combination of neural networks and sliding mode control technique. Two parallel neural networks are utilized to realize a neuro-sliding mode control (NSLMC) for self-learning control of automotive engines. The equivalent control and the corrective control terms are the outputs of the neural networks. Instead of using error backpropagation algorithm, the network weights of equivalent control are updated using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Moreover, a new approach is utilized to update the gain of corrective control. Both modifications of the NSLMC are aimed at improving the transient performance and speed of convergence. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we built neural network models for the engine torque (TRQ) and the air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) dynamics and developed NSLMC controllers to achieve tracking control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values under various operating conditions. From simulation studies, the feasibility and efficiency of the approach are illustrated. For both control problems, excellent tracking performance has been achieved.

  2. Control and modeling techniques in biomedical engineering: the artificial pancreas for patients with type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Rmileh, Amjad Hisham Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents different control strategies, for the closed-loop artificial pancreas, which are based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Sliding Mode Control (SMC). Multiple MPC with linear models and gain scheduling, and SMC with linear and nonlinear models, have been developed. The proposed control strategies combine more than one linear/nonlinear control and modeling approaches in one structure. The main idea behind such combined approaches is to make use of the virtues of each ap...

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Transmission Control Protocol Improvement Techniques over Space-Based Transmission Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawson, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    ... justification for the implementation of a given enhancement technique. The research questions were answered through model and simulation of a satellite transmission system via a Linux-based network topology...

  4. Broadcast Expenses Controlling Techniques in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The blind flooding of query packets in route discovery more often characterizes the broadcast storm problem, exponentially increases energy consumption of intermediate nodes and congests the entire network. In such a congested network, the task of establishing the path between resources may become very complex and unwieldy. An extensive research work has been done in this area to improve the route discovery phase of routing protocols by reducing broadcast expenses. The purpose of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of existing broadcasting techniques for the route discovery phase, in order to bring about an efficient broadcasting technique for determining the route with minimum conveying nodes in ad-hoc networks. The study is designed to highlight the collective merits and demerits of such broadcasting techniques along with certain conclusions that would contribute to the choice of broadcasting techniques.

  5. The Alexander Technique and musicians: a systematic review of controlled trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Sabine D; Bayard, Claudine; Wolf, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    .... Therefore, some use the Alexander Technique (AT), a psycho-physical method that helps to release unnecessary muscle tension and re-educates non-beneficial movement patterns through intentional inhibition of unwanted habitual behaviours...

  6. Techniques Use by Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) Teachers for Controlling Undesirable Classroom Behaviours in Anambra State Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinelo, Okigbo Ebele; Nwanneka, Okoli Josephine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the techniques used by secondary school Science Technology and Mathematics (STM) teachers in controlling undesirable behaviours in their classrooms. It adopted descriptive survey design in which 178 Anambra State teachers teaching STM subjects in senior secondary were involved in the research. Two sections of questionnaire…

  7. The Role of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 Genotypes in Losartan-Dependent Inhibition of Paclitaxel Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yuji; Senda, Asuna; Toda, Takaki; Eliasson, Erik; Rane, Anders; Inotsume, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate a previously identified metabolic interaction between losartan and paclitaxel, which is one of the marker substrates of CYP2C8, by using human liver microsomes (HLMs) from donors with different CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes. Although CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 exhibit genetic linkage, previous studies have yet to determine whether losartan or its active metabolite, EXP-3174 which is specifically generated by CYP2C9, is responsible for CYP2C8 inhibition. Concentrations of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel and EXP-3174 were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after incubations with paclitaxel, losartan or EXP-3174 in HLMs from seven donors with different CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values were not fully dependent on CYP2C8 genotypes. Although the degree of inhibition was small, losartan significantly inhibited the production of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel at a concentration of 1 μmol/L in only HL20 with the CYP2C8*3/*3 genotype. HLMs with either CYP2C9*2/*2 or CYP2C9*1/*3 exhibited a lower losartan intrinsic clearance (Vmax /Km ) than other HLMs including those with CYP2C9*1/*1 and CYP2C9*1/*2. Significant inhibition of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel formation by EXP-3174 could only be found at levels that were 50 times higher (100 μmol/L) than the maximum concentration generated in the inhibition study using losartan. These results suggest that the metabolic interaction between losartan and paclitaxel is dependent on losartan itself rather than its metabolite and that the CYP2C8 inhibition by losartan is not affected by the CYP2C9 genotype. Further study is needed to define the effect of CYP2C8 genotypes on losartan-paclitaxel interaction. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  8. Biochemical characterization of INTS3 and C9ORF80, two subunits of hNABP1/2 heterotrimeric complex in nucleic acid binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhyasagar, Venkatasubramanian; He, Yujiong; Guo, Manhong; Talwar, Tanu; Singh, Ravi Shankar; Yadav, Manisha; Katselis, George; Vizeacoumar, Franco J.; Lukong, Kiven E.

    2018-01-01

    Human nucleic acid-binding protein 1 and 2 (hNABP1 and hNABP2, also known as hSSB2 and hSSB1 respectively) form two separate and independent complexes with two identical proteins, integrator complex subunit 3 (INTS3) and C9ORF80. We and other groups have demonstrated that hNABP1 and 2 are single-stranded (ss) DNA- and RNA-binding proteins, and function in DNA repair; however, the function of INTS3 and C9OFR80 remains elusive. In the present study, we purified recombinant proteins INTS3 and C9ORF80 to near homogeneity. Both proteins exist as a monomer in solution; however, C9ORF80 exhibits anomalous behavior on SDS–PAGE and gel filtration because of 48% random coil present in the protein. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), INTS3 displays higher affinity toward ssRNA than ssDNA, and C9ORF80 binds ssDNA but not ssRNA. Neither of them binds dsDNA, dsRNA, or RNA : DNA hybrid. INTS3 requires minimum of 30 nucleotides, whereas C9OFR80 requires 20 nucleotides for its binding, which increased with the increasing length of ssDNA. Interestingly, our GST pulldown results suggest that the N-terminus of INTS3 is involved in protein–protein interaction, while EMSA implies that the C-terminus is required for nucleic acid binding. Furthermore, we purified the INTS3–hNABP1/2–C9ORF80 heterotrimeric complex. It exhibits weaker binding compared with the individual hNABP1/2; interestingly, the hNABP1 complex prefers ssDNA, whereas hNABP2 complex prefers ssRNA. Using reconstituted heterotrimeric complex from individual proteins, EMSA demonstrates that INTS3, but not C9ORF80, affects the nucleic acid-binding ability of hNABP1 and hNABP2, indicating that INTS3 might regulate hNABP1/2's biological function, while the role of C9ORF80 remains unknown. PMID:29150435

  9. Randomised controlled trial of Alexander technique lessons, exercise, and massage (ATEAM) for chronic and recurrent back pain: economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinghurst, Sandra; Sharp, Debbie; Ballard, Kathleen; Barnett, Jane; Beattie, Angela; Evans, Maggie; Lewith, George; Middleton, Karen; Oxford, Frances; Webley, Fran; Little, Paul

    2008-12-11

    An economic evaluation of therapeutic massage, exercise, and lessons in the Alexander technique for treating persistent back pain. Cost consequences study and cost effectiveness analysis at 12 month follow-up of a factorial randomised controlled trial. 579 patients with chronic or recurrent low back pain recruited from primary care. Normal care (control), massage, and six or 24 lessons in the Alexander technique. Half of each group were randomised to a prescription for exercise from a doctor plus behavioural counselling from a nurse. Costs to the NHS and to participants. Comparison of costs with Roland-Morris disability score (number of activities impaired by pain), days in pain, and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Comparison of NHS costs with QALY gain, using incremental cost effectiveness ratios and cost effectiveness acceptability curves. Intervention costs ranged from pound30 for exercise prescription to pound596 for 24 lessons in Alexander technique plus exercise. Cost of health services ranged from pound50 for 24 lessons in Alexander technique to pound124 for exercise. Incremental cost effectiveness analysis of single therapies showed that exercise offered best value ( pound61 per point on disability score, pound9 per additional pain-free day, pound2847 per QALY gain). For two-stage therapy, six lessons in Alexander technique combined with exercise was the best value (additional pound64 per point on disability score, pound43 per additional pain-free day, pound5332 per QALY gain). An exercise prescription and six lessons in Alexander technique alone were both more than 85% likely to be cost effective at values above pound20 000 per QALY, but the Alexander technique performed better than exercise on the full range of outcomes. A combination of six lessons in Alexander technique lessons followed by exercise was the most effective and cost effective option.

  10. Foreseeing techniques and control of emissions in thermal power plants. Workshop Latin American. [Selected Papers]; Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Morales, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Latin-American Workshop ``Control and Prevision Techniques of Emissions in Power Plants`` carried out in Cuernavaca, Mexico on June 1996, with the participation of representatives of Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela, as well as specialists from the European Union. The core issue analyzed in this workshop was the control and the evaluation techniques of polluting emissions in Power Plants [Espanol] Este documento contiene las memorias de conferencia del Taller Latinoamericano ``Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas`` que se llevo a cabo en Cuernavaca, Mexico en junio de 1996. Participaron representantes de Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama y Venezuela, asi como especialistas de la Union Europea. El tema central tratado en este taller fue el control y tecnicas de evaluacion de las emisiones contaminantes en centrales termoelectricas

  11. Viral delivery of C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions in mice leads to repeat-length-dependent neuropathology and behavioural deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Herranz-Martin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Intronic GGGGCC repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Two major pathologies stemming from the hexanucleotide RNA expansions (HREs have been identified in postmortem tissue: intracellular RNA foci and repeat-associated non-ATG dependent (RAN dipeptides, although it is unclear how these and other hallmarks of disease contribute to the pathophysiology of neuronal injury. Here, we describe two novel lines of mice that overexpress either 10 pure or 102 interrupted GGGGCC repeats mediated by adeno-associated virus (AAV and recapitulate the relevant human pathology and disease-related behavioural phenotypes. Similar levels of intracellular RNA foci developed in both lines of mice, but only mice expressing 102 repeats generated C9orf72 RAN pathology, neuromuscular junction (NMJ abnormalities, dispersal of the hippocampal CA1, enhanced apoptosis, and deficits in gait and cognition. Neither line of mice, however, showed extensive TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 pathology or neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that RNA foci pathology is not a good predictor of C9orf72 RAN dipeptide formation, and that RAN dipeptides and NMJ dysfunction are drivers of C9orf72 disease pathogenesis. These AAV-mediated models of C9orf72-associated ALS/FTD will be useful tools for studying disease pathophysiology and developing new therapeutic approaches.

  12. Designing for Damage: Robust Flight Control Design using Sliding Mode Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, T. K.; Wells, S. R.; Hess, Ronald A.; Bacon, Barton (Technical Monitor); Davidson, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A brief review of sliding model control is undertaken, with particular emphasis upon the effects of neglected parasitic dynamics. Sliding model control design is interpreted in the frequency domain. The inclusion of asymptotic observers and control 'hedging' is shown to reduce the effects of neglected parasitic dynamics. An investigation into the application of observer-based sliding mode control to the robust longitudinal control of a highly unstable is described. The sliding mode controller is shown to exhibit stability and performance robustness superior to that of a classical loop-shaped design when significant changes in vehicle and actuator dynamics are employed to model airframe damage.

