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Sample records for c8 diazocine turn

  1. Conformational study of C8 diazocine turn mimics using {sup 3}J{sub CH} coupling constants with {sup 13}C in natural abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, J.W.; Briand, J.; Burgess, J.L.; Callahan, J.F. [SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, PA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The conformations of two diazocine turn mimics, which were later incorporated into GPIIb/IIIa peptide antagonists, were investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The two compounds, methyl (2,5-dioxo-3-(S)-(3-{omega}-tosylguanidino-propyl)-4-methyl-octahydro-1,4-dazocin-1-yl)acetate (1) and methyl (2,5-dioxo-3-(S)-(3-{omega}-tosyl-guanidino-propyl)-octahydro-1,5-diazocin-1-yl)acetate (2), differ only in their substituent at the diazocine position 4 nitrogen, yet this substitution results in a marked difference in the affinity of the resulting analogs for the GPIIb/IIIa receptor. It was of interest to determine if the difference observed in the antagonistic potency between these analogs was related to constitutional or, perhaps, conformational differences. The backbone conformations of these two molecules can be determined by measuring vicinal coupling constants along the trimethylene portion of the C8 ring backbone and by measuring interproton NOE intensities between the diazocine methine proton and the protons of the trimethylene group. For compound 1, {sup 3}J{sub HH} values measured from a P.E.COSY spectrum and interproton distances calculated from ROESY buildup curves indicated the presence of a single C8 ring backbone conformation where the trimethylene bridge adopted a staggered conformation and the H{alpha}1 and H{gamma}1 protons of the trimethylene group were 2.2 A from the methine proton. For compound 2, however, partial overlap of the central H{beta}1 and H{beta}2 protons made it impossible to measure {sup 3}J{sub HH} values from the P.E.COSY spectrum. We therefore used a {sup 13}C-filtered TOCSY experiment to measure the {sup 3}J{sub CH} values in both compounds 1 and 2. These heteronuclear vicinal coupling constants measured with {sup 13}C in natural abundance in conjunction with measured interproton NOE intensities indicate that these compounds share a common C8 ring backbone conformation.

  2. Skeletally Diverse Synthesis of Indole-Fused Diazocine and Diazepine Frameworks by One-Pot, Two-Component Cascade Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thikekar, Tushar Ulhas; Selvaraju, Manikandan; Sun, Chung-Ming

    2016-01-15

    An expeditious and novel strategy has been explored for the synthesis of structurally diverse indole-fused diazocine and diazepine derivatives. A substrate-based diversification approach of methyl-3-aminoindole/indoline benzoates coupled with the Pictet-Spengler reaction and three different reaction cascades furnished indolodiazepine and indoloquinoxalines. The formation of indolodiazocines proceeds through an initial condensation followed by intramolecular alkylation. PMID:26735127

  3. Structure and conformational analysis of 5,11-dibenzyldibenzo[b,f][1,5]diazocine-6,12-dione. A novel approach for new chemosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmacher, E.; Brouant, P.; Mrozek, A.; Karolak-Wojciechowska, J.; Barbe, J.

    2000-04-01

    On the basis of structural similarities between various calcium channel antagonists (Verapamil or Diltiazem) a novel series of derivatives belonging to the dibenzodiazocinedione family were designed and synthesised to obtain drugs able to revert multidrug resistance (MDR). X-ray structure studies and conformational analysis of 5,11-dibenzyldibenzo[b,f][1,5]diazocine-6,12-dione were performed. Molecular modelling results have shown that observed reversal activity of this new derivative could refer to a thermodynamically limited concentration in a peculiar (extended) conformation.

  4. Killing of Staphylococcus aureus by C-8-Methoxy Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xilin; Wang, Jian-Ying; Xu, Chen; Dong, Yuzhi; Zhou, Jianfeng; Domagala, John; Drlica, Karl

    1998-01-01

    C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones were more lethal than C-8-bromine, C-8-ethoxy, and C-8-H derivatives for Staphylococcus aureus, especially when topoisomerase IV was resistant. The methoxy group also increased lethality against wild-type cells when protein synthesis was inhibited. These properties encourage refinement of C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones to kill staphylococci.

  5. Turning Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Moves from the United States and North Korea give new impetus to nuclear disablement and U.S.-North Korea ties The tense situation surrounding denu-clearization on the Korean Peninsula has reached a turning point. On

  6. Taking Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Two people take turns selecting from an even number of items. Their relative preferences over the items can be described as a permutation, then tools from algebraic combinatorics can be used to answer various questions. We describe each person's optimal selection strategies including how each could make use of knowing the other's preferences. We…

  7. Studies on CYP2C8-mediated drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Tornio, Aleksi

    2008-01-01

    Useiden lÀÀkkeiden yhtÀaikainen kÀyttö on nykyÀÀn hyvin yleistÀ, mikÀ lisÀÀ lÀÀkeaineiden haitallisten yhteisvaikutusten riskiÀ. LÀÀkeaineiden poistumisessa elimistöstÀ ovat tÀrkeÀssÀ osassa niitÀ hajottavat (metaboloivat) maksan sytokromi P450 (CYP) entsyymit. Vasta aivan viime vuosina on havaittu, ettÀ CYP2C8-entsyymillÀ voi olla tÀrkeÀ merkitys mm. lÀÀkeaineyhteisvaikutuksissa. ErÀÀt lÀÀkeaineet voivat estÀÀ (inhiboida) CYP2C8-entsyymin kautta tapahtuvaa m...

  8. Cyclic disulfide C8 iminoporfiromycin: nucleophilic activation of a porfiromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyup; Kohn, Harold

    2004-04-01

    The clinical success of mitomycin C (1) and its associated toxicities and resistance have led to efforts to prepare semisynthetic analogues (i.e., KW-2149 (3), BMS-181174 (4)) that have improved pharmacological profiles. In this study, we report the preparation and evaluation of the novel 7-N-(1'-amino-4',5'-dithian-2'-yl)porfiromycin C(8) cyclized imine (6) and its reference compound, 7-N-(1'-aminocyclohex-2'-yl)porfiromycin C(8) cyclized imine (13). Porfiromycin 6 contains a disulfide unit that, upon cleavage, may provide thiol(s) that affect drug reactivity. We demonstrated that phosphines dramatically accelerated 6 activation and solvolysis in methanolic solutions ("pH 7.4") compared with 13. Porfiromycins 6 and 13 efficiently cross-linked EcoRI-linearized pBR322 DNA upon addition of Et3P. We found enhanced levels of interstrand cross-link (ISC) adducts for 6 and 13 compared with porfiromycin (7) and that 6 was more efficient than 13. The large Et3P-mediated rate enhancements for the solvolysis of 6 compared with 13 and a N(7)-substituted analogue of 1, and the increased levels of ISC adducts for 6 compared with 13 and 7 are attributed to a nucleophile-assisted disulfide cleavage process that permits porfiromycin activation and nucleophile (MeOH, DNA) adduction. The in vitro antiproliferative activities of 6 and 13 using the A549 tumor cell line (lung adenocarcinoma) were determined under aerobic and hypoxic conditions and then compared with 7. Both 6 and 13 were more cytotoxic than 7, with 13 being more potent than 6. The C(8) iminoporfiromycins 6 and 13 displayed anticancer profiles similar to 3. PMID:15053618

  9. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Enhanced stimulation of platelets by the terminal complement components is related to the lack of C8bp in the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaas, P; Berger, B; Weber, S; Peter, H H; Hänsch, G M

    1988-05-01

    Recently, a protein isolated from the membrane of human E, the so-called C8 binding protein (C8bp), has been described. C8bp is characterized as a 65-kDa protein that binds to C8 and inhibits the C5b-9-mediated lysis in a homologous system. In the present study, membranes of peripheral blood cells were tested for the presence of C8bp by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. In all cells a protein band reacting with anti-C8bp was seen, the Mr, however, was only about 50 kDa. To further analyze the 50-kDa protein, we isolated the protein by phenol-water extraction and isoelectric focusing from papain-treated platelets. The isolated protein behaved similar to the E-derived C8bp: it inhibited the lysis of model target cells by C5b-9. To examine the function of C8bp in platelets, we tested platelets from patients suffering from paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). These platelets were deficient in C8bp, being in accordance with their higher lytic susceptibility in vitro. In response to sublytic C5b-9 doses, the PNH platelets released considerably more serotonin and thromboxane B2 than normal platelets. By addition of purified C8bp, the thromboxane B2 release was suppressed, indicating that C8bp not only restricts the lytic complement attack, but also regulates the C5b-9-mediated stimulation of target cells. Thus, lack of C8bp might not only result in enhanced hemolysis, but also in enhanced stimulation of platelets, which in turn might contribute to the thrombotic complications seen in some PNH-type III patients.

  10. Structural and functional insights into CYP2C8.3:A genetic polymorph of cytochrome P450 2C8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily plays a key role in the oxidative metabolism of a wide range of exogenous chemicals. CYP2C8 is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism of the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel in the human liver, and carries out the oxidative metabolism of at least 5% of clinical drugs. Polymorphisms in CYP2C8 have been closely implicated in individualized medication. CYP2C8.3, a common polymorph of CYP2C8 with dual amino acid substitutions R139K and K399R, is found primarily in Caucasians. In this study, CYP2C8.3 and its wild type (WT) CYP2C8 were expressed in E. coli, and their purified proteins were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. Their thermal stability, substrate binding ability, and metabolic activity against paclitaxel were investigated. The electron transfer kinetics during paclitaxel metabolism by WT CYP2C8 or CYP2C8.3 was studied by stopped-flow kinetics. The results revealed that mutations in CYP2C8.3 did not greatly influence the heme active site or protein thermal stability and paclitaxel binding ability, but the metabolic activity against paclitaxel was significantly depressed to just 11% of that of WT CYP2C8. Electron transfer from CYP reductase to CYP2C8.3 was found to be significantly slower than that to WT CYP2C8 during catalysis, and this might be the main reason for the depressed metabolic activity. Since the polymorph CYP2C8.3 is defective in catalyzing substrates of CYP2C8 in vitro, it might be expected to have important clinical and pathophysiological consequences in homozygous individuals, and this study provides valuable information in this aspect.

  11. Molecular cloning of the alpha subunit of complement component C8 (CpC8α) of whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Conghui; Ye, Boping; Hua, Zichun

    2013-12-01

    Complement-mediated cytolysis is the important effect of immune response, which results from the assembly of terminal complement components (C5b-9). Among them, α subunit of C8 (C8α) is the first protein that traverses the lipid bilayer, and then initiates the recruitment of C9 molecules to form pore on target membranes. In this article, a full-length cDNA of C8α (CpC8α) is identified from the whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) by RACE. The CpC8α cDNA is 2183 bp in length, encoding a protein of 591 amino acids. The deduced CpC8α exhibits 89%, 49% and 44% identity with nurse shark, frog and human orthologs, respectively. Sequence alignment indicates that the C8α is well conserved during the evolution process from sharks to mammals, with the same modular architecture as well as the identical cysteine composition in the mature protein. Phylogenetic analysis places CpC8α and nurse shark C8α in cartilaginous fish clade, in parallel with the teleost taxa, to form the C8α cluster with higher vertebrates. Hydrophobicity analysis also indicates a similar hydrophobicity of CpC8α to mammals. Finally, expression analysis revealed CpC8α transcripts were constitutively highly expressed in shark liver, with much less expression in other tissues. The well conserved structure and properties suggests an analogous function of CpC8α to mammalian C8α, though it remains to be confirmed by further study.

  12. 76 FR 6335 - Sodium and Potassium Salts of N-alkyl (C8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    .... The linear fatty acid is metabolized via successive beta-oxidation cycles to release acetic acid and... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Sodium and Potassium Salts of N-alkyl (C 8 - C 18 )-beta-iminodipropionic acid... residues of sodium and potassium salts of N-alkyl (C 8 -C 18 )-beta-iminodipropionic acid where the C 8...

  13. Nematode Chemotaxis: Gradual Turns, Sharp Turns, and Modulated Turn Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amar; Padmanabhan, Venkat; Rumbaugh, Kendra; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-03-01

    We examine strategies used by the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans for chemotaxis in complex environments. The proposed description is based on our recently developed piecewise-harmonic-curvature model of nematode locomotion [PLoS ONE, 7(7) e40121 (2012)], where random harmonic-curvature modes represent elementary locomotory movements. We show that the previously described gradual-turn and sharp-turn chemotaxis strategies can be unified in our model. The gradual-turn mechanism relies on crawling amplitude changes commensurate with the undulation frequency. The sharp-turn mechanism consists in modulation of the frequency of jumps to large-amplitude modes. We hypothesize that there exists a third strategy, where the nematode adjusts the variance of the amplitude distribution. Such adjustments result in a modulation of the magnitude of random turns, with smaller turns performed when the nematode moves toward the increasing chemoatractant concentration. Experiments are proposed to determine if the third strategy is present in the nematode behavior. This work was supported by NSF grant No. CBET 1059745.

  14. Turning towards History: Turning towards Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman-Moir, John

    2004-01-01

    Turning towards history--to be contrasted with turning away from history--captures the Marxian sense of education. Marx worked out the elements of a theory of political education in relation to history by equating education with the coincidence of the changing of circumstances and people. This theory received its most comprehensive yet succinct…

  15. Role of Cytochrome P450 2C8 in Drug Metabolism and Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Janne T; Filppula, Anne M; Niemi, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2016-01-01

    During the last 10-15 years, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 has emerged as an important drug-metabolizing enzyme. CYP2C8 is highly expressed in human liver and is known to metabolize more than 100 drugs. CYP2C8 substrate drugs include amodiaquine, cerivastatin, dasabuvir, enzalutamide, imatinib, loperamide, montelukast, paclitaxel, pioglitazone, repaglinide, and rosiglitazone, and the number is increasing. Similarly, many drugs have been identified as CYP2C8 inhibitors or inducers. In vivo, already a small dose of gemfibrozil, i.e., 10% of its therapeutic dose, is a strong, irreversible inhibitor of CYP2C8. Interestingly, recent findings indicate that the acyl-β-glucuronides of gemfibrozil and clopidogrel cause metabolism-dependent inactivation of CYP2C8, leading to a strong potential for drug interactions. Also several other glucuronide metabolites interact with CYP2C8 as substrates or inhibitors, suggesting that an interplay between CYP2C8 and glucuronides is common. Lack of fully selective and safe probe substrates, inhibitors, and inducers challenges execution and interpretation of drug-drug interaction studies in humans. Apart from drug-drug interactions, some CYP2C8 genetic variants are associated with altered CYP2C8 activity and exhibit significant interethnic frequency differences. Herein, we review the current knowledge on substrates, inhibitors, inducers, and pharmacogenetics of CYP2C8, as well as its role in clinically relevant drug interactions. In addition, implications for selection of CYP2C8 marker and perpetrator drugs to investigate CYP2C8-mediated drug metabolism and interactions in preclinical and clinical studies are discussed. PMID:26721703

  16. The CYP2C8 inhibitor gemfibrozil does not affect the pharmacokinetics of zafirlukast

    OpenAIRE

    Karonen, Tiina; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Gemfibrozil, a strong inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 in vivo, was recently found to markedly increase the plasma concentrations of montelukast in humans. Like montelukast, zafirlukast is a substrate of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 and a potent inhibitor of CYP2C8 in vitro. To investigate the contribution of CYP2C8 to the metabolism of zafirlukast in vivo, we studied the effect of gemfibrozil on the pharmacokinetics of zafirlukast. ...

  17. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玮玮

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

  18. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(8)-1 - Installment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Installment method. 1.381(c)(8)-1 Section 1.381... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(8)-1 Installment method. (a) Carryover... corporation has elected under section 453 and the regulations thereunder to report on the installment...

  19. Role of cytochrome P450 2C8*3 (CYP2C8*3) in paclitaxel metabolism and paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Mi-Young; Apellániz-Ruiz, María; Johansson, Inger;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The CYP2C8*3 allele has been suggested as a risk factor for paclitaxel-induced neuropathy but the data hitherto published are conflicting. MATERIALS & METHODS: In total 435 patients were investigated with respect to maximum neuropathy grade and accumulated paclitaxel dose. The enzymatic prop...

  20. The Digital Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Westera, W. (2013, 22 May). The Digital Turn. How the internet transforms our existence. Invited presentation at the symposium "Onderwijsvernieuwen in crisistijd", Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit.

  1. To turn or not to turn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria typically swim in straight runs, interruped by sudden turning events. In particular, some species are limited to a reversal in the swimming direction as the only turning maneuver at their disposal. In a recent article, Großmann et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043009) introduce a theoretical framework to analyze the diffusive properties of active particles following this type of run-and-reverse pattern. Based on a stochastic clock model to mimic the regulatory pathway that triggers reversal events, they show that a run-and-reverse swimmer can optimize its diffusive spreading by tuning the reversal rate according to the level of rotational noise. With their approach, they open up promising new perspectives of how to incorporate the dynamics of intracellular signaling into coarse-grained active particle descriptions.

  2. Turning Coal Into Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's coal liquefaction industry is developing rapidly, but still needs improvement In its effort to become more self-sufficient in energy, China is turning to other countries, notably South Africa, to establish joint ventures in turning coal into oil. To China's Shenhua Group Corp. Ltd., one of the world's largest coal-producing companies, the government's 11th Five-Year

  3. Natural gas C3-C8 Hydrocarbon Enrichment Analysis Methods%天然气C3-C8烃类浓缩分析新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓春; 王璋

    2015-01-01

    天然气形成的原因,但在一般情况下,天然气和油的成因是不同的,在天然气中,所用的有用信息数量不多。根据这一情况,自己配制了以C3—C8烃为主的天然气浓缩器,而当场就可以去井口搜集天然气的、浓缩的样品,在此基础上,形成了以天然气C3—C8烃为主的浓缩方法。对于该方法,能把天然气中的C3—C8烃类物质分析出来,从而完成了任务,即对天然气组分不多、气源相对不易,这是一个新的思路、方法,值得我们学习。%The causes of the formation of natural gas,but in general,the causes of natural gas an d oil are different,in natural gas,the small number of useful information.According to this situation,make myself a predominantly C3 - C8 hydrocarbon gas concentrator,and can go on the wellhead collecting gas,concentration of sample,on this basis,formed mainly gas C3 - C8 hydrocarbon enrichment method.For the method,can change the C3 - C8 hydrocarbons in natural gas analysis,so as to complete the task,namely a few components of natural gas,gas source is relatively difficult,this is a new train of thought,method and worth our learning.

  4. Turn right at Orion

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    ""Turn Right at Orion is the account of an epic astronomical journey, discovered sixty million years in Earth's future-the product of one man's amazing, revelatory, and occasionally perilous space odys""

  5. Controlling of the optical properties of the solutions of the PTCDI-C8 organic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Erman; Gündüz, Bayram

    2016-09-01

    N,N'-Dioctyl-3,4,9,10 perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C8) organic semiconductor have vast applications in solar cells, thermoelectric generators, thin film photovoltaics and many other optoelectronic devices. These applications of the materials are based on their spectral and optical properties. The solutions of the PTCDI-C8 for different molarities were prepared and the spectral and optical mesaurements were analyzed. Effects of the molarities on optical properties were investigated. Vibronic structure has been observed based on the absorption bands of PTCDI-C8 semiconductor with seven peaks at 2.292, 2.451, 2.616, 3.212, 3.851, 4.477 and 4.733 eV. The important spectral parameteres such as molar/mass extinction coefficients, absorption coefficient of the PTCDI-C8 molecule were calculated. Optical properties such as angle of incidence/refraction, optical band gap, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant, loss factor and electrical susceptibility of the the PTCDI-C8 were obtained. Finally, we discussed these parameters for optoelectronic applications and compared with related parameters in literature.

  6. Impact of CYP2C8*3 on paclitaxel clearance in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Troels Korshøj; Vach, Werner; Gréen, Henrik;

    be partly responsible for this variation. Paclitaxel is mainly metabolized by CYP2C8; SNPs have been investigated in this context before but conclusions are still lacking. We present a prospective study of paclitaxel clearance (CL) in 93 Caucasian females with epithelial ovarian cancer with regard......Background Toxicity and therapeutic effects of paclitaxel vary greatly between patients and remain a clinically relevant problem with regard to the handling of dose delay/reduction or termination of treatment. We investigated the notion that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2C8 could...... to the CYP2C8 *1b, *1c, *3 and *4 genotypes. Material and methods All patients were diagnosed with primary ovarian/peritoneal cancer and received 175mg/m2 paclitaxel over 3 hrs plus carboplatin (AUC5-6) q3w. All patients gave written and verbal consent. The study was approved by ethics committees in Denmark...

  7. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2015-12-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.

  8. Influence of CYP2C8 polymorphisms on the hydroxylation metabolism of paclitaxel, repaglinide and ibuprofen enantiomers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lushan; Shi, Da; Ma, Liping; Zhou, Quan; Zeng, Su

    2013-07-01

    CYP2C8 plays an important role in the metabolism of various drugs, such as paclitaxel, repaglinide and ibuprofen. Polymorphisms in the CYP2C8 gene were shown to influence interindividual differences in the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel, repaglinide and ibuprofen enantiomers. In this study, three CYP2C8 allelic variants (CYP2C8.2, CYP2C8.3 and CYP2C8.4) and wild-type CYP2C8 (CYP2C8.1) were co-expressed for the first time with human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and cytochrome b5 by using a baculovirus-assisted insect cell expression system. Further, the effects of genotype-phenotype correlations of CYP2C8 alleles on the metabolism of paclitaxel, repaglinide and ibuprofen enantiomers were evaluated. The CLint values of CYP2C8.2, CYP2C8.3 and CYP2C8.4 for paclitaxel were 47.7%, 64.3% and 30.2% of that of CYP2C8.1 (pibuprofen and S-ibuprofen, respectively. Comparing hydroxylation by CYP2C8.1 and CYP2C8.3 resulted in higher and lower intrinsic clearance of repaglinide and ibuprofen enantiomers, respectively. These in vitro findings were consistent with the pharmacokinetics in volunteers who were heterozygous or homozygous carriers of CYP2C8*3. The results of this study provide useful information for predicting CYP2C8 phenotypes and may contribute to individualized drug therapy in the future.

  9. Impact of CYP2C8*3 on paclitaxel clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, T K; Brasch-Andersen, C; Gréen, H;

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CYP2C8*3 and three genetic ABCB1 variants on the elimination of paclitaxel. We studied 93 Caucasian women with ovarian cancer treated with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Using sparse sampling and nonlinear mixed effects modeling, the in...... associations found for CYP2C8*4 (P=0.04) and ABCC1 g.7356253C>G (P=0.04).The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 6 April 2010; doi:10.1038/tpj.2010.19....

  10. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...

  11. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW)

  12. Flip Turns with Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queeney, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Kate Queeney, a professor of chemistry at Smith College, turned to a former student to receive one-on-one instruction in swimming. The student, who had been unsure and scared in chemistry class, seemed like an entirely different person when teaching the teacher. This article describes how the author learned that there is something undeniably…

  13. Turning Marrow into Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ In unexpected testimony2 to the versatility3 of the body's cells,researchers have found they can make bone marrow cells turn into muscle, causing mice with muscular dystrophy4 to produce correctly working muscle cells. The experiment suggests that a form of bone marrow transplant- - a well established surgical procedure5- - could in principle treat patients with a variety of diseases.

  14. 75 FR 8796 - Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... model notice for plans in critical status. See 73 FR 15688 (Mar. 25, 2008). However, section 102(b)(1)(C...\\ Pursuant to Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1978, 43 FR 47713 (Oct. 17, 1978), the Department of the Treasury... regulation, to be codified at 29 CFR 2560.502c-8, without change. \\6\\ 74 FR 45791. B. Overview of Final...

  15. The impact of CYP2C8 polymorphism and grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidstrup, Tanja Busk; Damkier, Per; Olsen, Anette Kristensen; Ekblom, Marianne; Karlsson, Anders; Brøsen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Aims The primary aim of the study was to investigate the possible effect of the CYP2C8 3 allele and of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide. Furthermore, the impact of a single dose of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide in relation to dose. Methods Thirty-six healthy male subjects, genotyped for CYP2C8 3 (11 genotyped as CYP2C8 1/ 3, one as CYP2C8 3/ 3 and 24 as CYP2C8 1/ 1), participated in a randomized, cross-over trial. In the two phases, the subjects drank 300 mL water or 300 mL grapefruit juice, in randomized order, 2 h before administration of a single dose of either 0.25 mg or 2 mg repaglinide. Results Neither the mean AUC0−∞ (geometric mean ratio: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.93–1.1, P = 0.88) nor the mean Cmax (geometric mean ratio: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.94–1.2, P = 0.35) of repaglinide were statistically significantly different in the group carrying the CYP2C8 3 mutant allele compared with wild-types. Grapefruit juice caused a 19% decrease in the geometric mean ratio of the 3-hydroxyquinidine to quinidine ratio (difference: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.75–0.87, P < 0.0001), which was used as an index of CYP3A4 activity, and an increase in the mean AUC0−∞ of repaglinide (geometric mean ratio: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04–1.2, P = 0.0048), but had no statistically significant effect on the t1/2. There was no statistically significant difference in blood glucose concentration in subjects who had or had not ingested grapefruit juice. The effect was more pronounced at the low dose of repaglinide (0.25 mg) than at the therapeutic dose of 2 mg. Conclusions The pharmacokinetics of repaglinide in subjects carrying the CYP2C8*3 mutant allele did not differ significantly from those in the wild-types. Grapefruit juice increased the bioavailability of repaglinide, suggesting significant intestinal elimination of the drug which was assumed to be primarily mediated by CYP3A4 in the gut. PMID:16390351

  16. Diamond turning of glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  17. Without Turning A Hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    [英语对话] A:You see,our happiness depends on other people,and theirs depends on us, too. B:I know the philosophy.but in practice many things do not work that way. A:You don’t care?What about when people are trying to enrage you? B:I remain as what I am without turning a hair,of course.[对话译文

  18. Design, synthesis, and anticancer activity of C8-substituted-4'-thionucleosides as potential HSP90 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shuhao; Mulamoottil, Varughese A; Nayak, Akshata; Ryu, Seungyeon; Hou, Xiyan; Song, Jayoung; Yu, Jinha; Sahu, Pramod K; Zhao, Long Xuan; Choi, Sun; Lee, Sang Kook; Jeong, Lak Shin

    2016-08-15

    A series of C8-substituted-4'-thioadenosine analogs 3a-3g, 15, and 17 and their truncated derivatives 4a-4j, 23-25, and 27 have been successfully synthesized from d-ribose and d-mannose, respectively, employing Pummerer type or Vorbrüggen condensation reactions and the functionalization at the C8-position of nucleobase via Stille coupling or nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions as key steps. All the synthesized compounds were assayed for their HSP90 inhibitory activity, but they were found to be inactive up to 100μM. However, the 8-iodo derivatives 15, 17, and 27 exhibited potent anticancer activity, indicating that different mechanism of action might be involved in their biological activity. PMID:27283788

  19. Epigenetic regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by methylation of c8orf4 in pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Iona C; Barnes, Josephine L; Garner, Ian M; Pearce, David R; Maher, Toby M; Shiwen, Xu; Renzoni, Elisabetta A; Wells, Athol U; Denton, Christopher P; Laurent, Geoffrey J; Abraham, David J; McAnulty, Robin J

    2016-04-01

    Fibroblasts derived from the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) produce low levels of prostaglandin (PG) E2, due to a limited capacity to up-regulate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). This deficiency contributes functionally to the fibroproliferative state, however the mechanisms responsible are incompletely understood. In the present study, we examined whether the reduced level of COX-2 mRNA expression observed in fibrotic lung fibroblasts is regulated epigenetically. The DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AZA) restored COX-2 mRNA expression by fibrotic lung fibroblasts dose dependently. Functionally, this resulted in normalization of fibroblast phenotype in terms of PGE2 production, collagen mRNA expression and sensitivity to apoptosis. COX-2 methylation assessed by bisulfite sequencing and methylation microarrays was not different in fibrotic fibroblasts compared with controls. However, further analysis of the methylation array data identified a transcriptional regulator, chromosome 8 open reading frame 4 (thyroid cancer protein 1, TC-1) (c8orf4), which is hypermethylated and down-regulated in fibrotic fibroblasts compared with controls. siRNA knockdown of c8orf4 in control fibroblasts down-regulated COX-2 and PGE2 production generating a phenotype similar to that observed in fibrotic lung fibroblasts. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that c8orf4 regulates COX-2 expression in lung fibroblasts through binding of the proximal promoter. We conclude that the decreased capacity of fibrotic lung fibroblasts to up-regulate COX-2 expression and COX-2-derived PGE2 synthesis is due to an indirect epigenetic mechanism involving hypermethylation of the transcriptional regulator, c8orf4.

  20. The Affective Turn

    OpenAIRE

    Alí Lara; Giazú Enciso

    2013-01-01

    En la última década los estudios del afecto y las emociones han cobrado relevancia en las ciencias sociales. Esto no es simplemente una directriz de moda, es un indicador simultáneo de las modificaciones en la vida pública y de la experiencia subjetiva; a partir del cual se está transformando la producción de conocimiento. Tal tendencia ha sido conocida en la academia sajona como The Affective Turn, aquí traducido como “El giro afectivo” y que hasta el momento no ha incursionado como tal en l...

  1. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analyses of the Complement Component C8α, C8β and C9 Genes in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco after the Aeromonas hydrophila Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The complement components C8α, C8β and C9 have important roles in the innate immune system against invading microorganisms. Partial cDNA sequences of the Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9 genes (Pf: abbreviation of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were cloned from yellow catfish. The Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9 genes showed the greatest amino acid similarity to C8α (54% and C8β (62% of zebrafish and to C9 (52% of grass carp, respectively. Ontogenetic expression analyses using real-time quantitative PCR suggested that the three genes may play crucial roles during embryonic and early larval development. The mRNA expressions of the three genes were all at the highest levels in liver tissue, and at lower or much lower levels in 16 other tissues, demonstrating that the liver is the primary site for the protein synthesis of Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9. Injection of Aeromonas hydrophila led to up-regulation of the three genes in the spleen, head kidney, kidney, liver and blood tissues, indicating that the three genes may contribute to the host’s defense against invading pathogenic microbes. An increased understanding of the functions of the Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9 genes in the innate immunity of yellow catfish will help enhance production of this valuable freshwater species.

  2. The Affective Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alí Lara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade studies on affect and emotions have become relevant in the social sciences. This is not just a fad guideline, but instead a simultaneous reader of public life changes and subjective experience, from which it is also being transformed the knowledge production. Such a trend has been known as ‘The Affective Turn’ within the Anglophone Academy. Here we will translate it as ‘El Giro Afectivo’. This turn, so far, has not dabbled in the social science literature that is written in Spanish. This paper draws on a singular panorama of discussions about contemporary social studies of affect and emotion, and it’s vertebrate by some of its expressions in the contemporary academy.

  3. Virtual turning points

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Naofumi; Takei, Yoshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a virtual turning point truly is a breakthrough in WKB analysis of higher order differential equations. This monograph expounds the core part of its theory together with its application to the analysis of higher order Painlevé equations of the Noumi–Yamada type and to the analysis of non-adiabatic transition probability problems in three levels. As M.V. Fedoryuk once lamented, global asymptotic analysis of higher order differential equations had been thought to be impossible to construct. In 1982, however, H.L. Berk, W.M. Nevins, and K.V. Roberts published a remarkable paper in the Journal of Mathematical Physics indicating that the traditional Stokes geometry cannot globally describe the Stokes phenomena of solutions of higher order equations; a new Stokes curve is necessary.

  4. Synthesis and glycosidase inhibitory activity of new hexa-substituted C8-glycomimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prangé Thierry

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Text abstract Background Glycosidases are involved in several metabolic pathways and the development of inhibitors is an important challenge towards the treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, cancer and viral infections including AIDS. Thus, inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases can be used to treat diabetes through the lowering of blood glucose levels, and α-glucosidase inhibitors are being marketed against type 2 (non-insulinodependent mellitus diabetes (i.e.: Glyset® or Diastabol®, Basen® and Glucor® or Precose®. Results In that context, new C8-carbasugars and related aminocyclitols have been targeted in order to study the effect of the enhanced flexibility and of the new spatial distribution displayed by these structures on their adaptability in the active site of the enzymes. The synthesis of these new C8-glycomimetics is described from enantiomerically pure C2-symmetrical polyhydroxylated cyclooctenes. Their obtention notably involved a syn-dihydroxylation, and more extended functionalization through formation of a cis-cyclic sulfate followed by amination and subsequent reductive amination. This strategy involving the nucleophilic opening of a cis-cyclic sulfate by sodium azide is to our knowledge the first example in C8-series. It revealead to be an efficient alternative to the nucleoplilic opening of an epoxide moiety which proved unsuccessful in this particular case, due to the hindered conformation of such epoxides as demonstrated by X-ray cristallographic analysis. Conclusion The biological activity of the synthesized glycomimetics has been evaluated towards 24 commercially available glycosidases. The weak observed activities can probably be related to the spatial disposition of the hydroxy and amino groups which depart too much from that realized in glycomimetics such as valiolamine, voglibose and valienamine. Nevertheless, the synthetic strategy described here is efficient and general, and could be extended to increase

  5. Direct observation of a high spin 12C + 8Be cluster state in 20Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 8+ state at Esub(e)sub(x) = 18.538 +- 0.010 MeV excitation in 20Ne was found to have a large reduced width for decay into 12C + 8Be. The state was populated using the 12C(12C,α)20Ne reaction at E(12C) = 64 and 80 MeV; its spin was determined by measuring triple α-α-γ angular correlations. Its relationship to other 8p-4h states in 20Ne is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Turn by Turn Measurements at the KEK-ATF

    CERN Document Server

    Renier, Y; Tomas, R; Wendt, M; Eddy, N; Kubo, K; Kuroda, S; Naito, T; Okugi, T; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2013-01-01

    The ATF damping ring has been upgraded with new read-out electronics for the beam position monitors (BPM), capable to acquire the beam orbits on a turn-by-turn basis, as well as in a high resolution averaging mode. The new BPM system allows to improve optic corrections and to achieve an even smaller vertical emittance (<2pm). Experimental results are presented based on turn-by-turn beam orbit measurements in the ring, for estimating the β functions and dispersion along the lattice. A fast method to measure spectral line amplitude in a few turns is also presented, including the evaluation of chromaticity.

  7. Page turning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, James J. (Inventor); Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A device for holding reading materials for use by readers without arm mobility is presented. The device is adapted to hold the reading materials in position for reading with the pages displayed to enable turning by use of a rubber tipped stick that is held in the mouth and has a pair of rectangular frames. The frames are for holding and positioning the reading materials opened in reading posture with the pages displayed at a substantially unobstructed sighting position for reading. The pair of rectangular frames are connected to one another by a hinge so the angle between the frames may be varied thereby varying the inclination of the reading material. A pair of bent spring mounted wires for holding opposing pages of the reading material open for reading without substantial visual interference of the pages is mounted to the base. The wires are also adjustable to the thickness of the reading material and have a variable friction adjustment. This enables the force of the wires against the pages to be varied and permits the reader to manipulate the pages with the stick.

  8. Relativistic calculations of $C_6$ and $C_8$ coefficients for strontium dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Porsev, S G; Clark, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    The electric dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities of the $5s5p~^3\\!P_1^o$ state and the $C_6$ and $C_8$ coefficients for the $^1\\!S_0 +\\, ^1\\!S_0$ and $^1\\!S_0 +\\, ^3\\!P_1^o$ dimers of strontium are calculated using a high-precision relativistic approach that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster methods. Our recommended values of the long range dispersion coefficients for the $0_u$ and $1_u$ energy levels are $C_6(0_u)=3771(32)$ a.u. and $C_6(1_u)= 4001(33)$ a.u., respectively. They are in good agreement with recent results from experimental photoassociation data. We also calculate $C_8$ coefficients for Sr dimers, which are needed for precise determination of long-range interaction potential. We confirm the experimental value for the magic wavelength, where the Stark shift on the $^1\\!S_0$-$^3\\!P_1^o$ transition vanishes. The accuracy of calculations is analyzed and uncertainties are assigned to all quantities reported in this work.

  9. Clinical characteristics of rod and cone photoreceptor dystrophies in patients with mutations in the C8orf37 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, R.A.C. van; Estrada-Cuzcano, A.; Banin, E.; Rotenstreich, Y.; Hipp, S.; Kohl, S.; Hoyng, C.B.; Hollander, A.I. den; Collin, R.W.J.; Klevering, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide the clinical features in patients with retinal disease caused by C8orf37 gene mutations. METHODS: Eight patients--four diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and four with cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), carrying causal C8orf37 mutations--were clinically evaluated, including extensiv

  10. A Theoretical Investigation on the Reaction Mechanism of the C8H+·10 Side-Chain Decomposition Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xue-Li; ZHAO Yan-Yun; LI Feng

    2008-01-01

    The dissociation of ethylbenzene cation C8H+·10 served as a prototype to investigate the decompasition mechanisms of alkylbenzene cations.The reactions of C8H+·10 decomposition reaction system have been studied extensively at the B3L YP/6-311++G** level with Gaussion 98 package.The chain reaction of C8H+·10 dissociation is initiated by C-H bond rupture.All reaction channels were fully investigated with the vibrational mode analysis to confirm the transition states and reveal the reaction mechanism.The energetically most favorable pathway is C8H+·10→TS4→·P2+H· and the channel ieading to C8H+·10 and C2H4 is also competitive.

  11. Synthesis of the C8’-epimeric thymine pyranosyl amino acid core of amipurimycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markad, Pramod R; Kumbhar, Navanath

    2016-01-01

    Summary The C8’-epimeric pyranosyl amino acid core 2 of amipurimycin was synthesized from D-glucose derived alcohol 3 in 13 steps and 14% overall yield. Thus, the Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation of allyl alcohol 7 followed by trimethyl borate mediated regio-selective oxirane ring opening with azide, afforded azido diol 10. The acid-catalyzed 1,2-acetonide ring opening in 10 concomitantly led to the formation of the pyranose ring skeleton to give 2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane 12. Functional group manipulation in 12 gave 21 that on stereoselective β-glycosylation afforded the pyranosyl thymine nucleoside 2 – a core of amipurimycin. PMID:27559421

  12. Stereoselective Luche reduction of deoxynivalenol and three of its acetylated derivatives at C8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhmann, Philipp; Hametner, Christian; Mikula, Hannes; Adam, Gerhard; Krska, Rudolf; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a well known and common contaminant in food and feed. Acetylated derivatives and other biosynthetic precursors can occur together with the main toxin. A key biosynthetic step towards DON involves an oxidation of the 8-OH group of 7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin. Since analytical standards for the intermediates are not available and these intermediates are therefore rarely studied, we aimed for a synthetic method to invert this reaction, making a series of calonectrin-derived precursors accessible. We did this by developing an efficient protocol for stereoselective Luche reduction at C8. This method was used to access 3,7,8,15-tetrahydroxyscirpene, 3-deacetyl-7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin, 15-deacetyl-7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin and 7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin, which were characterized using several NMR techniques. Beside the development of a method which could basically be used for all type B trichothecenes, we opened a synthetic route towards different acetylated calonectrins. PMID:24434906

  13. Growth directions of C8-BTBT thin films during drop-casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Naoki; Zanka, Tomohiko; Onishi, Yosuke; Fujieda, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Because charge transport in a single crystal is anisotropic, control of its orientation is important for enhancing electrical characteristics and reducing variations among devices. For growing an organic thin film, a solution process such as inkjet printing offers advantages in throughput. We have proposed to apply an external temperature gradient during drop-casting and to control the direction of solvent evaporation. In experiment, a temperature gradient was generated in a bare Si substrate by placing it on a Si plate bridging two heat stages. When a solution containing 2,7-dioctyl [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) was dropped on the substrate, evaporation started at the hotter side of the droplet and proceeded toward the colder side. The front line of the liquid was not pinned and the solution extended toward the colder region. As a result, a thin film was formed in a 7mm-long region. The peripheral region of the film was significantly thicker due to the coffee ring effect. The surface of the rest of the film was mostly smooth and terrace structures with 2.6nm steps were observed. The step roughly corresponds to the length of the C8-BTBT molecule. The film thickness varied from 20nm to 50nm over the distance of 3mm. Another film was grown on a glass substrate under a similar condition. Observation of the film with a polarizing microscope revealed that fan-shaped domains were formed in the film and that their optical axes were mostly along the directions of the solvent evaporation.

  14. Effect of C8mimPF6 on miniemulsion polymerization for application in new latex coating products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Binjie; Kong, Yiyang; Zheng, Rongmeihui; Dong, Jie; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Zhao, Huanhuan

    2016-08-15

    C8mimPF6, as a type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) with non-volatility and a low melting point, may replace conventional coalescing agents in latex coatings, thus preventing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions caused by coalescing agents. In this study, systematic investigations on the effect of various factors including initiator type, initiator concentration, temperature and C8mimPF6 concentration on the conversion of latex and droplet/particle size of a miniemulsion during polymerization have been conducted. The presence of C8mimPF6 has shown to have a marked effect on the reaction rate. Such an effect strongly depends on the type of initiator being used. For polymerization initiated by 2,2-azobis (isobutyronitrile) (AIBN), C8mimPF6 had a promoting effect on the reaction rate at low concentrations, but this effect might be reversed upon certain C8mimPF6 concentrations, e.g. 10 wt%. While initiated by H2O2/Vc, this promoting effect faded even at low C8mimPF6 concentrations. The different limiting factors, which determine the reaction rate with different types of initiator, may contribute to the results. For reactions initiated by hydrophobic AIBN, the reaction was dominated by kinetics. The presence of C8mimPF6 may cause an enhanced chain propagation rate and reduced chain termination rate, which may further contribute to the increase in reaction rate at lower concentrations of C8mimPF6. With hydrophilic H2O2/Vc, the resistance for the transfer of radicals into a droplet/particle might be increased significantly with increasing C8mimPF6 concentration due to a tighter interfacial structure at lower concentrations of C8mimPF6. Thus, such transfer of radicals may become a limiting step whilst the presence of C8mimPF6 increases the transfer resistance on radicals resulting in a decrease in reaction rate. The reaction temperature, which is related to the decomposition temperature of the initiator being used, was another factor affecting the conversion

  15. Optical and Morphological Studies of Thermally Evaporated PTCDI-C8 Thin Films for Organic Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PTCDI-C8 due to its relatively high photosensitivity and high electron mobility has attracted much attention in organic semiconductor devices. In this work, thin films of PTCDI-C8 with different thicknesses were deposited on silicon substrates with native silicon dioxide using a vacuum thermal evaporator. Several material characterization techniques have been utilized to evaluate the structure, morphology, and optical properties of these films. Their optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient have been extracted from the spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE. X-ray reflectivity (XRR and atomic force microscopy (AFM were employed to determine the morphology and structure as well as the thickness and roughness of the PTCDI-C8 thin films. These films revealed a high degree of structural ordering within the layers. All the experimental measurements were performed under ambient conditions. PTCDI-C8 films have shown to endure ambient condition which allows pots-deposition characterization.

  16. CYP2C8 Is a Novel Target of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Human Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makia, Ngome L; Goldstein, Joyce A

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C enzymes metabolize ∼30% of clinically prescribed drugs and various environmental chemicals. CYP2C8, an important member of this subfamily, metabolizes the anticancer drug paclitaxel, certain antidiabetic drugs, and endogenous substrates, including arachidonic acid, to physiologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that microRNA 107 (miR107) and microRNA 103 downregulate CYP2C8 post-transcriptionally. miR107 is located in intron 5 of the pantothenate kinase 1 (PANK1) gene. p53 has been reported to coregulate the induction of PANK1 and miR107. Here, we examine the possible downregulation of CYP2C8 by drugs capable of inducing miR107. Hypolipidemic drugs, such as bezafibrate, known activators of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), induce both the PANK1 gene and miR107 (∼2.5-fold) in primary human hepatocytes. Surprisingly, CYP2C8 mRNA and protein levels were induced by bezafibrate. CYP2C8 promoter activity was increased by ectopic expression of PPARα in HepG2 cells, with a further increase after bezafibrate (∼18-fold), 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio acetic acid (∼10-fold) treatment, or the antidiabetic drug rosiglitazone, all known PPAR activators. Promoter sequence analyses, deletion studies, mutagenesis studies, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays identified a PPARα response element located at position -2109 base pair relative to the translation start site of CYP2C8. Chromatin immunopreciptation assay analysis confirmed recruitment of PPARα to this PPARα response element after bezafibrate treatment of human hepatocytes. Thus, we show for the first time that CYP2C8 is transcriptionally regulated by PPARα, suggesting the potential for drug-drug interactions due to upregulation of CYP2C8 by PPAR activators. PMID:26467040

  17. Drug-drug Interaction between Losartan and Paclitaxel in Human Liver Microsomes with Different CYP2C8 Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yuji; Senda, Asuna; Toda, Takaki; Hayakawa, Toru; Eliasson, Erik; Rane, Anders; Inotsume, Nobuo

    2015-06-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8*3 allele is associated with reduced metabolic activity of paclitaxel. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of losartan on paclitaxel metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and to determine the impact of the CYP2C8*3 polymorphism. HLMs that contained the CYP2C8*1 homozygote (HL60) or CYP2C8*3 heterozygote (HL54) genotype were used for the inhibition study. Losartan, at a concentration of 50 μmol/L, significantly inhibited paclitaxel metabolism by 29% and 57% in the HL60 (p losartan and the CYP3A4-selective inhibitors, erythromycin and ketoconazole, caused a greater inhibition of the paclitaxel metabolism than quercetin, a CYP2C8-selective inhibitor. This demonstrated that the paclitaxel metabolism was mainly catalysed by CYP3A4 in HL60. There were no significant differences found for the inhibitory effects caused by the four inhibitors of the paclitaxel metabolism in HL54, indicating that both CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 play important roles in paclitaxel metabolism in HL54. These findings suggest that 50 μmol/L of losartan inhibits both CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in HLMs. In summary, losartan inhibited paclitaxel metabolism, with concentrations over 50 μmol/L in HLMs. The CYP2C8*3 allele carriers are likely susceptible to the interactions of losartan and CYP3A4 inhibitors to paclitaxel metabolism.

  18. C8orf4 negatively regulates self-renewal of liver cancer stem cells via suppression of NOTCH2 signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Pingping; Wang, Yanying; Du, Ying; He, Lei; Huang, Guanling; Zhang, Geng; Yan, Xinlong; Fan, Zusen

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) harbour self-renewal and differentiation properties, accounting for chemotherapy resistance and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms to sustain liver CSCs remain largely unknown. In this study, based on analysis of several hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) transcriptome datasets and our experimental data, we find that C8orf4 is weakly expressed in HCC tumours and liver CSCs. C8orf4 attenuates the self-renewal capacity of liver CSCs and tumour propagation. ...

  19. CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 mRNA expression profile in the human fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eJohansson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 are involved in the inactivation of several NSAIDs, including ibuprofen. CYP2C9 is the major form in human liver whereas CYP2C8 has been proposed to be the main CYP2C enzyme in fetal liver. The protein expression of CYP2C9 in the first trimester is low, only about 1% of the adult values, whereas the mRNA levels of CYP2C8/9 have not been determined at the fetal stage. In this study the mRNA expression levels of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 were determined in 20 adult and 60 fetal liver tissue specimens. The expression profiles in fetal kidneys (n = 43, adrenals (n = 46, and lungs (n = 37 were also determined. Moreover the activity against ibuprofen hydroxylation was a determined in fetus and adult liver microsomes. Adult liver samples expressed 140 and 400 times higher levels of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 mRNA, respectively as compared to fetal liver samples. Consistent with this, the hydroxylation of ibuprofen was 40 times higher in the adult liver microsomes. Hepatic CYP2C8 mRNA was three times more abundant than CYP2C9 mRNA in the fetus. Moreover, CYP2C8 were consistently expressed in all fetal tissues investigated, whereas CYP2C9 gene expression was confined to the liver in fetuses. Our results indicate that CYP2C8 plays a more important physiological role than CYP2C9 in the first trimester.

  20. Turning in a Bipedal Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jau-Ching Lu; Jing-Yi Chen; Pei-Chun Lin

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of turning behavior on a child-size bipedal robot that addresses two common scenarios:turning in place and simultaneous walking and turning.About turning in place,three strategies are investigated and compared,including body-first,leg-first,and body/leg-simultaneous.These three strategies are used for three actions,respectively:when walking follows turning immediately,when space behind the robot is very tight,and when a large turning angle is desired.Concerning simultaneous walking and turning,the linear inverted pendulum is used as the motion model in the single-leg support phase,and the polynomial-based trajectory is used as the motion model in the double-leg support phase and for smooth motion connectivity to motions in a priori and a posteriori single-leg support phases.Compared to the trajectory generation of ordinary walking,that of simultaneous walking and turning introduces only two extra parameters:one for determining new heading direction and the other for smoothing the Center of Mass (COM) trajectory.The trajectory design methodology is validated in both simulation and experimental environments,and successful robot behavior confirms the effectiveness of the strategy.

