Sample records for c7-c8 propenyl side

  1. 40 CFR 721.275 - Halogenated-N-(2-propenyl)-N-(substituted phenyl) acetamide. (United States)


    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant... identified generically as halogenated-N-(2-propenyl)-N-(substituted phenyl) acetamide (P-83-1085) is subject... section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping. The following recordkeeping requirements...

  2. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-l-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract. (United States)

    Kodera, Yukihioro; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Amano, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Jun-Ichiro; Matsutomo, Toshiaki


    S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (S1PC) is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (SAC), an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE). The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960's. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88-100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  3. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihioro Kodera


    Full Text Available S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-cysteine (S1PC is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-cysteine (SAC, an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE. The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960’s. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88–100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  4. Consumption and metabolism of 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(3-fluoro-2-propenyl)benzene, a fluorine analog of methyl eugenol, in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). (United States)

    Khrimian, Ashot; Jang, Eric B; Nagata, Janice; Carvalho, Lori


    Methyl eugenol (ME) is a natural phenylpropanoid highly attractive to oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) males. The flies eagerly feed on ME and produce hydroxylated metabolites with both pheromonal and allomonal functions. Side-chain metabolic activation of ME has long been recognized as a primary reason for hepatocarcinogenicity of this compound on rodents. In an attempt to develop a safer alternative to ME for fruit fly management, we developed a fluorine analog 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(3-fluoro-2-propenyl)benzene (I), which, in earlier field tests, was as active to the oriental fruit fly as ME. Now we report that B. dorsalis males are not only attracted to, but also eagerly consume (up to approximately 1 mg/insect) compound I, thus recognizing this fluorinated benzene as a close kin of the natural ME. The flies metabolized the fluorine analog I in a similar fashion producing mostly two hydroxylated products, 2-(3-fluoro-2-propenyl)-4,5-dimethoxyphenol (II) and (E)-coniferyl alcohol (III), which they stored in rectal glands. However, the introduction of the fluorine atom at the terminal carbon atom of the double bond favors the ring hydroxylation over a side-chain metabolic oxidation pathway, by which coniferyl alcohol is produced. It also appears that fluorination overall impedes the metabolism: at high feed rate (10 mul per 10 males), the flies consumed in total more fluorine analog I than ME but were unable to metabolize it as efficiently as ME.

  5. Anti-herpes simplex virus and anti-human cell growth activity of E-5-propenyl-2'-deoxyuridine and the concept of selective protection in antivirus chemotherapy. (United States)

    Cheng, Y C; Grill, S; Ruth, J; Bergstrom, D E


    E-5-Propenyl-2'-deoxyuridine (E-5-propenyl-dUrd) inhibited the growth of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 in culture. The concentration of drug required to give a 2-log reduction in virus titer was 5 microM for HSV-1 and 23 microM for HSV-2. The anti-HSV-1 activity of this agent was more potent than 5-propyl-dUrd, equivalent to E-5(3,3,3-trifluoropropenyl)-dUrd, and less potent than E-5-bromovinyl-dUrd. The HSV-1 mutant (B2006) lacking the ability to induce virus-specific thymidine kinase could not be inhibited by E-5-propenyl-dUrd. The binding constants of E-5-propenyl-dUrd to HSV-1, HSV-2, varicella-zoster virus, and human mitochondrial thymidine kinases were established to be 0.2, 6.2, 0.3, and 0.8 microM, respectively. Thymidine phosphorylation catalyzed by human cytosol thymidine kinase could not be inhibited by E-5-propenyl-dUrd at a concentration 10-fold higher than the thymidine in the assay. When thymidine and E-5-propenyl-dUrd were added concomitantly at equal concentrations to virus-infected cells, the antiviral activity was not reversed in HSV-1 and only partially reversed in HSV-2. E-5-Propenyl-dUrd also inhibited the growth of human cells in culture with 50% inhibitory dose of 50 microM. Since this inhibition could be readily reversed by a lower concentration of thymidine, the idea of selective protection is proposed. This approach could avoid the cytotoxic effect of an antiviral agent with properties similar to E-5-propenyl-dUrd without sacrificing antiviral activity.

  6. (E-3-Methyl-6-(3-oxo-3-(thiophen-2-yl-1-propenyl-2(3H-benzothiazolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka Ivanova


    Full Text Available The title compound, (E-3-methyl-6-(3-oxo-3-(thiophen-2-yl-1-propenyl-2(3H-benzothiazolone, was synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 3-methyl-2(3H-benzothiazolone-6-carbaldehyde with 2-acetylthiophene in 94% yield. The structure of the target compound was confirmed using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, MS, and elemental analysis.

  7. Determination of S-methyl-, S-propyl-, and S-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxides by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after tert-butyldimethylsilylation. (United States)

    Tsuge, Kouichiro; Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo


    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the determination of S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1), S-propyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (2), and S-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (3), specific marker compounds in the genus Allium, is described. The target amino acids were converted to the tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. The products were silylated on the amino and carboxyl groups and on an additional oxygen atom and were separated on a nonpolar capillary column. That incorporation of three tert-butyldimethylsilyl groups had occurred was verified by mass spectrometry, which gave an m/z 302 fragment as base peak (amino acid side chain eliminated ion) and m/z 436 (1), 464 (2), or 462 (3) as major peaks (tert-butyl function eliminated ion), by electron impact ionization. The detection limits for 1 and 2 under selected ion monitoring at m/z 436 (1) and m/z 464 (2), respectively, were determined to be 0.3 and 1.8 ng per injection. To clean up the analytes from the solvent extract of onion, as a representative food material, onion, the sample solution was subjected to combined solid phase extraction. The eluate from a Sep-Pak C(18) cartridge was applied to a Bond Elut SCX cartridge (H(+) form), followed by washing with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and elution with 0.5 M ammonia. From a simulated matrix solution containing 5% sucrose, 1 and 2 were extracted quantitatively, and the detection yield was approximately 75%. The contents of 1, 2, and 3 in commercial onion were estimated to be 0.3, 3.1, and 3.0 mg, respectively, per gram of fresh weight.

  8. Side Effects (United States)

    Side effects are problems that occur when cancer treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about. Learn about treatments for side effects.

  9. Synthesis of tritium and carbon-14 labelled N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-6-(2-propenyl) ergoline-8. beta. -carboxamide (cabergoline), a potent long lasting prolactin lowering agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantegani, S.; Brambilla, E.; Ermoli, A.; Fontana, E.; Angiuli, P.; Vicario, G.P. (Farmitalia Carlo Erba s.r.l., Milan (Italy))


    The syntheses of {sup 3}H- and {sup 14}C-labelled cabergoline and its analogues are described. Tritiated cabergoline (({sup 3}H)cabergoline), namely N-(3-di-methylaminopropyl)-N-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-6-(2-(2,3-{sup 3}H)-propenyl)ergoline-8{beta}-carboxamide, was obtained, by catalytic reduction with tritium gas, according to two different synthetic procedures: A- a three step route, starting from 6-(2-propargyl)-dihydro lysergic acid-methyl ester gave ({sup 3}H)cabergoline, B - a one step route, starting from 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-3-(6'-(2-propargyl)ergoline-8'-carbonyl )-urea 5' yielded ({sup 3}H)cabergoline. A modification of this last procedure also gave ({sup 3}H)dihydro cabergoline. The synthesis of ({sup 14}C)cabergoline was carried out, in a three step route, by addition of potassium ({sup 14}C)cyanide to 6-(2-propenyl)-8-chloroergoline to give the expected N-(dimethylaminopropyl)-N-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-6-(2-propenyl)-ergoline-8-({sup 14}C)carboxamide, 97% radiochemically pure with a specific radioactivity of 2.09 GBq/mmol and an overall radiochemical yield of 16%. (author).

  10. Changes in trans-S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine Sulfoxide and Related Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids during Onion Storage. (United States)

    Kamata, Yasuhiro; Aoyagi, Morihiro; Sawada, Yuji; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Saito, Kazuki; Imai, Shinsuke


    trans-S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) is the most abundant flavor precursor in onions. The changes in PRENCSO, its biosynthetic precursors, and cycloalliin contents in bulbs stored at 0 °C [i.e., recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)] are investigated. Ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed larger amounts of PRENCSO and cycloalliin, which were stoichiometrically balanced by the decrease in the combined amounts of the three biosynthetic precursors. The molar balance of the PRENCSO biosynthesis process during onion storage was explained well by the changes of these five compounds. High-throughput integrated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was employed to analyze multiple samples at 5 and 20 °C. The molar concentration data, converted using linear regression equations, showed a similar molar balance for the PRENCSO biosynthesis process comprising these five compounds during storage at all temperatures tested. Furthermore, the content of cycloalliin significantly increased at the expense of that of PRENCSO during storage at 20 °C.

  11. Thermoresponsive Poly(2-oxazoline) Molecular Brushes by Living Ionic Polymerization: Kinetic Investigations of Pendant Chain Grafting and Cloud Point Modulation by Backbone and Side Chain Length Variation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning


    Molecular brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s were prepared by living anionic polymerization of 2-iso-propenyl-2-oxazoline to form the backbone and subsequent living cationic ring-opening polymerization of 2-n- or 2-iso-propyl-2-oxazoline for pendant chain grafting. In situ kinetic studies indicate that the initiation efficiency and polymerization rates are independent from the number of initiator functions per initiator molecule. This was attributed to the high efficiency of oxazolinium salt and the stretched conformation of the backbone, which is caused by the electrostatic repulsion of the oxazolinium moieties along the macroinitiator. The resulting molecular brushes showed thermoresponsive properties, that is, having a defined cloud point (CP). The dependence of the CP as a function of backbone and side chain length as well as concentration was studied. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Death by side rail. (United States)

    Brown, Sarah; Whitbread, Luana


    This study determined the prevalence of side rail use in chronic care units and the reduction of side rail use following education. An audit conducted in 2005 and repeated in 2007 looked at the number of side rails that were used and the reasons for this use. An educational presentation titled "Death by Side Rail" was provided for nurses and healthcare aides. Side rail use decreased by 60% from a prevalence of 90% of the population with side rails up on their beds. The primary reason for side rail use by nurses was determined to be "habit." Nurses no longer put up side rails out of habit, and they now assess the situation prior to the consideration of side rail use.

  13. Hardwood siding performance. (United States)

    Glenn A. Cooper


    A 6-year exposure test of three styles of siding made from nine hardwoods and given three treatments showed that full-length yellow-poplar vertical tongue-and-groove siding dip-treated in a water-repellent preservative performed best.

  14. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard


    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  15. Side Effects: Pain (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  16. Side Effects: Appetite Loss (United States)

    Cancer treatments may lower your appetite. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, or mouth sores can also making eating difficult. Learn how to eat well to avoid losing weight or becoming dehydrated, so you stay strong during treatment.

  17. Side Effects: Diarrhea (United States)

    Diarrhea, a side effect of cancer treatment, may cause symptoms such as loose, watery stools. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and malnutrition in cancer patients. Learn about ways to treat and manage diarrhea during cancer treatment.

  18. Side Effects: Fatigue (United States)

    Fatigue is a common side effect of many cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Anemia and pain can also cause fatigue. Learn about symptoms and way to manage fatigue.

  19. Side Effects: Sleep Problems (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  20. Side Effects: Anemia (United States)

    Anemia is a side effect of cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It can make women and men feel fatigued, dizzy, and short of breath. Learn how to manage fatigue caused by anemia during cancer treatment.

  1. Side Effects of Chemotherapy (United States)

    ... Many vs Cancer Contact Us Side Effects of Chemotherapy Each of the chemotherapy drugs available today works in a slightly different ... few rules of thumb when it comes to chemotherapy that should always be kept in mind. Ignore ...

  2. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect]. (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro


    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  3. Forskningens personlige side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn


    Artiklen omhandler den ontologiske vending inden for universitetspædagogisk forskning, og redegør for hvorfor en mere personlig og eksistentiel side ved forskningen må medtænkes i universitetspædagogikken og -vejledningen. Udgivelsesdato: 24.11.08......Artiklen omhandler den ontologiske vending inden for universitetspædagogisk forskning, og redegør for hvorfor en mere personlig og eksistentiel side ved forskningen må medtænkes i universitetspædagogikken og -vejledningen. Udgivelsesdato: 24.11.08...

  4. Durability of hardboard siding (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Charles Carll


    In response to concerns about hardboard siding failures, a study was performed to assess if performance in a current hardboard industry quality assurance test procedure correlated with in-service performance and how well this performance might be predicted by use of alternative or additional test procedures. A variety of laboratory tests were performed on a large...

  5. Four Sided Seal Tester (United States)


    The Center for Advanced Food Technology School of Enviromental and Biological Sciences New Brunswick, NJ 08903 FTR 216 Defense Logistics Agency...specification for four sided seal tester as function of confinement plate distance” The following modifications were issued :  Jul 18, 2007 0013/01

  6. Working the Dark Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjering, Jens Christian Borrebye

    A few days after the terror attacks of 9/11, then Vice President Dick Cheney appeared on television with a call for “working the dark side.” While still unclear what this expression entailed at the time, Cheney's comment appears in retrospect to almost have been prophetic for the years to come...... – years where parts of the U.S. Army and intelligence community set up a rampant torture regime all across the world. Yet, the connection between a so-called “dark side,” “working” this “dark side,” and the torture that followed is not a given, but, instead, a consequence of a set of very specific legal......, political, and personal choices in the early years after 9/11. This dissertation is an investigation into how the notion of a “dark side” took form, and of how and why the specific make-up of this“dark side” ended up creating a torture regime which already today seems almost unreal. The dissertation's first...

  7. Moon - Western Near Side (United States)


    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

  8. Night Side Jovian Aurora (United States)


    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home

  9. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  10. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  11. Three sided complex adaptative systems

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hulst, R


    We introduce two three sided adaptative systems as toy models to mimic the exchange of commodities between buyers and sellers. These models are simple extensions of the minority game, exhibiting similar behaviour as well as some new features. The main difference between our two models is that in the first the three sides are equivalent while in the second, one choice appears as a compromise between the two other sides. Both models are investigated numerically and compared with the original minority game.

  12. Side to Side Probe Position improves Accuracy of Pulse Oximeter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternate fingers were painted with red, blue, purple, brown and black nail colours (experimental). The corresponding finger on the other hand served as control. SpO2 readings were obtained in the top to bottom and side to side probe positions. Results: In the top to bottom position, SpO2 values were recorded for all fingers ...

  13. Durability of Hardboard Lap Siding (United States)

    Charles Carll; Charles R. Boardman; Steve P. Verrill


    This paper describes a study that was undertaken to evaluate the degree of correlation between in-service performance of hardboard siding and its performance in the industry standard test procedure for “weatherability of substrate.” The study included 13 different hardboard sidings: 6 noncommercial boards and 7 commercial products. All manufacturing plants operating in...

  14. HIV Medicines and Side Effects (United States)

    ... Medicines HIV and Immunizations What is a Drug Interaction? Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects ... a life-threatening condition. Any swelling of the face, eyes, lips, throat, or ... effect that requires immediate medical attention. People with HIV ...

  15. Comparing Demand Side Management approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria


    Due to increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect, a more efficient energy supply is desirable, preferably based on renewable sources. To cope with the decrease of flexibility due to the introduction of renewables in production side of the supply chain, a more flexible consumer side is

  16. Techniques for siding manual phalanges. (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M


    Identifying the anatomical origin of skeletal elements is a basic and important part of a forensic anthropological investigation, but techniques for determining the side and ray of the phalanges are conspicuously scarce in the physical anthropology literature. Features of particular phalanges are important to aspects of archaeological and paleoanthropological studies, as well as for identification and trauma analysis in forensic cases. Correct siding of phalanges may therefore be quite critical in certain contexts. This study evaluates several siding techniques previously developed and/or described in a recent study by Case and Heilman (2000). Unlike in their study where observers were provided all phalange positional information except for side, observations in this study were undertaken with no positional information provided thus making the examinations more similar to those performed in a forensic context. Tests of phalange siding techniques were carried out on two skeletal samples: the Terry Collection at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History where the ray and side of phalanges are documented and phalange collections are often complete, and the Bass Collection at the University of Tennessee where phalange positional information is undocumented and where phalange collections are seldom complete. The features described by Case and Heilman were found to work quite well. In the documented (Terry) sample, there was a high rate of correct siding, up to 100% for several phalanges. In the undocumented (Bass) sample, the features could be used to side the phalanges to a reasonable degree of certainty, and certainty increased when both sides of a particular phalange were present. Finally, several other useful siding and ray identification features were identified.

  17. [Hemi-hypoglossal-facial intratemporal side to side anastomosis]. (United States)

    Lassaletta, Luis; González, Teresa; Casas, Pablo; Roda, José María; Moraleda, Susana; Gavilán, Javier


    Conventional hypoglossal-facial anastomosis and the interposition jump graft variation are the most popular techniques for facial nerve reconstruction resulting from proximal facial nerve injury. We present a modification of this technique, the hemi-hypoglossal facial intratemporal side to side anastomosis, which overcomes many of the failings of previous techniques. The method involves mobilization of the intratemporal facial nerve, which is anastomosed to a partially incised hypoglossal nerve. It is especially indicated in patients with multiple cranial nerve palsies.

  18. The DarkSide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, Ivone Freire Da Mota; Alexander, Thomas R.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, Henning O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, Bianca; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, Severino; Cadeddu, Matteo; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, Macro; Catalanotti, Sergio; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D' Angelo, D.; D' Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, Sandro; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, Mario; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, Giuseppe; Edkins, E.; Empl, Anton; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A.; Granato, Francesco; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M. Y.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B.; Herner, K.; Hungerford, Edward; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, Alexander; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y. Q.; Machulin, I.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, Alissa; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, James; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, Marco; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, Andrew; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Savarese, Claudio; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Singh, Parth; Skorokhvatov, Mikhail; Smirnov, Oleg; Sotnikov, Albert; Stanford, Chris; Suvorov, Yura; Tartaglia, Roberto; Tatarowicz, John; Testera, Gemma; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, Eugenii; Vishneva, Alina; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, Masayuki; Walker, Susan E.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, James; Wojcik, M.; Xiang, Xin; Xu, Jingke; Yang, C. G.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zec, Adam; Zhong, W. L.; Zhu, Chengliang; Zuzel, G.


    DarkSide is a graded experimental project based on radiopure argon, and is now, and will be, used in direct dark matter searches. The present DarkSide-50 detector, operating at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, is a dual-phase, 50 kg, liquid argon time-projection-chamber surrounded by an active liquid scintillator veto. It is designed to be background free in 3 years of operation. DS-50 performances, when filled with atmospheric argon, are reported. However DS-50 filled with underground argon, shows impressive reduction of the 39Ar isotope. The application of this powerful technology in a future generation of the DarkSide program is discussed.

  19. Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting (United States)

    Types of nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment include: anticipatory, acute, and delayed. Controlling these side effects will help to prevent serious problems such as malnutrition and dehydration in people with cancer.

  20. Coping – Late Side Effects (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  1. Side Effects: Infection and Neutropenia (United States)

    Infection and neutropenia can be serious side effects during cancer treatment. Chemotherapy can increase your risk. Learn how to prevent infection during treatment. Find out what signs and symptoms to call the doctor about.

  2. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia) (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  3. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Constipation Take these steps: Eat high-fiber foods such as: ● ● Whole-grain breads and cereals ● ● Fruits and vegetables ● ● Nuts and seeds ...

  4. Wood siding : installing, finishing, maintaining (United States)

    W.C. Feist; A.E. Oviatt


    Wood siding is put on houses for many good reasons. One reason is that it will keep the bright new “face” of any home attractive for many years to come. In fact, given reasonable care, wood siding will retain its beauty for centuries, as has been amply proved by its performance on houses that date back to early colonial times. It also has great versatility; and the...

  5. The Moon's near side megabasin and far side bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles


    Since Luna and Lunar Orbiter photographed the far side of the Moon, the mysterious dichotomy between the face of the Moon as we see it from Earth and the side of the Moon that is hidden has puzzled lunar scientists. As we learned more from the Apollo sample return missions and later robotic satellites, the puzzle literally deepened, showing asymmetry of the crust and mantle, all the way to the core of the Moon. This book summarizes the author’s successful search for an ancient impact feature, the Near Side Megabasin of the Moon and the extensions to impact theory needed to find it. The implications of this ancient event are developed to answer many of the questions about the history of the Moon.

  6. Brushless machine having ferromagnetic side plates and side magnets (United States)

    Hsu, John S


    An apparatus is provided having a cylindrical stator and a rotor that is spaced from a stator to define an annular primary air gap that receives AC flux from the stator. The rotor has a plurality of longitudinal pole portions disposed parallel to the axis of rotation and alternating in polarity around a circumference of the rotor. Each longitudinal pole portion includes portions of permanent magnet (PM) material and at least one of the longitudinal pole portions has a first end and an opposing second end and a side magnet is disposed adjacent the first end and a side pole is disposed adjacent the second end.

  7. Far Side of the Moon (United States)


    This image of the moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on Dec. 8 at 7 p.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft passed the Earth and was able to view the lunar surface from a vantage point not possible from the Earth. On the right-hand side of the image is seen the dark maria of Oceanus Procellarum, also visible from the Earth. The dark spots in the center are Mare Orientale, on the western limb of the nearside of the moon, a region barely visible from the Earth. This region and the bright far side highlands on the left have not been seen previously by a camera system such as the one on the Galileo spacecraft, which provides multispectral images of the lunar limb and far side which have not previously been obtained. Comparison of such images to those of the near-side areas from which Apollo astronauts have returned samples will help us understand the spectral properties and composition of the lunar far side.

  8. Social identity performance : Extending the strategic side of SIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Olivier; Spears, Russell; Reicher, Stephen

    This article extends the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) by considering the various ways in which relations of visibility to an audience can affect the public expression of identity-relevant norms (identity performance). It is suggested that social identity performance can

  9. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I


    be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations......The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects......, but in spite of this, few breast cancer patients know and follow the exercise recommendations needed to remain healthy. In this review, we describe the different breast cancer treatments and the related side effects and implications of exercise in relation to these. We propose that exercise could...

  10. The Dark Side of Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanlon, Gerard; Dunne, Stephen; Johnsen, Christian Garmann


    Towards the end of 2015, the ephemera collective organised, chaired and participated within two separate Q+A panels celebrating the launch of Gerard Hanlon’s The dark side of management: A secret history of management theory. The events took place in The University of Leicester’s School of Manage......Towards the end of 2015, the ephemera collective organised, chaired and participated within two separate Q+A panels celebrating the launch of Gerard Hanlon’s The dark side of management: A secret history of management theory. The events took place in The University of Leicester’s School...