  13. Evaluating the effect of operative technique on leaks after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varban, Oliver A; Sheetz, Kyle H; Cassidy, Ruth B; Stricklen, Amanda; Carlin, Arthur M; Dimick, Justin B; Finks, Jonathan F

    2017-04-01

    To assess the effect of operative technique on staple line leaks after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Staple-line leaks after LSG are a major source of morbidity and mortality. Variations in operative technique exist; however, their effect on leaks is poorly understood. We analyzed data from the Michigan Bariatric Surgery Collaborative (MBSC) to perform a case-control study comparing patients who had a clinically significant leak after undergoing a primary LSG to those who did not. A total of 45 patients with leaks were identified between January 2007 and December 2013. The leak group was matched 1:2 to a control group based on procedure type, age, body mass index, sex, and year the procedure was performed. Technique-specific factors were assessed by reviewing operative notes from all primary bariatric procedures in our study population. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify techniques associated with leaks. To increase the power of our analysis, we used a significance level of .10. Leak rates with LSG have decreased over the past 5 years (1.18% to .36%) as annual case volume has increased (846 cases/yr to 4435 cases/yr). Surgeons who performed 43 or more cases per year had a leak ratecases requiring a blood transfusion (26.2% versus 1.08%, P = .0031) and when cases were converted to open surgery (7.14% versus 0%, P = .0741). However, there was no significant difference in operative time between cases involving a leak and their matched controls (95.4 min versus 87.1 min, P = .1197). Oversewing of the staple line was the only technique associated with less leaks after controlling for confounding factors (OR .397 CI .174, .909, P = .0665). Notably, surgeons who oversewed routinely were also found to have higher case volume (307 versus 140, P = .0216) and less overall complication rates (4.81% versus 7.95%, P = .0027). Furthermore, oversewing technique varied widely as only 22.6% of cases involved oversewing of the entire staple line. Despite

  14. CONTROLLING TRAFFIC FLOW IN MULTILANE-ISOLATED INTERSECTION USING ANFIS APPROACH TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. LAI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many controllers have applied the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS concept for optimizing the controller performance. However, there are less traffic signal controllers developed using the ANFIS concept. ANFIS traffic signal controller with its fuzzy rule base and its ability to learn from a set of sample data could improve the performance of Existing traffic signal controlling system to reduce traffic congestions at most of the busy traffic intersections in city such as Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The aim of this research is to develop an ANFIS traffic signals controller for multilane-isolated four approaches intersections in order to ease traffic congestions at traffic intersections. The new concept to generate sample data for ANFIS training is introduced in this research. The sample data is generated based on fuzzy rules and can be analysed using tree diagram. This controller is simulated on multilane-isolated traffic intersection model developed using M/M/1 queuing theory and its performance in terms of average waiting time, queue length and delay time are compared with traditional controllers and fuzzy controller. Simulation result shows that the average waiting time, queue length, and delay time of ANFIS traffic signal controller are the lowest as compared to the other three controllers. In conclusion, the efficiency and performance of ANFIS controller are much better than that of fuzzy and traditional controllers in different traffic volumes.

  15. Nonlinear feedforward-feedback control of clutch-to-clutch shift technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bingzhao; Chen, Hong; Hu, Yunfeng; Sanada, Kazushi

    2011-12-01

    To improve the shift quality of the vehicle with clutch-to-clutch gear shifts, a nonlinear feedforward-feedback control scheme is proposed for clutch slip control during the shift inertia phase. The feedforward control is designed based on flatness in consideration of the system nonlinearities, and the linear feedback control is given to accommodate the model errors and the disturbances. Lookup tables, which are widely used to represent complex nonlinear characteristics of powertrain systems, appear in their original form in the designed feedforward controller, while the linear feedback controller is calculated through linear matrix inequalities such that the control system is robust against the parameter uncertainties. Finally, the designed controller is tested on an AMESim powertrain simulation model, which contains a time-variant model of clutch actuators.

  16. Application of Advanced Process Control techniques to a pusher type reheating furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoli, S. M.; Pepe, C.; Barboni, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper an Advanced Process Control system aimed at controlling and optimizing a pusher type reheating furnace located in an Italian steel plant is proposed. The designed controller replaced the previous control system, based on PID controllers manually conducted by process operators. A two-layer Model Predictive Control architecture has been adopted that, exploiting a chemical, physical and economic modelling of the process, overcomes the limitations of plant operators’ mental model and knowledge. In addition, an ad hoc decoupling strategy has been implemented, allowing the selection of the manipulated variables to be used for the control of each single process variable. Finally, in order to improve the system flexibility and resilience, the controller has been equipped with a supervision module. A profitable trade-off between conflicting specifications, e.g. safety, quality and production constraints, energy saving and pollution impact, has been guaranteed. Simulation tests and real plant results demonstrated the soundness and the reliability of the proposed system.

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Novel Self-Help Technique for Impulse Control Disorders: A Study on Nail-Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Treszl, Andras; Rufer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nail-biting is currently classified as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified. Although seldom targeted as a primary symptom, nail-biting is often associated with somatic complications and decreased quality of life. The present study assessed the effectiveness of an innovative self-help technique, titled decoupling (DC). DC aims at…

  18. Synthesis of dynamic phase profile by the correlation technique for spatial control of optical beams in multiplexing and switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaychuk, Svitlana A.; Gnatovskyy, Vladimir O.; Sidorenko, Andrey V.; Pryadko, Igor I.; Negriyko, Anatoliy M.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for the correlation technique, which is based on multiple periodic structures to create a controllable angular spectrum, is proposed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The transformation of an initial laser beam occurs due to the actions of consecutive phase periodic structures, which may differ by their parameters. Then, after the Fourier transformation of a complex diffraction field, the output diffraction orders will be changed both by their intensities and by their spatial position. The controllable change of output angular spectrum is carried out by a simple control of the parameters of the periodic structures. We investigate several simple examples of such management.

  19. Method and apparatus for controlling LCL converters using asymmetric voltage cancellation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee Devro; Sharp, Bryan Thomas; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-01-26

    A method and apparatus for LCL resonant converter control utilizing Asymmetric Voltage Cancellation is described. The methods to determine the optimal trajectory of the control variables are discussed. Practical implementations of sensing load parameters are included. Simple PI, PID and fuzzy logic controllers are included with AVC for achieving good transient response characteristics with output current regulation.

  20. Computer optimization techniques for NASA Langley's CSI evolutionary model's real-time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kenny B.; Ugoletti, Roberto; Sulla, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    The evolution and optimization of a real-time digital control system is presented. The control system is part of a testbed used to perform focused technology research on the interactions of spacecraft platform and instrument controllers with the flexible-body dynamics of the platform and platform appendages. The control system consists of Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) standard data acquisition equipment interfaced to a workstation computer. The goal of this work is to optimize the control system's performance to support controls research using controllers with up to 50 states and frame rates above 200 Hz. The original system could support a 16-state controller operating at a rate of 150 Hz. By using simple yet effective software improvements, Input/Output (I/O) latencies and contention problems are reduced or eliminated in the control system. The final configuration can support a 16-state controller operating at 475 Hz. Effectively the control system's performance was increased by a factor of 3.

  1. Control System Design of Shunt Active Power Filter Based on Active Disturbance Rejection and Repetitive Control Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To rely on joint active disturbance rejection control (ADRC and repetitive control (RC, in this paper, a compound control law for active power filter (APF current control system is proposed. According to the theory of ADRC, the uncertainties in the model and from the circumstance outside are considered as the unknown disturbance to the system. The extended state observer can evaluate the unknown disturbance. Next, RC is introduced into current loop to improve the steady characteristics. The ADRC is used to get a good dynamic performance, and RC is used to get a good static performance. A good simulation result is got through choosing and changing the parameters, and the feasibility, adaptability, and robustness of the control are testified by this result.

  2. Application of fractional control techniques in petrochemical process; Aplicacao de tecnicas de controle fracionario para processos petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isfer, Luis A.D.; Lenzi, Marcelo K. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lenzi, Ervin K. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work deals with the study of petrochemical process modeling and control using fractional differential equations. This kind of equation has been successfully used in modeling/identification, due to its powerful phenomenological description capability, generalizing conventional/classical models commonly used. Experimental data from literature were used for process identification and the mathematical model obtained, based on fractional differential equations, was the study of servo closed-loop control. Owing to its simplicity, the proportional type controller was used for this task, being able to control the process, keeping its stability, despite off-set. Different controller gains were used for simulation purposes, indicating that the higher the value of K{sub c}, the lower the off-set. (author)

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:1 Main Process Sewer Collection Line, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-06-11

    The 100-C-9:1 main process sewer pipeline, also known as the twin box culvert, was a dual reinforced process sewer that collected process effluent from the 183-C and 190-C water treatment facilities, discharging at the 132-C-2 Outfall. For remedial action purposes, the 100-C-9:1 waste site was subdivided into northern and southern sections. The 100-C-9:1 subsite has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. ISAAC (integrated Structural Analysis and Control) via Continuum Modeling and Distributed Frequency Domain Design Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, C. L.; Aswani, M.; Doran, A. L.; Tseng, G. T.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for the integrated design of structures and their controls. The integration of design is accomplished through simultaneous selection, via optimization, of designer-specified parameters governing the structure and its controller. The cost function is chosen to address the primary structural and control goals. Inequality constraints are added to insure that additional design requirements are met. The methodology is illustrated through development of an example involving a cantilever beam. A distributed transfer function is derived from the Bernoulli-Euler beam equation. A controller parameterization is then chosen, and performance requirements specified. A controller is then obtained via optimization, which is shown to give good performance.