  1. The Philosophy of Turning Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    business and management field, the turning point is seen as a valuable unit of analysis within the research field. It is expected that this paper will encourage a dynamic scholarly conversation about the concept of turning point and how it can aid international business researchers in the development...

  2. Perfluorocarbons and Gilbert syndrome (phenotype) in the C8 Health Study Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongmin [Cancer Center, School of Public Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 265050-9190 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Hebei United University, Hebei 063000 (China); Ducatman, Alan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, West Virginia University (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, West Virginia University (United States); Clinical Translational Science Institute, West Virginia University (United States); Zhang, Jianjun [Department of Biostatistics, School Public Health, West Virginia University (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Background: Gilbert syndrome (GS) is an inherited defect of bilirubin conjugation, most commonly caused by a gene mutation for the enzyme UGT1A. GS is known to affect the metabolism and excretion of drugs and xenobiotics. Perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs) are bio-persistent environmental contaminants that affect metabolic regulation. In this study, we examined the associations of GS phenotype and serum PFCs in the C8 Health Study Population. Materials and methods: Using 2005–2006 data from a large PFC-exposure population survey, we compared serum PFCs concentrations between GS and non GS clinical phenotypes, in a cross sectional design, adjusting for standard risk factors, including age, BMI, smoking status, socioeconomic status and gender. Results: Among 10 PFC compounds considered, only perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) was seen at a significantly higher concentration in GS men and women. Conclusion: PFHxA exposure may be associated with GS. Our findings do not support increased exposure in GS for other PFCs. - Highlights: • Most serum PFCs are not associated with clinically evident Gilbert syndrome. • However, serum perfluorohexanoic acid is positively associated. • The investigation addresses the clinical presentation, not the genetic mutation.

  3. Perfluorocarbons and Gilbert syndrome (phenotype) in the C8 Health Study Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Gilbert syndrome (GS) is an inherited defect of bilirubin conjugation, most commonly caused by a gene mutation for the enzyme UGT1A. GS is known to affect the metabolism and excretion of drugs and xenobiotics. Perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs) are bio-persistent environmental contaminants that affect metabolic regulation. In this study, we examined the associations of GS phenotype and serum PFCs in the C8 Health Study Population. Materials and methods: Using 2005–2006 data from a large PFC-exposure population survey, we compared serum PFCs concentrations between GS and non GS clinical phenotypes, in a cross sectional design, adjusting for standard risk factors, including age, BMI, smoking status, socioeconomic status and gender. Results: Among 10 PFC compounds considered, only perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) was seen at a significantly higher concentration in GS men and women. Conclusion: PFHxA exposure may be associated with GS. Our findings do not support increased exposure in GS for other PFCs. - Highlights: • Most serum PFCs are not associated with clinically evident Gilbert syndrome. • However, serum perfluorohexanoic acid is positively associated. • The investigation addresses the clinical presentation, not the genetic mutation

  4. The effects of human CYP2C8 genotype and fluvoxamine on the pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus S; Damkier, Per; Brosen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the effect of CYP2C8 genotype and of fluvoxamine on the pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy subjects with the following genotypes were included in a two-phase, open-label, cross-over trial: CYP2C8*3/ *3 (n = 3), CYP2C8*1/ *3 (n = 10) and CYP2C8*1/ *1...... and relative amounts of N-desmethylrosiglitazone were measured in both phases for 24 h after drug administration. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone and N-desmethylrosiglitazone were not significantly different between the CYP2C8 genotypic groups. Fluvoxamine caused a statistically significant (P...... of fluvoxamine had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of N-desmethylrosiglitazone. CONCLUSION: The importance of the CYP2C8*3 mutation in the in vivo metabolism of rosiglitazone could not be confirmed. Fluvoxamine increased the AUC(0-infinity) and t(1/2) of rosiglitazone moderately and hence may be a weak...

  5. Phase behaviors and self-assembly properties of two catanionic surfactant systems: C(8)F(17)COOH/TTAOH/H(2)O and C(8)H(17)COOH/TTAOH/H(2)O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Song, Aixin; Li, Zhibo; Xu, Guiying; Hao, Jingcheng

    2010-10-21

    Two fatty acids, perfluorononanoic acid (C(8)F(17)COOH) and nonanoic acid (C(8)H(17)COOH), were mixed with a cationic hydrocarbon surfactant, tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (TTAOH), in aqueous solutions for comparative investigation. Phase behaviors of the two systems are quite different because of the special properties of the fluorocarbon chains. For the C(8)H(17)COOH/TTAOH/H(2)O system, a single L(α) phase region with phase transition from planar lamellar phase (L(αl) phase) to vesicle phase (L(αv) phase) was observed. For the C(8)F(17)COOH/TTAOH/H(2)O system, two single phases consisting of vesicles were obtained at room temperature. One is a high viscoelastic gel phase consisting of vesicles with crystalline state bialyers at the C(8)F(17)COOH-rich side, which was confirmed by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscope (FF-TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. With the increase of TTAOH proportion, another vesicle phase consisting of liquid state bilayers was observed after the two-phase region. The fluorosurfactant systems prefer to form vesicle bilayers than the corresponding hydrocarbon ones because of the rigid structure, the stronger hydrophobicity, and the larger volume of fluorocarbon chains.

  6. Abstract Milling with Turn Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Fellows, M; Knauer, C; Paul, C; Rosamond, F; Whitesides, S; Yu, N

    2009-01-01

    The Abstract Milling problem is a natural and quite general graph-theoretic model for geometric milling problems. Given a graph, one asks for a walk that covers all its vertices with a minimum number of turns, as specified in the graph model by a 0/1 turncost function fx at each vertex x giving, for each ordered pair of edges (e,f) incident at x, the turn cost at x of a walk that enters the vertex on edge e and departs on edge f. We describe an initial study of the parameterized complexity of the problem. Our main positive result shows that Abstract Milling, parameterized by: number of turns, treewidth and maximum degree, is fixed-parameter tractable, We also show that Abstract Milling parameterized by (only) the number of turns and the pathwidth, is hard for W[1] -- one of the few parameterized intractability results for bounded pathwidth.

  7. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  8. Turning patients over in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This helps the skin stay healthy and prevents bedsores. Turning a patient is a good time to ... M, et al. Risk assessment and prevention of pressure ulcers: a clinical practice guideline from the American College ...

  9. Determining Geometric Accuracy in Turning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwong; Chi; Kit; A; Geddam

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical components machined to high levels of ac cu racy are vital to achieve various functional requirements in engineering product s. In particular, the geometric accuracy of turned components play an important role in determining the form, fit and function of mechanical assembly requiremen ts. The geometric accuracy requirements of turned components are usually specifi ed in terms of roundness, straightness, cylindricity and concentricity. In pract ice, the accuracy specifications achievable are infl...

  10. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Cubane, C_8H_8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Vincent; Pirali, Olivier; Gruet, Sébastien; D'accolti, Lucia; Fusco, Caterina; Annese, Cosimo

    2014-06-01

    Carbon-cage molecules have generated a considerable interest from both experimental and theoretical point of views. We recently performed a high-resolution study of adamantane (C10H16), the smallest hydrocarbon cage belonging to the diamandoid family. There exist another family of hydrocarbon cages with additional interesting chemical properties: the so-called Platonic hydrocarbons that comprise dodecahedrane (C20H20) and cubane (C_8H_8). Both possess C-C bond angles that deviate from the tetrahedral angle (109.8°) of the sp^3 hybridized form of carbon. This generates a considerable strain in the molecule. Cubane itself has the highest density of all hydrocarbons (1.29 g/cm^3). This makes it able to store larges amounts of energy, although the molecule is fully stable. Up to now, only one high-resolution study of cubane has been performed on a few bands [2]. We report here a new wide-range high-resolution study of the infrared spectrum of cubane. The sample was synthesized in Bari upon decarboxylation of 1,4-cubanedicarboxylic acid thanks to the improved synthesis of literature [3]; its {}1H and 13C NMR, FTIR, and mass spectrometry agreed with reported data [4]. Several spectra have been recorded at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL French synchrotron facility. They cover the 800 to 3100 cm-1 region. Besides the three infrared-active fundamentals (ν10, ν11 and ν12), we could record many combination bands, all of them displaying a well-resolved octahedral rotational structure. We present here a preliminary analysis of some of the recorded bands, performed thanks the SPVIEW and XTDS software, based on the tensrorial formalism developed in the Dijon group [5]. [1] O. Pirali, V. Boudon, J. Oomens, M. Vervloet, J. Chem. Phys., 136, 024310 (2012). [2] A. S. Pine, A. G. Maki, A. G. Robiette, B. J. Krohn, J. K. G. Watson, Th. Urbanek, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106, 891-897 (1984). [3] P. E. Eaton, N. Nordari, J. Tsanaktsidis, P. S. Upadhyaya, Synthesis, 1, 501, (1995). [4] E

  11. NASA Aircraft on ramp (Aerial view) Sides: (L) QSRA (R) C-8A AWJSRA - Back to Front: CV-990 (711)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    NASA Aircraft on ramp (Aerial view) Sides: (L) QSRA (R) C-8A AWJSRA - Back to Front: CV-990 (711) C-141 KAO, CV-990 (712) Galileo, T-38, YO-3A, Lear Jet, X-14, U-2, OH-6, CH-47, SH-3G, RSRA, AH-1G, XV-15, UH-1H

  12. Inhibitory effect of six herbal extracts on CYP2C8 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albassam, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Mohamed-Eslam F; Frye, Reginald F

    2015-05-01

    1. Herbal supplements widely used in the US were screened for the potential to inhibit CYP2C8 activity in human liver microsomes. The herbal extracts screened were garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto, valerian, black cohosh and cranberry. N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) and hydroxypioglitazone metabolite formation were used as indices of CYP2C8 activity. 2. All herbal extracts showed inhibition of CYP2C8 activity for at least one of three concentrations tested. A volume per dose index (VDI) was calculated to determine the volume in which a dose should be diluted to obtain IC50 equivalent concentration. Cranberry and saw palmetto had a VDI value > 5.0 l per dose unit, suggesting a potential for interaction. 3. Inhibition curves were constructed and the IC50 (mean ± SE) values were 24.7 ± 2.7 μg/ml for cranberry and 15.4 ± 1.7 μg/ml for saw palmetto. 4. The results suggest a potential for cranberry or saw palmetto extracts to inhibit CYP2C8 activity. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate the significance of this interaction. PMID:25430798

  13. Revisiting the metabolism and physiological functions of caprylic acid (C8:0) with special focus on ghrelin octanoylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, Fanny; Beauchamp, Erwan; Legrand, Philippe; Rioux, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Caprylic acid (octanoic acid, C8:0) belongs to the class of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFAs). Dairy products and specific oils like coconut oil are natural sources of dietary C8:0 but higher intakes of this fatty acid can be provided with MCT (Medium-Chain Triglycerides) oil that consists in 75% of C8:0. MCFAs have physical and metabolic properties that are distinct from those of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs ≥ 12 carbons). Beneficial physiological effects of dietary C8:0 have been studied for a long time and MCT oil has been used as a special energy source for patients suffering from pancreatic insufficiency, impaired lymphatic chylomicron transport and fat malabsorption. More recently, caprylic acid was also shown to acylate ghrelin, the only known peptide hormone with an orexigenic effect. Through its covalent binding to the ghrelin peptide, caprylic acid exhibits an emerging and specific role in modulating physiological functions themselves regulated by octanoylated ghrelin. Dietary caprylic acid is therefore now suspected to provide the ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) enzyme with octanoyl-CoA co-substrates necessary for the acyl modification of ghrelin. This review tries to highlight the discrepancy between the formerly described beneficial effects of dietary MCFAs on body weight loss and the C8:0 newly reported effect on appetite stimulation via ghrelin octanoylation. The subsequent aim of this review is to demonstrate the relevance of carrying out further studies to better understand the physiological functions of this particular fatty acid.

  14. The Physics of Ski Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonle, John I.; Nordick, Douglas L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the application of basic dynamics of rotations to the case of turning on skis, first without and then with external torques. Various elements are combined in different techniques and suggestions for further extensions and a list of laboratory exercises based on skiing are included. (DF)

  15. Turn the Resolutions into Reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Can you remember each New Year's resolutions you made at the beginning of a year? Did you make good on them or did you forget about them by June? Here are 6 tips that will help you turn those resolutions into reality.

  16. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  17. Turning points in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems

  18. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  19. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  20. C(8) substituted 1-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-enes and C(8) substituted 1-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-4-ones: novel muscarinic receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Goo; Bodor, Erik T; Wang, Chen; Harden, T Kendall; Kohn, Harold

    2003-05-22

    Expedient syntheses of C(8) substituted 1-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-enes and C(8) substituted 1-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-4-ones are reported to begin with 2,5-disubstituted pyridines. Catalytic reduction of the pyridine to the piperidine followed by treatment with ethyl acrylate and Dieckmann cyclization gave diastereomeric mixtures of C(8) substituted 3-ethoxycarbonyl-4-hydroxy-1-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-enes, which were separable by chromatography. We found that the catalytic reduction (PtO2, H2) procedure provided the cis-substituted piperidine but that pyridine reduction was accompanied by competitive cleavage of the C(2) pyridyl substituent. Accordingly, an alternative route was devised that afforded a diastereomeric mixture of the cis- and trans-2,5-disubstituted piperidine. Treatment of the substituted pyridine with m-CPBA gave the pyridine N-oxide, which was reduced to the piperidine by sequential reduction with ammonium formate in the presence of Pd-C followed by NaBH3CN. Addition of ethyl acrylate completed the synthesis of the substituted piperidine. The overall four-step reaction gave higher yields (57%) than the two-step procedure (13%) with little cleavage of the C(2) pyridyl substituent. Acid decarboxylation of the bicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-enes provided the C(8) substituted 1-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-4-ones. Structural studies revealed diagnostic 13C NMR signals that permit assignment of the orientation of the C(8) substituent. Pharmacological investigations documented that 3-ethoxycarbonyl-4-hydroxy-1-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-enes efficiently bind to the human M1-M5 muscarinic receptors and function as antagonists. We observed that exo-8-benzyloxymethyl-3-ethoxycarbonyl-4-hydroxy-1-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-ene (3) displayed the highest affinity, exhibiting Ki values at all five muscarinic receptors that were approximately 10-50 times lower than carbachol and approximately 30-230 times lower than arecoline. Receptor selectivity was observed for 3. Compound 3 contained

  1. Absence of the human CYP2C8*3 allele in Ugandan children exposed to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganotti, Giacomo Maria; Cosentino, Valentina; Russo, Gianluca; Tabacchi, Francesca; Gramolelli, Silvia; Coluzzi, Mario; Romano, Rita

    2014-10-01

    Study of host pharmacogenetics can improve our knowledge of mechanisms of drug resistance selection and spread. This issue has recently been addressed with respect to chloroquine and amodiaquine in malaria endemic areas of West and East Africa. Here we report, from surveys performed in two different areas of Uganda, that the human CYP2C8*3 allele, which had been reported to be strongly associated with parasite drug resistance in Zanzibar, is absent, being a marker of genetic admixture of the Zanzibari population with a Caucasoid component. Moreover, a retrospective analysis of CYP2C8*2 and the Plasmodium falciparum drug resistant pfmdr1 86Y allele does not show any association, which may be related to the high level of drug resistance.

  2. A Remarkable Oxidative Cascade That Replaces the Riboflavin C8 Methyl with an Amino Group during Roseoflavin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhulki, Isita; Chanani, Prem K; Abdelwahed, Sameh H; Begley, Tadhg P

    2016-07-13

    Roseoflavin is a naturally occurring riboflavin analogue with antibiotic properties. It is biosynthesized from riboflavin in a reaction involving replacement of the C8 methyl with a dimethylamino group. Herein we report the identification of a flavin-dependent enzyme that converts flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and glutamate to 8-amino-FMN via the intermediacy of 8-formyl-FMN. A mechanistic proposal for this remarkable transformation is proposed. PMID:27331868

  3. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of complement component C8 beta in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after the Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengwei; Xie, Fuxing; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-03-10

    Complement component C8 beta was a key molecule in the complement system, mediating the MAC formation and the bacterial lysis. In this study, the full-length C8 beta (EcC8 beta) was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 25 bp, an ORF of 1764 bp and a 3'UTR of 198 bp. The EcC8 beta gene encoded a protein of 587 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 65.87 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.35. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that EcC8 beta consisted of the conserved residues and the domains known to be critical for C8 beta function. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EcC8 beta transcript was expressed in all the examined tissues, while the strong expression was observed in the liver. In addition, complement C3 was the central molecule in the complement system, converging the upstream complement signals and mediating the MAC assembly pathway, while C8 beta was indispensable for active MAC formation. Following the Vibrio challenge, the increased expression of EcC3 transcript and EcC8 beta transcript was observed in the liver and kidney. These results indicated that EcC8 beta may be an important immune-related gene, playing an important role in the immune defense against the bacterial infection via the complement pathway.

  4. Turning theGolden Key

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI YANSHUO

    2011-01-01

    When Wu Bangguo,Chairman of the Standing Committee of the 11th National People's Congress,turned the “golden key” to officially open the 15th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFTT)on September 7,John Delaney was standing at the Xiamen International Conference and Exhibition Center to watch the opening ceremony.It was the fifth time Delaney,Vice President of Large Industry Investment Asia of Air Products and Chemicals (China) Investment Co.Ltd.,was in Xiamen for the CIFIT.

  5. The affective turn in ethnomusicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofman Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The affective turn, which has already questioned dominant paradigms in many disciplinary fields including cultural studies, philosophy, political theory, anthropology, psychology and neuroscience, has started to attract more attention in the field of ethnomusicology, becoming a particularly vibrant stream of thought. Drawing on the voices that call for the historicisation of and critical deliberation on the field of affect studies, the article strives to show how theories of affect might expand dominant paradigms in ethnomusicology and also points to their limitations.

  6. 2D QSAR study for gemfibrozil glucuronide as the mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2C8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Taxak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 involves the bioactivation of the drug to a reactive metabolite, which leads to cytochrome inhibition via various mechanisms. This is generally seen in the Phase I of drug metabolism. However, gemfibrozil (hypolipidemic drug leads to mechanism-based inhibition after generating glucuronide conjugate (gemfibrozil acyl-β-glucuronide in the Phase II metabolism reaction. The mechanism involves the covalent binding of the benzyl radical (generated from the oxidation of aromatic methyl group in conjugate to the heme of CYP2C8. This article deals with the development of a 2D QSAR model based on the inhibitory potential of gemfibrozil, its analogues and corresponding glucuronide conjugates in inhibiting the CYP2C8-catalysed amodiaquine N-deethylation. The 2D QSAR model was developed using multiple linear regression analysis in Accelrys Discovery Studio 2.5 and helps in identifying the descriptors, which are actually contributing to the inhibitory potency of the molecules studied. The built model was further validated using leave one out method. The best quantitative structure activity relationship model was selected having a correlation coefficient (r of 0.814 and cross-validated correlation coefficient (q 2 of 0.799. 2D QSAR revealed the importance of volume descriptor (Mor15v, shape descriptor (SP09 and 3D matrix-based descriptor (SpMax_RG in defining the activity for this series of molecules. It was observed that volume and 3D matrix-based descriptors were crucial in imparting higher potency to gemfibrozil glucuronide conjugate, as compared with other molecules. The results obtained from the present study may be useful in predicting the inhibitory potential (IC 50 for CYP2C8 inhibition of the glucuronide conjugates of new molecules and compare with the standard gemfibrozil acyl-β-glucuronide (in terms of pIC 50 values in early stages of drug discovery and development.

  7. 黏质沙雷氏菌C8-8几丁质酶基因的克隆与表达%Cloning and expression of a chitinase gene from Serratia marcescens strain C8-8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘邮洲; 罗楚平; 刘永锋; 陈志谊

    2012-01-01

    利用PCR方法从黏质沙雷氏菌(Serratia marcescens)C8-8中克隆到编码几丁质酶的chiA基因,大小为1692bp,推测其编码一条长563个氨基酸的多肽链,分子量约为60900.同源分析研究结果表明从C8-8中克隆的chiA基因序列与黏质沙雷氏菌株141(DQ990373.1)和14041菌株(DQ493896.1)的chiA基因序列相似性最高,达到99%.结构域分析结果表明从C8-8中克隆的chiA基因N末端(23AA)存在典型的信号肽序列,C端存在另外两个结构域,即PKD区(73AA)和几丁质酶催化区(387AA).采用大肠杆菌表达系统重组表达chiA基因,结果表明重组菌株在几丁质诱导培养基上能产生透明的水解圈.采用SDS-PAGE电泳分析,结果表明chiA重组表达产物的相对分子质量约为60000,与预测分子量大小基本一致.初步提纯后,生物活性试验结果表明该重组表达产物能水解几丁质,在几丁质培养基上产生透明的水解圈.%An open reading frame encoding chiA gene was cloned from the Serratia marcescens strain C8-8 genomic DNA by PCR, with the length of 1 692 bp. Its sequence was 99% identical with chiA sequences of Serratia marcescens 141 and 14041. Domain analysis showed that the cloned chiA gene involved a typical signal peptide sequence at N-terraination (23 AA), and PKD domain (73 AA) and chitinase catalytic domain (387 AA) at C-termination. The PCR fragment was digested and cloned into plasmid pET28a to construct plasmid pET28a-ChiA, which was then transformed into expression host Escherichia. coli DH3. The recombined strain DH3 ChiA could yield transparent hydrolyzed zone on the colloidal chi-tin plate induced by isopropyl-1 -thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). A protein with molecular weight about 60 000 was expressed by DH3 ChiA, and could also yield a hydrolyzed rone on the colloidal chitin plate. It indicated that chiA gene from C8-8 could be utilized as a potential biological factor for control of fungi.

  8. Analysis of Causes Leading to High Bromine Number of C8+Aromatics and Short Clay Service Life and Countermeasures Proposed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yousong; Ni Xiaoliang; Yan Jun

    2007-01-01

    After comparing the operating status of other catalytic reforming units and evaluation of the side-cut stream tests,the refinery investigated the influence of the feedstock property,clay types,and operating regime of the clay tower and catalytic reforming unit on the service life of the clay.Test results had revealed that the low potential aromatic content of the reformer feed and high operating severity were the critical causes leading to high bromine number of the C8+ aromatics feed for the PX unit and the shortened service life of clay.This article also puts forward the corresponding remedial measures.

  9. Turning nuclear communications inside out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to debates on the security of energy supply in the European Union, the international efforts on the implementation of Kyoto protocol and the forthcoming liberalization of the electrical energy market the attention of Hungarian decision-makers was focused on energy related problems. Discussions started on the future role of nuclear power and anti-nuclear environmentalists became more active in their criticism. Changes were needed in the approach and practice of communication on nuclear energy. Previous practice turned to be inefficient in dialogue with different social and influential groups. Public information could not be considered any more as an activity explaining measures to cope with incidents and accidents or giving technical answers to mostly superficial statements on allegedly unsafe features and solutions in nuclear industry. It was time to change the paradigm and to turn the communication into a powerful tool to put forward the arguments, to show the achievements and facts and to explain the efforts in addressing public concerns. The new paradigm turned the previous outside-in approach to a new inside-out type of behavior. Instead of reacting to the attacks coming from outside the new approach means first of all commitment to be open and pro-active in communication and to act in close cooperation with all interested organizations and institutions. The three pillars of the new paradigm, commitment, communication and co-operation are applicable not only for the nuclear industry, but also for the governmental agencies (regulatory bodies, health and emergency authorities etc.) and for the wide range of technical, scientific and civil organizations. Public information should be turned from a burden to a challenge for open, technically valid and honest dialogue. This active communication approach is illustrated by some new initiatives in public information in Hungary. Following the successful Nuclear Academy for Journalists formed new Section of Nuclear

  10. Turning CSR on it's head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    , rather than impermeable boundaries. Thus, social and mobile media can be approached as a force that works at further eroding boundaries between the firm and technology empowered individuals equipped with their personal agendas and social media capital. As an example of social media turning tradition...... their ecological footprint. Then CarrotMob members use social media to recruit as many customers as possible to shop at that time, thus increasing both profits and available resources for the business to engage in sustainability. As sustainability and CSR are enacted differently in the US and EU (Matten and Moon....... However, from a technology perspective, Howe (2009) argues that the boundaries of the firm are becoming porous, and through social media people are contributing some of their best energy for free. These technology empowered stakeholders can be resources for strategy when the firm is seen as having porous...

  11. Industrial Application of SKI-400D Catalyst for C8 Aromatics Isomerization%SKI-400D型C8芳烃异构化催化剂的工业应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振翼; 马新宾

    2007-01-01

    针对间二甲苯装置工况,开发了专用于生产间二甲苯的SKI-400D型C8芳烃异构化催化剂.该催化剂在中国石油化工股份有限公司北京燕山分公司聚酯事业部间二甲苯装置上替代SKI-500型催化剂.在主要设备不作改动的情况下.使装置产量由设计35.6 kt/a提高到40.0kt/a.收率由83.3%提高到91.0%.

  12. Notes on the Spatial Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Grgas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ever-mounting evidence, amongst which is the “zone” problematic of the Zadar conference that occassioned these notes, it can be concluded that the spatial turn has insinuated itself as an all-pervading heuristic tool throughout the humanities and the social sciences. The extent to which space and spatiality have usurped the central stage in the various branches of reasearch can be gauged by admonishments that what we are witnessing is a new fundamentalism that has simply inverted the terms of the dualism of time and space (May and Thrift 2001: “Introduction”. According to Michael Dear the sway of space is manifested in multifold ways: in the ubiquity of spatial analysis in social theories and practices; in the explosion of publications devoted to the exploration of the interface of the social and the spatial; in the reintegration of human geography into various domains of knowledge; in the focus given to difference and the consequent diversification of theoretical and empirical practices; in a theoretically informed exploration of the relation between geographical knowledge and social action; and, finally, in the unprecedented proliferation of research agendas and publications pertaining to these isuuses (Dear 2001: 24. Two recent collections of papers are indicative of the ubiquity of spatial issues in scholarly work.

  13. Association of the C8orf13-BLK Region with Systemic Sclerosis in North-American and European Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourh, Pravitt; Agarwal, Sandeep K; Martin, Ezequiel; Divecha, Dipal; Rueda, Blanca; Bunting, Haley; Assassi, Shervin; Paz, Gene; Shete, Sanjay; McNearney, Terry; Draeger, Hilda; Reveille, John D; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Simeon, Carmen P.; Rodriguez, Luis; Vicente, Esther; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Mayes, Maureen D.; Tann, Filemon K.; Martin, Javier; Arnett, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Genetic studies in the systemic sclerosis (SSc), an autoimmune disease that clinically manifests with dermal and internal organ fibrosis and small vessel vasculopathy, have identified multiple susceptibility genes including HLA-class II, PTPN22, IRF5, and STAT4 which have also been associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These data suggest that there are common autoimmune disease susceptibility genes. The current report sought to determine if polymorphisms in the C8orf13-BLK region (chromosome 8p23.1-B lymphoid tyrosine kinase), which is associated with SLE, are associated also with SSc. Methods Two variants in the C8orf13-BLK region (rs13277113 & rs2736340) were tested for association with 1050 SSc cases and 694 controls of North Americans of European descent and replicated in a second series 589 SSc cases and 722 controls from Spain. Results The “T” allele at rs2736340 variant was associated with SSc in both the U.S. and Spanish case-control series (P=6.8×10−5, OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.1–1.4). The “A” allele at rs13277113 variant was associated with SSc in the U.S. series only (P=3.6×10−4, OR 1.32, 95%CI 1.1–1.6) and was significant in the combined analyses of the two series (P=2.0×10−3; OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.1–1.3). Both variants demonstrated an association with the anti-centromere antibody (P=2.2×10−6 and P=5.5×10−4, respectively) and limited SSc (P=3.3×10−5 and P=2.9×10−3, respectively) in the combined analysis. Peripheral blood gene expression profiles suggest that B-cell receptor and NFκB signaling are dysregulated based on the risk haplotype of these variants. Conclusion We identify and replicate the association of the C8orf13-BLK region as a novel susceptibility factor for SSc, placing it in the category of common autoimmune disease susceptibility genes. PMID:19796918

  14. Quantitative analysis of reinforcing phase in AlSi11/CrFe30C8 composite castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dulęba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper assessment of the morphology and segregation of the reinforcing phase based on optical quantitative analysis was achieved. Microscopic observation of AlSi11/CrFe30C8 composite gravity castings was carried out in electromagnetic field. The purpose of investigation was the analysis of current frequency influence supplying the inductor of electromagnetic field on segregation, quantity and morphology of reinforcement phase in aluminum matrix composite. Technological conception of investigations was based on assumption that chromium-iron matrix of particles dissolved in aluminum composite matrix and carbide phases became actual reinforcement of the composite. Gravity segregation was analyzed. Graphs containing distribution of reinforcing phase in metal matrix were shown.

  15. Design of a powered elevator control system. [powered elevator system for modified C-8A aircraft for STOL operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glende, W. L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication and flight testing of a powered elevator system for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA or Mod C-8A) are discussed. The system replaces a manual spring tab elevator control system that was unsatisfactory in the STOL flight regime. Pitch control in the AWJSRA is by means of a single elevator control surface. The elevator is used for both maneuver and trim control as the stabilizer is fixed. A fully powered, irreversible flight control system powered by dual hydraulic sources was designed. The existing control columns and single mechanical cable system of the AWJSRA have been retained as has been the basic elevator surface, except that the elevator spring tab is modified into a geared balance tab. The control surface is directly actuated by a dual tandem moving body actuator. Control signals are transmitted from the elevator aft quadrant to the actuator by a linkage system that includes a limited authority series servo actuator.

  16. Desorption of dimethylformamide from Zn4O(C8H4O4)3 framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hu, Yun Hang

    2011-02-01

    Both dimethylformamide (DMF) and diethylformamide (DEF) are important solvents for the synthesis of Zn4O(C8H4O4)3 framework (MOF-5). It is generally recognized that DMF molecules can be completely displaced by CH2Cl2 during the synthesis of MOF-5. Herein, however, it was found that the DMF molecules inside the pores of the MOF-5 framework cannot be displaced by CH2Cl2. The desorption of the DMF molecules from the pores, which requires a temperature of 100 °C or above, is the first order with activation energy of 56.38 kJ/mol. In contrast, DEF molecules can be completely displaced by CH2Cl2 during the synthesis of MOF-5, because DEF molecules cannot penetrate into the pores of the MOF-5 paste.

  17. Do vehicular emissions dominate the source of C6-C8 aromatics in the megacity Shanghai of eastern China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongli Wang; Qian Wang; Jianmin Chen; Changhong Chen; Cheng Huang; Liping Qiao; Shengrong Lou

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to i-pentane,the indicator of vehicular emissions,were employed to apportion the vehicular and non-vehicular contributions to reactive species in urban Shanghai.Two kinds of tunnel experiments,one tunnel with more than 90% light duty gasoline vehicles and the other with more than 60% light duty diesel vehicles,were carried out to study the characteristic ratios of vehicle-related emissions from December 2009 to January 2010.Based on the experiments,the characteristic ratios of C6-C8 aromatics to i-pentane of vehicular emissions were 0.53 ± 0.08 (benzene),0.70 ± 0.12 (toluene),0.41 ± 0.09 (m,p-xylenes),0.16 ± 0.04 (o-xylene),0.023 ± 0.011 (styrene),and 0.15 ± 0.02 (ethylbenzene),respectively.The source apportionment results showed that around 23.3% of C6-C8 aromatics in urban Shanghai were from vehicular emissions,which meant that the non-vehicular emissions had more importance.These findings suggested that emission control of non-vehicular sources,i.e.industrial emissions,should also receive attention in addition to the control of vehicle-related emissions in Shanghai.The chemical removal of VOCs during the transport from emissions to the receptor site had a large impact on the apportionment results.Generally,the overestimation of vehicular contributions would occur when the VOC reaction rate constant with OH radicals (kOH) was larger than that of the vehicular indicator,while for species with smaller kOH than the vehicular indicator,the vehicular contribution would be underestimated by the method of characteristic ratios.

  18. Do vehicular emissions dominate the source of C6-C8 aromatics in the megacity Shanghai of eastern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Wang, Qian; Chen, Jianmin; Chen, Changhong; Huang, Cheng; Qiao, Liping; Lou, Shengrong; Lu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to i-pentane, the indicator of vehicular emissions, were employed to apportion the vehicular and non-vehicular contributions to reactive species in urban Shanghai. Two kinds of tunnel experiments, one tunnel with more than 90% light duty gasoline vehicles and the other with more than 60% light duty diesel vehicles, were carried out to study the characteristic ratios of vehicle-related emissions from December 2009 to January 2010. Based on the experiments, the characteristic ratios of C6-C8 aromatics to i-pentane of vehicular emissions were 0.53 ± 0.08 (benzene), 0.70 ± 0.12 (toluene), 0.41 ± 0.09 (m,p-xylenes), 0.16 ± 0.04 (o-xylene), 0.023 ± 0.011 (styrene), and 0.15 ± 0.02 (ethylbenzene), respectively. The source apportionment results showed that around 23.3% of C6-C8 aromatics in urban Shanghai were from vehicular emissions, which meant that the non-vehicular emissions had more importance. These findings suggested that emission control of non-vehicular sources, i.e. industrial emissions, should also receive attention in addition to the control of vehicle-related emissions in Shanghai. The chemical removal of VOCs during the transport from emissions to the receptor site had a large impact on the apportionment results. Generally, the overestimation of vehicular contributions would occur when the VOC reaction rate constant with OH radicals (kOH) was larger than that of the vehicular indicator, while for species with smaller kOH than the vehicular indicator, the vehicular contribution would be underestimated by the method of characteristic ratios.

  19. Investigation of the in vitro toxicological properties of the synthetic cannabimimetic drug CP-47,497-C8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, Verena J., E-mail: verena.koller@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Internal Medicine 1, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8A, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Auwärter, Volker, E-mail: volker.auwaerter@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Institute of Forensic Medicine, University Medical Center Freiburg, Albertstraße 9, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Grummt, Tamara, E-mail: tamara.grummt@uba.de [German Federal Environmental Agency, Heinrich-Heine-Str., 12, 08645 Bad Elster (Germany); Moosmann, Bjoern, E-mail: bjoern.moosmann@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Institute of Forensic Medicine, University Medical Center Freiburg, Albertstraße 9, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Mišík, Miroslav, E-mail: miroslav.misik@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Internal Medicine 1, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8A, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Knasmüller, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.knasmueller@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Internal Medicine 1, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8A, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-06-01

    Cannabicyclohexanol (CP-47,497-C8) is a representative of a group of cannabimimetic cyclohexylphenols which is added to herbal mixtures as a cannabis substitute since 2008. Although in the beginning CP-47,497-C8 was the main ingredient of “Spice” and similar products, it was partly replaced by aminoalkylindole-type cannabinoid receptor agonists like JWH-018, JWH-073 or JWH-250, but never completely disappeared from the market. Since information on its toxicological properties is scarce, we investigated the effects of the drug in human derived cell lines. The cytotoxic effects were studied in a panel of assays (SRB, XTT, LDHe and NR tests) in a buccal derived (TR146) and a liver derived (HepG2) cell line. The strongest effects were seen in the two former assays at levels ≥ 7.5 μM indicating that the compound interferes with protein synthesis and causes membrane damage. In additional comet assays, DNA damage was detected at levels ≥ 10 μM. Experiments with lesion specific enzymes showed that these effects are not due to oxidative damage of DNA bases. The negative findings obtained in Salmonella/microsome assays and the positive results of micronucleus tests with the cell lines indicate that the compound does not cause gene mutations but acts on the chromosomal level. In contrast to other synthetic cannabinoids, no indication for estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties was seen in a luciferase assay with bone marrow derived U2-OS cells. In conclusion, our findings show that the drug has only weak cytotoxic properties. However, the induction of chromosomal damage indicates that it may cause adverse effects in users due to its impact on the stability of the genetic material. - Highlights: • We tested the toxic properties of a synthetic cannabinoid. • Acute cytotoxic effects were detected with doses ≥ 7 μM. • No hormonal effects were found. • DNA damage was detected at levels ≥ 10 μM in comet assay and micronucleus tests. • Effects in directly

  20. Investigation of the in vitro toxicological properties of the synthetic cannabimimetic drug CP-47,497-C8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannabicyclohexanol (CP-47,497-C8) is a representative of a group of cannabimimetic cyclohexylphenols which is added to herbal mixtures as a cannabis substitute since 2008. Although in the beginning CP-47,497-C8 was the main ingredient of “Spice” and similar products, it was partly replaced by aminoalkylindole-type cannabinoid receptor agonists like JWH-018, JWH-073 or JWH-250, but never completely disappeared from the market. Since information on its toxicological properties is scarce, we investigated the effects of the drug in human derived cell lines. The cytotoxic effects were studied in a panel of assays (SRB, XTT, LDHe and NR tests) in a buccal derived (TR146) and a liver derived (HepG2) cell line. The strongest effects were seen in the two former assays at levels ≥ 7.5 μM indicating that the compound interferes with protein synthesis and causes membrane damage. In additional comet assays, DNA damage was detected at levels ≥ 10 μM. Experiments with lesion specific enzymes showed that these effects are not due to oxidative damage of DNA bases. The negative findings obtained in Salmonella/microsome assays and the positive results of micronucleus tests with the cell lines indicate that the compound does not cause gene mutations but acts on the chromosomal level. In contrast to other synthetic cannabinoids, no indication for estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties was seen in a luciferase assay with bone marrow derived U2-OS cells. In conclusion, our findings show that the drug has only weak cytotoxic properties. However, the induction of chromosomal damage indicates that it may cause adverse effects in users due to its impact on the stability of the genetic material. - Highlights: • We tested the toxic properties of a synthetic cannabinoid. • Acute cytotoxic effects were detected with doses ≥ 7 μM. • No hormonal effects were found. • DNA damage was detected at levels ≥ 10 μM in comet assay and micronucleus tests. • Effects in directly

  1. Realistic page-turning of electronic books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chaoran; Li, Haisheng; Bai, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    The booming electronic books (e-books), as an extension to the paper book, are popular with readers. Recently, many efforts are put into the realistic page-turning simulation o f e-book to improve its reading experience. This paper presents a new 3D page-turning simulation approach, which employs piecewise time-dependent cylindrical surfaces to describe the turning page and constructs smooth transition method between time-dependent cylinders. The page-turning animation is produced by sequentially mapping the turning page into the cylinders with different radii and positions. Compared to the previous approaches, our method is able to imitate various effects efficiently and obtains more natural animation of turning page.

  2. Effect of preduodenal lipase inhibition in suckling rats on dietary octanoic acid (C8:0) gastric absorption and plasma octanoylated ghrelin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, F; Cavalier, J-F; Garcia, C; Boissel, F; Point, V; Catheline, D; Legrand, P; Carrière, F; Rioux, V

    2016-09-01

    Part of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) coming from dietary triglycerides (TGs) can be directly absorbed through the gastric mucosa after the action of preduodenal lipase (lingual lipase in the rat). MCFA gastric absorption, particularly that of octanoic acid (C8:0), may have a physiological importance in the octanoylation of ghrelin, the orexigenic gastric peptide acting as an endogenous ligand of the hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a). However, the amount of C8:0 absorbed in the stomach and its metabolic fate still haven't been clearly characterized. The purpose of the present study was to further characterize and quantify the importance of preduodenal lipase activity on the release and gastric absorption of dietary C8:0 and on the subsequent ghrelin octanoylation in the stomach mucosa. Fifteen days old rats received fat emulsions containing triolein or [1,1,1-(13)C]-Tri-C8:0 and a specific inhibitor of preduodenal lipase, 5-(2-(benzyloxy)ethoxy)-3-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one or BemPPOX. The fate of the (13)C-C8:0 was followed in rat tissues after 30 and 120min of digestion and octanoylated ghrelin was measured in the plasma. This work (1) demonstrates that part of C8:0 coming from Tri-C8:0 is directly absorbed at the gastric level, (2) allows the estimation of C8:0 gastric absorption level (1.3% of the (13)C-C8:0 in sn-3 position after 30min of digestion), as well as (3) the contribution of rat lingual lipase to total lipolysis and to duodenal absorption of dietary FAs (at least 30%), (4) shows no short-term effect of dietary Tri-C8:0 consumption and subsequent increase of C8:0 gastric tissue content on plasma octanoylated ghrelin concentration. PMID:27317984

  3. Train turn restrictions and line plan performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraeve, Sofie; Bull, Simon Henry; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    In this paper we study the impact of the `turn conditions' in end stations on the performance of a line plan. If trains have to turn on their platform in an end station, the yoccupy the platform for several minutes. A more preferred option, from a timetabling point of view, would be that a train...... in a exible and large enough shunt. Starting from a given line plan, we compare two timetables, one where trains have to turn on their platform and one where trains can turn in a shunt. We evaluate the impact on the performance of the line plan by its feasibility for timetabling,the minimum overall buffer...

  4. Estimated pKa values for the environmentally relevant C1 through C8 perfluorinated sulfonic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-10-14

    In order to estimate isomer-specific acidity constants (pKa) for the perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA) environmental contaminants, the parameterization method 6 (PM6) pKa prediction method was extensively validated against a wide range of carbon oxyacids and related sulfonic/sulfinic acids. Excellent pKa prediction performance was observed for the carbon oxyacids using the PM6 method, but this approach was found to have a severe positive bias for sulfonic/sulfinic acids. To overcome this obstacle, a correlation was developed between non-adjusted PM6 pKa values and the corresponding experimentally obtained/estimated acidity constants for a range of representative alkyl, aryl and halogen-substituted sulfonic acids. Application of this correction to the PM6 values allows for extension of this computational method to a new acid functional group. When used to estimate isomer-specific pKa values for the C1 through C8 PFSAs, the modified PM6 approach suggests an adjusted pKa range from -5.3 to -9.0, indicating that all members of this class of well-known environmental contaminants will be effectively completely dissociated in aquatic systems. PMID:27389973

  5. 32 CFR 636.23 - Turning movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL... movements. (a) U-turns are prohibited on all streets in the cantonment area. (b) Right-turns will be made from a position as close to the right edge or right curb of the roadway as possible. (c)...

  6. 17beta-estradiol attenuates hyperoxia-induced apoptosis in mouse C8-D1A cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppmann, Stephanie; Römer, Susanne; Altmann, Rodica; Obladen, Michael; Berns, Monika

    2008-11-15

    In premature infants, oxygen free radicals generated following neonatal resuscitation are associated with subsequent diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Recent studies in brain tissue samples have shown that nonphysiologic oxygen levels play a key role in induction of apoptosis in the developing brain. Estrogen is a well-established agent in neuroprotection and, therefore, is thought to be neuroprotective even in the premature brain. Astrocytes appear to have a critical role in protection and survival of neurons in the brain. As one of the glial cell types, they have a great potential for possible involvement in the mediation of estrogen neuroprotective effects. The aim of our study was to analyze whether astrocytes in cell cultures are damaged by hyperoxia and whether 17beta-estradiol (E2) can protect them against apoptosis. Additionally, we investigated the mechanism of the protection by E2, hypothesizing that it is mediated through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Cells underwent eightfold more apoptosis when cultivated in hyperoxia compared with normoxia. Addition of E2 reduced apoptosis in hyperoxia by more than 50%. Levels of ERK1/2 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 were increased after hyperoxia compared with normoxia. Preincubation with E2 prior to exposure to hyperoxia resulted in decreased levels of ERK1/2 and pERK1/2. Hyperoxia induces apoptosis in C8-D1A cells, and E2 seems to be a protecting factor for astrocytes in hyperoxia. This effect is not mediated through up-regulation of pERK1/2.

  7. VUV and soft x-ray ionization of a plant volatile: Vanillin (C8H8O3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, A. Moreno; Coutinho, L. H.; Bernini, R. B.; de Moura, C. E. V.; Rocha, A. B.; de Souza, G. G. B.

    2016-03-01

    Plant volatiles are emitted by plants in response to several forms of stress, including interaction with energetic photons. In the present work, we discuss the interaction of extreme UV and soft X-ray photons with a plant volatile, vanillin. The single and double (multiple) ionization of the vanillin molecule have been studied for the first time using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and VUV and soft X-ray photons (synchrotron radiation, at 12.0 eV, 21.2 eV, 130 eV, 310 eV, 531 eV, and 550 eV). At 12.0 and 21.2 eV, only singly charged species are observed and the parent ion, C8H8O3+, is the dominant species. Energy differences for some selected fragments were calculated theoretically in this energy region. At 130 eV, direct double and triple ionization of the valence electrons may occur. The fragmentation increases and CHO+ becomes one of the main cations in the mass spectrum. The molecular ion is still the dominant species, but other fragments, such as C6H5O+, begin to present similar intensities. At 310 eV, C 1s electrons may be ionized and Auger processes give rise to dissociative doubly ionized cations. Ionization around the O 1s edge has been studied both at the 531 eV resonance and above the ionization edge. Resonant and normal Auger processes play a significant role in each case and a large fragmentation of the molecule is observed at both photon energies, with intense fragments such as CHO+ and CH3+ being clearly observed. A near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectrum of the vanillin molecule was obtained around the O 1s ionization threshold. In addition, the fragmentation of vanillin has also been studied using a fast beam of electrons (800 eV), for the sake of comparison.

  8. VUV and soft x-ray ionization of a plant volatile: Vanillin (C8H8O3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, A Moreno; Coutinho, L H; Bernini, R B; de Moura, C E V; Rocha, A B; de Souza, G G B

    2016-03-21

    Plant volatiles are emitted by plants in response to several forms of stress, including interaction with energetic photons. In the present work, we discuss the interaction of extreme UV and soft X-ray photons with a plant volatile, vanillin. The single and double (multiple) ionization of the vanillin molecule have been studied for the first time using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and VUV and soft X-ray photons (synchrotron radiation, at 12.0 eV, 21.2 eV, 130 eV, 310 eV, 531 eV, and 550 eV). At 12.0 and 21.2 eV, only singly charged species are observed and the parent ion, C8H8O3 (+), is the dominant species. Energy differences for some selected fragments were calculated theoretically in this energy region. At 130 eV, direct double and triple ionization of the valence electrons may occur. The fragmentation increases and CHO(+) becomes one of the main cations in the mass spectrum. The molecular ion is still the dominant species, but other fragments, such as C6H5O(+), begin to present similar intensities. At 310 eV, C 1s electrons may be ionized and Auger processes give rise to dissociative doubly ionized cations. Ionization around the O 1s edge has been studied both at the 531 eV resonance and above the ionization edge. Resonant and normal Auger processes play a significant role in each case and a large fragmentation of the molecule is observed at both photon energies, with intense fragments such as CHO(+) and CH3 (+) being clearly observed. A near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectrum of the vanillin molecule was obtained around the O 1s ionization threshold. In addition, the fragmentation of vanillin has also been studied using a fast beam of electrons (800 eV), for the sake of comparison.

  9. Crystal and molecular structure of Bis[π-(cyclobutenocyclooctatetraene)]uranium(IV), U[C8H6(CH2)2]21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of bis[π-(bicyclo[6.2.0]deca-1,3,5,7-tetraene)]uranium(IV), U[C8H6(CH2)2]2, are monoclinic: space group P21/n, a = 9.906 (8) A, b = 11.039 (9) A, c = 7.221 (6) A, β = 98.89 (5)0, V = 780.15 A3, Z = 2, and D/sub x/ = 2.122 g cm-3 at 220C. X-ray diffraction data were measured with counter methods and Mo Kα radiation. With anisotropic temperature factors for the uranium and carbon atoms and isotropic temperature factors for the hydrogen atoms, R = 0.020 for 1315 independent reflections (I > 3 sigma). The molecule is a sandwich compound with the C8 rings in an eclipsed configuration about the uranium atom which is on a center of symmetry. The average U-C distance is 2.64 +- 0.02 A, and the average C-C distance in the C8 ring is 1.39 +- 0.01 A (uncorrected for thermal motion). The cyclobuteno ring is planar and at an angle of 6.80 to the plane of the C8 ring. The C-C bond length is 1.47 (2) A in the -CH2-CH2- moiety, and it is 1.55 (2) A where this group is fused to the C8 ring

  10. Influence and mechanism of N-(3-oxooxtanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (C8-oxo-HSL) on biofilm behaviors at early stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Siqing; Zhou, Lijie; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Jixiang

    2012-01-01

    N-acyl-homoserines quenching, enzymatic quenching of bacterial quorum sensing, has recently applied to mitigate biofilm in membrane bioreactor. However, the effect of AHLs on the behavior of biofilm formation is still sparse. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was formed on ultra-filtration membrane under a series of N-(3-oxooxtanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (Cs-oxo-HSL) concentrations. Diffusing C8-oxo-HSL increased the growth rate of cells on biofilm where the concentration of C8-oxo-HSL was over 10(-7) g/L. The C8-oxo-HSL gradient had no observable influence on cell density and extracellular polymeric substances of biofilm with over 10(-7) g/L C8-oxo-HSL. Surprisingly, 10(-11)-10(-8) g/L of C8-oxo-HSL had no effect on cell growth in liquid culture. The cell analysis demonstrated that the quorum sensing system might enhance the growth of neighboring cells in contact with surfaces into biofilm and may influence the structure and organization of biofilm.