  11. Dark Side of the Universe

    CERN Document Server


    The Dark Side of the Universe (DSU) workshops bring together a wide range of theorists and experimentalists to discuss current ideas on models of the dark side, and relate them to current and future experiments. This year's DSU will take place in the colorful Norwegian city of Bergen. Topics include dark matter, dark energy, cosmology, and physics beyond the standard model. One of the goals of the workshop is to expose in particular students and young researchers to the fascinating topics of dark matter and dark energy, and to provide them with the opportunity to meet some of the best researchers in these areas .

  12. Opioid complications and side effects. (United States)

    Benyamin, Ramsin; Trescot, Andrea M; Datta, Sukdeb; Buenaventura, Ricardo; Adlaka, Rajive; Sehgal, Nalini; Glaser, Scott E; Vallejo, Ricardo


    Medications which bind to opioid receptors are increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of multiple and diverse chronic painful conditions. Their use for acute pain or terminal pain is well accepted. Their role in the long-term treatment of chronic noncancer pain is, however, controversial for many reasons. One of the primary reasons is the well-known phenomenon of psychological addiction that can occur with the use of these medications. Abuse and diversion of these medications is a growing problem as the availability of these medications increases and this public health issue confounds their clinical utility. Also, the extent of their efficacy in the treatment of pain when utilized on a chronic basis has not been definitively proven. Lastly, the role of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain is also influenced by the fact that these potent analgesics are associated with a significant number of side effects and complications. It is these phenomena that are the focus of this review. Common side effects of opioid administration include sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, physical dependence, tolerance, and respiratory depression. Physical dependence and addiction are clinical concerns that may prevent proper prescribing and in turn inadequate pain management. Less common side effects may include delayed gastric emptying, hyperalgesia, immunologic and hormonal dysfunction, muscle rigidity, and myoclonus. The most common side effects of opioid usage are constipation (which has a very high incidence) and nausea. These 2 side effects can be difficult to manage and frequently tolerance to them does not develop; this is especially true for constipation. They may be severe enough to require opioid discontinuation, and contribute to under-dosing and inadequate analgesia. Several clinical trials are underway to identify adjunct therapies that may mitigate these side effects. Switching opioids and/or routes of administration may also provide benefits

  13. Identifying Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Geradin, D.A.A.G.; van Damme, E.E.C.


    Abstract: We review the burgeoning literature on two-sided markets focusing on the different definitions that have been proposed. In particular, we show that the well-known definition given by Evans is a particular case of the more general definition proposed by Rochet and Tirole. We then identify

  14. Insidious Side Effects of Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissonova, Karina


    to the design of technical artefacts. I argue that technical artefacts are designed as sustainable based on the extent side effects are addressed with the design. I present necessary and sufficient conditions in the presence of which the design of technical artefacts falls under the concept of sustainability...

  15. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss

  16. Finasteride and sexual side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore


    Full Text Available Finasteride, a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, widely used in the medical management of male pattern hairloss, has been reported to cause sexual side effects. This article critically examines the evidence available and makes recommendations as to how a physician should counsel a patient while prescribing the drug.

  17. The DarkSide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi B.


    Full Text Available DarkSide-50 at Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS, Italy, is a direct dark matter search experiment based on a liquid argon TPC. DS-50 has completed its first dark matter run using atmospheric argon as target. The detector performances and the results of the first physics run are presented in this proceeding.

  18. Two-sided Facility Location


    Alijani, Reza; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Gollapudi, Sreenivas; Kollias, Kostas; Munagala, Kamesh


    Recent years have witnessed the rise of many successful e-commerce marketplace platforms like the Amazon marketplace, AirBnB, Uber/Lyft, and Upwork, where a central platform mediates economic transactions between buyers and sellers. Motivated by these platforms, we formulate a set of facility location problems that we term Two-sided Facility location. In our model, agents arrive at nodes in an underlying metric space, where the metric distance between any buyer and seller captures the quality...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the shedding of vortices and flow interference between two circular cylinders in a side-by-side arrangement. Simulations are carried out using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code FLUENT-6.2. The flow field around the cylinders is modeled in two-dimensions with the axis of the cylinder perpendicular to the direction of flow. The cylinder is modeled as a circle and a square flow domain is created around the cylinder. The calculations are carried out on a quadrilateral mesh. The simulations are performed for a Reynolds number of 200. The mesh is finer close to the cylinder wall in order to have a better description of the boundary layer. Contours of vorticity, variation of lift and drag coefficients, force time histories are presented. A mean repulsive lift force exists between the cylinders and the lift force steadily decreases with increasing length to diameter ratio. For length to diameter ratio ≤ 2.0, flopping phenomenon is observed whereas for length to diameter ratio > 2.0, the lift fluctuation is synchronized and is in anti-phase. The results of the present work show that the drag coefficient is slightly higher for length to diameter ratio of 2.0. Beyond this ratio, the drag coefficient on either cylinder falls. For length to diameter ratio of 3.0 and 4.0, the power spectrum estimation of the lift coefficient shows a very distinctive peak at Strouhal number of 0.21.

  20. Flapping propulsion with side-by-side pitching foils (United States)

    Huera-Huarte, Francisco


    Fish schools are one of the most common types of collective behaviour observed in nature. One of the reasons why fish swim in groups, is to reduce the cost of transport of the school. In this work we explore the propulsive performance of two foils flapping in a symmetric configuration, i.e. with an out-of-phase flapping motion. Direct thrust measurements and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) allowed a detailed examination of the forces and the wake generated by the system, for different kinematics (swept angles and frequencies) and shaft separations. For certain specific cases, volumetric PIV shows major differences on how the different structures in the wake of the system evolve, depending on the imposed kinematics and the side-by-side separation between the foils. Results obtained will be compared against data produced with isolated flapping foils with similar imposed kinematics, with the aim to better understand the interactions between both and the performance of the system as a whole. The author would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y competitividad (MINECO) through Grant DPI2015-71645-P.

  1. The Other Side of Complexity


    Campbell, Catherine Anne


    ABSTRACT OF THESISThe Other Side of ComplexitybyCatherine Anne CampbellMaster of Fine Arts in Theatre and Dance (Acting)University of California, San Diego, 2011Professor Kyle Donnelly, Chair A recurring note that I have received during my time here has been, "Learn to be more simple." What does this mean? I would ask myself. It seemed that the simpler I would try to be, the more boring I would feel. It is no secret that I like to work hard, even incessantly. When I approach a role, I atta...

  2. The other Side of Objectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter


    Artiklen følger en korrespondance mellem forfatteren og Alexandra Schüssler under sidstnævntes etablering af udstillingen "Villa Sovietica" på Musée d'ethnographie de Genève. Ved at følge AS' overvejelser om den udstilling, hun er ved at etablere fokuserer artiklen på, hvordan etnografiske museer...... har forholdt sig til objektivitet, og overvejer om man vil kunne nå over på den anden side af objektiviteten - til en installation af genstande, der kan orkestrere sansede relationer mellem mennesker og ting, snarere end tingene som dokumenter for forgangne verdener....

  3. The other side of Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    IdeaSquare at CERN


    On October 25, 2017, more than 150 people explored the IdeaSquare innovation space at CERN to attend “ The Other Side of Innovation” and discover what the space has to offer and how to get involved. Located in a technical hall at CERN next to the Globe of Science and Innovation, it offers ad-hoc meeting space and rapid prototyping facilities for innovation-related projects. Guests visited its electric and machine shops, learnt the basics of 3D printing, robotics programming and human-centered design processes, talked to resident researchers about their current projects and listened to guests speakers.

  4. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Andrew


    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  5. Side-by side intercomparison between two TCCON instruments (United States)

    Feist, Dietrich G.; Griffith, David W. T.; Velazco, Voltaire A.; Deutscher, Nicholas M.


    The Total Carbon Colummn Observing Network (TCCON) observes column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, and other trace gases at more than 20 stations worldwide. These measurements are the calibration basis for all current and many future satellite greenhouse-gas-observing missions. TCCON's goal is to provide the most precise and accurate data with uncertainties better than 0.25%. Especially inter-station biases in the network are critical and should be reduced to a minimum. TCCON uses Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) which are comparatively large and expensive instruments that are not easily moved around. In the network, the typical distance between TCCON stations is hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Therefore, opportunities to directly compare the performance of TCCON instruments are very rare. In 2010, the TCCON instrument from the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) in Jena, Germany, was set up close to a TCCON instrument at the University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia, for six months. This was part of a test campaign before the final deployment of the MPI-BGC instrument to Ascension Island. Due to problems with the acquisition and processing of TCCON data at the time, the results of the intercomparison were inconclusive at first. Spectroscopic artifacts known as ghosts affected TCCON data until 2011. The ghosts created relatively large biases between individual instruments that were in the range of TCCON's precision and accuracy goals. The ghost problem was fixed by a hardware upgrade for all TCCON instruments in 2011 but still remained in older data. Only with the latest TCCON processing software GGG2014, the ghosts could finally be removed from the pre-2011 TCCON data. Therefore, a detailed side-by-side intercomparison between the two TCCON instruments at Wollongong in 2010 has now become possible.

  6. The dark side of technology

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, Peter


    Technological progress comes with a dark side where good ideas and intentions produce undesirable results (extreme downsides include atomic and biological weapons). The many and various unexpected outcomes of technology span humorous to bizarre, to situations that threaten human survival. Development can be positive for some, but negative and isolating for others (e.g. older or poorer people). Progress is often transient, as faster electronics and computers dramatically shorten retention time of data, knowledge, and information loss (e.g. even photos may be unreadable within a generation). Progress and globalization are also destroying past languages and cultures. Advances cut across all areas of science and life, and the scope is vast from biology, medicine, agriculture, transport, electronics, computers, long-range communications, to a global economy. Reliance on technology causes unexpected technology-driven vulnerability to natural events (e.g. intense sunspot activity) that could annihilate advanced soci...

  7. The Simulation of DFIG Grid Side Converter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LU Yan-Ling; LU Jian-qiang; BAO Jie


    Firstly,DFIG basic structure of grid side converter was analyzed according to basic principles of voltage converter, and a mathematical model of grid side converter was established in the three-phase...

  8. Temporomandibular disorders: the habitual chewing side syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santana-Mora, Urbano; López-Cedrún, José; Mora, María J; Otero, Xosé L; Santana-Penín, Urbano


    .... This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side) and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder...

  9. 49 CFR 238.217 - Side structure. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side structure. 238.217 Section 238.217 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.217 Side structure. Each passenger car shall comply with the following: (a) Side posts and...

  10. Distributed video coding with multiple side information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Brites, C.; Ascenso, J.


    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new video coding paradigm which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of some decoder side information. The quality of the side information has a major impact on the DVC rate-distortion (RD) performance in the same way...... the quality of the predictions had a major impact in predictive video coding. In this paper, a DVC solution exploiting multiple side information is proposed; the multiple side information is generated by frame interpolation and frame extrapolation targeting to improve the side information of a single...

  11. Interface solutions for interface side effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffregen Thomas A.


    Full Text Available Human-computer interfaces often give rise to a variety of side effects, including eyestrain, headache, fatigue, and motion sickness (aka cybersickness, simulator sickness. We might hope that improvements in interface design would tend to reduce these side effects. Unfortunately, history reveals just the opposite: The incidence and severity of motion sickness (for example is positively related to the progressive sophistication of display technology and systems. In this presentation, I enquire about the future of interface technologies in relation to side effects. I review the types of side effects that occur and what is known about the causes of interface side effects. I suggest new ways of understanding relations between interface technologies and side effects, and new ways to approach the problem of interface side effects.

  12. Using the Economic Balance Model to Teach Supply-Side and Demand-Side Economics. (United States)

    Pisciotta, John


    The Economic Balance model can be used in secondary economics classes to show demand- and supply-sides of the overall economy as well as how the two sides influence each other. Demand-side approaches to recession and inflation and supply-side approaches to expansion of production capacity and inflation are discussed. (AM)

  13. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids


    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  14. 49 CFR 236.802a - Siding. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Siding. 236.802a Section 236.802a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.802a Siding. An...

  15. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M


    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the

  16. Decision making in right-sided diverticulitis (United States)

    Shyung, Li-Rung; Lin, Shee-Chan; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Kao, Chin-Roa; Chou, Sun-Yen


    AIM: To evaluate systematically our nine-year experience in treating right-sided diverticulitis of the colon, and to explore its clinical and radiological relationship. METHODS: The clinical and radiological data of 40 patients with colonic diverticulitis treated in Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, from 1993 through 2002 were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: The average age of the patients with right-sided diverticulitis was 53.1 years, which was 11.6 years younger than that of the patients with left-sided diverticulitis. The preoperative diagnosis of appendicitis was made in 8 of 13 right-sided diverticulitis patients. Nine (69%) had right lower quadrant abdominal pain for more than 48 hours, and ten patients (77%) presented with fever. CT findings suggesting acute right-sided diverticulitis including thickening of the intestinal wall and pericolonic inflammation were present in five patients. CONCLUSION: Right-sided diverticulitis is easily confused with acute appendicitis because it occurs at a somewhat younger age than that in left-sided diverticulitis. Barium enema and CT are helpful for the early diagnosis of right-sided diverticulitis. While clearly not required in the majority of patients with right lower quadrant abdominal pain, barium enema and CT may be helpful in making the decision with a clinical history or physical examinations atypical of acute appendicitis. PMID:12632528

  17. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.


    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  18. Footballers' movement behaviour during 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-a-side small-sided games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguiar, Marco; Goncalves, Bruno; Botelho, Goreti; Lemmink, Koen; Sampaio, Jaime


    The aim of this study was to compare footballers' movement behaviour during 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-a-side small-sided games. Ten young professional players (age=18.0 +/- 0.67years) participated in 3 bouts of each small-sided games for 6min with 1min of active rest between bouts. Positional data were

  19. Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. Information Sheet (United States)

    Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bismarck, North Dakota. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Bismarck, North Dakota.

  20. How Do I Manage Side Effects? (United States)

    ... to watch a recording on demand. Watch webinar Key Points Side effects from treatment are very common. ... litter boxes) Use a soft toothbrush Use an electric shaver instead of a razor Gastrointestinal Issues Might ...

  1. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect (United States)

    ... Navigating Cancer Care > Side Effects > Lymphedema Request Permissions Lymphedema Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... years after cancer treatment has ended. Symptoms of lymphedema People with lymphedema in their arm or leg ...

  2. Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Problems (United States)

    Cancer treatments may cause dental, mouth, and throat side effects such as changes in taste (dysgeusia), dry mouth (xerostomia), infections, mouth sores, pain or swelling in your mouth (oral mucositis), sensitivity to foods, and swallowing problems.

  3. Side Effects - Memory or Concentration Problems (United States)

    Cancer treatments, such as chemo, may cause difficulty thinking, concentrating, or other cognitive problems. Learn about steps people with cancer can take to manage these side effects. See a list of helpful questions for families to ask the doctor.

  4. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor will work to find out what is causing these problems. They may be caused by ...

  5. Surgeons Warn of Trampolines' Down Side (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_167494.html Surgeons Warn of Trampolines' Down Side Very young children should stay off, ... 2017 SATURDAY, July 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A trampoline may have your kids jumping for joy, but ...

  6. Side- ja turvanguamet / Indrek Süld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süld, Indrek


    Ilmunud ka: 2003 : annual report : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 34-35; 2003 : godovoi ottshjot : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 34-35. Ülevaade AS-i Eesti Raudtee side- ja turvanguameti tegevusest 2003. aastal. Skeem

  7. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia) (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  8. Side Effects of Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsun eRiaz


    Full Text Available Limited therapeutic options are available for hepatic malignancies. Image guided targeted therapies have established their role in management of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. Radioembolization with yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres is safe and efficacious for treatment of hepatic malignancies. The tumoricidal effect of radioembolization is predominantly due to radioactivity and not ischemia. This article will present a comprehensive review of the side effects that have been associated with radioembolization using 90Y microspheres. Some of the described side effects are associated with all transarterial procedures. Side effects specific to radioembolization will also be discussed in detail. Methods to decrease the incidence of these potential side effects will also be discussed.

  9. Congenital right sided ureteropelvic junction obstructionin right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital right sided ureteropelvic junction obstructionin right crossed fused ectopia with extrarenal calycesmasquerading as massive retroperitoneal urinoma in acase of blunt trauma abdomen: A diagnostic enigma andnovel approach of management.

  10. Study Highlights the Beauty Industry's Ugly Side (United States)

    ... html Study Highlights the Beauty Industry's Ugly Side Cosmetics, personal care products get little regulatory scrutiny To ... found that's not always the case. And, because cosmetics are woefully underregulated in the United States, and ...

  11. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  12. Side-effects after IPL photodepilation. (United States)

    Moreno-Arias, Gerardo A; Castelo-Branco, Camil; Ferrando, Juan


    Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been successfully used as an efficient hair removal system; however, possible side-effects have been not specifically addressed in the literature. To assess all possible side-effects after IPL hair removal in a series of 49 females with facial hirsutism during a total of 390 treatment sessions of IPL photodepilation. Immediate post-treatment clinical, photography evaluation, and a two-month post-treatment questionnaire were done in 49 females with facial hirsutism submitted to photodepilation with an IPL source (EpiLight trade mark, ESC, Israel). Side-effects observed were: transient erythema (n = 30), late evanescent erythema (n = 3), mild pain (n = 43), moderate pain (n = 6), crust formation (n = 9), superficial burning (n = 1), isolated vesicles (n = 3), transient hyperpigmentation (n = 8), transient hypopigmentation (n = 1), paradoxical effect (n = 5), persistent local heat sensation (n = 1), and minimal scar (n = 1). Even though common, most side-effects secondary to IPL photodepilation are mild and transient. Permanent side-effects such as scars are unlikely but they may occur. Growth of new, fine and dark hair may be seen in untreated areas in close proximity to the treatment area, especially in the neck, a side-effect that is reported for the first time in the literature.

  13. Temporomandibular disorders: the habitual chewing side syndrome. (United States)

    Santana-Mora, Urbano; López-Cedrún, José; Mora, María J; Otero, Xosé L; Santana-Penín, Urbano


    Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side) and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms) was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher's exact test, P = .003) and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002) were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88) degrees versus 46.16(7.25) degrees; P = .001), and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35) degrees versus 48.32(9.53) degrees P = .036) on the symptomatic side. The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, "habitual chewing side syndrome", instead of the nonspecific symptom-based "temporomandibular joint disorders"; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side.

  14. Temporomandibular disorders: the habitual chewing side syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Santana-Mora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. METHODS: The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. RESULTS: Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher's exact test, P = .003 and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002 were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88 degrees versus 46.16(7.25 degrees; P = .001, and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35 degrees versus 48.32(9.53 degrees P = .036 on the symptomatic side. DISCUSSION: The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, "habitual chewing side syndrome", instead of the nonspecific symptom-based "temporomandibular joint disorders"; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side.

  15. Laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoichi Deie


    Full Text Available Surgical pancreatic duct (PD drainage for chronic pancreatitis in children is relatively rare. It is indicated in cases of recurrent pancreatitis and PD dilatation that have not responded to medical therapy and therapeutic endoscopy. We performed laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy for two paediatric patients with chronic pancreatitis. The main PD was opened easily by electrocautery after locating the dilated PD by intraoperative ultrasonography. The dilated PD was split longitudinally from the pancreatic tail to the pancreatic head by laparoscopic coagulation shears or electrocautery after pancreatography. A laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy was performed by a one-layered technique using continuous 4-0 polydioxanone (PDS sutures from the pancreatic tail to the pancreatic head. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications or recurrences. This procedure has cosmetic advantages compared with open surgery for chronic pancreatitis. Laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy in children is feasible and effective for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

  16. Algebraic Side-Channel Attack on Twofish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chujiao Ma


    Full Text Available While algebraic side-channel attack (ASCA has been successful in breaking simple cryptographic algorithms, it has never been done on larger or more complex algorithms such as Twofish. Compared to other algorithms that ASCA has been used on, Twofish is more difficult to attack due to the key-dependent S-boxes as well as the complex key scheduling. In this paper, we propose the first algebraic side-channel attack on Twofish, and examine the importance of side-channel information in getting past the key-dependent S-boxes and the complex key scheduling. The cryptographic algorithm and side-channel information are both expressed as boolean equations and a SAT solver is used to recover the key. While algebraic attack by itself is not sufficient to break the algorithm, with the help of side-channel information such as Hamming weights, we are able to correctly solve for 96 bits of the 128 bits key in under 2 hours with known plaintext/ciphertext.

  17. [Side Effects of Occupational Group Therapy]. (United States)

    Flöge, B; Fay, D; Jöbges, M; Linden, M; Muschalla, B


    Background: Occupational therapy is an important co-therapy in psychiatric therapy. It is a common belief that no risks are associated with occupational therapy. Negative effects caused by group therapy, especially occupational therapy, have not been in the focus of research yet. In this study we want to illustrate possible types and intensities of group side effects through occupational therapy. Patients and Methods: Patients of an inpatient rehabilitation facility filled out the Adverse Treatment Reaction Group Checklist. The checklist contains 47 items divided in six dimensions: group size, content, group participants, group outcome and global. The self-rating used a 5-point likert scale (0 = not at all; 4 = very much, extremely stressful) and gives information about types and intensities of the side effects. Results: 88.9 % of 45 patients reported negative effects of occupational group therapy. 28.9 % of the patients rated the side effect as at least severe. Discussion: Occupational therapy is associated with side effects as every other group therapy. Possible side effects caused by group therapy should be considered while planning and implementing occupational therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. DarkSide search for dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, T.; Alton, D.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Beltrame, P.; Benziger, J.; Bonfini, G.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Bussino, S.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Chidzik, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Condon, C.; D' Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Vincenzi, M. De; Haas, E. De; Derbin, A.; Pietro, G. Di; Dratchnev, I.; Durben, D.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Franco, D.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guo, C.; Guray, G.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Joliet, C.; Kayunov, A.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kidner, S.; Klemmer, R.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Komor, M.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Li, P.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Love, C.; Ludhova, L.; Luitz, S.; Lukyanchenko, L.; Lund, A.; Lung, K.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meroni, E.; Meyers, P.; Mohayai, T.; Montanari, D.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Nelson, A.; Nemtzow, A.; Nurakhov, N.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Parsells, R.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Perfetto, F.; Pinsky, L.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Sands, W.; Seigar, M.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvarov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Thompson, J.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wang, H.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zehfus, M.; Zhong, W.; Zuzel, G.


    The DarkSide staged program utilizes a two-phase time projection chamber (TPC) with liquid argon as the target material for the scattering of dark matter particles. Efficient background reduction is achieved using low radioactivity underground argon as well as several experimental handles such as pulse shape, ratio of ionization over scintillation signal, 3D event reconstruction, and active neutron and muon vetos. The DarkSide-10 prototype detector has proven high scintillation light yield, which is a particularly important parameter as it sets the energy threshold for the pulse shape discrimination technique. The DarkSide-50 detector system, currently in commissioning phase at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, will reach a sensitivity to dark matter spin-independent scattering cross section of 10-45 cm2 within 3 years of operation.