  5. Model Predictive Control techniques with application to photovoltaic, DC Microgrid, and a multi-sourced hybrid energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmand, Mohammad Bagher

    Renewable energy sources continue to gain popularity. However, two major limitations exist that prevent widespread adoption: availability and variability of the electricity generated and the cost of the equipment. The focus of this dissertation is Model Predictive Control (MPC) for optimal sized photovoltaic (PV), DC Microgrid, and multi-sourced hybrid energy systems. The main considered applications are: maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by MPC, droop predictive control of DC microgrid, MPC of grid-interaction inverter, MPC of a capacitor-less VAR compensator based on matrix converter (MC). This dissertation firstly investigates a multi-objective optimization technique for a hybrid distribution system. The variability of a high-penetration PV scenario is also studied when incorporated into the microgrid concept. Emerging (PV) technologies have enabled the creation of contoured and conformal PV surfaces; the effect of using non-planar PV modules on variability is also analyzed. The proposed predictive control to achieve maximum power point for isolated and grid-tied PV systems speeds up the control loop since it predicts error before the switching signal is applied to the converter. The low conversion efficiency of PV cells means we want to ensure always operating at maximum possible power point to make the system economical. Thus the proposed MPPT technique can capture more energy compared to the conventional MPPT techniques from same amount of installed solar panel. Because of the MPPT requirement, the output voltage of the converter may vary. Therefore a droop control is needed to feed multiple arrays of photovoltaic systems to a DC bus in microgrid community. Development of a droop control technique by means of predictive control is another application of this dissertation. Reactive power, denoted as Volt Ampere Reactive (VAR), has several undesirable consequences on AC power system network such as reduction in power transfer capability and increase in

  6. Randomised controlled trial of Alexander technique lessons, exercise, and massage (ATEAM) for chronic and recurrent back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; Lewith, George; Webley, Fran; Evans, Maggie; Beattie, Angela; Middleton, Karen; Barnett, Jane; Ballard, Kathleen; Oxford, Frances; Smith, Peter; Yardley, Lucy; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Sharp, Debbie

    2008-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of lessons in the Alexander technique, massage therapy, and advice from a doctor to take exercise (exercise prescription) along with nurse delivered behavioural counselling for patients with chronic or recurrent back pain. Factorial randomised trial. Setting 64 general practices in England. 579 patients with chronic or recurrent low back pain; 144 were randomised to normal care, 147 to massage, 144 to six Alexander technique lessons, and 144 to 24 Alexander technique lessons; half of each of these groups were randomised to exercise prescription. Normal care (control), six sessions of massage, six or 24 lessons on the Alexander technique, and prescription for exercise from a doctor with nurse delivered behavioural counselling. Roland Morris disability score (number of activities impaired by pain) and number of days in pain. Exercise and lessons in the Alexander technique, but not massage, remained effective at one year (compared with control Roland disability score 8.1: massage -0.58, 95% confidence interval -1.94 to 0.77, six lessons -1.40, -2.77 to -0.03, 24 lessons -3.4, -4.76 to -2.03, and exercise -1.29, -2.25 to -0.34). Exercise after six lessons achieved 72% of the effect of 24 lessons alone (Roland disability score -2.98 and -4.14, respectively). Number of days with back pain in the past four weeks were lower after lessons (compared with control median 21 days: 24 lessons -18, six lessons -10, massage -7) and quality of life improved significantly. No significant harms were reported. One to one lessons in the Alexander technique from registered teachers have long term benefits for patients with chronic back pain. Six lessons followed by exercise prescription were nearly as effective as 24 lessons.

  7. Comparison of three different techniques for camera and motion control of a teleoperated robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doisy, Guillaume; Ronen, Adi; Edan, Yael

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate new methods for robot motion control and camera orientation control through the operator's head orientation in robot teleoperation tasks. Specifically, the use of head-tracking in a non-invasive way, without immersive virtual reality devices was combined and compared with classical control modes for robot movements and camera control. Three control conditions were tested: 1) a condition with classical joystick control of both the movements of the robot and the robot camera, 2) a condition where the robot movements were controlled by a joystick and the robot camera was controlled by the user head orientation, and 3) a condition where the movements of the robot were controlled by hand gestures and the robot camera was controlled by the user head orientation. Performance, workload metrics and their evolution as the participants gained experience with the system were evaluated in a series of experiments: for each participant, the metrics were recorded during four successive similar trials. Results shows that the concept of robot camera control by user head orientation has the potential of improving the intuitiveness of robot teleoperation interfaces, specifically for novice users. However, more development is needed to reach a margin of progression comparable to a classical joystick interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptive critic learning techniques for engine torque and air-fuel ratio control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Javaherian, Hossein; Kovalenko, Olesia; Huang, Ting

    2008-08-01

    A new approach for engine calibration and control is proposed. In this paper, we present our research results on the implementation of adaptive critic designs for self-learning control of automotive engines. A class of adaptive critic designs that can be classified as (model-free) action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming is used in this research project. The goals of the present learning control design for automotive engines include improved performance, reduced emissions, and maintained optimum performance under various operating conditions. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we developed a neural network model of the engine and neural network controllers based on the idea of approximate dynamic programming to achieve optimal control. We have developed and simulated self-learning neural network controllers for both engine torque (TRQ) and exhaust air-fuel ratio (AFR) control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values. For both control problems, excellent neural network controller transient performance has been achieved.

  9. Remnant preservation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction versus standard techniques: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianjun; Zeng, Chun; Pan, Jianying; Zhao, Chang; Fang, Hang; Cai, Daozhang

    2017-01-01

    Preserving the remnant during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is considered beneficial for graft healing, but it might increase the technical difficulties and complications. This study was to compare outcomes of using the technique of remnant preservation during the ACL reconstruction versus the standard procedure with the debridement of remnant. We searched PubMed and EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing the outcomes of ACL reconstruction both with and without remnant preservation. The risk of bias was assessed in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed to compare results. Six randomized controlled trials with 346 patients were included. Statistically significant differences in favor of using technique of remnant preservation were observed for Lysholm Score, arthrometer measurements, and tibial tunnel enlargement. There was no significant difference between remnant technique of preservation and the standard procedure with respect to the IKDC (International Knee Documentation Committee) grade, IKDC score, Lachman Test, Pivot-shift Test, range of motion (ROM), and the incidence of the cyclops lesion. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed that ACL reconstruction with technique of remnant preservation cannot provide superior clinical outcomes compared with the standard procedure.

  10. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 in therapeutic dosing and safety of acenocoumarol treatment: implication for clinical practice in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Reka; Sipeky, Csilla; Nagy, Lajos; Balogh, Sandor; Melegh, Bela

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the contribution of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 to acenocoumarol (AC) dose variability, bleeding events in Hungary. The study recruited 117 patients on long-term AC therapy (INR 2-3), and 510 healthy individuals to model the findings. Patients were genotyped for alleles proved to affect lower AC overdose CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2. Additionally, we tested VKORC1*3, VKORC1*4 to examine their effect in patients with higher AC requirements. Most impact on dose reduction is accountable for CYP2C9*2/*3 (59%) and for VKORC1*2/*2 (45.5%), and on dose increase for newly evaluated VKORC1*3/*4 (22.5%) diplotypes. VKORC1*3 and *4 alleles seem to balance the dose-reducing effect of VKORC1*2 allele. Being a carrier of combination of VKORC1*2 and CYP2C9*2,*3 polymorphisms, rather than of one of these SNPs, is associated with higher risk of over-anticoagulation (up to 34.3%) in long-term AC treatment. The pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm involving VKORC1, CYP2C9 diplotypes and age explains 30.4% of AC dosing variability (p<6.10×10 -9 ). Correlation between the studied diplotypes and bleeding events could not be revealed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Distinct clinical characteristics of C9orf72 expansion carriers compared with GRN, MAPT, and nonmutation carriers in a Flanders-Belgian FTLD cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Langenhove, Tim; van der Zee, Julie; Gijselinck, Ilse; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; De Bleecker, Jan; Sieben, Anne; Versijpt, Jan; Ivanoiu, Adrian; Deryck, Olivier; Willems, Christiana; Dillen, Lubina; Philtjens, Stéphanie; Maes, Githa; Bäumer, Veerle; Van Den Broeck, Marleen; Mattheijssens, Maria; Peeters, Karin; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Michotte, Alex; Santens, Patrick; De Jonghe, Peter; Cras, Patrick; De Deyn, Peter P; Cruts, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2013-03-01

    To characterize patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with a repeat expansion mutation in the gene C9orf72, and to determine whether there are differences in the clinical presentation compared with FTLD carriers of a mutation in GRN or MAPT or with patients with FTLD without mutation. Patient series. Dementia clinics in Flanders, Belgium. Two hundred seventy-five genetically and phenotypically thoroughly characterized patients with FTLD. Clinical and demographic characteristics of 26 C9orf72 expansion carriers compared with patients with a GRN or MAPT mutation, as well as patients with familial and sporadic FTLD without mutation. C9orf72 expansion carriers developed FTLD at an early age (average, 55.3 years; range, 42-69 years), significantly earlier than in GRN mutation carriers or patients with FTLD without mutation. Mean survival (6.2 years; range, 1.5-17.0 years) was similar to other patient groups. Most developed behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (85%), with disinhibited behavior as the prominent feature. Concomitant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a strong distinguishing feature for C9orf72 -associated FTLD. However, in most patients (73%), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis symptoms were absent. Compared with C9orf72 expansion carriers, nonfluent aphasia and limb apraxia were significantly more common in GRN mutation carriers. C9orf72 -associated FTLD most often presents with early-onset behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with disinhibition as the prominent feature, with or without amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Based on the observed genotype-phenotype correlations between the different FTLD syndromes and different genetic causes, we propose a decision tree to guide clinical genetic testing in patients clinically diagnosed as having FTLD.

  12. Feedback control linear, nonlinear and robust techniques and design with industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dodds, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    This book develops the understanding and skills needed to be able to tackle original control problems. The general approach to a given control problem is to try the simplest tentative solution first and, when this is insufficient, to explain why and use a more sophisticated alternative to remedy the deficiency and achieve satisfactory performance. This pattern of working gives readers a full understanding of different controllers and teaches them to make an informed choice between traditional controllers and more advanced modern alternatives in meeting the needs of a particular plant. Attention is focused on the time domain, covering model-based linear and nonlinear forms of control together with robust control based on sliding modes and the use of state observers such as disturbance estimation. Feedback Control is self-contained, paying much attention to explanations of underlying concepts, with detailed mathematical derivations being employed where necessary. Ample use is made of diagrams to aid these conce...

  13. The development of robot system for pressurizer in NPPs - The development of path planning for remote controller and control technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Woo; Kwon, Cheol; Lee, Sung Ryul [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The pressurizer-maintenance robot, the development goal in this research, performs replacement the malfunctioning electric heat tube existing under the pressurizer's manhole if malfunctions checked by naked eyes. At this time, it is needed robot's position control and minimizing vibration of wire caused by robot's operation. To control the vibration of wire, the mathematical modeling of 2-dimensional crane's motion performed by robot manipulator is achieved and controller is constructed on this foundation. As a model based controller, full state feed back controller is designed at first. And as a robust controller, sliding mode controller is designed. The pressurizer maintenance robot performs sensor processing by a camera. The visual information of wire is achieved by CCD camera and from this information the vibration angle of the wire can be known. Additionally by attaching CCD camera to system, checking inside pressurizer with naked eye is enabled from external safe places. 25 refs., 14 figs. (Author)

  14. The Tilburg double blind randomised controlled trial comparing inguinal hernia repair according to Lichtenstein and the transinguinal preperitoneal technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerritsen Pieter G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anterior open treatment of the inguinal hernia with a tension free mesh has reduced the incidence of recurrence and direct postoperative pain. The Lichtenstein procedure rules nowadays as reference technique for hernia treatment. Not recurrences but chronic pain is the main postoperative complication in inguinal hernia repair after Lichtenstein's technique. Preliminary experiences with a soft mesh placed in the preperitoneal space showed good results and less chronic pain. Methods The TULIP is a double-blind randomised controlled trial in which 300 patients will be randomly allocated to anterior inguinal hernia repair according to Lichtenstein or the transinguinal preperitoneal technique with soft mesh. All unilateral primary inguinal hernia patients eligible for operation who meet inclusion criteria will be invited to participate in this trial. The primary endpoint will be direct postoperative- and chronic pain. Secondary endpoints are operation time, postoperative complications, hospital stay, costs, return to daily activities (e.g. work and recurrence. Both groups will be evaluated. Success rate of hernia repair and complications will be measured as safeguard for quality. To demonstrate that inguinal hernia repair according to the transinguinal preperitoneal (TIPP technique reduces postoperative pain to Discussion The TULIP trial is aimed to show a reduction in postoperative chronic pain after anterior hernia repair according to the transinguinal preperitoneal (TIPP technique, compared to Lichtenstein. In our hypothesis the TIPP technique reduces chronic pain compared to Lichtenstein. Trial registration ISRCTN 93798494

  15. Application of a colorimetric technique in quality control for printed pediatric orodispersible drug delivery systems containing propranolol hydrochloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vakili, Hossein; Nyman, Johan O; Genina, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    hydrochloride in a colored ink base using three different edible substrates. A thin sweetener coating layer of saccharin was successfully included in the final dosage forms for palatability purposes using a casting knife. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and scanning white light interferometry......The feasibility of a colorimetric technique was investigated in CIELAB color space as an analytical quality control method for content uniformity of printed orodispersible pediatric delivery systems. Inkjet printing was utilized to fabricate orodispersibe film formulations containing propranolol....... to disintegrate within 180s. The colorimetric technique proved to be a reliable method to distinguish the small color differences between formulations containing an escalating dose of propranolol hydrochloride....