  11. Turning points the nature of creativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chaomei

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on a critical concept of intellectual turning points in the context of critical thinking, scientific discovery, and problem solving. The author presents a novel analytical and experimental system that applies to both past and future data.

  12. Derrida’s Turn to Franciscan Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Zlomislic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary French philosophers such as Levinas, Bataille, and Derrida, along with the existentialists Kierkegaard and Nietzsche have all made use of Franciscan insights in order to safeguard the ipseity that cannot be reduced or totalized. In keeping with the taste that concerns me, this paper will examine Derrida’s turn to the poetry of Gerard Manley Hopkins and how such a turn may place Derrida within a catholic and Franciscan tradition.

  13. DNA polymerases κ and ζ cooperatively perform mutagenic translesion synthesis of the C8-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct of the dietary mutagen IQ in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arindam; Pande, Paritosh; Jasti, Vijay P; Millsap, Amy D; Hawkins, Edward K; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Basu, Ashis K

    2015-09-30

    The roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases in bypassing the C8-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct (dG-C8-IQ) formed by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), a highly mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, were investigated. Three plasmid vectors containing the dG-C8-IQ adduct at the G1-, G2- or G3-positions of the NarI site (5'-G1G2CG3CC-3') were replicated in HEK293T cells. Fifty percent of the progeny from the G3 construct were mutants, largely G→T, compared to 18% and 24% from the G1 and G2 constructs, respectively. Mutation frequency (MF) of dG-C8-IQ was reduced by 38-67% upon siRNA knockdown of pol κ, whereas it was increased by 10-24% in pol η knockdown cells. When pol κ and pol ζ were simultaneously knocked down, MF of the G1 and G3 constructs was reduced from 18% and 50%, respectively, to <3%, whereas it was reduced from 24% to <1% in the G2 construct. In vitro TLS using yeast pol ζ showed that it can extend G3*:A pair more efficiently than G3*:C pair, but it is inefficient at nucleotide incorporation opposite dG-C8-IQ. We conclude that pol κ and pol ζ cooperatively carry out the majority of the error-prone TLS of dG-C8-IQ, whereas pol η is involved primarily in its error-free bypass. PMID:26220181

  14. High resolution LT-STM imaging of PTCDA molecules assembled on an InSb(001) c(8 x 2) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-assembling of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules deposited on an InSb(001) c(8 x 2) surface at sub-monolayer quantities has been investigated at low temperature (77 K) using scanning tunnelling microscopy. Sub-molecular resolution was obtained on PTCDA molecules. The results reveal that individual PTCDA molecules are arranged on the substrate in chains parallel to the [110] crystallographic direction, correlated with characteristic features of the low temperature InSb(001) c(8 x 2) surface electronic structure. A structural model for PTCDA molecules adsorbed on InSb is proposed

  15. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of sulfonamide derivatives at C-8 alkyl chain of anacardic acid mixture isolated from a natural product cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Subhakara Reddy; A Srinivas Rao; M Adharvana Chari; V Ravi Kumar; V Jyothy; V Himabindu

    2012-05-01

    Synthesis and antibacterial activity of some novel biologically active sulfonamide derivatives at C-8 alkyl chain of anacardic acid (7a-7l), prepared from commercially available anacardic acid mixture (1a-d). These compounds were tested for Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial cultures; most of the compounds showed higher antibacterial activity compared with standard drug ampicillin.

  16. C8-Selective Acylation of Quinoline N-Oxides with α-Oxocarboxylic Acids via Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective C-H Bond Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopei; Cui, Xiuling; Wu, Yangjie

    2016-08-01

    A facile and efficient protocol for palladium-catalyzed C8-selective acylation of quinoline N-oxides with α-oxocarboxylic acids has been developed. In this approach, N-oxide was utilized as a stepping stone for the remote C-H functionalization. The reactions proceeded efficiently under mild reaction conditions with excellent regioselectivity and broad functional group tolerance. PMID:27441527

  17. Diastereoselective dihydroxylation and regioselective deoxygenation of dihydropyranones: a novel protocol for the stereoselective synthesis of C1-C8 and C15-C21 subunits of (+)-discodermolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, P Veeraraghavan; Prabhudas, Bodhuri; Chandra, J Subash; Reddy, M Venkat Ram

    2004-09-17

    Diastereoselective dihydroxylation of dihydropyranones and subsequent regioselective alpha-deoxygenation provides 1,3-trans-beta-hydroxy-delta-lactones stereoselectively. This protocol has been applied for the synthesis of C(1)-C(8) and C(15)-C(21) subunits of (+)-discodermolide.

  18. Nearly Perfect Spin Filter Based on a Wire of Half-Metallic (η5-C5H5)Ti (η8-C8H8)Ti Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Sicong; Fang, Jianming; Yao, Kailun; Wu, Yanqing

    2015-07-01

    Organic molecular devices show strong potential for future nanoelectronics applications, many of which require multifunction capability. Organometallic [(C5H5)Ti(C8H8)] n clusters are one of the few molecular material clusters that have been synthesized experimentally. Here we present a theoretical study of the spin-polarized transport on the clusters of [(C5H5)Ti(C8H8)] n by using nonequilibrium Green's functions combined with the density-functional theory. Results indicate that one-dimensional, organic (η5-C5H5)Ti (η8-C8H8)Ti wire has unique half-metallic properties with 100% spin polarization near the Fermi level in the ground state. We predict that finite-layer [(C5H5)Ti (C8H8)] n clusters coupled to gold electrodes exhibit a near-perfect spin-filter effect. Furthermore, due to the large spin coherence originated from its organic nature, these devices possess a spin-valve effect with large magnetoresistance. Our findings suggest that such a multifunctional molecular device is an excellent candidate for future molecule-based spintronic applications.

  19. Synthesis of Key Points from the OSEP Early Childhood Transition FAQ (SPP/APR Indicators C-8, B-11 and B-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorf, M.; Henson, J.; Lucas, A.; Whaley, K.

    2010-01-01

    This document is a synthesis of the key points provided in the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) Early Childhood Transition FAQs: SPP/APR indicators C-8 and B-12 released on December 1, 2009. It was developed to assist states with the implementation of effective transition policies and practices. The following is included: (1) Transition…

  20. Construction of expression vector of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan strain with C8L-K3L region deletion and study on biological properties of the recombinant virus%痘苗病毒天坛株C8L-K3L片段缺失表达载体的生物学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铮; 刘颖; 王书晖; 张其程; 刘莹; 侯爵; 王荣敏; 邵一鸣

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究缺失C8L-K3L片段的痘苗病毒天坛株载体的生物学性能及外源基因的免疫原性.方法 构建缺失C8L-K3L区域的重组痘苗病毒天坛株载体VTT△C8-K3-gag.在4种细胞上检测了重组载体的增殖能力、在小鼠和家兔模型上进行毒力评价,并在BALB/c小鼠进行了免疫效果评价.结果 与VTT相比,VTT△C8-K3-gag在CEF、BHK-21、HeLa细胞中复制能力显著下降,在Vero细胞中失去复制能力.VTT△C8-K3-gag在小鼠和家兔模型中毒力均有显著降低.VTT△C8-K3-gag免疫小鼠第4周后诱导的痘苗病毒特异结合抗体与中和抗体滴度分别达到5.6× 103和1.0× 104,第9周滴度达到5.8×105和5.25×103,与VTKgpe相比均显著下降3~9倍,但E3刺激后的细胞免疫应答无显著变化.VTT△C8-K3-gag单独免疫或与DNA疫苗联合免疫诱导的HIV特异性抗体水平和细胞免疫应答均与VTKgpe无差异.结论 VTT△C8-K3-gag是一个安全性较高且具有深入研究价值的HIV候选疫苗株.%Objective To study the biological properties of the recombinant vaccinia virus Tiantan strain with C8L-K3L region deletion and its immunogenicity.Methods The expression vector of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan strain (VTT△C8-K3-gag) was constructed by replacing C8L-K3L genes with HIV gag gene and GFP gene.Viral replication capacities in chicken CEF,hamster BHK-21,monkey Vero and human HeLa cell lines were detected respectively.Virulence evaluation was carried out in mice and rabbit models,and immune effects of VTT△C8-K3-gag was evaluated in BALA/c mice model.Results The replication capacity of VTT△C8-K3-gag was impaired in chicken CEF,hamster BHK-21 and human HeLa cell lines,and was completely restricted in monkey Vero cell line as compared with the parental VTT.VTT△C8-K3-gag was less virulent than VTT in mice and rabbit models.The cellular and humoral responses to HIV elicited by VTT△C8-K3-gag alone or in combination with DNA vaccine were similar

  1. Reconceptualizing Autonomy: A Relational Turn in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    History's judgment on the success of bioethics will not depend solely on the conceptual creativity and innovation in the field at the level of ethical and political theory, but this intellectual work is not insignificant. One important new development is what I shall refer to as the relational turn in bioethics. This development represents a renewed emphasis on the ideographic approach, which interprets the meaning of right and wrong in human actions as they are inscribed in social and cultural practices and in structures of lived meaning and interdependence; in an ideographic approach, the task of bioethics is to bring practice into theory, not the other way around. The relational turn in bioethics may profoundly affect the critical questions that the field asks and the ethical guidance it offers society, politics, and policy. The relational turn provides a way of correcting the excessive atomism of many individualistic perspectives that have been, and continue to be, influential in bioethics. Nonetheless, I would argue that most of the work reflecting the relational turn remains distinctively liberal in its respect for the ethical significance of the human individual. It moves away from individualism, but not from the value of individuality.In this review essay, I shall focus on how the relational turn has manifested itself in work on core concepts in bioethics, especially liberty and autonomy. Following a general review, I conclude with a brief consideration of two important recent books in this area: Jennifer Nedelsky's Law's Relations and Rachel Haliburton's Autonomy and the Situated Self. PMID:26847836

  2. Reconceptualizing Autonomy: A Relational Turn in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    History's judgment on the success of bioethics will not depend solely on the conceptual creativity and innovation in the field at the level of ethical and political theory, but this intellectual work is not insignificant. One important new development is what I shall refer to as the relational turn in bioethics. This development represents a renewed emphasis on the ideographic approach, which interprets the meaning of right and wrong in human actions as they are inscribed in social and cultural practices and in structures of lived meaning and interdependence; in an ideographic approach, the task of bioethics is to bring practice into theory, not the other way around. The relational turn in bioethics may profoundly affect the critical questions that the field asks and the ethical guidance it offers society, politics, and policy. The relational turn provides a way of correcting the excessive atomism of many individualistic perspectives that have been, and continue to be, influential in bioethics. Nonetheless, I would argue that most of the work reflecting the relational turn remains distinctively liberal in its respect for the ethical significance of the human individual. It moves away from individualism, but not from the value of individuality.In this review essay, I shall focus on how the relational turn has manifested itself in work on core concepts in bioethics, especially liberty and autonomy. Following a general review, I conclude with a brief consideration of two important recent books in this area: Jennifer Nedelsky's Law's Relations and Rachel Haliburton's Autonomy and the Situated Self.

  3. Inhibition of human cytochrome p450 2c8-catalyzed amodiaquine n-desethylation: Effect of five traditionally and commonly used herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasotha Devi Muthiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbs commonly used in Southeast Asia on activity of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8, an important human hepatic enzyme in drug metabolism. Materials and Methods: The selected herbs, such as Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ, Labisia pumila (LP, Echinacea purpurea (EP, Andrographis paniculata (AP, and Ginkgo biloba (GB, were subjected to inhibition studies using an in vitro CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylase assay. Inhibition parameters, inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50, and Kivalues were determined to study the potency and mode of inhibition. Results: All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 with the following order of potency: LP > ELJ > GB > AP > EP. LP and ELJ inhibited potently at Ki's of 2 and 4 times the Kiof quercetin, the positive control. The inhibition by LP was uncompetitive in nature as compared to competitive or mixed type inhibition observed with other herbs. GB exhibited moderate inhibitory effect at a Ki6 times larger than quercetin Ki. AP and EP, on the other hand, showed only weak inhibition. Conclusion: The herbs we chose represented the more commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia where collision of tradition and modernization in healthcare, if not properly managed, may lead to therapeutic misadventures. We conclude that concurrent consumption of some herbs, in particular, LP and ELJ, may have relevance in drug-herb interactions via CYP2C8 inhibition in vivo.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Drug-Drug Interaction Studies to Assess the Effect of Abiraterone Acetate, Abiraterone, and Metabolites of Abiraterone on CYP2C8 Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbaliu, Johan; Gonzalez, Martha; Bernard, Apexa; Jiao, James; Sensenhauser, Carlo; Snoeys, Jan; Stieltjes, Hans; Wynant, Inneke; Smit, Johan W; Chien, Caly

    2016-10-01

    Abiraterone acetate, the prodrug of the cytochrome P450 C17 inhibitor abiraterone, plus prednisone is approved for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We explored whether abiraterone interacts with drugs metabolized by CYP2C8, an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many drugs. Abiraterone acetate and abiraterone and its major metabolites, abiraterone sulfate and abiraterone sulfate N-oxide, inhibited CYP2C8 in human liver microsomes, with IC50 values near or below the peak total concentrations observed in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (IC50 values: 1.3-3.0 µM, 1.6-2.9 µM, 0.044-0.15 µM, and 5.4-5.9 µM, respectively). CYP2C8 inhibition was reversible and time-independent. To explore the clinical relevance of the in vitro data, an open-label, single-center study was conducted comprising 16 healthy male subjects who received a single 15-mg dose of the CYP2C8 substrate pioglitazone on day 1 and again 1 hour after the administration of abiraterone acetate 1000 mg on day 8. Plasma concentrations of pioglitazone, its active M-III (keto derivative) and M-IV (hydroxyl derivative) metabolites, and abiraterone were determined for up to 72 hours after each dose. Abiraterone acetate increased exposure to pioglitazone; the geometric mean ratio (day 8/day 1) was 125 [90% confidence interval (CI), 99.9-156] for Cmax and 146 (90% CI, 126-171) for AUClast Exposure to M-III and M-IV was reduced by 10% to 13%. Plasma abiraterone concentrations were consistent with previous studies. These results show that abiraterone only weakly inhibits CYP2C8 in vivo. PMID:27504016

  5. Evacetrapib: in vitro and clinical disposition, metabolism, excretion, and assessment of drug interaction potential with strong CYP3A and CYP2C8 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannady, Ellen A; Wang, Ming-Dauh; Friedrich, Stuart; Rehmel, Jessica L F; Yi, Ping; Small, David S; Zhang, Wei; Suico, Jeffrey G

    2015-10-01

    Evacetrapib is an investigational cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETPi) for reduction of risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with high-risk vascular disease. Understanding evacetrapib disposition, metabolism, and the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDI) may help guide prescribing recommendations. In vitro, evacetrapib metabolism was investigated with a panel of human recombinant cytochromes P450 (CYP). The disposition, metabolism, and excretion of evacetrapib following a single 100-mg oral dose of (14)C-evacetrapib were determined in healthy subjects, and the pharmacokinetics of evacetrapib were evaluated in the presence of strong CYP3A or CYP2C8 inhibitors. In vitro, CYP3A was responsible for about 90% of evacetrapib's CYP-associated clearance, while CYP2C8 accounted for about 10%. In the clinical disposition study, only evacetrapib and two minor metabolites circulated in plasma. Evacetrapib metabolism was extensive. A mean of 93.1% and 2.30% of the dose was excreted in feces and urine, respectively. In clinical DDI studies, the ratios of geometric least squares means for evacetrapib with/without the CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole were 2.37 for area under the curve (AUC)(0-∞) and 1.94 for C max. There was no significant difference in evacetrapib AUC(0-τ) or C max with/without the CYP2C8 inhibitor gemfibrozil, with ratios of 0.996 and 1.02, respectively. Although in vitro results indicated that both CYP3A and CYP2C8 metabolized evacetrapib, clinical studies confirmed that evacetrapib is primarily metabolized by CYP3A. However, given the modest increase in evacetrapib exposure and robust clinical safety profile to date, there is a low likelihood of clinically relevant DDI with concomitant use of strong CYP3A or CYP2C8 inhibitors. PMID:26516590

  6. Research on an Intelligent Automatic Turning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichong Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Equipment manufacturing industry is the strategic industries of a country. And its core part is the CNC machine tool. Therefore, enhancing the independent research of relevant technology of CNC machine, especially the open CNC system, is of great significance. This paper presented some key techniques of an Intelligent Automatic Turning System and gave a viable solution for system integration. First of all, the integrated system architecture and the flexible and efficient workflow for perfoming the intelligent automatic turning process is illustrated. Secondly, the innovated methods of the workpiece feature recognition and expression and process planning of the NC machining are put forward. Thirdly, the cutting tool auto-selection and the cutting parameter optimization solution are generated with a integrated inference of rule-based reasoning and case-based reasoning. Finally, the actual machining case based on the developed intelligent automatic turning system proved the presented solutions are valid, practical and efficient.

  7. Adaptation of TURN protocol to SIP protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Guezouri, Mustapha; Keche, Mokhtar

    2010-01-01

    Today, SIP is a protocol par Excellence in the field of communication over Internet. But, the fact that it belongs to the application layer constitutes a weakness vis-a-vis the NAT traversal. This weakness is due to the way in which the server replies to the requests of clients on the one hand. On the other, it is caused by the dynamic allocation of UDP ports for emission and reception of packets RTP/RTCP. The TURN Protocol may face this weakness. However, its use requires a certain number of exchanges between the clients and a TURN server before establishing the multimedia sessions and this increase the latent time. In this article, we propose to adapt TURN protocol for applications based on SIP protocol such as telephony over Internet, conference video, etc. This adaptation optimises the establishment of multimedia sessions by integrating a manager of TCP connections and multimedia flow controller into SIP Proxy server.

  8. Market turning points forecasting using wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Limiao; Yan, Sen; Zheng, Xiaolian; Chen, Ben M.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the system adaptation framework we previously proposed, a frequency domain based model is developed in this paper to forecast the major turning points of stock markets. This system adaptation framework has its internal model and adaptive filter to capture the slow and fast dynamics of the market, respectively. The residue of the internal model is found to contain rich information about the market cycles. In order to extract and restore its informative frequency components, we use wavelet multi-resolution analysis with time-varying parameters to decompose this internal residue. An empirical index is then proposed based on the recovered signals to forecast the market turning points. This index is successfully applied to US, UK and China markets, where all major turning points are well forecasted.

  9. Turning points in the history of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Hardy

    2015-01-01

    This book explores some of the major turning points in the history of mathematics, ranging from ancient Greece to the present, demonstrating the drama that has often been a part of its evolution. Studying these breakthroughs, transitions, and revolutions, their stumbling-blocks and their triumphs, can help illuminate the importance of the history of mathematics for its teaching, learning, and appreciation. Some of the turning points considered are the rise of the axiomatic method (most famously in Euclid), and the subsequent major changes in it (for example, by David Hilbert); the “wedding,” via analytic geometry, of algebra and geometry; the “taming” of the infinitely small and the infinitely large; the passages from algebra to algebras, from geometry to geometries, and from arithmetic to arithmetics; and the revolutions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that resulted from Georg Cantor’s creation of transfinite set theory. The origin of each turning point is discussed, along with...

  10. Turning Around along the Cosmic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jounghun; Yepes, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    A bound-violation designates a case that the turn-around radius of a bound object exceeds the upper limit put by the spherical collapse model based on the standard $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm. Given that the turn-around radius of a bound object is a stochastic quantity and that the spherical model overly simplifies the true gravitational collapse which actually proceeds anisotropically along the cosmic web, the rarity of the occurrence of a bound violation may depend on the web environment. Assumin...

  11. Turn-timing in signed conversations: coordinating stroke-to-stroke turn boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie ede Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In spoken interactions, interlocutors carefully plan and time their utterances, minimising gaps and overlaps between consecutive turns. Cross-linguistic comparison has indicated that spoken languages vary only minimally in terms of turn-timing, and language acquisition research has shown pre-linguistic vocal turn-taking in the first half year of life. These observations suggest that the turn-taking system may provide a fundamental basis for our linguistic capacities. The question remains however to what extent our capacity for rapid turn-taking is determined by modality constraints. The avoidance of overlapping turns could be motivated by the difficulty of hearing and speaking at the same time. If so, turn-taking in sign might show greater toleration for overlap. Alternatively, signed conversations may show a similar distribution of turn-timing as spoken languages, thus avoiding both gaps and overlaps. To address this question we look at turn-timing in question-answer sequences in spontaneous conversations of Sign Language of the Netherlands. The findings indicate that although there is considerable overlap in two or more signers' articulators in conversation, when proper allowance is made for onset preparation, post-utterance retraction and the intentional holding of signs for response, turn-taking latencies in sign look remarkably like those reported for spoken language. This is consistent with the possibility that, at least with regard to responses to questions, speakers and signers follow similar time courses in planning and producing their utterances in on-going conversation. This suggests that turn-taking systems may well be a shared cognitive infrastructure underlying all modern human languages, both spoken and signed.

  12. The Dynamic Turn in Quantum Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Baltag; S. Smets

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show how ideas coming from two areas of research in logic can reinforce each other. The first such line of inquiry concerns the "dynamic turn" in logic and especially the formalisms inspired by Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL); while the second line concerns research into the logic

  13. The dynamic turn in quantum logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show how ideas coming from two areas of research in logic can reinforce each other. The first such line of inquiry concerns the "dynamic turn" in logic and especially the formalisms inspired by Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL); while the second line concerns research into the logic

  14. Turning Practitioners into Professors: Exploring Effective Mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Gustafson, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents results of focus interviews with 25 "practitioners turned professors" regarding their transition from industry to academia. Finds a general consensus that all advertising and public relations programs should implement a formal mentoring process to include teacher training and inservice, greater explanation of and assistance with promotion…

  15. Leadership Helps Turn around a Troubled School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Von

    2013-01-01

    The author tells how he employed leadership skills to help turn around a failing school loaded with at-risk students. Dayton's Bluff Elementary School was one of the worst in St. Paul when Von Sheppard took over as principal in 2001. Changing the staff and attitudes at the largely low-income, minority majority school in a tough neighborhood…

  16. Turning Around along the Cosmic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jounghun

    2016-01-01

    A bound-violation designates a case that the turn-around radius of a bound object exceeds the upper limit put by the spherical collapse model based on the standard $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm. Given that the turn-around radius of a bound object is a stochastic quantity and that the spherical model overly simplifies the true gravitational collapse which actually proceeds anisotropically along the cosmic web, the rarity of the occurrence of a bound violation may depend on the web environment. Assuming a Planck cosmology, we numerically construct the bound-zone peculiar velocity profiles along the cosmic web (filaments and sheets) around the isolated groups with virial mass $M_{\\rm v}\\ge 3\\times 10^{13}\\,h^{-1}M_{\\odot}$ identified in the Small MultiDark Planck simulations and determine the radial distances at which their peculiar velocities equal the Hubble expansion speed as the turn-around radii of the groups. We find that although the average turn-around radii of the isolated groups are well below the spherical bo...

  17. Miniature multi-turn fibre current sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, L.; Qian, J.R.; Payne, D. N.

    1987-01-01

    Highly birefringent Bow-Tie fibres can be sensitized to Faraday rotation by spinning the fibres during draw. The fibres become elliptically-birefringent and this permits multi-turn small-diameter coil to be wound without loss of current sensitivity.

  18. Circuit Controls Turn-On Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, K. G.

    1972-01-01

    Single choke used in primary circuit with diode arrangement, maintaining dc current flow through choke and setting up a unidirectional magnetic field, limits turn-on current of transformer-rectifier power supply. Technique reduces number and weight of components and minimizes effect of initial inrush surge current on source.

  19. Can Language Classrooms Take the Multilingual Turn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet-Gauthier, Myriam; Beaulieu, Suzie

    2016-01-01

    For the past three decades, momentum has gathered in favour of a multilingual turn in second language acquisition research and teaching. "Multicompetence" has been proposed to replace "nativeness" and "monolingualism" to measure L2 learners' success. This proposed shift has not made its way into L2 teaching settings.…

  20. Strategy in Generative Planning of Turning Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van F.J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and operations planning system ROUND and the strategies which underlie the decision making processes in the planning of turning operations. At first, an outline is given about the environment for which generative systems like ROUND are being developed. The differenc

  1. Hamilton’s theory of turns revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Mukunda; S Chaturvedi; R Simon

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach to Hamilton’s theory of turns for the groups (3) and (2) which renders their properties, in particular their composition law, nearly trivial and immediately evident upon inspection. We show that the entire construction can be based on binary rotations rather than mirror reflections.

  2. Business Intelligence: Turning Knowledge into Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Krista

    2009-01-01

    Today, many school districts are turning to business intelligence tools to retrieve, organize, and share knowledge for faster analysis and more effective, guided decision making. Business intelligence (BI) tools are the technologies and applications that gather and report information to help an organization's leaders make better decisions. BI…

  3. Comparison of Responses to Mn Deficiency Between the UK Wheat Genotypes Maris Butler, Paragon and the Australian Wheat Genotype C8MM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Zhi Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Wheat grown in Mn-deficient soil has been widely observed to produce much reduced yields. Breeding for Mn-efficient wheat genotypes adapted to Mn-deficient soils would represent a long-term solution for wheat agronomy, To characterize the physiological basis of Mn efficiency in wheat genotypes would facilitate the breeding programs for producing Mn-efficient wheat. Using a solution culture and a soil culture system in the present study, a Mn-efficient UK wheat genotype Maris Butler and a Mn-inefficient UK wheat genotype Paragon have been compared with a Mn-efficient Australian wheat genotype C8MM in the responses to Mn deficiency In order to characterize the Mn efficiency in these wheat genotypes.Results showed that in solution culture, Marls Butler grown under Mn deficiency had 77% relative dry matter yield of control plants that were grown under Mn sufficiency, whereas C8MM and Paragon had 60% and 58% relative dry matter yield of their respective controls. Results from the soil culture demonstrated that relative dry matter yield remained high for Marie Butler and C8MM (53% and 56%, respectively), whereas the value for Paragon dropped to 33%. In terms of dry matter yield and photosynthetic efficiency, Mads Butler demonstrated Mn efficiency in both solution culture and soil culture, whereas C8MM showed Mn efficiency only In soil culture. Results also demonstrated that under Mn-depleted supply in soil, plants of C8MM had a significantly higher ability in Mn uptake, whereas plants of Marls Butler showed a higher internal Mn usa efficiency in comparison with plants of Paragon. Results from the present study indicate that the ability of C8MM to accumulate higher amounts of Mn is the basis of the improved Mn efficiency of this genotype in comparison with Paragon, and in Marls Butler there is a higher internal use of Mn expressed as an improved photosynthetic efficiency in conferring its Mn efficiency. It is suggested that more than one mechanism has arisen in wheat to

  4. Silicon Carbide Emitter Turn-Off Thyristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel MOS-controlled SiC thyristor device, the SiC emitter turn-off thyristor (ETO is a promising technology for future high-voltage switching applications because it integrates the excellent current conduction capability of a SiC thyristor with a simple MOS-control interface. Through unity-gain turn-off, the SiC ETO also achieves excellent Safe Operation Area (SOA and faster switching speeds than silicon ETOs. The world's first 4.5-kV SiC ETO prototype shows a forward voltage drop of 4.26 V at 26.5 A/cm2 current density at room and elevated temperatures. Tested in an inductive circuit with a 2.5 kV DC link voltage and a 9.56-A load current, the SiC ETO shows a fast turn-off time of 1.63 microseconds and a low 9.88 mJ turn-off energy. The low switching loss indicates that the SiC ETO could operate at about 4 kHz if 100 W/cm2 conduction and the 100 W/cm2 turn-off losses can be removed by the thermal management system. This frequency capability is about 4 times higher than 4.5-kV-class silicon power devices. The preliminary demonstration shows that the SiC ETO is a promising candidate for high-frequency, high-voltage power conversion applications, and additional developments to optimize the device for higher voltage (>5 kV and higher frequency (10 kHz are needed.

  5. Dynamic instability of the hard turning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kopač

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is consideration of dynamic behavior of the hard turning process. There are several indicators which could confirm assumption of turning instability (depth of cutting, high ratio of forces Fc/Fp, small tool nose radius, and non-uniform stress distribution over tool/workpiece contact. Lead edge angle and passive force Fp are strongly depend on depth of cutting in hard turning what additionally increase instability.Design/methodology/approach: Numerical calculation and experimental tests have been done to evaluate the rate of cutting instability while using and comparing different process monitoring sensors, and acquisition techniques based on PC platform.Findings: It was found that high chip thickness alteration occur because of cutting depth vary for a value of some 60 % and even more if Fp force signal is analyzing when machine tool has inadequate stiffness.Research limitations/implications: Results and findings presented in this paper are qualitative and might be slightly different in other cutting condition (e.g. if wiper inserts are used. Also there are no experiences with coated workpieces or with workpiece material with low deformation energy.Practical implications: Assuming that a hard turning is a semi finishing or finishing process, surface finish is of big relevance. Surface roughness is a consequence of both cutting instability and of tool/workpiece loading condition. Results of test indicates an optimal cutting depth for final pass when minimum surface roughness can be achieved what can be valuable for cutting regime determination. Furthermore, more effective use of the machine tool performances might be achieved.Originality/value: Originality of the paper is in analysis of sources of turning instability (variable depth of cutting combined with side edge angle and tool nose radius which lead primary to condition where Fp sensing data does not fit to the normal distribution and secondary to cyclic push

  6. Eye Gaze Behavior at Turn Transition: How Aphasic Patients Process Speakers' Turns during Video Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisig, Basil C; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Zito, Giuseppe; Vanbellingen, Tim; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Gutbrod, Klemens; Nyffeler, Thomas; Cazzoli, Dario; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Müri, René M

    2016-10-01

    The human turn-taking system regulates the smooth and precise exchange of speaking turns during face-to-face interaction. Recent studies investigated the processing of ongoing turns during conversation by measuring the eye movements of noninvolved observers. The findings suggest that humans shift their gaze in anticipation to the next speaker before the start of the next turn. Moreover, there is evidence that the ability to timely detect turn transitions mainly relies on the lexico-syntactic content provided by the conversation. Consequently, patients with aphasia, who often experience deficits in both semantic and syntactic processing, might encounter difficulties to detect and timely shift their gaze at turn transitions. To test this assumption, we presented video vignettes of natural conversations to aphasic patients and healthy controls, while their eye movements were measured. The frequency and latency of event-related gaze shifts, with respect to the end of the current turn in the videos, were compared between the two groups. Our results suggest that, compared with healthy controls, aphasic patients have a reduced probability to shift their gaze at turn transitions but do not show significantly increased gaze shift latencies. In healthy controls, but not in aphasic patients, the probability to shift the gaze at turn transition was increased when the video content of the current turn had a higher lexico-syntactic complexity. Furthermore, the results from voxel-based lesion symptom mapping indicate that the association between lexico-syntactic complexity and gaze shift latency in aphasic patients is predicted by brain lesions located in the posterior branch of the left arcuate fasciculus. Higher lexico-syntactic processing demands seem to lead to a reduced gaze shift probability in aphasic patients. This finding may represent missed opportunities for patients to place their contributions during everyday conversation. PMID:27243612

  7. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of generic issue C---8, main steam isolation valve leakage and LCS [leakage control system] failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generic Issue C-8 deals with staff concerns about public risk because of the incidence of leak test failures reported for main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) at boiling water reactors and the limitations of the leakage control systems (LCSs) for mitigating the consequences of leakage from these valves. If the MSIV leakage is greatly in excess of the allowable value in the technical specifications, the LCS would be unavailable because of design limitations. The issue was initiated in 1983 to assess (1) the causes of MSIV leakage failures, (2) the effectiveness of the LCS and alternative mitigation paths, and (3) the need for additional regulatory action to reduce public risk. This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue C-8 and concludes that no new regulatory requirements are warranted

  8. Orientation-dependent energy level alignment and film growth of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on HOPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements, we performed a systematic investigation on the correlation of energy level alignment, film growth, and molecular orientation of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The molecules lie down in the first layer and then stand up from the second layer. The ionization potential shows a sharp decrease from the lying down region to the standing up region. When C8-BTBT molecules start standing up, unconventional energy level band-bending-like shifts are observed as the film thickness increases. These shifts are ascribed to gradual decreasing of the molecular tilt angle about the substrate normal with the increasing film thickness

  9. Orientation-dependent energy level alignment and film growth of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on HOPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Lu; Niu, Dongmei, E-mail: mayee@csu.edu.cnmailto; Xie, Haipeng; Cao, Ningtong; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yuhe; Liu, Peng [Institute of Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, No. 605 Lushan South Road, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Gao, Yongli [Institute of Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, No. 605 Lushan South Road, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Combining ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements, we performed a systematic investigation on the correlation of energy level alignment, film growth, and molecular orientation of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The molecules lie down in the first layer and then stand up from the second layer. The ionization potential shows a sharp decrease from the lying down region to the standing up region. When C8-BTBT molecules start standing up, unconventional energy level band-bending-like shifts are observed as the film thickness increases. These shifts are ascribed to gradual decreasing of the molecular tilt angle about the substrate normal with the increasing film thickness.

  10. Tenuous dose-response correlations for common disease states: case study of cholesterol and perfluorooctanoate/sulfonate (PFOA/PFOS) in the C8 Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerger, Brent D; Copeland, Teri L; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2011-10-01

    Persistent organic chemicals, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), dioxins, and polychlorinated biphenyls, pose investigative challenges because they are found in virtually everyone (there is no unexposed control group). To overcome this problem, outcome data in some studies are sorted by chemical dose level and findings in low-end dose groups are compared to sequential higher dose groups. An example is the C8 Health Project that evaluated serum PFOA/PFOS (C8) and total cholesterol among 46,294 West Virginia residents who lived, worked, or went to school for at least 1 year in a C8 contaminated drinking-water district and were over age 18 in 2005-2006. The risk for high total cholesterol (>240 mg/dL) measured via odds ratios (ORs) in logistic regression models showed sequential OR increases with PFOA quartile, in comparison to the lowest quartile (OR = 1.00), that were each significantly elevated (OR = 1.21, 1.33, and 1.40, respectively), but age, sex, and body mass index were stronger correlates. Importantly, the magnitude of cholesterol increase was small (12 mg/dL from lowest to highest exposure deciles) and comparison to similar statistics for the general U.S. population showed the C8 cohort had lower rates of high cholesterol. This suggests that inadvertent selection bias may have affected the lowest exposure quartile (control group), making tenuous the dose-response relationship between PFOA/PFOS and risk of high cholesterol. This case illustrates the substantial difficulties in assigning toxicological importance to statistical comparisons for common disease states that utilize subgroups with low exposures as an effective control group. PMID:21770727

  11. Understanding the Electronic Structures and Absorption Properties of Porphyrin Sensitizers YD2 and YD2-o-C8 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Jiang Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structures and excitation properties of dye sensitizers determine the photon-to-current conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In order to understand the different performance of porphyrin dye sensitizers YD2 and YD2-o-C8 in DSSC, their geometries and electronic structures have been studied using density functional theory (DFT, and the electronic absorption properties have been investigated via time-dependent DFT (TDDFT with polarizable continuum model for solvent effects. The geometrical parameters indicate that YD2 and YD2-o-C8 have similar conjugate length and charge transfer (CT distance. According to the experimental spectra, the HSE06 functional in TDDFT is the most suitable functional for describing the Q and B absorption bands of porphyrins. The transition configurations and molecular orbital analysis suggest that the diarylamino groups are major chromophores for effective CT excitations (ECTE, and therefore act as electron donor in photon-induced electron injection in DSSCs. The analysis of excited states properties and the free energy changes for electron injection support that the better performance of YD2-o-C8 in DSSCs result from the more excited states with ECTE character and the larger absolute value of free energy change for electron injection.

  12. Cloning and molecular characterization of complement component 1 inhibitor (C1INH) and complement component 8β (C8β) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Anyuan; Yang, Jie; Tang, Shoujie; Wang, Chenghui

    2013-09-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), one of the most important groups of food fishes in the world, has frequently suffered from serious challenge from pathogens in recent years. Immune responses of Nile tilapia should be understood to protect the aquaculture industry of this fish. The complement system has an important function in recognizing bacteria, opsonizing these pathogens by phagocytes, or killing them by direct lysis. In this study, two Nile tilapia complement component genes, complement component 1 inhibitor (C1INH) and complement component 8β subunit (C8β), were cloned and their expression characteristics were analyzed. C1INH cDNA was found containing a 1791 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein with 597 amino acids, a 101 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 236 bp 3'-UTR. The predicted protein structure for this gene consisted of two Ig-like domains and glycosyl hydrolase family-9 active site signature 2. The C8β cDNA consisted of a 1761 bp ORF encoding 587 amino acids, a 15 bp 5'-UTR and a 170 bp 3'-UTR. The predicted protein of C8β contained three motifs, thrombospondin type-1 repeat, membrane attack complex/perforin domain, and LDL-receptor class A. Expression analysis revealed that these two complement genes were highly expressed in the liver, however, were weakly expressed in the gill, heart, brain, kidney, intestine, spleen and dorsal muscle tissues. The present study provided insights into the complement system and immune functions of Nile tilapia.

  13. Congener-specific organic carbon-normalized soil and sediment-water partitioning coefficients for the C1 through C8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic and sulfonic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2009-11-01

    Organic carbon-normalized soil and sediment-water partitioning coefficients (K(oc)) were estimated for all C(1) through C(8) perfluoroalkyl carboxylic (PFCA) and sulfonic (PFSA) acid congeners. The limited experimental K(oc) data set for the straight chain C(7) through C(10) PFCAs and C(8) and C(10) PFSAs was correlated to SPARC and ALOGPS computationally estimated octanol-water partitioning/distribution constants and used to predict K(oc) values for both branched and linear C(1) through C(8) isomers. Branched and linear congeners in this homologue range are generally expected to have K(oc) values > 1, leading to their accumulation in organic matter on sediments and soils, retardation during ground and pore water flow, and the preferential association with dissolved organic matter in aquatic systems. Both increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length and linearity increase K(oc) values with substantial intra- and inter-homologue variation and interhomologue mixing. Variability in K(oc) values among the PFCA and PFSA congeners will likely lead to an enrichment of more linear and longer-chain isomers in organic matter fractions, resulting in aqueous phases fractionated towards shorter-chain branched congeners. The expected magnitude of fractionation will require inclusion in source apportionment models and risk assessments. A comparison of representative established quantitative structure property relationships for estimating K(oc) values from octanol-water partitioning constants suggests that these equilibrium partitioning frameworks may be applicable towards modeling PFCA and PFSA environmental fate processes. PMID:20183495

  14. An investigation into magnetic electrolytic abrasive turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic electrolytic abrasive turning (MEAT) process as a non-traditional machining is used to obtain surface finishing like mirror. MEAT provides one of the best alternatives for producing complex shapes with good finish in advanced materials used in aircraft and aerospace industries. The improvement of machining accuracy of MEAT continues to be a major challenge for modern industry. MEAT is a hybrid machining which combines two or more processes to remove material. The present research focuses on the development of precision electrochemical turning (ECT) under the effects of magnetic field and abrasives. The effect of magnetic flux density, electrochemical conditions and abrasive parameters on finishing efficiency and surface roughness are investigated. An empirical relationship is deduced

  15. An investigation into magnetic electrolytic abrasive turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, M. A. M.; Ismaeial, A. L.; Aly, F. F.

    2013-07-01

    The magnetic electrolytic abrasive turning (MEAT) process as a non-traditional machining is used to obtain surface finishing like mirror. MEAT provides one of the best alternatives for producing complex shapes with good finish in advanced materials used in aircraft and aerospace industries. The improvement of machining accuracy of MEAT continues to be a major challenge for modern industry. MEAT is a hybrid machining which combines two or more processes to remove material. The present research focuses on the development of precision electrochemical turning (ECT) under the effects of magnetic field and abrasives. The effect of magnetic flux density, electrochemical conditions and abrasive parameters on finishing efficiency and surface roughness are investigated. An empirical relationship is deduced.

  16. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases. PMID:22710934

  17. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  18. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  19. Testing of nonlinear diamond-turned reflaxicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J; Underwood, K L; Loomis, J S; Parks, R E; Wyant, J C

    1981-01-15

    The extreme alignment sensitivity of nonlinear diamond-turned reflaxicons makes them difficult to test and analyze. To evaluate the wave front it is necessary to know what portion results from alignment errors. This paper describes the setup, alignment, and testing of a nonlinear diamond-turned independent-element reflaxicon manufactured at the Union Carbide, Oak Ridge Y-12 plant. Interferograms taken with the center cone misaligned a known amount are analyzed using the axicon preprocessing option in FRINGE [J. S. Loomis (ASTM Report STP 666 and Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 171, 64 (1979)]. The results show that FRINGE correctly removes the cone and decenter errors introduced by the misalignments. It is also shown how the resulting interferograms are unfolded to give the OPD errors as seen on the outer cone. PMID:20309096

  20. Turning customer satisfaction measurements into action

    OpenAIRE

    Lervik-Olsen, Line; Witell, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on customer orientation by developing and empirically testing a model that attempts to explain the elements that constitute customer orientation and that, in turn, influence customer satisfaction. In particular, this study focuses on how service firms design, collect, analyse and use customer-satisfaction data to improve service performance. This study has the following three research objectives: to understand ...

  1. The Spatial Turn in Literary Historiography

    OpenAIRE

    Cabo Aseguinolaza, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In his article "The Spatial Turn in Literary Historiography," Fernando Cabo Aseguinolaza examines the spatialization of literary history in recent years. He evaluates the resurgence of interest in literary geography and argues that the geographic dimension is not the only aspect of the predominant spatiality in new literary histories. Further, Cabo Aseguinolaza postulates that although the emphasis on spatiality marks many current literary histories, all literary histories imply spatial eleme...

  2. Turning points in development thinking and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerij, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Why and when do turning points occur? How are they prepared? What are the choices before us when it comes to economic and social development policies? What is the role of culture in development? Do ideas play a role? What are the interests behind the ideas? The present paper tries to answer these and other questions and compares the advantages and disadvantages of global development theories with regional and local development policies that put more emphasis on the role of culture in economic...

  3. Turning points in climate change adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Elisabeth. Werners

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerned decision makers increasingly pose questions as to whether current management practices are able to cope with climate change and increased climate variability. This signifies a shift in the framing of climate change from asking what its potential impacts are to asking whether it induces policy failure and unacceptable change. In this paper, we explore the background, feasibility, and consequences of this new framing. We focus on the specific situation in which a social-political threshold of concern is likely to be exceeded as a result of climate change, requiring consideration of alternative strategies. Action is imperative when such a situation is conceivable, and at this point climate change becomes particularly relevant to decision makers. We call this situation an "adaptation turning point." The assessment of adaptation turning points converts uncertainty surrounding the extent of a climate impact into a time range over which it is likely that specific thresholds will be exceeded. This can then be used to take adaptive action. Despite the difficulty in identifying adaptation turning points and the relative newness of the approach, experience so far suggests that the assessment generates a meaningful dialogue between stakeholders and scientists. Discussion revolves around the amount of change that is acceptable; how likely it is that unacceptable, or more favorable, conditions will be reached; and the adaptation pathways that need to be considered under these circumstances. Defining and renegotiating policy objectives under climate change are important topics in the governance of adaptation.

  4. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Weiss

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The first atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs: decafluorobutane (C4F10, dodecafluoropentane (C5F12, tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14, hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16 and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18. Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 38 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.18 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012 for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.28 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m−2, which is 3.6% of the total PFC radiative forcing. The globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs during 1973–2011 are 4.58 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015 per year (yr for C4F10, 3.29 ppq yr−1 for C5F12, 7.50 ppq yr−1 for C6F14, 3.19 ppq yr−1 for C7F16 and 2.51 ppq yr−1 for C8F18. The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the early 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12 and in the mid-to-late 1990s for C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18. The more recent slow down in the growth rates of the high molecular weight PFCs suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s. Nevertheless continued monitoring of these potent, extremely long-lived greenhouse gases is necessary to verify that global PFC emissions continue to decline.

  5. Effects of sintering processes on mechanical properties and microstructure of TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramic tool material was sintered by six processes. ► The properties of material depended mainly on the holding stages and duration. ► SP1 process was involved with the multiple holding stages and longer duration. ► SP1 process led to many pores, and coarsening and brittle rupture of grains. ► Tool material sintered by SP6 process exhibited the optimum mechanical properties. - Abstract: TiB2–TiC composite powder was prepared by ball-milled with ethanol and vacuum dry, and TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material was sintered using vacuum hot-pressed sintering technique by six processes which included the different holding stages and times. The effects of sintering processes on the mechanical properties and microstructure were investigated. The polished surface and fracture surface of TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramics sintered by the different sintering processes were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and the relationships between mechanical properties and microstructure were discussed. The mechanical properties and microstructure depended mainly on the total holding time and the different holding stages. The longer holding time and multiple holding stages led to coarsening of TiB2 and TiC grains, formation of pores and the brittle rupture of grains, which deteriorated the mechanical properties of TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramic. TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material sintered by SP6 process exhibited the optimum resultant mechanical properties because of its finer microstructure and higher relative density, and its flexural strength, fracture toughness and hardness were 916.8 MPa, 7.80 MPa m1/2 and 22.54 GPa, respectively.

  6. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Weiss

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs: decafluorobutane (C4F10, dodecafluoropentane (C5F12, tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14, hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16 and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18. Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 36 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.17 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012 for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.27 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m−2, which is 6% of the total anthropogenic PFC radiative forcing (Montzka and Reimann, 2011; Oram et al., 2012. The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the late 1990s peaking at 6.2 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015 per year (yr for C4F10, at 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C5F12 and 16.6 ppq yr−1 for C6F14 and in the early 1990s for C7F16 at 4.7 ppq yr−1 and in the mid 1990s for C8F18 at 4.8 ppq yr−1. The 2011 globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs are subsequently lower at 2.2 ppq yr−1 for C4F10, 1.4 ppq yr−1 for C5F12, 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C6F14, 3.4 ppq yr−1 for C7F16 and 0.9 ppq yr−1 for C8F18. The more recent slowdown in the growth rates suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s.

  7. Hummingbirds control turning velocity using body orientation and turning radius using asymmetrical wingbeat kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tyson J G; Segre, Paolo S; Middleton, Kevin M; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2016-03-01

    Turning in flight requires reorientation of force, which birds, bats and insects accomplish either by shifting body position and total force in concert or by using left-right asymmetries in wingbeat kinematics. Although both mechanisms have been observed in multiple species, it is currently unknown how each is used to control changes in trajectory. We addressed this problem by measuring body and wingbeat kinematics as hummingbirds tracked a revolving feeder, and estimating aerodynamic forces using a quasi-steady model. During arcing turns, hummingbirds symmetrically banked the stroke plane of both wings, and the body, into turns, supporting a body-dependent mechanism. However, several wingbeat asymmetries were present during turning, including a higher and flatter outer wingtip path and a lower more deviated inner wingtip path. A quasi-steady analysis of arcing turns performed with different trajectories revealed that changes in radius were associated with asymmetrical kinematics and forces, and changes in velocity were associated with symmetrical kinematics and forces. Collectively, our results indicate that both body-dependent and -independent force orientation mechanisms are available to hummingbirds, and that these kinematic strategies are used to meet the separate aerodynamic challenges posed by changes in velocity and turning radius.

  8. Alchemical inflation: inflaton turns into Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Kazunori [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: kazunori@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    We propose a new inflation model in which a gauge singlet inflaton turns into the Higgs condensate after inflation. The inflationary path is characterized by a moduli space of supersymmetric vacua spanned by the inflaton and Higgs field. The inflation energy scale is related to the soft supersymmetry breaking, and the Hubble parameter during inflation is smaller than the gravitino mass. The initial condition for the successful inflation is naturally realized by the pre-inflation in which the Higgs plays a role of the waterfall field.

  9. Corning and Kroger turn whey to yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-16

    It is reported that Corning and Kroger intend to build a 35,000 sq. ft. plant in Winchester, Ky., that will turn whey into bakers' yeast. The plant will convert whey from Kroger's dairies into bakers' yeast, supplying about 60% of the yeast needed for nine Kroger bakeries. It will also produce syrups and whey protein concentrate for use in other food processing activities. In addition to making useful products, the project will convert the whey to glucose and galactose. The protein component of the whey will be concentrated and used in various foods and feeds.

  10. Iconic turn : Alcune chiavi di svolta

    OpenAIRE

    Alloa, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Two decades after the "iconic turn" has been proclaimed, it still remains uncertain whether that expression catches a paradigm shift which has actually taken place or whether it only yet calls forth for it to happen. The essay takes a look at the different ways in which the expression might be understood, referring either to a kind of visual thinking, a disciplinary self-reflection or a epistemic meta-discourse. The success of the expression goes hand in hand, so it seems, with the uncertaint...