  19. Diode-side-pumped Alexandrite slab lasers. (United States)

    Damzen, M J; Thomas, G M; Minassian, A


    We present the investigation of diode-side-pumping of Alexandrite slab lasers in a range of designs using linear cavity and grazing-incidence bounce cavity configurations. An Alexandrite slab laser cavity with double-pass side pumping produces 23.4 mJ free-running energy at 100 Hz rate with slope efficiency ~40% with respect to absorbed pump energy. In a slab laser with single-bounce geometry output power of 12.2 W is produced, and in a double-bounce configuration 6.5 W multimode and 4.5 W output in TEM 00 mode is produced. These first results of slab laser and amplifier designs in this paper highlight some of the potential strategies for power and energy scaling of Alexandrite using diode-side-pumped Alexandrite slab architectures with future availability of higher power red diode pumping.

  20. Communication technologies for demand side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities, specifically for the purposes of Demand Side Management (DSM). Demand Side Management has the objective to change the customer`s end use of energy in a manner that benefits both the customer and the utility. For example, peak demand may be reduced, and the peak demand may be relocated to off peak periods. Thus additional investments in generation and network may be avoided. A number of Demand Side Management functions can be implemented if a communication system is available between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The total communication capacity that is needed, will depend on several factors, such as the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number and type of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, while some other functions need to have two-way communication

  1. Common side closure type, but not stapler brand or oversewing, influences side-to-side anastomotic leak rates. (United States)

    Fleetwood, V A; Gross, K N; Alex, G C; Cortina, C S; Smolevitz, J B; Sarvepalli, S; Bakhsh, S R; Poirier, J; Myers, J A; Singer, M A; Orkin, B A


    Anastomotic leak (AL) increases costs and cancer recurrence. Studies show decreased AL with side-to-side stapled anastomosis (SSA), but none identify risk factors within SSAs. We hypothesized that stapler characteristics and closure technique of the common enterotomy affect AL rates. Retrospective review of bowel SSAs was performed. Data included stapler brand, staple line oversewing, and closure method (handsewn, HC; linear stapler [Barcelona technique], BT; transverse stapler, TX). Primary endpoint was AL. Statistical analysis included Fisher's test and logistic regression. 463 patients were identified, 58.5% BT, 21.2% HC, and 20.3% TX. Covidien staplers comprised 74.9%, Ethicon 18.1%. There were no differences between stapler types (Covidien 5.8%, Ethicon 6.0%). However, AL rates varied by common side closure (BT 3.7% vs. TX 10.6%, p = 0.017), remaining significant on multivariate analysis. Closure method of the common side impacts AL rates. Barcelona technique has fewer leaks than transverse stapled closure. Further prospective evaluation is recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Areeda-turner in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.


    We extend the Areeda–Turner rule to two-sided markets. We show that a two-sided monopolist may find it short-run profit-maximizing to charge a price below marginal cost on one side of the market. Hence showing that the price is below marginal cost on one side of a two-sided market cannot be

  3. Left-sided omental torsion: CT appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoun, N.; Haddad-Zebouni, S.; Slaba, S.; Ghossain, M. [Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon). Dept. of Radiology; Noun, R. [Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon). Dept. of General Surgery


    A 34-year-old male presented with exquisite left flank pain. Computed tomography showed a hyperdense vascular structure surrounded by whirling linear streaks situated in the greater omentum under the splenic flexure of the colon. Omental stranding extended caudally into the pelvis where part of the inflamed omentum entered a left inguinal hernia sac. Surgery revealed left-sided torsion of the greater omentum. Left-sided omental torsion is infrequent and pre-operative diagnosis is rarely established. The CT findings of an omental fatty mass with a whirling pattern is characteristic of omental torsion. Preoperative diagnosis is important because conservative management has been suggested. (orig.)

  4. Server-side Statistics Scripting in PHP


    Jan de Leeuw


    On the UCLA Statistics WWW server there are a large number of demos and calculators that can be used in statistics teaching and research. Some of these demos require substantial amounts of computation, others mainly use graphics. These calculators and demos are implemented in various different ways, reflecting developments in WWW based computing. As usual, one of the main choices is between doing the work on the client-side (i.e. in the browser) or on the server-side (i.e. on our WWW ser...

  5. Side-to-side asymmetry in absolute and relative muscle thickness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare side-to-side differences in absolute muscle thickness and activity of the abdominal musculature and to compare these measurements at the start, with those at the end of a cricket season among a group of amateur pace bowlers. Methods. This was a controlled longitudinal prospective study. Rehabilitative ...

  6. Integrated planning in supply chains with buy-side and sell-side ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we develop a quadratic programming model for partner selection and planning in integrated supply chain networks embedded with both sell-side and buy-side electronic marketplaces. Such a scenario arises in several practical applications. In particular, we consider a contract manufacturer who procures ...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon


    . and one all-glass ETC with heat pipe from Exoheat AB. The collectors have been investigated side-by-side in an outdoor test facility for a long period. During the measurements, the operating conditions – such as weather conditions, inlet and mean solar collector fluid temperatures have been the same. Thus...

  8. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease? (United States)

    ... side effects: A cause of heart disease? Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart ...

  9. The Other Side of the Tale. (United States)

    Granowsky, Alvin


    Describes using fairy tales told "from the other side of the tale" with young elementary school students. Discusses how telling "Cinderella" from the stepsister's viewpoint can help children understand critical reasoning, fairness in dealing with others, and forming judgments based on positive values, thus avoiding the…

  10. Solar cell with back side contacts (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J


    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  11. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher


    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....

  12. Photon side-bands in mesoscopics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    This paper reviews several applications of photonic side bands, used by Buttiker and Landauer (Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1739 (1982)) in their theory of traversal time in tunneling, in transport and optics of mesoscopic systems. Topics include generalizations of the transmission theory of transport...

  13. The shady side of leaf development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merelo, Paz; Botterweg Paredes, Esther; Heisler, Marcus G.


    Leaves are present in all land plants and are specialized organs for light harvesting. They arise at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and develop into lamina structures that exhibit adaxial/abaxial (upper/lower side of the leaf) polarity. At the molecular level, an intricate...

  14. Reimagining the Functional Side of Computer Literacy (United States)

    Selber, Stuart A.


    Although computer literacy amounts to a complex set of interconnected capacities, teachers of writing and communication have tended to ignore functional issues, which are crucial to many aspects of online work. This essay reimagines the functional side of computer literacy, arguing for an approach that is both effective and professionally…

  15. Side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.S. van der; Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.


    OBJECTIVE: To study the experiences and complaints of patients who underwent 24 h blood pressure monitoring. METHODS: Two groups of hypertensive patients of a tertiary outpatient clinic were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about the side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  16. Exploring the Other Side of the Brain. (United States)

    O'Connor, Therese


    At a school for the deaf, weekly hobby classes encourage use of the right side of the brain. Mini courses have included oil painting, sewing, ceramics, gymnastics, and photography with a stress on such right-brain learning techniques as imaging, sequencing, and manipulating patterns. (CL)

  17. Ritalin Side Effects: Placebo Controlled Evaluation


    J Gordon Millichap


    The frequency of side effects of Ritalin was examined in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial in 206 children aged 5 through 15 years with ADHD at the Marshfield Clinic and Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI.

  18. Enhancing Clinical Trials by Incorporating Side Effects (United States)

    Schrag, Francis


    Evidence-based medicine is often seen as a model for evidence-based education, and deservedly so, but evaluators in education have been slow to adopt one of its salient features, attention to side effects. Many education evaluations focus almost exclusively on efficacy, that is on achievement test scores. Regardless of domain, all interventions…

  19. The Dark Side of Bank Wholesale Funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, R.; Ratnovksi, L.


    Commercial banks increasingly use short-term wholesale funds to supplement traditional retail deposits. Existing literature mainly points to the "bright side" of wholesale funding: sophisticated financiers can monitor banks, disciplining bad ones but refinancing solvent ones. This paper models a

  20. A reverse side of the team medal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, P.A.M.; Benders, J.G.J.M.


    Publications in the managerial press tend to stress the positive sides of teamworking. Teamworking is heralded at the neglect of possible downsides such as the propensity to withhold effort. This is, however, studied in at least two strands of academic work: social psychology and economic

  1. Struck by a lance through his side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Boldsen, Jesper Lier


    The Danish King Canute the Saint was killed in St Alban church in Odense July 1086. According to a legend the king was kneeling in prayers when a lance thrust to his side killed him. Our re-examination of the skeleton presumed to belong to Canute showed a slimly build man with an approximate...

  2. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruzell, E.M.; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.


    Objective The study was performed to assess the risk of at-home and in-office bleaching procedures, and to recognise potential predictors for side effects. Design Multi-centre, questionnaire-based prospective study with follow-ups at around 14 days and around one year post-treatment. Setting Gene...

  3. Improving the side-to-side stapled anastomosis: comparison of staplers for robust crotch formation. (United States)

    Kimura, Masahiro; Kuwabara, Yoshiyuki; Taniwaki, Satoshi; Mitsui, Akira; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Ueno, Shuhei


    Few studies have investigated the burst pressure of side-to-side anastomoses comparing different stapling devices that are commercially available. We conducted side-to-side anastomoses with a variety of staplers and compared burst pressure in the crotch of the anastomoses. Nagoya City East Medical Center. We conducted side-to-side anastomoses with 9 staplers with different shapes and forms. Fresh pig small intestines were used. A side-to-side anastomosis was performed between 2 intestine specimens using a linear stapler. The burst pressure of the anastomosis was recorded. In total, 45 staplers were used for this experiment. The site of leakage in all cases was the crotch. Regarding the influence of the number of staple rows, the burst pressure in 3-row staplers was significantly higher than in 2-row staplers. With regard to the relationship between staple height and burst pressure, staples with a height slightly shorter than the intestinal thickness showed the highest burst pressure. In a comparison of staplers with uniform staple heights and stamplers with staples of 3 different heights, the latter had significantly lower burst pressures. Neoveil significantly increased the burst pressure in the crotch and contributed to the highest burst pressure of all the staplers used in this experiment. In this experiment, we defined the important factors that influence burst pressure at the crotch of a stapled, side-to-side anastomosis. These factors include the number of staple rows, the height of the staple compared with the thickness of the tissue, uniformity of staple height, and reinforcement of the staple line. In any surgical case requiring intestinal anastomosis, selection of a stapler is a critical step. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  5. Analyzing One-Sided vs. Two-Sided Subduction Arising from Mantle Convection Simulations (United States)

    Kaplan, M. S.; Becker, T. W.


    Purely thermal plate tectonic generation models struggle to consistently reproduce one-sided subduction as is observed on Earth (Tackley 2000; Van Heck and Tackley 2008; Foley and Becker 2009), and instead produce two-sided subduction where the subducting slab contains a significant flux of material from both plates. The models of Crameri et al. (2012) demonstrate that the implementation of a free upper surface boundary condition and the inclusion of a weak hydrated crust can facilitate one-sided subduction. We employ a similar model configuration to Crameri et al. (2012) to further investigate the dynamics and energetics which are associated with one-sided vs. two-sided subduction. We use a 2D finite difference code based off of the algorithms of I2ELVIS (Gerya and Yuen 2007) where material parameters are tracked on Lagrangian markers and the Stokes and Energy equations are solved on a Cartesian grid. A free surface is implemented by a low viscosity and density 'sticky air layer' (Schmeling et al., 2008; Crameri et al., 2012) with the stabilization routine of Duretz et al. (2011) to prevent the 'drunken seaman' instability (Kaus et al., 2010). The effects of a weak crust, shear heating, a free surface or free slip upper mechanical boundary condition, plasticity as a function of depth or pressure, and the sticky air layer thermal conductivity on one-sided vs. two-sided subduction are investigated. When we observe one-sided subduction it is transient and can smoothly evolve back to a two-sided configuration. In our models, 'sidedness' is a spectrum, rather than either discretely one or two sided, and the models move between the two regimes throughout the model runs. We observe that the thermal conductivity of the sticky air layer can influence the dynamics of the convective domain. Elevated values of thermal conductivity compared to those of rock must be implemented in the sticky air layer in order to maintain a constant temperature at the surface of the convective

  6. Footballers' movement behaviour during 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-a-side small-sided games. (United States)

    Aguiar, Marco; Gonçalves, Bruno; Botelho, Goreti; Lemmink, Koen; Sampaio, Jaime


    The aim of this study was to compare footballers' movement behaviour during 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-a-side small-sided games. Ten young professional players (age = 18.0 ± 0.67 years) participated in 3 bouts of each small-sided games for 6 min with 1 min of active rest between bouts. Positional data were collected using GPS system units and used to calculate the following variables: team centroid, distance between each player and own and opponent team centroids and distance between centroids. Approximate entropy was used to identify the time series regularity for each variable. The distance to own team centroid increased with the number of players (effect sizes from moderate to perfect). The results from the distance to the opponent's centroid exhibited a similar trend. The distance between centroids decreased from 2- to the 4-a-side, but then increased in 5-a-side. A higher number of players were associated with lower approximate entropy values, suggesting higher positional organisation in small-sided games with more players. The highest movement regularity found in 4- and 5-a-side identified these formats as more adequate to promote team-related emergent and self-organised behaviours.

  7. Compression of the lungs by the heart in supine, side-lying, semi-prone positions (United States)

    Mase, Kyoushi; Noguchi, Tisa; Tagami, Miki; Imura, Shigeyuki; Tomita, Kazuhide; Monma, Masahiko; Nozoe, Masafumi; Takashima, Sachie; Kawakatsu, Kunihiro


    [Purpose] Clarification of the differences in the compression volume of the lungs by the heart (CVLH) between postures may facilitate the selection of optimal postures in respiratory care. Determining CVLH in the supine, semi-prone (Sim’s position), and side-lying positions was the aim of this study. [Subjects and Methods] Eight healthy volunteers (six males, two females; mean age, 29.0 ± 9.2 years) were enrolled in the study. Measurements were performed in the supine, right and left semi-prone, and right and left side-lying positions. semi-prone position was inclined 45° ventrally from the side-lying position. A 1.5-T system with a fast advanced spin-echo sequence in the coronal plane was used for magnetic resonance imaging. [Results] CVLH and heart compression ratio were significantly lower in the semi-prone position on both sides than the other positions. The heart was displaced ventrally when semi-prone and a larger area of the heart leaned on the ventral chest wall, localizing compression to part of the ventral region of the dependent lung. [Conclusion] The region of lungs compressed by the heart is reduced in the semi-prone position due to ventral displacement of the heart. These results suggest that maintaining expansion of the dependent lung is easier in the semi-prone position. PMID:27799672

  8. Medicated Janus fibers fabricated using a Teflon-coated side-by-side spinneret. (United States)

    Yu, Deng-Guang; Yang, Chen; Jin, Miao; Williams, Gareth R; Zou, Hua; Wang, Xia; Bligh, S W Annie


    A family of medicated Janus fibers that provides highly tunable biphasic drug release was fabricated using a side-by-side electrospinning process employing a Teflon-coated parallel spinneret. The coated spinneret facilitated the formation of a Janus Taylor cone and in turn high quality integrated Janus structures, which could not be reliably obtained without the Teflon coating. The fibers prepared had one side consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K60 and ketoprofen, and the other of ethyl cellulose (EC) and ketoprofen. To modulate and tune drug release, PVP K10 was doped into the EC side in some cases. The fibers were linear and had flat morphologies with an indent in the center. They provide biphasic drug release, with the PVP K60 side dissolving very rapidly to deliver a loading dose of the active ingredient, and the EC side resulting in sustained release of the remaining ketoprofen. The addition of PVP K10 to the EC side was able to accelerate the second stage of release; variation in the dopant amount permitted the release rate and extent this phase to be precisely tuned. These results offer the potential to rationally design systems with highly controllable drug release profiles, which can complement natural biological rhythms and deliver maximum therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Server-side Statistics Scripting in PHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan de Leeuw


    Full Text Available On the UCLA Statistics WWW server there are a large number of demos and calculators that can be used in statistics teaching and research. Some of these demos require substantial amounts of computation, others mainly use graphics. These calculators and demos are implemented in various different ways, reflecting developments in WWW based computing. As usual, one of the main choices is between doing the work on the client-side (i.e. in the browser or on the server-side (i.e. on our WWW server. Obviously, client-side computation puts fewer demands on the server. On the other hand, it requires that the client downloads Java applets, or installs plugins and/or helpers. If JavaScript is used, client-side computations will generally be slow. We also have to assume that the client is installed properly, and has the required capabilities. Requiring too much on the client-side has caused browsing machines such as Netscape Communicator to grow beyond all reasonable bounds, both in size and RAM requirements. Moreover requiring Java and JavaScript rules out such excellent browsers as Lynx or Emacs W3. For server-side computing, we can configure the server and its resources ourselves, and we need not worry about browser capabilities and configuration. Nothing needs to be downloaded, except the usual HTML pages and graphics. In the same way as on the client side, there is a scripting solution, where code is interpreted, or a ob ject-code solution using compiled code. For the server-side scripting, we use embedded languages, such as PHP/FI. The scripts in the HTML pages are interpreted by a CGI program, and the output of the CGI program is send to the clients. Of course the CGI program is compiled, but the statistics procedures will usually be interpreted, because PHP/FI does not have the appropriate functions in its scripting language. This will tend to be slow, because embedded languages do not deal efficiently with loops and similar constructs. Thus a first

  10. Side Chain Cyclized Aromatic Amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Poorten, Olivier; Knuhtsen, Astrid; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel


    Constraining the conformation of flexible peptides is a proven strategy to increase potency, selectivity, and metabolic stability. The focus has mostly been on constraining the backbone dihedral angles; however, the correct orientation of the amino acid side chains (χ-space) that constitute...... the peptide pharmacophore is equally important. Control of χ-space utilizes conformationally constrained amino acids that favor, disfavor, or exclude the gauche (-), the gauche (+), or the trans conformation. In this review we focus on cyclic aromatic amino acids in which the side chain is connected...... to the peptide backbone to provide control of χ(1)- and χ(2)-space. The manifold applications for cyclized analogues of the aromatic amino acids Phe, Tyr, Trp, and His within peptide medicinal chemistry are showcased herein with examples of enzyme inhibitors and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-En Ge


    Full Text Available It is nowadays widely accepted that solving traffic congestion from the demand side is more important and more feasible than offering more capacity or facilities for transportation. Following a brief overview of evolution of the concept of Travel Demand Management (TDM, there is a discussion on the TDM foundations that include demand-side strategies, traveler choice and application settings and the new dimensions that ATDM (Active forms of Transportation and Demand Management bring to TDM, i.e. active management and integrative management. Subsequently, the authors provide a short review of the state-of-the-art TDM focusing on relevant literature published since 2000. Next, we highlight five TDM topics that are currently hot: traffic congestion pricing, public transit and bicycles, travel behavior, travel plans and methodology. The paper closes with some concluding remarks.

  12. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel


    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm....... RESULTS: A total of 43 articles were included. OAI and UISS are experienced by 20-93% of RP patients at least a few times after surgery. Although these issues are associated to postoperative daytime incontinence, previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the only known predicting factor......, orgasm-associated pain (OAP), penile shortening (PS), and penile deformity. AIM: The aim of this article is to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the above-mentioned side effects. METHODS: A predefined search strategy was applied in a thorough search of Medline, Web of science...

  13. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview (United States)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner


    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  14. The human side of animal behavior


    Lattal, Kennon A.


    An important element of behavioral research with nonhuman animals is that insights are drawn from it about human behavior, what is called here the human side of animal behavior. This article examines the origins of comparing human behavior to that of other animals, the ways in which such comparisons are described, and considerations that arise in evaluating the validity of those comparisons. The rationale for such an approach originated in the reductionism of experimental physiology and the u...

  15. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.


    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  16. Opiates and elderly: Use and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L Chau


    Full Text Available Diane L Chau1, Vanessa Walker2, Latha Pai3, Lwin M Cho4University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA 1Division Geriatric Medicine, 2Internal Medicine, 3Psychiatry, 4Geriatric Medicine, Sierra Nevada Healthcare System, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Reno, NV, USAAbstract: The evaluation of pain and the subsequent issue of pain control is a clinical challenge that all healthcare providers face. Pain in the elderly population is especially difficult given the myriad of physiological, pharmacological, and psychological aspects of caring for the geriatric patient. Opiates are the mainstay of pain treatment throughout all age groups but special attention must be paid to the efficacy and side effects of these powerful drugs when prescribing to a population with impaired metabolism, excretion and physical reserve. In a random chart review of 300 US veterans, 44% of those receiving an analgesic also received opioids. The increasing use of opiates for pain management by healthcare practitioners requires that those prescribing opioids be aware of the special considerations for treating the elderly. This article will address the precautions one must take when using opiates in the geriatric population, as well as the side effects and ways to minimize them.Keywords: opiates, pain, elderly, side effects

  17. Functionally Graded Ceramics Fabricated with Side-by-Side Tape Casting for Use in Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Bahl, Christian; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm


    Functionally graded ceramic tapes have been fabricated by a side-by-side tape casting technique. This study shows the possibility and describes the main principles of adjacent coflow of slurries resulting in formation of thin plates of graded ceramic material. Results showed that the small...... variations of solvent and binder system concentrations have a substantial effect on slurry viscosity. Varying these parameters showed that side-by-side tape casting with a well-defined interface area is possible for slurries with viscosities above 3500 mPa s at a casting shear rate of 3.3 s -1...... of developing this graded ceramic tape casting was applications of these specific magnetocaloric properties within the magnetic refrigeration technology....

  18. The reliability of side to side measurements of upper extremity activity levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amasay Tal


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In both clinical and occupational settings, ambulatory sensors are becoming common for assessing all day measurements of arm motion. In order for the motion of a healthy, contralateral side to be used as a control for the involved side, the inherent side to side differences in arm usage must be minimal. The goal of the present study was to determine the reliability of side to side measurements of upper extremity activity levels in healthy subjects. Methods Thirty two subjects with no upper extremity pathologies were studied. Each subject wore a triaxial accelerometer on both arms for three and a half hours. Motion was assessed using parameters previously reported in the literature. Side to side differences were compared with the intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of the mean, minimal detectable change scores and a projected sample size analysis. Results The variables were ranked based on their percentage of minimal detectable change scores and sample sizes needed for paired t-tests. The order of these rankings was found to be identical and the top ranked parameters were activity counts per hour (MDC% = 9.5, n = 5, jerk time (MDC% = 15.8, n = 8 and percent time above 30 degrees (MDC% = 34.7, n = 9. Conclusions In general, the mean activity levels during daily activities were very similar between dominant and non-dominant arms. Specifically, activity counts per hour, jerk time, and percent time above 30 degrees were found to be the variables most likely to reveal significant difference or changes in both individuals and groups of subjects. The use of ambulatory measurements of upper extremity activity has very broad uses for occupational assessments, musculoskeletal injuries of the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand as well as neurological pathologies.