  16. Probing small-molecule binding to cytochrome P450 2D6 and 2C9: An in silico protocol for generating toxicity alerts.

    OpenAIRE

    Rossato Gianluca; Ernst Beat; Smiesko Martin; Spreafico Morena; Vedani Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Drug metabolism toxicity and their interaction profiles are major issues in the drug discovery and lead optimization processes. The cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 2D6 and 2C9 are enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of a majority of marketed drugs. Therefore the prediction of the binding affinity towards CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 would be beneficial for identifying cytochrome mediated adverse effects triggered by drugs or chemicals (e.g. toxic reactions drug drug and food drug interactions). By iden...

  17. Stereoselective Synthesis of the C1-C9 and C11-C25 Fragments of Amphidinolides C, C2, C3, and F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akwaboah, Daniel C; Wu, Dimao; Forsyth, Craig J

    2017-03-03

    An efficient synthesis of the C1-C9 and the C11-C25 fragments of amphidinolides C, C2, C3, and F from a common intermediate is reported. The construction of the C1-C9 fragment involves an intramolecular hetero-Michael cyclization to form the 3,5-disubstituted trans-tetrahydrofuran moiety. The approach to prepare the C11-C25 fragment utilizes a highly stereoselective aerobic cobalt-catalyzed alkenol cyclization and a chelated Mukaiyama aldol reaction to form the C13-C14 bond and to concomitantly install the C13 hydroxyl group.

  18. Understanding and controlling spin-systems using electron spin resonance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Mathew

    Single molecule magnets (SMMs) posses multi-level energy structures with properties that make them attractive candidates for implementation into quantum information technologies. However there are some major hurdles that need to be overcome if these systems are to be used as the fundamental components of an eventual quantum computer. One such hurdle is the relatively short coherence times these systems display which severely limits the amount of time quantum information can remain encoded within them. In this dissertation, recent experiments conducted with the intent of bringing this technology closer to realization are presented. The detailed knowledge of the spin Hamiltonian and mechanisms of decoherence in SMMs are absolutely essential if these systems are to be used in technologies. To that effect, experiments were done on a particularly promising SMM, the complex K6[VIV15AsIII 6O42(H2O)] · 8H2O, known as V15. High-field electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were performed on this system at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. The resulting spectra allowed for detailed analysis of the V15 spin Hamiltonian which will be presented as well as the most precise values yet reported for the g-factors of this system. Additionally, the line widths of the ESR spectra are studied in depth and found to reveal that fluctuations within the spin-orbit interaction are a mechanism for decoherence in V15. A new model for decoherence is presented that describes very well both the temperature and field orientation dependences of the measured ESR line widths. Also essential is the ability to control spin-states of SMMs. Presented in this dissertation as well is the demonstration of the coherent manipulation of the multi-state spin system Mn2+ diluted in MgO by means of a two-tone pulse drive. Through the detuning between the excitation and readout radio frequency pulses it is possible to select the number of photons involved in a Rabi oscillation as well as increase

  19. Polynomial fuzzy model-based control systems stability analysis and control synthesis using membership function dependent techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Hak-Keung

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research on the stability analysis of polynomial-fuzzy-model-based control systems where the concept of partially/imperfectly matched premises and membership-function dependent analysis are considered. The membership-function-dependent analysis offers a new research direction for fuzzy-model-based control systems by taking into account the characteristic and information of the membership functions in the stability analysis. The book presents on a research level the most recent and advanced research results, promotes the research of polynomial-fuzzy-model-based control systems, and provides theoretical support and point a research direction to postgraduate students and fellow researchers. Each chapter provides numerical examples to verify the analysis results, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed polynomial fuzzy control schemes, and explain the design procedure. The book is comprehensively written enclosing detailed derivation steps and mathematical derivations also for read...

  20. Project orie:nta.teci pla.:n:ni:ng, scheduling a.:nci controlling technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    way is to prepare a bar or Gantt chart and, although this is extremely simple in many cases, it does not .... illustration on the Critical Path Diagram. (Fig. J) for a house building project. Example - Building a ... 19,21,22-24. 0. These events and activities are presented in the diagram (fig. 1) following the CPM technique. 13.

  1. Effects of pushing techniques during the second stage of labor: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refika Genç Koyucu

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Although the duration of the second stage of labor was longer compared to valsalva pushing technique, women were able to give birth without requiring any verbal or visual instruction, without exceeding the limit value of two hours and without affecting fetal wellness and neonatal results.

  2. Anesthetic techniques and haemodynamic control for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A retrospective analysis and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelautham Suhitharan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Inhaled anesthesia is the preferred maintenance technique used for ESS. The desired MAP range was achieved in about 75% of the cases without needing anti hypertensives. Use of remifentanil reduces the MAP and HR further which might potentially improve the quality of surgical field and the outcome.

  3. The development of advanced instrumentation and control technology -The development of digital monitoring technique-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jong Sun; Lee, Byung Sun; Han, Sang Joon; Shin, Yong Chul; Kim, Yung Baek; Kim, Dong Hoon; Oh, Yang Kyoon; Suh, Yung; Choi, Chan Duk; Kang, Byung Hun; Hong, Hyung Pyo; Shin, Jee Tae; Moon, Kwon Kee; Lee, Soon Sung; Kim, Sung Hoh; Koo, In Soo; Kim, Dong Wan; Huh, Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    A study has been performed for the advanced DSP technology for digital nuclear I and C systems and its prototype, and for the monitoring and diagnosing techniques for the highly-pressurized components in NSSS. In the DSP part, the DSP requirements for NPPs have been induced for the performance of the DSP systems and the functional analysis for Reactor Coolant System (RCS) has been performed as the embodied target system. Total quantities of the I and C signals, signal types, and signal functions were also investigated in Ulchin NPP units 3 and 4. From these basis, the prototype facility was configured for performance validation and algorithm implementation. In order to develop the methods of DSP techniques and algorithms, the current signal validation methods have been studied and analyzed. In the analysis for the communication networks in NPP, the basic technique for the configuration of communication networks and the important considerations for applying to NPPs have been reviewed. Test and experimental facilities have been set up in order to carry out the required tests during research activities on the monitoring techniques for abnormal conditions. Studies were concentrated on methods how to acquire vibration signals from the mechanical structures and equipment including rotating machinery and reactor, and analyses for the characteristics of the signals. Fuzzy logic was evaluated as a good technique to improve the reliability of the monitoring and diagnosing algorithm through the application of the theory such as the automatic pattern recognition algorithm of the vibration spectrum, the alarm detection and diagnosis for collisions of loose parts. 71 figs, 32 tabs, 64 refs. (Author).

  4. Neuro-Fuzzy Computational Technique to Control Load Frequency in Hydro-Thermal Interconnected Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this research work, two areas hydro-thermal power system connected through tie-lines is considered. The perturbation of frequencies at the areas and resulting tie line power flows arise due to unpredictable load variations that cause mismatch between the generated and demanded powers. Due to rising and falling power demand, the real and reactive power balance is harmed; hence frequency and voltage get deviated from nominal value. This necessitates designing of an accurate and fast controller to maintain the system parameters at nominal value. The main purpose of system generation control is to balance the system generation against the load and losses so that the desired frequency and power interchange between neighboring systems are maintained. The intelligent controllers like fuzzy logic, artificial neural network (ANN) and hybrid fuzzy neural network approaches are used for automatic generation control for the two area interconnected power systems. Area 1 consists of thermal reheat power plant whereas area 2 consists of hydro power plant with electric governor. Performance evaluation is carried out by using intelligent (ANFIS, ANN and fuzzy) control and conventional PI and PID control approaches. To enhance the performance of controller sliding surface i.e. variable structure control is included. The model of interconnected power system has been developed with all five types of said controllers and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The performance of the intelligent controllers has been compared with the conventional PI and PID controllers for the interconnected power system. A comparison of ANFIS, ANN, Fuzzy and PI, PID based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANFIS over ANN, fuzzy and PI, PID. Thus the hybrid fuzzy neural network controller has better dynamic response i.e., quick in operation, reduced error magnitude and minimized frequency transients.

  5. Modeling and adaptive control of a camless engine using neural networks and estimation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, S. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-08-09

    A system to control the cylinder air charge (CAC) in a camless internal combustion (IC) engine was recently developed. The performance of an IC engine connected to an adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) based feedback controller was then investigated. A control oriented model for the engine intake process was created based on thermodynamics laws and was validated against engine experimental data. Input-output data at a speed of 1500 RPM was generated and used to train an ANN model for the engine. The inputs were the intake valve lift (IVL) and closing timing (IVC). The output was the CAC. The controller consisted of a feedforward controller, CAC estimator, and on-line ANN parameter estimator. The feedforward controller provided IVL and IVC that satisfied the driver's torque demand and was the inverse of the engine ANN model. The on-line ANN used the error between the CAC measurement from the CAC estimator and its predicted value from the ANN to update the network's parameters. The feedforward controller was therefore adapted since its operation depended on the ANN model. The adaptation scheme improved the ANN prediction accuracy when the engine parts degraded, the speed changed or when modeling errors occurred. The engine controller exhibited good CAC tracking performance. Computer simulation demonstrated the capability of the camless engine controller. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  6. A Study of Linear vs. Nonlinear Control Techniques for the Reconfiguration of Satellite Formations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irvin, David

    2001-01-01

    This thesis investigates several linear and nonlinear feedback control methods for satellite formation reconfigurations and compares them to a near optimal open loop, discrete-time, impulsive maneuver...