  11. The postmodern turn in group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, J V

    2001-10-01

    The postmodern critique, often referred to as social constructionism, has influenced nearly all disciplines, including recently the domain of psychology--and most particularly psychoanalysis. This article presents an exposition of the "postmodern turn," including some historical perspective, a description of its theoretical elements as related to psychological practice, as well as standard objections to its theories. This author believes that many of the concepts inherent to a social constructionist approach are compelling for theory and practice in group therapy. Clinical case studies are cited in describing how postmodern theories present a natural fit for group therapy. Furthermore, specific implications of this model are delineated for the arduous task of leading groups.

  12. Alchemical inflation: inflaton turns into Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new inflation model in which a gauge singlet inflaton turns into the Higgs condensate after inflation. The inflationary path is characterized by a moduli space of supersymmetric vacua spanned by the inflaton and Higgs field. The inflation energy scale is related to the soft supersymmetry breaking, and the Hubble parameter during inflation is smaller than the gravitino mass. The initial condition for the successful inflation is naturally realized by the pre-inflation in which the Higgs plays a role of the waterfall field

  13. Solid-state turn coordinator display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, B. D.; Crouch, R. K.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1975-01-01

    A solid state turn coordinator display which employs light emitting diodes (LED's) as the display medium was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for aircraft applications. The input to the display is supplied by a fluidic inertial rate sensor used in an aircraft wing leveler system. The display is composed of the LED radial display face and the electronics necessary to address and drive the individual lines of LED's. Three levels of brightness are provided to compensate for the different amounts of ambient light present in the cockpit.

  14. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-08-01

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples. The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement-based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude larger for C5F12 (with 2008 EDGARv4.2 estimates for C5F12 at 9.6 kg yr-1, as compared to 67±53 t yr-1 as derived in this study). The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those

  15. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Prinn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs: decafluorobutane (C4F10, dodecafluoropentane (C5F12, tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14, hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16 and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18. Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples (Ivy et al., 2012. The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14,C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2 for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 andC6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude for C5F12. The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those estimated in this study. In addition, we present measured infrared absorption spectra for C

  16. Determinants of Cytochrome P450 2C8 Substrate Binding: Structures of Complexes With Montelukast, Troglitazone, Felodipine And 9-CIS-Retinoic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch, G.A.; Yano, J.K.; Dansette, P.M.; Stout, C.D.; Johnson, E.F.

    2009-05-27

    Although a crystal structure and a pharmacophore model are available for cytochrome P450 2C8, the role of protein flexibility and specific ligand-protein interactions that govern substrate binding are poorly understood. X-ray crystal structures of P450 2C8 complexed with montelukast (2.8 {angstrom}), troglitazone (2.7 {angstrom}), felodipine (2.3 {angstrom}), and 9-cis-retinoic acid (2.6 {angstrom}) were determined to examine ligand-protein interactions for these chemically diverse compounds. Montelukast is a relatively large anionic inhibitor that exhibits a tripartite structure and complements the size and shape of the active-site cavity. The inhibitor troglitazone occupies the upper portion of the active-site cavity, leaving a substantial part of the cavity unoccupied. The smaller neutral felodipine molecule is sequestered with its dichlorophenyl group positioned close to the heme iron, and water molecules fill the distal portion of the cavity. The structure of the 9-cis-retinoic acid complex reveals that two substrate molecules bind simultaneously in the active site of P450 2C8. A second molecule of 9-cis-retinoic acid is located above the proximal molecule and can restrain the position of the latter for more efficient oxygenation. Solution binding studies do not discriminate between cooperative and noncooperative models for multiple substrate binding. The complexes with structurally distinct ligands further demonstrate the conformational adaptability of active site-constituting residues, especially Arg-241, that can reorient in the active-site cavity to stabilize a negatively charged functional group and define two spatially distinct binding sites for anionic moieties of substrates.

  17. C-C Bond Formation: Synthesis of C5 Substituted Pyrimidine and C8 Substituted Purine Nucleosides Using Water Soluble Pd-imidate Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayakhe, Vijay; Ardhapure, Ajaykumar V; Kapdi, Anant R; Sanghvi, Yogesh S; Serrano, Jose Luis; Schulzke, Carola

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of a highly efficient, water soluble [Pd(Sacc)2 (TPA)2 ] complex for C-C bond formation is described. Additionally, application of the [Pd(Sacc)2 (TPA)2 ] complex for Suzuki-Miyaura arylation of all four nucleosides (5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine [5-IdU], 5-iodo-2'-deoxycytidine [5-IdC], 8-bromo-2'-deoxyadenosine, and 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine) with various aryl/heteroaryl boronic acids in plain water under milder conditions is demonstrated. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27248782

  18. Total synthesis of (+)-discodermolide: an improved endgame exploiting a Still-Gennari-type olefination with a C1-C8 beta-ketophosphonate fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Ian; Lyothier, Isabelle

    2004-12-23

    [structure: see text] An improved, third-generation, total synthesis of (+)-discodermolide, a potent microtubule-stabilizing anticancer agent of marine sponge origin, is achieved in 11.1% yield over 21 steps. Key steps include a Still-Gennari HWE olefination, performed using NaH as the base, between C1-C8 beta-ketophosphonate 7 and C9-C24 aldehyde 8, introducing the (8Z)-alkene with 10:1 selectivity, and K-Selectride reduction of the derived enone 16, installing the (7S)-configuration.

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C8H10 1,4-Dimethylbenzene (VMSD1511, LB4830_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C8H10 1,4-Dimethylbenzene (VMSD1511, LB4830_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C8H10 1,4-Dimethylbenzene (VMSD1212, LB4825_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C8H10 1,4-Dimethylbenzene (VMSD1212, LB4825_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C8H10 1,4-Dimethylbenzene (VMSD1111, LB4821_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C8H10 1,4-Dimethylbenzene (VMSD1111, LB4821_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  2. Optimal turning method of composting regarding hygienic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masafumi Tateda; Le Duc Trung; Michihiko Ike; Masanori Fujita

    2005-01-01

    The new turning method was proposed and verified its effectiveness to pathogens by laboratory scale experiments. Considering the results obtained from the previous studies, it could be said that turning of a composting pile was essential in terms of hygienic aspects but the number of turning should be minimized. Effectiveness of inactivation was estimated for each composting run. From this estimation,turning by layers, which is different from conventional turning that mixes compost pile entirely, was proposed and investigated its performance by experiments. Composting operations with static pile method, complete mix(conventional) turning method, and proposed turning( layer turning) method were done and their effectiveness on inactivation of indicator microorganism was evaluated and compared.As results, the conventional turning method was not a proper method in terms of pathogen inactivation, whereas, the proposed turning method showed an excellent performance and should be employed in a composting operation.

  3. Improved Based on "Self-Adaptive Turning Rate" Model Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling He

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For tracking the object with tracking nonlinear, high maneuvering target,traditional interactive multiple model self-adaptive filter algorithm was usually adopted.The turning rate estimate was very important. However,the performance of turning rate algorithm was not so satisfactory in the  model.Thus,a new the average value turning rate algorithm based on self-adaptive turning model was proposed.Aiming at additional device for turning rate estimation turning model, the parameters α and β were introduced to adjust the roughness of turning rate.Aiming at target constant turning movement and orthogonal turning rate unequal, estimates, turning rate was used the average value model to reduce the noise and error influence. Simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm was more suitable for the objects with Nonlinear, high maneuvering target tracking and could remarkably reduce the sample,and thus achieve much better tracking performance.

  4. Evaluation of machining dispersions for turning process

    CERN Document Server

    Lefebvre, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    In this article we propose to extend the model of simulation of dispersions in turning based on the geometrical specifications. Our study is articulated around two trends of development: the first trend relates to the geometrical model. The geometrical model suggested must allow a follow-up of the geometry of the part during the simulation of machining. It is thus a question of carrying out a systematic treatment of the whole dimensioning and tolerancing process while being based on the principles of the \\DeltaL method. We also planned to integrate this type of specification in the model of simulation of machining suggested. It is more generally a question of extending the traditional model for better taking into account the multi axis specification of coaxiality and perpendicularity on the turned workpieces. The second trend of our study relates to the widening of the field of application of the model. We propose to extend the field of application of the model by taking into account the modifications of seve...

  5. The theory of similarity in turning operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rząsiński

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article presents the development of series of types of technology issues. This is an accomplished using of the innovative technological similarity theory. The transformation presented in the theory relates to the turning machining processes.Design/methodology/approach: The data generation process is concerned with the creation of the conditions and number similarities. The turning condition of similarity results from the cutting power, cutting forces and cutting performance.Findings: The development of the theory of similarity allows the generation of machining parameters for the series of types of construction (blank, machining parameters, tools.Research limitations/implications: The analyzed methods develop the algorithmisation of engineers and technologists environment and support the integration with the process of preparation of the production.Practical implications: The described methods were being developed on the practical examples of the creating of the series of types of the hydraulic cylinders used in mining.Originality/value: The method of the technological similarity presented in the paper is the basis of the selection of technological features in the process of series of types and module systems of constructions and technology creating.

  6. Curious terminal turn of rolling rings

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Mir Abbas; Alam, Reza

    2014-01-01

    We report an unexpected reverse spiral turn in the final stage of the motion of rolling rings. It is well known that spinning disks have definite centers of rotation until they stop. While a spinning ring starts its motion with a similar kinematics, moving along a cycloidal path prograde with the direction of its rigid body rotation, the mean trajectory of its center of mass develops an inflection point so that the ring makes a spiral turn and revolves in a retrograde direction around a new center. Using high speed imaging and numerical simulations of models featuring a rolling rigid body, we show that the hollow geometry of a ring tunes the rotational air drag resistance so that the frictional force at the contact point with the ground changes its direction at the inflection point and puts the ring on a retrograde spiral trajectory. Our findings have potential applications in designing topologically new surface-effect flying objects capable of performing complex reorientation and translational maneuvers.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and electrical properties of N,N-dimethylanilinium trichloridostannate (II): (C8H12N)SnCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaib, H.; Kamoun, S.; Costa, L. C.; Graça, M. P. F.

    2015-12-01

    A new (C8H12N)SnCl3 crystal of the general formula AMX3 was grown by soft chemistry method. X-ray study shows that the crystal crystallized in a monoclinic system with the space group P21/a. The structure was solved by Patterson method and refined to a final value of R = 0.0304 for 1157 independent observed reflections. The cohesion and the stability of the atomic arrangement result from the N-H … Cl hydrogen bonds between (C8H12N)+ cations and isolated (SnCl3)- anions. At high temperature this compound exhibits a structural phase transition at 340 K. This transition has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetric and impedance spectroscopy. The impedance data were well fitted to an Rp//CPE equivalent electrical circuit model. The close values of activation energies, obtained from the thermal behavior of the conductivity and the relaxation time confirm the presence of a hopping transport mechanism.

  8. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  9. The experience turn as ‘bandwagon’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Lars; Eide, Dorthe

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the bandwagon metaphor to analyse, in two rural contexts, how small tourism firms become engaged in the idea of the experience economy and how the idea is turned into practice through network formation and innovation. In developing a practice-based approach we use the bandwagon...... further central processes, namely appropriation and narrowing the workspace. One Norwegian and one Danish network are studied using a case methodology. They are two rural networks of mainly small tourism firms. The empirical study confirms and illustrates how the bandwagon effect involves these three core...... metaphor to conceptualize network formation and innovation in terms of a ‘journey’. Following the practice-based literature on bandwagons, the journey starts by labelling an idea that is broad enough to give meaning to, and pull together, a number of diverse supporters. The journey also depends on two...

  10. Turning on gravity with the Higgs mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephon; Magueijo, Joao

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how a Higgs mechanism could be responsible for the emergence of gravity in extensions of Einstein theory. In this scenario, at high energies, symmetry restoration could "turn off" gravity, with dramatic implications for cosmology and quantum gravity. The sense in which gravity is muted depends on the details of the implementation. In the most extreme case gravity's dynamical degrees of freedom would only be unleashed after the Higgs field acquires a non-trivial vacuum expectation value, with gravity reduced to a topological field theory in the symmetric phase. We might also identify the Higgs and the Brans-Dicke fields in such a way that in the unbroken phase Newton's constant vanishes, decoupling matter and gravity. We discuss the broad implications of these scenarios.

  11. Turning the spotlight: Looking at the interviewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Randi Skovbjerg

    an explanation for variations in interviewer behaviour? The point of departure of the study is two interviewers - a female and a male - who have conducted a range of sociolinguistic interviews for the LANCHART Centre. The studies show clear differences in what the interviewers classify as their best and worst...... worst. It also seems that face-work is carried out more carefully in her best interview than in her worst. Moreover, studying the female interviewer's best and worst interview show clear differences in the number of dispreferred responses to assessments and next turn repair initiators as responses...... interviewers reveal consistencies in the two interviewers' interview style. I conclude that the female interviewer has features which may be characterized as a risky and potentially face-threatening interview style, whereas the male interviewer has a less risky and rather flexible style. I find...

  12. Hard turning micro-machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVor, Richard E; Adair, Kurt; Kapoor, Shiv G

    2013-10-22

    A micro-scale apparatus for supporting a tool for hard turning comprises a base, a pivot coupled to the base, an actuator coupled to the base, and at least one member coupled to the actuator at one end and rotatably coupled to the pivot at another end. A tool mount is disposed on the at least one member. The at least one member defines a first lever arm between the pivot and the tool mount, and a second lever arm between the pivot and the actuator. The first lever arm has a length that is less than a length of the second lever arm. The actuator moves the tool mount along an arc.

  13. Turning Video Resource Management into Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Big data makes cloud computing more and more popular in various fields. Video resources are very useful and important to education, security monitoring, and so on. However, issues of their huge volumes, complex data types, inefficient processing performance, weak security, and long times for loading pose challenges in video resource management. The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS is an open-source framework, which can provide cloud-based platforms and presents an opportunity for solving these problems. This paper presents video resource management architecture based on HDFS to provide a uniform framework and a five-layer model for standardizing the current various algorithms and applications. The architecture, basic model, and key algorithms are designed for turning video resources into a cloud computing environment. The design was tested by establishing a simulation system prototype.

  14. LHC One-turn Delay Feedback Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, T; Molendijk, J

    2012-01-01

    The LHC One-Turn delay FeedBack (OTFB) is an FPGA based feedback system part of the LHC cavity controller, which produces gain only around the revolution frequency (frev = 11.245 kHz) harmonics. As such, it helps reduce the transient beam loading and effective cavity impedance. Consequently, it increases the stability margin for Longitudinal Coupled Bunch Instabilities driven by the cavity impedance at the fundamental and allows reliable operation at higher beam currents. The OTFB was commissioned on all sixteen cavities in mid-October 2011 and has been used in operation since. The commissioning procedure and algorithms for setting-up are presented. The resulting improvements in transient beam loading, beam stability, and required klystron power are analyzed. The commissioning of the OTFB reduced the cavity voltage phase modulation from approximately six degrees peak-to-peak to below one degree at 400 MHz with nominal bunch intensity of 1.1e11 protons.

  15. MEDIACRACY TURNS INTO A SYNONYM OF MEDIOCRITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina CHIPER

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The link between freedom of speech and democracy is based on ideological legitimacy report. A new phenomenon which is worth noticing is the conversion of the freedom of expression from a freedom seen in certain aspects as a solitary freedom into a communication of the masses. Another challenge is prompted by the change of the traditional communication system at the dawn of technology, Internet and its various applications, as well as of the channels used. A weak point is the change in the values scale. If a journalist or a book is deemed good or valuable in terms of competence and ideas, these values are now unfortunately inspired by what we watch on TV. In this train of thoughts, reliable opinion leaders are no longer the same. Mediacracy turns into a synonym of mediocrity with affectivity and emotion prevailing over reason and instead of the communication of thoughts and opinions.

  16. Turning on gravity with the Higgs mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephon; Barrow, John D.; Magueijo, João

    2016-07-01

    We investigate how a Higgs mechanism could be responsible for the emergence of gravity in extensions of Einstein theory, with a suitable low energy limit. In this scenario, at high energies, symmetry restoration could ‘turn off’ gravity, with dramatic implications for cosmology and quantum gravity. The sense in which gravity is muted depends on the details of the implementation. In the most extreme case gravity’s dynamical degrees of freedom would only be unleashed after the Higgs field acquires a non-trivial vacuum expectation value, with gravity reduced to a topological field theory in the symmetric phase. We might also identify the Higgs and the Brans–Dicke fields in such a way that in the unbroken phase Newton’s constant vanishes, decoupling matter and gravity. We discuss the broad implications of these scenarios.

  17. Introduction: The Participatory Turn in Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš Krivý

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Footprint examines the recent participatory turn in urban planning and urban design. It discusses the co-opting of participatory processes by planning departments, the systematic disregard of inequalities, and the empowering of the market resulting from the ‘anti-statism’ present in many participatory schemes.What is the relationship between the institutionalisation of participation and the practices of autonomy, self-organisation, and inclusion? When and how does genuine empowerment of collectives take place? Does the demand for the empowerment of local organisations and communities strengthen the market forces at the expense of central government?This issue attempts to problematise ‘participation’, to call attentions to some of its shortcomings, deficits, and limitations, not in order to necessarily bypass the demand for the democratisation of the urban, but in order to rectify and strengthen it.

  18. Turning to ontology in STS? Turning to STS through ‘ontology’?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Heur; L. Leydesdorff; S. Wyatt

    2013-01-01

    We examine the evidence for the claim of an ‘ontological turn’ in science and technology studies (STS). Despite an increase in references to ‘ontology’ in STS since 1989, we show that there has not so much been an ontological turn as multiple discussions deploying the language of ontology, consistin

  19. Turning to Ontology in STS? Turning to STS through ‘Ontology’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heur, B.; Leydesdorff, L.; Wyatt, S.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the evidence for the claim of an ‘ontological turn’ in science and technology studies (STS). Despite an increase in references to ‘ontology’ in STS since 1989, we show that there has not so much been an ontological turn as multiple discussions deploying the language of ontology, consistin

  20. Assessing lexical, syntactic, and conceptual turn-by-turn alignment in conversations involving conflict and deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duran, Nicholas; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Paxton, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    -based NLP tools, the procedure begins by taking conversational partners' turns and converting each into a lemmatized sequence of words, assigning part-of-speech tags and computing high-dimensional semantic vectors per each utterance. Words and part-of-speech tags are further sequenced into n-g! rams...

  1. Hopping and band mobilities of pentacene, rubrene, and 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) from first principle calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hajime; Kobayashi, Norihito; Hosoi, Shizuka; Koshitani, Naoki; Murakami, Daisuke; Shirasawa, Raku; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Hobara, Daisuke; Tokita, Yuichi; Itabashi, Masao

    2013-07-01

    Hopping and band mobilities of holes in organic semiconductors at room temperature were estimated from first principle calculations. Relaxation times of charge carriers were evaluated using the acoustic deformation potential model. It is found that van der Waals interactions play an important role in determining accurate relaxation times. The hopping mobilities of pentacene, rubrene, and 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) in bulk single crystalline structures were found to be smaller than 4 cm2/Vs, whereas the band mobilities were estimated between 36 and 58 cm2/Vs, which are close to the maximum reported experimental values. This strongly suggests that band conductivity is dominant in these materials even at room temperature.

  2. Three-dimensional topographic index applied to the prediction of acyclic C5-C8 alkenes Kováts retention indices on polydimethylsiloxane and squalane columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yueying; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun; Liu, Mancang

    2007-06-29

    A novel approach is described for the prediction of gas chromatographic Kováts retention indices of 150 acyclic C5-C8 alkenes on two stationary phases (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS, and squalane, SQ). The heuristic method was used to build multiple linear regression models using descriptors calculated by MODLESLAB software and CODESSA program. The resulting quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) models were well-correlated, with predictive R2 values of 0.970 and 0.958 for retention indices on PDMS and SQ columns, respectively. 1Omegap, a three-dimensional (3D) topographic index, was found to play the most important role in the description of the chromatographic retention behavior of the alkenes in these two stationary phases. Moreover, this index could completely distinguish different isomers of alkene. Therefore, it can also be extended to distinguish different isomers of other compounds so that can well describe their quantitative structure-retention relationships.

  3. Theoretical Investigation on the Substituent Effect of Halogen Atoms at the C8 Position of Adenine: Relative Stability, Vibrational Frequencies, and Raman Spectra of Tautomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Li; Wu, De-Yin; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2016-06-16

    We have theoretically investigated the substituent effect of adenine at the C8 position with a substituent X = H, F, Cl, and Br by using the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d, p) level. The aim is to study the substituent effect of halogen atoms on the relative stability, vibrational frequencies, and solvation effect of tautomers. Our calculated results show that for substituted adenine molecules the N9H8X tautomer to be the most stable structure in gas phase at the present theoretical level. Here N9H8X denotes the hydrogen atom binds to the N9 position of imidazole ring and X denotes H, F, Cl, and Br atoms. The influence of the induced attraction of the fluorine substituent is significantly larger than chlorine and bromine ones. The halogen substituent effect has a significant influence on changes of vibrational frequencies and Raman intensities.

  4. Low-temperature heat capacities and standard molar enthalpy of formation of 4-(2-aminoethyl)-phenol(C8H11NO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di You-Ying; Kong Yu-Xia; Yang Wei-Wei; Tan Zhi-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that low-temperature heat capacities of 4-(2-aminoethyl)-phenol(C8H11NO)are measured by a precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 78 to 400 K.A polynomial equation of heat capacities as a function of the temperature was fitted by the least square method.Based on the fitted polynomial,the smoothed heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of the compound relative to the standard reference temperature 298.15 K were calculated and tabulated at the interval of 5 K.The energy equivalent,gcalor,of the oxygen-bomb The constant-volume energy of combustion of the compound at T=298.15 K was measured by a precision oxygen-bomb combustion and other thermodynamic principles.Finally,the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound

  5. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

  6. [TURNING THE PYRAMID IN PRENATAL CARE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohel-Shani, Iris; Daniel-Spiegel, Etty

    2015-10-01

    Most complications of pregnancy manifest towards the latter part of pregnancy. Nevertheless, present day diagnostic techniques, such as sonography, Doppler, biochemical screening tests, and the newly developed ability to study free fetal DNA in maternal blood, enables early identification of high risk groups for maternal and fetal morbidity, as well as fetal genetic and anatomical pathology. Dr. Nicolaides has coined this changing trend with the term "Turning the Pyramid". Early screening enables earlier and more directed follow-up with the application of relevant diagnostic tests. Obvious advantages include the potential to reduce maternal-fetal morbidity before it becomes apparent clinically. Additionally, the earlier diagnosis of fetal pathology, allows more time for parents and medical staff to assess the situation, and reach a decision regarding the continuation of the pregnancy. A possible drawback of such an approach, of early identification of high risk groups, is the uncertainty it arouses, sometimes for a long duration, with the accompanying apprehension and stress parents have to endure. A multidisciplinary team, consisting of specialists in fetal-maternal medicine, genetics, ultrasound, and perinatology, will be needed in order to best deal with the often complex information, which is becoming increasingly available at a very early stage of pregnancy.

  7. IMPLEMENTATION PRINCIPLES – TURNING INTENTIONS INTO OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Faull

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Companies sometimes fail to take effective action even when they know what they should do. Recent research shows that this surprising situation is more common than one would expect. How can the track record of companies in achieving the outcomes targeted by manufacturing strategy be improved? This article proposes a set of eight principles to improve the chances of taking effective action to turn intentions into outcomes. Rooted in the literature, the principles have also surfaced in case based research and commented on in the context of international consulting activities.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Dit gebeur partykeer dat maatskappye nie doelgerig optree nie, ook al weet hulle wat hulle moet doen. Onlangse navorsing dui aan dat so 'n verrassende situasie meer algemeen is as wat mens sou verwag. Hoe kan die baanrekord van maatskapye verbeter word om doelwitte wat in bedryfsstrategie gestel word werklik te beryk? Hierdie artikel stel ‚n reeks van agt beginsels voor om die kans dat effektiewe aksie geneem word om wense in uitslae te omskep, te verbeter. Die beginsels, gewortel in die literatuur, het ook in gevallestudie-gebaseerde navorsing ter sprake gekom en word hier bespreek in die konteks van internasionale raadgewende werk.

  8. Single Point Diamond Turning of Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blough, Christian Gary

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of single point diamond turning optical quality glass surfaces has been experimentally studied. The main objective of the research is to study the ductile removal process of glass and identify the important parameters. By investigating several optical glasses and varying different machining variables, a matrix of the important parameters has been generated. A precision lathe capable of ductile machining glass has been assembled by adding a nano-positioning toolholder to an existing machine. The toolholder enables the structural loop between the tool and workpiece to be effectively closed. Using a proximity sensor and analog electronics, a feedback loop has been constructed that increases the rigidity, thermal stability, and tool positioning accuracy of the existing machine. With the closed loop system, the tool positioning resolution is 15 nm and the effective structural loop stiffness is 1.75 times 10^3 N/mum. The closed loop system has been verified by machining a circular grating in germanium to within 3 nm of its theoretical form. The ductile machining of glass was limited by one key variable, tool edge wear. For every glass investigated, except FCD1, there was nearly instantaneous catastrophic loss of the cutting edge due to oxidation and/or graphitization of the diamond.

  9. Cosmopolitan Pluralism: Beyond the Cultural Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lawson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The ‘cultural turn’ has had a profound influence across the humanities and social sciences in the last few decades. In calling into question the universalist basis on which conventional methodological and normative assumptions have been based, the cultural turn has focused on the extent to which specificity and particularity underpin what we can know, how we can know it, and how this affects our being-in-the world. This has opened the way to a range of insights, from issues of pluralism and difference, both within political communities and between them, to the instability if not impossibility of foundations for knowledge. Too few studies embracing this ‘cultural turn’, however, pay more than cursory attention to the culture concept itself. This article suggests that conceptions of culture derived mainly from the discipline of anthropology dominate in political studies, including international relations, while humanist conceptions have been largely ignored or rejected. It argues further that we would do well to reconsider what humanist ideas can contribute to how ‘culture’ is both conceptualized and deployed in political thought and action, especially in countering the overparticularization of social and political phenomena that marks contemporary culturalist approaches.

  10. Maize Leaves Turn Away from Neighbors1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, María Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16–23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield. PMID:12427985

  11. Effects of C8 ventral root avulsion or transection on spinal alpha motoneurons in adult rats A qualitative light and electron microscopic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khulood M.AL-Khater; Bassem Y.Sheikh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Nerve root avulsion is a frequent finding in patients with brachial plexus injury following road traffic accidents or as a result of severe arm traction during complicated deliveries.This injury constitutes a challenging clinical and surgical problem.The orphological characteristics of motoneurons after nerve root avulsion deserve further analysis.OBJECTIVE:To study the different morphological changes of u -motoneurons under light and electron microscopy after C8 spinal ventral rootlets avulsion and transection at various stages.DESIGN:Controlled animal study.SETTING:Department of Anatomy,King Faisal University.MATERIALS:The experiment was carried out at the Department of Anatomy,College of Medicine,King Faisal University between January 2005 and March 2006.Six adult Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-350 g, irrespective of gender,were used for this study.The animals were bred at the animal house,College of Medicine,King Faisal University,and fed on rat maintenance diet.Water and standard diet were supplied ad libitum.Animal interventions were carried out according to animal ethical standards.METHODS:Three animals were randomly chosen for avulsion of the right ventral rootlets of C8 spinal nerves.The other three received transection of the right ventral rootlets of C8 spinal nerves.①Avulsion experiment:After rats were anesthetized,the right ventral rootlets of C8 spinal nerves were identified.The ventral rootlets were avulsed from the spinal cord by traction with a fine hook(Fine Science Tools Inc.,No. 10031-13,Germany).Traction was exerted in a direction parallel to the course of the spinal root.Under the operating microscope,the Cs segment was exactly located.After checking the successfulness of the surgical procedure,the Ca segment was separated from the spinal cord.The outcome of the avulsion procedure was as follows:two animals had true avulsion,i.e.,no remaining stump was attached to the spinal cord surface.One rat had a stump still attached

  12. TURNING-OVER OF THE ELECTRIC DIPOLE IN A POLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-qi Li; Xin Suna; Sheng Li

    2001-01-01

    The transition from the biexciton to the exciton can turn over the direction of the electric dipole of a polymeric molecule. This turning-over action combined with the photoinduced polarization reversion can be used as a switch. The switching speed is governed by the relaxation time of the turning-over process, which can be determined by a dynamical simulation.

  13. Turn-over in pulsar spectra above 1 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Kijak, J.; Gupta, Y; Krzeszowski, K.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first direct evidence for turn-over in pulsar radio spectra at high frequencies. Two pulsars are now shown to have a turn-over frequency > 1GHz. We also find some evidence that the peak frequency of turn-over in pulsar spectra appears to depend on dispersion measure and pulsar age.

  14. Pragmatic Strategies of Turn-taking in Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 张玉珊

    2014-01-01

    Conversation is one of the basic forms of daily communication, while the research of turn-taking is the central issue in conversation analysis. In class the pragmatic strategies in turn-taking between teachers and students are the important interaction abilities. The good use of turn-taking helps students express themselves effectively and enhances the interactive communications successfully.

  15. History of Education in Canada: Historiographic "Turns" and Widening Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Jofré, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores major historiographic "turns" in history of education with a focus, although not exclusively, on English-speaking Canada. It addresses the transformative intellectual impact of the turn toward social history on the history of education, the impact of cultural history and the linguistic turn, the reception of Michel…

  16. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrenko, A.V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Valishev, A.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA) technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM) as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

  17. Turning points or turning around: Family coach work with 'troubled families'

    OpenAIRE

    Brandon, Marian; Sorensen, Pernille; Thoburn, June; Bailey, Susan; Connolly, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to discover how family coaches work intensively with families with moderately complex problems bringing together perceptions from 20 families, 20 coaches and six other professionals, and exploring potential savings for 50 family cases. The Family Coaching Service is part of the English government’s ‘Troubled Families’ payment by results initiative, seeking to help families ‘turn their lives around’ to save state spending on anti-social behaviour, worklessness and school absenc...

  18. Breaking New Ground with High Resolution Turn-By-Turn BPMs at the ESRF

    CERN Document Server

    Farvacque, L; Scheidt, K

    2001-01-01

    This High-Resolution, Turn-by-Turn BPM system is a low-cost extension to the existing BPM system, based on the RF-multiplexing concept, used for slow Closed-Orbit measurements. With this extension Beam Position measurements in both planes, at all (224) BPMs in the 844 m ESRF Storage Ring, for up to 2048 Orbit Turns with 1 μm resolution are performed. The data acquisition is synchronised to a single, flat 1 μs, transverse deflection kick to the 1μs beamfill in the 2.8μs revolution period. The high quality of this synchronisation, together with the good reproducibility of the deflection kick and the overall stability of the Closed Orbit beam allows to repeat the kick and acquisition in many cycles. The subsequent averaging of the data obtained in these cycles yields the 1um resolution. The latter allows lattice measurements with high precision such as the localisation of very small focussing errors and modulation in Beta values and phase advances. It also finds an unique ...

  19. Turn-Based War Chess Model and Its Search Algorithm per Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Nan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available War chess gaming has so far received insufficient attention but is a significant component of turn-based strategy games (TBS and is studied in this paper. First, a common game model is proposed through various existing war chess types. Based on the model, we propose a theory frame involving combinational optimization on the one hand and game tree search on the other hand. We also discuss a key problem, namely, that the number of the branching factors of each turn in the game tree is huge. Then, we propose two algorithms for searching in one turn to solve the problem: (1 enumeration by order; (2 enumeration by recursion. The main difference between these two is the permutation method used: the former uses the dictionary sequence method, while the latter uses the recursive permutation method. Finally, we prove that both of these algorithms are optimal, and we analyze the difference between their efficiencies. An important factor is the total time taken for the unit to expand until it achieves its reachable position. The factor, which is the total number of expansions that each unit makes in its reachable position, is set. The conclusion proposed is in terms of this factor: Enumeration by recursion is better than enumeration by order in all situations.

  20. Structural and biochemical impact of C8-aryl-guanine adducts within the NarI recognition DNA sequence: influence of aryl ring size on targeted and semi-targeted mutagenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sproviero, Michael; Verwey, Anne M.R.; Rankin, Katherine M.; Witham, Aaron A.; Soldatov, Dmitriy V.; Richard A. Manderville; Fekry, Mostafa I.; Sturla, Shana J.; Sharma, Purshotam; Wetmore, Stacey D.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical mutagens with an aromatic ring system may be enzymatically transformed to afford aryl radical species that preferentially react at the C8-site of 2′-deoxyguanosine (dG). The resulting carbon-linked C8-aryl-dG adduct possesses altered biophysical and genetic coding properties compared to the precursor nucleoside. Described herein are structural and in vitro mutagenicity studies of a series of fluorescent C8-aryl-dG analogues that differ in aryl ring size and are representative of auth...

  1. White Layer of Hard Turned Surface by Sharp CBN Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-ping; SONG He-chuan; C.Richard Liu

    2005-01-01

    White layers in hard turned surfaces were identified and measured as a function of turning parameters based on the Taguchi method. It reveals that white layers generate on the machine surface in the absence of tool flank wear, and white layer depth varies with the different combinations of hard turning parameters. Turning speed has the most important impact on white layer depth, feed rate follows, and cutting depth at last. The white layer generation consequently suggests a strong couple relation to the heat generation and thermal process of hard turning operation. White layer disappears under an optimal combination of turning parameters by Taguchi method. It suggests that a superior surface integrity without white layer is feasible under some selected combinations of turning parameters by a sharp CBN cutting tool.

  2. Clock-turning gait synthesis for humanoid robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe TANG; Zengqi SUN; Hongbo LIU; Meng Joo ER

    2007-01-01

    Turning gait is a basic motion for humanoid robots.This paper presents a method for humanoid turning.i.e.clock-turning.The objective of clock-turning is to change robot direction at a stationary spot.The clock-turning planning consists of four steps:ankle trajectory generation,hip trajectory generation,knee trajectory generation,and inverse kinematics calculation.Our proposed method is based on a typical humanoid structure with 12 DOFs(degrees of freedom).The final output of clock-turning planning is 12 reference trajectories.which are used to control a humanoid robot wim 12 DOFs.ZMP(zero moment point)is used as stability criterion for the planning.Simulation experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of our proposed clock-turning method.

  3. Optimization of immunization strategies of recombinant vaccinia virus Tiantan strain with C8-K3 region deletion%缺失C8-K3片段重组天坛痘苗病毒的免疫策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铮; 刘颖; 王书晖; 张其程; 王荣敏; 侯爵; 刘畅; 吉栩; 邵一鸣

    2013-01-01

    目的 探索不同的DNA疫苗初免-重组痘苗病毒加强免疫策略的效果,为建立最佳免疫方案提供依据.方法 对小鼠进行DNA疫苗初免,之后分别加强免疫一针、两针和三针重组痘苗病毒VTT△C8-K3-gag,在不同时间点采取血样及制备脾细胞,检测针对痘苗病毒和HIV特异性体液免疫及细胞免疫应答. 结果 三种免疫策略中,DNA疫苗初免-VTT△C8-K3-gag加强免疫两次的效果最佳,诱导的针对p55的结合抗体滴度达到106,分泌IFN-γ的T细胞数为342/106细胞.针对痘苗病毒的体液和细胞免疫应答显著低于加强免疫三针诱导的免疫反应. 结论 DNA疫苗初免-VTT△C8-K3-gag加强免疫两针可诱导较高水平的HIV免疫应答,同时保证了较低水平的载体免疫反应.

  4. Copper phthalocyanine molecules on an InSb(001) c(8 x 2) surface studied by ultra-high-vacuum STM and non-contact AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface ordering of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules deposited onto an InSb(001) c(8 x 2) reconstructed surface has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). It was found that at room temperature the CuPc molecules are only weakly bound to the InSb surface and the adjacent molecules and consequently they are relatively mobile at submonolayer coverage. STM images show that at the initial stages of growth molecules are assembled in ordered molecular chains parallel to the surface reconstruction rows, i.e. along the [110] crystallographic direction. Furthermore, adsorption of the molecules at step edges is observed. At coverages below 1 ML molecules diffuse at the surface and form two-dimensional islands, which leads to an additional characteristic (n x 3) LEED pattern indicating one-dimensional ordering within the molecular chains. High-resolution STM imaging at negative sample bias reveals a unique structure of the molecular contrast which may be related to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the individual CuPc molecules. For CuPc monolayer coverage submolecular resolution is also obtained for nc-AFM imaging. Finally, examples of single molecule manipulation by the STM tip are given

  5. Single-crystal structure of coordination polymer [Nd2(C8H5NO4)3·4H2O]∞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The single-crystal structure of the coordination polymer [Nd2(C8H5NO4)3@4H2O]∞ with rhombus-channels is reported in this paper. There are two crystallographically independent Nd(Ⅲ) ions, and each Nd(Ⅲ) ion is in the eight-coordinated environment. Seven of eight oxygen atoms are from six 5-aminoisophthalic acid ligands, the other oxygen atom is given by coordination water. Carboxyl groups link two Nd(Ⅲ) ions using η1,1 and η1,3 modes. Two carboxyl groups from ligands chelate Nd(Ⅲ) ion to form four-mem- bered rings. Crystal data: Triclinic, space group a = 1.03680(5) nm, b = 1.66934(15) nm, c = 0.88221(14) nm, α = 99.754(2)°, β = 111.169(4)°,β = 85.400(4)(. Some ligands linking metal Nd(Ⅲ) ions parallel to ab plane form molecu- lar ladders, and the others linking molecular ladders result in rhombus channels along c-axis. These coordinated water molecules and amino groups are pendent in the channels.

  6. Influence and mechanism of N-(3-oxooxtanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (C8-oxo-HSL) on biofilm behaviors at early stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siqing Xia; Lijie Zhou; Zhiqiang Zhang; Jixiang Li

    2012-01-01

    N-acyl-homoserines quenching,enzymatic quenching of bacterial quorum sensing,has recently applied to mitigate biofilm in membrane bioreactor.However,the effect of AHLs on the behavior of biofilm formation is still sparse.In this study,Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was formed on ultra-filtration membrane under a series of N-(3-oxooxtanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (Cs-oxo-HSL)concentrations.Diffusing Cs-oxo-HSL increased the growth rate of cells on biofilm where the concentration of Cs-oxo-HSL was over 10-7 g/L.The C8-oxo-HSL gradient had no observable influence on cell density and extracellular polymeric substances of biofilm with over 10-7 g/L Cs-oxo-HSL.Surprisingly,10-11-10-8 g/L of Cs-oxo-HSL had no effect on cell growth in liquid culture.The cell analysis demonstrated that the quorum sensing system might enhance the growth of neighboring cells in contact with surfaces into biofilm and may influence the structure and organization of biofilm.

  7. Stain Repellents: Facing a Deadline in 2015%C8氟系防污整理剂大限将至

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabine Anton-Katzenbach

    2012-01-01

    碳氟化合物的表面能非常低,因此具有良好的防污、防水和防油性能,是纺织工业中必不可少的助剂之一.不幸的是,C8类碳氟化合物的环保前景令人担忧:其中两种产物被认为是具有持久性和生物累积性的物质. 2000年,美国生产商启动一项计划,旨在促进碳氟化合物的环保性,并达成共识:到2015年所有浸渍使用的碳氟化合物都必须达到环保要求.因此,纺织产业链上的所有生产商都面临着生产工艺上的大幅度调整.

  8. CYP2C8-mediated interaction between repaglinide and steviol acyl glucuronide: In vitro investigations using rat and human matrices and in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunting; Zhou, Dandan; Wang, Yedong; Li, Jiajun; Wang, Meiyu; Lu, Jia; Zhang, Hongjian

    2016-08-01

    CYP2C8 is involved in the metabolic clearance of several important drugs and recent reports have shown that acyl glucuronides of gemfibrozil and clopidogrel are potent time-dependent inhibitors of CYP2C8 activity. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of steviol acyl glucuronide (SVAG), a circulating metabolite formed after the ingestion of rebaudioside A, was investigated using in vitro and in vivo systems. Results indicated that SVAG was a reversible but not a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP2C8-mediated paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation. SVAG was also capable of inhibiting CYP2C8-mediated repaglinide 3'-hydroxylation in human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP2C8, with Ki values of 15.8 μM and 11.6 μM, respectively. In contrast, SVAG did not exhibit inhibitory effect on CYP2C8 activity in rat liver microsomes. In addition, co-administration of rebaudioside A with repaglinide in rats did not lead to AUC and Cmax changes of repaglinide. Although mathematic prediction using a simplified mechanistic model revealed a moderate interaction potential between repaglinide and SVAG, cautions should be given to patients with hypoglycemia if repaglinide and rebaudioside A are used in combination for the blood sugar control. PMID:27259818

  9. Effects of Right-Turn Vehicles on Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hua-Yan; Huang, Hai-Jun; Wu, Wen-Xiang

    In real traffic, the right-turn vehicles at intersections are not controlled by signal lights and their effects are neglected. In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to formulate the complicated turning behaviors of vehicles at intersections. Simulation results are quite in accord with the observation on the Beijing's 4th ring road. It is found that the right-turn vehicles may produce queue near the intersection, a short lane designed for right-turn has prominent effect in improving traffic flow, but, a too long lane for right-turn cannot further decrease the stop ratio as expected. These findings deepen our understanding on the effects of right-turn vehicles and may help the design and management of intersections.

  10. The turning point in the number of traffic fatalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüde, Ulf; Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The number of traffic fatalities reached a peak in many highly motorised countries around 1970. Some previous studies have suggested that the turning point in the number of traffic fatalities was inevitable and did not reflect a change in the underlying trends influencing the number of traffic...... fatalities. Other studies suggest that trends in traffic growth and fatality rate changed from before to after the turning point. This paper proposes two hypotheses about the turning point in the number of traffic fatalities. One hypothesis is that the long-term trends in traffic growth and fatality rate...... were the same before and after the turning point. The other hypothesis is that the long-term trends in traffic growth and fatality rate were different before and after the turning point was reached, in particular that the annual percentage decline in fatality rate became greater after the turning point...

  11. A two-dimensional yttrium phthalate coordination polymer, [Y4(H2O)2(C8H4O4)6]∞, exhibiting different coordination geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Thirumurugan; Srinivasan Natarajan

    2003-10-01

    A hydrothermal reaction of a mixture of Y(NO3)3, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (1,2-BDC) and NaOH gives rise to a new yttrium phthalate coordination polymer, [Y4(H2O)2(C8H4O4)6]∞, I. The Y ions in I are present in four different coordination environments with respect to the oxygen atoms (CN6 = octahedral, CN7 = pentagonal bipyramid, CN8 = dodecahedron and CN9 =capped square antiprism). The oxygen atoms of the 1,2-BDC are fully deprotonated, and show variations in their connectivity with Y atoms. The Y atoms themselves are connected through their vertices forming infinite Y-O-Y one-dimensional chains. The Y-O-Y chains are cross-linked by the 1,2-BDC anions forming a corrugated layer structure. The layers are supported by favourable $\\ldots$ interactions between the benzene rings of the 1,2-BDC anions. The variations in the coordination environment of the Y atoms and the presence of Y-O-Y interactions along with the favourable $\\ldots$ interactions between the benzene rings from different layers are noteworthy structural features. Crystal data: triclinic, space group = -1 (no. 2), = 12.6669 (2), = 13.8538 (2), = 16.0289 Å, = 75.20 (1), = 69.012 (1), = 65.529 (1)°, = 2371.28 (7) Å3, calc = 1.922 g cm-1, (MoK) = 4.943 mm-1. A total of 9745 reflections collected and merged to give 6566 unique reflections (int = 0.0292) of which 5252 with > 2() were considered to be observed. Final 2 = 0.0339, 2 = 0.0724 and =1.036 were obtained for 704 parameters.

  12. Toward reduction in animal sacrifice for drugs: molecular modeling of Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 for virtual screening of Homo sapiens P450 2C8 substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 shares 92% identity with human cytochrome P450 2C8, which is involved in the metabolism of more than 8% of all prescribed drugs. To date, only paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two substrate markers of the human P450 2C8, have been experimentally confirmed as M. fascicularis P450 2C20 drugs. To bridge the lack of information on the ligands recognized by M. fascicularis P450 2C20, in this study, a three-dimensional homology model of this enzyme was generated on the basis of the available crystal structure of the human homologue P450 2C8 using YASARA. The results indicated that 90.0%, 9.0%, 0.5%, and 0.5% of the residues of the P450 2C20 model were located in the most favorable, allowed, generously allowed, and disallowed regions, respectively. The root-mean-square deviation of the C-alpha superposition of the M. fascicularis P450 2C20 model with the Homo sapiens P450 2C8 was 0.074 Å, indicating a very high similarity of the two structures. Subsequently, the 2C20 model was used for in silico screening of 58 known P450 2C8 substrates and 62 inhibitors. These were also docked in the active site of the crystal structure of the human P450 2C8. The affinity of each compound for the active site of both cytochromes proved to be very similar, meaning that the few key residues that are mutated in the active site of the M. fascicularis P450 do not prevent the P450 2C20 from recognizing the same substrates as the human P450 2C8.

  13. Density of Plutonium Turnings Generated from Machining Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, John Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil, Duane M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jachimowski, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Arellano, Gerald Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Melton, Vince Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The purpose of this project was to determine the density of plutonium (Pu) turnings generated from the range of machining activities, using both surrogate material and machined Pu turnings. Verify that 500 grams (g) of plutonium will fit in a one quart container using a surrogate equivalent volume and that 100 grams of Pu will fit in a one quart Savy container.

  14. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  15. Kinematic Analysis of Rotary Deep-Depth Turning Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtyakov, A. M.; Babaev, A. S.; Chudinova, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    This article offers a parameterization procedure for deep-depth turning without simplifying assumptions. In this paper the authors will show comparative results of researching parameters for rotary turning according to the developed methodology and according to the methodology of finish-machining conditions. A theoretically found kinematic coefficient of rotary cutting is presented in the paper

  16. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truck...

  17. A cognitive Analysis of truck Drivers' right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Sieker, Tobias; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truck...

  18. Experience sharing, emotional reciprocity, and turn-taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa eStevanovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective article, we consider the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking. There is much evidence suggesting that human social interaction is permeated by two temporal organizations: (1 the sequential framework of turn-taking and (2 the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity. From this perspective, we introduce two alternative hypotheses about how the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking could be viewed. According to the first hypothesis, the home environment of experience sharing is in the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity, while the motivation to share experiences is in tension with the sequential framework of turn-taking. According to the second hypothesis, then again, people’s inclination to coordinate their actions in terms of turn-taking is motivated precisely by their propensity to share experiences. We consider theoretical and empirical ideas in favor of both of these hypotheses and discuss their implications for future research.

  19. Experience sharing, emotional reciprocity, and turn-taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Melisa; Peräkylä, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    In this perspective article, we consider the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking. There is much evidence suggesting that human social interaction is permeated by two temporal organizations: (1) the sequential framework of turn-taking and (2) the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity. From this perspective, we introduce two alternative hypotheses about how the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking could be viewed. According to the first hypothesis, the home environment of experience sharing is in the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity, while the motivation to share experiences is in tension with the sequential framework of turn-taking. According to the second hypothesis, people’s inclination to coordinate their actions in terms of turn-taking is motivated precisely by their propensity to share experiences. We consider theoretical and empirical ideas in favor of both of these hypotheses and discuss their implications for future research. PMID:25926811

  20. Wittgenstein and the linguistic turn in social theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jens Christian

    of Winch in social theory, the wider and more recent influence of Wittgenstein in areas such as technology and science studies, social theory, feminist and gender studies and conversation and discourse analysis is also considered. Historically, the readings of Wittgenstein in the social sciences have taken...... the implications of Wittgenstein's philosophy to involve three general theses (what I shall call the three theses of the linguistic turn). According to these (a) social life is organised in and through language (the linguistic thesis), (b) language is a practical activity, a language-in-use (the practical thesis...... of the linguistic turn in social theory, the linguistic turn is a double-edged sword of both profound insights and limits; the claim is that the limits of the linguistic turn are the strengths of functionalist, structuralist and materialist approaches to the social sciences. The approach of the critical turn...

  1. Straight-line and turning locomotion of Paramecia

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Saikat; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video we investigate the flow field around straight-line swimming and right and left turning Paramecia using micro- particle image velocimetry ({\\mu}PIV). A Paramecium controls its ciliary beating to produce different fluid velocities on either side of its body. This phenomenon is visualized by applying {\\mu}PIV to images in which Paramecia swim in a dilute suspension of 1 {\\mu}m polystyrene spheres. Paramecia that swim straight exhibit similar magnitudes of velocity on either side of their bodies. In contrast, right-turning Paramecia exhibit greater magnitudes of velocity on their right sides, while left-turning organisms show the opposite.