  19. Stabilization of Gob-Side Entry with an Artificial Side for Sustaining Mining Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-sheng Wang


    Full Text Available A concrete artificial side (AS is introduced to stabilize a gob-side entry (GSE. To evaluate the stability of the AS, a uniaxial compression failure experiment was conducted with large and small-scale specimens. The distribution characteristics of the shear stress were obtained from a numerical simulation. Based on the failure characteristics and the variation of the shear stress, a failure criterion was determined and implemented in the strengthening method for the artificial side. In an experimental test, the distribution pattern of the maximum shear stress showed an X shape, which contributed to the failure shape of the specimen. The shear stress distribution and failure shape are induced by a combination of two sets of shear stresses, which implies that failure of the AS follows the twin shear strength theory. The use of anchor bolts, bolts, and anchor bars enhances the shear strength of the artificial side. When this side is stable, the components can constrain the lateral deformation as well as improve the internal friction angle and cohesion. When the AS is damaged, the components prevent the sliding of broken blocks along the shear failure plane and improve the residual strength of the artificial side. When reinforced with an anchor bar, the AS is still stable even after mining operations for three years.

  20. Side-to-side differences in bone strength in master jumpers and sprinters. (United States)

    Ireland, A; Korhonen, M; Heinonen, A; Suominen, H; Baur, C; Stevens, S; Degens, H; Rittweger, J


    This study evaluated side-to-side difference in tibial bone structure, calf muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and hopping force in master athletes as a result of training for sports with different magnitudes of inter-leg loading difference. Tibial bone parameters (at 4%, 14%, 38% and 66% tibial length proximal to distal end), muscle CSA (at 66% tibial length) and hopping forces of both legs of 51 master athletes (conditioned jumpers, conditioned triple jumpers, unconditioned jumpers, hurdlers and sprinters) were examined using pQCT. In epiphyseal 4% slice bone CSA (Ar.tot), total BMC (vBMC.tot), trabecular BMC (vBMC.tb) cortical BMC (vBMC.ct), and trabecular BMD (vBMD.tb) were measured. In diaphyseal slices, Ar.tot, vBMC.ct, cortical density (vBMD.ct), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and calf muscle CSA (MuscA) were examined. In conditioned jumpers, side-to-side differences in favour of take-off leg were found in 4% slice in vBMC.tb (+4.1%) (Ptraining in high-impact sports with uneven lower limb loading results in side-to-side differences in skeletal adaptation independent of age and gender, suggesting that high-impact exercise is effective in maintaining bone strength throughout human lifespan.

  1. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (United States)


    ... clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end...

  2. Right-Sided Sigmoid Diverticular Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Little


    Full Text Available Diverticulosis is a common disorder among geriatric patients, of whom 10% to 25% go on to develop diverticulitis. Known complications of diverticulitis include formation of phlegmon, fistula, bowel obstruction, bleeding, perforation, and colonic abscess. A less common complication is perforation with formation of an extra-abdominal necrotizing abscess. This case is a report of an 83-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with a necrotizing abdominal wall abscess secondary to right-sided diverticular microperforation. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(1:103–105.

  3. East Side Gallery - en analyze af betydningstilskrivning


    Lyngsø Knudsen, Lene


    In March 2013, the city of Berlins local government gave permission to remove 23 meters of East Side Gallery - a 1.3 kilometer section of the Berlin Wall. This was to make room for apartment buildings, and to reconstruct an old bridge across the river Spree. This caused many people to riot for the preservation of the Wall. They argued that the Wall and it’s sorroundings is a part of the citys history - a part that must not be forgotten. This conflict is the main subject of this assignment....

  4. Side chain polysiloxanes with phthalocyanine moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ganicz


    Full Text Available Side chain polysiloxane with 5-(pentyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine moieties is synthesized by hydrosilylation reaction. The phase behavior and thermooptical properties of the polysiloxane and starting 2-(pent-4-enyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine is examined by POM (Polarizing optical microscopy, TOA (thermooptical analysis, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, AFM (atomic force microscopy and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering studies. The effect of the attachment of phthalocyanine to polysiloxane chains over phase transitions and phase morphology is discussed in details.

  5. Demand side management of electric car charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finn, P.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Connolly, David


    Ireland is currently striving to source 10% of the energy required for its transport fleet from renewable energy sources by 2020. As part of the measures being implemented in order to help realise this ambitious target a number of Government schemes have been introduced to financially subsidise...... in terms of distributed energy storage and flexible load. This paper examines how optimising the charging cycles of an electriccar using DSM (DemandSideManagement) based on a number of criteria could be used to achieve financial savings, increased demand on renewable energy, reduce demand on thermal...

  6. Sell side recommendations during booms and busts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W. Kretzmann


    Full Text Available Our study documents that the information content and the information processing of stock recommendations differ fundamentally between expansions and recessions. The initial market reaction to all recommendations is stronger in recessions, but “Buy” recommendations do not have long-term investment value. We find that in recessions sell side analysts are too optimistic about the stocks they recommend to buy, while investors initially overreact to these recommended stocks. In expansions, no such contradicting pattern exists. We also document that analysts favor “glamour” over “value” stocks irrespective of the state of the economy.

  7. Side effects from intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Erlendsson, Andres M; Nash, J F


    . Outcome measures were: (i) blinded clinical skin reactions; (ii) objectively measured erythema and pigmentation; (iii) pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS); (iv) histology (H&E, Fontana-Masson); and (v) mRNA-expression of p53. RESULTS: Fifteen subjects with FST II-IV completed the protocol. IPL...... exposure of UVR did not exacerbate side effects (P ≥ 0.180). Clinical findings were confirmed objectively by reflectance spectrometry and qualitatively by histological changes in skin architecture, inflammatory infiltration, and pigmentation. Marker of cellular DNA damage, that is, p53, did not increase...

  8. Illegal immigration: a supply side analysis. (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Bandyopadhyay, S C


    "This paper analyzes the supply-side determinants of illegal immigration using a three-sector general equilibrium model of the source country. Agricultural liberalization raises illegal immigration while liberalization of the high tech sector reduces it. In contrast, capital mobility in the source country renders trade policy ineffective for controlling illegal immigration. Paradoxically, increased enforcement (by the host country) may raise source country unskilled wages, although illegal immigration falls. Finally, under capital mobility, a rise in the source country restrictions on capital inflow raises the level of illegal immigration and reduces the effectiveness of border enforcement efforts by the host country." excerpt

  9. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program


    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO{sub 2} mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka. (author)

  10. Side effects of treatment with benzodiazepines. (United States)

    Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Jakovljević, Miro; Sedić, Biserka


    The use of benzodiazepine anxiolytics and hypnotics continues to excite controversy. Views differ from expert to expert and from country to country as to the extent of the problem, or even whether long-term benzodiazepine use actually constitutes a problem. Although as a class benzodiazepines act rapidly and are well tolerated, their use presents clinical issues such as dependence, rebound anxiety, memory impairment, and discontinuation syndrome. The aim of this article is to review literature regarding different side effects associated with treatment with benzodiazepines - effects on cognition, treatment with benzodiazepines during pregnancy, dependence on benzodiazepines and risk of falling. Literature research included structured searches of Medline and other publications on the subject of treatment with benzodiazepines, particularly effects on cognition, risk of falls, benzodiazepine dependence and treatment with benzodiazepines during pregnancy. Results of investigations have revealed different side effects associated with treatment with benzodiazepines. Previous investigations showed that treatment with benzodiazepines may induce anterograde amnesia. Also, previous studies confirmed occurrence of physical dependence in high percentage of patients in long term treatment with benzodiazepines at therapeutic dosages. Some investigation suggested higher risk of oral cleft, the floppy infant syndrome, or marked neonatal withdrawal symptoms when using benzodiazepines during pregnany. Investigations have shown increased risk of falling in elderly persons taking benzodiazepines.

  11. Finishing and polishing of the ceromer material Targis. Lab-side and chair-side methods. (United States)

    Behr, M; Rosentritt, M; Leibrock, A; Schneider-Feyrer, S; Handel, G


    The aim of the study was to check four lab-side and four chair-side methods for finishing and polishing the ceromer material Targis. Eighty bar-shaped specimens (20 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm) of Vectris were produced; 72 were covered with a 2 mm (thickness) layer of the Ceromer Targis and eight samples with the composite Tetric. All specimens were ground plane parallel with 320 Silicium carbide grit sandpaper in order to start with the same level of roughness. Then the specimens were finished and polished using the following methods: (1) Artglass toolkit, (2) pumice-stone and brushes/linen brush and polishing paste P3, (3) Robinson brush/Ivoclar Universal paste and wool brush, (4) Silicone wheel and rag wheel, (5) Shofu Rainbow set, (6) Sof-Lex discs, (7) Vivadent Politip set and (8) Nupro-pastes and brushes. The surface roughness was determined with a profilometer. The arithmetical roughness value Ra was calculated. From each group one specimen was randomly chosen and sputtered with gold in order to observe the surface with a scanning electron microscope to evaluate its smoothness. The methods were ranked as followed: 2, 3 and 5 with the lowest roughness, then 8, 6, 7, 4, 1. The best ranked chair-side method (5) and the best ranked lab-side methods (2, 3) did not differ significantly between the Ra values. No difference was observed between the composite Tetric and the ceromer Targis when these materials were polished using the same method. the lab-side-methods 2 and 3 and the chair-side-method 5 can be recommended for finishing and polishing the new ceromer material Targis.

  12. The Variation of Interface Formation with Slurry Viscosity Change in Side-By-Side Tape Casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Jabbari, Masoud; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm

    -bindering and sintering were studied. Solvent and binder concentrations were varied in order to optimize co-casting flow, as well as the drying and sintering shrinkage. Tapes were evaluated in terms of rheological behavior of the slurries, the green and sintered tape microstructure, the quality of the interface area......Homogenous and flexible adjacently graded tapes were produced by casting the organic-based slurries simultaneously. To develop side-by-side tape casing (SBSTC), the material optimization, modernization of the doctor blade design, and parameters control of such processes as casting, drying, de...

  13. Fluid-mediated stability and speed-increase for heaving hydrofoils swimming side-by-side (United States)

    Newbolt, Joel; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif


    As an example of collective motion in active swimmers we study the fluid-mediated interaction between two heaving hydrofoils that swim with a fixed transverse separation (between the heaving mid-heights) but are free to independently choose their forward swimming speeds and positions. Experiments reveal that out-of-phase foils are attracted to a side-by-side configuration which also increases the swimming speed of the pair (up to 59% faster for our parameters), while in-phase foils are repelled from this configuration. Because this type of swimming is qualitatively similar to that of fish and birds this interaction could be important to schooling and flocking.

  14. Grammars with two-sided contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Barash


    Full Text Available In a recent paper (M. Barash, A. Okhotin, "Defining contexts in context-free grammars", LATA 2012, the authors introduced an extension of the context-free grammars equipped with an operator for referring to the left context of the substring being defined. This paper proposes a more general model, in which context specifications may be two-sided, that is, both the left and the right contexts can be specified by the corresponding operators. The paper gives the definitions and establishes the basic theory of such grammars, leading to a normal form and a parsing algorithm working in time O(n^4, where n is the length of the input string.

  15. The two sides of silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Devine, S R


    /p/n sup + and essentially two p-n junctions within one device. With increasing bias voltage, as the electric field is extending into the detector bulk from opposite sides of the silicon detector, there are two distinct depletion regions that collect charge signal independently. Summing the signal charge from the two regions, one is able to reconstruct the initial energy of the incident particle. From Transient Current measurements it is apparent that E-field manipulation is possible by excess carrier injection, enabling a high enough E-field to extend across the width of the detector, allowing for efficient charge collection. Results are presented on in situ irradiation of silicon detector's at cryogenic temperature. The results show that irradiation at cryogenic temperatures does not detrimentally effect a silicon detectors performance when compared to its irradiation at room temperature. Operation of silicon devices at cryogenic temperatures offers the advantage of reducing radiation-induced leakage curren...

  16. Industrial demand side management: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, M.F.; Conger, R.L.; Foley, T.J. [and others


    This report provides an overview of and rationale for industrial demand side management (DSM) programs. Benefits and barriers are described, and data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey are used to estimate potential energy savings in kilowatt hours. The report presents types and examples of programs and explores elements of successful programs. Two in-depth case studies (from Boise Cascade and Eli Lilly and Company) illustrate two types of effective DSM programs. Interviews with staff from state public utility commissions indicate the current thinking about the status and future of industrial DSM programs. A comprehensive bibliography is included, technical assistance programs are listed and described, and a methodology for evaluating potential or actual savings from projects is delineated.

  17. Dual side control for inductive power transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron


    An apparatus for dual side control includes a measurement module that measures a voltage and a current of an IPT system. The voltage includes an output voltage and/or an input voltage and the current includes an output current and/or an input current. The output voltage and the output current are measured at an output of the IPT system and the input voltage and the input current measured at an input of the IPT system. The apparatus includes a max efficiency module that determines a maximum efficiency for the IPT system. The max efficiency module uses parameters of the IPT system to iterate to a maximum efficiency. The apparatus includes an adjustment module that adjusts one or more parameters in the IPT system consistent with the maximum efficiency calculated by the max efficiency module.

  18. Esomeprazole induced galactorrhea: a novel side effect. (United States)

    Pipaliya, Nirav; Solanke, Dattatray; Rathi, Chetan; Patel, Ruchir; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha


    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most frequently prescribed medications across the globe. Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole, and it is currently the most widely prescribed PPI. The safety profile of esomeprazole is extremely favorable with only minor side effects, like headache and diarrhea, that are encountered in day to day practice. We report a case of a young female with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease who developed galactorrhea after starting esomeprazole therapy. Resolution of galactorrhea after stopping the drug and self-rechallenge by the patient herself with reappearance of galactorrhea confirmed the culprit to be esomeprazole only. We postulate that esomeprazole may have a mild inhibitory effect on CYP3A4, which leads to decreased metabolism of estrogen, thereby increasing serum estrogen levels. Estrogen causes stimulation and production of prolactin release, which results in development of galactorrhea. This is the first case of esomeprazole induced galactorrhea, to the best of our knowledge.

  19. Side-Scan-Sonar Points for Hudson River, NY (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Side Scan Point Files. These points correspond to individual pings which produced hte side-scan-sonar backscatter imagery. Sonar data were collected November 6 to...

  20. Statin Side Effects: Weigh the Benefits and Risks (United States)

    Statin side effects: Weigh the benefits and risks Statin side effects can be uncomfortable, making it seem ... medications. By Mayo Clinic Staff Doctors often prescribe statins for people with high cholesterol to lower their ...

  1. Quantifying side-chain conformational variations in protein structure (United States)

    Miao, Zhichao; Cao, Yang


    Protein side-chain conformation is closely related to their biological functions. The side-chain prediction is a key step in protein design, protein docking and structure optimization. However, side-chain polymorphism comprehensively exists in protein as various types and has been long overlooked by side-chain prediction. But such conformational variations have not been quantitatively studied and the correlations between these variations and residue features are vague. Here, we performed statistical analyses on large scale data sets and found that the side-chain conformational flexibility is closely related to the exposure to solvent, degree of freedom and hydrophilicity. These analyses allowed us to quantify different types of side-chain variabilities in PDB. The results underscore that protein side-chain conformation prediction is not a single-answer problem, leading us to reconsider the assessment approaches of side-chain prediction programs.

  2. Potential protective role of hydrogen against cisplatininduced side ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced side effects during chemotherapy. Methods: We searched PubMed and SCOPUS using the following keywords and combinations in titles, keywords, abstracts and full texts: cisplatin; side effects; chemotherapy; tumor; toxicity; hydrogen; ...

  3. Mesothelioma Treatment: Recovery, Side Effects, What to Expect (United States)

    ... Treatment > Mesothelioma Treatment > Mesothelioma Treatment Recovery Side Effects Mesothelioma Treatment and Recovery Scenarios: e-News Signup Click ... questions. (877) END-MESO (877) 363-6376 Testimonials Mesothelioma Treatment: Recovery, Side Effects, What to Expect Mesothelioma ...

  4. Topical tranexamic acid as an adjuvant treatment in melasma: Side-by-side comparison clinical study. (United States)

    Chung, Jong Yoon; Lee, Jong Hee; Lee, Joo Heung


    Tranexamic acid (TNA) is a novel therapeutic agent for hyperpigmented skin disorders. The efficacy and safety of topical TNA in patients with melasma has not been heretofore studied. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical TNA combined with intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment in Asians with melasma. A randomized, split-face (internally controlled) study was conducted in 15 women who received four monthly sessions of IPL to both sides of the face. Topical TNA or vehicle was applied to a randomly assigned side during and after IPL treatment. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks after completing the IPL treatments. Baseline and follow-up melanin index (MI; measured by Mexameter®, Courage and Khazaka, Cologne, Germany) and modified melasma area and severity index (mMASI) scores were determined. Thirteen subjects completed the study without serious adverse events. MI and mMASI decreased significantly from baseline to 12 weeks after the last IPL treatment on the topical TNA side but not on the vehicle side. The efficacy of topical TNA in preventing rebound pigmentation after IPL treatment was also statistically significant. Topical TNA can be considered an effective and safe adjuvant to conventional treatment for melasma.

  5. Quantitative flow characteristics for side-by-side square cylinders via PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Sercan


    Full Text Available In this study, instantaneous and time-averaged flow structures downstream of the sharp-edged single and two and three side-by-side square cylinders (SCs immersed in a uniform open channel water flow were studied by a technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV. Experimental results of wake flow structures were presented for gap ratios (G/D in the range of 1.0”G/D”3.0 for Reynolds number values of 1050, 2450 and 3400. Flow structures depending on the square cylinder (SC configurations and Reynolds number were discussed. It has been found that the development of the vortex shedding as well as the flow structure were substantially altered for side-by-side SCs comparing to the single SC. Asymmetrical and biased wake structures were observed because of the jetlike flow between the SCs for two SCs cases for the gap ratio less than 2.0. Depending on the gap spacing between the SCs, the interaction results of time2 averaged vorticity, velocity vector field, Reynolds stress correlations and streamline patterns in the wake region form a distinguished flow structure. Strouhal numbers for the single square cylinder for 1050≤Re≤3400 are found in the range of 0.12-0.13. The present results have supported the previous works by providing detailed quantitative experimental information with PIV in the wake region of the SC and might be helpful for validation of numerical studies and designers.

  6. Prediction of hydrodynamic performance of an FLNG system in side-by-side offloading operation (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhua; Yang, Jianmin; Hu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Longbin


    Floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) is a type of liquefied natural gas (LNG) production system that shows prospects in exploitation of stranded offshore gas fields. The dynamic performance of an FLNG system in side-by-side configuration with a LNG carrier under the combined actions of wave, current and wind can be quite complex. This paper presents a comprehensive study on the hydrodynamics of an FLNG system with a focus on the nonlinear coupling effects of vessels and connection systems based on the concept FLNG prototype recently designed for South China Sea. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the two floating vessels connected through hawsers and fenders are investigated using a state-of-the-art time-domain simulation code SIMO, considering their mechanical and hydrodynamic coupling effects. The simulation model consisting of FLNG and LNG carrier is developed and calibrated by a series of model tests including a tuned damping and viscous levels. The hydrodynamic performances of the two floating vessels under an extreme sea state during side-by-side offloading operation are obtained, and their relative motions and the force responses of the connection hawsers and fenders are analyzed. Sensitivity studies are conducted to clarify contributions from the pretension and the stiffness of the connection hawsers. The effects on the hydrodynamic performance of the vessels and on the loads of the connection system are also investigated.

  7. Review of Server Side Development Technologies for Social Application Dibs


    Laine, Valtteri


    The goal of this thesis is to be an instruction manual into server-side technologies for beginner server-side developers and, in addition, a guide in choosing the best technologies for each situation. Server side technologies are reviewed and explained from several categories including web host, server-side programming language, server databases and an internet protocol for communication between a server and a distributed client. A social application containing game like features called D...

  8. Association between brain lateralization and mixing ability of chewing side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Min Lee


    Conclusion: Brain laterality can be explained by the side of functional (preference of the hands, eyes, ears, and feet, and survey has a positive correlation with chewing preference side. MAI between the brain dominant and nondominant sides was not significant. This shows that mastication efficiency does not differ between dominant and nondominant sides. So, this study suggests that brain dominance is correlated with chewing preference, but it does not affect efficiency of mastication.

  9. Organizational mediators siding with or against the powerful party?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Laskewitz, P.; van de Vliert, E.


    Examined whether, instead of being impartial, a mediator may side with one party as a function of the disputants' power differences (power balancing theory), the mediator's legitimacy judgments (siding theory), or the disputants' capacity to sanction the mediator (siding theory). A questionnaire

  10. Small-Sided Games: Developmentally Appropriate Applications in Traditional Activities. (United States)

    Petersen, Susan; Cruz, Luz

    This paper presents a systematic progression of small-sided games within two traditional sports units (soccer and volleyball). Developmentally appropriate guidelines encourage teachers at all levels to incorporate small-sided games (2v2, 3v3, and 4v4). Advantages of small-sided games include: allowing students numerous practice opportunities;…

  11. A Macroeconomic Approach to Teaching Supply-Side Economics. (United States)

    Kyer, Ben L.; Maggs, Gary E.


    Contends that supply-side economics has generated a long-standing debate in both academic and political circles. Discusses the concepts of supply-side economics and how it is represented by the Laffer Curve. Illustrates the use of graphic analysis of tax rates and revenue to show the Laffer effect and supply-side economics. (CFR)

  12. Coenzyme Q10: Can It Prevent Statin Side Effects? (United States)

    ... Q10: Can it prevent statin side effects? Can coenzyme Q10 reduce the risk of side effects from statins? ... Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. At this time, coenzyme Q10 isn't universally recommended for preventing side effects ...

  13. Heavily skewed pricing in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; Tieman, Alexander F.

    A common feature in two-sided markets is the prevalence of heavily skewed pricing strategies in which price markups are much higher on one side of the market than the other. We show that maximal skewed pricing is profit maximizing under constant elasticity of demand. The most elastic side of the

  14. 49 CFR 231.7 - Tank cars with side platforms. (United States)


    ...-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars with side platforms. 231.7 Section 231.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.7 Tank cars with side platforms. (a...