  7. Training secondary school teachers in instructional language modification techniques to support adolescents with language impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Julia; Munro, Natalie; Togher, Leanne; Arciuli, Joanne

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a collaborative intervention where a speech-language pathologist (SLP) trained mainstream secondary school teachers to make modifications to their oral and written instructional language. The trained teachers' uptake of techniques in their whole-class teaching practices and the impact this had on the language abilities of students with language impairment (LI) were evaluated. Two secondary schools were randomly assigned to either a trained or a control condition. A cohort of 13 teachers (7 trained and 6 control) and 43 Year 8 students with LI (21 trained and 22 control) were tested at pre, post, and follow-up times-teachers by structured interview and students by standardized spoken and written language assessments. Significantly increased use of the language modification techniques by the trained teachers was observed when compared to the control group of untrained teachers, with this increased use maintained over time. Results from the trained group of students showed a significant improvement in written expression and listening comprehension relative to the control group of students. This randomized controlled trial is one of the first investigations to evaluate a collaborative intervention that links changes in mainstream secondary teachers' instructional language practices with improvements in the language abilities of adolescents with LI.

  8. Development and Quantification of UV-Visible and Laser Spectroscopic Techniques for Materials Accountability and Process Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Czerwinski; Phil Weck; Frederic Poineau

    2010-12-29

    Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Visible) and Time Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) optical techniques can permit on-line, real-time analysis of the actinide elements in a solvent extraction process. UV-Visible and TRLFS techniques have been used for measuring the speciation and concentration of the actinides under laboratory conditions. These methods are easily adaptable to multiple sampling geometries, such as dip probes, fiber-optic sample cells, and flow-through cell geometries. To fully exploit these techniques for GNEP applications, the fundamental speciation of the target actinides and the resulting influence on 3 spectroscopic properties must be determined. Through this effort detection limits, process conditions, and speciation of key actinide components can be establish and utilized in a range of areas of interest to GNEP, especially in areas related to materials accountability and process control.

  9. Demonstration of visualization techniques for the control room engineer in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Heussen, Kai; Strasser, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Deliverable 8.1 reports results on analytics and visualizations of real time flexibility in support of voltage and frequency control in 2030+ power system. The investigation is carried out by means of relevant control room scenarios in order to derive the appropriate analytics needed for each spe...

  10. A technique for improved stability of adaptive feedforward controllers without detailed uncertainty measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    Model errors in adaptive controllers for reduction of broadband noise and vibrations may lead to unstable systems or increased error signals. Previous work has shown that the addition of a low-authority controller that increases damping in the system may lead to improved performance of an adaptive,

  11. A technique for improved stability of adaptive feedforward controllers without detailed uncertainty measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Model errors in adaptive controllers for reduction of broadband noise and vibrations may lead to unstable systems or increased error signals. Previous work has shown that the addition of a low-authority controller that increases damping in the system may lead to improved performance of an adaptive,

  12. Applications of chaos control techniques to a three-species food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, A.A. [CBPF, R.Xavier Sigaud, 150, RJ, CEP 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Manica, E. [Department of Mathematics, 301 Thackeray Hall, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)], E-mail: evm4@pitt.edu; Varriale, M.C. [Instituto de Matematica, UFRGS, RS, CEP 91509-900 (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    We achieve control of deterministic chaos in an ecosystem model, involving three first-order nonlinear differential equations with a control parameter, recently proposed by Hastings and Powell (HP) in order to describe the dynamical behavior of a three-species food chain. After identifying a chaotic attractor corresponding to a particular value of the parameter of this ecological model, we locate periodic saddle orbits embedded in it. By applying the Ott-Grebogi-Yorke (OGY) method of controlling chaos, which introduces small time-dependent perturbations on the system parameter, we stabilize two of the saddle orbits. Furthermore, we check the versatility of the OGY method, as the system behavior is allowed to switch between 'no control' and 'control' about one or other of different stabilized periodic orbits.

  13. Comparison of two temperature control techniques in a forced water heater solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, E.; E Guzmán, R.; Santos, A.; Cordoba, E.

    2017-12-01

    a study on the performance of a forced solar heating system in which a comparative analysis of two control strategies, including the classic on-off control and PID control is presented. From the experimental results it was found that the two control strategies show a similar behaviour in the solar heating system forced an approximate settling time of 60 min and over-elongation 2°C for the two control strategies. Furthermore, the maximum temperature in the storage tank was 46°C and the maximum efficiency of flat plate collector was 76.7% given that this efficiency is the ratio of the energy of the radiation on the collector and the energy used to heat water. The efficiency obtained is a fact well accepted because the business efficiencies of flat plate collectors are approximately 70%.

  14. Position control of an electro-pneumatic system based on PWM technique and FLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjari, Behrouz; Barakati, S Masoud; Mohammadi, Ali; Futohi, Muhammad J; Bostanian, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, modeling and PWM based control of an electro-pneumatic system, including the four 2-2 valves and a double acting cylinder are studied. Dynamic nonlinear behavior of the system, containing fast switching solenoid valves and a pneumatic cylinder, as well as electrical, magnetic, mechanical, and fluid subsystems are modeled. A DC-DC power converter is employed to improve solenoid valve performance and suppress system delay. Among different position control methods, a proportional integrator derivative (PID) controller and fuzzy logic controller (FLC) are evaluated. An experimental setup, using an AVR microcontroller is implemented. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Air-fuel ratio and speed control for low emission vehicles based on sliding mode techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puleston, P.F. [UNLP, La Plata (Argentina). Departamento de Electrotecnia, CONICET and LEICI; Monsees, G. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Information, Technology and Systems, Control Laboratory; Spurgeon, S.K. [University of Leicester (United Kingdom). Department of Engineering, Control and Instrumentation Group

    2002-05-01

    This paper deals with the combined air-fuel ratio (AFR) and speed control of automotive engines. The robust controller is developed using dynamic sliding mode (SM) control design methods. The proposed controller set-up is tested under realistic operating conditions by means of computer simulation using a comprehensive non-linear model of a four-stroke engine, specifically provided by the automotive industry for these purposes. This accurate industrial model comprises extensive dynamics description and numerous look-up tables representing parameter characteristics obtained from experimental data. The SM controller set-up proves to be robust to model uncertainties and unknown disturbances, regulating effectively the engine speed for a wide range of set-points while maintaining the AFR at the stoichiometric value. (author)

  16. Efficacy of the Alexander Technique in treating chronic non-specific neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Schuth, Mareike; Schwickert, Myriam; Lüdtke, Rainer; Musial, Frauke; Michalsen, Andreas; Dobos, Gustav; Choi, Kyung-Eun

    2016-03-01

    To test the efficacy of the Alexander Technique, local heat and guided imagery on pain and quality of life in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. A randomized controlled trial with 3 parallel groups was conducted. Outpatient clinic, Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine. A total of 72 patients (65 females, 40.7±7.9 years) with chronic non-specific neck pain. Patients received 5 sessions of the Alexander Technique--an educational method which aims to modify dysfunctional posture, movement and thinking patterns associated with musculoskeletal disorders. Control groups were treated with local heat application or guided imagery. All interventions were conducted once a week for 45 minutes each. The primary outcome measure at week 5 was neck pain intensity on a 100-mm visual analogue scale; secondary outcomes included neck disability, quality of life, satisfaction and safety. Analyses of covariance were applied; testing ordered hypotheses. No group difference was found for pain intensity for the Alexander Technique compared to local heat (difference 4.5mm; 95% CI:-8.1;17.1; p=0.48), but exploratory analysis revealed the superiority of the Alexander Technique over guided imagery (difference -12.9 mm; 95% CI:-22.6;-3.1, p=0.01). Significant group differences in favor of the Alexander Technique were also found for physical quality of life (P<0.05). Adverse events mainly included slightly increased pain and muscle soreness. The Alexander Technique was not superior to local heat application in treating chronic non-specific neck pain. It cannot be recommended as routine intervention at this time. Further trials are warranted for conclusive judgment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Applied methods and techniques for mechatronic systems modelling, identification and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Quanmin; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Yongji; Zhao, Dongya

    2014-01-01

    Applied Methods and Techniques for Mechatronic Systems brings together the relevant studies in mechatronic systems with the latest research from interdisciplinary theoretical studies, computational algorithm development and exemplary applications. Readers can easily tailor the techniques in this book to accommodate their ad hoc applications. The clear structure of each paper, background - motivation - quantitative development (equations) - case studies/illustration/tutorial (curve, table, etc.) is also helpful. It is mainly aimed at graduate students, professors and academic researchers in related fields, but it will also be helpful to engineers and scientists from industry. Lei Liu is a lecturer at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), China; Quanmin Zhu is a professor at University of the West of England, UK; Lei Cheng is an associate professor at Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China; Yongji Wang is a professor at HUST; Dongya Zhao is an associate professor at China University o...

  18. Research to support sterile-male-release and genetic alteration techniques for sea lamprey control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated pest management of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes has recently been enhanced by addition of a sterile-male-release program, and future developments in genetic approaches may lead to additional methods for reducing sea lamprey reproduction. We review the development, implementation, and evaluation of the sterile-male-release technique (SMRT) as it is being applied against sea lampreys in the Great Lakes, review the current understanding of SMRT efficacy, and identify additional research areas and topics that would increase either the efficacy of the SMRT or expand its geographic potential for application. Key areas for additional research are in the sterilization process, effects of skewed sex ratios on mating behavior, enhancing attractiveness of sterilized males, techniques for genetic alteration of sea lampreys, and sources of animals to enhance or expand the use of sterile lampreys.

  19. Radiation Techniques for Increasing Local Control in the Non-Surgical Management of Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L.; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of patients with rectal cancer can achieve clinical complete response following long-course chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and there is accumulating clinical evidence that these patients can be managed non-surgically with acceptable oncological outcome. Consequently, strategies for increasing...... for dose escalation are considered. Ultimately, no technique provides definitive advantage over others, and the choice in clinical practice will have to depend on the patient population treated as well as the technical capabilities of the treating department....

  20. The Alexander Technique and musicians: a systematic review of controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Sabine; Bayard, Claudine; Wolf, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders, stress and performance anxiety are common in musicians. Therefore, some use the Alexander Technique (AT), a psycho-physical method that helps to release unnecessary muscle tension and re-educates non-beneficial movement patterns through intentional inhibition of unwanted habitual behaviours. According to a recent review AT sessions may be effective for chronic back pain. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of AT sessions o...

  1. Dynamic Simulations & Animations of the Classical Control Techniques with Linear Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet ALTINTAŞ; Güven, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and learning techniques using computer-based resources greatly improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the learning process. Currently, there are a lot of simulation and animation packages in use, and some of them are developed for educational purposes. The dynamic simulations-animations (DSA) allow us to see physical movement of the different pieces according to the modeled system. Education-purposed packages cannot be sufficiently flexible in different branches of  sci...

  2. Control of dengue vector by the sterile insect technique considering logistic recruitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteva, L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Matematicas; Lab-Epifisma, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Yang, H.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Ciencia da Computacao. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada; Lab-Epifisma, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    We propose a mathematical model to assess the effects of irradiated male insects introduction in a previously infested region, taking into account the logistic recruitment of sterile male insects. The release of sterile male insects aims to displace gradually the natural (or wild) insect from the habitat. We discuss the suitability of this release technique when applied to peridomestic adapted Aedes aegypyti mosquitoes which are transmitters of Yellow Fever and Dengue disease. (author)

  3. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Rai Aneja; Romika Dhiman; Neeraj Kumar Aggarwal; Ashish Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Therma...