  2. Fuzzy-grey Prediction of Cutting Force Uncertainty in Turning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To predict the extent of turning force uncertainty quantitatively,this paper proposes a fuzzy-grey prediction procedure based on the symmetric fuzzy number and linear planning theory and grey set theory.To ve rify the developed procedure,a measuring system of turning force is schematized to acquire the evaluating data.The comparison between the prediction results a nd measured data demonstrates that the prediction is an extent of variable force rather than a certain point for the given turning condition...

  3. Cutting inserts effect on heat generation in turning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Žitňanský

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on confirmation of an effect of cutting materials and cutting inserts geometry on cutting forces and temperature, quality and accuracy of machined surface in turning. The main part is devoted to description of advanced turning tools and cutting materials. The experimental part is focused on cutting forces and temperature measurement and machined surface quality in turning of steel grade 11 523 samples with one feed and depth of cut value and varying spindle speed. Measurements were performed with various types of indexable cutting inserts used. Measured values were evaluated in terms of the effect of different properties of cutting inserts and various spindle speed values.

  4. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  5. Diamond turning of Si and Ge single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, P.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single-point diamond turning studies have been completed on Si and Ge crystals. A new process model was developed for diamond turning which is based on a critical depth of cut for plastic flow-to-brittle fracture transitions. This concept, when combined with the actual machining geometry for single-point turning, predicts that {open_quotes}ductile{close_quotes} machining is a combined action of plasticity and fracture. Interrupted cutting experiments also provide a meant to directly measure the critical depth parameter for given machining conditions.

  6. Models and Algorithms for Tracking Target with Coordinated Turn Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghui Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking target with coordinated turn (CT motion is highly dependent on the models and algorithms. First, the widely used models are compared in this paper—coordinated turn (CT model with known turn rate, augmented coordinated turn (ACT model with Cartesian velocity, ACT model with polar velocity, CT model using a kinematic constraint, and maneuver centered circular motion model. Then, in the single model tracking framework, the tracking algorithms for the last four models are compared and the suggestions on the choice of models for different practical target tracking problems are given. Finally, in the multiple models (MM framework, the algorithm based on expectation maximization (EM algorithm is derived, including both the batch form and the recursive form. Compared with the widely used interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, the EM algorithm shows its effectiveness.

  7. When the Stakes Turn Toxic: Learn about Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When the Stakes Turn Toxic Learn About Problem Gambling Anyone who’s bought a lottery ticket or played ... Recognizing Schizophrenia Wise Choices Links Signs of Problem Gambling Are you troubled by gambling? Seek help if: ...

  8. Remaking "Nature" The Ecological Turn in Dutch Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disco, Cornelis

    2002-01-01

    The ecological turn in water management has usually been interpreted as a political andcultural rather than technical and professional accomplishment. The dynamics of theuptake of ecological expertise into hydraulic engineering bureaucracies have not beenwell described. Focusing on the controversy a

  9. Printed Multi-Turn Loop Antennas for RF Biotelemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Hall, David G.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2007-01-01

    Printed multi-turn loop antennas have been designed for contactless powering of, and reception of radio signals transmitted by, surgically implantable biotelemetric sensor units operating at frequencies in the vicinity of 300 MHz.

  10. ANALYSIS OF CHIP FORMATION DURING HARD TURNING THROUGH ACOUSTIC EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Neslušan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of chip formation and related aspects of the chip formation during turning hardened steel 100Cr6. The paper draws a comparison of some aspects of the chip formation between turning annealed and hardened roll bearing steel. The results of the analysis show that there is the formation of a segmented chip in the case of hard turning. Frequency of segmentation is very high. A conventional piezoelectric dynamometer limits the frequency response to about 3.5 kHz. On the other hand, the frequency of process fluctuation may by obtained by using accelerometers or acoustic emission. This paper reports about the dynamic character of cutting process when hard turning and correlation among the calculated segmentation frequencies and the experimental analysis.

  11. Tangental Turning of Incoloy Alloy 925 Using Abrasive Water Jet

    OpenAIRE

    Cárach, J.; S. Hloch; Hlaváček, P.; K. Vasilko; Lehocká, D.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with tangential turning of Incoloy alloy 925 with the diameter 50mm using the abrasive water jet. Experiment was done using the abrasive water jet of pressure p=400MPa and traverse speed at levels of v=1,5;3;4,5;6;7,5;9mm min-1. the abrasive particles were feeded to the water jet in the amount of 400 g min-1. Revolution of Incoloy workpiece during turning was n=34rpm.

  12. Extended phenotype: nematodes turn ants into bird-dispersed fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D P; Kronauer, D J C; Boomsma, J J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs.......A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs....

  13. 3D surface topography formation in ultra-precision turning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽伟; 董申; 程凯

    2004-01-01

    The generation process of 3 D surface topography in ultra-precision turning is analyzed, as the result of superimposing between actual roughness surface, waviness surface and geometrical form texture surface. From the viewpoints of machine technical system and manufacturing process, factors influencing on roughness surface,waviness surface and geometrical form texture surface in ultra-precision turning are discussed further. The 3D topography of ideal roughness surface and actual surface affected by cutting vibration are simulated respectively.

  14. Driver Turn-Taking Behavior in Congested Freeway Merges

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, Michael J.; Ahn, Soyoung

    2004-01-01

    Data from four merge locations in northern California and Toronto, Canada unveil a notable feature of driver turn taking. We have observed that queued vehicles from the on-ramp and freeway traffic streams enter a congested merge in some (nearly) fixed ratio, independent of the merge outflow. Drivers in competing traffic streams thus enter the merge by adopting some definite turn-taking behavior and this behavior is not influenced by the severity of the exogenous flow restriction from downstre...

  15. Airport Logistics : Modeling and Optimizing the Turn-Around Process

    OpenAIRE

    Norin, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this licentiate thesis is air transportation and especially the logistics at an airport. The concept of airport logistics is investigated based on the following definition: Airport logistics is the planning and control of all resources and information that create a value for the customers utilizing the airport. As a part of the investigation, indicators for airport performance are considered. One of the most complex airport processes is the turn-around process. The turn-around is...

  16. The role of genetic variants in CYP2C8, LPIN1, PPARGC1A and PPARγ on the trough steady-state plasma concentrations of rosiglitazone and on glycosylated haemoglobin A1c in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Christensen, Mette M H; Feddersen, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2C8, LPIN1, PPARGC1A and PPARγ on rosiglitazone's (i) trough steady-state plasma concentration (C(ss,min)), (ii) on glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and (iii) the risk of developing adverse...

  17. Analysis of Turn-by-Turn Orbit Data and Dynamic Aperture Considerations for the ATF Damping Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Hayano, H; Kubo, K; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    1999-01-01

    We describe an attempt to deduce the tune shift with amplitude and resonance driving terms for the ATF Damping Ring from turn-by-turn orbit data, and to compare measurement results with tracking simulations. Our analysis reveals a significant tune ripple, but no evidence for low-order nonlinearities. We thus conjecture that the ATF dynamic aperture is caused by a conspiracy of tune ripple and as yet unidentified higher-order nonlinear fields.

  18. [C8mim]Br对蚯蚓抗氧化系统的亚慢性毒性效应%Subchronic Toxic Effects of 1 Methyl-3-Octylimidazolium Bromide Ionic Liquid on the Antioxidant System of Earthworm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳蕊; 李效宇; 运迷霞; 王键吉

    2009-01-01

    以OECD标准的基质染毒法测定了离子液体溴化1-辛基-3-甲基咪唑([C8mim]Br)对蚯蚓(Eisenia foetida)的急性毒性效应和亚慢件毒性条件下蚯蚓体内CAT、SOD、GST的活性和GSH、MDA含量的变化,以期初步分析[C8mim]Br对蚯蚓抗氧化系统的作用及其毒性作用的可能机理.结果表明,[C8mim]Br对蚯蚓的7 d-LD50和14 d-LD50分别为206.8 mg·kg-1和159.4 mg·kg-1.亚慢件暴露42 d后蚯蚓体内CAT的活件受到显著抑制;SOD的活性在低浓度(1~5 mg·kg-1)受到抑制,高浓度(20~40 mg·kg-1)被激活;在高浓度处理组(20~40 mg·kg-1)GST的活性显著高于对照.10~40 mg·kg-1浓度的[C8mim]Br处理组GSH的含量显著升高,各处理组MDA含量与对照相比没有差异.推测[C8mim]Br可能通过肠道吸收进入蚯蚓体内,并诱导了蚯蚓体内抗氧化系统的反馈效应.

  19. Semiautomatic machine for turning inside out industrial leather gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last step in the industrial leather gloves manufacturing is to turn the inside out so that the sewing be in the inside of the glove. This work presents the design and testing of a machine for that purpose. In order to quantify the relevant variables, testing was performed with a prototype glove. The employed devices and the testing proceeding were developed experimentally. The obtained information was used to build the turning inside out machine. This machine works with pneumatic power to carry the inside out turning by means of double effect lineal actuators. It has two independent work stations that could be operated simultaneously by two persons, one in each station or in single mode operating one station by one person. The turning inside out cycle is started by means of directional control valves operated with pedals. The velocity and developed force by the actuators is controlled with typical pneumatic resources. The geometrical dimensions of the machine are: 1.15 m length; 0.71 m width and 2.15 m high. Its approximated weight is 120 kg. The air consumption is 5.4 fps by each working station with 60 psig work pressure. The turning inside out operation is 40 s for each industrial leather glove

  20. Semiautomatic machine for turning inside out industrial leather gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Gonzalez, G.; Cano-Blanco, M.; León-Galicia, A.; Medrano-Sierra, L. F.; Morales-Gómez, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The last step in the industrial leather gloves manufacturing is to turn the inside out so that the sewing be in the inside of the glove. This work presents the design and testing of a machine for that purpose. In order to quantify the relevant variables, testing was performed with a prototype glove. The employed devices and the testing proceeding were developed experimentally. The obtained information was used to build the turning inside out machine. This machine works with pneumatic power to carry the inside out turning by means of double effect lineal actuators. It has two independent work stations that could be operated simultaneously by two persons, one in each station or in single mode operating one station by one person. The turning inside out cycle is started by means of directional control valves operated with pedals. The velocity and developed force by the actuators is controlled with typical pneumatic resources. The geometrical dimensions of the machine are: 1.15 m length; 0.71 m width and 2.15 m high. Its approximated weight is 120 kg. The air consumption is 5.4 fps by each working station with 60 psig work pressure. The turning inside out operation is 40 s for each industrial leather glove.

  1. Thin Emitter Structure Improved Turn-on Characteristics in RSD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lin; YU Yuehui; ZHOU Yuming; WANG Lu

    2008-01-01

    The thin emitter structure was introduced into reversely switched dynistor (RSD) to improve its turn-on characteristics. According to the analysis of turn-on condition, thin emitter structure is capable of reducing the extraction action for the triggering plasma layer P1 during turn-on process, and satisfying the requirement that triggering electric charge cannot be exhausted and therefore enables RSD to turn on uniformly. The on-state thin emitter RSD was equivalent to an asymmetric pin diode model. The simulation result shows that the forward voltage drop of RSD falls with the decrease of doping dose in p+-emitter in a certain range, and when the doping concentration is extremely low, the decrease of the width of p+-emitter can obtain a low forward voltage drop. Thin emitter RSD chips were made by sintering Al on n-Si. The test result shows that their turn-on process is uniform and the voltage drop is 7.5V when the peak conversion current is 5500A.

  2. Missing the (question) mark? What is a turn to ontology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolgar, Steve; Lezaun, Javier

    2015-06-01

    Our introductory essay in this journal's 2013 Special Issue on the 'turn to ontology' examined the shift from epistemology to ontology in science and technology studies and explored the implications of the notion of enactment. Three responses to that Special Issue argue that (I) there is no fundamental qualitative difference between the ontological turn and social constructivism, (2) we need to be wary of overly generic use of the term 'ontology' and (3) the language of 'turns' imposes constraints on the richness and diversity of science and technology studies. In this brief reply, we show how each of those critiques varies in its commitment to circumspection about making objective determinations of reality and to resisting reification. We illustrate our point by considering overlapping discussions in anthropology. This brings out the crucial difference between the science and technology studies slogan 'it could be otherwise' and the multinaturalist motto 'it actually is otherwise'. PMID:26477203

  3. A hybrid model of a subminiature helicopter in horizontal turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Li; Gong Zhenbang; Liu Liang

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid model of a subminiature helicopter in horizontal turn is presented. This model is based on a mechanism model and its compensated neural network (NN). First, the nonlinear dynamics of a subminiature helicopter is established. Through the linearization of the nonlinear dynamics on a trim point, the linear time-invariant mechanism model in horizontal turn is obtained. Then a diagonal recursive neural network is used to compensate the model error between the mechanism model and the nonlinear model, thus the hybrid model of a subminiature helicopter in horizontal turn is achieved. Simulation results show that the hybrid model has higher accuracy than the mechanism model and the obtained compensated-NN has good generalization capability.

  4. Turning Point Instabilities for Relativistic Stars and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffrin, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    In the light of recent results relating dynamic and thermodynamic stability of relativistic stars and black holes, we re-examine the relationship between "turning points"---i.e., extrema of thermodynamic variables along a one-parameter family of solutions---and instabilities. We give a proof of Sorkin's general result---showing the existence of a thermodynamic instability on one side of a turning point---that does not rely on heuristic arguments involving infinite dimensional manifold structure. We use the turning point results to prove the existence of a dynamic instability of black rings in 5 spacetime dimensions in the region where $c_J > 0$, in agreement with a result of Figueras, Murata, and Reall.

  5. Non-Poissonian run-and-turn motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detcheverry, Francois

    Swimming bacteria exhibit a variety of motion patterns (run-and-tumble, run-reverse, run-reverse-flick), in which persistent runs are punctuated by sudden turning events. What are the properties of such random motions? If a complete answer has been given when the turning events follow a Poisson process, it has remained elusive outside this particular case. We present a generic framework for such non-Poissonian run-and-turn random motions. We obtain the generating function of moments by building on the framework of continuous time random walks and using non-commutative calculus. The approach is applied to a bimodal model of persistent motion that is directly applicable to swimming patterns and cell motility.

  6. Does dragonfly's abdomen flexion help with fast turning maneuvers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Li, Chengyu; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2013-11-01

    Dragonflies are able to achieve fast turning maneuvers during take-off flights. Both asymmetric wing flapping and abdomen flexion have been observed during the fast turning. It's widely thought that the asymmetric wing beats are responsible of producing the aerodynamic moment needed for the body rotation. However, the dynamic effect of the abdomen flexion is not clear yet. In this study, an integrated experimental and computational approach is used to study the underlying dynamic effect of dragonfly abdomen flexion. It's found that dragonfly abdomen tended to bend towards the same side as the body reorienting to. Quantitative analysis have shown that during take-off turning maneuver the abdomen flexion can modulate the arm of force by changing the position of the center of mass relative to the thorax. As a result, roll and yaw moments produced by the wing flapping can be enhanced. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1313217. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1313217.

  7. Some results of tangential turning with an abrasive water jet

    OpenAIRE

    Cárach, J.; Hlaváček, P.; K. Vasilko; Klich, J. (Jiří); S. Hloch

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the visual comparison of the finished surface of sandstone using the tangential abrasive water jet. The continual abrasive water jet with turning was used with the constant pressure of 400 MPa for all sections of turning and with a depth of cut of 2mm. The abrasive particles were added to the water jet in the amount of 400 g.min-1. The traverse speed (vf = 60, 30, 10 mm.min-1) was gradually changing at a constant speed of rotation of workpiece n = 30min-1. Th...

  8. Evaluation of cutting force uncertainty components in turning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is proposed for the evaluation of those uncertainty components of a single cutting force measurement in turning that are related to the contributions of the dynamometer calibration and the cutting process itself. Based on an empirical model including errors form both sources......, the uncertainty for a single measurement of cutting force is presented, and expressions for the expected uncertainty vs. cutting parameters are proposed. This approach gives the possibility of evaluating cutting force uncertainty components in turning, for a defined range of cutting parameters, based on few...

  9. Optimizing feed force for turned parts through the Taguchi technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hari Singh; Pradeep Kumar

    2006-12-01

    The objective of the paper is to obtain an optimal setting of turning process parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) resulting in an optimal value of the feed force when machining EN24 steel with TiC-coated tungsten-carbide inserts. The effects of the selected turning process parameters on feed force and the subsequent optimal settings of the parameters have been accomplished using Taguchi’s parameter design approach. The results indicate that the selected process parameters significantly affect the selected machining characteristics. The results are confirmed by further experiments.

  10. Spatial turn and animation practices inspired by cultural anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wieszaczewska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial turn is one of the cultural turns, which have recently occurred in the humanities. It stresses the importance of issues such as space and place and can be successfully used as a theoretical perspective gaining use in thought over issues such as globalisation, transnationality, mapping but also education. In the discourses of pedagogical science space and place are considered through their multidimensional impact on education and learning. As significant concepts rooting pedagogy or pedagogy of borderland. The pedagogical reflection on space could be also used in the field of animation practices, especially in activities, which are related to place somehow colonised.

  11. Prediction of beta-turns in proteins using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, M J; Flores, T P; Sternberg, M J

    1989-05-01

    The use of neural networks to improve empirical secondary structure prediction is explored with regard to the identification of the position and conformational class of beta-turns, a four-residue chain reversal. Recently an algorithm was developed for beta-turn predictions based on the empirical approach of Chou and Fasman using different parameters for three classes (I, II and non-specific) of beta-turns. In this paper, using the same data, an alternative approach to derive an empirical prediction method is used based on neural networks which is a general learning algorithm extensively used in artificial intelligence. Thus the results of the two approaches can be compared. The most severe test of prediction accuracy is the percentage of turn predictions that are correct and the neural network gives an overall improvement from 20.6% to 26.0%. The proportion of correctly predicted residues is 71%, compared to a chance level of about 58%. Thus neural networks provide a method of obtaining more accurate predictions from empirical data than a simpler method of deriving propensities. PMID:2748568

  12. Poets and Book Design at the Turn of the Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depas, Rosalind

    1979-01-01

    Considers influences on the design and production of books at the turn of the century, including the influences of symbolists and other European poets (e.g., Blake, Wilde, Verhaeren, Maeterlinck, Baudelaire, Mallarme, Huysmans, George, von Hofmannsthal, and Rilke); book designers, typographers, and printers; and the Art Nouveau school. (DMM)

  13. Turn me on 100 easy ways to use solar energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kodis, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    HERE COMES THE SUN! With page after page of creative and innovative ideas for using this limitless form of energy, as well as thoughtfully compiled lists of useful resources, Turn Me On is an introductory guide to understanding the exciting advances in a progressing technology that harnesses the boundless power of the sun to bring us clean, renewable energy.

  14. Bumblebee Homing: The Fine Structure of Head Turning Movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Boeddeker

    Full Text Available Changes in flight direction in flying insects are largely due to roll, yaw and pitch rotations of their body. Head orientation is stabilized for most of the time by counter rotation. Here, we use high-speed video to analyse head- and body-movements of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris while approaching and departing from a food source located between three landmarks in an indoor flight-arena. The flight paths consist of almost straight flight segments that are interspersed with rapid turns. These short and fast yaw turns ("saccades" are usually accompanied by even faster head yaw turns that change gaze direction. Since a large part of image rotation is thereby reduced to brief instants of time, this behavioural pattern facilitates depth perception from visual motion parallax during the intersaccadic intervals. The detailed analysis of the fine structure of the bees' head turning movements shows that the time course of single head saccades is very stereotypical. We find a consistent relationship between the duration, peak velocity and amplitude of saccadic head movements, which in its main characteristics resembles the so-called "saccadic main sequence" in humans. The fact that bumblebee head saccades are highly stereotyped as in humans, may hint at a common principle, where fast and precise motor control is used to reliably reduce the time during which the retinal images moves.

  15. Body saccades of Drosophila consist of stereotyped banked turns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijres, F.T.; Elzinga, M.J.; Iwasaki, N.A.; Dickinson, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The flight pattern of many fly species consists of straight flight segments interspersed with rapid turns called body saccades, a strategy that is thought to minimize motion blur. We analyzed the body saccades of fruit flies (Drosophila hydei), using high-speed 3D videography to track body and wing

  16. Type 2 diabetes express highway, where is the 'U' turn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, S R

    2003-05-01

    The 'U' turn in Type 2 Diabetes Express Highway probably lies in lifestyle modifications--going back to traditional lifestyle with use of modern technology to achieve happiness. There is a difference between technology for comfort and technology for happiness. PMID:12974434

  17. The Digital Turn. How the internet transforms our existence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The presentation is based on my book The Dital Turn. The swift virtualisation of the world implies a radical change of the conditions of life. We have to cope with the fact that our experiences of the world will largely be mediated experiences, fuelled by data, cameras, sensors, indicators and virtu

  18. Getting 'Entangled': Reflexivity and the 'Critical Turn' in Tourism Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateljevic, I.; Harris, C.; Wilson, E.; Collins, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Reflecting a broader postmodern shift to unmask the cultural politics of research and knowledge-making in academia, tourism studies as a field is demonstrating a notable `critical turn¿ ¿ a shift in thought that serves to provide and legitimise a space for more interpretative and critical modes of t

  19. Student Wellbeing and the Therapeutic Turn in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This article considers current concerns with promoting student mental health and wellbeing against the backdrop of critiques of the "therapeutic turn" in education. It begins by situating accounts of "therapeutic education" within broader theorisation of therapeutic culture. In doing so, the importance of this work is…

  20. Education, Inc.: Turning Learning into a Business. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Alfie, Ed.; Shannon, Patrick, Ed.

    This collection of essays builds a case against those who see children as customers or workers and those who want to turn learning into a business. Following an introduction, The 500-Pound Gorilla by Alfie Kohn, section 1, Commercialism in Schools, contains: (1) Buy Me! Buy Me! (Alex Molnar and Joseph A. Reaves); (2) Commercialism in U.S. Schools…

  1. [Turning points in American psychiatry of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabshin, M

    1990-09-01

    Sabshin describes three turning points in twentieth century American psychiatry. Following "the time of the Thirteen", the time of the founders of modern American psychiatry, the first turning point was marked by the rise of Meyerian psychobiology and had its peak impact during the second quarter of the twentieth century. In the post World War II years diverging therapeutic ideologies became dominant, including the important impact of psychoanalysis. But competing ideologies (e.g. in social and biological psychiatry) were of importance also. The most recent turning point was marked by the current surge of neuro-science and psychopharmacology along with empiricism and logical positivsm. It is predicted to peak in the middle of the current decade. Following the preceding demedicalization a remedicalization of psychiatry was the result. For the turn of the 21st century, as Sabshin predicts, a re-emergence of analogues of Meyerian psychobiology will take center stage, particularly concentrating on questions of coping and adaptability, on how the human being keeps himself healthy and sane during subsequent developmental stages as well as in the face of stressful life events. PMID:2262194

  2. Beyond 100 Tesla: Scientific experiments using single-turn coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugall, Oliver; Solane, Pierre Yves; Plochocka, Paulina; Maude, Duncan K.; Nicholas, Robin J.

    2013-01-01

    Current opportunities and recent examples for research in magnetic fields well above 100 T using single-turn coils are discussed. After a general introduction into basic principles and technical constraints associated with the generation of Megagauss fields we discuss data obtained at the LNCMI Toulouse, where such fields are routinely used for scientific applications.

  3. A Rhetoric of Turns: Signs and Symbols in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In our research and teaching we explore the value and the place of rhetoric in education. From a theoretical perspective we situate our work in different disciplines, inspired by major "turns": linguistic, cultural, anthropological/ethnographic, interpretive, semiotic, narrative, literary, rhetorical etc. In this article we engage in the…

  4. CNC Turning Technician. A Competency-Based Instructional System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Kelly; Hilley, Robert

    This competency-based curriculum guide for instructing students in using computer numerically controlled (CNC) turning machines is one of a series of instructional guides for the machinist field developed in Oklahoma. Although developed jointly with Baxter Technologies Corporation and oriented toward the Baxter Vo-Tec 2000 Future Builder CNC…

  5. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Mineral oil - RM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RM. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  6. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Vegetable based oil - RV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RV. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  7. Simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-11-10

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. Furthermore, the fitting results are used for lattice correction. Our method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  8. Simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  9. Preparação, caracterização e aplicação de fases estacionárias tipo C8 modificadas por óxidos metálicos para cromatografia líquida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Goraieb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes three C8-stationary phases for high performance liquid chromatography based on silica metallized with ZrO2, TiO2 or Al2O3 layers, having poly(methyloctylsiloxane immobilized onto their surfaces. The stationary phases were characterized using XRF, XAS, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis to determine the physical characteristics of the oxide and polysiloxane layers formed on the surfaces and chromatographically to evaluate the separation parameters. The results show the changes on the silica surface and allowed proposing a structure for the oxide layer, being observed tetrahedral and octahedral structures, what is completely new in the literature. The formation of a homogeneous layer of metallic oxide (TiO2 and ZrO2 was observed on the silica. The C8-titanized and C8-aluminized stationary phases presented good chromatographic performances, with good values of asymmetry and efficiency. All stationary phase presented few loss of the polymeric layer after the HPLC, indicating that this layer is well attached on the metalized support.

  10. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a New Organic-inorganic Hybrid One-dimensional Polymer: [Zn(C8H23N5)]2(Pb3I10)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ruo-Bai; HUANG Chang-Cang; ZHANG Han-Hui; LI Hao-Hong; YANG Qi-Yu; SUN Rui-Qing

    2005-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid coordinated polymer [Zn(C8H23N5)]2(Pb3I10) (C8H23N5 = tetraethylene pentamine) was synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. It crystallizes in triclinic, space group P with a = 9.781(2), b = 11.442(3), c = 11.565(3) (A), α = 99.075(8), β = 90.540(9), γ = 109.967(5)°, Zn2C16H46N10Pb3I10, Mr = 2399.94, V = 1198.4(5) (A)3, Z = 1, Dc = 3.325 g/cm3, F(000) = 1048.0, μ(MoKα) = 17.951 mm-1, the final R = 0.0412 and wR = 0.0993 for 3375 observed reflections with I > 2(σI). The title compound consists of [Zn(C8H23N5)]2+ cations and anionic chains [Pb3I10]n4n-, which are combined with each other via electrostatic attractive forces and N-H…I hydrogen bonds.

  11. The Turning and Evolution of the Recent Acceleration Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi; Tan, A.

    2007-05-01

    The turning point and evolution characteristics of the universe are investigated through solving the Friedmann equation with a non-zero cosmological constant. Choosing the present-time Hubble constant, the radius of the present universe , and the density parameter in matter as three key parameters, we obtain the density parameter in dark energy, the cosmological constant, the mass of the universe, the turning point redshif, the age of the present universe, and the time-dependent expansion rate, velocity, radius, and acceleration parameter of the universe. It is shown that the turing point redshift is soly dependent of the density parameters in matter and dark energy. For the flat universe, it turned from past deceleration to recent acceleration when its size was 1/2 to 2/3 of the present size if the density parameter in matter is between 0.2 and 0.4. The expansion rate is very large at initial and decreases with time to approach the Hubble constant. The expansion velocity can be over the light speed in the early period, which decreases to the minimum at the turning point and then increases with time to approach the ratio of the present radius to the Hubble radius times the square root of the density parameter in dark energy. The solution of the time-dependent radius increases with time. The present time depends on the three key parameters. The universe with a larger present radius, smaller Hubble constant, or smaller density parameter in dark energy is elder. The universe with greater density parameter in dark energy accelerates faster recently. The open and closed universes can also be accelerated recently. The turning points and evolution characteristics among different types of the universe and different sets of key parameters are compared. This presentation will show the details, supported by NASA grant (NNG04GD59G).

  12. - and -turns in proteins revisited: A new set of amino acid turn-type de-pendent positional preferences and potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kunchur Guruprasad; Sasidharan Rajkumar

    2000-06-01

    The number of -turns in a representative set of 426 protein three-dimensional crystal structures selected from the recent Protein Data Bank has nearly doubled and the number of -turns in a representative set of 320 proteins has increased over seven times since the previous analysis. -turns (7153) and -turns (911) extracted from these proteins were used to derive a revised set of type-dependent amino acid positional preferences and potentials. Compared with previous results, the preference for proline, methionine and tryptophan has increased and the preference for glutamine, valine, glutamic acid and alanine has decreased for -turns. Certain new amino acid preferences were observed for both turn types and individual amino acids showed turn-type dependent positional preferences. The rationale for new amino acid preferences are discussed in the light of hydrogen bonds and other interactions involving the turns. Where main-chain hydrogen bonds of the type NH( + 3)→CO() were not observed for some -turns, other main-chain hydrogen bonds or solvent interactions were observed that possibly stabilize such -turns. A number of unexpected isolated -turns with proline at + 2 position were also observed. The NH( + 2)→CO() hydrogen bond was observed for almost all -turns. Nearly 20% classic -turns and 43% inverse -turns are isolated turns.

  13. Acceleration of magnetic dipoles by the sequence of current turns

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N

    2014-01-01

    Acceleration of magnetic dipoles is carried out by the running gradient of the magnetic field formed while sequent switching on the current turns. Magnetic dipoles, with a diameter of sixty millimeters and full length one meter, are pre-accelerated by using the gas-dynamic method to speed one kilometer per second, corresponding to the injection rate into the main accelerator. To prevent the turning of the dipoles by one hundred eighty degrees in the field of the accelerating pulse and focus them, the magnetic dipoles are accelerated inside the titanium tube. The magnetic dipoles have mass two kilograms and acquire the finite speed five kilometers per second on the acceleration length three hundreds meters.

  14. Deflectable Nose Control for Bank-to-Turn Missile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu-gang; ZHOU Jun; GUO Jian-guo; LIU Ji-zhong; GAO Xiao-ying

    2008-01-01

    It is an innovative try to control hypersonic bank-to-turn missiles using the deflectable nose and flaps. The high-er control efficiency, faster response, better stability and compactness of the nose control are shown by comparing the de-flectable nose control with the normal tail fin control. A mathematical model of the missile, which is time-varying, non-linear and strong coupling, is establihsed by multi-body dynamics to be used for designing the controller. A robust con-troller of deflectable nose control is designed by variable structure control theory, selecting sliding mode surfaces with tracking error and its integral function, and considering parameter disturbance of the model. The simulation results show the controller can response quickly and track precisely. The deflectable nose control is proper for the bank-to-turn missile.

  15. Memory boosts turn taking in evolutionary dilemma games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zhigang; Yang, Lei; Zou, You; Luo, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Spontaneous turn taking phenomenon can be observed in many self-organized systems, and the mechanism is unclear. This paper tries to model it by evolutionary dilemma games with memory mechanism. Prisoner's dilemma, Snowdrift (including Leader and Hero) and Stag-hunt games are unified on an extended S-T plane. Agents play game with all the others and make decision by the last game histories. The experiments find that when agents remember last 2-step histories or more, a kind of cooperative turn taking (CAD) bursts at the area of Snowdrift game with restriction of S + T > 2R and S ≠ T, while the consistent strategy (DorC) gathers on the line of S + T > 2R and S = T. We also find that the system's fitness ratio greatly improved with 2-step memory. PMID:25841617

  16. Welcome to the revolution: The sensory turn and art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Lauwrens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourses concerned with the sensorially embodied subject have emerged since the 1990s in various disciplines including history, anthropology, sociology, geography, film studies and literary studies. The purpose of this article is to bring the conversation regarding audiences’ embodied engagement in culture closer to art history by investigating the implications of what has been termed the sensory turn for this discipline. One of the accusations lodged against art history by supporters of the multi-sensoriality of embodied human experience is its alleged ocularcentrism, the implication of which is a detached autonomous subject. In this article, the sensory turn is defined and contextualized, particularly in light of the body of criticism targeted at art history’s emphasis on the visual. The proposed ways in which art historians might usefully deal with audience’s embodied experiences of not only immersive installation works of art, but also artworks in traditional media, such as painting and photography, are teased apart.

  17. TRAJECTORY GENERATION AND CONTROL FOR NON-CIRCULAR CNC TURNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Simin; YAN Han; WANG Xiankui

    2008-01-01

    A trajectory generation method which is based on NURBS interpolation is studied to improve the fitting accuracy and smoothness of non-circular cross section and obtain higher accuracy of the final non-circular profile control. After using the NURBS, the most optimized and smooth trajectory for the linear actuator can be obtained. For the purpose of machining the non-circular cross section by CNC turning, the fast response linear actuator has been used. The control algorithm which is compound control of proportional-integral-differential (PID) and iterative learning control has been developed for non-circular profile generation. By using the NURBS interpolation and the compound control of PID and iterative learning control, the final motion accuracy of linear actuator has been improved, therefore, the machining accuracy of the non-circular turning can be improved.

  18. Fluid dynamics of forward swimming and turning for jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura

    2012-11-01

    Jellyfish propel themselves through the water through periodic contractions of their elastic bells. Some jellyfish, such as the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and the upside down jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana, can perform turns via asymmetric contractions of the bell and by generating asymmetries in the outflow opening of the bell. The fluid dynamics of jellyfish forward propulsion and turning is explored here using the immersed boundary method. The 2D and 3D Navier-Stokes equations are coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish represented by an elastic boundary. An adaptive and parallelized version of the immersed boundary method (IBAMR) is used to resolve the detailed structure of the vortex wake. The asymmetric contraction and structure of the jellyfish generates asymmetries in the starting and stopping vortices. This creates a diagonal jet and a net torque acting on the jellyfish.

  19. Synthesis and conformational analysis of constrained beta-turn mimetics using a bicyclic turn inducer and the Petasis three-component reaction on solid-phase

    OpenAIRE

    Danieli, E; Trabocchi, A.; G. MENCHI; Guarna, A

    2007-01-01

    A new set of β-turn mimetics incorporating a bicyclic turn inducer was achieved by use of the solid-phase Petasis reaction in a stereoselective fashion. The stereoselectivity of the reaction turned out to be dependent on the side chain of the amino acid preceding the reverse turn inducer. The β-turn mimetics were stabilized by strong intramolecular 10-membered ring hydrogen bonds, detected by conformational analysis by NMR and molecular modelling, whilst the turn type was controlled by the fi...

  20. Digital turn, digital geography? Programmable City Working Paper 17

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, James; Kitchin, Rob; Leszczynski, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between the digital and geography. Our analysis provides an overview of the rich scholarship that has examined: (1) geographies of the digital, (2) geographies produced by the digital, and (3) geographies produced through the digital. Using this material we reflect on two questions: has there been a digital turn in geography? and, would it be productive to delimit ‘digital geography’ as a field of study within the discipline, as has recently occurred...

  1. Homer regulates calcium signalling in growth cone turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Michael JW

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homer proteins are post-synaptic density proteins with known functions in receptor trafficking and calcium homeostasis. While they are key mediators of synaptic plasticity, they are also known to function in axon guidance, albeit by mechanisms that are yet to be elucidated. Homer proteins couple extracellular receptors – such as metabotropic glutamate receptors and the transient receptor potential canonical family of cation channels – to intracellular receptors such as inositol triphosphate and ryanodine receptors on intracellular calcium stores and, therefore, are well placed to regulate calcium dynamics within the neural growth cone. Here we used growth cones from dorsal root ganglia, a well established model in the field of axon guidance, and a growth cone turning assay to examine Homer1 function in axon guidance. Results Homer1 knockdown reversed growth cone turning from attraction to repulsion in response to the calcium-dependent guidance cues brain derived neurotrophic factor and netrin-1. Conversely, Homer1 knockdown had no effect on repulsion to the calcium-independent guidance cue Semaphorin-3A. This reversal of attractive turning suggested a requirement for Homer1 in a molecular switch. Pharmacological experiments confirmed that the operational state of a calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II/calcineurin phosphatase molecular switch was dependent on Homer1 expression. Calcium imaging of motile growth cones revealed that Homer1 is required for guidance-cue-induced rise of cytosolic calcium and the attenuation of spontaneous cytosolic calcium transients. Homer1 knockdown-induced calcium transients and turning were inhibited by antagonists of store-operated channels. In addition, immunocytochemistry revealed the close association of Homer1 with the store-operated proteins TRPC1 and STIM1 within dorsal root ganglia growth cones. Conclusion These experiments provide evidence that Homer1 is an essential

  2. Hybrid ANFIS-ants system based optimisation of turning parameters

    OpenAIRE

    F. Cus; J. Balic; U. Zuperl

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents a new hybrid multi-objective optimization technique, based on ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO), to optimize the machining parameters in turning processes.Design/methodology/approach: Three conflicting objectives, production cost, operation time and cutting quality are simultaneously optimized. An objective function based on maximum profit in operation has been used. The proposed approach uses adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) system to represent ...

  3. GA based CNC turning center exploitation process parameters optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Car

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents machining parameters (turning process optimization based on the use of artificial intelligence. To obtain greater efficiency and productivity of the machine tool, optimal cutting parameters have to be obtained. In order to find optimal cutting parameters, the genetic algorithm (GA has been used as an optimal solution finder. Optimization has to yield minimum machining time and minimum production cost, while considering technological and material constrains.

  4. Analysis of the influence of tool dynamics in diamond turning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, S.C.; Luttrell, D.E.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the progress in defining the role of machine and interface dynamics on the surface finish in diamond turning. It contains a review of literature from conventional and diamond machining processes relating tool dynamics, material interactions and tool wear to surface finish. Data from experimental measurements of tool/work piece interface dynamics are presented as well as machine dynamics for the DTM at the Center.

  5. Freedom and Form: Marxist Hermeneutics and the Spinozist Turn

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Jeffery Ryan

    2013-01-01

    "Freedom and Form: Marxist Hermeneutics and the Spinozist Turn"Marxist cultural and literary criticism has long been preoccupied with determining the position and relative power of cultural production within the base/superstructure analogy. Beginning with the Second International, a particular brand of orthodox Marxism relegated the artifacts of cultural production to the superstructure, thereby considering cultural modes of production impotent in effecting any practical, material and politic...

  6. Disrupted Turn Adjacency and Coherence Maintenance in Instant Messaging Conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Therese Örnberg

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study of coherence in text-based log files from 120 two-party Instant Messaging (IM) conversations among a group of international students at a design school. The goals of the study were to investigate whether disrupted turn adjacency was an obstacle to coherence and to identify the linguistic strategies employed to maintain coherence. Additional signs of problematic coherence creation were also investigated, focusing on explicit signs of miscommunication. In this pa...

  7. Bradykinin antagonists modified with dipeptide mimetic beta-turn inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaro, Maria C; Vinci, Valerio; D'Ursi, Anna M; Scrima, Mario; Chelli, Mario; Giuliani, Sandro; Meini, Stefania; Di Giacomo, Marcello; Colombo, Lino; Papini, Anna Maria

    2006-05-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is involved in a wide variety of pathophysiological processes. Potent BK peptide antagonists can be developed introducing constrained unnatural amino acids, necessary to force the secondary structure of the molecule. In this paper, we report a structure-activity relationship study of two peptide analogues of the potent B2 antagonist HOE 140 by replacing the D-Tic-Oic dipeptide with conformationally constrained dipeptide mimetic beta-turn inducers. PMID:16504505

  8. TRANSPORTATION IN Lhasa CITY TURNS TO A NEW PAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONAM; TSERING

    2007-01-01

    Road construction in Lhasa City has turned a new page over recent decades due to disinterested support from provincial and municipal governments in the hinterland, in particular under the auspices of the government of Beijing Municipality and Jiangsu Province.Unbelievable changes of the roads in Lhasa City not only improve the city's transportation infrastructure,but bring about direct benefits to local residents as well.

  9. Turning Points: Business Cycles in Canada Since 1926

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Cross; Philippe Bergevin

    2012-01-01

    Market-based economies tend to exhibit cyclical behaviour. The recent financial crisis, with devastating impacts that are still being felt today, has added urgency to the drive to improve our understanding of business cycles. Pinpointing key turning points in the economy, meaning when recession takes hold or growth resumes, is vital for policymakers, businesses and consumers alike. In this paper, the authors clarify how best to define a recession and measure its severity. And, to create a fou...

  10. An Investigation into Traffic Turning Movement at Jibowu

    OpenAIRE

    S. I. Oni; S.A. Oke

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at understanding the behavioral pattern of traffic at Jibowu intersection with a view of using the results obtained as a model for understudying traffic movement at similar intersections in the Lagos metropolis. Consequently, an evaluation of the sampled intersections was carried out by employing a physical measurement of the layout, traffic volume at each turning point, and evaluating it against the back drop of traffic delays at the intersections. The paper reviews the traff...

  11. Surface Corrosion Resistance in Turning of Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the issues associated with implant surface modification. We propose a method to form the oxide film on implant surfaces by dry turning to generate heat and injecting oxygen-rich gas at the turning-tool flank. The morphology, roughness, composition, and thickness of the oxide films in an oxygen-rich atmosphere were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical profiling, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Electrochemical methods were used to study the corrosion resistance of the modified surfaces. The corrosion resistance trends, analyzed relative to the oxide film thickness, indicate that the oxide film thickness is the major factor affecting the corrosion resistance of titanium alloys in a simulated body fluid (SBF. Turning in an oxygen-rich atmosphere can form a thick oxide film on the implant surface. The thickness of surface oxide films processed at an oxygen concentration of 80% was improved to 4.6 times that of films processed at an oxygen concentration of 21%; the free corrosion potential shifted positively by 0.357 V, which significantly improved the corrosion resistance of titanium alloys in the SBF. Therefore, the proposed method may (partially replace the subsequent surface oxidation. This method is significant for biomedical development because it shortens the process flow, improves the efficiency, and lowers the cost.

  12. Turning Rate Dynamics of Zebrafish Exposed to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice in alcohol-related pharmacological studies. In these studies, zebrafish are often exposed to acute ethanol treatments and their activity scored during behavioral assays. Computational modeling of zebrafish behavior is expected to positively impact these efforts by offering a predictive toolbox to plan hypothesis-driven studies, reduce the number of subjects, perform pilot trials, and refine behavioral screening. In this work, we demonstrate the use of the recently proposed jump persistent turning walker to model the turning rate dynamics of zebrafish exposed to acute ethanol administration. This modeling framework is based on a stochastic mean reverting jump process to capture the sudden and large changes in orientation of swimming zebrafish. The model is calibrated on an available experimental dataset of 40 subjects, tested at different ethanol concentrations. We demonstrate that model parameters are modulated by ethanol administration, whereby both the relaxation rate and jump frequency of the turning rate dynamics are influenced by ethanol concentration. This effort offers a first evidence for the possibility of complementing zebrafish pharmacological research with computational modeling of animal behavior.

  13. Error analysis of linear optics measurements via turn-by-turn beam position data in circular accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Franchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many advanced techniques have been developed, tested and implemented in the last decades in almost all circular accelerators across the world to measure the linear optics. However, the greater availability and accuracy of beam diagnostics and the ever better correction of linear magnetic lattice imperfections (beta beating at 1% level and coupling at 0.1%) are reaching what seems to be the intrinsic accuracy and precision of different measurement techniques. This paper aims to highlight and quantify, when possible, the limitations of one standard method, the harmonic analysis of turn-by-turn beam position data. To this end, new analytic formulas for the evaluation of lattice parameters modified by focusing errors are derived. The unexpected conclusion of this study is that for the ESRF storage ring (and possibly for any third generation light source operating at ultra-low coupling and with similar diagnostics), measurement and correction of linear optics via orbit beam position data are to be preferred to the...

  14. 77 FR 72747 - Alkyl(C8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... . II. Petition for Exemption In the Federal Register of May 2, 2012 (77 FR 25957) (FRL-9346-1), EPA... could occur via cosmetic use (at very low concentrations) including hair care dye kits. There is also... Order 12866, entitled ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because...

  15. Turn-By Beam Extraction during Acceleration in a Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2014-02-01

    A synchrotron to accelerate protons or carbon ions for medical applications is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Single beam bunches with maximum beam energy of 1.18 GeV and 400 MeV/u for protons and carbon ions respectively will be extracted from the synchrotron at 15 Hz. For protons, the maximum required energy for irradiating a tumor is ˜206 MeV. A pencil-like proton beam containing ˜5.4×107 p/bunch delivers a therapeutic dose of 2.5 Gy in ˜1.5 minutes to treat a tumor of 1 liter volume. It will take ˜80 minutes with bunches containing 4.5×104 ions/bunch to deliver the same dose of 2.5 Gy with a 400 MeV/u pencil-like carbon beam. This extended treatment time when using carbon ions is not acceptable. In addition, the synchrotron cannot be controlled with a beam bunch containing such a low number of carbon ions. To overcome these two problems of the extended treatment time and the low bunch intensity required for the treatment when carbon ions are used, we have devised a method to “peel” the required 4.5×104 carbon-ions/bunch from the accelerating carbon beam bunch containing ˜108 ions/bunch and deliver them to the tumor on a “turn-by-turn” basis. Unlike other methods of beam extraction from a synchrotron, such as resonance extraction, this method does not allow for any beam losses during the extraction and the carbon beam can be peeled off in less than 15 ms during the acceleration or deceleration cycle of the synchrotron. Thus, this turn-by-turn beam extraction method provides beam with variable energy and precisely controlled beam current during the 30 ms acceleration or deceleration time.

  16. Turn over folders: a proven tool in succession management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engells, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    The dual challenges of succession management and succession management planning are considerable. A tool, the Turn over Folder, was introduced and described in detail as a useful first step in succession management planning. The adoption of that tool will not in itself produce a succession management plan, but it will orientate the organization and its members to the reality of succession management in all important leadership and critical positions. Succession management is an important consideration in all progressive organizations and well worth the effort.

  17. Multi-turn, printed surface coil inductance, and Q optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, A; Kan, S

    1993-03-01

    Wheeler's empirical inductance formula for a multi-turn, close-wound flat coil shows that the maximum inductance for a given length of wire occurs when the outer to inner radius ratios is equal to 15/7. A similar expression is proposed for a flat, printed spiral for surface coil antenna design by modifying one of the coefficients in Wheeler's formula. Measured inductance is in good agreement with this new formula and the optimum radius ratio for maximum inductance or Q is now of the order of 9/5.

  18. Why nature doesn't turn off neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, Anthony F

    2013-03-01

    This paper develops an integration of psychoanalytic and wisdom tradition concepts to answer the question as to why nature does not turn off neurosis, The proposed answer is that nature wants a person to exploit the neurosis for two gains, one being the increase in adaptive capacity resulting from releasing it and the second involving the difficulty in the release itself, the latter related to gains proffered by the world's wisdom traditions. These see a movement from the psyche's creation by passive, unconscious means of finite promise rooted in parental love to creation by active, consciously chosen means of unlimited promise involving a direct relationship with nature and the Cosmos.

  19. The Critical Turn in Intercultural Communication : Critiquing Culture as Nation

    OpenAIRE

    BRADLEY, William S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the critical turn in Intercultural Communication. I first outline a brief history of the field, including its reception and development in Japan and then introduce several critiques that have been made of the field in the past decade, subsumed under the name of critical intercultural communication. Finally I raise the question of connection to nationalism in nation-state focused approaches to culture in normative intercultural communication. 本論文は、異文化コミュニケーションに対する批判的変容について...

  20. Turn, layer and ground insulation for superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D.

    2001-05-01

    The mechanical, electrical and thermal characteristics of insulating materials can have a significant influence on the performance and reliability of superconducting magnets. This paper considers the various ways in which ground, turn and layer insulation may be provided and the likely physical properties of such materials. A comparison between vacuum impregnated insulation and low pressure, pre-impregnated laminated materials is made and details are provided on the bond strength of insulating films that may be included in the insulation layer to provide electrical integrity. One method of providing electrically insulating ‘breaks’ in the liquid helium supply line for superconducting magnets is discussed.

  1. Big data analytics turning big data into big money

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlhorst, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    Unique insights to implement big data analytics and reap big returns to your bottom line Focusing on the business and financial value of big data analytics, respected technology journalist Frank J. Ohlhorst shares his insights on the newly emerging field of big data analytics in Big Data Analytics. This breakthrough book demonstrates the importance of analytics, defines the processes, highlights the tangible and intangible values and discusses how you can turn a business liability into actionable material that can be used to redefine markets, improve profits and identify new business opportuni

  2. Feed Drive Based upon Linear Motor for Ultraprecision Turning Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of several different linear motors have been investigated, and the feed drive system with linear motor instead of screw-nut mechanism has been built for a submicro ultraprecision turning machine. In the control system for the feed drive system arranged as "T", both P-position and PI-speed control loops are used. The feedback variable is obtained from a double frequecy laser interferometor. Experiments show that the feed drive with linear motor is simple in construction, and that its dynamics is better than others. So the machining accuracy of the workpiece machined has been successfully improved.