  15. Promoting healthcare innovation on the demand side. (United States)

    Eisenberg, Rebecca S; Price, W Nicholson


    Innovation policy often focuses on fortifying the incentives of firms that develop and sell new products by offering them lucrative rights to exclude competitors from the market. Regulators also rely on these same firms-and on similar incentives-to develop information about the effects of their products in patients, despite their obvious conflict of interest. The result may be a distorted understanding that leads to overuse of expensive new medical technologies. Recent technological advances have put healthcare payers in an excellent position to play a larger role in future innovation to improve healthcare and reduce its costs. Insurance companies and integrated healthcare providers have custody of treasure troves of data about healthcare provision and outcomes that can yield valuable insights about the effects of medical treatment without the need to conduct costly clinical trials. Some integrated healthcare systems have seized upon this advantage to make notable discoveries about the effects of particular products that have changed the standard of care. Moreover, to the extent that healthcare payers can profit from reducing costs, they will seek to avoid inappropriate use of costly technologies. Greater involvement of payers in healthcare innovation thus offers a potential counterweight to the incentives of product sellers to promote excessive use of costly new products. In recent years, the federal government has sought to promote innovation through analysis of healthcare records in a series of initiatives; some picture insurers as passive data repositories, while others provide opportunities for insurers to take a more active role in innovation. In this paper, we examine the role of health insurers in developing new knowledge about the provision and effects of healthcare-what we call 'demand-side innovation'. We address the contours of this underexplored area of innovation and describe the behavior of participating firms. We examine the effects of current legal

  16. Flow and wall shear stress in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomosis of venous coronary artery bypass grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulikakos Dimos


    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery represents the standard treatment of advanced coronary artery disease. Two major types of anastomosis exist to connect the graft to the coronary artery, i.e., by using an end-to-side or a side-to-side anastomosis. There is still controversy because of the differences in the patency rates of the two types of anastomosis. The purpose of this paper is to non-invasively quantify hemodynamic parameters, such as mass flow and wall shear stress (WSS, in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomoses of patients with CABG using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. Methods One patient with saphenous CABG and end-to-side anastomosis and one patient with saphenous CABG and side-to-side anastomosis underwent 16-detector row computed tomography (CT. Geometric models of coronary arteries and bypasses were reconstructed for CFD analysis. Blood flow was considered pulsatile, laminar, incompressible and Newtonian. Peri-anastomotic mass flow and WSS were quantified and flow patterns visualized. Results CFD analysis based on in-vivo CT coronary angiography data was feasible in both patients. For both types of CABG, flow patterns were characterized by a retrograde flow into the native coronary artery. WSS variations were found in both anastomoses types, with highest WSS values at the heel and lowest WSS values at the floor of the end-to-side anastomosis. In contrast, the highest WSS values of the side-to-side anastomosis configuration were found in stenotic vessel segments and not in the close vicinity of the anastomosis. Flow stagnation zones were found in end-to-side but not in side-to-side anastomosis, the latter also demonstrating a smoother stream division throughout the cardiac cycle. Conclusion CFD analysis of venous CABG based on in-vivo CT datasets in patients was feasible producing qualitative and quantitative information on mass flow and WSS. Differences were found between the two types of anastomosis

  17. Side Chain Engineering in Solution-Processable Conjugated Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo


    Side chains in conjugated polymers have been primarily utilized as solubilizing groups. However, these side chains have roles that are far beyond. We advocate using side chain engineering to tune a polymer\\'s physical properties, including absorption, emission, energy level, molecular packing, and charge transport. To date, numerous flexible substituents suitable for constructing side chains have been reported. In this Perspective article, we advocate that the side chain engineering approach can advance better designs for next-generation conjugated polymers. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. 49 CFR 231.4 - Fixed-end low-side gondola and low-side hopper cars. (United States)


    ... car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, at which time they must be... cars. 231.4 Section 231.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Fixed-end low-side gondola and low-side hopper cars. (Cars with sides 36 inches or less above the floor...

  19. [Pulmonary side effects of gold treatment]. (United States)

    Reinicke, C


    On the basis of more than 35 cases from literature a survey of clinical and paraclinical findings, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of the pulmonary reaction evoked by gold is given. The first symptoms mostly appear within the initial phase of the treatment, after several weeks to months. Unexpectedly increasing dyspnoea, weakness, cough and feeling of sickness in patients who are treated with gold salts are warning signals which refer to the possibility of a lung injury by gold. The differential-diagnostic demarcation from rheumatoid lung, a rare extraarticular manifestation of the rheumatoid arthritis, may render difficulties. The latter, however, usually refers to a slower progressing, is not or only incompletely able to involution and scarcely reacts to cortisonoids. The gold-conditioned pulmonary changes in most cases completely involve after a well-timed finish of the treatment with the gold-preparation. Cortisonoids are given for the acceleration of the remission. The prognosis is in general good. However, it depends on the fact, how long the gold treatment is still continued after the appearance of the pulmonary side-effect.

  20. The Darker Side of the Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Mignolo


    Full Text Available The Darker Side of the Renaissance focuses on coloniality rather than on Europe’s witch and alchemist hunt. Today I would dare to say also that this expression refers us to the historical foundation of coloniality. At the same time, coloniality statement is called into question, as well as the distinction between the known object and the knowing subject, an assumption on which the Eurocentric project of “modernity” and “modernization” disciplines lie. The preface marks the enunciation with which the statement is stated. That is, it rejects the "point zero epistemology" denounced by Santiago Castro-Gómez. This means the reader should be always pay attention to the ennunciation s/he states him/herself, to the hand drawing the hand. Those of us dwelling at Abya-Yala/America are surrounded by the historical foundation of modernity/coloniality, we are a living part of that process, which only “scientific” alignment can make us believe we are looking at something (e.g., colonization touching what we are today

  1. Promoting Innovation Ecosystem from Knowledge Supplying Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiu WANG


    Full Text Available Innovation and development paradigm has dominated the world since the 19th century. In the era of industry 4.0, innovation ecosystem has been advocated globally. There are different innovation paradigms in history. Before 1960s, the competitive and monopolized paradigm was dominative, while between the 1970s and 1990s, the cluster and innovation valley paradigm had played a key role. In the 21st century, with the advent of industry 4.0, the innovation ecosystem paradigm is advocated globally. Accordingly, there exist different innovation strategies, in reality, considering different economic and social context. However, no matter if having in mind developed or developing countries, the ecosystem paradigm has high rewards for different companies and society. There is also evidence showing that research and development by top universities and research institutes have high productivity and benefits for enterprises and society nowadays, no matter the development state of the areas considered. The author analyzes by literature review and case study the necessity, feasibility, strategy and approaches of innovation ecosystem from a knowledge supplying side. The strategy and approaches include collaboration between university, industry, agriculture and government, talents education, knowledge diffusion, patent purchasing, technology tailoring, consulting, human resource training and platform construction. Science community also takes the role of standards development and maintaining, high technology forecasting and innovation monitoring. The patent office, start-ups, spin-offs and innovation labs act as the links between science, technology, and application.

  2. The Malevolent Side of Human Nature. (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Merckelbach, Harald; Otgaar, Henry; Meijer, Ewout


    The term dark triad refers to the constellation of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Over the past few years, the concept has gained momentum, with many researchers assuming that the dark triad is a prominent antecedent of transgressive and norm-violating behavior. Our purpose in this meta-analytic review was to evaluate (a) interrelations among narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy; (b) gender differences in these traits; (c) how these traits are linked to normal personality factors; and (d) the psychosocial correlates of the dark triad. Our findings show that dark triad traits are substantially intercorrelated, somewhat more prevalent among men than women, predominantly related to the Big Five personality factor of agreeableness and the HEXACO factor of honesty-humility, and generally associated with various types of negative psychosocial outcomes. We question whether dark triad traits are sufficiently distinct and argue that the way they are currently measured is too simple to capture the malevolent sides of personality. Because most research in this domain is cross-sectional and based on self-reports, we recommend using a cross-informant approach and prospective, longitudinal research designs for studying the predictive value of dark triad features.

  3. [The democratic side of science-fiction]. (United States)

    Lecellier, Charles-Henri


    Suspicion towards technological advances has progressively grown during the xx(th) century. However, in the XXI(st) century, reading the NBIC (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science) report of the National Science Foundation, we can note that science has caught up with science fiction. These changes in public mentality on one side and in scientific capacities on the other argue for an evolution of the debate on sciences. The recent example of the national debate on nanotechnology in France has clearly shown that the public is no longer waiting for additional sources of scientific knowledge but rather waiting for the recognition of its authority to participate in the definition of the national R&D priority and associated scientific strategies. This is all the more legitimate that these strategies will have profound impact on the future of our societies and therefore cannot be decided only by scientists. Hence, it is crucial to identify innovative tools promoting debate on sciences and their technological spin-off. Here, we contend that science fiction has major assets that could face this challenge and facilitate the dialogue between sciences and society.

  4. Immediate side effects of large fraction radiotherapy. (United States)

    Devereux, S; Hatton, M Q; Macbeth, F R


    The use of hypofractionated radiotherapy regimens is becoming more widely recognized in the palliation of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Anecdotal reports of chest pain, rigors and fevers in the hours that follow radiotherapy led us to perform a survey estimating the frequency and severity of these symptoms following treatment to the thorax. One hundred and eighteen patients completed questionnaires 24 hours after palliative radiotherapy treatment; 84 were male. The median age was 67 years. One hundred and seven had histologically confirmed NSCLC. A parallel opposed technique was used in 113 patients. Doses ranged from 8 Gy in a single fraction to 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Chest pain was reported by 54 (45.8%) patients after the first radiotherapy fraction; in 42 it commenced within 12 hours of treatment. The pain varied in site, nature and duration; on 23 occasions, it lasted under 2 hours. Systemic symptoms (rigors, sweating, fevers) were documented on 43 questionnaires, starting within 12 hours of treatment in 33 patients and on 30 occasions lasting less than 2 hours. Chest pain and systemic symptoms occurred together in 28 patients. Only 49 (41.5%) patients reported no immediate side effects. We conclude that patients receiving palliative radiotherapy for bronchial carcinoma often develop significant symptoms in the hours following treatment. The timing and duration suggest a relationship with the radiotherapy, and we feel that patients should be warned of the possible occurrence of these symptoms.

  5. Radio on the Other Side of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia TAPIA LÓPEZ


    Full Text Available On October 30, 1938, Orson Welles aired the radio drama The War of the Worlds on the CBS Radio network, adapting the science-fiction novel by the British writer H. G. Wells. During the broadcast, listeners became stricken with panic, believing that the Earth was actually being invaded by giant snake-like Martians launching rays of fire down on humans. Welles was a groundbreaking figure whose trickery exploited the technological novelty of the radio to its fullest, adapting classic texts in ways that exploited the opportunities afforded by this new medium. Over the years, this radio classic has been adapted a number of times, though none has seized on the technological advances of our times. Drawing on the most salient innovations seen in Internet radio, this article creates an imaginary scenario that replicates Orson Welles’s work in the present day, when the Internet has become a channel for broadcasting and hyperlinks have brought different media together. The text is an exploration of the other side of time, where transmedia storytelling facilitates the exchange of stories among consumers, and broadcast programming is no longer linear.

  6. Incentives for demand-side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. (Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))


    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state's progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  7. Incentives for demand-side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)


    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state`s progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  8. Detection of Left-Sided and Right-Sided Hearing Loss via Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang


    Full Text Available In order to detect hearing loss more efficiently and accurately, this study proposed a new method based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT. Three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance images were obtained from 15 patients with left-sided hearing loss (LHL, 20 healthy controls (HC, and 14 patients with right-sided hearing loss (RHL. Twenty-five FRFT spectrums were reduced by principal component analysis with thresholds of 90%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. The classifier is the single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network (SFN trained by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The results showed that the accuracies of all three classes are higher than 95%. In all, our method is promising and may raise interest from other researchers.

  9. Flow Features of Three Side-by-side Circular Cylinders at Low Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Junkao


    Full Text Available In order to study the fluctuation of kinetic parameter of cylinder matrix in incompressible stationary flow, the flow fluid around three side-by-side circular cylinders are simulated using Immersed Boundary–Lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM. Drag and lift force of the three cylinders are investigated as the interval between each cylinder varied from zero to five times of the cylinder diameter. Five flow patterns are defined according to the vortices structure in the downstream of the cylinders. Power spectrum analysis of lift force is developed to explain the vortex patterns. Through the research, we find the strength and phase of the gap flow play an important role in the vortex formatting process. The vortices shedding from different cylinders neutralize and combine in the near wake, contributing a lot to the variation of forces.

  10. Side by side tests of two SDHW systems with solar collectors with and without antireflection treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Han, Jiangong; Perers, Bengt


    Two low flow SDHW systems based on mantle tanks are tested side by side in a laboratory test facility for solar heating systems under the same weather and operation conditions. The systems are identical with the exception that one system is equipped with a solar collector with antireflection...... agreement between measured and calculated thermal performances for both systems. The extra thermal performance of the system with the solar collector with the anti reflection treated glass cover is a strong function of the solar fraction. In sunny periods with high solar fractions the percentage extra...... treated glass while the other system has a collector with a normal glass. Measurements of the thermal performance of the two systems have been carried out for a long measuring period. The thermal performances of the systems have also been calculated with a detailed simulation model. There is a good...

  11. The side-to-side fashion for individual distal coronary anastomosis using venous conduit. (United States)

    Kato, Takayoshi; Tsunekawa, Tomohiro; Motoji, Yusuke; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Okawa, Yasuhide; Tomita, Shinji


    Regarding to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the end-to-side anastomosis (ESA) has been performed as a gold standard. Recently, the effectiveness of the distal side-to-side anastomosis (SSA) in CABG using internal mammary artery has been reported. The benefit of SSA comparing to ESA also has been disclosed by computing simulation. However, use of SSA by venous conduit for individual CABG has not been reported. In this study, we investigated feasibility of SSA. From January 2013 to October 2014, we conducted 114 CABGs. There were 92 venous distal anastomoses without sequential anastomotic site (61 SSA and 31 ESA). The anastomosis was evaluated before discharge and at 1 year after the procedure by angiography or multi-detector row computed tomographic coronary angiography. The median values for time to anastomosis were 13 min in the two group (p = 0.89). There was no revision of anastomosis in both groups. Additional stitches for hemostasis were required significantly less in SSA than ESA (18.0 vs 45.2 %, respectively, p fashion is easy to perform and maybe beneficial in blood flow pattern.

  12. Manifestation of preferred chewing side for hard food on TMJ disc displacement side. (United States)

    Ratnasari, A; Hasegawa, K; Oki, K; Kawakami, S; Yanagi, Y; Asaumi, J-I; Minagi, S


    The purpose of this study was to reveal the relationship between chewing-side preference and anterior disc displacement (ADD) of the TMJ. Thirty-two healthy subjects with ages ranging from 26 to 34 years were selected from volunteer students at the Okayama University Dental School. Subjects were asked to chew freely with two kinds of test foods, beef jerky (hard food) and chiffon cake (soft food), thus expecting different amounts of mechanical loading on the TMJ. One, 4, and 7 s after starting the mastication, subjects were asked to open their mouth momentarily to have a digital image of their mouth taken. The bolus placement area was measured by processing the digital images, calculated as the number of pixel of bolus area. Area asymmetry index was used for the determination of preferred chewing side (PCS). Oblique sagittal MRI scanning in the closed mouth position was taken to evaluate the articular disc position. In asymptomatic subjects with ADD, a significant predominance of the PCS on the ipsilateral side of ADD was observed during the mastication of hard food. On the contrary, no correlation was found between unilateral ADD and PCS for the soft food. From the results of this study, it is suggested that ADD is the associating factor of PCS for hard food. Therefore, it would be necessary to break down the concept of PCS into at least two categories, one for hard food and one for soft food, considering the mechanical loading on the TMJ. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Why fruits go to the dark side (United States)

    Schaefer, H. Martin


    The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

  14. Dactyl Dark Side Illuminated by Idashine (United States)


    Within seconds of its closest approach to the asteroid 243 Ida on August 28, 1993, the Galileo spacecraft's Solid State Imaging camera caught this glimpse of Ida's previously unknown moon orbiting the asteroid. One frame of a 15-image set designed to capture a view of Ida at the highest possible resolution landed by chance with its edge right on the little moon. The range from the spacecraft was about 2,400 kilometers (1,500 miles), and each picture element spans about 24 meters (80 feet) on the surface of the moon. Only a small sliver of the sunlit crescent is visible at the edge of the frame (which was shifted inward toward the center in this representation). Ida itself is outside this frame to the left and slightly below center, roughly 90 kilometers (56 miles) away. The darkside of this moon is illuminated by light reflected from the sunlit side of Ida, in the same way that Earthshine brightens the dark part of Earth's Moon when it shows only a thin sunlit crescent, near 'new Moon'. The smoothly curving shape of the dark edge of Ida's moon can be seen on the left. The moon's observed darkside was just barely detectable by Galileo's camera; computer enhancement has made it easier to see in this picture. The visibility of the moon's dark limb has provided valuable information on the size and shape of the tiny moon, which measures about 1.2 x 1.4 X 1.6 kilometers (0.75 x 0.87 x 1 mile). The little moon's relatively smooth egg shape contrasts markedly with the highly irregular shape of its parent, the asteroid Ida. This image was relayed to Earth from the Galileo spacecraft on June 8, 1994. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  15. Side Flow Effect on Surface Generation in Nano Cutting (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong


    The side flow of material in nano cutting is one of the most important factors that deteriorate the machined surface quality. The effects of the crystallographic orientation, feed, and the cutting tool geometry, including tool edge radius, rake angle and inclination angle, on the side flow are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the stagnation region is formed in front of tool edge and it is characterized by the stagnation radius R s and stagnation height h s . The side flow is formed because the material at or under the stagnation region is extruded by the tool edge to flow to the side of the tool edge. Higher stagnation height would increase the size of the side flow. The anisotropic nature of the material which partly determines the stagnation region also influences the side flow due to the different deformation mechanism under the action of the tool edge. At different cutting directions, the size of the side flow has a great difference which would finally affect the machined surface quality. The cutting directions of {100} , {110} , and {110} are beneficial to obtain a better surface quality with small side flow. Besides that, the side flow could be suppressed by reducing the feed and optimizing the cutting tool geometry. Cutting tool with small edge radius, large positive rake angle, and inclination angle would decrease the side flow and consequently improve the machined surface quality.

  16. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects (United States)

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert


    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  17. Side Flow Effect on Surface Generation in Nano Cutting. (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong


    The side flow of material in nano cutting is one of the most important factors that deteriorate the machined surface quality. The effects of the crystallographic orientation, feed, and the cutting tool geometry, including tool edge radius, rake angle and inclination angle, on the side flow are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the stagnation region is formed in front of tool edge and it is characterized by the stagnation radius R s and stagnation height h s . The side flow is formed because the material at or under the stagnation region is extruded by the tool edge to flow to the side of the tool edge. Higher stagnation height would increase the size of the side flow. The anisotropic nature of the material which partly determines the stagnation region also influences the side flow due to the different deformation mechanism under the action of the tool edge. At different cutting directions, the size of the side flow has a great difference which would finally affect the machined surface quality. The cutting directions of {100} , {110} , and {110}  are beneficial to obtain a better surface quality with small side flow. Besides that, the side flow could be suppressed by reducing the feed and optimizing the cutting tool geometry. Cutting tool with small edge radius, large positive rake angle, and inclination angle would decrease the side flow and consequently improve the machined surface quality.

  18. Side effects of retinoid therapy on the quality of vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergler-Czop Beata


    Full Text Available Retinoids are compounds chemically related to vitamin A, which are frequently used in dermatological practice (1. They are characterized by numerous mechanisms of action leading to normalization of keratinocyte proliferation and maturation. They have anti-seborrhoeic, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects (1, 2. A number of side effects to retinoid treatment have been recorded; one group of such side effects relates to eyes and vision. Dry eye syndrome and blepharoconjunctivitis are the most common side effects, appearing in 20-50 % of patients treated with retinoids. They often contribute to the occurrence of other side-effects such as eye discomfort and contact lens intolerance. Due to the widespread use in clinical practice, the adverse effects, including ocular side effects, should be studied. To confirm the variety of adverse effects of retinoids, several case reports of rare side-effects are presented.

  19. Side effects of retinoid therapy on the quality of vision. (United States)

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Bilewicz-Stebel, Monika; Stańkowska, Anna; Bilewicz-Wyrozumska, Teresa


    Retinoids are compounds chemically related to vitamin A, which are frequently used in dermatological practice (1). They are characterized by numerous mechanisms of action leading to normalization of keratinocyte proliferation and maturation. They have anti-seborrhoeic, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects (1, 2). A number of side effects to retinoid treatment have been recorded; one group of such side effects relates to eyes and vision. Dry eye syndrome and blepharoconjunctivitis are the most common side effects, appearing in 20-50 % of patients treated with retinoids. They often contribute to the occurrence of other side-effects such as eye discomfort and contact lens intolerance. Due to the widespread use in clinical practice, the adverse effects, including ocular side effects, should be studied. To confirm the variety of adverse effects of retinoids, several case reports of rare side-effects are presented.

  20. Systematic identification of proteins that elicit drug side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Campillos, Monica


    Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins...... that cause drug side effects. We integrated phenotypic data obtained during clinical trials with known drug-target relations to identify overrepresented protein-side effect combinations. Using independent data, we confirm that most of these overrepresentations point to proteins which, when perturbed, cause...... side effects. Of 1428 side effects studied, 732 were predicted to be predominantly caused by individual proteins, at least 137 of them backed by existing pharmacological or phenotypic data. We prove this concept in vivo by confirming our prediction that activation of the serotonin 7 receptor (HTR7...

  1. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding


    Hart, Robert


    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and fact...

  2. Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canli Eyüb


    Full Text Available Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres

  3. Collusion in Markets with Imperfect Price Information on Both Sides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    The paper considers tacit collusion in markets which are not fully transparent on both sides. Consumers only detect prices with some probability before deciding which firm to purchase from, and each firm only detects the other firm's price with some probability. Increasing transparency...... on the producer side facilitates collusion, while increasing transparency on the consumer side makes collusion more difficult. Conditions are given under which increases in a common factor, affecting transparency positively on both sides, are pro-competitive. With two standard information technologies, this is so...

  4. Collusion in Markets with Imperfect Price Information on Both Sides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian


    The paper considers tacit collusion in markets that are not fully transparent on both sides. Consumers only detect prices with some probability before deciding which firm to purchase from, and each firm only detects the other firm’s price with some probability. Increasing transparency...... on the producer side facilitates collusion, while increasing transparency on the consumer side makes collusion more difficult. Conditions are given under which increases in a common factor that affects transparency positively on both sides are pro-competitive. With two standard information technologies...

  5. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women (United States)

    Radiotherapy - fertility; Radiation - fertility; Chemotherapy - fertility; Sexual dysfunction - cancer treatment ... Numbness or pain in the genitals Problems with fertility Many people also have emotional side effects after ...

  6. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Coondoo


    Full Text Available The introduction of topical steroids (TS of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia.The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects.