  4. Optimized Scheduling Technique of Null Subcarriers for Peak Power Control in 3GPP LTE Downlink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is a key multiple access technique for the long term evolution (LTE) downlink. However, high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) can cause the degradation of power efficiency. The well-known PAPR reduction technique, dummy sequence insertion (DSI), can be a realistic solution because of its structural simplicity. However, the large usage of subcarriers for the dummy sequences may decrease the transmitted data rate in the DSI scheme. In this paper, a novel DSI scheme is applied to the LTE system. Firstly, we obtain the null subcarriers in single-input single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, respectively; then, optimized dummy sequences are inserted into the obtained null subcarrier. Simulation results show that Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) sequence is the best for the dummy sequence and the ratio of 16 to 20 for the WHT and randomly generated sequences has the maximum PAPR reduction performance. The number of near optimal iteration is derived to prevent exhausted iterations. It is also shown that there is no bit error rate (BER) degradation with the proposed technique in LTE downlink system. PMID:24883376

  5. Optimized scheduling technique of null subcarriers for peak power control in 3GPP LTE downlink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soobum; Park, Sang Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is a key multiple access technique for the long term evolution (LTE) downlink. However, high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) can cause the degradation of power efficiency. The well-known PAPR reduction technique, dummy sequence insertion (DSI), can be a realistic solution because of its structural simplicity. However, the large usage of subcarriers for the dummy sequences may decrease the transmitted data rate in the DSI scheme. In this paper, a novel DSI scheme is applied to the LTE system. Firstly, we obtain the null subcarriers in single-input single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, respectively; then, optimized dummy sequences are inserted into the obtained null subcarrier. Simulation results show that Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) sequence is the best for the dummy sequence and the ratio of 16 to 20 for the WHT and randomly generated sequences has the maximum PAPR reduction performance. The number of near optimal iteration is derived to prevent exhausted iterations. It is also shown that there is no bit error rate (BER) degradation with the proposed technique in LTE downlink system.

  6. An evaluation of statistical process control techniques applied to blood component quality monitoring with particular reference to CUSUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, M J; Madden, S; Curnow, E; Collett, D; Procter, S; Rowe, G P

    2012-08-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) is used to monitor the performance of blood component collection and production processes in the UK and elsewhere. The sensitivity of the applied technique(s) needs to be matched to the clinical importance of the parameter being monitored such that significant deviations in the process mean and/or variability of critical parameters (e.g. the leucocyte content of leucodepleted components) are detected and investigated immediately. This study assessed the sensitivity and specificity of a range of techniques for variable and attribute (proportion non-conforming) data. Comparison was based on a range of simulated and 'live' blood component quality monitoring data including X/R, cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedures, the scan statistic and np charts. X/R and CUSUM could detect shifts of two standard deviations in the process mean within 5 days. Current leucocyte count data (substantially skewed even after log transformation) was found to be better suited to attribute analysis. CUSUM alone was able to detect shifts on the same day when based on 20 or more samples and achieved acceptable specificity. CUSUM procedures for proportion non-conforming can usefully augment existing X/R techniques for leucodepletion monitoring, provide valid control limits and the required sensitivity. The scan statistic and 'np' charts offered no obvious advantages. © 2012 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2012 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  7. Can the Alexander Technique improve balance and mobility in older adults with visual impairments? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Michael; Sherrington, Catherine; Lo, Serigne; Keay, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the impact of Alexander Technique lessons on balance and mobility in older adults with visual impairments. Randomized assessor blinded controlled trial with intervention and usual care control groups. Participants' homes. A total of 120 community-dwellers aged 50+ with visual impairments. Twelve weeks of Alexander lessons and usual care. Short Physical Performance Battery items were primary outcomes at 3 months and secondary outcomes at 12 months. Additional secondary outcomes were postural sway, maximal balance range and falls over 12 months. Between-group differences in primary outcomes were not significant. The intervention group reduced postural sway on a firm surface with eyes open at 3 months after adjusting for baseline values (-29.59 mm, 95%CI -49.52 to -9.67, P Alexander Technique is warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Simpler ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.; Cowart, Hugh; Stevens, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The heart of flight operations control involves a) communicating effectively in real time with other controllers in the room and/or in remote locations and b) tracking significant events, decisions, and rationale to support the next set of decisions, provide a thorough shift handover, and troubleshoot/improve operations. International Space Station (ISS) flight controllers speak with each other via multiple voice circuits or loops, each with a particular purpose and constituency. Controllers monitor and/or respond to several loops concurrently. The primary tracking tools are console logs, typically kept by a single operator and not visible to others in real-time. Information from telemetry, commanding, and planning systems also plays into decision-making. Email is very secondary/tertiary due to timing and archival considerations. Voice communications and log entries supporting ISS operations have increased by orders of magnitude because the number of control centers, flight crew, and payload operations have grown. This paper explores three developmental ground system concepts under development at Johnson Space Center s (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) and Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC). These concepts could reduce ISS control center voice traffic and console logging yet increase the efficiency and effectiveness of both. The goal of this paper is to kindle further discussion, exploration, and tool development.

  9. Comparison of Extremum-Seeking Control Techniques for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Han Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to Japan’s recent nuclear crisis and petroleum price hikes, the search for renewable energy sources has become an issue of immediate concern. A promising candidate attracting much global attention is solar energy, as it is green and also inexhaustible. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT controller is employed in such a way that the output power provided by a photovoltaic (PV system is boosted to its maximum level. However, in the context of abrupt changes in irradiance, conventional MPPT controller approaches suffer from insufficient robustness against ambient variation, inferior transient response and a loss of output power as a consequence of the long duration required of tracking procedures. Accordingly, in this work the maximum power point tracking is carried out successfully using a sliding mode extremum-seeking control (SMESC method, and the tracking performances of three controllers are compared by simulations, that is, an extremum-seeking controller, a sinusoidal extremum-seeking controller and a sliding mode extremum-seeking controller. Being able to track the maximum power point promptly in the case of an abrupt change in irradiance, the SMESC approach is proven by simulations to be superior in terms of system dynamic and steady state responses, and an excellent robustness along with system stability is demonstrated as well.

  10. Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity A. Roddick

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment as it greatly compromises the efficiency of the treatment processes. It is difficult to control, and significant economic resources have been dedicated to the development of effective biofouling monitoring and control strategies. This paper highlights the underlying causes of membrane biofouling and provides a review on recent developments of potential monitoring and control methods in water and wastewater treatment with the aim of identifying the remaining issues and challenges in this area.

  11. Musical Applications and Design Techniques for the Gametrak Tethered Spatial Position Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freed, Adrian; Overholt, Daniel; Hansen, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    tangible gaming interface that promotes inter-generational creative play and discovery . After introducing the peculiarities of the GameTrak and comparing it to related spatial position sensing systems we survey musical applications of the device. The short paper format cannot do justice to the depth......The Gametrak spatial position controller has been saved from the fate of so many discontinued gaming controllers to become an attractive and increasingly popular platform for experimental musical controllers, math and science manipulatives, large scale interactive installations and as a playful...

  12. Vibration Control of a Semiactive Vehicle Suspension System Based on Extended State Observer Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A feedback control method based on an extended state observer (ESO method is implemented to vibration reduction in a typical semiactive suspension (SAS system using a magnetorheological (MR damper as actuator. By considering the dynamic equations of the SAS system and the MR damper model, an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC is designed based on the ESO. Numerical simulation and real-time experiments are carried out with similar vibration disturbances. Both the simulation and experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in vibration suppression for a SAS system.

  13. Sliding Mode Control Technique: Application to a Four Rotors Mini-Flying Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemalache, K. M.; Tahar, M.; Omari, A.; Maaref, H.

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents the study of stabilization with motion planning of the four rotors mini-flying robot (helicopter with four rotors). The dynamic model involves four control inputs which are computed to stabilize the engine with predefined trajectories path. The tracking feedback controller is based on receding horizon point to point steering. It is clear that our device belongs to families of under-actuated systems. Our aim is to obtain control algorithms using the cascade sliding mode approach in order to stabilize the engine and to generate its trajectory.

  14. Sequence variations in C9orf72 downstream of the hexanucleotide repeat region and its effect on repeat-primed PCR interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordin, Angelica; Akimoto, Chizuru; Wuolikainen, Anna

    2017-01-01

    A large GGGGCC-repeat expansion mutation (HREM) in C9orf72 is the most common known cause of ALS and FTD in European populations. Sequence variations immediately downstream of the HREM region have previously been observed and have been suggested to be one reason for difficulties in interpreting RP...

  15. Evidence that C9ORF72 Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Associate with U2 snRNP to Cause Mis-splicing in ALS/FTD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanye Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene results in production of dipeptide repeat (DPR proteins that may disrupt pre-mRNA splicing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD patients. At present, the mechanisms underlying this mis-splicing are not understood. Here, we show that addition of proline-arginine (PR and glycine-arginine (GR toxic DPR peptides to nuclear extracts blocks spliceosome assembly and splicing, but not other types of RNA processing. Proteomic and biochemical analyses identified the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP as a major interactor of PR and GR peptides. In addition, U2 snRNP, but not other splicing factors, mislocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm both in C9ORF72 patient induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived motor neurons and in HeLa cells treated with the toxic peptides. Bioinformatic studies support a specific role for U2-snRNP-dependent mis-splicing in C9ORF72 patient brains. Together, our data indicate that DPR-mediated dysfunction of U2 snRNP could account for as much as ∼44% of the mis-spliced cassette exons in C9ORF72 patient brains.

  16. iTRAQ based investigation of plasma proteins in HIV infected and HIV/HBV coinfected patients - C9 and KLK are related to HIV/HBV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Li; Wu, Ao; Zhang, Yujiao; Jia, Xiaofang; Yin, Lin; Lu, Hongzhou; Zhang, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) share similar routes of transmission, and rapid progression of hepatic and immunodeficiency diseases has been observed in coinfected individuals. Our main objective was to investigate the molecular mechanism of HIV/HBV coinfections. We selected HIV infected and HIV/HBV coinfected patients with and without Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). Low abundance proteins enriched using a multiple affinity removal system (MARS) were labeled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) kits and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The differential proteins were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) database. A total of 41 differential proteins were found in HIV/HBV coinfected patients as compared to HIV mono-infected patients with or without HAART treatment, including 7 common HBV-regulated proteins. The proteins involved in complement and coagulation pathways were significantly enriched, including plasma kallikrein (KLK) and complement component C9 (C9). C9 and KLK were verified to be down-regulated in HIV/HBV coinfected patients through ELISA analysis. The present iTRAQ based proteomic analyses identified 7 proteins that are related to HIV/HBV coinfection. HBV might influence hepatic and immune functions by deregulating complement and coagulation pathways. C9 and KLK could potentially be used as targets for the treatment of HIV/HBV coinfections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Combination of phenotype assessments and CYP2C9-VKORC1 polymorphisms in the determination of warfarin dose requirements in heavily medicated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, V; Vanier, M-C; Brouillette, D; Roy, D; Verret, L; Noel, N; Taillon, I; O'Hara, G; Gossard, D; Champagne, M; Goodman, K; Renaud, Y; Brown, A; Phillips, M; Ajami, A M; Turgeon, J

    2008-05-01

    The relative contribution of phenotypic measures and CYP2C9-vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) polymorphisms to warfarin dose requirements at day 14 was determined in 132 hospitalized, heavily medicated patients. Phenotypic measures were (1) the urinary losartan metabolic ratio before the first dose of warfarin, (2) the S:R-warfarin ratio at day 1, and (3) a dose-adjusted international normalized ratio (INR) at day 4. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes were determined by gene chip analysis. In multivariate analyses, the dose-adjusted INR at day 4 explained 31% of variability observed in warfarin doses at day 14, whereas genotypic measures (CYP2C9-VKORC1) contributed 6.5%. When S:R-warfarin ratio was used, genotypes contributed more significantly (23.5%). Finally, urinary losartan metabolic ratio was of low predictive value. The best models obtained explained 51% of intersubject variability in warfarin dose requirements. Thus, combination of a phenotypic measure to CYP2C9-VKORC1 genotypes represents a useful strategy to predict warfarin doses in patients receiving multiple drugs (11+/-4 drugs/day).