  3. Turning a remotely controllable observatory into a fully autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, Scott; Johnson, Chris; Gabor, Paul; Zareba, Grzegorz; Kubánek, Petr; Prouza, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We describe a complex process needed to turn an existing, old, operational observatory - The Steward Observatory's 61" Kuiper Telescope - into a fully autonomous system, which observers without an observer. For this purpose, we employed RTS2,1 an open sourced, Linux based observatory control system, together with other open sourced programs and tools (GNU compilers, Python language for scripting, JQuery UI for Web user interface). This presentation provides a guide with time estimates needed for a newcomers to the field to handle such challenging tasks, as fully autonomous observatory operations.

  4. Turn and jump: how time & place fell apart

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Before Thomas Edison, light and fire were thought to be one and the same. Turns out, they were separate things altogether. This book takes a similar relationship, that of time and place, and shows how they, too, were once inseparable. Time keeping was once a local affair, when small towns set their own pace according to the rising and setting of the sun. Then, in 1883, the expanding railroads necessitated the creation of Standard Time zones, and communities became linked by a universal time. Here Howard Mansfield explores how our sudden interconnectedness, both physically, as through the railroad, and through inventions like the telegraph, changed our concept of time and place forever.

  5. Bacteria turn on surfaces by oversteering with Type IV pili

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fan; Conrad, Jacinta C.; Gibiansky, Maxsim L.; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2011-03-01

    Type-IV pili (TFP) are linear nano-actuators that enable bacteria to crawl on surfaces. Analysis of TFP-mediated crawling in P. aeruginosa reveals that it always alternates between two types of distinct movements: a linear translation of constant velocity is followed by a combined translation-rotation that is ~ 10 x faster in instantaneous velocity. The latter process can turn the cell body by over-steering so that the rear of the cell loses traction with the surface. Orientational distributions of these movements suggest that the former is due to pulling by multiple TFP, whereas the latter is mostly due to release by single TFP.

  6. Robust controller design for a skid to turn missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenatha, A. G.; Rajhans, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Neeraj

    1999-11-01

    The design and analysis of Robust Autopilot for skid-to-turn missile is presented. Two of the popular Robust Controller design approaches, The Loop Shaping Design Procedure (LSDP) and The Robust Eigenstructure Assignment are considered. The missile model considered in the present work is having lightly damped modes and non-minimum phase zeros, with stringent performance requirements. Numerical results are presented to evaluate the Robustness of stability and performance of the controller. Merits and demerits of the above said methodologies are brought out clearly as applied to this specific plant.

  7. The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Andreas; Koch, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and threats which arise when turning origin/destination airports into hubs. The analysis focuses on market development trends, competitive structures, especially in the light of airline network strategies and the growing rivalry between airports, and finally the potential financial impacts for the airport, including both investment efforts and the financial results from hub operations. We argue that in most cases a decision against converting a traditional origin/destination airport into a major transfer point is preferable to the transformation into a hub.

  8. Dynamic characterization of the cutting conditions in dry turning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, R [ENI Val de Loire, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Laboratoire de Mecanique et Rheologie, E.A. 2640, B.P. 3410, 41034 Blois Cedex (France); Chibane, H [Universite Francois Rabelais, Laboratoire de Mecanique et Rheologie, E.A. 2640, B.P. 3410, 41034 Blois Cedex (France); Leroy, R, E-mail: roger.serra@univ-tours.f [Universite Francois Rabelais, Polytech' Tours, Laboratoire de Mecanique et Rheologie, E.A. 2640, 7 Avenue Marcel Dassault, 37200 Tours (France)

    2009-08-01

    Machining instability in the form of violent vibrations or chatter is a physical process characterized by extreme cutting force at the cutting point. The process has very negative impact on machine integrity, tool life, surface quality and dimensional accuracy. Thus it could significantly compromise productivity and manufacturing quality. In the present paper, the importance of characterization and identification of dynamic instability in dry turning operation are shown. The stability behaviour of machine vibration or chatter has been examined and the various relevant parameters are studied and discuted. For chatter detection and identification of the transition between stable and unstable states, different methods are used. Results obtained proof the accuracy of these methods.

  9. Serials cataloging at the turn of the century

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, James W

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the research topics and trends that have appeared over the last five years, Serials Cataloging at the Turn of the Century doesn't just tell you that there has been a lot of change--that the information environment is something of a chameleon, always beguiling and slipping out of grasp. Instead, it gives you the plain facts on the specific challenges serials catalogers have been facing and how they're meeting adversity head-on, ready to gain the advantage in the rumble with proliferating information and formats.Comprehensive, resource-packed, and easy-to-digest, Serials Catalogin

  10. The embodied turn in research on language and social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    I use the term the embodied turn to mean the point when interest in the body became established among researchers on language and social interaction, exploiting the greater ease of video-recording. This review paper tracks the growth of "embodiment" in over 400 papers published in Research...... on Language and Social Interaction from 1987-2013. I consider closely two areas where analysts have confronted challenges, and how they have responded: settling on precise and analytically helpful terminology for the body; and transcribing and representing the body, particularly its temporality and manner....

  11. New Alkali-Metal- and 2-Phenethylamine-Intercalated Superconductors Ax(C8H11N)yFe1-zSe (A = Li, Na) with the Largest Interlayer Spacings and Tc ˜ 40 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeda, Takehiro; Noji, Takashi; Sato, Kazuki; Kawamata, Takayuki; Kato, Masatsune; Koike, Yoji

    2016-10-01

    New FeSe-based intercalation superconductors, Ax(C8H11N)yFe1-zSe (A = Li, Na), with Tc = 39-44 K have been successfully synthesized via the intercalation of alkali metals and 2-phenethylamine into FeSe. The interlayer spacings, namely, the distances between neighboring Fe layers, d, of Ax(C8H11N)yFe1-zSe (A = Li, Na) are 19.04(6) and 18.0(1) Å, respectively. These d values are the largest among those of the FeSe-based intercalation compounds and are understood to be due to the intercalation of two molecules of 2-phenethylamine in series perpendicular to the FeSe layers. It appears that the relationship between Tc and d in the FeSe-based intercalation superconductors is not domic but Tc is saturated at ˜45 K, which is comparable to the Tc values of single-layer FeSe films, for d ≥ 9 Å.

  12. Induction motor inter turn fault detection using infrared thermographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Anil Kumar, T. Ch.; Naikan, V. N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Induction motors are the most commonly used prime movers in industries. These are subjected to various environmental, thermal and load stresses that ultimately reduces the motor efficiency and later leads to failure. Inter turn fault is the second most commonly observed faults in the motors and is considered the most severe. It can lead to the failure of complete phase and can even cause accidents, if left undetected or untreated. This paper proposes an online and non invasive technique that uses infrared thermography, in order to detect the presence of inter turn fault in induction motor drive. Two methods have been proposed that detect the fault and estimate its severity. One method uses transient thermal monitoring during the start of motor and other applies pseudo coloring technique on infrared image of the motor, after it reaches a thermal steady state. The designed template for pseudo-coloring is in acquiescence with the InterNational Electrical Testing Association (NETA) thermographic standard. An index is proposed to assess the severity of the fault present in the motor.

  13. Smoothing of Diamond-Turned Substrates for Extreme Ultraviolet Illuminators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Spiller, E; Schmidt, M A; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L; Ratti, S; Johnson, M A; Gullikson, E M

    2003-11-13

    Condenser optics in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) systems are subjected to frequent replacement as they are positioned close to the illumination source, where increased heating and contamination occur. In the case of aspherical condenser elements made by optical figuring/finishing, their replacement can be very expensive (several hundred thousand dollars). One approach to this problem would be to manufacture inexpensive illuminator optics that meet all required specifications and could be replaced at no substantial cost. Diamond-turned metal substrates are a factor of 100 less expensive than conventional aspherical substrates but have insufficient finish, leading to unacceptably low EUV reflectance after multilayer coating. In this work it is shown that, by applying a smoothing film prior to multilayer coating, the high spatial frequency roughness of a diamond-turned metal substrate is reduced from 1.76 to 0.27 nm rms while the figure slope error is maintained at acceptable levels. Metrology tests performed at various stages of the fabrication of the element demonstrated that it satisfied all critical figure and finish specifications as illuminator. Initial experimental results on the stability and performance of the optic under a real EUVL plasma source environment show no accelerated degradation when compared to conventional substrates.

  14. Beyond Cultural History? The Material Turn, Praxiography, and Body History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Clever

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The body came to be taken seriously as a topic of cultural history during the “corporeal” or “bodily” turn in the 1980s and 1990s. Soon, however, critique was raised against these studies’ conceptualization of the body as discursively shaped and socially disciplined: individual bodily agency and feeling were felt to be absent in the idea of the material body. This article critically analyzes new approaches in the field of body history, particularly the so-called “material turn”. It argues that the material turn, especially in the guise of praxiography, has a lot to offer historians of the body, such as more attention to material practices, to different kinds of actors and a more open eye to encounters. Potential problems of praxiographical analyses of the body in history include the complicated relationship between discourses and practices and the neglect of the political and feminist potential of deconstructive discourse analyses. However, a focus on the relationship between practices of knowledge production and the representation of the body may also provide new ways of opening up historical power relations.

  15. Displacements analysis of self-excited vibrations in turning

    CERN Document Server

    Bisu, Claudiu-Florinel; Gérard, Alain; K'Nevez, Jean-Yves; 10.1007/s00170-08-1815-8

    2009-01-01

    The actual research deals with determining by a new protocol the necessary parameters considering a three-dimensional model to simulate in a realistic way the turning process on machine tool. This paper is dedicated to the experimental displacements analysis of the block tool / block workpiece with self-excited vibrations. In connexion with turning process, the self-excited vibrations domain is obtained starting from spectra of two accelerometers. The existence of a displacements plane attached to the tool edge point is revealed. This plane proves to be inclined compared to the machines tool axes. We establish that the tool tip point describes an ellipse. This ellipse is very small and can be considered as a small straight line segment for the stable cutting process (without vibrations). In unstable mode (with vibrations) the ellipse of displacements is really more visible. A difference in phase occurs between the tool tip displacements on the radial direction and on the cutting one. The feed motion direction...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICANTS IN ALLOY STEEL TURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L B Abhang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To eliminate health and environmental problems caused by using conventional cutting fluid in the metal cutting industry, a new economical and practical approach to minimum quantity of lubrication machining technique is developed. Turning is a widely used metal removal process in manufacturing industry that involves generation of high cutting forces and temperature. Lubrication becomes critical to minimize the effects of these forces and temperature on cutting tool and work piece. Strained environment is a global problem. In metalcutting industry the use of coolant has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. It is said that the use of coolant forms approximately 8-16 % of the total production costs. Development of lubricants that is eco-friendly and economically is acquiring importance. In this context, using minimum quantity of lubrication of boric acid mixed with base oil SAE 40 has proved to be a feasible alternative to the conventional cutting fluid. In the present work 10% boric acid by weight mixed with base oil SAE 40 is used as a MQL in turning process. Variations in cutting (lubricant force, cutting temp, chip thickness and surface roughness are studied under different machining conditions. The results indicate that there is a considerable improvement in machining performance with MQL assisted machining compared to dry machining.

  17. Improved Turn-on Characteristics of Fast High Current Thyristors

    CERN Document Server

    Ducimetière, L; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    1999-01-01

    The beam dumping system of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with fast solid state closing switches, designed for a hold-off voltage of 30 kV and a quasi half sine wave current of 20 kA, with 3 ms rise time, a maximum di/dt of 12 kA/ms and 2 ms fall time. The design repetition rate is 20 s. The switch is composed of ten Fast High Current Thyristors (FHCT’s), which are modified symmetric 4.5 kV GTO thyristors of WESTCODE. Recent studies aiming at improving the turn-on delay, switching speed and at decreasing the switch losses, have led to test an asymmetric not fully optimised GTO thyristor of WESTCODE and an optimised device of GEC PLESSEY Semiconductor (GPS), GB. The GPS FHCT, which gave the best results, is a non irradiated device of 64 mm diameter with a hold-off voltage of 4.5 kV like the symmetric FHCT. Tests results of the GPS FHCT show a reduction in turn-on delay of 40 % and in switching losses of almost 50 % with respect to the symmetric FHCT of WESTCODE. The GPS device can sustain an i...

  18. Energy-Based Analysis of Ultrasonically Assisted Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Volkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of ultrasonically-assisted turning (UAT is a superposition of vibration of a cutting tool on its standard movement in conventional turning (CT. The former technique has several advantages compared with the latter, one of the main being a significant decrease in the level of cutting forces. In this paper the effects observed in UAT are analysed employing ideas of dynamic fracture mechanics. The active stage of loading duration depends heavily on ultrasonic frequency and the cutting speed; he application of the fracture criterion based on the notion of incubation time makes it possible to calculate a dependence of this duration on its threshold amplitude. An estimation of energy, necessary to create a threshold pulse in the material, is made by solving the contact Hertz problem. The obtained time dependence of energy has a marked minimum. Thus, the existence of energy-efficient loading duration is demonstrated. This explains the decrease in the cutting force resulting from superimposed ultrasonic vibration. The obtained results are in agreement with experiments on ultrasonic assisted machining of aluminium and Inconel 718 alloy.

  19. Squeezed light from a diamond-turned monolithic cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Brieussel, A; Campbell, G; Guccione, G; Janousek, J; Hage, B; Buchler, B C; Treps, N; Fabre, C; Fang, F Z; Li, X Y; Symul, T; Lam, P K

    2016-01-01

    For some crystalline materials, a regime can be found where continuous ductile cutting is feasible. Using precision diamond turning, such materials can be cut into complex optical components with high surface quality and form accuracy. In this work we use diamond-turning to machine a monolithic, square-shaped, doubly-resonant $LiNbO_3$ cavity with two flat and two convex facets. When additional mild polishing is implemented, the Q-factor of the resonator is found to be limited only by the material absorption loss. We show how our monolithic square resonator may be operated as an optical parametric oscillator that is evanescently coupled to free-space beams via birefringent prisms. The prism arrangement allows for independent and large tuning of the fundamental and second harmonic coupling rates. We measure $2.6\\pm0.5$ dB of vacuum squeezing at 1064 nm using our system. Potential improvements to obtain higher degrees of squeezing are discussed.

  20. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  1. SURFACE INTEGRITY EVALUATION OF TURNING WITH AUTO-ROTATING TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Struharnansky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The technical practice requirements comes to have increased demands on higher productivity, speed and quality of the machining process of various materials. Hard to machine materials, whose machining led to the development of turning with rotating cutting edge are not an exception. The machining process of auto-rotating tool is more complicated than the conventional process of turning, especially for the process of reshaping cutting layers into chips. There is a significant load in the system, that may affect the life of the cutting edge of the tool as well as the whole system and also in the final extent of the qualitative parameters of the workpiece (product / product. The article specifies the knowledge and findings of measurement in machining material 100Cr6 with an auto-rotating tool. The measurements were conducted to evaluate the integrity of the surface (roughness of the workpiece to the impacts of cutting conditions, in particular the feed and the cutting edge inclination. It also analyzes the presence (size, character, action of residual stresses concentrated in the surface layers of the workpiece by changing the cutting conditions.

  2. Positive Effects of Specific Exercise and Novel Turning-based Treadmill Training on Turning Performance in Individuals with Parkinson’s disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Yu; Yang, Yea-Ru; Chen, Li-Mei; Wu, Yih-Ru; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2016-01-01

    Two different training strategies to improve turning performance in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were designed and investigated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a specific exercise group, turning-based training group, or control group to receive training that emphasized balance and strengthening, turning-based treadmill training, and general exercise training, respectively. A total of 12 30-min training sessions followed by 10 min of turning training on a level surface were administered over 4 to 6 weeks. The results (n = 12 for each group) showed that both the specific exercise and turning-based training group experienced improved turning performance, the primary outcome, compared with the control group (specific exercise, 33% change, p = 0.016; turning-based training, 35% change, p = 0.021). For the secondary outcomes, the specific exercise group performed better than the control group on the Tinetti balance scale, limit of stability test and lower extremity extensor and abductor strength. The turning-based training groups performed better than the control group in sensory organization and ankle plantar flexor strength. In summary, specific exercise training and turning-based treadmill training were both effective in improving turning performance in participants with PD. However, the improvements in turning performance of these two groups resulted from improving different aspects of impairment in individuals with PD. PMID:27628128

  3. Positive Effects of Specific Exercise and Novel Turning-based Treadmill Training on Turning Performance in Individuals with Parkinson's disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Yu; Yang, Yea-Ru; Chen, Li-Mei; Wu, Yih-Ru; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2016-01-01

    Two different training strategies to improve turning performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) were designed and investigated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a specific exercise group, turning-based training group, or control group to receive training that emphasized balance and strengthening, turning-based treadmill training, and general exercise training, respectively. A total of 12 30-min training sessions followed by 10 min of turning training on a level surface were administered over 4 to 6 weeks. The results (n = 12 for each group) showed that both the specific exercise and turning-based training group experienced improved turning performance, the primary outcome, compared with the control group (specific exercise, 33% change, p = 0.016; turning-based training, 35% change, p = 0.021). For the secondary outcomes, the specific exercise group performed better than the control group on the Tinetti balance scale, limit of stability test and lower extremity extensor and abductor strength. The turning-based training groups performed better than the control group in sensory organization and ankle plantar flexor strength. In summary, specific exercise training and turning-based treadmill training were both effective in improving turning performance in participants with PD. However, the improvements in turning performance of these two groups resulted from improving different aspects of impairment in individuals with PD. PMID:27628128

  4. Single-Mode WGM Resonators Fabricated by Diamond Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudinin, Ivan; Maleki, Lute; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrewy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    A diamond turning process has made possible a significant advance in the art of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators. By use of this process, it is possible to fashion crystalline materials into WGM resonators that have ultrahigh resonance quality factors (high Q values), are compact (ranging in size from millimeters down to tens of microns), and support single electromagnetic modes. This development combines and extends the developments reported in "Few- Mode Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators" (NPO-41256), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 1 (January 2006), page 16a and "Fabrication of Submillimeter Axisymmetric Optical Components" (NPO-42056), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2007), page 10a. To recapitulate from the first cited prior article: A WGM resonator of this special type consists of a rod, made of a suitable transparent material, from which protrudes a thin circumferential belt of the same material. The belt is integral with the rest of the rod and acts as a circumferential waveguide. If the depth and width of the belt are made appropriately small, then the belt acts as though it were the core of a single-mode optical fiber: the belt and the rod material adjacent to it support a single, circumferentially propagating mode or family of modes. To recapitulate from the second cited prior article: A major step in the fabrication of a WGM resonator of this special type is diamond turning or computer numerically controlled machining of a rod of a suitable transparent crystalline material on an ultrahigh-precision lathe. During the rotation of a spindle in which the rod is mounted, a diamond tool is used to cut the rod. A computer program is used to control stepping motors that move the diamond tool, thereby controlling the shape cut by the tool. Because the shape can be controlled via software, it is possible to choose a shape designed to optimize a resonator spectrum, including, if desired, to limit the resonator to supporting a single mode

  5. Heavy perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: Atmospheric histories and top-down global emission estimates for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Rigby, M. L.; Baasandorj, M.; Muhle, J.; Harth, C.; Salameh, P.; Steele, P.; Leist, M.; Krummel, P. B.; Burkholder, J. B.; Fraser, P.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    The high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs) - perfluorobutane (C4F10), perfluoropentane (C5F12), perfluorohexane (C6F14), perfluoroheptane (C7F16) and perfluorooctane (C8F18) - are potent greenhouse gases with global warming potentials of ~ 9000 for a 100 year time horizon [Forster et al., 2007]. Currently, the heavy PFCs are regulated under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). However, no atmospheric observations or top-down emission estimates for these gases have been published. In this study, atmospheric histories of the heavy PFCs were determined through new measurements of the Cape Grim Air Archive and a collection of Northern Hemispheric archive flasks using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) cryogenic preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system "Medusa" [Miller et al., 2008]. Furthermore, global top-down emissions were estimated from 1973-2010 based on the atmospheric histories using an inverse method and the 3-D chemical transport model, Model of OZone and Related Tracers (MOZARTv4.5) [Emmons et al., 2009]. Comparison of the top-down emission estimates with bottom-up estimates from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.1) shows EDGARv4.1 emission estimates are underestimated by orders of magnitude for C4F10 and C5F12 [European Commission, 2009]. The bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.1 are comparable to the top-down estimates for C6F14 and C7F16; no bottom-up emission estimates are available for C8F18. Generally, UNFCCC reported inventories by countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are 5 to 10 times lower than the top-down emission estimates for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 (C7F16 and C8F18 are not reported to the UNFCCC). The atmospheric histories and top-down emission estimates presented are the most accurate and comprehensive compiled so far for the high molecular weight PFCs. Furthermore, this study illustrates the importance of

  6. Regioselective differences in C(8)- and N-oxidation of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline by human and rat liver microsomes and cytochromes P450 1A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesky, R J; Parisod, V; Huynh-Ba, T; Langouët, S; Guengerich, F P

    2001-07-01

    The metabolism of the mutagen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was investigated with human and rat liver microsomes, recombinant human cytochrome P450 1A2 (P450 1A2) expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and rat P450 1A2. Human liver microsomes and human P450 1A2 catalyzed the oxidation of the exocyclic amine group of MeIQx to form the genotoxic product 2-(hydroxyamino)-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (HONH-MeIQx). Human P450 1A2 also catalyzed the oxidation of C(8)-methyl group of MeIQx to form 2-amino-(8-hydroxymethyl)-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-CH(2)OH-IQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carbaldehyde (IQx-8-CHO), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carboxylic acid (IQx-8-COOH). Thus, chemically stable C(8)-oxidation products of MeIQx may be useful biomarkers of P450 1A2 activity in humans. Rat liver microsomes were 10-15-fold less active than the human counterpart at both N-oxidation and C(8)-oxidation of MeIQx when expressed as nanomoles of product formed per minute per nanomoles of P450 1A2. Differences in regioselective oxidation of MeIQx were also observed with human and rat liver microsomes and the respective P450 1A2 orthologs. In contrast to human liver microsomes and P450 1A2, rat liver microsomes and purified rat P4501A2 were unable to catalyze the oxidation of MeIQx to the carboxylic derivative IQx-8-COOH, an important detoxication product formed in humans. However, rat liver microsomes and rat P4501A2, but not human liver microsomes or human P450 1A2, extensively catalyzed ring oxidation at the C-5 position of MeIQx to form the detoxication product 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-5-hydroxyimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (5-HO-MeIQx). There are important differences between human and rat P450 1A2, both in catalytic activities and oxidation pathways of MeIQx, that may affect the biological activity of this carcinogen and must be considered when assessing human health risk.

  7. NetTurnP--neural network prediction of beta-turns by use of evolutionary information and predicted protein sequence features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Petersen

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: β-turns are the most common type of non-repetitive structures, and constitute on average 25% of the amino acids in proteins. The formation of β-turns plays an important role in protein folding, protein stability and molecular recognition processes. In this work we present the neural network method NetTurnP, for prediction of two-class β-turns and prediction of the individual β-turn types, by use of evolutionary information and predicted protein sequence features. It has been evaluated against a commonly used dataset BT426, and achieves a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.50, which is the highest reported performance on a two-class prediction of β-turn and not-β-turn. Furthermore NetTurnP shows improved performance on some of the specific β-turn types. In the present work, neural network methods have been trained to predict β-turn or not and individual β-turn types from the primary amino acid sequence. The individual β-turn types I, I', II, II', VIII, VIa1, VIa2, VIba and IV have been predicted based on classifications by PROMOTIF, and the two-class prediction of β-turn or not is a superset comprised of all β-turn types. The performance is evaluated using a golden set of non-homologous sequences known as BT426. Our two-class prediction method achieves a performance of: MCC=0.50, Qtotal=82.1%, sensitivity=75.6%, PPV=68.8% and AUC=0.864. We have compared our performance to eleven other prediction methods that obtain Matthews correlation coefficients in the range of 0.17-0.47. For the type specific β-turn predictions, only type I and II can be predicted with reasonable Matthews correlation coefficients, where we obtain performance values of 0.36 and 0.31, respectively. CONCLUSION: The NetTurnP method has been implemented as a webserver, which is freely available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetTurnP/. NetTurnP is the only available webserver that allows submission of multiple sequences.

  8. Multi-turn tracking of collision products at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Marsili, Aurelien; Cerutti, Francesco; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Redaelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The luminosity expected at the interaction points in LHC at 7 TeV will be unprecedented, up to 1034 cm-2 s-1. Part of the debris produced by the collisions is lost locally immediately downstream the Interaction Point (IP), in the matching section and dispersion suppressor. In this paper, the dynamics of collision debris protons is discussed. First, the loss distributions close to the collision points, simulated with two codes—SixTrack and FLUKA — are compared for different layout configurations. Then, SixTrack is used to simulate the fraction of protons that have undergone inelastic interactions with smaller energy and and betatron offsets, which could travel for several turns around the ring and might be lost in other collimation insertions. A preliminary comparison is made between theresulting loss distribution and measurements.

  9. Elastic-plastic finite element simulation for diamond turning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using general commercial software, a coupled thermo-mechanieal plane strain larger deformation orthogonal cutting model is developed on the basis of updated Lagrangian formulation in this paper. The workpiece is oxygen free high conductivity copper ( OFHC copper), its flow stress is considered as a function of strain, strain rate and temperature to reflect its realistic changes in physical properties. In order to take into account the cutting edge radius effects of the single crystal diamond tool, rezoning technology is introduced into this simulation model. Diamond turning process is simulated from the initial stage to the steady stage of chip formation, and the distribution of temperature, equivalent stress, residual stress, strain rate and shear angle are obtained. The simulated principal force is compared with published experiment data and they are found to be in good agreement with each other, but poor for thrust force due to no consideration of elastic recovery for machined surface in the elastic-plastic material model.

  10. A Biologically Derived Pectoral Fin for Yaw Turn Manoeuvres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonah R. Gottlieb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bio-robotic fin has been developed that models the pectoral fin of the bluegill sunfish as the fish turned to avoid an obstacle. This work involved biological studies of the sunfish fin, the development of kinematic models of the motions of the fin's rays, CFD based predictions of the 3D forces and flows created by the fin, and the implementation of simplified models of the fin's kinematics and mechanical properties in a physical model. The resulting robotic fin produced the forces and flows that drove the manoeuvre and had a sufficiently high number of degrees of freedom to create a variety of non-biologically derived motions. The results indicate that for robotic fins to produce a level of performance on par with biological fins, both the kinematics and the mechanical properties of the biological fin must be modelled well.

  11. Turning Oscillations Into Opportunities: Lessons from a Bacterial Decision Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Daniel; Lu, Mingyang; Stavropoulos, Trevor; Onuchic, Jose'; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2013-04-01

    Sporulation vs. competence provides a prototypic example of collective cell fate determination. The decision is performed by the action of three modules: 1) A stochastic competence switch whose transition probability is regulated by population density, population stress and cell stress. 2) A sporulation timer whose clock rate is regulated by cell stress and population stress. 3) A decision gate that is coupled to the timer via a special repressilator-like loop. We show that the distinct circuit architecture of this gate leads to special dynamics and noise management characteristics: The gate opens a time-window of opportunity for competence transitions during which it generates oscillations that are turned into a chain of transition opportunities - each oscillation opens a short interval with high transition probability. The special architecture of the gate also leads to filtering of external noise and robustness against internal noise and variations in the circuit parameters.

  12. Optimization of Process Parameters of Tool Wear in Turning Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Barman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tool Wear is of great apprehension in machining industries since itaffects the surface quality, dimensional accuracy and production cost of the materials / components. In the present study twenty seven experiments were conducted as per 3 parameter 3 level full factorial design for turning operation of a mild steel specimen with high speed steel (HSS cutting tool. An experimental investigation on cutting tool wear and a mathematical model for tool wear estimation is reported in this paper where the model was simulated by computer programming and it has been found that this model is capable of estimating the wear rate of cutting tool and it provides an optimum set of process parameters for minimum tool wear.

  13. Turned versus anodised dental implants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, B R; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to test the null hypothesis of no difference in the implant failure rates, marginal bone loss (MBL)and post-operative infection for patients being rehabilitated by turned versus anodised-surface implants, against the alternative hypothesis of a difference. An electronic search without time or language restrictions was undertaken in November 2015. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, either randomised or not. Thirty-eight publications were included. The results suggest a risk ratio of 2·82 (95% CI 1·95-4·06, P meta-analysis for the outcome 'post-operative infection' was not performed. The results have to be interpreted with caution due to the presence of several confounding factors in the included studies.

  14. Biochemical switching device: how to turn on (off) the switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, M; Sakai, T; Hayashi, K

    1989-01-01

    We previously showed with computer simulations that cyclic enzyme systems have the reliability of ON-OFF types of operation (McCulloch-Pitts' neuronic equation) and the applicability for a switching circuit in a biocomputer. The switching time was inevitably determined in accordance with the difference in amount between two inputs of the system. This characteristic is, however, a disadvantage for practical use of a switching device; we need to improve the system in order for the switching time to optionally be changed. We shall present here how to turn on (off) the switch independently of the modes of two inputs. By introducing pulse perturbation, we could optionally set up the switching time of a cyclic enzyme system (biochemical switching device). PMID:2720139

  15. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A dolphin glides through the water looking for fish in the turn basin, which is located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. Dolphins inhabit the waters, known as the Indian River Lagoon, around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  16. Where's the action? The pragmatic turn in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Andreas K; Maye, Alexander; Kurthen, Martin; König, Peter

    2013-05-01

    In cognitive science, we are currently witnessing a 'pragmatic turn', away from the traditional representation-centered framework towards a paradigm that focuses on understanding cognition as 'enactive', as skillful activity that involves ongoing interaction with the external world. The key premise of this view is that cognition should not be understood as providing models of the world, but as subserving action and being grounded in sensorimotor coupling. Accordingly, cognitive processes and their underlying neural activity patterns should be studied primarily with respect to their role in action generation. We suggest that such an action-oriented paradigm is not only conceptually viable, but already supported by much experimental evidence. Numerous findings either overtly demonstrate the action-relatedness of cognition or can be re-interpreted in this new framework. We argue that new vistas on the functional relevance and the presumed 'representational' nature of neural processes are likely to emerge from this paradigm.

  17. Recontextualizing learning in nursing education: taking an ontological turn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Gweneth Hartrick; Brown, Helen

    2011-01-01

    An ontological focus has been embedded within nursing education since its inception. There has been a strong emphasis on teaching students to become safe, competent nurses by translating knowledge into clinical action. But how would nursing education shift if we were to more intentionally orient the educative process ontologically and explicitly put epistemology at the service of ontology? We consider this question of an ontological turn in nursing education by examining what is commonly referred to in nursing curricula as interpersonal communication. With the goal of providing learning opportunities that can support students to develop confident and competent practice within the shifting, complex terrain of contemporary health care milieus, we explore the possibility of shifting the relationship between epistemology and ontology, and purposefully orienting the educative process in such a way that emphasizes and illuminates the manner in which nursing knowledge and action intersect with subjectivity and context. PMID:21117537

  18. Solving the Corner-Turning Problem for Large Interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Lutomirski, Andrew; Sanchez, Nevada; Stein, Leo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-01-01

    The so-called corner turning problem is a major bottleneck for radio telescopes with large numbers of antennae. The problem is essentially that of rapidly transposing a matrix that is too large to store on one single device; in radio interferometry, it occurs because data from each antenna needs to be routed to an array of processors that will each handle a limited frequency band. We present a low-cost solution allowing the correlator to transpose its data in real time, without contending for bandwidth, via a butterfly network requiring neither additional RAM memory nor expensive general-purpose switching hardware. We discuss possible implementations of this using FPGA, CMOS, analog logic and optical technology, and conclude that the corner turner cost can be small even for upcoming massive radio arrays.

  19. What Turns Assistive into Restorative Brain-Machine Interfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) may support motor impaired patients during activities of daily living by controlling external devices such as prostheses (assistive BMI). Moreover, BMIs are applied in conjunction with robotic orthoses for rehabilitation of lost motor function via neurofeedback training (restorative BMI). Using assistive BMI in a rehabilitation context does not automatically turn them into restorative devices. This perspective article suggests key features of restorative BMI and provides the supporting evidence: In summary, BMI may be referred to as restorative tools when demonstrating subsequently (i) operant learning and progressive evolution of specific brain states/dynamics, (ii) correlated modulations of functional networks related to the therapeutic goal, (iii) subsequent improvement in a specific task, and (iv) an explicit correlation between the modulated brain dynamics and the achieved behavioral gains. Such findings would provide the rationale for translating BMI-based interventions into clinical settings for reinforcement learning and motor rehabilitation following stroke. PMID:27790085

  20. Folding pathways of a helix-turn-helix model protein

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, D

    1997-01-01

    A small model polypeptide represented in atomic detail is folded using Monte Carlo dynamics. The polypeptide is designed to have a native conformation similar to the central part of the helix-turn-helix protein ROP. Starting from a beta-strand conformation or two different loop conformations of the protein glutamine synthetase, six trajectories are generated using the so-called window move in dihedral angle space. This move changes conformations locally and leads to realistic, quasi-continuously evolving trajectories. Four of the six trajectories end in stable native-like conformations. Their folding pathways show a fast initial development of a helix-bend-helix motif, followed by a dynamic behaviour predicted by the diffusion-collision model of Karplus and Weaver. The phenomenology of the pathways is consistent with experimental results.

  1. The turning of the wind in the atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2014-01-01

    at the Høvsøre site in Denmark, which is a flat farmland area with a nearly homogeneous easterly upstream sector. Therefore, within that sector, the turning of the wind is caused by a combination of atmospheric stability, Coriolis, roughness, horizontal pressure gradient and baroclinity effects. Atmospheric......Here we use accurate observations of the wind speed vector to analyze the behavior with height of the wind direction. The observations are a combination of tall meteorological mast and long-range wind lidar measurements covering the entire atmospheric boundary layer. The observations were performed...... stability was measured using sonic anemometers placed at different heights on the mast. Horizontal pressure gradients and baroclinity are derived from outputs of a numerical weather prediction model and are used to estimate the geostrophic wind. It is found, for these specific and relatively short periods...

  2. Deconstructing hermes: a critique of the hermeneutic turn in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jon

    2011-09-01

    In this brief essay, I attempt to critique some of the philosophical problematics inherent with the hermeneutic turn in psychoanalysis. The proposition that "there are only interpretations of interpretations" leads to an inescapable circularity because interpretation ultimately lacks a referent or criterion for which to anchor meaning. If we follow this proposition through to its logical end, this ultimately collapses into relativism because meaning is relative to its interpretive scheme, which further relies on other interpretative schemata for which there are no definitive definitions, conclusive consensus, or universal laws governing interpretation. How can hermeneutics escape the charge of circularity, infinite regress, disavowal of universals, its tacit relativism, and the failure to provide a consensus or criteria for interpretation? How is psychoanalysis able to philosophically justify interpretative truth claims when they potentially inhere to a recalcitrant subjectivism while claiming to be objectively valuative? PMID:21818099

  3. Mapping the Glocal Turn: Literature Streams, Scholarship Clusters and Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Roudometof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a bibliographical survey, this article presents evidence of a silent glocal turn in 21st century academia. Several terms compete for describing the newfound situations of hybridity and fusion in the world, and glocalization is a new term that offers a high level of precision in comparison to other contenders. Three specific clusters of inter-disciplinary scholarship are identified as cutting edge areas of research: the study of consumer culture, the field of urban studies and the study of management and/or organizations. Within these areas, glocalization is employed in varied and often contested ways according to specific research agendas. Glocalization thus has become a contested term. The article identifies and describes three debates that involve contrasting appropriations of glocalization. First, there is a contrast between geographical and social interpretations of glocalization, which in turn are based on contrasting definitions of space (geographical versus social. Second, there is a debate over the extent to which glocalization is sufficiently incorporated into global studies, or whether glocal studies should be defined separately from global studies. Third, there is a contrast between homogenization versus hybridization advocates in cross-cultural management and the social sciences. Although often cast as a conflict between proponents of globalization versus proponents of glocalization, this particular debate might be transcended in favor of more inclusive perspectives that suggest a “both/end” solution over an “either/or” interpretation of the opposing views. Glocalization is a recent addition to the vocabulary of 21st century humanities and social sciences. Its employment is also part of a broader wave of interest in the glocal that is not contained within these fields but, rather, extends further into information-communication technology (ICT, medicine and environmental science. To mention one such example, it is not

  4. The Digital Turn in the French Audiovisual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the digital turn in the French audiovisual model. An organizational and legal system has evolved with changing technology and economic forces over the past thirty years. The high-income television industry served as the key element during the 1980s to compensate for a shifting value economy from movie theaters to domestic screens and personal devices. However, the growing competition in the TV sector and the rise of tech companies have initiated a disruption process. A challenged French conception copyright, the weakened position of TV channels and the scaling of content market all now call into question the sustainability of the French model in a digital era.

  5. The Processing of Turning Colour Olives of Oblica Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Kulišić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research the observation of the preservation process of turning colour olives of Oblica cultivar (an autochthonous Croatian cultivar processed according to the Californian type of processing has been carried out. Although the oblica cultivar is the most frequent cultivar in Croatian orchards, it is absolutely unexplored concerning the concentration of polyphenolic compounds (oleuropein and its derivatives as well as concerning the composition of natural microflora in the fruit. It has been very important to determine to what extent the choice of preserving technology is optimal for the cultivar’s particularities. The changes of fundamental physical and chemical features of brine (total acidity, pH value, the concentration of sodium chloride, the concentration of sugar, and brine temperature have been screened during the process of preservation. The appearance of the lactobacilli population has also been observed. The Lactobacillus plantarum species has been isolated and identified in this population on the seventh day after the fruit has been put in brine. The Lactobacillus plantarum species has been isolated and identified by means of the API 50 CHL (“bioMérieux”, France biochemical test and the APILAB PLUS (“bioMérieux”, France software. During further phases of the process, no appearance of the lactobacilli has been identified. On the basis of our physical and chemical examinations, we have concluded that the type of processing of turning colour olives of Oblica cultivar (which was applied without a complete knowledge of the Oblica’s particularities did not give optimal and expected values (low brine temperature, exceptionally high acidity of the medium. We have also concluded that it is necessary for further research to include the examinations of the portion of polyphenolic compounds in the fruit, as well as the examinations of the composition of naturally present microflora. Both examinations represent the

  6. Turning the tide of public opinion on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the early 1970s, the tide of public opinion in the United States was strongly in favor of nuclear power. New power plants were coming on line frequently, and in 1973-74, there were close to 40 new orders per year for new reactors in the United States. Official government projections estimated 1000 operating reactors by the year 2000. Fuel reprocessing, plutonium recycle, and breeder reactor development were also proceeding smoothly and rapidly. But, in the mid-1970s, the tide suddenly turned against the nuclear industry. How did this come about? In the late 1960s, energetic and idealistic young people who had never experienced economic insecurity or World Wars came of age. Environmentalism was an attractive outlet for their activity in most of the Western world. In the United States, opposition to the Vietnam War, in which these young people had a personal stake, was even more popular at first, but by the early 1970s, Vietnam was winding down, and they turned also to Environmentalism. Numerous environmental groups started up, aided heavily by the favorable connotation of the very word open-quotes environmentalistclose quotes in the public mind. Their organizational experience, political savvy, and media connections gained from their antiwar protests were powerful assets. But the groups needed specific targets to attack, and they soon found that nuclear power was well-suited for that purpose. Here was a new technology, coming on at a very rapid pace. To the public, radiation was highly mysterious, and people were well aware that it could be dangerous. And, the word danger had taken on a new meaning. Previous generations were well acquainted with death and were much less averse to risk-taking than the generation of the 1970s

  7. Spatio-temporal parameters and lower-limb kinematics of turning gait in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Philippe C; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2013-09-01

    Turning is a requirement for most locomotor tasks; however, knowledge of the biomechanical requirements of successful turning is limited. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the spatio-temporal and lower-limb kinematics of 90° turning. Seventeen typically developing children, fitted with full body and multi-segment foot marker sets, having performed both step (outside leg) and spin (inside leg) turning strategies at self-selected velocity, were included in the study. Three turning phases were identified: approach, turn, and depart. Stride velocity and stride length were reduced for both turning strategies for all turning phases (pphases (pgait. Many spatio-temporal differences between turn conditions and phases were also found (pgait disorders in pathological populations, such as children with cerebral palsy.

  8. Estudio comparativo de la hidroconversión de aromáticos C8 sobre catalizadores Pt/mordenita y Pt/SiO2-Al2O3

    OpenAIRE

    H. González-Rodríguez; E. Ramírez-Álvarez; J. Ramírez-Solís; J. L. Rico-Cerda; J. Lara-Romero

    2006-01-01

    La fracción de aromáticos C8 en una refinería consiste principalmente de cuatro isómeros i.e. orto-, meta-, para-xileno y etilbenceno, siendo el para-xileno el isómero de mayor importancia industrial. Ya que la composición de equilibrio de para-xileno a la salida del reformador es sólo de #8764;24 %, este isómero es separado y la fracción rica en orto- y meta-xileno es isomerizada selectivamente. El sistema de reacciones es altamente complejo y paralelamente a la isomerización de los xilenos...

  9. Complementary DNA and derived amino acid sequence of the β subunit of human complement protein C8: identification of a close structural and ancestral relationship to the α subunit and C9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cDNA clone encoding the β subunit (M/sub r/ 64,000) of the eighth component of complement (C8) has been isolated from a human liver cDNA library. This clone has a cDNA insert of 1.95 kilobases (kb) and contains the entire β sequence [1608 base pairs (bp)]. Analysis of total cellular RNA isolated from the hepatoma cell line HepG2 revealed the mRNA for β to be ∼ 2.5 kb. This is similar to the message size for the α subunit of C8 and confirms the existence of different mRNAs for α and β. This finding supports genetic evidence that α and β are encoded at different loci. Analysis of the derived amino acid sequence revealed several membrane surface seeking segments that may facilitate β interaction with target membranes during complement-mediated cytolysis. Determined of the carbohydrate composition indicated 1 or 2 asparagine-linked but no O-linked oligosaccharide chains. Comparison of the β sequence to that reported earlier and to that of human C9 revealed a striking homology between all three proteins. For β and α, the overall homology is 33% on the basis of identity and 53% when conserved substitutions are allowed. For β and C9, the values are 26% and 475, respectively. All three have a large internal domain that is nearly cysteine free and N- and C-termini that are cysteine-rich and homologous to the low-density lipoprotein receptor repeat and epidermal growth factor type sequences, respectively. The overall homology and similarities in size and structural organization are indicative of a close ancestral relationship. It is concluded that α, β and C9 are members of a family of structurally related proteins that are capable of interacting to produce a hydrophilic to amphiphilic transition and membrane association

  10. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of the Novel Binuclear Copper Complex Cu2 (C5 H5N)2 (C8 H7O2 )4%新型双核铜配合物Cu2(C5H5N)2(C8H7O2)4的合成及结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李黎; 陈帆; 严晨婷; 倪生良

    2012-01-01

    新制备的Cu2(C5H5N)2(C8H7O2)4加入到溶有2-甲基苯甲酸、吡啶的C2H5OH/H2O(1:1,v/v)混合溶剂中反应,得到新的双核铜配合物Cu2(C5H5N)2(C8H7O2)4晶体,结构经x-衍射法表征.晶体结构中,四个苯甲酸离子羧基八个O原子经syn—syn式桥连二个Cu原子成灯笼状,在轴向分别由二个吡啶分子N配位而形成四方锥形几何结构.分子间沿(010)方向,形成折叠假性的六边形紧密堆积结构.配合物CCDC号:856726.%Reactions of thefreshly prepared Cu(OH)2·y H2O precipitate, 2 -methyl benzoic acid with pyridinein C2H5 OH/H2 O ( 1 : 1, v/v) afforded Cu2 (C5H5 N)2 (C8 H7O2 ) 4 ( 1 ). Thecentrosymmetric binuclear compound was structurally characterized by X- ray diffraction methods. In the crystal,four 2 -methyl benzoate anions form a cage around two Cu atoms in a syn -syn configuration, two pyridine molecules are apically bonded to the Cu atoms, which show a square - pyramidal coordination geometry. The molecular packing forms a puckered pseudo - hexagonal close- packed framework in (010). CCDC:856726.

  11. 压缩机电机匝间短路分析%Analysis on Turn-to-turn Short Circuit of Compressor Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      本文分析了压缩机电机匝间短路的原因,并用物理等效电路和有限元仿真计算,得出电机匝间短路时电流的变化及特点,证明了匝间短路形的大电流是造成短路绕组烧损的直接原因。%The present study analyzed the causes of turn-to-turn short circuit of compressor motor. And the variations and the characteristics of current during motor turn-to-turn short circuit were obtained via physical equivalent circuit and FEM simulations and computations. It is found that the big current formed during turn-to-turn short circuit is the direct cause of burnout of the short-circuited windings.

  12. Development of a Turn-by-Turn Beam Position Monitoring System for Multiple Bunch Operation of the ATF Damping Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, P N; Kraljevic, N Blaskovic; Christian, G B; Davis, M R; Perry, C; Apsimon, R J; Constance, B; Gerbershagen, A; Resta-Lopez, J

    2012-01-01

    An FPGA-based monitoring system has been developed to study multi-bunch beam instabilities in the damping ring (DR) of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The system utilises a stripline beam position monitor (BPM) and single-stage down-mixing BPM processor. The system is designed to record the horizontal and/or vertical positions of up to three bunches in the DR with c. 150ns bunch spacing, or the head bunch of up to three trains in a multi-bunch mode with a bunch spacing of 5.6 ns. The FPGA firmware and data acquisition software allow the recording of turnby-turn data. An overview of the system and performance results will be presented.

  13. Anglo-Saxon Sociologies of the Punitive Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Carrier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Depuis le début des années 2000 semble s’établir un consensus à la fois criminologique et politique au sujet d’une nouvelle donne culturelle en regard de la question pénale. Dans le champ pénal, ce (relatif consensus est saisi par le biais d’expressions telles que « virage punitif » et « nouvelle punitivité ». En sciences sociales, trois principaux groupes de symptômes sont utilisés pour établir le diagnostic de cette mutation générale de la pénalité : le boom carcéral, la prison post-disciplinaire, et la réémergence d’une pénalité « expressive ». Cette contribution propose de disséquer la façon dont le changement social, particulièrement dans le domaine de la pénalité institutionnalisée, est théorisé par les analystes du virage punitif. Les cinq ‘sociologies du virage punitif’ qui dominent les débats théoriques dans le champ pénal académique anglo-saxon sont ici analysées. Cette analyse révèle notamment leur timidité critique et leur conception réductrice du champ pénal.A (relative criminological and political consensus on a new, generalized cultural disposition towards penality has taken form since the early 2000s. In the penal field, it manifests itself in numerous claims about a punitive turn or a new punitiveness. In the social sciences, three bundles of symptoms are used to establish this alleged global mutation: the carceral boom, the post-disciplinary prison, and the re-emergence of an expressive penality. This article uses this ‘new punitiveness’ thesis to dissect the ways in which social change – particularly in institutionalized penality – is theorized by various analysts of the punitive turn. This article identifies and scrutinizes the five ‘sociologies of the punitive turn’ that dominate theoretical debates in the Anglo-Saxon academic penal field. The analysis notably shows the critical timidity and the reductionist approach to the penal field characterizing

  14. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  15. Turning goals into results: the power of catalytic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J

    1999-01-01

    Most executives have a big, hairy, audacious goal. They write vision statements, formalize procedures, and develop complicated incentive programs--all in pursuit of that goal. In other words, with the best of intentions, they install layers of stultifying bureaucracy. But it doesn't have to be that way. In this article, Jim Collins introduces the catalytic mechanism, a simple yet powerful managerial tool that helps translate lofty aspirations into concrete reality. Catalytic mechanisms are the crucial link between objectives and performance; they are a galvanizing, nonbureaucratic means to turn one into the other. What's the difference between catalytic mechanisms and most traditional managerial controls? Catalytic mechanisms share five characteristics. First, they produce desired results in unpredictable ways. Second, they distribute power for the benefit of the overall system, often to the discomfort of those who traditionally hold power. Third, catalytic mechanisms have teeth. Fourth, they eject "viruses"--those people who don't share the company's core values. Finally, they produce an ongoing effect. Catalytic mechanisms are just as effective for reaching individual goals as they are for corporate ones. To illustrate how catalytic mechanisms work, the author draws on examples of individuals and organizations that have relied on such mechanisms to achieve their goals. The same catalytic mechanism that works in one organization, however, will not necessarily work in another. Catalytic mechanisms must be tailored to specific goals and situations. To help readers get started, the author offers some general principles that support the process of building catalytic mechanisms effectively. PMID:10539210

  16. Turning Perspective in Photoelectrocatalytic Cells for Solar Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele; Su, Dangsheng

    2016-02-19

    The development of new devices for the use and storage of solar energy is a key step to enable a new sustainable energy scenario. The route for direct solar-to-chemical energy transformation, especially to produce liquid fuels, represents a necessary element to realize transition from the actual energy infrastructure. Photoelectrocatalytic (PECa) devices for the production of solar fuels are a key element to enable this sustainable scenario. The development of PECa devices and related materials is of increasing scientific and applied interest. This concept paper introduces the need to turn the viewpoint of research in terms of PECa cell design and related materials with respect to mainstream activities in the field of artificial photosynthesis and leaves. As an example of a new possible direction, the concept of electrolyte-less cell design for PECa cells to produce solar fuels by reduction of CO2 is presented. The fundamental and applied development of new materials and electrodes for these cells should proceed fully integrated with PECa cell design and systematic analysis. A new possible approach to develop semiconductors with improved performances by using visible light is also shortly presented. PMID:26663767

  17. Strangulated Femoral Hernia Turned to Be Peritoneal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysios Dellaportas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A peritoneal inclusion cyst is a very rare mesenteric cyst of mesothelial origin usually asymptomatic. A rare case of an 82-year-old white Caucasian female with a femoral hernia containing a large peritoneal inclusion cyst, mimicking strangulated hernia, is presented herein. Case Presentation. The patient was admitted to our hospital suffering from a palpable groin mass on the right, which became painful and caused great discomfort for the last hours. Physical examination revealed a tender and tense, irreducible groin mass. An inguinal operative approach was selected and the mass was found protruding through the femoral ring. After careful dissection it turned out to be a large unilocular cyst, containing serous fluid, probably originating from the peritoneum. McVay procedure was used to reapproximate the femoral ring. Histologic examination showed a peritoneal inclusion cyst. Discussion. Peritoneal inclusion cysts are usually asymptomatic but occasionally present with various, nonspecific symptoms according to their size. Our case highlights that high index of clinical suspicion and careful exploration during repair of a hernia is mandatory in order to reach the correct diagnosis about hernia’s contents.