  7. Side-to-side growth discrepancies in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: association with function, activity and social participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Bueno Zonta


    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate side-to-side discrepancies in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP, and investigate associations of these discrepancies with patients’ age at initiation of physical therapy, motor and cognitive function, and degree of activities and social participation. Method: We obtained eight side-to-side measurements from 24 HCP children with mean age 49.3±5.2 months. Results: Early initiation of physical therapy was associated with lower discrepancy in hand length (p=0.037. Lower foot length discrepancy was associated with lower requirement for caregiver assistance in activities related to mobility. Increased side-to-side discrepancy was associated with reduced wrist extension and increased spasticity. Discrepancy played a larger role in children with hemineglect and in those with right involvement. Conclusion: Increased discrepancy in HCP children was associated with reduced degree of activity/social participation. These results suggest an association between functional use of the extremities and limb growth.

  8. Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2013–2014 Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon, Carlos [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)


    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) completed a fourth year-long evaluation on residential hot water heating systems in a laboratory environment (east central Florida, hot-humid climate). The evaluation studied the performance of five hot water systems (HWS) plus a reference baseline system for each fuel, (i.e., electric and natural gas). Electric HWS consisted of two residential electric heat pump water heaters (HPWHs, 60 and 80 gallons), a solar thermal system using a polymer absorber (glazed) collector with 80-gallon storage and a duplicate 50-gallon standard electric water heater with added cap and wrap insulation. Baseline performance data were collected from a standard 50-gallon electric water heater of minimum code efficiency to compare energy savings. Similarly, a standard 40-gallon upright vented natural gas water heater served as baseline for the natural gas fuel category. The latter, having a larger jacket diameter [18 in., with an energy factor (EF) of 0.62] with increased insulation, replaced a former baseline (17 in. diameter, EF = 0.59) that served during three previous testing rotations (2009–2013). A high-efficiency, condensing natural gas hybrid water heater with 27-gallon buffered tank was also tested and compared against the gas baseline. All systems underwent testing simultaneously side-by-side under the criteria specified elsewhere in this report.

  9. Comparative study of silver nanoparticle permeation using Side-Bi-Side and Franz diffusion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trbojevich, Raul A. [U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research (United States); Fernandez, Avelina, E-mail: [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universitat de València, Parc Científic, Instituto de Física Corpuscular (Spain); Watanabe, Fumiya; Mustafa, Thikra [University Arkansas at Little Rock, Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences (United States); Bryant, Matthew S. [U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research (United States)


    Better understanding the mechanisms of nanoparticle permeation through membranes and packaging polymers has important implications for the evaluation of drug transdermal uptake, in food safety and the environmental implications of nanotechnology. In this study, permeation of 21 nm diameter silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was tested using Side-Bi-Side and Franz static diffusion cells through hydrophilic 0.1 and 0.05 µm pore diameter 125 µm thick synthetic cellulose membranes, and 16 and 120 µm thick low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films. Experiments performed with LDPE films discarded permeation of AgNPs or Ag ions over the investigated time-frame in both diffusion systems. But controlled release of AgNPs has been quantified using semipermeable hydrophilic membranes. The permeation followed a quasi-linear time-dependent model during the experimental time-frame, which represents surface reaction-limited permeation. Diffusive flux, diffusion coefficients, and membrane permeability were determined as a function of pore size and diffusion model. Concentration gradient and pore size were key to understand mass transfer phenomena in the diffusion systems.Graphical Abstract.

  10. Side-by-side ANFIS as a useful tool for estimating correlated thermophysical properties (United States)

    Grieu, Stéphane; Faugeroux, Olivier; Traoré, Adama; Claudet, Bernard; Bodnar, Jean-Luc


    In the present paper, an artificial intelligence-based approach dealing with the estimation of correlated thermophysical properties is designed and evaluated. This new and "intelligent" approach makes use of photothermal responses obtained when homogeneous materials are subjected to a light flux. Commonly, gradient-based algorithms are used as parameter estimation techniques. Unfortunately, such algorithms show instabilities leading to non-convergence in case of correlated properties to be estimated from a rebuilt impulse response. So, the main objective of the present work was to simultaneously estimate both the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of homogeneous materials, from front-face or rear-face photothermal responses to pseudo random binary signals. To this end, we used side-by-side neuro-fuzzy systems (adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems) trained with a hybrid algorithm. We focused on the impact on generalization of both the examples used during training and the fuzzification process. In addition, computation time was a key point to consider. That is why the developed algorithm is computationally tractable and allows both the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of homogeneous materials to be simultaneously estimated with very good accuracy (the generalization error ranges between 4.6% and 6.2%).

  11. Lift on side by side intruders of various geometries within a granular flow (United States)

    Acevedo-Escalante, M. F.; Caballero-Robledo, G. A.


    Obstacles within fluids have been widely used in engineering and in physics to study hydrodynamic interactions. In granular matter, objects within a granular flow have helped to understand fundamental features of drag and lift forces. In our group, we have studied numerically the flow mediated interaction between two static disks within a vertical granular flow in a two-dimensional container where the flow velocity and the distance between obstacles were varied. Attractive and repulsive forces were found depending on flow velocity and separation between intruders. The simulations evidenced a relationship between the average flow velocity in a specific section ahead of the obstacles and the attractive-repulsive lift. On the other hand, it was showed that the lift force on an object dragged within a granular medium depends on the shape of the intruder. Here we present experimental results of the interaction between two side-by-side intruders of different shapes within a vertical granular flow. We built a quasi-two-dimensional container in which we placed the intruders and using load cells we measured lift and drag forces during the discharge process for different flow velocities.

  12. A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments. (United States)

    Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B


    The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost.

  13. Order, Disorder and Stretching of a Smectic Elastomer with ‘side-on’ Mesogenic Side Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Jeu, W.; Komp, A; Obraztsov, E; Ostrovskii, B; Finkelmann, H


    We report an X-ray study of the order in a 'side-on' smectic-A elastomer in which both the polymer backbone and the mesogenic side groups are, on average, parallel to the smectic layer normal. The present system shows in all phases locally correlated structures as evidenced by systematic diffuse scattering at small angles, attributed to the fluorinated end groups of the mesogens. The elastomer shows order of the smectic layers over a limited range in spite of the relatively low crosslink concentration (4%). Upon stretching along the layer normal we find a linear increase of the smectic layer period for small loading (elastic regime). These changes parallel the stress variation for the elastic part of the macroscopic stress-strain curve and saturate at larger strains. The attendant increase in the width of the X-ray peaks indicates a decrease of the average domain dimensions. In the plastic regime no distortion of the smectic monodomain structure or layer rotation is observed. Instead the stress is relieved by 'melting' of the layer structure giving rise to a nematic-like state with short-range layer correlations: at the final stage about four smectic layers.

  14. Rarity of invasiveness in right-sided infective endocarditis. (United States)

    Hussain, Syed T; Shrestha, Nabin K; Witten, James; Gordon, Steven M; Houghtaling, Penny L; Tingleff, Jens; Navia, José L; Blackstone, Eugene H; Pettersson, Gösta B


    The rarity of invasiveness of right-sided infective endocarditis (IE) compared with left-sided has not been well recognized and evaluated. Thus, we compared invasiveness of right- versus left-sided IE in surgically treated patients. From January 2002 to January 2015, 1292 patients underwent surgery for active IE, 138 right-sided and 1224 left-sided. Among patients with right-sided IE, 131 had tricuspid and 7 pulmonary valve IE; 12% had prosthetic valve endocarditis. Endocarditis-related invasiveness was based on echocardiographic and operative findings. Invasive disease was rare on the right side, occurring in 1 patient (0.72%; 95% confidence interval 0.02%-4.0%); rather, it was limited to valve cusps/leaflets or was superficial. In contrast, IE was invasive in 408 of 633 patients with aortic valve (AV) IE (65%), 113 of 369 with mitral valve (MV) IE (31%), and 148 of 222 with AV and MV IE (67%). Staphylococcus aureus was a more predominant organism in right-sided than left-sided IE (right 40%, AV 19%, MV 29%), yet invasion was observed almost exclusively on the left side of the heart, which was more common and more severe with AV than MV IE and more common with prosthetic valve endocarditis than native valve IE. Rarity of right-sided invasion even when caused by S aureus suggests that invasion and development of cavities/"abscesses" in patients with IE may be driven more by chamber pressure than organism, along with other reported host-microbial interactions. The lesser invasiveness of MV compared with AV IE suggests a similar mechanism: decompression of MV annulus invasion site(s) toward the left atrium. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Laparoscopic repair of right sided bochdalek hernia - a case report. (United States)

    Patle, Nirmal M; Tantia, Om; Prasad, Parmanand; Das, Prakhar C; Khanna, Shashi


    Right-sided Bochdalek hernia in adults is a very rare clinical entity. A case of a 50-year-old female patient is reported, who presented with long history of intermittent breathlessness and right-sided thoracoabdominal pain. The hernia was managed laparoscopically. Contents were colon, omentum, and right kidney. It was successfully repaired using a polypropylene mesh.

  16. Discharge coefficient of semi-circular labyrinth side weir in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Labyrinth weirs have a proven hydraulic advantage due to their increased discharge rate at the same head for a given design condition. ... coefficient of the semi-circular labyrinth side weir gives a relatively high discharge coefficient value compared to other types of classic side weir positioned on a straight channel.

  17. Organizational mediators siding with or against the powerful party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskewitz, P; Van de Vliert, E; De Dreu, C K W


    Instead of being impartial, a mediator may side with one party as a function of the disputants' power differences, the mediator's legitimacy judgments, or the disputants' capacity to sanction the mediator. According to the power balancing theory, a mediator sides with the party that has a power

  18. SLAR = USGS Side Looking Airborne Radar Mosaics: 1981 - 1990 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) is an image-producing system that derives its name from the fact that the radar beam is transmitted from the side of the...

  19. Teaching Spatial Awareness In Small-Sided Games (United States)

    Phillips, David; Hannon, James C.; Molina, Sergio


    This article supports the use of strategy and tactics at games stage three (how to teach basic offensive and defensive strategy using small-sided games) as a best practices in physical education. Potential learning through game stages three and four (full-sided games) is only possible when teachers have advanced content knowledge to teach the…

  20. Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug (United States)

    ... fullstory_166947.html Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug Study shows that normal symptoms of menopause are ... because they confuse naturally occurring symptoms with side effects from the drug. That's the finding of a new study of ...

  1. Antipsychotic Drug Side Effects for Persons with Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara


    Antipsychotic drugs are the most frequently prescribed of the psychotropic drugs among the intellectually disabled (ID) population. Given their widespread use, efforts to systematically assess and report side effects are warranted. Specific scaling methods such as the "Matson Evaluation of Side Effects" ("MEDS"), the "Abnormal Inventory Movement…

  2. Single-sided Marchenko focusing of compressional and shear waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.


    In time-reversal acoustics, waves recorded at the boundary of a strongly scattering medium are sent back into the medium to focus at the original source position. This requires that the medium can be accessed from all sides. We discuss a focusing method for media that can be accessed from one side

  3. Side-hairline Correction in Korean Female Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyun Park, MD


    Conclusions: In East Asian patients, both side-hairline correction surgery and zygoma reduction can be considered eligible treatment options for the purpose of midface slimming. Especially in patients with a type 3 zygomatic bone structure, side-hairline correction surgery may be more effective than zygoma reduction surgery for midface slimming.

  4. Side Channel Authenticity Discriminant Analysis for Device Class Identification (United States)


    Side Channel Authenticity Discriminant Analysis for Device Class Identification Eric Koziel, Kate...include additional identification components. We instead propose Side Channel Authenticity Discriminant Analysis (SICADA) to leverage physical phenomena... analysis results. All variants were measured at the average, slow-slow, and fast-fast process technology corners (Table 1). We collected 1000 iterations

  5. The Far Side of the Moon A Photographic Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles J


    This book is a companion to Byrnes's award-winning Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Near Side of the Moon (Springer, 2005). It provides comprehensive coverage of the far side of the Moon, and is the first book that collects photographs from all five Lunar Orbiter missions: Clementine, Apollo, Luna, Zond, and Nozomi. As in the previous book, the scanning artifacts of the Lunar Orbiter photos have been cleaned. The photographs show each part of the far side in the most favorable resolution and sun angle. There are many high-altitude oblique photos that provide a feeling of being in space; this book is more like a photographic tour of the far side than an atlas.  The striking differences between the near and far side have been a major mystery for astronomers but this book suggests an explanation: a massive early impact on the near side produced the Near Side Megabasin; an impact so large that its rim is on the far side. The floor of this basin established the canvas for the portrait of the Man in the Moo...

  6. Developing a Side Bias for Conspecific Faces during Childhood (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Moulson, Margaret C.


    Adults preferentially use information from the left side of face images to judge gender, emotion, and identity. In this study, we examined the development of this visual-field bias over middle childhood (5-10 years). Our goal was to both characterize the developmental trajectory of the left-side bias (should one exist) and examine the selectivity…

  7. Drugs with anticholinergic side-effects in primary care | Yayla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anticholinergic drugs in elderly people have been associated with some serious side.effects. Patients in Turkey tend to attend primary care centers to have prescriptions of the drugs they chronically use. However, very little are known about how frequent that these drugs are prescribed and their side-effects in ...

  8. Rare combination of dextrocardia with right-sided Poland syndrome. (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jae Bum; Park, Nam Hee; Keum, Dong Yoon; Kim, Yeo Hyang


    The combination of right-sided Poland syndrome and dextrocardia is rare. To our knowledge, reports regarding this subject are lacking in the published literature to date. Previous reports suggested that dextrocardia may be part of the left sided Poland syndrome. We report and discuss this rare combination. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring side effects after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth


    measure is obtainable, and the case of a patient-relevant measure is even rarer. Radiotherapy is often followed by complex symptoms not easily quantifiable by the observer. Quantitative patient reported side effects can be retrieved using validated questionnaires, but this kind of data is often difficult......Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... effects. Using pharynx cancer as an example, the purpose of this article is to summarize the possibilities and limitations of different methods for measurement of radiotherapy-induced side effects. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-17...

  10. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J


    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  11. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen


    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  12. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica


    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research...... on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug-side effect pairs. For 199...... drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at

  13. Building the process-drug–side effect network to discover the relationship between biological Processes and side effects (United States)


    Background Side effects are unwanted responses to drug treatment and are important resources for human phenotype information. The recent development of a database on side effects, the side effect resource (SIDER), is a first step in documenting the relationship between drugs and their side effects. It is, however, insufficient to simply find the association of drugs with biological processes; that relationship is crucial because drugs that influence biological processes can have an impact on phenotype. Therefore, knowing which processes respond to drugs that influence the phenotype will enable more effective and systematic study of the effect of drugs on phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between biological processes and side effects of drugs has not yet been systematically researched. Methods We propose 3 steps for systematically searching relationships between drugs and biological processes: enrichment scores (ES) calculations, t-score calculation, and threshold-based filtering. Subsequently, the side effect-related biological processes are found by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. Evaluation is conducted in 2 ways: first, by discerning the number of biological processes discovered by our method that co-occur with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in relation to effects extracted from PubMed records using a text-mining technique and second, determining whether there is improvement in performance by limiting response processes by drugs sharing the same side effect to frequent ones alone. Results The multi-level network (the process-drug-side effect network) was built by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. We generated a network of 74 drugs-168 side effects-2209 biological process relation resources. The preliminary results showed that the process-drug-side effect network was able to find meaningful relationships between biological processes and side effects in an


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The first important economic recession in this century started in USA with the burst of real estate bubble followed by the bankruptcy of some investment and commercial banks and the collapse of capital market. The financial-banking crisis spilt over the world economy and caused the second deepest economic recession in the last 80 years. The financial crisis has badly affected almost all market economies and was the result of a combination between market failures and mistakes made in macroeconomic policies. In the financial sector there was not enough regulation and supervision of corporate governance while in goods industry the pressure of over-regulation led to higher factor costs and supply contraction. The direct result of supply side policies and particularly of monetarist instruments is seen now clearly in the USA: large deficits, huge debts, reduced savings, heavy dependence on foreign money (capital and resources, relatively low domestic output and supply.

  15. Protein side chain conformation predictions with an MMGBSA energy function. (United States)

    Gaillard, Thomas; Panel, Nicolas; Simonson, Thomas


    The prediction of protein side chain conformations from backbone coordinates is an important task in structural biology, with applications in structure prediction and protein design. It is a difficult problem due to its combinatorial nature. We study the performance of an "MMGBSA" energy function, implemented in our protein design program Proteus, which combines molecular mechanics terms, a Generalized Born and Surface Area (GBSA) solvent model, with approximations that make the model pairwise additive. Proteus is not a competitor to specialized side chain prediction programs due to its cost, but it allows protein design applications, where side chain prediction is an important step and MMGBSA an effective energy model. We predict the side chain conformations for 18 proteins. The side chains are first predicted individually, with the rest of the protein in its crystallographic conformation. Next, all side chains are predicted together. The contributions of individual energy terms are evaluated and various parameterizations are compared. We find that the GB and SA terms, with an appropriate choice of the dielectric constant and surface energy coefficients, are beneficial for single side chain predictions. For the prediction of all side chains, however, errors due to the pairwise additive approximation overcome the improvement brought by these terms. We also show the crucial contribution of side chain minimization to alleviate the rigid rotamer approximation. Even without GB and SA terms, we obtain accuracies comparable to SCWRL4, a specialized side chain prediction program. In particular, we obtain a better RMSD than SCWRL4 for core residues (at a higher cost), despite our simpler rotamer library. Proteins 2016; 84:803-819. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim


    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation on cross flow characteristics over side-by-side square cylinders at different spacing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karthik Selva Kumar


    Full Text Available By employing the lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM with respect to Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK collision model, a 2-D computational study is performed to investigate the flow structures, force coefficients and vortex-shedding characteristics behind a single-square cylinder and two side-by-side cylinders at different spacing conditions (1.0 ⩽ T/D ⩽ 4.5. The flow patterns around the square cylinders are determined using the contour plot. Significant observations from this study are as follows: (a a flip flop regime is observed for T/D = 1.0, whereas a wiggling/Flutter shielding pattern is observed at T/D = 3.5 and a synchronized flow pattern is observed for the spacing ratio of T/D = 4.5, (b the frequencies observed for the smaller spacing ratios (T/D = 1.0; 3.5 having numerous peaks in the spectra. Subsequently the frequencies were observed at T/D = 4.5 having a single dominating peak frequency, (c the main motivation for the significant variation in flow patterns is due to the changes in mean drag coefficients, root mean square values of the aerodynamic coefficients and Strouhal number, (d it is observed that the formation of vortex strongly depends on the spacing ratios between the cylinders. From the results, it is identified that the cylinders at higher spacing ratios (T/D = 4.5 produce minimum oscillation when compared to the smaller spacing ratios.

  18. Interaction of silver nanoparticles with algae and fish cells: a side by side comparison. (United States)

    Yue, Yang; Li, Xiaomei; Sigg, Laura; Suter, Marc J-F; Pillai, Smitha; Behra, Renata; Schirmer, Kristin


    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are widely applied and can, upon use, be released into the aquatic environment. This raises concerns about potential impacts of AgNP on aquatic organisms. We here present a side by side comparison of the interaction of AgNP with two contrasting cell types: algal cells, using the algae Euglena gracilis as model, and fish cells, a cell line originating from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill (RTgill-W1). The comparison is based on the AgNP behavior in exposure media, toxicity, uptake and interaction with proteins. (1) The composition of exposure media affected AgNP behavior and toxicity to algae and fish cells. (2) The toxicity of AgNP to algae was mediated by dissolved silver while nanoparticle specific effects in addition to dissolved silver contributed to the toxicity of AgNP to fish cells. (3) AgNP did not enter into algal cells; they only adsorbed onto the cell surface. In contrast, AgNP were taken up by fish cells via endocytic pathways. (4) AgNP can bind to both extracellular and intracellular proteins and inhibit enzyme activity. Our results showed that fish cells take up AgNP in contrast to algal cells, where AgNP sorbed onto the cell surface, which indicates that the cell wall of algae is a barrier to particle uptake. This particle behaviour results in different responses to AgNP exposure in algae and fish cells. Yet, proteins from both cell types can be affected by AgNP exposure: for algae, extracellular proteins secreted from cells for, e.g., nutrient acquisition. For fish cells, intracellular and/or membrane-bound proteins, such as the Na+/K+-ATPase, are susceptible to AgNP binding and functional impairment.

  19. An embedding method for bluff body flows: Interactions of two side-by-side cylinder wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravoux, J.F. [Center for BioDynamics, Boston University, 02215, Boston, MA (United States); Nadim, A. [Keck Graduate Institute and Claremont Graduate University, 91711, Claremont, CA (United States); Haj-Hariri, H. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, 22903, Charlottesville, VA (United States)


    We introduce a simple method for the numerical simulation of bluff body flows where the solid object is represented by a distributed body force in the Navier-Stokes equations. The body force density is found at every time step to reduce the velocity within the computational cells occupied by the rigid body to a prescribed value. The method combines certain ideas from the immersed boundary method which was developed to treat biofluid mechanical flows and the volume-of-fluid method for simulating flows with fluid-fluid interfaces. The main advantage of this embedding method is that the computations can be effected on a regular Cartesian grid, without the need to fit the grid to the bluff body surfaces. Thus, flow past several complex bodies can be treated as easily as flow past a single body. The method is validated by reproducing well-established results for vortex shedding from a stationary cylinder. The flow past two side-by-side cylinders is then investigated. When the distance between the cylinders is small, they are seen to shed vortices in-phase, whereas for larger distances, the shedding occurs in anti-phase. For intermediate distances, various shedding patterns are observed, including quasi-periodic, asymmetric and chaotic regimes. Mean values and phase portraits associated with the cylinder lift and drag coefficients, as well as spectral analysis of the same data, are used to describe the flow. A transition diagram that can be compared with experiments or models outlines the various dynamical regimes as a function of the distance between the cylinders and the Reynolds number. (orig.)

  20. A nationwide Danish cohort study challenging the categorisation into right-sided and left-sided colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Gamborg, Michael


    The categorisation of colon cancer (CC) into right-sided (RCC) and left-sided (LCC) disease may not capture more subtle variances in aetiology and prognosis. In a nationwide study, we investigated differences in clinical characteristics and survival of RCC versus LCC and of the complete range of CC...