  18. Distinct Clinical Characteristics of C9orf72 Expansion Carriers Compared With GRN, MAPT, and Nonmutation Carriers in a Flanders-Belgian FTLD Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Langenhove, Tim; van der Zee, Julie; Gijselinck, Ilse; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; De Bleecker, Jan; Sieben, Anne; Versijpt, Jan; Ivanoiu, Adrian; Deryck, Olivier; Willems, Christiana; Dillen, Lubina; Philtjens, Stephanie; Maes, Githa; Baumer, Veerle; Van den Broeck, Marleen; Mattheijssens, Maria; Peeters, Karin; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Michotte, Alex; Santens, Patrick; De Jonghe, Peter; Cras, Patrick; De Deyn, Peter P.; Cruts, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    Objective: To characterize patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with a repeat expansion mutation in the gene C9orf72, and to determine whether there are differences in the clinical presentation compared with FTLD carriers of a mutation in GRN or MAPT or with patients with FTLD

  19. Cognitive and clinical characteristics of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis carrying a C9orf72 repeat expansion: a population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2012-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motor neurons, associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in about 14% of incident cases. We assessed the frequency of the recently identified C9orf72 repeat expansion in familial and apparently sporadic cases of ALS and characterised the cognitive and clinical phenotype of patients with this expansion.

  20. Ant colony method to control variance reduction techniques in the Monte Carlo simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Pareja, S. [Servicio de Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Carlos Haya' , Avda. Carlos Haya, s/n, E-29010 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: garciapareja@gmail.com; Vilches, M. [Servicio de Fisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Virgen de las Nieves' , Avda. de las Fuerzas Armadas, 2, E-18014 Granada (Spain); Lallena, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2007-09-21

    The ant colony method is used to control the application of variance reduction techniques to the simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators of use in cancer therapy. In particular, splitting and Russian roulette, two standard variance reduction methods, are considered. The approach can be applied to any accelerator in a straightforward way and permits, in addition, to investigate the 'hot' regions of the accelerator, an information which is basic to develop a source model for this therapy tool.

  1. A Novel Architecture for Adaptive Traffic Control in Network on Chip using Code Division Multiple Access Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh. Dehghani; Shahram. Darooei

    2016-01-01

    Network on chip has emerged as a long-term and effective method in Multiprocessor System-on-Chip communications in order to overcome the bottleneck in bus based communication architectures. Efficiency and performance of network on chip is so dependent on the architecture and structure of the network. In this paper a new structure and architecture for adaptive traffic control in network on chip using Code Division Multiple Access technique is presented. To solve the problem of synchronous acce...

  2. A Sterile Insect Technique (S.I.T.) Study Project to control Medfly in a Southern region of Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tata, A.; Cirio, U.; Balducci, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1997-12-01

    Since 1967 the National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment (ENEA) namely the main Italian governmental technological research organization, is carrying out R and D programmes and demonstrative projects aimed to set up S.I.T. (Sterile Insect Technique) processes. In the framework of a world-wide growing interest concerning pest control technology, the National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment (ENEA) developed a very large industrial project aimed to control Medfly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) with reference to fruit crops situation in Sicily region (Southern of Italy) through the production and spreading of over 250 million sterile flies per week.

  3. Model Standards and Techniques for Control of Radon in New Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to serve as a model for use to develop and adopt building codes, appendices to codes, or standards specifically applicable to unique local or regional radon control requirements.

  4. Fuzzy control techniques applied to a three phase synchronous rectifier current loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Berzoy-Lleren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta tres técnicas de control difuso de estructura variable (FVSC aplicadas al lazo de control de corriente en un rectificador síncrono trifásico. Estas técnicas se basan en un controlador PI difuso Takagi-Sugeno (T-S. El primer controlador es un FVSC de primer orden que se usa como referencia. A continuación se presentan y prueban dos estrategias FVSC, FVSC de segundo y tercer orden. Estos esquemas de control se simulan primero y luego se prueban en un rectificador síncrono de propósito general de laboratorio. Los resultados experimentales muestran que el rendimiento del control es bueno en los tres esquemas, logrando compensación de las corrientes armónicas y corrección del factor de potencia.

  5. Vibration Reduction Methods and Techniques for Rotorcraft Utilizing On-Blade Active Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rotor blades adapted for vibration control have the added benefit of extended blade and rotor life, as well as improved passenger comfort. Approaches that have been...

  6. Active Flow Control with Adaptive Design Techniques for Improved Aircraft Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The increased aircraft safety potential of active flow control using synthetic jets - specifically, using synthetic jets on the leading edge of the wing to delay...

  7. Improving powerlifters’ technical preparedness at initial training stage using a device for remote control of competitive exercises technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Власов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to improve powerlifters’ technical preparedness at the initial training stage using a device for remote control of the competitive exercises technique. Materials and methods. The study relied on the following methods used: theoretical analysis and collation of data of scientific and methodological literature and internet; pedagogical observation; pedagogical experiment; methods of mathematical statistics. Results. We have designed an algorithmic structure for teaching squats with a barbell on shoulders in powerlifting and a device for remote control of the competitive exercises technique. We used the pedagogical experiment and pedagogical observation of the competitive activity to reveal reliable deviations (p > 0.05 in the number of mistakes made by the athletes of the reference and experimental groups during the competitive activity. The reference group powerlifters made the mistake “no straight angle between the knee and the hip joints when performing the third stage” twelve times, while the experimental group athletes — seven times. Conclusions. The results obtained allow to maintain that the experimental group athletes have more rationally mastered the competitive exercises technique and made fewer mistakes compared to the control group powerlifters. This confirms the effectiveness of the designed algorithmic structure for teaching squats with a barbell on shoulders.

  8. Modulation Techniques for Multi-Phase Converters and Control Strategies for Multi-Phase Electric Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Mengoni, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing spread of automation in industry puts the electrical engineer in a central role as a promoter of technological development in a sector such as the use of electricity, which is the basis of all the machinery and productive processes. Moreover the spread of drives for motor control and static converters with structures ever more complex, places the electrical engineer to face new challenges whose solution has as critical elements in the implementation of digital control tech...

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of Plantar-Massage Techniques on Postural Control in Those With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikstrom, Erik A; Song, Kyeongtak; Lea, Ashley; Brown, Nastassia

    2017-07-01

      One of the major concerns after an acute lateral ankle sprain is the potential for development of chronic ankle instability (CAI). The existing research has determined that clinician-delivered plantar massage improves postural control in those with CAI. However, the effectiveness of self-administered treatments and the underlying cause of any improvements remain unclear.   To determine (1) the effectiveness of a self-administered plantar-massage treatment in those with CAI and (2) whether the postural-control improvements were due to the stimulation of the plantar cutaneous receptors.   Crossover study.   University setting.   A total of 20 physically active individuals (6 men and 14 women) with self-reported CAI.   All participants completed 3 test sessions involving 3 treatments: a clinician-delivered manual plantar massage, a patient-delivered self-massage with a ball, and a clinician-delivered sensory brush massage.   Postural control was assessed using single-legged balance with eyes open and the Star Excursion Balance Test.   Static postural control improved (P ≤ .014) after each of the interventions. However, no changes in dynamic postural control after any of the interventions were observed (P > .05). No differences were observed between a clinician-delivered manual plantar massage and either a patient-delivered self-massage with a ball or a clinician-delivered sensory brush massage in any postural-control outcome.   In those with CAI, single 5-minute sessions of traditional plantar massage, self-administered massage, and sensory brush massage each resulted in comparable static postural-control improvements. The results also provide empirical evidence suggesting that the mechanism for the postural-control improvements is the stimulation of the plantar cutaneous receptors.

  10. Advanced Techniques for Deploying Reliable and Efficient Access Control: Application to E-healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaïdi, Faouzi; Labbene-Ayachi, Faten; Bouhoula, Adel

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, e-healthcare is a main advancement and upcoming technology in healthcare industry that contributes to setting up automated and efficient healthcare infrastructures. Unfortunately, several security aspects remain as main challenges towards secure and privacy-preserving e-healthcare systems. From the access control perspective, e-healthcare systems face several issues due to the necessity of defining (at the same time) rigorous and flexible access control solutions. This delicate and irregular balance between flexibility and robustness has an immediate impact on the compliance of the deployed access control policy. To address this issue, the paper defines a general framework to organize thinking about verifying, validating and monitoring the compliance of access control policies in the context of e-healthcare databases. We study the problem of the conformity of low level policies within relational databases and we particularly focus on the case of a medical-records management database defined in the context of a Medical Information System. We propose an advanced solution for deploying reliable and efficient access control policies. Our solution extends the traditional lifecycle of an access control policy and allows mainly managing the compliance of the policy. We refer to an example to illustrate the relevance of our proposal.

  11. Nonparametric Online Learning Control for Soft Continuum Robot: An Enabling Technique for Effective Endoscopic Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kit-Hang; Fu, Denny K C; Leong, Martin C W; Chow, Marco; Fu, Hing-Choi; Althoefer, Kaspar; Sze, Kam Yim; Yeung, Chung-Kwong; Kwok, Ka-Wai

    2017-12-01

    Bioinspired robotic structures comprising soft actuation units have attracted increasing research interest. Taking advantage of its inherent compliance, soft robots can assure safe interaction with external environments, provided that precise and effective manipulation could be achieved. Endoscopy is a typical application. However, previous model-based control approaches often require simplified geometric assumptions on the soft manipulator, but which could be very inaccurate in the presence of unmodeled external interaction forces. In this study, we propose a generic control framework based on nonparametric and online, as well as local, training to learn the inverse model directly, without prior knowledge of the robot's structural parameters. Detailed experimental evaluation was conducted on a soft robot prototype with control redundancy, performing trajectory tracking in dynamically constrained environments. Advanced element formulation of finite element analysis is employed to initialize the control policy, hence eliminating the need for random exploration in the robot's workspace. The proposed control framework enabled a soft fluid-driven continuum robot to follow a 3D trajectory precisely, even under dynamic external disturbance. Such enhanced control accuracy and adaptability would facilitate effective endoscopic navigation in complex and changing environments.