  18. The Development of Philosophy and Its Fundamental Informational Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the rescientification of philosophy and the philosophization of science, an entirely new concept of science and philosophy as part of general human knowledge is developing. In this concept, science and philosophy become intrinsically integrated and unified, forming dynamic feedback-loops which lead to further mutual transformation and integration. This development is taking place in the face of two kinds of dogmatism: one is naturalistic dogmatism, the other the dogmatism of consciousness philosophy. These two kinds of dogmatism are an inevitable consequence of the method of segmentation of the field of existence in traditional philosophy namely: existence = matter + Spirit (mind. The development of the Science and Philosophy of Information reveals a world of information-by-itself lying between the worlds of matter and Sprit, and re-interprets the essence of the Spiritual world in the sense of prior information activities. Accordingly, we can describe the movements from matter to Spirit, and from Spirit to matter in these activities as processes, eliminating their dualistic separation, and achieve an informational turn in philosophy, the first truly fundamental one.

  19. Optimization of surface integrity in dry hard turning using RSM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suha K Shihab; Zahid A Khan; Aas Mohammad; Arshad Noor Siddiquee

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effect of different cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut) on surface integrity defined in terms of surface roughness and microhardness in dry hard turning process. The workpiece material used was hardened alloy steel AISI 52100 and it was machined on a CNC lathe with coated carbide tool under different settings of cutting parameters. Three cutting parameters each at three levels were considered in the study. Central composite design (CCD) of experiment was used to collect experimental data for surface roughness and microhardness. Statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine significance of the cutting parameters. The results were analysed using an effective procedure of response surface methodology (RSM) to determine optimal values of cutting parameters. Several diagnostic tests were also performed to check the validity of assumptions. The results indicated that feed rate is the dominant factor affecting the surface roughness whereas the cutting speed is found to be the dominant factor affecting the microhardness. Results also revealed that within the range investigated, good surface integrity is achieved when feed rate and depth of cut are near their low levels and cutting speed is at high level. Finally, the optimal cutting parameters and model equations to predict the surface roughness and microhardness are proposed.

  20. Muscular Control of Turning and Maneuvering in Jellyfish Bells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Alexander; Miller, Laura; Griffith, Boyce

    2014-11-01

    Jellyfish represent one of the earliest and simplest examples of swimming by a macroscopic organism. Contractions of an elastic bell that expels water are driven by coronal swimming muscles. The re-expansion of the bell is passively driven by stored elastic energy. A current question in jellyfish propulsion is how the underlying neuromuscular organization of their bell allows for maneuvering. Using an immersed boundary framework, we will examine the mechanics of swimming by incorporating material models that are informed by the musculature present in jellyfish into a model of the elastic jellyfish bell in three dimensions. The fully-coupled fluid structure interaction problem is solved using an adaptive and parallelized version of the immersed boundary method (IBAMR). We then use this model to understand how variability in the muscular activation patterns allows for complicated swimming behavior, such as steering. We will compare the results of the simulations with the actual turning maneuvers of several species of jellyfish. Numerical flow fields will also be compared to those produced by actual jellyfish using particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  1. Review on Macro-and Micro-turns in Ttranslation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ai-qin

    2013-01-01

    Translation is a significant communicative activity with a long history. Translation study is developing into two turns-macro and micro turn. Edwin Gentzler researched these two turns deeply in his thesis Macro-and Micro-turns in translation studies. The study in the circumstance of America can provide our Chinese translation study with some new aspects. Translation is more a frequent activity in the inner circunstance in China.

  2. "Everything Changed": Relational Turning Point Events in College Teacher-Student Relationships from Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docan-Morgan, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate college teachers' experiences of relational turning points with their students, as well as how these turning point events may affect teacher outcomes. Teachers who were able to identify a relational turning point event with a student (n=306, 78.5% of the overall sample) completed open- and closed-ended…

  3. On Power Relations in The Little Foxes from the Perspective of Turn-tak-ing Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-hua

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on discussing the power relations among the Hubbards from the perspective of turn-taking analysis. In it, a lot of work about the quantitative turn-taking analysis has been done. And the mentioned data reflects that there is a close relationship between power and turn-taking.

  4. Housing the "Other" Half: American Studies' Global Urban Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Faflik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Over the course of its short lifetime, the discipline of American studies has utilized a series of self-defining metaphors. With each successive paradigm shift in the field, each of these disciplinary figures, in turn, has been found wanting, and so replaced. American studies’ current, if not consensual, metaphor—the “border”—resembles not a few of its predecessors in that it is spatial in nature and effectively doubles as a figuration of the greater nation. The premise of this paper is that the “border,” like the figures that came before it, has outlived its serviceable purpose for a discipline that continues to evolve.

    This essay proposes the global city, or, more accurately, the global slum, as a post-“border” metaphor peculiarly adapted to the principled transnationalism that now defines American studies for many subscribing students and professionals. On the one hand, the urban has become a prevailing demographic fact in this, the new century. Thus, the multiethnic, multinational world metropolis recommends itself as a more-than-metaphor for the dynamic cultural contact that typifies ascendant hemispheric conceptions of the Americas. On the other hand, the figure of the peripheral city similarly, and spatially, evokes the majority “center” and minority “margin” model of American studies that critics would claim inhibits total global integration among the discipline’s geoculturally diverse practitioners, many of whom reside outside the continental United States. This essay conceptually deploys the world city to explore beyond these professional/territorial “borders.” Its three condensed case studies—first, of Gilded Age Manhattan, second, of the modern Turkish metropolis, and third, of a reunified Germany’s ethnic ghetto—constitute a brisk figurative exercise in “marginal” urban migration, wherein resides an alternate model, and metaphor, of American studies praxis today.

  5. The performative turn at Inhotim: installation art and Baudelairean modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren S. Weingarden

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the participatory turn in installation art as part of a trajectory from Baudelairean modernity to twentyfirst-century postmodernity, as represented at Inhotim, the outdoor contemporary art museum and botanical gardens in Brumadinho, MG. In his 1862 essay “The Painter of ModernLife,” Charles Baudelaire defined modernity as fleeting, transitory and fragmentary. Baudelairean modernity initiated a breakdown of boundaries between art and life and between high art aesthetics and popular culture, which continues in the work of installation artists. In the sites of installation art, the spectator is compelled to extend – rather than complete – the work of art in his/her own time, prior experiential encounters and transformative after thoughts.The shift from the isolated work of art to the experiential one notonly complicates how and where works of art are viewed, but also radicalizes the materials that constitute the work of art – whether those materials are extracted from the quotidian sphere or complex technologies, each undergoes a process of defamiliarization and reactivation to produce the transformative aesthetic experience.The individual installations in Inhotim’s “outdoor museum” engage the spectator in a dynamic/participatory experience with spatial,temporal and material relationships that define the very essence of art’s reciprocity, or contrast with the natural and man-madeworlds. It is the rarefied setting of Inhotim’s botanical gardens that makes the participatory and transformative experience central to the aesthetic encounter with installation art.

  6. Hypercarotenodermia in Zambia: which children turned orange during mango season?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanumihardjo, S A; Gannon, B M; Kaliwile, C; Chileshe, J

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a public health problem in many countries. The World Health Organization recommends high-dose VA supplements to children aged 6-59 months based on unequivocal evidence that supplements decreased mortality risk. VA supplements were meant as a temporary intervention until more sustainable approaches could be implemented. Fortification of processed foods with preformed VA is a means to improve VA status. The most recent addition of retinyl palmitate to cooking oil in countries that may also fortify margarine and milk will undoubtedly have a positive impact on VA status. However, quantitative measures have not been used to assess the underlying VA status of the groups who have adopted widespread fortification. The addition of preformed VA to otherwise adequate diets in VA may cause excessive total body stores. Monitoring population status will require accurate VA assessment to ensure that hypervitaminosis does not prevail. This perspective describes a cohort of rural Zambian children who have adequate diets in VA, mostly as provitamin A carotenoids; who were given high-dose VA supplements till the age of 5 years; who have access to VA-fortified sugar; and whose mothers had access to VA-fortified sugar throughout pregnancy and lactation. Many of these children turned orange during mango season, and this phenomenon occurred at estimated liver reserve concentrations >1 μmol retinol equivalents/g liver. It will be necessary to continue to monitor VA status, including all sectors of the population that have access to successful interventions, to optimize health with the intent to lower retinol content of fortified foods or better target VA supplementation to areas of most need.

  7. Influence of turn-to-turn resistivity and coil geometrical size on charging characteristics of no-electrical-insulation REBCO pancake coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Song, H.

    2016-07-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) no-electrical-insulation (NEI) coils demonstrate great advantages in thermal stability and self-protection features. However, an intrinsic delay is observed in the charging process and as a result there maybe a possible settle-out problem. It becomes more critical for large HTS coils with more turns, such as the magnets for the accelerator system and DC induction heater applications. This paper presents detailed studies on the charging characteristics of NEI coils. Firstly, two different no-electrical-insulation coils are wound: the first is directly wound using only REBCO tapes with brass lamination, which is called a no-insulation (NI) coil. The other one is co-wound with stainless steel (SS) strips and REBCO tapes whose copper stabilizer is electroplated, which is called a metallic insulation (MI) coil. Fast discharging tests are performed on the two coils and their equivalent turn-to-turn resistivity is calculated. A similar discharging delay is observed on both coils, but the turn-to-turn resistivity of the SS co-wound coil is much higher than that of the first coil. Then the resistivity data is directly applied to an equivalent circuit network model which is developed to predict the charging behaviours. The model calculates coil voltage, currents along the azimuthal and radial directions, as well as the induced magnetic field. A practical charging time is defined to characterize the field ramping process considering the charging delay between field ramping and current charging. The charging behaviours are extensively analyzed and compared in terms of three primary factors: equivalent turn-to-turn resistivity, coil size and ramping rate. The results show that the charging time increases dramatically with the coil size and may be too long to be practical for large-scale applications using HTS coils with low turn-to-turn resistivity. Increasing the turn-to-turn resistivity enables one to accelerate the charging process

  8. Neuroprotection of Neuro2a cells and the cytokine suppressive and anti-inflammatory mode of action of resveratrol in activated RAW264.7 macrophages and C8-B4 microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Nicole; Balez, Rachelle; Karunaweera, Niloo; Lind, Joanne M; Münch, Gerald; Ooi, Lezanne

    2016-05-01

    Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease and cytotoxic levels of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines can initiate neuronal death pathways. A range of cellular assays were used to assess the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective action of resveratrol using murine microglial (C8-B4), macrophage (RAW264.7) and neuronal-like (Neuro2a) cell lines. We examined the release of NO by Griess assay and used a Bioplex array to measure a panel of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, in response to the inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Resveratrol was a potent inhibitor of NO and cytokine release in activated macrophages and microglia. The activity of resveratrol increased marginally in potency with longer pre-incubation times in cell culture that was not due to cytotoxicity. Using an NO donor we show that resveratrol can protect Neuro2a cells from cytotoxic concentrations of NO. The protective effect of resveratrol from pro-inflammatory signalling in RAW264.7 cells was confirmed in co-culture experiments leading to increased survival of Neuro2a cells. Together our data are indicative of the potential neuroprotective effect of resveratrol during nitrosative stress and neuroinflammation. PMID:26522689

  9. Analyses of quenching process during turn-off of plasma electrolytic carburizing on carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cooling rate of carburized steel at the end of PEC treatment is measured. • The quench hardening in the fast or slow turn-off mode hardly takes place. • Decrease of the surface roughness during slow turn-off process is found. • A slow turn-off mode is recommended to replace the conventional turn-off mode. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic carburizing (PEC) under different turn-off modes was employed to fabricate a hardening layer on carbon steel in glycerol solution without stirring at 380 V for 3 min. The quenching process in fast turn-off mode or slow turn-off mode of power supply was discussed. The temperature in the interior of steel and electron temperature in plasma discharge envelope during the quenching process were evaluated. It was found that the cooling rates of PEC samples in both turn-off modes were below 20 °C/s, because the vapor film boiling around the steel sample reduced the cooling rate greatly in terms of Leidenfrost effect. Thus the quench hardening hardly took place, though the slow turn-off mode slightly decreased the surface roughness of PEC steel. At the end of PEC treatment, the fast turn-off mode used widely at present cannot enhance the surface hardness by quench hardening, and the slow turn-off mode was recommended in order to protect the electronic devices against a large current surge

  10. gamma-Turn types prediction in proteins using the support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandideh, Samad; Sarvestani, Amir Sabet; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Jahandideh, Mina; Barfeie, Mahdyar

    2007-12-21

    Recently, two different models have been developed for predicting gamma-turns in proteins by Kaur and Raghava [2002. An evaluation of beta-turn prediction methods. Bioinformatics 18, 1508-1514; 2003. A neural-network based method for prediction of gamma-turns in proteins from multiple sequence alignment. Protein Sci. 12, 923-929]. However, the major limitation of previous methods is inability in predicting gamma-turns types. Thus, there is a need to predict gamma-turn types using an approach which will be useful in overall tertiary structure prediction. In this work, support vector machines (SVMs), a powerful model is proposed for predicting gamma-turn types in proteins. The high rates of prediction accuracy showed that the formation of gamma-turn types is evidently correlated with the sequence of tripeptides, and hence can be approximately predicted based on the sequence information of the tripeptides alone. PMID:17936305

  11. Exploring interaction between a non-speaking boy using aided AAC and his everyday communication partners: features of turn organizing and turn design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Rasmussen, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the practice of achieving common understanding in aided Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). The aims are to explore whether communicative contributions can be described as turns, as defined in conversation analytic terms, and how then the contributions to the...... constructional unit (TCU) emerges, and the turn-at-action is designed and oriented to as a TCU-based unit. The analysis will also show that turns can be designed as non TCU-based units. These findings may have implications for CA theory as well as for clinical intervention....

  12. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of the Dimeric Organotin Complex {[(n-C8H17)2Sn(O2CCH2CS2NC4H8O)]2O}2%有机锡配合物{[(n-C8H17)2Sn(O2CCH2CS2NC4H8O)]2O}2的合成,表征及晶体结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹汉东; 高中军; 李刚; 徐浩龙; 洪敏

    2006-01-01

    The title complex {[(n-C8H17)2Sn(O2CCH2CS2NC4H8O)]2O}2 has been synthesized by the reaction of (morpholinylthiocarbamoylthio)acetic acid with the di-n-octyltin oxide in 1:1 molar ratio. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR. The crystal and molecular structure of complex was determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The crystal belongs to triclinic system with space group P1 and unit cell dimensions: a=1.201 5(9) nm, b=1.481 8(11) nm, c=1.894 1(14) nm, α=72.485(10)°,β=88.586(10)°, γ=66.893(9)°, and centrosymmetric structure with a four-membered central endo-cyclic Sn2O2 unit in which two bridged oxygen atoms both connect with an exo-cyclic tin atom. The endo-cyclic tin atoms and the exo-cyclic tin atom are all five-coordinate and have coordination geometry of distorted trigonal bipyramid with an additional weak coordination carboxylate oxygen. Four carboxylate ligands are divided into two types. And two of them are monodentate and connecting to each of exo-cyclic tin atoms by using one oxygen atom, whereas the others bridge to each pair of exo-and endo-cyclic tin atoms utihzing one oxygen atom. CCDC: 277048.

  13. Can the scaling behavior of electric conductivity be used to probe the self-organizational changes in solution with respect to the ionic liquid structure? The case of [C8MIM][NTf2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Marian; Wojnarowska, Zaneta; Goodrich, Peter; Jacquemin, Johan; Pionteck, Jürgen; Hensel-Bielowka, Stella

    2015-08-28

    Electrical conductivity of the supercooled ionic liquid [C8MIM][NTf2], determined as a function of temperature and pressure, highlights strong differences in its ionic transport behavior between low and high temperature regions. To date, the crossover effect which is very well known for low molecular van der Waals liquids has been rarely described for classical ionic liquids. This finding highlights that the thermal fluctuations could be dominant mechanisms driving the dramatic slowing down of ion motions near Tg. An alternative way to analyze separately low and high temperature dc-conductivity data using a density scaling approach was then proposed. Based on which a common value of the scaling exponent γ = 2.4 was obtained, indicating that the applied density scaling is insensitive to the crossover effect. By comparing the scaling exponent γ reported herein along with literature data for other ionic liquids, it appears that γ decreases by increasing the alkyl chain length on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids. This observation may be related to changes in the interaction between ions in solution driven by an increase in the van der Waals type interaction by increasing the alkyl chain length on the cation. This effect may be related to changes in the ionic liquid nanostructural organization with the alkyl chain length on the cation as previously reported in the literature based on molecular dynamic simulations. In other words, the calculated scaling exponent γ may be then used as a key parameter to probe the interaction and/or self-organizational changes in solution with respect to the ionic liquid structure.

  14. NetTurnP – Neural Network Prediction of Beta-turns by Use of Evolutionary Information and Predicted Protein Sequence Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Lundegaard, Claus; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl

    2010-01-01

    NetTurnP, for prediction of two-class β-turns and prediction of the individual β-turn types, by use of evolutionary information and predicted protein sequence features. It has been evaluated against a commonly used dataset BT426, and achieves a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.50, which......-homologous sequences known as BT426. Our two-class prediction method achieves a performance of: MCC = 0.50, Qtotal = 82.1%, sensitivity = 75.6%, PPV = 68.8% and AUC = 0.864. We have compared our performance to eleven other prediction methods that obtain Matthews correlation coefficients in the range of 0.17 – 0.......47. For the type specific β-turn predictions, only type I and II can be predicted with reasonable Matthews correlation coefficients, where we obtain performance values of 0.36 and 0.31, respectively....

  15. Stepping in Place While Voluntarily Turning Around Produces a Long-Lasting Posteffect Consisting in Inadvertent Turning While Stepping Eyes Closed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Training subjects to step in place on a rotating platform while maintaining a fixed body orientation in space produces a posteffect consisting in inadvertent turning around while stepping in place eyes closed (podokinetic after-rotation, PKAR. We tested the hypothesis that voluntary turning around while stepping in place also produces a posteffect similar to PKAR. Sixteen subjects performed 12 min of voluntary turning while stepping around their vertical axis eyes closed and 12 min of stepping in place eyes open on the center of a platform rotating at 60°/s (pretests. Then, subjects continued stepping in place eyes closed for at least 10 min (posteffect. We recorded the positions of markers fixed to head, shoulder, and feet. The posteffect of voluntary turning shared all features of PKAR. Time decay of angular velocity, stepping cadence, head acceleration, and ratio of angular velocity after to angular velocity before were similar between both protocols. Both postrotations took place inadvertently. The posteffects are possibly dependent on the repeated voluntary contraction of leg and foot intrarotating pelvic muscles that rotate the trunk over the stance foot, a synergy common to both protocols. We propose that stepping in place and voluntary turning can be a scheme ancillary to the rotating platform for training body segment coordination in patients with impairment of turning synergies of various origin.

  16. Set methods of left-turn waiting zone at signalized intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei; YANG Xiao-guang; YANG Xiao-long

    2009-01-01

    To maximize the number of vehicles passing by the stop-line in a cycle and improve the operation ef-ficiency of intersection in China, the settlement of left-turn lane waiting-zone is becoming prevailing. Based on conflicting-point method, the internal mechanism of left-turn flow after stopping line was analyzed through taking postposition left-turn lane waiting-zone intersection for instance. The relationship between the first left-turn vehi-cle and the last vehicle of previous phase passing the conflicting point was expounded. According to the time of successive arriving of two vehicle flows at conflicting-point, the reasonable layout for waiting area of left-turn ve-hicles was researched when the clearance index was less than O. The results suggest that the appropriate layoutfor waiting area of left-turning vehicles can improve the operation efficiency of intersections.

  17. Analytical modeling of turn-milling process geometry, kinematics and mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Karagüzel, Umut; Karaguzel, Umut; Uysal, Emre; Budak, Erhan; Bakkal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach for modeling of turn-milling which is a promising cutting process combining two conventional machining operations; turning and milling. This relatively new technology could be an alternative to turning for improved productivity in many applications but especially in cases involving hard-to-machine material or large work diameter. Intermittent nature of the process reduces forces on the workpiece, cutting temperatures and thus tool wear, and helps bre...

  18. Pigeons Steer Like Helicopters and Generate Down- and Upstroke Lift During Low Speed Turns

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, Ivo; Bassman, Lori C.; Badger, Marc A.; Pierson, Alyssa N.; Biewener, Andrew Austin

    2011-01-01

    Turning is crucial for animals, particularly during predator–prey interactions and to avoid obstacles. For flying animals, turning consists of changes in (i) flight trajectory, or path of travel, and (ii) body orientation, or 3D angular position. Changes in flight trajectory can only be achieved by modulating aerodynamic forces relative to gravity. How birds coordinate aerodynamic force production relative to changes in body orientation during turns is key to understanding the control strateg...

  19. Uniformly valid solutions of the coupling turning-point problem in revolution shell vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The turning-point problem in free vibration of revolution shells has the coupling property between the bending and membrane solutions. The uniformly valid solutions for this coupling turning-point problem are obtained based on three categories of generalized functions. Furthermore, they are verified to be uniformly valid in the low, turning-point and high frequency ranges. The obtained solutions exhibit a symmetric coupling structure between the bending and membrane solutions.

  20. Wheel Wear and Rail Damage Prediction for Wheels Turned with Thin Flanges

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamedsalih, Yousif; Bevan, Adam; Stow, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Economic Tyre Turning (ETT) is the process of turning wheels to a profile that has the same tread shape but a thinner flange than the design case, allowing less material to be removed from the wheel diameter. ETT can allow maintainers to extend wheel life, particularly when the wheel is approaching its minimum diameter. Modern wheel lathes are typically capable of turning such profiles but GB railway group standards do not currently permit their use. This paper investigates the effect of usin...

  1. Pseudoprolines as removable turn inducers: tools for the cyclization of small peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skropeta, Danielle; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Turner, Peter

    2004-12-10

    The cyclization of small peptides which do not incorporate turn inducers is often difficult. We have developed a method involving the use of removable turn inducers, in the form of pseudoprolines, for the cyclization of difficult peptide sequences. The pseudoprolines induce a cisoid amide bond in the peptide backbone which facilitates cyclization. They are then readily removed to yield a cyclic peptide that does not contain any turn inducers.

  2. Plant breeding in the turn of the millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluízio Borém

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from hunting and gathering to farming happened about 10,000 years ago, independently and diffusely in several places in the world. Plant breeders were responsible for genetic progress in a number of crop species. It included hybrids, the introgression of wild species genes and also the Green Revolution, which started in the 1960's with the cereals. The varieties developed by breeding, along with the use of new crop technology (fertilization, soil tillage, etc. changed the status of some countries from importers to exporters of food. In the turn of the millennium,, plant breeding, faces new challenges in a globalized world, but it has new tools to deal with them. Notwithstanding the present contributions of plant breeding and crop management, its future contributions may be even greater. The partnership being developed between plant breeding and biotechnology will assure a more consistent and predictable genetic progress. Current contributions of biotechnology have arrived for many crops in different places of the world. Varieties developed by transformation are grown in large acreage in some countries. Some concerns have also arisen from the use of GMOs. For example, the introgression of a gene for insect resistance 4 into many different species could result in an undesirable endemic risk, here called interespecific biotechnological vulnerability. Another concern is that biotechnology race may create yield plateaus in programs using genes pyramiding for all new traits made available by biotechnology, resulting in what is called genetic gridlock. Nevertheless, the benefits of using biotechnology will substantially enhance the contributions of plant breeding to human lifeA transição da fase de coleta e caça para a agricultura ocorreu há cerca de dez mil anos independentemente e em vários locais no mundo. Naquela época iniciou-se a domesticação da maioria das espécies cultivadas, dando início às atividades agrícolas. Os

  3. Downhill turn techniques and associated physical characteristics in cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, S Bucher; Supej, M; Sandbakk, Ø; Holmberg, H-C

    2014-08-01

    Three dominant techniques are used for downhill turning in cross-country skiing. In this study, kinematic, kinetic, and temporal characteristics of these techniques are described and related to skier strength and power. Twelve elite female cross-country skiers performed six consecutive turns of standardized geometry while being monitored by a Global Navigation Satellite System. Overall time was used as an indicator of performance. Skiing and turning parameters were determined from skier trajectories; the proportional use of each technique was determined from video analysis. Leg strength and power were determined by isometric squats and countermovement jumps on a force plate. Snow plowing, parallel skidding, and step turning were utilized for all turns. Faster skiers employed less snow plowing and more step turning, more rapid deceleration and earlier initiation of step turning at higher speed (r = 0.80-0.93; all P < 0.01). Better performance was significantly correlated to higher mean speed and shorter trajectory (r = 0.99/0.65; both P < 0.05) and to countermovement jump characteristics of peak force, time to peak force, and rate of force development (r = -0.71/0.78/-0.83; all P < 0.05). In conclusion, faster skiers used step turning to a greater extent and exhibited higher maximal leg power, which enabled them to combine high speeds with shorter trajectories during turns.

  4. Corner-turning characteristics of TATB/HMX/Kel-F mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, T.L.; Osborn, A.G.; West, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    A factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of HMX content, HMX particle size and TATB particle size in TATB/HMX-Kel-F formulations containing 5% by weight Kel-F 800 binder on corner-turning performance at ambient and -54 C. TATB and HMX particle-size variations did not significantly affect differences in corner-turning performance between the two temperatures. With increasing HMX contents the effect of temperature on corner turning became less and at the maximum HMX content studied, 25%, the corner turning levels were almost equal at ambient and -54 C.

  5. Classifying Step and Spin Turns Using Wireless Gyroscopes and Implications for Fall Risk Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Fino

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported a greater prevalence of spin turns, which are more unstable than step turns, in older adults compared to young adults in laboratory settings. Currently, turning strategies can only be identified through visual observation, either in-person or through video. This paper presents two unique methods and their combination to remotely monitor turning behavior using three uniaxial gyroscopes. Five young adults performed 90° turns at slow, normal, and fast walking speeds around a variety of obstacles while instrumented with three IMUs (attached on the trunk, left and right shank. Raw data from 360 trials were analyzed. Compared to visual classification, the two IMU methods’ sensitivity/specificity to detecting spin turns were 76.1%/76.7% and 76.1%/84.4%, respectively. When the two methods were combined, the IMU had an overall 86.8% sensitivity and 92.2% specificity, with 89.4%/100% sensitivity/specificity at slow speeds. This combined method can be implemented into wireless fall prevention systems and used to identify increased use of spin turns. This method allows for longitudinal monitoring of turning strategies and allows researchers to test for potential associations between the frequency of spin turns and clinically relevant outcomes (e.g., falls in non-laboratory settings.

  6. Efficiency of static core turn-off in a system-on-a-chip with variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Chen-Yong; Coteus, Paul W; Gara, Alan; Kursun, Eren; Paulsen, David P; Schuelke, Brian A; Sheets, II, John E; Tian, Shurong

    2013-10-29

    A processor-implemented method for improving efficiency of a static core turn-off in a multi-core processor with variation, the method comprising: conducting via a simulation a turn-off analysis of the multi-core processor at the multi-core processor's design stage, wherein the turn-off analysis of the multi-core processor at the multi-core processor's design stage includes a first output corresponding to a first multi-core processor core to turn off; conducting a turn-off analysis of the multi-core processor at the multi-core processor's testing stage, wherein the turn-off analysis of the multi-core processor at the multi-core processor's testing stage includes a second output corresponding to a second multi-core processor core to turn off; comparing the first output and the second output to determine if the first output is referring to the same core to turn off as the second output; outputting a third output corresponding to the first multi-core processor core if the first output and the second output are both referring to the same core to turn off.

  7. Turn-taking in Human Communication--Origins and Implications for Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Most language usage is interactive, involving rapid turn-taking. The turn-taking system has a number of striking properties: turns are short and responses are remarkably rapid, but turns are of varying length and often of very complex construction such that the underlying cognitive processing is highly compressed. Although neglected in cognitive science, the system has deep implications for language processing and acquisition that are only now becoming clear. Appearing earlier in ontogeny than linguistic competence, it is also found across all the major primate clades. This suggests a possible phylogenetic continuity, which may provide key insights into language evolution.

  8. Ground reaction forces and lower-limb joint kinetics of turning gait in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Philippe C; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2014-11-28

    Turning is a common locomotor task essential to daily activity; however, very little is known about the forces and moments responsible for the kinematic adaptations occurring relative to straight-line gait in typically developing children. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyse ground reaction forces (GRFs), ground reaction free vertical torque (TZ), and the lower-limb joint kinetics of 90° outside (step) and inside (spin) limb turns. Step, spin, and straight walking trials from fifty-four typically developing children were analysed. All children were fit with the Plug-in Gait and Oxford Foot Model marker sets while walking over force plates embedded in the walkway. Net internal joint moments and power were computed via a standard inverse dynamics approach. All dependent variables were statistically analysed over the entire curves using the mean difference 95% bootstrap confidence band approach. GRFs were directed medially for step turns and laterally for spin turns during the turning phase. Directions were reversed and magnitudes decreased during the approach phase. Step turns showed reduced ankle power generation, while spin turns showed large TZ. Both strategies required large knee and hip coronal and transverse plane moments during swing. These kinetic differences highlight adaptations required to maintain stability and reorient the body towards the new walking direction during turning. From a clinical perspective, turning gait may better reveal weaknesses and motor control deficits than straight walking in pathological populations, such as children with cerebral palsy, and could potentially be implemented in standard gait analysis sessions.

  9. Possibilities in the Boy Turn? Comparative Lessons from Australia and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Lingard, Bob; Mills, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Recognising that there is now a globalised educational discourse about "failing boys" circulating in the privileged nations of the global north, this article provides a comparative perspective on educational policy responses to the "boy turn" in Australia and Iceland. Specificities of the responses to the boy turn in the two societies offer…

  10. Turning Points during the Life of Student Project Teams: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study a more flexible alternative of conceptualising changes over time in teams is tested within student project teams. The conceptualisation uses turning points during the lifespan of a team to outline team development, based on work by Erbert, Mearns, & Dena (2005). Turning points are moments that made a significant…

  11. The effects of processing and sequence organization on the timing of turn taking: a corpus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Seán G; Torreira, Francisco; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    The timing of turn taking in conversation is extremely rapid given the cognitive demands on speakers to comprehend, plan and execute turns in real time. Findings from psycholinguistics predict that the timing of turn taking is influenced by demands on processing, such as word frequency or syntactic complexity. An alternative view comes from the field of conversation analysis, which predicts that the rules of turn-taking and sequence organization may dictate the variation in gap durations (e.g., the functional role of each turn in communication). In this paper, we estimate the role of these two different kinds of factors in determining the speed of turn-taking in conversation. We use the Switchboard corpus of English telephone conversation, already richly annotated for syntactic structure speech act sequences, and segmental alignment. To this we add further information including Floor Transfer Offset (the amount of time between the end of one turn and the beginning of the next), word frequency, concreteness, and surprisal values. We then apply a novel statistical framework ("random forests") to show that these two dimensions are interwoven together with indexical properties of the speakers as explanatory factors determining the speed of response. We conclude that an explanation of the of the timing of turn taking will require insights from both processing and sequence organization. PMID:26029125

  12. The effects of processing and sequence organisation on the timing of turn taking: a corpus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean G Roberts

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The timing of turn taking in conversation is extremely rapid given the cognitive demands on speakers to comprehend, plan and execute turns in real time. Findings from psycholinguistics predict that the timing of turn taking is influenced by demands on processing, such as word frequency or syntactic complexity. An alternative view comes from the field of conversation analysis, which predicts that the rules of turn-taking and sequence organization may dictate the variation in gap durations (e.g. the functional role of each turn in communication. In this paper, we estimate the role of these two different kinds of factors in determining the speed of turn-taking in conversation. We use the Switchboard corpus of English telephone conversation, already richly annotated for syntactic structure speech act sequences, and segmental alignment. To this we add further information including Floor Transfer Offset (the amount of time between the end of one turn and the beginning of the next, word frequency, concreteness, and surprisal values. We then apply a novel statistical framework ('random forests' to show that these two dimensions are interwoven together with indexical properties of the speakers as explanatory factors determining the speed of response. We conclude that an explanation of the of the timing of turn taking will require insights from both processing and sequence organisation.

  13. Buoyancy frequency profiles and internal semidiurnal tide turning depths in the oceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, B.; Stone, M.; Zhang, H.P.; Gerkema, T.; Marder, M.; Scott, R.B.; Swinney, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the possible existence of internal gravity wave "turning depths," depths below which the local buoyancy frequency N(z) becomes smaller than the wave frequency. At a turning depth, incident gravity waves reflect rather than reaching the ocean bottom as is generally assumed. Here we conside

  14. 77 FR 4989 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... photovoltaic panels mounted on fixed solar racking equipment and the construction of access roads, a powerhouse... Rural Utilities Service Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment... proposal by Turning Point Solar LCC (TPS). The proposal consists of constructing a 49.9 megawatt...

  15. Differences of Ballet Turns ("Pirouette") Performance between Experienced and Novice Ballet Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shing-Jye; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the different postural control strategies exhibited by experienced and novice dancers in ballet turns ("pirouettes"). Method: Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed ballet turns with dominant-leg support. The peak push force was measured in the double-leg support phase. The inclination…

  16. Left turn gap acceptance in a simulator: Driving skill or driving style?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Winter, J.C.F.; Spek, A.C.E.; De Groot, S.; Wieringa, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two driving simulator experiments on left turn gap acceptance at intersections. In the first experiment, participants (N = 24) had to turn left at 25 intersections and cross an approaching traffic stream of 25 equally-spaced vehicles, with a different combination of intervehicle

  17. The Narrative Turn and the Poetics of Resistance: Towards a New Language for Critical Educational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the adoption of a new language in critical educational studies through the "narrative turn", a turn that politicizes knowledge by drawing attention to questions concerning the meaning, construction and authorship of narratives. In the authors' interpretation going back to the poetics of early narrative forms they…

  18. Collision free path generation in 3D with turning and pitch radius constraints for aerial vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, F.; La Cour-Harbo, A.; Bisgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    assumes that most of the aircraft structural and dynamic limitations can be formulated as a turn radius constraint, and that any two consecutive waypoints have line-of-sight. The generated trajectories are collision free and also satisfy a constraint on the minimum admissible turning radius, while...

  19. Gramicidin S derivatives containing cis- and trans-morpholine amino acids (MAAS) as turn mimetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapoerchan, V.V.; Spalburg, E.; Neeling, A.J. de; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Otero, J.M. de; Ferraces-Casais, P.; Llamas-Saiz, A.L.; Raaij, M.J. van; Doorn, J. van; Marel, G.A. van der; Overkleeft, H.S.; Overhand, M.

    2010-01-01

    The cyclic decapeptide gramicidin S (GS) was used as a model for the evaluation of four turn mimetics. For this purpose, one of the D-Phe-Pro two-residue turn motifs in the rigid cyclic β-hairp0in structure of GS was replaced with morpholine amino acids (MAA 2-5), differing in stereochemistry and le

  20. The effect of adhesion between turns on the training of superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The training behaviour of a superconducting magnet with a thermo-plastic adhesive between the turns has been tested. The results of these experiments show that there is a strong correlation between training quench behaviour and inter-turn adhesion. (author)

  1. Research on Cutting Force of Turn-Milling Based on Thin-Walled Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turn-milling is regarded as the milling of a curved surface while rotating the workpiece around its center point, which combines effectively the advantages of both turning and milling, wherein it allows for good metal removal with the difficult-to-cut thin-walled workpieces in aviation. The objective of the present work is to study cutting force by turn-milling in cutting condition. Aiming at the deformation properties of thin-walled blade, the predicted models of rigid cutting force and flexible cutting force with ball cutter are provided, respectively, in turn-milling process. The deformation values of blade and cutter are calculated, respectively, based on the engaged trajectory by using the iterative algorithm. The rigid and flexible cutting forces are compared and the influence degrees of cutting parameters on cutting forces are analyzed. These conclusions provide theoretical foundation and reference for turn-milling mechanism research.

  2. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. Furthermore, the fitting results are used for lattice correction. Our method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  3. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  4. As the egg turns: monitoring egg attendance behavior in wild birds using novel data logging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott A; Clatterbuck, Corey A; Kelsey, Emma C; Naiman, Alex D; Young, Lindsay C; VanderWerf, Eric A; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1)) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1)) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.

  5. As the egg turns: monitoring egg attendance behavior in wild birds using novel data logging technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Shaffer

    Full Text Available Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1 turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1 than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common, (2 displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1 despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3 demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.

  6. Effect of air-flow rate and turning frequency on bio-drying of dewatered sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Gu, Wei-Mei; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2010-12-01

    Sludge bio-drying is an approach for biomass energy utilization, in which sludge is dried by means of the heat generated by aerobic degradation of its organic substances. The study aimed at investigating the interactive influence of air-flow rate and turning frequency on water removal and biomass energy utilization. Results showed that a higher air-flow rate (0.0909m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) led to lower temperature than did the lower one (0.0455m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) by 17.0% and 13.7% under turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate and lower turning frequency, temperature cumulation was almost similar to that with the lower air-flow rate and higher turning frequency. The doubled air-flow rate improved the total water removal ratio by 2.86% (19.5gkg(-1) initial water) and 11.5% (75.0gkg(-1) initial water) with turning per two days and four days respectively, indicating that there was no remarkable advantage for water removal with high air-flow rate, especially with high turning frequency. The heat used for evaporation was 60.6-72.6% of the total heat consumption (34,400-45,400kJ). The higher air-flow rate enhanced volatile solids (VS) degradation thus improving heat generation by 1.95% (800kJ) and 8.96% (3200kJ) with turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate, heat consumed by sensible heat of inlet air and heat utilization efficiency for evaporation was higher than the lower one. With the higher turning frequency, sensible heat of materials and heat consumed by turning was higher than lower one.

  7. Ribbon structure stabilized by C10 and C12 turns in αγ hybrid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Naiem Ahmad; Kant, Rajni; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Aravinda, Subrayashastry; Rai, Rajkishor

    2016-04-01

    The present study describes the synthesis and crystallographic analysis of αγ hybrid peptides, Boc-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (1), Boc-Aib-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (2), and Boc-L-Pro-Aib-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (3). Peptides 1 and 2 adopt expanded 12-membered (C12 ) helical turn over γα segment. Peptide 3 promotes the ribbon structure stabilized by type II β-turn (C10 ) followed by the expanded C12 helical γα turn. Both right-handed and left-handed helical conformations for Aib residue are observed in peptides 2 and 3, respectively.

  8. A novel method for calculating the energy cost of turning during running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamoto Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yoichi Hatamoto,1 Yosuke Yamada,2 Tatsuya Fujii,3 Yasuki Higaki,3 Akira Kiyonaga,3 Hiroaki Tanaka31Graduate School of Sports and Health Science, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma Jonan-ku Fukuoka, Japan; 2The Fukuoka University Institute for Physical Activity, Nanakuma Jonan-ku Fukuoka, Japan; 3Faculty of Sports and Health Science, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma Jonan-ku Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: Although changes of direction are one of the essential locomotor patterns in ball sports, the physiological demand of turning during running has not been previously investigated. We proposed a novel approach by which to evaluate the physiological demand of turning. The purposes of this study were to establish a method of measuring the energy expenditure (EE of a 180° turn during running and to investigate the effect of two different running speeds on the EE of a 180° turn. Eleven young, male participants performed measurement sessions at two different running speeds (4.3 and 5.4 km/hour. Each measurement session consisted of five trials, and each trial had a different frequency of turns. At both running speeds, as the turn frequency increased the gross oxygen consumption (V · O2 also increased linearly (4.3 km/hour, r = 0.973; 5.4 km/hour, r = 0.996. The V · O2 of a turn at 5.4 km/hour (0.55 [SD 0.09] mL/kg was higher than at 4.3 km/hour (0.34 [SD 0.13] mL/kg (P < 0.001. We conclude that the gross V · O2 of running at a fixed speed with turns is proportional to turn frequency and that the EE of a turn is different at different running speeds. The Different Frequency Accumulation Method is a useful tool for assessing the physiological demands of complex locomotor activity.Keywords: energy expenditure, turning, turn frequency, running speed, V · O2, heart rate

  9. Efficiency analysis of the speed turns in the crawl stroke swimming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko M.I.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary approaches to improving technique of the speed in the crawl stroke swimming, namely roll-forward turn were considered in the paper. The performance efficiency is defined by the time covering 15 meter distance. The students of the sports mastering group aged 16-20 took part in the experiment. The video recordings of the Ukrainian, European and World Championships and Deflympic Games, and also chronometration during the department trainings served as the experimental data. The research showed that white improving the technical level of turns performance, the attention should be paid to the exact performance of all the elements of the turns.

  10. Stochastic User Equilibrium Traffic Assignment with Turn-delays in Intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Simonsen, Nikolaj; Frederiksen, Rasmus Dyhr

    1997-01-01

    Turn-delays in intersections contribute significant to travel times and thus route choices in urban networks. However, turns are difficult to handle in traffic assignment models due to the asymmetric Jacobian in the cost functions. The paper describes a model where turn delays have been included...... in the solution algorithm of Sto-chastic User Equilibrium traffic assignment (SUE). When the Jacobian is symme-tric, SUE minimises the road users' 'perceived travel resistance’s'. This equals a probit-model where the links cost-functions are traffic dependent. Hereby, overlap-ping routes are handled...

  11. Vector modeling and track simulation in axial turn-milling motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zeng-hui; JIA Chun-de

    2005-01-01

    Through vector analysis the kinetic vector model is built in a machining cylinder surface through axial turn-milling. When building a kinetic vector model in the machining field, machining through axial turn-milling and using equilateral triangles and square prism surfaces, the kinetic vector model is given any equilateral polygon prismic surface. Kinetic tracks are simulated through these kinetic models respectively, thus it can be seen that the axial turn-milling is a very effective method in manufacturing any equilateral, polygon, prismic surface.

  12. Novel T-Z source inverter with high voltage gain and reduced transformer turn ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Sharifi Malfejani, Saeed; Soltani, Mohsen;

    2015-01-01

    Novel voltage source inverter based on the Z source inverter structure is introduced in this paper. In this new inverter, two inductors of the impedance network in conventional Z source inverter are replaced with two transformers or coupled inductors, but unlike the T-Z source inverter that it......'s voltage gain is raised with increasing the transformers turn ratio, the voltage gain in the proposed inverter is raised with lowering the transformer turn ratio. Therefore, transformers with lower turn ratio are required in the proposed inverter in compare with T- Z source inverter that can lead to lower...

  13. Turning Transparent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Despite some progress government finances still lack transparency Li Yan, a graduate student at the Tsinghua University Law School, may not be a household name. However, she won a battle for information that will strengthen the right of ordinary Chinese citizens to obtain information from government departments.

  14. Tight turns

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) has successfully tested the first model of a new fast-ramping curved dipole magnet. This is great news for CERN, which sees the advance as holding potential for the future of the SPS.   The first model of a new fast-ramping curved dipole magnet being prepared for cryogenic testing at the LASA laboratory (INFN Milano, Italy). On 16 July INFN introduced an innovative dipole magnet. With a length of some 4 metres, it can produce a 4.5 Tesla magnetic field and achieve a tighter bend than ever before (the bending radius has been squeezed to a remarkable 66.7 metres). This new magnet was designed in the first instance for GSI’s SIS300 synchrotron (in Germany), which will require 60 dipoles of this type. "Achieving such a tight bend demanded a major R&D effort," stressed Pasquale Fabbricatore, the spokesman of the INFN collaboration responsible for the magnet’s development. "We had to not o...

  15. Turning Left

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An increasing number of left-wing political figures are holding power in Latin America, raising eyebrows in Washington This is a banner election year in Latin America, with nine countries heading to the polls to select new leaders. But the succession of victories by left-leaning politicians, with more likely in the coming months, is expected to draw mounting concern from the United

  16. Turning point revisited: launching the next generation of performance management in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelo, Julia W; Beitsch, Leslie M; Beaudry, Margaret L; Corso, Liza C; Estes, Larissa J; Bialek, Ron G

    2014-01-01

    A decade ago, the Turning Point Performance Management Excellence Collaborative (Turning Point) developed the first public health-specific performance management (PM) system, with accompanying resource materials, assisted by the Public Health Foundation. Since then, dramatic advancements in PM and quality improvement activities have occurred in public health. Public Health Foundation gathered data that revealed Turning Point was still relevant but difficult to implement within public health. To reflect recent advances and current challenges, Public Health Foundation refreshed the Turning Point model and related guidance tools and developed new resources to facilitate PM implementation. In addition, a new fifth component, "Visible Leadership," was added to the 4-quadrant model and the Self-Assessment Tool. In the future, public health organizations should take an active leadership role in innovating and sustaining PM systems, ensuring they become accountable for producing outcomes, leveraging technology advances, and incorporating best practices from all stakeholders.

  17. A turn-on fluorescent sensor for the discrimination of cystein from homocystein and glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li-Ya; Guan, Ying-Shi; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; Yang, Qing-Zheng

    2013-02-14

    We report a turn-on fluorescent sensor based on nitrothiophenolate boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivatives for the discrimination of cystein (Cys) from homocystein (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH). The sensor was applied for detection of Cys in living cells. PMID:23295243

  18. High frequency wide-band transformer uses coax to achieve high turn ratio and flat response

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Parry, T.

    1966-01-01

    Center-tap push-pull transformer with toroidal core helically wound with a single coaxial cable creates a high frequency wideband transformer. This transformer has a high-turn ratio, a high coupling coefficient, and a flat broadband response.

  19. Emotions and Social Sciences in 20th century: The Prequel of Affective Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giazú Enciso Domínguez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Affective Turn is an innovative movement that is transforming the production of knowledge based on the study of affect and emotion. To understand the current role of emotions, we proposed a 'prequel. Telling what happened with emotions within the social sciences before the Affective Turn, and before the twentieth century. In this work we explain the present from the past, we tell the story before The History, we pay a debt to a previous work: The Affective Turn. We articulate the prequel through seven approaches: Socialconstructionism, Discursive Social Psychology, Cultural Studies of Emotions, Emocionologies, Interpretative Sociology, Sociolinguistic of Emotions and Feminist Studies of emotions. We review the interests of each approach, their schools, their past, and give hints about not only the present but the future(s of the Affective Turn, in social science and academy as well.

  20. Optimization of the Multi-turn Injection Efficiency for Medical Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J; Yoon, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for optimization of the multi-turn injection effciency for medical synchrotron. We show that for given injection energy the injection efficiency can be greatly enhanced by choosing transverse tunes appropriately as well as optimizing the injection bump and the number of turns required for beam injection. We verify our study by applying the method to the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) synchrotron which is currently built at the campus of Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (DIRAMS) in Busan, Korea. First the frequency map analysis is performed with the help of ELEGANT and ACCSIM codes. The tunes which yield the good injection efficiency are then selected. With these tunes the injection bump and the number of turns required for injection are then optimized by tracking a number of particles up to one thousand turns after injection beyond which there is no further beam loss. Results for optimization of the injection efficiency for proton ion are presented.