  1. Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: which is more effective? (United States)

    Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter; Beck, Konstantin


    Microeconomic theory predicts that if patients are fully insured and providers are paid fee-for-service, utilization of medical services exceeds the efficient level ('moral hazard effect'). In Switzerland, both demand-side and supply-side cost sharing have been introduced to mitigate this problem. Analyzing a panel dataset of about 160,000 adults, we find both types of cost sharing to be effective in curtailing the use of medical services. However, when moral hazard mitigation is traded off against risk selection, the minimum-deductible, supply-side cost sharing option ranks first, followed by the medium-deductible demand-side alternative, making the supply-side option somewhat more effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Air Quality Side Event Proposal November 2016 GEO XIII ... (United States)

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO), which EPA has participated in since 2003, has put out a call for Side Events for its thirteenth annual international Plenary Meeting which is in St. Petersburg, Russia this year during November, 2016. EPA has put on Side Events on Air Quality and Health observational systems at eight of the previous Plenaries. This document is a Side Event proposal regarding air quality, health and next generation monitoring and observations techniques. It is submitted to the GEO Secretariat for consideration. If accepted, there will likely be presentations by EPA and NASA, other GEO Member Countries and UNEP and other GEO Participating Organizations at the Side Event. It is an opportunity to share scientific and technological advances in this area and build partnerships and collaboration. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO), which EPA has participated in since 2003, has put out a call for Side Events for its thirteenth annual international Plenary Meeting which is in St. Petersburg, Russia this year during November, 2016. EPA has put on Side Events on Air Quality and Health observational systems at eight of the previous Plenaries. This document is a Side Event proposal regarding air quality, health and next generation monitoring and observations techniques.  It is submitted to the GEO Secretariat for consideration. If accepted, there will likely be presentations by EPA and NASA, other GEO Member Countries and UNEP and other GEO P

  3. A gecko-inspired double-sided adhesive. (United States)

    Wang, Zhengzhi; Gu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoping


    Geckos' outstanding abilities to adhere to various surfaces are widely credited to the large actual contact areas of the fibrillar and hierarchical structures on their feet. These special features regulate the essential structural compliance for every attachment and thus provide robust yet reversible adhesions. Inspired by gecko's feet and our commonly used double-faced tape, we have successfully fabricated a gecko-inspired double-sided dry adhesive by using porous anodic alumina template assisted nano-wetting on a stiff polymer. It was determined that the obtained 2-sided structure showed largely decreased effective stiffness compared with its 1-sided counterpart, which favored better compliance and interfacial integrity. We also demonstrated that the repeatable double-sided adhesive improved the macroscopic normal and shear adhesion capacities over the widely-studied 1-side structure by ~50% and ~85%, respectively. By using the synthetic double-sided adhesive, the usage of traditional pressure-sensitive/chemical adhesives could be well avoided. Besides, the double-sided nanostructures showed great potential in finding new interesting properties and practical applications for the synthetic dry adhesives.

  4. Rarity of invasiveness in right-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Syed T; Shrestha, Nabin K; Witten, James


    , 1292 patients underwent surgery for active IE, 138 right-sided and 1224 left-sided. Among patients with right-sided IE, 131 had tricuspid and 7 pulmonary valve IE; 12% had prosthetic valve endocarditis. Endocarditis-related invasiveness was based on echocardiographic and operative findings. RESULTS......: Invasive disease was rare on the right side, occurring in 1 patient (0.72%; 95% confidence interval 0.02%-4.0%); rather, it was limited to valve cusps/leaflets or was superficial. In contrast, IE was invasive in 408 of 633 patients with aortic valve (AV) IE (65%), 113 of 369 with mitral valve (MV) IE (31......%), and 148 of 222 with AV and MV IE (67%). Staphylococcus aureus was a more predominant organism in right-sided than left-sided IE (right 40%, AV 19%, MV 29%), yet invasion was observed almost exclusively on the left side of the heart, which was more common and more severe with AV than MV IE and more common...

  5. Patients' attitudes toward side effects of antidepressants: an Internet survey. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takefumi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Kashima, Haruo


    Patients' attitudes toward side effects of antidepressants are likely to differ according to gender, which has not yet been fully addressed in the literature. From the 228,310 registrants, 1,305 participants who had received antidepressant drugs within the past year were identified with the Yahoo Japan research monitor through four-step screening procedures. Participants were asked as to which side effect(s) they had experienced, whether they had reported those side effects to their physicians, and whether they had taken any action to counteract them. The questionnaire was completed by 1,187 participants. Side effects were reported in 73.4% of the participants; the prevalence of self-reported side effects was significantly higher in men than women (80.4% vs. 68.3%, P <0.05). The percentage of participants who reported side effects to their physicians widely differed depending on the nature of their experience, ranging from 45.7% to 89.9%; the lowest was for sexual dysfunction. The percentage of participants who had taken any action to relieve side effects varied among side effects from 26.3% for sexual dysfunction to 89.5% for dry mouth. Moreover, a lower percentage of women had reported sexual dysfunction to physicians (36.6% vs. 60.7%, P <0.05) and had taken any action to counteract the problem (19.8% vs. 36.9%, P <0.05). Given that patients experienced with antidepressants are likely to be reluctant to report sexual side effects, physicians should be cognizant of the potential presence of sexual dysfunction in patients who are taking antidepressants, especially for women.

  6. Potential benefits of underride guards in large truck side crashes. (United States)

    Brumbelow, Matthew L


    To evaluate the maximum potential for side underride guards (SUGs) to reduce passenger vehicle occupant fatalities and injuries in crashes with large trucks in the United States. Examination of the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) identified 206 crash events involving a passenger vehicle impact with the side of a large truck. Each case was evaluated to determine whether the most severe injury sustained by a passenger vehicle occupant was a result of the impact with the side of the truck and whether an SUG could have reduced the injury severity. Data from the 2006-2008 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) survey were used to compare the types of trucks involved in all fatal side impacts with passenger vehicles with the truck types in the LTCCS cases that were studied. FARS and TIFA data also were used to estimate the total annual number of passenger vehicle occupants killed in truck side impacts. In 143 of the 206 cases, the truck side impact produced the most severe injury sustained by a passenger vehicle occupant. In the other cases, no passenger vehicle occupant was injured or the most severe injury was due to an event preceding or following the truck side impact. Forty-nine of these occupants sustained injuries coded as level 3 or higher on the abbreviated injury scale (AIS) or were killed. SUGs could have reduced injury severity in 76 of the 143 cases, including 38 of the 49 cases with an AIS ≥ 3 coded injury or fatality. Semi-trailers were the most common type of impacted truck unit, both overall and when considering only cases where an SUG could have mitigated injury severity. Crashes where the front of the passenger vehicle struck the side of the semi-trailer perpendicularly or obliquely from the oncoming direction were less common overall than side-to-side and oblique/same direction crashes but more often produced an AIS ≥ 3 injury or fatality. The distribution of truck types in the LTCCS

  7. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez


    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.

  8. Left-sided gall bladder: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrungoo R


    Full Text Available Left-sided gall bladder without situs inversus viscerum is a rare albeit recognized clinical entity. We report our experience of two cases of left-sided gall bladder in two women aged 36 and 48 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Left-sided gall bladder may provide an unusual surprise to the surgeons during laparoscopy as routine pre-operative studies may not always detect the anomaly. Awareness of the unpredictable confluence of the cystic duct into the common bile duct (CBD and selective use of intraoperative cholangiography aid in the safe laparoscopic management of this unusual entity.

  9. Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebger, I; Rutloh, M; Hoffmann, U


    The photoorientation process in a polyester with 4-cyano-4'-alkoxyazobenzene side group and long methylene spacers in the side and the main-chain was studied as a function of irradiation with linearly polarized light of 488 nm under systematic variation of the power density and temperature....... This model polymer is characterized by liquid crystallinity (g 24 S-X 26 S-A 34 n 47 i) and a strong aggregation tendency. The photoorientation is cooperative, i.e., the orientation of the photochromic side group induces the alignment of the ester unit (which is a part of the main-chain) and both methylene...

  10. Advection within side-by-side liquid micro-cylinders in a cross-flow (United States)

    Dong, Qingming; Sau, Amalendu


    The gaseous SO2 entrainment from outer air stream and dispersion in binary and ternary liquid micro-cylinders appearing side-by-side are examined hereby. The separation/attachment regulated non-uniform interfacial momentum exchange creates main stream driven "primary" and shear reversed "secondary" vortices in the liquid cylinders. At separation points, the sense of rotation of the generated "primary-secondary" vortex pair remains inward directed. We define such a vortex pair as the "inflow" type. However, at stagnation or attachment points, the sense of rotation of a "primary-primary" or "secondary-secondary" vortex pair remains outward directed, and such a vortex pair is defined as the "outflow" type. For the coupled water cylinders facing an oncoming stream contaminated by gaseous SO2, its absorption and internal transport are effectively controlled by dominant "inflow" and "outflow" natured dynamics of the said vortex pairs, besides by diffusion. The evolving "inflow" natured "primary-secondary" vortex pairs at separation points actively entrain the outer SO2, whereas the "outflow" natured vortex-pairs oppose SO2 entry through the stagnation regions. Moreover, the blockage induced steady-symmetric, steady-deflected, and flip-flopping air-jets through gaps, for varied gap-ratio (1 ≤ G/R ≤ 4) and Reynolds number (30 ≤ Re ≤ 160), create distinctive impact both on quantitative SO2 absorption (mso2 ') and convective nature of the SO2 transport in upper, lower, and middle cylinders, by virtue of modified strength and size of the inflow and outflow paired vortices. The present study shows that the tiny "secondary vortices" play important roles in SO2 entrainment and in effectively controlling the local absorption rate Rs o2. The sudden acceleration and upward/downward deflection of gap-flows enhanced near-neck advective SO2 entrainment by suitably strengthening the "inflow" natured local vortex dynamics. Conversely, for the reduced size of secondary vortices

  11. Eddy covariance flux measurements of ozone: Three stations side-by-side (United States)

    Song, G.; Voß, L.; Falge, E.; Mayer, J.-C.; Moravek, A.; Trebs, I.; Bruse, M.; Zhu, Z.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.


    Since about two decades, fast response ozone analyzers, based on gas-phase chemiluminescence ("Güsten type"), became more and more available and emerged to be operational in atmosphere-biosphere exchange studies using the eddy-covariance technique. While there are first preliminary reports about measurements of the vertical profile of ozone fluxes in forest canopies (addressing the question of vertical flux divergence), measurements by ozone flux stations distributed in a horizontally arranged array (addressing questions of horizontal divergence and/or footprint) might be feasible. For all these measurements, the precision of ozone flux stations is of particular interest, because it defines the vertical/horizontal resolution of expected flux divergence. As a first step in this direction, we performed a 9 week, side-by-side experiment of three ozone flux stations on a small airfield in Mainz-Finthen/Germany (49.969° N, 8.148° E, 227 m a.s.l.) in late summer/autumn 2011. Turbulent fluctuations of ozone concentration (in arbitrary units) have been measured by three identical gas-phase chemiluminescence anaylzers (enviscope GmbH/ Germany) with a sampling frequency of 20 Hz. Absolute ozone concentrations have been monitored by three slow-response UV-absorption based analyzers (model 205, 2BTechnologies/U.S.A.; model 49i, ThermoInstruments/U.S.A.) every 2 and 10 seconds, respectively. Three 3D sonic anemometers (model USA-1, METEK/Germany; model CSAT3, Campbell Scientific/U.K.) have been applied to obtain fluctuations of 3D wind vectors and temperature (20Hz). All fast response sensors were mounted at 3 m above ground, the three flux stations have been aligned in cross-wind direction in a distance of about 5.5 m to each other. Sensor separation (3D anemometer - ozone intake) was 0.3 m, the length of ozone intake tubes were about 3 m. Ozone monitors have routinely been calibrated every 15 days. For the calculation of turbulent fluxes of ozone, momentum, and sensible

  12. A side-by-side test of four land gravity meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, D.A.; Crawford, M.F. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Baumeister, M. [Photo Gravity Corp., Houston, TX (United States)


    Four different land gravity meters were run side by side on a test range in eastern Texas. This test range was designed to duplicate typical field survey conditions encountered in gravity measurements on 3-D land seismic surveys. A profile of 270 stations was acquired with a station spacing of 33.5 m (110 ft). The four meters were Scintrex CG-3, Sodin, LaCoste and Romberg (L and R) G-meter, and Edcon/L and R Super-G meter. The purpose of this study was to determine which of the four meters had the best balance of accuracy, convenience, and speed of measurement for these specialized surveys. All four meters had their limitations, and no single meter was greatly superior to the others. The CG-3 was awkward in leveling, had a large (368 {mu}Gal per day) drift rate, and had some quirks in its user interface. The Sodin meter had problems controlling its temperature and, at one point, had a very high 935 {mu}Gal per day drift rate. It had the poorest accuracy of the four. The G-meter lacked a convenient digital user interface; thus, it was susceptible to operator blunder in misreading or recording the data. The Super-G meter also had some problems in its user interface, had only a 6-mGal range without a range change, and was the heaviest of the field instruments. An unbiased statistical estimator was developed to analyze the data. The technique determined the best three meters at each station. Both the G-meter and the Super-G meter produced the most accurate data. They had an average absolute deviation from the mean of 209 and 23 {mu}Gal, respectively. In comparison, the two quartz meters--the CG-3 and the Sodin--had an average absolute deviation from the mean of 31 and 46 {mu}Gal, respectively. The authors would like to see the manufacturers improve (or add, in the case of the G-meter and the Sodin) their digital interfaces. Additionally, they would like to see upgrades in the thermal control systems in all the meters. The single largest amount of station time was

  13. Investigation of fiber splitting in side-by-side bicomponent meltblown nonwoven webs through post treatment (United States)

    Liu, Yanbo

    Investigation of Bicomponent (Bico) fiber splitting mechanism and hence finding proper ways to achieve fiber splitting in Side-by-side Bicompoent (Bico) meltblown (MB) nonwoven (NW) webs were carried out in this research. Based on the fiber splitting mechanism, incompatible polymer pairs were chosen and appropriate post-treating methods as well as the post-treating agent(s) were selected to facilitate fiber splitting in S/S Bico MB nonwoven webs. Several post treatments were used to split S/S MB NW fibers in this research, including hydroentanglement (HE), heat-stretching (HST), NaOH and benzoic acid treatment. In each post treatment method, fiber splitting was observed with SEM and/or laser-source microscope. Fiber diameter, web structure and web properties were examined before and after the fiber splitting inducing treatment. HE has been applied to S/S Bico MB NW webs with Bico pairs of PA6/PE, PA6/PP and PA6/PET. Fiber splitting was observed after HE treatment, but web uniformity decreased and web properties deteriorated due to the damage from high-pressure water jets. HST post treatment was applied to S/S Bico MB NW webs with Bico pairs of PA6/PE and PA6/PP along machine direction. No fiber splitting was resulted from this post treatment; however, the treated webs gained elasticity in cross machine direction. The S/S Bico MB NW webs of 25PE/75PET, and 50PBT/50PP were treated with NaOH solution at bath ratio of 1/20 and temperature of 100°C using different NaOH treatments. Fiber splitting was observed after NaOH treatment, but fibers and webs were damaged, web properties thus deteriorated after the treatment. Benzoic acid (BA) has been employed to split S/S Bico MB webs composed of 50PET/50PA6 and 50PP/50PA6. Degree of fiber splitting was evaluated using both fiber splitting ratio and initial dye adsorption ratio/initial dyeing ratio in this research. It was found that benzoic acid treatment could result in S/S Bico MB fiber splitting at appropriate treating

  14. [Management of side-effects of targeted therapies in renal cancer: gastrointestinal side-effects]. (United States)

    Davin, Jean-Louis; Ducrotté, Philippe; Houédé, Nadine


    Several types of gastrointestinal complications can occur during treatment with targeted therapies: diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting, abnormalities in hepatic and pancreatic profiles, etc. Gastrointestinal problems in targeted therapy can have a significant impact on the general status of patients, their weight and their adherence to the treatment. The prevention, screening and rapid treatment of these side-effects are essential elements of patient care and can limit the associated dose reductions and loss of therapeutic benefit. In the case of diarrhoea, treatment must be started at the onset of grade 1 or 2 diarrhoea (four to six stools per day), with loperamide or racecadotril. Treatment with targeted therapy must be stopped if there is diarrhoea of grade 3 or 4 (more than six stools per day). In the case of nausea/vomiting or burning pain in the oesophagus, symptomatic treatment without stopping the targeted therapy is recommended. Biological assessment including transaminases, total and conjugated bilirubin should be prescribed before treatment initiation with targeted therapy. An elevation in alkaline phosphatases without elevation of transaminases suggests primarily the existence of hepatic metastases. In the event of worsening of the hepatic profile, if ALT greater than 5N, treatment must be stopped and specialist advice sought. Copyright © 2011 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. What side effects are problematic for patients prescribed antipsychotic medication? The Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure for antipsychotic medication. (United States)

    Wykes, T; Evans, J; Paton, C; Barnes, T R E; Taylor, D; Bentall, R; Dalton, B; Ruffell, T; Rose, D; Vitoratou, S


    Capturing service users' perspectives can highlight additional and different concerns to those of clinicians, but there are no up to date, self-report psychometrically sound measures of side effects of antipsychotic medications. Aim To develop a psychometrically sound measure to identify antipsychotic side effects important to service users, the Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure. An initial item bank was subjected to a Delphi exercise (n = 9) with psychiatrists and pharmacists, followed by service user focus groups and expert panels (n = 15) to determine item relevance and language. Feasibility and comprehensive psychometric properties were established in two samples (N43 and N50). We investigated whether we could predict the three most important side effects for individuals from their frequency, severity and life impact. MSE is a 53-item measure with good reliability and validity. Poorer mental and physical health, but not psychotic symptoms, was related to side-effect burden. Seventy-nine percent of items were chosen as one of the three most important effects. Severity, impact and distress only predicted 'putting on weight' which was more distressing, more severe and had more life impact in those for whom it was most important. MSE is a self-report questionnaire that identifies reliably the side-effect burden as experienced by patients. Identifying key side effects important to patients can act as a starting point for joint decision making on the type and the dose of medication.

  16. Use of bioabsorbable staple reinforcement material in side-to-side anastomoses: Suture line reinforcement of the weak point of the anastomosis


    Kimura, Masahiro; Terashita, Yukio


    Background: Few studies have been designed regarding optimal reinforcement of the crotch of a side-to-side anastomosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the weak point of the side-to-side anastomosis and to evaluate the effect of bioabsorbable reinforcement material. Methods: Fresh pig small bowel was used for all experiments. A side-to-side anastomosis was performed using a linear stapler, and the burst pressure of the anastomosis was measured. Three separate experiments were done...

  17. Comparison of Helioseismic Far-Side Active Region Detections with STEREO Far-Side EUV Observations of Solar Activity (United States)

    Liewer, P. C.; Qiu, J.; Lindsey, C.


    Seismic maps of the Sun's far hemisphere, computed from Doppler data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) are now being used routinely to detect strong magnetic regions on the far side of the Sun ( To test the reliability of this technique, the helioseismically inferred active region detections are compared with far-side observations of solar activity from the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), using brightness in extreme-ultraviolet light (EUV) as a proxy for magnetic fields. Two approaches are used to analyze nine months of STEREO and HMI data. In the first approach, we determine whether new large east-limb active regions are detected seismically on the far side before they appear Earth side and study how the detectability of these regions relates to their EUV intensity. We find that while there is a range of EUV intensities for which far-side regions may or may not be detected seismically, there appears to be an intensity level above which they are almost always detected and an intensity level below which they are never detected. In the second approach, we analyze concurrent extreme-ultraviolet and helioseismic far-side observations. We find that 100% (22) of the far-side seismic regions correspond to an extreme-ultraviolet plage; 95% of these either became a NOAA-designated magnetic region when reaching the east limb or were one before crossing to the far side. A low but significant correlation is found between the seismic signature strength and the EUV intensity of a far-side region.

  18. Neonatal side effects of maternal labetalol treatment in severe preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Karst Y.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Van Veen, Teelkien R.; Hulzebos, Christian V.

    Objective: Labetalol is often used in severe preeclampsia (PE). Hypotension, bradycardia and hypoglycemia are feared neonatal side effects, but may also occur in (preterm) infants regardless of labetalol exposure. We analyzed the possible association between intrauterine labetalol exposure and such

  19. Isolation and characterization of multidrug-resistant side population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Side population cells, ABC transporters, Cancer stem cells, Chemotherapy, Prostate treatment failure, Tumor recurrence, Drug resistance. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, ...

  20. Implementing the Aquidneck Island West Side Master Plan (United States)

    This report describes a technical assistance project with Aquidneck Island to develop approaches for mixed-use zoning standards, design guidelines, and review processes to implement the West Side Master Plan.

  1. Before you install exterior wood-based siding (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe


    Moisture accumulation and extreme fluctuations in moisture levels can adversely affect the service life of components, such as wood siding and windows. Adverse moisture conditions can induce checking, warping, paint failure, and in severe cases, rotting of the wood.

  2. D&R Siding Co., LLC Information Sheet (United States)

    D&R Siding Co., LLC (the Company) is located in Shelbyville, Tennessee. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Fayetteville, Tennessee.

  3. Side-Scan-Sonar Lines for Hudson River, NY (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Side Scan Sonar and Subbottom Profiler Tracklines. Data was collected November 5 to December 15, 2009, in the estuary north from Saugerties to Troy. Fugro utilized...

  4. Improved side information generation for distributed video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren


    As a new coding paradigm, distributed video coding (DVC) deals with lossy source coding using side information to exploit the statistics at the decoder to reduce computational demands at the encoder. The performance of DVC highly depends on the quality of side information. With a better side...... information generation method, fewer bits will be requested from the encoder and more reliable decoded frames will be obtained. In this paper, a side information generation method is introduced to further improve the rate-distortion (RD) performance of transform domain distributed video coding. This algorithm...... consists of a variable block size based Y, U and V component motion estimation and an adaptive weighted overlapped block motion compensation (OBMC). The proposal is tested and compared with the results of an executable DVC codec released by DISCOVER group (DIStributed COding for Video sERvices). RD...

  5. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír


    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  6. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Changes (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Mouth and Throat Changes “My mouth felt sore. I let my nurse know right away. He told me about medicine that can help. He also showed ...

  7. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Skin and Nail Changes “I was glad to learn that most skin and nail problems go away after treatment. For now, my nurse told me about ...

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor before treatment. I told him I would like to have children one day. I’m ...

  9. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability to have children. ” Ask what ...

  10. Civil aircraft side-facing seat research summary. (United States)


    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has standards and regulations that are intended to protect aircraft : occupants in the event of a crash. However, side-facing seats were not specifically addressed when aircraft seat : dynamic test standards ...

  11. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Asa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte


    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the profile of acute and long-term psychiatric side effects associated with mefloquine. METHODS: Subjects (n = 73) reported to a Danish national register during five consecutive years for mefloquine associated side effects were included. Acute...... psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long......), and vitality (VT) in the mefloquine group compared to matched controls. CONCLUSION: The most frequent acute psychiatric problems were anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Data indicated that subjects experiencing acute mefloquine adverse side effects may develop long-term mental health problems...

  12. Demand-side management for energy in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Davidovich Gitelman


    Full Text Available The article deals with a promising approach to solving the problem of investment in the regional electric power industry — the application of demand-side management, the essence of which lies in proactive interaction of energy companies with customers, based on the balance of economic interests. The features of the concept and its tools are revealed, positive results of its implementation for energy market players and the region are shown, and examples of demand-side management programs are given. Institutional and mental barriers to effective implementation of demand-side management tools in power generation are analyzed. The article also proposes algorithms for implementing demand-side management programs in the region, and a mix of motivational activities that combines methods of administrative enforcement and economic stimulus for energy companies and consumers of energy and power, as well as guidelines on project funding and effectiveness evaluation.