  12. Experimental Issues in Testing a Semiactive Technique to Control Earthquake Induced Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Caterino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the issues to deal with when approaching experimental testing of structures equipped with semiactive control (SA systems. It starts from practical experience authors gained in a recent wide campaign on a large scale steel frame structure provided with a control system based on magnetorheological dampers. The latter are special devices able to achieve a wide range of physical behaviours using low-power electrical currents. Experimental activities involving the use of controllable devices require special attention in solving specific aspects that characterize each of the three phases of the SA control loop: acquisition, processing, and command. Most of them are uncommon to any other type of structural testing. This paper emphasizes the importance of the experimental assessment of SA systems and shows how many problematic issues likely to happen in real applications are also present when testing these systems experimentally. This paper highlights several problematic aspects and illustrates how they can be addressed in order to achieve a more realistic evaluation of the effectiveness of SA control solutions. Undesired and unavoidable effects like delays and control malfunction are also remarked. A discussion on the way to reduce their incidence is also offered.

  13. Control of a reactive batch distillation process using an iterative learning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyunsoo; Lee, Kwang Soon [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mansuk; Lee, Juhyun [Samsung Cheil Industries Inc., Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Quadratic criterion-based iterative learning control (QILC) was applied to a numerical reactive batch distillation process, in which methacrylic anhydride (MAN) is produced through the reaction of methacrylic acid with acetic anhydride. The role of distillation is to shift the equilibrium conversion toward the direction of the product by removing acetic acid (AcH), a by-product of the reaction. Two temperatures at both ends of the column were controlled by individual control loops. A nonlinear PID controller manipulating the reflux ratio was employed to regulate the top temperature at the boiling point of AcH. A constrained QILC was used for the tracking of the reactor temperature. A time-varying reference trajectory for the reactor temperature that satisfies the target conversion and purity of MAN was obtained through repeated simulations and confirmation experiments in the pilot plant. The QILC achieved satisfactory tracking in several batch runs with gentle control movements, while the PID control as a substitute of the QILC in a comparative study exhibited unacceptable performance.

  14. Modeling and control of a nuclear power plant using AI techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Almeida, Jose Carlos Soares de, E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcsa@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants (NPPs) pressure control in the primary loops is fundamental for keeping the reactor in a safety condition and improve the generation process efficiency. The main component responsible for this task is the pressurizer. The pressurizer pressure control system (PPCS) utilizes heaters and spray valves to maintain the pressure within an operating band during steady state conditions, and limits the pressure changes during transient conditions. Relief and safety valves provide overpressure protection for the reactor coolant system (RCS) to ensure system integrity. Various protective reactor trips are generated if the system parameters exceed safe bounds. Historically, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is used in PWRs to keep the pressure in the set point, during those operation conditions. The purpose of this study is to develop fuzzy controllers for the PWR pressurizer modeled by an artificial neural network (ANN) and compare their performance with conventional ones. Data from a 2785 MWth Westinghouse 3-loop PWR simulator was used to test both the conventional and the fuzzy controllers. The simulation results show that the fuzzy controllers have better performance compared with conventional ones. (author)

  15. Efficacy of piroxicam for postoperative pain after lower third molar surgery associated with CYP2C8*3 and CYP2C9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo AM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Maria Calvo, Paulo Zupelari-Gonçalves, Thiago José Dionísio, Daniel Thomas Brozoski, Flávio Augusto Faria, Carlos Ferreira Santos Department of Biological Sciences, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Objective: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs, predominantly CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association of polymorphisms in the CYP2C8*3 and CYP2C9 genes with the clinical efficacy of oral piroxicam (20 mg daily for 4 days after lower third molar surgeries with regard to postoperative pain, swelling, trismus, adverse reactions, need for rescue medication and the volunteer’s overall satisfaction. Materials and methods: For this purpose, 102 volunteers were genotyped for CYP2C8*3 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms. Briefly, genomic DNA was isolated from saliva collected from volunteers subjected to invasive lower third molar surgeries, and the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative parameters were collected and analyzed. Results: An equal amount of piroxicam sufficiently managed postoperative pain and inflammatory symptoms, with visual analog pain scores typically <40 mm for all genotypes investigated. Furthermore, only two out of 102 volunteers heterozygous for CYP2C8*3 and CYP2C9*3 reported adverse side effects. Conclusion: In general, slow metabolizers of piroxicam, who were volunteers with mutant alleles, were indifferent from normal metabolizers with the wild-type alleles and therefore did not require specialized piroxicam doses to manage postoperative pain and inflammation. Keywords: piroxicam, lower third molar surgery, P450, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, pharmacogenetics 

  16. Stimulation of tolbutamide hydroxylation by acetone and acetonitrile in human liver microsomes and in a cytochrome P-450 2C9-reconstituted system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamanda, J; Feng, W W; Lin, C C; Nomeir, A A

    2000-01-01

    Organic solvents are often used to solubilize lipophilic new chemical entities before their addition to in vitro test systems such as microsomal stability or cytochrome P-450 (CYP) inhibition. However, the effect of these organic solvents on the test systems is not usually characterized. This study was initiated to evaluate the effect of acetonitrile and acetone, in addition to other organic solvents, on the tolbutamide hydroxylation activity of CYP2C9 in both human liver microsomes and a CYP2C9-reconstituted system. Both acetonitrile and acetone significantly stimulated the NADPH-dependent tolbutamide hydroxylation by nearly 2- to 3-fold in human liver microsomes and CYP2C9-reconstituted system when incubated at 2 and 4% final solvent concentrations. When cumene hydroperoxide was used instead of NADPH, both acetone and acetonitrile significantly inhibited tolbutamide hydroxylation. This NADPH-dependent stimulatory effect was further evaluated by examining the effect of a series of other organic solvents with different carbon chain lengths and various functional groups, including hydroxyl, ketone, and aldehyde. Unlike acetone, two other ketone-containing solvents, methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) and diethyl ketone (3-pentanone) failed to significantly enhance tolbutamide hydroxylation. Other solvents tested, including methanol, ethanol, propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, acetaldehyde, and dimethyl sulfoxide significantly inhibited NADPH-dependent tolbutamide hydroxylation. Overall, the stimulatory effect of both acetonitrile and acetone on tolbutamide hydroxylation was found to be primarily due to a consistent increase in V(max), whereas K(m) was unchanged in both human liver microsomes and the reconstituted CYP2C9 system. These data suggest that acetone and acetonitrile stimulate NADPH-mediated tolbutamide hydroxylation via the CYP reductase and not by modifying the affinity of tolbutamide for the CYP2C9 enzyme.

  17. The drop technique: a method to control the amount of fluoride dentifrice used by young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Fabiano Vieira; Silva, Henrique Mendes; Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho Sales; Caldana, Magali de Lourdes; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of dentifrice applied to the toothbrush by school children using a liquid dentifrice (drop technique), when compared to toothpaste. A total of 178 school children (4-8 years old) from two cities in Brazil (Bauru and Bariri) participated in the present two-part crossover study. Children from Bauru received training regarding tooth-brushing techniques and use of dentifrice before data collection. In each phase, the amount of toothpaste or liquid dentifrice applied by the children to the toothbrush was measured, using a portable analytical balance (+ 0.01 g). Data were tested by analysis of covariance (Ancova) and linear regression (p toothpaste and liquid dentifrice applied to the toothbrushes for children from Bauru were 0.41 +/- 0.20 g and 0.15 +/- 0.06 g, respectively. For children from Bariri, the amounts applied were and 0.48 +/- 0.24 g and 0.14 +/- 0.05 g, respectively. The amount of toothpaste applied was significantly larger than the amount of liquid dentifrice for both cities. Children from Bariri applied a significantly larger amount of toothpaste, when compared to those from Bauru. However, for the liquid dentifrice, there was no statistically significant difference between the cities. A significant correlation between the amount of toothpaste applied and the age of the children was verified, but the same was not found for the liquid dentifrice. The use of the drop technique reduced and standardised the amount of dentifrice applied to the toothbrush, which could reduce the risk of dental fluorosis for young children.

  18. Analytical techniques for determination and control of silica content in the water in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nataša R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrapure water with minimum contents of impurities is used for the preparation of steam in thermal power plants. More recently it has been found that the corrosion process is also influenced by sodium ions, chloride ions, and all forms of silicon in water. At higher temperatures and under high pressure the less soluble compounds of silicon are extracted, which form deposits on the walls of the boiler, the piping system and the turbine blades. Silicon is found in water in the form of different types (species which are characterized by specific physical and chemical properties. Distinctions can be made between highly reactive species of ionic (silicate anions and molecular forms (silicic acid and relatively inert types (suspended, colloidal, and polymerized silicon. The determination of various forms of silicon in water is a complex analytical task. This paper covers relevant research in the field of silicon specification analysis. Maintaining the unchanged, original composition of silicon species during various stages of analysis (sample collection, storage, and conservation has been given special attention. A large number of methods and procedures have been developed for the analysis of species of silicon, including chromatographic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques and combinations thereof. The techniques used for determining both the total amount and individual forms of silicon have been singled out. There is also an overview of the coupled techniques used most frequently in practice by using the methodology which involves preliminary separation of species and then individual specification. The paper offers an overview of analytical properties, advantages and disadvantages of the most representative analytical methods developed specifically for the analysis of silicon species in ultrapure water. The most important studies focusing on the silicon species in water have been highlighted and presented in detail. The determination of

  19. Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falate, Rosane [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica; Nike, Karen; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Cacao Junior, Eduardo; Muller, Marcia; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose; Fabris, Jose Luis [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: fabris@utfpr.edu.br

    2007-07-01

    We report the use of an optical fiber sensor to measure the soybean oil concentration in samples obtained from the mixture of pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil. The operation of the device is based on the long-period grating sensitivity to the surrounding medium refractive index, which leads to measurable modifications in the grating transmission spectrum. The proposed analysis method results in errors in the oil concentration of 0.4% and 2.6% for pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil, respectively. Techniques of total glycerol, dynamic viscosity, density, and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were also employed to validate the proposed method. (author)

  20. Site control technique for quantum dots using electron beam induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Kanji; Jung, JaeHun; Yokota, Hiroshi [Nippon Institute of Technology, 4-1 Gakuendai, Miyashiro, Minami-saitama, Saitama 3458501 (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    To develop simple and high throughput sit definition technique for quantum dots (QDs), the electron beam induced deposition (EBID) method was used as desorption guide of phosphorus atoms form InP substrate. As the results one or a few indium (In) droplets (DLs) were created in the carbon grid pattern by thermal annealing at a temperature of 450°C for 10 min in the ultra high vacuum condition. The size of In DLs was larger than QDs, but arsenide DLs by molecular beam in growth chamber emitted wavelength of 1.028μm at 50K by photoluminescence measurement.