  1. Ultrasensitive optical microfiber coupler based sensors operating near the turning point of effective group index difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiwei; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Guigen; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Mengying; Wei, Lei

    2016-09-01

    We propose and study an optical microfiber coupler (OMC) sensor working near the turning point of effective group index difference between the even supermode and odd supermode to achieve high refractive index (RI) sensitivity. Theoretical calculations reveal that infinite sensitivity can be obtained when the measured RI is close to the turning point value. This diameter-dependent turning point corresponds to the condition that the effective group index difference equals zero. To validate our proposed sensing mechanism, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrahigh sensitivity of 39541.7 nm/RIU at a low ambient RI of 1.3334 based on an OMC with the diameter of 1.4 μm. An even higher sensitivity can be achieved by carrying out the measurements at RI closer to the turning point. The resulting ultrasensitive RI sensing platform offers a substantial impact on a variety of applications from high performance trace analyte detection to small molecule sensing.

  2. Tool wear mechanism in turning of novel wear-resisting aluminum bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪东惠; 夏伟; 张大童; 郭国文; 邵明

    2003-01-01

    Tool wear and wear mechanism during the turning of a wear-resisting aluminum bronze have been stud-ied. Tool wear samples were prepared by using M2 high-speed steel and YW1 cemented carbide tools to turn a novelhigh strength, wear resisting aluminum bronze without coolant and lubricant. Adhesion of workpiece materials wasfound on tool's surface. Under the turning condition used in this study major wear mechanisms for turning aluminumbronze using M2 high-speed steel tool are diffusion wear, adhesive wear and plastic deformation and shear on thecrater. Partial melting of high-speed steel on the rake plays a role in the tool wear also. Major wear mechanisms forturning aluminum bronze using YW1 cemented carbide tool are diffusion wear, attrition wear and sliding wear. Tocontrol the machining temperature is essential to reduce tool wear.

  3. Characteristics of traffic flow at nonsignalized T-shaped intersection with U-turn movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-Qiang; Jia, Bin; Li, Xin-Gang; Tian, Jun-Fang; Yan, Xue-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Most nonsignalized T-shaped intersections permit U-turn movements, which make the traffic conditions of intersection complex. In this paper, a new cellular automaton (CA) model is proposed to characterize the traffic flow at the intersection of this type. In present CA model, new rules are designed to avoid the conflicts among different directional vehicles and eliminate the gridlock. Two kinds of performance measures (i.e., flux and average control delay) for intersection are compared. The impacts of U-turn movements are analyzed under different initial conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that (i) the average control delay is more practical than flux in measuring the performance of intersection, (ii) U-turn movements increase the range and degree of high congestion, and (iii) U-turn movements on the different direction of main road have asymmetrical influences on the traffic conditions of intersection.

  4. Diamond Turned Super Alloy Mandrel for Slump Forming X-Ray Observatory (IXO) Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diamond turning is proven to be able to quickly produce highly aspheric grazing incidence optical contours to visible wavelength tolerances with extremely smooth...

  5. Turn-key Near-Infrared Photon-Counting Detector Module for LIDAR Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and deliver a turn-key photon counting detector module for near-infrared wavelengths, based on large-area InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes...

  6. Shadow obstacle model for realistic corner-turning behavior in crowd simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-qi HE; Yi JIN; Qi CHEN; Zhen LIU; Wen-hui YUE; Xing-jian LU

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel model known as the shadow obstacle model to generate a realistic corner-turning be-havior in crowd simulation. The motivation for this model comes from the observation that people tend to choose a safer route rather than a shorter one when turning a corner. To calculate a safer route, an optimization method is proposed to generate the corner-turning rule that maximizes the viewing range for the agents. By combining psychological and physical forces together, a full crowd simulation framework is established to provide a more realistic crowd simulation. We demonstrate that our model produces a more realistic corner-turning behavior by comparison with real data obtained from the experiments. Finally, we per-form parameter analysis to show the believability of our model through a series of experiments.

  7. SINGULARLY PERTURBED BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS FOR ELLIPTIC EQUATION WITH A CURVE OF TURNING POINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MoJiaqi

    2002-01-01

    The singularly perturbed elliptic equation boundary value problem with a curve of turning point is considered. Using the method of multiple scales and the comparison theorem,the asymptotic behavior of solution for the boundary value problem is studied.

  8. Very High Load Capacity Air Bearing Spindle for Large Diamond Turning Machines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diamond turning is able to produce highly aspheric visible quality optics which can be easily aligned. Very large optical systems such as OWL and EUSO are...

  9. Mass enhances speed but diminishes turn capacity in terrestrial pursuit predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rory P; Griffiths, Iwan W; Mills, Michael G L; Carbone, Chris; Wilson, John W; Scantlebury, David M

    2015-08-07

    The dynamics of predator-prey pursuit appears complex, making the development of a framework explaining predator and prey strategies problematic. We develop a model for terrestrial, cursorial predators to examine how animal mass modulates predator and prey trajectories and affects best strategies for both parties. We incorporated the maximum speed-mass relationship with an explanation of why larger animals should have greater turn radii; the forces needed to turn scale linearly with mass whereas the maximum forces an animal can exert scale to a 2/3 power law. This clarifies why in a meta-analysis, we found a preponderance of predator/prey mass ratios that minimized the turn radii of predators compared to their prey. It also explained why acceleration data from wild cheetahs pursuing different prey showed different cornering behaviour with prey type. The outcome of predator prey pursuits thus depends critically on mass effects and the ability of animals to time turns precisely.

  10. Decision tree learning for detecting turning points in business process orientation: a case of Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Milanović Glavan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Companies worldwide are embracing Business Process Orientation (BPO in order to improve their overall performance. This paper presents research results on key turning points in BPO maturity implementation efforts. A key turning point is defined as a component of business process maturity that leads to the establishment and expansion of other factors that move the organization to the next maturity level. Over the past few years, different methodologies for analyzing maturity state of BPO have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of using data mining methods in detecting key turning points in BPO. Based on survey results obtained in 2013, the selected data mining technique of classification and regression trees (C&RT was used to detect key turning points in Croatian companies. These findings present invaluable guidelines for any business that strives to achieve more efficient business processes.

  11. The velocity and energy profiles of elite cross-country skiers executing downhill turns with different radii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Oyvind; Bucher Sandbakk, Silvana; Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of turn radius on velocity and energy profiles when skidding and step turning during more and less effective downhill turns while cross-country skiing. Thirteen elite female cross-country skiers performed single turns with a 9- or 12-m radius using the skidding technique and a 12- or 15-m radius with step turning. Mechanical parameters were monitored using a real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System and video analysis. Step turning was more effective during all phases of a turn, leading to higher velocities than skidding (P cross-country skiers when executing downhill turns of varying radii and can be used to assess the quality of such turns.

  12. Personality trait development in midlife: exploring the impact of psychological turning points

    OpenAIRE

    Allemand, Mathias; Gomez, V.; Jackson, J J

    2010-01-01

    This study examined long-term personality trait development in midlife and explored the impact of psychological turning points on personality change. Selfdefined psychological turning points reflect major changes in the ways people think or feel about an important part of their life, such as work, family, and beliefs about themselves and about the world. This study used longitudinal data from the Midlife in the US survey to examine personality trait development in adults aged 40–60 years. The...

  13. Glycosylation of the enhanced aromatic sequon is similarly stabilizing in three distinct reverse turn contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joshua L; Powers, David L; Powers, Evan T; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2011-08-23

    Cotranslational N-glycosylation can accelerate protein folding, slow protein unfolding, and increase protein stability, but the molecular basis for these energetic effects is incompletely understood. N-glycosylation of proteins at naïve sites could be a useful strategy for stabilizing proteins in therapeutic and research applications, but without engineering guidelines, often results in unpredictable changes to protein energetics. We recently introduced the enhanced aromatic sequon as a family of portable structural motifs that are stabilized upon glycosylation in specific reverse turn contexts: a five-residue type I β-turn harboring a G1 β-bulge (using a Phe-Yyy-Asn-Xxx-Thr sequon) and a type II β-turn within a six-residue loop (using a Phe-Yyy-Zzz-Asn-Xxx-Thr sequon) [Culyba EK, et al. (2011) Science 331:571-575]. Here we show that glycosylating a new enhanced aromatic sequon, Phe-Asn-Xxx-Thr, in a type I' β-turn stabilizes the Pin 1 WW domain. Comparing the energetic effects of glycosylating these three enhanced aromatic sequons in the same host WW domain revealed that the glycosylation-mediated stabilization is greatest for the enhanced aromatic sequon complementary to the type I β-turn with a G1 β-bulge. However, the portion of the stabilization from the tripartite interaction between Phe, Asn(GlcNAc), and Thr is similar for each enhanced aromatic sequon in its respective reverse turn context. Adding the Phe-Asn-Xxx-Thr motif (in a type I' β-turn) to the enhanced aromatic sequon family doubles the number of proteins that can be stabilized by glycosylation without having to alter the native reverse turn type. PMID:21825145

  14. Characteristics of penetration electric fields to the equatorial ionosphere during southward and northward IMF turnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Ankush; Vichare, Geeta

    2013-07-01

    The signatures of abrupt turnings of the vertical component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), Bz, can be seen at equatorial latitudes through the prompt transmission of high-latitude electric fields to the lower latitudes, called as prompt penetration electric field (PPE). The present work studies the signatures of PPE in daytime equatorial electrojet (EEJ) index derived in the Indian sector during 2001-2005. The signatures are observed in polar (PCN index) and equatorial (EEJ index) ionosphere almost instantaneously (<1 min). The communication time of 12±6 min is observed between bow shock nose and the equatorial ionosphere, and it is found to have inverse relationship with radial component of solar wind velocity during southward and northward Bz turnings which might indicate magnetosphere crossing time scale by solar wind. Ionospheric reconfiguration time during southward turnings shows inverse relationship with solar wind flow in contrast to northward turnings with "no relationship," indicating differences in underlying physical mechanisms during both turnings. We observe no local time dependence (within 06-18 h) in conductivity-corrected EEJ signatures associated with Bz turnings. Regression analysis between conductivity-corrected EEJ and interplanetary electric field shows higher efficiency during northward turnings. However, further analysis investigating the effect of actual orientation of Bz indicates that the magnitude of northward Bz does not have influence on the ionospheric signatures. It is noticed that the response signatures are mainly controlled by the magnitudes of southward Bz. Thus, the present study signifies the role of inner magnetospheric shielding electric field in addition to ceasing of convection during northward turnings.

  15. Turn-Taking Model in the Chinese Recruitment Reality show-BelongtoYou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Fan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theories of conversational analysis proposed by Sacks et al,this paper chooses excerpts of candidates’inter-view from the Chinese recruitment reality TV show BelongtoYou in Tianjin TV. Through analyzing the excerpt, how the rules of turn-taking are applied in this program will be demonstrated. And the features of turn-taking strategies used by the host,candi-dates and bosses will be concluded.

  16. The Philosophy of Turning Points:A Case of De-Internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo V. Turcan

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces and discusses the concept of turning points from the ontological, epistemological, and methodological perspectives, applying it to the de-internationalization phenomenon to exemplify its deployment. As a concept that adds to the variance and complexity of the international business and management field, the turning point is seen as a valuable unit of analysis within the research field. It is expected that this paper will encourage a dynamic scholarly conversation about t...

  17. Optical turn-on sensor based on graphene oxide for selective detection of D-glucosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rumei; Liu, Yong; Ou, Shengju; Pan, Yaqiong; Zhang, Shu; Chen, Hao; Dai, Liming; Qu, Jia

    2012-07-01

    By incorporating the well-known fluorophore 8-aminoquinoline into graphene oxide, we have successfully prepared a turn-on fluorescent sensor capable of specific detection of D-glucosamine with a high selectivity and sensitivity. This methodology provides a new concept for the design and development of highly selective and sensitive turn-on optical sensors for selective detection of aminosaccharides and many other biomolecules. PMID:22655914

  18. Vibro-acoustic behaviour of an induction machine with stator inter-turn short-circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelassi, Sana; Romary, Raphael; Brudny, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the calculation of noise and vibrations due to electromagnetic forces in rotating electrical machines in faulty conditions. The effects of a stator inter turn short circuit is analysed through an analytical model. Theoretical results give the radial forces and explain the reasons behind the noise and vibrations. They also show how inter-turn-short-circuit is responsible for additional low-mode forces, generating noise and vibrations increase. Experimental measurements are carried out to validate the theoretical results.

  19. Parkinson's disease and segmental coordination during modified figure of eight walking turning task

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Turning while walking is problematic for individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). We hypothesized there would be instability and turning difficulty for the PD subjects while performing a complex motor skill task of the modified figure of eight (MFE) walking task. There were 26 subjects (10 males and 16 females) with clinical diagnosis of “idiopathic” PD and undergoing L-dopa treatment participating in this study. The PD subjects performed the clinical balance modified figure of eight (MFE) ...

  20. Constraining eye movement in individuals with Parkinson's disease during walking turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, V N Pradeep; Saucedo, Fabricio; Murray, Nicholas G; Powell, Douglas W; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    Walking and turning is a movement that places individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) at increased risk for fall-related injury. However, turning is an essential movement in activities of daily living, making up to 45 % of the total steps taken in a given day. Hypotheses regarding how turning is controlled suggest an essential role of anticipatory eye movements to provide feedforward information for body coordination. However, little research has investigated control of turning in individuals with PD with specific consideration for eye movements. The purpose of this study was to examine eye movement behavior and body segment coordination in individuals with PD during walking turns. Three experimental groups, a group of individuals with PD, a group of healthy young adults (YAC), and a group of healthy older adults (OAC), performed walking and turning tasks under two visual conditions: free gaze and fixed gaze. Whole-body motion capture and eye tracking characterized body segment coordination and eye movement behavior during walking trials. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of group (PD, YAC, and OAC) and visual condition (free and fixed gaze) on timing of segment rotation and horizontal eye movement. Within group comparisons, revealed timing of eye and head movement was significantly different between the free and fixed gaze conditions for YAC (p  0.05). In addition, while intersegment timings (reflecting segment coordination) were significantly different for YAC and OAC during free gaze (p segment coordination during turning. As such, eye movements may be an important addition to training programs for those with PD, possibly promoting better coordination during turning and potentially reducing the risk of falls.

  1. Turn Motors Off When Not in Use - Motor Tip Sheet #10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-07-01

    Motors use no energy when turned off. Reducing motor operating time by just 10% usually saves more energy than replacing a standard efficiency motor with a NEMA Premium® efficiency motor. In fact, given that 97% of the life cycle cost of purchasing and operating a motor is energy-related, turning a motor off 10% of the time could reduce energy costs enough to purchase three new motors.

  2. Origin of the turn-on temperature behavior in WTe$_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.L.; Thoutam, L. R.; Xiao, Z. L.; Hu, J.; S. Das; Mao, Z. Q.; J. Wei; Divan, R.; Luican-Mayer, A.; Crabtree, G.W.; Kwok, W. K.

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of materials with extremely large magnetoresistance (XMR) is the transformative 'turn-on' temperature behavior: when the applied magnetic field $H$ is above certain value, the resistivity versus temperature $\\rho(T)$ curve shows a minimum at a field dependent temperature $T^*$, which has been interpreted as a magnetic-field-driven metal-insulator transition or attributed to an electronic structure change. Here, we demonstrate that $\\rho(T)$ curves with turn-on behavior in the newly...

  3. Constraining eye movement in individuals with Parkinson's disease during walking turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, V N Pradeep; Saucedo, Fabricio; Murray, Nicholas G; Powell, Douglas W; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    Walking and turning is a movement that places individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) at increased risk for fall-related injury. However, turning is an essential movement in activities of daily living, making up to 45 % of the total steps taken in a given day. Hypotheses regarding how turning is controlled suggest an essential role of anticipatory eye movements to provide feedforward information for body coordination. However, little research has investigated control of turning in individuals with PD with specific consideration for eye movements. The purpose of this study was to examine eye movement behavior and body segment coordination in individuals with PD during walking turns. Three experimental groups, a group of individuals with PD, a group of healthy young adults (YAC), and a group of healthy older adults (OAC), performed walking and turning tasks under two visual conditions: free gaze and fixed gaze. Whole-body motion capture and eye tracking characterized body segment coordination and eye movement behavior during walking trials. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of group (PD, YAC, and OAC) and visual condition (free and fixed gaze) on timing of segment rotation and horizontal eye movement. Within group comparisons, revealed timing of eye and head movement was significantly different between the free and fixed gaze conditions for YAC (p  0.05). In addition, while intersegment timings (reflecting segment coordination) were significantly different for YAC and OAC during free gaze (p falls. PMID:27324086

  4. Modeling of screening currents in coated conductor magnets containing up to 40000 turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, E.

    2016-08-01

    Screening currents caused by varying magnetic fields degrade the homogeneity and stability of the magnetic fields created by REBCO coated conductor coils. They are responsible for the AC loss; which is also important for other power applications containing windings, such as transformers, motors and generators. Since real magnets contain coils exceeding 10000 turns, accurate modeling tools for this number of turns or above are necessary for magnet design. This article presents a fast numerical method to model coils with no loss of accuracy. We model a 10400-turn coil for its real number of turns and coils of up to 40000 turns with continuous approximation, which introduces negligible errors. The screening currents, the screening current induced field (SCIF) and the AC loss is analyzed in detail. The SCIF is at a maximum at the remnant state with a considerably large value. The instantaneous AC loss for an anisotropic magnetic-field dependent J c is qualitatively different than for a constant J c , although the loss per cycle is similar. Saturation of the magnetization currents at the end pancakes causes the maximum AC loss at the first ramp to increase with J c . The presented modeling tool can accurately calculate the SCIF and AC loss in practical computing times for coils with any number of turns used in real windings, enabling parameter optimization.

  5. Effect of roadway turnings on gas explosion propagation characteristics in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Chuanjie; Lin Baiquan; Ye Qing; Zhai Cheng

    2011-01-01

    In order to reveal the effect of turnings on explosion propagation,experiments were performed in three different pipes (single bend,U-shaped pipe and Z-shaped pipe).Flame and pressure transducers were used to track the velocity at the explosion front.When the pipes were filled with methane,the explosion strength was significantly enhanced due to the turbulence induced by increasing the number of turnings,while the flame speed (Sf) and peak overpressure (△Pmax) increased dramatically.In addition,the strength of the explosion increased in violence as a function of the number of turnings.However,when the bend was without methane,the turnings weakened the strength of the explosion compared with the ordinary pipe,shown by the decrease in the values of △Pmax and Sf.In addition,the propagation characteristics in a U-shaped pipe were similar to those in a Z-shaped pipe and the values of △Pmax and Sf were also close.The results show that the explosion propagation characteristics largely depend on gas distribution in the pipes and the number of turnings.The different directions of the turnings had no effect.

  6. DESIGN AND INITIAL RESULTS OF A TURN-BY-TURN BEAM POSITION MONITORING SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE BUNCH OPERATION OF THE ATF DAMPING RING

    CERN Document Server

    Christian, G B; Bett, D R; Burrows, P N; Davis, M R; Gerbershagen, A; Perry, C; Constance, B; Resta-Lopez, J

    2011-01-01

    An FPGA-based monitoring system has been developed to study multi-bunch beam instabilities in the damping ring (DR) of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), utilising a stripline beam position monitor (BPM) and existing BPM processor hardware. The system is designed to record the horizontal and/or vertical positions of up to three bunches in the DR in single-bunch multi-train mode or the head bunch of up to three trains in multi-bunch mode, with a bunch spacing of 5.6 ns. The FPGA firmware and data acquisition software were modified to record turn-by-turn data for up to six channels and 1–3 bunches in the DR. An overview of the system and initial results will be presented.

  7. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Elizabeth; Enfield, N J

    2015-01-01

    Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA). We describe a type of response termed a "freeze-look," which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a "thinking" face or hesitation, etc.). We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The "freeze-look" results in the questioner "re-doing" their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus, we argue that the "freeze-look" is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an "off-record" practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying "Huh?" or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well. PMID:26441710

  8. Turning performance in squid and cuttlefish: unique dual-mode, muscular hydrostatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrebsky, Rachel A; Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S

    2016-05-01

    Although steady swimming has received considerable attention in prior studies, unsteady swimming movements represent a larger portion of many aquatic animals' locomotive repertoire and have not been examined extensively. Squids and cuttlefishes are cephalopods with unique muscular hydrostat-driven, dual-mode propulsive systems involving paired fins and a pulsed jet. These animals exhibit a wide range of swimming behavior, but turning performance has not been examined quantitatively. Brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, and dwarf cuttlefish, Sepia bandensis, were filmed during turns using high-speed cameras. Kinematic features were tracked, including the length-specific radius of the turn (R/L), a measure of maneuverability, and angular velocity (ω), a measure of agility. Both L. brevis and S. bandensis demonstrated high maneuverability, with (R/L)min values of 3.4×10(-3)±5.9×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-3)±4.7×10(-4) (mean±s.e.m.), respectively, which are the lowest measures of R/L reported for any aquatic taxa. Lolliguncula brevis exhibited higher agility than S. bandensis (ωa,max=725.8 versus 485.0 deg s(-1)), and both cephalopods have intermediate agility when compared with flexible-bodied and rigid-bodied nekton of similar size, reflecting their hybrid body architecture. In L. brevis, jet flows were the principal driver of angular velocity. Asymmetric fin motions played a reduced role, and arm wrapping increased turning performance to varying degrees depending on the species. This study indicates that coordination between the jet and fins is important for turning performance, with L. brevis achieving faster turns than S. bandensis and S. bandensis achieving tighter, more controlled turns than L. brevis.

  9. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eManrique

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA. We describe a type of response termed a ‘freeze-look’, which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a ‘thinking’ face or hesitation, etc.. We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The ‘freeze-look’ results in the questioner ‘re-doing’ their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus we argue that the ‘freeze-look’ is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an ‘off-record’ practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying ‘Huh?’ or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well.

  10. Kinematics of rotation in place during defense turning in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, N H; Jamon, M

    2001-02-01

    The kinematic patterns of defense turning behavior in freely behaving specimens of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii were investigated with the aid of a video-analysis system. Movements of the body and all pereiopods, except the chelipeds, were analyzed. Because this behavior approximates to a rotation in place, this analysis extends previous studies on straight and curve walking in crustaceans. Specimens of P. clarkii responded to a tactile stimulus on a walking leg by turning accurately to face the source of the stimulation. Angular velocity profiles of the movement of the animal's carapace suggest that defense turn responses are executed in two phases: an initial stereotyped phase, in which the body twists on its legs and undergoes a rapid angular acceleration, followed by a more erratic phase of generally decreasing angular velocity that leads to the final orientation. Comparisons of contralateral members of each pair of legs reveal that defense turns are affected by changes in step geometry, rather than by changes in the timing parameters of leg motion, although inner legs 3 and 4 tend to take more steps than their outer counterparts during the course of a response. During the initial phase, outer legs 3 and 4 exhibit larger stance amplitudes than their inner partners, and all the outer legs produce larger stance amplitudes than their inner counterparts during the second stage of the response. Also, the net vectors of the initial stances, particularly, are angled with respect to the body, with the power strokes of the inner legs produced during promotion and those of the outer legs produced during remotion. Unlike straight and curve walking in the crayfish, there is no discernible pattern of contralateral leg coordination during defense turns. Similarities and differences between defense turns and curve walking are discussed. It is apparent that rotation in place, as in defense turns, is not a simple variation on straight or curve walking but a distinct

  11. Influence of bus stop with left-turn lines between two adjacent signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ming-Bao; Ye, Lan-Hang; Pei, Ya-Nan

    2016-08-01

    Based on the symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a three-lane cellular automaton model between two intersections containing a bus stop with left-turning buses is established in which model the occurrences of vehicle accidents are taken into account. The characteristics of traffic flows with different ratios of left-turn lines are discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that the left-turn lines have more negative effects on capacity, accident rate as well as delay if the stop is located close to the intersections, where the negative effect in a near-side stop is more severe than that in a far-side one. The range of appropriate position for a bus stop without the bottleneck effect becomes more and more narrow with the increase of the ratio of left-turn bus lines. When the inflow is small, a short signal cycle and a reasonable offset are beneficial. When the inflow reaches or exceeds the capacity, a longer signal cycle is helpful. But if the stop position is inappropriate, the increase of cycle fails in reducing the negative effect of left-turning buses and the effectiveness of offset is weakened. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50478088) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2015202266).

  12. A NUMERICAL STUDY ON A SIMPLIFIED TAIL MODEL FOR TURNING FISH IN C-START

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; TONG Bing-gang

    2006-01-01

    Most freshwater fish are good at turning manoeuvres. A simulated fish tail model was numerically investigated and discussed in detail. This study deals with unsteady forces and moment exerted on the fish tail-fin in an initial sideways stroke and a subsequent return stroke motion, and visualizes the flow fields and vortex structures, in order to explore the flow control mechanism of the typical turning motion of fish. Further discussion on fluid dynamic consequences corresponding to two different bending forms of fish tail-fins in its C-start is given. The two-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a developed pseudo-compressibility method to simulate the flow around the fish tail-fin. The computed results and the comparison with experiments indicate that (1) fish performs a turning motion of its body using the impulsive moment produced by the to-and-fro stroke, and each stage of the process exhibits its specific hydrodynamic characteristic, (2) fishes adopt two forms of tail-tip bend (single bend and double bend) to accomplish a C-start turning manoeuvre, in dependence of their physical situations and natural environments, (3) fish can control its turning motion by modulating some key kinematic parameters.

  13. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme J. Caspall, MS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the addition of several accessories had various effects on rotational inertias. The configuration with the highest rotational inertia (solid tires, mag wheels with rearward axle exceeded the configuration with the lowest (pneumatic tires, spoke wheels with forward axle by 28%. The greater inertia requires increased torque to accelerate the wheelchair during turning. At a representative maximum acceleration, the reactive torque spanned the range of 11.7 to 15.0 N-m across the wheelchair configurations. At higher accelerations, these torques exceeded that required to overcome caster scrub during turning. These results indicate that a wheelchair's rotational inertia can significantly influence the torque required during turning and that this influence will affect active users who turn at higher speeds. Categorizing wheelchairs using both mass and rotational inertia would better represent differences in effort during wheelchair maneuvers.

  14. Travel Time Model for Right-Turning Vehicles of Secondary Street at Unsignalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The travel time of right-turning vehicles on secondary street at unsignalized intersection is discussed in this paper. Under the assumption that the major-street through vehicles’ headway follows Erlang distribution and secondary-street right-turning vehicles’ headway follows Poisson distribution. The right-turning vehicles travel time model is established on the basis of gap theory and M/G/1 queue theory. Comparison is done with the common model based on the assumption that the major-street vehicles’ headway follows Poisson distribution. An intersection is selected to verify each model. The results show that the model established in this paper has stronger applicability, and its most relative error is less than 15%. In addition, the sensitivity analysis has been done. The results show that right-turning flow rate and major-street flow rate have a significant impact on the travel time. Hence, the methodology for travel time of right-turning vehicles at unsignalized intersection proposed in this paper is effective and applicable.

  15. Multiobjective Traffic Signal Control Model for Intersection Based on Dynamic Turning Movements Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time traffic signal control for intersection requires dynamic turning movements as the basic input data. It is impossible to detect dynamic turning movements directly through current traffic surveillance systems, but dynamic origin-destination (O-D estimation can obtain it. However, the combined models of dynamic O-D estimation and real-time traffic signal control are rare in the literature. A framework for the multiobjective traffic signal control model for intersection based on dynamic O-D estimation (MSC-DODE is presented. A state-space model using Kalman filtering is first formulated to estimate the dynamic turning movements; then a revised sequential Kalman filtering algorithm is designed to solve the model, and the root mean square error and mean percentage error are used to evaluate the accuracy of estimated dynamic turning proportions. Furthermore, a multiobjective traffic signal control model is put forward to achieve real-time signal control parameters and evaluation indices. Finally, based on practical survey data, the evaluation indices from MSC-DODE are compared with those from Webster method. The actual and estimated turning movements are further input into MSC-DODE, respectively, and results are also compared. Case studies show that results of MSC-DODE are better than those of Webster method and are very close to unavailable actual values.

  16. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspall, Jayme J; Seligsohn, Erin; Dao, Phuc V; Sprigle, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the addition of several accessories had various effects on rotational inertias. The configuration with the highest rotational inertia (solid tires, mag wheels with rearward axle) exceeded the configuration with the lowest (pneumatic tires, spoke wheels with forward axle) by 28%. The greater inertia requires increased torque to accelerate the wheelchair during turning. At a representative maximum acceleration, the reactive torque spanned the range of 11.7 to 15.0 N-m across the wheelchair configurations. At higher accelerations, these torques exceeded that required to overcome caster scrub during turning. These results indicate that a wheelchair's rotational inertia can significantly influence the torque required during turning and that this influence will affect active users who turn at higher speeds. Categorizing wheelchairs using both mass and rotational inertia would better represent differences in effort during wheelchair maneuvers.

  17. SEARCHING FOR CRITERIA IN EVALUATING THE MONOFIN SWIMMING TURN FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF COACHING AND IMPROVING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rejman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analysise the selected kinematic parameters of the monofin swimming turn. The high complexity of performing turns is hindered by the large surface of the monofin, which disturbs control and sense of the body in water. A lack of objective data available on monofin swimming turns has resulted in field research connected with the specification of parameters needed for the evaluation of the technique. Therefore, turns observed in elite swimmers contain underlying conclusions for objective criteria, ensuring the highest level of coaching and the improving of turns in young swimmers. Six, high level, male swimmers participated in the study. The subject of the analysis was the fastest turn, from one out of three trial turns made after swimming a distance of 25 m. Images of the turns were collected from two cameras located under water in accordance with the procedures of the previous analyses of freestyle turns. The images were digitized and analysed by the SIMI®- Movement Analysis System. The interdependency of the total turn time and the remaining recorded parameters, constituted the basis for analysis of the kinematic parameters of five turn phases. The interdependency was measured using r- Pearson's correlation coefficients. The novel character of the subject covered in this study, forced interpretation of the results on the basis of turn analyses in freestyle swimming. The results allow for the creation of a diagram outlinig area of search for an effective and efficient monofin swimming turn mechanism. The activities performed from the moment of wall contact until the commencement of stroking seem to be crucial for turn improvement. A strong belief has resulted that, the correct monofin swimming turn, is more than just a simple consequence of the fastest performance of all its components. The most important criteria in evaluating the quality of the monofin swimming turn are: striving for the optimal extension of wall contact

  18. Turning Processes: The Change of Representations in Consultee-Centered Case Consultation. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology No. 74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Ingrid

    This study investigates sudden changes in the consultee-centered case consultation method. Three types of sudden changes in consultation were identified: (1) turnings, (2) turning points, and (3) shifts. The first part of this study explores the turning of the consultee's representation of his/her interaction to the client. The second part…

  19. Ribbon structure stabilized by C10 and C12 turns in αγ hybrid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Naiem Ahmad; Kant, Rajni; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Aravinda, Subrayashastry; Rai, Rajkishor

    2016-04-01

    The present study describes the synthesis and crystallographic analysis of αγ hybrid peptides, Boc-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (1), Boc-Aib-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (2), and Boc-L-Pro-Aib-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (3). Peptides 1 and 2 adopt expanded 12-membered (C12 ) helical turn over γα segment. Peptide 3 promotes the ribbon structure stabilized by type II β-turn (C10 ) followed by the expanded C12 helical γα turn. Both right-handed and left-handed helical conformations for Aib residue are observed in peptides 2 and 3, respectively Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27028205

  20. Cruise and turning performance of an improved fish robot actuated by piezoceramic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang Sang; Heo, Seok; Park, Hoon Cheol; Goo, Nam Seo; Byun, Doyoung

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study is improvement of a fish robot actuated by four light-weight piezocomposite actuators (LIPCAs). In the fish robot, we developed a new actuation mechanism working without any gear and thus the actuation mechanism was simple in fabrication. By using the new actuation mechanism, cross section of the fish robot became 30% smaller than that of the previous model. Performance tests of the fish robot in water were carried out to measure tail-beat angle, thrust force, swimming speed and turning radius for tail-beat frequencies from 1Hz to 5Hz. The maximum swimming speed of the fish robot was 7.7 cm/s at 3.9Hz tail-beat frequency. Turning experiment showed that swimming direction of the fish robot could be controlled with 0.41 m turning radius by controlling tail-beat angle.

  1. Optimization of machining parameters of turning operations based on multi performance criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K.Mandal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of optimum machining parameters plays a significant role to ensure quality of product, to reduce the manufacturing cost and to increase productivity in computer controlled manufacturing process. For many years, multi-objective optimization of turning based on inherent complexity of process is a competitive engineering issue. This study investigates multi-response optimization of turning process for an optimal parametric combination to yield the minimum power consumption, surface roughness and frequency of tool vibration using a combination of a Grey relational analysis (GRA. Confirmation test is conducted for the optimal machining parameters to validate the test result. Various turning parameters, such as spindle speed, feed and depth of cut are considered. Experiments are designed and conducted based on full factorial design of experiment.

  2. Intervention measures, turning point, and reproduction number for dengue, Singapore, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Ma, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The 2005 dengue outbreak in Singapore cumulated in > 14,000 cases and 27 reported dengue deaths. We fit the single-phase Richards model to weekly dengue notification numbers to detect the turning point for the outbreak, which enables us to study the impact of intervention measures relating to the turning point. The results indicate that turning point had most likely occurred in late August or early September, before large-scale intervention measures were implemented. The "initial" reproduction number for the outbreak is estimated to be ~1.89-2.23 (95% confidence interval: 1.15-3.00). One of the lessons learned from the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak is that multiple phases of outbreak were observed in some affected countries when efforts to intensify intervention or to sustain vigilance were compromised. Intensive and continuing efforts in the implementation of control measures are essential in reducing further dengue occurrences during any resurgence of dengue.

  3. Tolerancing of single point diamond turned diffractive optical elements and optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, R. F.

    2007-10-01

    Single point diamond turning has an increasing importance with the production of the surfaces for different optical systems such as infrared systems, prototype production of mobile phone cameras or head mounted displays with plastic lenses or master manufacturing for the injection moulding of plastic lenses for mass products. Tolerances which occur during single point diamond turning of aspheric surfaces and diffractive elements or during polar coordinate laser plotting of Computer-generated holograms will be treated. In both cases we expect similar tolerances, because the work piece is rotated in both diamond turning and laser plotting. The purpose is to understand the typical tolerances and to simulate their influence to the aberrations in the optical system.

  4. One for You, One for Me: Humans' Unique Turn-Taking Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Alicia P; Grocke, Patricia; Kalbitz, Josefine; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Long-term collaborative relationships require that any jointly produced resources be shared in mutually satisfactory ways. Prototypically, this sharing involves partners dividing up simultaneously available resources, but sometimes the collaboration makes a resource available to only one individual, and any sharing of resources must take place across repeated instances over time. Here, we show that beginning at 5 years of age, human children stabilize cooperation in such cases by taking turns across instances of obtaining a resource. In contrast, chimpanzees do not take turns in this way, and so their collaboration tends to disintegrate over time. Alternating turns in obtaining a collaboratively produced resource does not necessarily require a prosocial concern for the other, but rather requires only a strategic judgment that partners need incentives to continue collaborating. These results suggest that human beings are adapted for thinking strategically in ways that sustain long-term cooperative relationships and that are absent in their nearest primate relatives. PMID:27225221

  5. Diamond-turning HP-21 beryllium to achieve an optical surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of diamond turning on beryllium was made in anticipation of obtaining an optical finish. Although results of past experiences were poor, it was decided to continue diamond turning on beryllium beyond initial failures. By changing speed and using coolant, partial success was achieved. Tool wear was the major problem. Tests were made to establish and plot wear as a function of cutting speed and time. Slower speeds did cause lower wear rates, but at no time did wear reach an acceptable level. The machine, tools, and procedure used were chosen based on the results of preliminary attempts and on previous experience. It was unnecessary to use an air-bearing spindle because tool failure governed the best finish that could be expected. All tools of diamond composition, whether single crystal or polycrystalline, wore at unacceptable rates. Based on present technology, it must be concluded that beryllium cannot be feasibly diamond turned to achieve an optical finish. (22 fig.)

  6. Physical Modeling of Contact Processes on the Cutting Tools Surfaces of STM When Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerov, V. A.; Uteshev, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes how to create an optimization model of the process of fine turning of superalloys and steel tools from STM on CNC machines, flexible manufacturing units (GPM), machining centers. Creation of the optimization model allows you to link (unite) contact processes simultaneously on the front and back surfaces of the tool from STM to manage contact processes and the dynamic strength of the cutting tool at the top of the STM. Established optimization model of management of the dynamic strength of the incisors of the STM in the process of fine turning is based on a previously developed thermomechanical (physical, heat) model, which allows the system thermomechanical approach to choosing brands STM (domestic and foreign) for cutting tools from STM designed for fine turning of heat resistant alloys and steels.

  7. Optimization of process parameters in CNC turning of aluminium alloy using hybrid RSM cum TLBO approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrapati, R.; Sahoo, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of the present work is to analyse the significance of turning parameters on surface roughness in computer numerically controlled (CNC) turning operation while machining of aluminium alloy material. Spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut have been considered as machining parameters. Experimental runs have been conducted as per Box-Behnken design method. After experimentation, surface roughness is measured by using stylus profile meter. Factor effects have been studied through analysis of variance. Mathematical modelling has been done by response surface methodology, to made relationships between the input parameters and output response. Finally, process optimization has been made by teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm. Predicted turning condition has been validated through confirmatory experiment.

  8. Oscillatory features in the curvature power spectrum after a sudden turn of the inflationary trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of two-field inflation characterized by a light direction and a heavy direction, we revisit the question of the impact of the massive modes on the power spectrum produced after a turn in the inflationary trajectory. We consider in particular the resonant effect due to the background oscillations following a sharp turn. Working in the mass basis, i.e. in the basis spanned by the eigenvectors of the effective mass matrix for the perturbations, we provide an analytical estimate of the resonant effect, using the in-in formalism. In comparison with earlier estimates, we find the same the spectral dependence but a smaller amplitude. We also compute, again via the in-in formalism, the effect of the direct coupling between the light and heavy modes at the instant of the turn and confirm our previous results obtained via a different method

  9. Evaluating the Operational Features of an Unconventional Dual-Bay U-Turn Design for Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yun; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jingxu; Wang, Hao; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Median U-turn intersection treatment (MUTIT) has been considered an alternative measure to reduce congestion and traffic conflict at intersection areas. The MUTIT is sometimes difficult to implement in the field because it requires wide median on arterials for U-turn vehicles. The objective of this study is to introduce an unconventional U-turn treatment (UUT) for intersections which requires less median space but is also effective. The UUT has a dual-bay design with different turning radiuses for small and large vehicles. The VISSIM simulation model was developed to evaluate the operational features of the UUT. The model was calibrated using data collected from intersections in China. The capacity, delay and number of stops were evaluated and compared with the direct-left-turn (DLT) for the same intersections. The results showed that the UUT significantly improved the operations at intersection areas, especially when volume/capacity ratio is small, and ratio of left-turn to through traffic is small. With the UUT, the capacity is increased by 9.81% to 10.38%, vehicle delay is decreased by 18.5% to 40.1%, and number of stops is decreased by 23.19% to 36.62%, when volume/capacity ratio is less than 0.50. The study also found that traffic efficiency could be further improved when the UUT is designed in conjunction with signal control. In the case, the UUT plus signalized control increases the capacity by 25% to 26.02%, decreases vehicle delay by 50.5% to 55.8%, and reduces number of stops by 69.5%, compared with the traditional DLT. PMID:27467127

  10. 3D kinematic and dynamic analysis of the front crawl tumble turn in elite male swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puel, F; Morlier, J; Avalos, M; Mesnard, M; Cid, M; Hellard, P

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify kinematic and dynamic variables related to the best tumble turn times (3mRTT, the turn time from 3-m in to 3-m out, independent variable) in ten elite male swimmers using a three-dimensional (3D) underwater analysis protocol and the Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) as statistical method. For each swimmer, the best-time turn was analyzed with five stationary and synchronized underwater cameras. The 3D reconstruction was performed using the Direct Linear Transformation algorithm. An underwater piezoelectric 3D force platform completed the set-up to compute dynamic variables. Data were smoothed by the Savitzky-Golay filtering method. Three variables were considered relevant in the best Lasso model (3mRTT=2.58-0.425 RD+0.204 VPe+0.0046 TD): the head-wall distance where rotation starts (RD), the horizontal speed at the force peak (VPe), and the 3D length of the path covered during the turn (TD). Furthermore, bivariate analysis showed that upper body (CUBei) and lower limb extension indexes at first contact (CLLei) were also linked to the turn time (r=-0.65 and pvariables). Thus the best turn times were associated with a long RD, slower VPe and reduced TD. By an early transverse rotation, male elite swimmers reach the wall with a slightly flexed posture that results in fast extension. These swimmers opt for a movement that is oriented forward and they focus on reducing the distance covered. PMID:22176710

  11. Evaluating the Operational Features of an Unconventional Dual-Bay U-Turn Design for Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yun; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jingxu; Wang, Hao; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Median U-turn intersection treatment (MUTIT) has been considered an alternative measure to reduce congestion and traffic conflict at intersection areas. The MUTIT is sometimes difficult to implement in the field because it requires wide median on arterials for U-turn vehicles. The objective of this study is to introduce an unconventional U-turn treatment (UUT) for intersections which requires less median space but is also effective. The UUT has a dual-bay design with different turning radiuses for small and large vehicles. The VISSIM simulation model was developed to evaluate the operational features of the UUT. The model was calibrated using data collected from intersections in China. The capacity, delay and number of stops were evaluated and compared with the direct-left-turn (DLT) for the same intersections. The results showed that the UUT significantly improved the operations at intersection areas, especially when volume/capacity ratio is small, and ratio of left-turn to through traffic is small. With the UUT, the capacity is increased by 9.81% to 10.38%, vehicle delay is decreased by 18.5% to 40.1%, and number of stops is decreased by 23.19% to 36.62%, when volume/capacity ratio is less than 0.50. The study also found that traffic efficiency could be further improved when the UUT is designed in conjunction with signal control. In the case, the UUT plus signalized control increases the capacity by 25% to 26.02%, decreases vehicle delay by 50.5% to 55.8%, and reduces number of stops by 69.5%, compared with the traditional DLT. PMID:27467127

  12. Electromechanical analysis of a prototype 20 TESLA, single turn toroidal field coil for IGNITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fusion ignition experiment (IGNITEX) device is a single turn coil tokamak designed to produce and control an ignited plasma using ohmic heating alone. The proposed high strength toroidal field (TF) magnet operates at a magnetic field on axis of 20 T, using homopolar generators (HPGs). In this paper, the electromechanical analysis of a scaled down prototype (0.06 scale in linear dimensions) of the IGNITEX TF magnet is presented. The objective of the Ignition Technology, Demonstration (ITD) program is to design, build, and test the operation of a single turn, 20 T, TF coil, powered by an existing: HPG power supply system. Unlike conventional TF coils that use: multiple turns of the conductor, the single turn coil eliminates the need for turn-to-turn insulation; therefore, better utilizing the available area for stress and thermal management. Precooling of the coil to liquid-nitrogen temperature permits the magnet to operate in a wider temperature regime without exceeding material properties. Scaling relationships presented in this paper show that temperatures and stresses of a scaled-down coil and their relative distribution will approximate predicted levels of the full-scale IGNITEX device. A finite element program (TEXCOR) which solves a set of coupled electrical circuit, magnetic diffusion, and thermal diffusion equations with temperature dependent properties was developed. TEXCOR provides temperatures and magnetic body force densities for stress analysis of the magnet structure. The effect of flatness tolerance stackups in the TF coil assembly is discussed and methods to characterize and minimize the negative effect of nonideal conditions are given. Generator fault scenarios are also addressed. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  13. Using accelerometry to quantify deceleration during a high-intensity soccer turning manoeuvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedergaard, Niels Jensby; Kersting, Uwe; Lake, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The mechanics of cutting movements have been investigated extensively, but few studies have considered the rapid deceleration phase prior to turning which has been linked to muscle damage. This study used accelerometry to examine the influence of turning intensity on the last three steps of a severe turn. Ten soccer players performed 135° "V" cuts at five different intensities. Resultant decelerations were recorded from a trunk-mounted tri-axial accelerometer. Lower limb kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRF) from the pivot foot-ground contact (FGC) were also monitored. Average peak trunk decelerations were larger at the two preceding steps (4.37 ± 0.12 g and 4.58 ± 0.11 g) compared to the PIVOT step (4.10 ± 0.09 g). Larger peak joint flexion angular velocities were observed at PRE step (ankle: 367 ± 192 deg.s(-1); knee 493 ± 252  deg.s(-1)) compared to PIVOT step (ankle 255 ± 183 deg.s(-1); knee 377 ± 229 deg.s(-1)). Turn intensity did not influence peak GRF at PIVOT step. This study highlights the importance of steps prior to turning and their high-frequency loading characteristics. It is suggested that investigations of lower limb loading during turning should include this deceleration phase and not focus solely on pivot FGC. PMID:25394197

  14. Acetate selective fluorescent turn-on sensors derived using vitamin B6 cofactor pyridoxal-5-phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Darshna; Kuba, Aman; Thomas, Rini; Ashok Kumar, S. K.; Kuwar, Anil; Choi, Heung-Jin; Sahoo, Suban K.

    2016-03-01

    Two new Schiff base receptors have been synthesized by condensation of pyridoxal-5-phosphate with 2-aminophenol (L1) or aniline (L2). In DMSO, the receptors showed both chromogenic and 'turn-on' fluorescence responses selectively in the presence of AcO- and F-. However, in mixed DMSO-H2O medium, the receptors showed AcO- selective 'turn-on' fluorescence without any interference from other tested anions including F-. The detection limit for AcO- was found to be 7.37 μM and 22.9 μM using the receptors L1 and L2, respectively.

  15. A novel fluorescent turn-on probe for bisulfite based on NBD chromophore

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Puhui Xie; Guangqin Gao; Wenjie Zhang; Guoyu Yang; Qiu Jin

    2015-07-01

    A novel fluorescent turn-on probe (compound 1) for bisulfite based on 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) chromophore has been developed. Its sensing behavior toward various anions was investigated by absorption and fluorescence techniques. This probe shows a selective, turn-on fluorescent response and ratiometric colorimetric response toward bisulfite in aqueous acetonitrile solutions. The possible recognition mechanism of probe 1 toward bisulfite was illustrated by MS spectra analysis and DFT calculations Probe 1 was used to determine bisulfite in real-life samples with good recoveries.

  16. 车铣床的设计%The Design of Turning & Milling Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺军; 李伯奎

    2011-01-01

    设计一种简单的车铣床,利用卧式铣床的现有条件,增加拖板、尾架和心轴等附件,实现车、铣的双重功能.该机床结构简单、使用方便.%A simple turning & milling machine was designed. Through adding adjuncts of carriage, tailstock, mandrel, double functions of turning and milling were achieved based on the horizontal milling machine. The machine has simple structure and convenient operation.

  17. Diamond turning of high-precision roll-to-roll imprinting molds for fabricating subwavelength gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Yan, Jiwang; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2016-06-01

    Diamond turning of high-precision molds is a vital process for the roll-to-roll-based ultraviolet resin imprinting process in fabricating subwavelength gratings. The effects of the grating shape and grating period on diffraction efficiencies and diffraction angles were simulated. Experiments were then conducted to examine the effects of shape design, grating period, and cutting speed on machinability of the mold. According to the optical measurement results, the performance of the subwavelength gratings matched the design well at various incident angles. The results confirm that diamond turning of high-precision molds is a feasible approach for ensuring the continual mass production of subwavelength gratings.

  18. An Expert System for the Prediction of Surface Finish in Turning Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U; S; Dixit; K; Acharyya; A; D; Sahasrabudhe

    2002-01-01

    Prediction of surface finish in turning process is a difficult but important task. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) can reliably pred ict the surface finish but require a lot of training data. To overcome this prob lem, an expert system approach is proposed, wherein it will be possible to predi ct the surface finish from limited experiments. The expert system contains a kno wledge base prepared from machining data handbooks and number of experiments con ducted by turning steel rods, over a wide range of c...

  19. Electrolyte and Water Balance of the Early Avian Embryo: Effects of Egg Turning

    OpenAIRE

    Baggott, Glenn K.; Deeming, D.C.; Latter, G.V.

    2002-01-01

    Formation of sub-embryonic fluid (SEF) is a key aspect of the physiology of the early avian embryo.Here we review the process of SEF formation and the factors which influence its composition and the rate of SEF production and depletion in the Japanese quail and domestic fowl.There is particular emphasis on the role of turning of the egg during incubation and we briefly consider the broader role of egg turning during avian incubation. The bulk of the review deals with the growth of the area...

  20. Reliable tool life measurements in turning - an application to cutting fluid efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    ) provides efficiency evaluation. Six cutting oils, five of which formulated from vegetable basestock, were evaluated in turning. Experiments were run in a range of cutting parameters. according to a 2, 3-1 factorial design, machining AISI 316L stainless steel with coated carbide tools. Tool life......The paper proposes a method to obtain reliable measurements of tool life in turning, discussing some aspects related to experimental procedure and measurement accuracy. The method (i) allows and experimental determination of the extended Taylor's equation, with a limited set of experiments and (ii...