  13. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Fatigue (Feeling Weak and Very Tired) (United States)

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Fatigue (Feeling weak and very tired) Why do I feel ... level. Some people write down how they are feeling each day in a notebook to share with ...

  14. Left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabbekoorn, M.; Horlings, H. M.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Windhausen, A.; Van der Sloot, J. A. P.; Lagrand, W. K.


    Despite improved diagnostic tools and expanded treatment options, left-sided native valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection remains a serious and destructive disease. The high morbidity and mortality, however, can be reduced by early recognition, correct diagnosis, and

  15. Pendant triazole ring assisted mesogen containing side chain liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    yl containing side- chain liquid-crystalline polymethacrylates were synthesized by free radical polymerization technique. Mesogen was linked to backbone through various spacer units. Monomers and polymers were characterized by FT-IR, 1H ...

  16. Short Report: Beware the left-sided gallbladder | Alharthi | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A left-sided gallbladder is a rare biliary anomaly with a prevalence of 0.2%. Its identification is important because of the numerous and potentially hazardous associated biliary and vascular anomalies that may be encountered during surgery.

  17. Holographic Gratings in Azobenzene Side-Chain Polymethacrylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andruzzi, Luisa; Altomare, Angelina; Ciardelli, Francesco


    Optical storage properties of thin unoriented liquid crystalline and amorphous side-chain azobenzene polymethacrylate films are examined by polarization holographic measurements. The investigated materials are free radical copolymers derived from two photochromic monomers, 6-(4-oxy-4...

  18. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hepatotoxicity (United States)

    ... Find HIV Treatment Services HIV and Mental Health HIV and Nutrition and Food Safety Print This Fact Sheet Entire Series Related Content AIDSource | HIV Treatment: Side Effects Need Help? Call 1-800- ...

  19. Maximum expiration activates the abdominal muscles during side bridge exercise. (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Susumu


    Recent studies have indicated that maximum expiration could be a useful way of performing challenging exercises that include coactivation of the deep and superficial abdominal muscles. However, little is known about the effect of maximum expiration on the activity of the abdominal muscles during lumbar stabilizing exercise. The purpose of our study was to quantify changes in the activities of the abdominal muscles during side bridge exercise in combination with maximum expiration. Experimental laboratory study. The activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal oblique (IO) muscles were measured using electromyography in 12 healthy men performing 3 tasks: holding the breath after maximum expiration in the prone position, holding the breath after resting expiration during side bridge exercise, and holding the breath after maximum expiration during side bridge exercise. Significant increases in the activities of the abdominal muscles (RA, EO, and IO) occurred with maximum expiration when compared with resting expiration during side bridge exercise (P core training.

  20. Sun and Skin: The Dark Side of Sun Exposure (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe July 2014 Print this issue Sun and Skin The Dark Side of Sun Exposure ... Screen or Not to Screen? Wise Choices Block Sun Damage Stay in the shade. Limit sun exposure, ...

  1. Double-Sided 2.5D Graphics. (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Kuo; Song, Peng; Lin, Peng-Yen; Fu, Chi-Wing; Lin, Chao-Hung; Lee, Tong-Yee


    This paper introduces double-sided 2.5D graphics, aiming at enriching the visual appearance when manipulating conventional 2D graphical objects in 2.5D worlds. By attaching a back texture image on a single-sided 2D graphical object, we can enrich the surface and texture detail on 2D graphical objects and improve our visual experience when manipulating and animating them. A family of novel operations on 2.5D graphics, including rolling, twisting, and folding, are proposed in this work, allowing users to efficiently create compelling 2.5D visual effects. Very little effort is needed from the user's side. In our experiment, various creative designs on double-sided graphics were worked out by the recruited participants including a professional artist, which show and demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of our proposed method.

  2. Kinematic analysis of a side volley in soccer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mrdaković Vladimir; Kostić Saša; Janković Nenad; Matić Milan; Kukić Filip; Ubović Miloš; Ilić Duško


    The purpose of this study was to analyze kinematic variables of side volley in elite soccer players, as well as examining kinematic variables adjustment in relation to the change of velocity and height of incoming ball...

  3. Concussion: Doug Flutie: "Be on the Safe Side." (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Concussion Doug Flutie: "Be on the Safe Side." Past ... for NBC Sports. Flutie is often asked about concussions and brain trauma associated with sports like football, ...

  4. Personal coping strategies for managing the side effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal coping strategies for managing the side effects of antiretroviral ... of antiretroviral (ARV) medications negatively impact patients' quality of life and ... informationseeking, social-support seeking and positive-emotion-focused coping.

  5. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl


    Unwanted side effects of drugs are a burden on patients and a severe impediment in the development of new drugs. At the same time, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded during clinical trials are an important source of human phenotypic data. It is therefore essential to combine data on drugs......, targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4......, contains data on 1430 drugs, 5880 ADRs and 140 064 drug-ADR pairs, which is an increase of 40% compared to the previous version. For more fine-grained analyses, we extracted the frequency with which side effects occur from the package inserts. This information is available for 39% of drug-ADR pairs, 19...

  6. Beneficial and Harmful Addictions: Two sides of the same coin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafael López


    ...) as two sides of the same coin. Besides the theoretical insight it provides, this dualism is also particularly useful because it readily allows for the translation of the results obtained in the domain of harmful addictions...

  7. Single Sided Messaging v. 0.6.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Single-Sided Messaging (SSM) is a portable, multitransport networking library that enables applications to leverage potential one-sided capabilities of underlying network transports. It also provides desirable semantics that services for highperformance, massively parallel computers can leverage, such as an explicit cancel operation for pending transmissions, as well as enhanced matching semantics favoring large numbers of buffers attached to a single match entry. This release supports TCP/IP, shared memory, and Infiniband.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Herniation of abdominal content through a persistent embryonic pleuroperitonial hiatus is most common form of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Bochdalek hernia is a congenital anomaly in neonatal and postnatal patients and occur in about one in 2,200 to 12,500 live births, but it is rare in adults . 1 75% to 90% occur on left side . 2,3,4 Here we present a rare case of 24 years old male patient with Bochdalek hernia on right side

  9. The scapular glenopolar angle: standard values and side differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucek, Michal; Bartonicek, Jan [Charles University and Military University Hospital Prague, Department of Orthopaedic Trauma, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Nanka, Ondrej [Charles University, Institute of Anatomy, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Malik, Jozef [Military University Hospital Prague, Department of Radiology, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)


    The aim of this study is to determine normal glenopolar angle (GPA) values on bone specimens of the scapula and compare them with various radiological views and CT examination. GPA values were measured on 100 mature, dry, non-paired scapulae, 20 pairs of dry scapulae, 50 AP radiographs of the shoulder, 50 Neer I views, 50 AP chest radiographs and 20 3D CT reconstructions of the scapula. Measurements made on bone specimens of the scapula showed an average GPA value of 42.3 ; the mean absolute side-to-side difference was on average 1.6 . The average GPA measured on 50 AP shoulder radiographs was 35.9 , on Neer I views 40.6 and AP chest radiographs 37.1 , with the mean absolute side-to-side difference on average 4.9 ; on 3D CT the average GPA was 43.0 and the mean absolute side-to-side difference on average 1.4 . GPA values depend on the method of measurement used. Measurements made on 3D CT reconstructions and Neer I views showed almost the same values as those measured on bone specimens. The values measured on AP shoulder views and AP chest radiographs were statistically significantly lower. Side-to-side variability (right and left) measured on 3D CT reconstructions was insignificant, and the obtained values corresponded to the values from bone specimens. Therefore, the best method to measure the GPA is a 3D CT reconstruction and an exact Neer I projection. (orig.)

  10. Demand-side management for energy in the region


    Lazar Davidovich Gitelman; Boris Evgenyevich Ratnikov; Mikhail Viktorovich Kozhevnikov


    The article deals with a promising approach to solving the problem of investment in the regional electric power industry — the application of demand-side management, the essence of which lies in proactive interaction of energy companies with customers, based on the balance of economic interests. The features of the concept and its tools are revealed, positive results of its implementation for energy market players and the region are shown, and examples of demand-side management pr...

  11. Beyond the technological fix. [Detrimental and unforeseen side effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.M.


    Both technological and social fixes are likely to bring with them deterimental and unforeseen side effects. Although the perceived side effects of nuclear energy can undoubtedly be ameliorated by improved technology, a permanent institutional infrastructure will probably also be required. It is pointed out that confinement of nuclear energy to relatively few large sites rather than many small sites may be a first step toward creating this permanent institutional infrastructure.

  12. Solid-Color Stains on Western Redcedar and Redwood Siding (United States)

    Mark Knaebe


    You have decided to put wood siding on your new house. Several questions are probably going through your mind: “What’s the best type of wood?” “Should I use paint or stain?” “Should I apply the finish before or after I install the siding?”

  13. Supply-side policies and retail property market performance


    Catherine Jackson; Craig Watkins


    In this paper we are concerned with the relationship between the government’s supply-side policies, including development control regimes, and the performance of the retail property market. It is argued that the regulatory environment impacts on the prices paid by both users and owners of retail space. This assertion is tested empirically. A range of measures of the complex and, at times, conflicting supply-side policies are incorporated into models of retail market values. The models are est...

  14. Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations in Stepped Three-Side Spillway


    Hamed Taghizadeh; Seyed Ali Akbar Salehi Neyshabour; Firouz Ghasemzadeh


    One type of outlet works in dams are Three-side spillways that despite of their hydraulic limitations and construction problems, they were being selected, in storage dams, as best option under specific topographical conditions. Considerable energy losses and great turbulence are hydraulic characteristic of these spillways. Hydraulic performance with targeting to reduce pressure fluctuations in side channel is an important issue in this type of spillways design. In this study, effect of steppi...

  15. Analysis of a suppressive subtractive hybridization library of Alternaria alternata resistant to 2-propenyl isothiocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto García-Coronado


    Conclusions: The fungal response showed that natural compounds could induce tolerance/resistance mechanisms in organisms in the same manner as synthetic chemical products. The response of A. alternata to the toxicity of 2-pITC is a sophisticated phenomenon including the induction of signaling cascades targeting a broad set of cellular processes. Whole-transcriptome approaches are needed to elucidate completely the fungal response to 2-pITC.

  16. 40 CFR 721.5185 - Morpholine, 4-(1-oxo-2-propenyl)-. (United States)


    ... American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) F739 method and found by EPA to satisfy the consent order's... gloves have been tested in accordance with the ASTM F739 and found to satisfy the requirement for use by.... Requirements as specified in § 721.72 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) (concentration set at 0. 1 percent), (f), (g)(1...

  17. A Diffusion Model for Two-sided Service Systems (United States)

    Homma, Koichi; Yano, Koujin; Funabashi, Motohisa

    A diffusion model is proposed for two-sided service systems. ‘Two-sided’ refers to the existence of an economic network effect between two different and interrelated groups, e.g., card holders and merchants in an electronic money service. The service benefit for a member of one side depends on the number and quality of the members on the other side. A mathematical model by J. H. Rohlfs explains the network (or bandwagon) effect of communications services. In Rohlfs' model, only the users' group exists and the model is one-sided. This paper extends Rohlfs' model to a two-sided model. We propose, first, a micro model that explains individual behavior in regard to service subscription of both sides and a computational method that drives the proposed model. Second, we develop macro models with two diffusion-rate variables by simplifying the micro model. As a case study, we apply the models to an electronic money service and discuss the simulation results and actual statistics.

  18. Perceived side effects of oral contraceptives among adolescent girls. (United States)

    Herold, E S; Goodwin, M S


    Knowledge and attitudes of adolescent females regarding the side effects of oral contraceptives were investigated. The data source was a large study of sexual and contraceptive attitudes and experience. The questionnaire responses of 486 single females attending 10 birth control and pregnancy counseling centers in Ontario, Canada were examined. The age range of the subjects was from 13-20; 71% were attending school and 69% were living at home. They were attending the centers in order to obtain contraceptives (55%), to renew OC prescriptions (20%), or to receive pregnancy counseling (25%). 29% of the subjects had used OCs before coming to the clinic, but 91% planned to use OC after their clinic visit. 8% were planning to use an IUD; 1% were planning to use a diaphragm; and less than 1% were planning to have their boyfriend use condoms. 85% of the subjects indicated that they had heard abut side effcts of OCs with weight gain as the best known side effect. Other side effects familiar to many included nausea, circulatory disorders, headaches, emotional changes, menstrual problems and cancer. About 1/2 of the subjects had learned about these side effects from the mass media or female friends, 25% from a school sex education class, 15% from their mothers, and 3% from a physician. Despite knowledge regarding side effects, most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward OCs with 59% believing that the advnatages outweighed any disadvantages.

  19. Consumer confusion between prescription drug precautions and side effects. (United States)

    Amoozegar, Jacqueline B; Rupert, Douglas J; Sullivan, Helen W; O'Donoghue, Amie C


    Multiple studies have identified consumers' difficulty correctly interpreting risk information provided about prescription drugs, whether in printed format or online. This study's purpose was to explore whether consumers can distinguish between prescription drug precautions and side effects presented on brand-name drug websites. Participants (n=873) viewed fictitious drug websites that presented both precautions and side effects for one of four drugs, and they completed a survey assessing recall and comprehension. We coded open-ended recall data to identify whether drug precautions were mentioned and, if so, how they were interpreted. Approximately 15% of participants mentioned at least one drug precaution. The majority (59.7%) misinterpreted precautions as potential side effects. Participants who misinterpreted precautions rated the drugs as significantly more likely to cause side effects than participants who accurately interpreted the precautions. Age, education, literacy, and other factors did not appear to predict precaution interpretation. At least some consumers are likely to interpret precautions on drug websites as potential side effects, which might affect consumer preferences, treatment decisions, and medication safety. Healthcare providers should be aware of this potential confusion, assess patients' understanding of precautions and potential side effects, and address any misunderstandings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cutaneous side effects of doxycycline: a pediatric case series. (United States)

    Bayhan, Gulsum Iclal; Akbayram, Sinan; Ozaydin Yavuz, Goknur; Oner, Ahmet Fayik


    Brucellosis is highly endemic in Turkey and doxycycline is commonly used for its treatment. The present study aimed at documenting the cutaneous side effects of doxycycline in pediatric brucellosis patients in Turkey. Pediatric patients with brucellosis that were treated between February 2014 and January 2016 were analyzed retrospectively, and those that developed doxycycline-related cutaneous side effects were identified. Demographic data, epidemiological history, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, anti-brucellosis treatment regimen, duration of follow up and outcome were recorded. Among the 189 brucellosis patients, 141 treated with doxycycline plus rifampicin. Seven patients (5%) (two female and five male) developed doxycycline-related cutaneous side effects. Mean duration of treatment before the onset of cutaneous side effects was 9.5 weeks. Doxycycline therapy was continued in five of these patients and was changed in two patients. In the patients that continued to receive doxycycline the cutaneous side effects gradually improved. Cutaneous side effects of doxycycline should always be a consideration, especially in regions in which brucellosis is endemic and doxycycline is commonly used to treat it.

  1. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Slob, Evert


    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green's function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because the medium of interest is often accessible from one side only. The inherent approximations are acceptable as long as the effects of multiple scattering are negligible. However, in case of strongly inhomogeneous media, the effects of multiple scattering can be severe. We derive double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. The single-sided representation applies to situations where the medium can be accessed from one side only. It correctly handles multiple scattering. It employs a focusing function instead of the backward propagating Green's function in the classical (double-sided) representation. When reflection measurements are available at the accessible boundary of the medium, the focusing function can be retrieved from these measurements. Throughout the paper, we use a unified notation which applies to acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic and elastodynamic waves. We foresee many interesting applications of the unified single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation in holographic imaging and inverse scattering, time-reversed wave field propagation and interferometric Green's function retrieval.

  2. Antibody side chain conformations are position-dependent. (United States)

    Leem, Jinwoo; Georges, Guy; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M


    Side chain prediction is an integral component of computational antibody design and structure prediction. Current antibody modelling tools use backbone-dependent rotamer libraries with conformations taken from general proteins. Here we present our antibody-specific rotamer library, where rotamers are binned according to their immunogenetics (IMGT) position, rather than their local backbone geometry. We find that for some amino acid types at certain positions, only a restricted number of side chain conformations are ever observed. Using this information, we are able to reduce the breadth of the rotamer sampling space. Based on our rotamer library, we built a side chain predictor, position-dependent antibody rotamer swapper (PEARS). On a blind test set of 95 antibody model structures, PEARS had the highest average χ 1 and χ1+2 accuracy (78.7% and 64.8%) compared to three leading backbone-dependent side chain predictors. Our use of IMGT position, rather than backbone ϕ/ψ, meant that PEARS was more robust to errors in the backbone of the model structure. PEARS also achieved the lowest number of side chain-side chain clashes. PEARS is freely available as a web application at © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vaiciunas


    Full Text Available Purpose. One should clarify the issues concerning the wear reduction of details of freight car side bearers, costs reduction for the worn details reconstruction, improvement the dynamic characteristics of railway vehicles and the increase of their movement safety. Methodology. Wear-resistant elements of the side bearers are made in the form of removable metal-ceramic plates, entrenched on friction planes. Findings. During operation due to pollution, wear of friction surfaces and other causes the power characteristics of side bearer may significantly vary, which adversely affects the dynamic qualities of bogies, and as a result the train traffic safety. Therefore, the solution proposed by the authors concerning the operation improvement of elastic frictional side bearers by means of their modernization is an urgent one. Originality. The design of the bogie side bearer of freight car was improved. Friction wedge was set on the spring; its inclined surface interacts with a support inclined platform of a plate through the plate with the durable elements in the form of metal-ceramic inserts. Practical value. The use of wear-resistant elements in the form of interchangeable metal-ceramic inserts will reduce the wear of connection joints of bogie and a freight car frame, improve its dynamic qualities. It will also decrease the costs for restoration of worn side bearers by friction.

  4. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C


    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  5. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C


    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  6. Histomorphological study of the spinal growth plates from the convex side and the concave side in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Zhaolong


    Full Text Available Abstract Asymmetrical growth of the vertebrae has been implicated as one possible etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The longitudinal vertebral growth derives from the endochondral ossification of the vertebral growth plate. In the present study, the growth plates from the convex and concave side of the vertebrae were characterized by the method of histology and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the growth activity, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Normal zoned architectures were observed in the convex side of the growth plate and disorganized architectures in the concave side. The histological grades were significantly different between the convex and the concave side of the growth plate in the apex vertebrae (P

  7. Interaction dynamics of gap flow with vortex-induced vibration in side-by-side cylinder arrangement (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Jaiman, Rajeev K.


    A numerical investigation of the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in a side-by-side circular cylinder arrangement has been performed in a two-dimensional laminar flow environment. One of the cylinders is elastically mounted and only vibrates in the transverse direction, while its counterpart remains stationary in a uniform flow stream. When the gap ratio is sufficiently small, the flip-flopping phenomenon of the gap flow can be an additional time-dependent interference to the flow field. This phenomenon was reported in the experimental work of Bearman and Wadcock ["The interaction between a pair of circular cylinders normal to a stream," J. Fluid Mech. 61(3), 499-511 (1973)] in a side-by-side circular cylinder arrangement, in which the gap flow deflects toward one of the cylinders and switched its sides intermittently. Albeit one of the two cylinders is free to vibrate, the flip-flop of a gap flow during VIV dynamics can still be observed outside the lock-in region. The exact moments of the flip-flop phenomenon due to spontaneous symmetry breaking are observed in this numerical study. The significant characteristic vortex modes in the near-wake region are extracted via dynamic modal analysis and the interference between the gap flow and VIV is found to be mutual. In a vibrating side-by-side arrangement, the lock-in region with respect to reduced velocity becomes narrower due to the interference from its stationary counterpart. The frequency lock-in occurs and ends earlier than that of an isolated vibrating circular cylinder subjected to an identical flow environment. Similar to a tandem cylinder arrangement, in the post-lock-in region, the maximum vibration amplitudes are escalated compared with those of an isolated circular cylinder configuration. On the other hand, subjected to the influence from VIV, the biased gap flow deflects toward the vibrating cylinder quasi-stably during the frequency lock-in process. This behavior is different from the reported bi

  8. Weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion-can side-to-side symmetry be assumed? (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi; Spitzer, Elad; Finestone, Aharon S


    In clinical practice, the range of motion (ROM) of the non involved side often serves as the reference for comparison with the injured side. Previous investigations of non-weight-bearing (NWB) ankle dorsiflexion (DF) ROM measurements have indicated bilateral symmetry for the most part. Less is known about ankle DF measured under weight-bearing (WB) conditions. Because WB and NWB ankle DF are not strongly correlated, there is a need to determine whether WB ankle DF is also symmetrical in a healthy population. To determine whether WB ankle DF is bilaterally symmetrical. A secondary goal was to further explore the correlation between WB and NWB ankle DF ROM. Cross-sectional study. Training facility of the Israeli Defense Forces. A total of 64 healthy males (age = 19.6 ± 1.0 years, height = 175.0 ± 6.4 cm, and body mass = 71.4 ± 7.7 kg). Dorsiflexion ROM in WB was measured with an inclinometer and DF ROM in NWB was measured with a universal goniometer. All measurements were taken bilaterally by a single examiner. Weight-bearing ankle DF was greater on the nondominant side compared with the dominant side (P < .001). Non-weight-bearing ankle DF was not different between sides (P = .64). The correlation between WB and NWB DF was moderate, with the NWB DF measurement accounting for 30% to 37% of the variance of the WB measurement. Weight-bearing ankle DF ROM should not be assumed to be bilaterally symmetrical. These findings suggest that side-to-side differences in WB DF may need to be interpreted while considering which side is dominant. The difference in bilateral symmetry between the WB and NWB measurements, as well as the only moderate level of correlation between them, suggests that both measurements should be performed routinely.

  9. Weight-Bearing Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion—Can Side-to-Side Symmetry Be Assumed? (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi; Spitzer, Elad; Finestone, Aharon S.


    Context: In clinical practice, the range of motion (ROM) of the noninvolved side often serves as the reference for comparison with the injured side. Previous investigations of non–weight-bearing (NWB) ankle dorsiflexion (DF) ROM measurements have indicated bilateral symmetry for the most part. Less is known about ankle DF measured under weight-bearing (WB) conditions. Because WB and NWB ankle DF are not strongly correlated, there is a need to determine whether WB ankle DF is also symmetrical in a healthy population. Objective: To determine whether WB ankle DF is bilaterally symmetrical. A secondary goal was to further explore the correlation between WB and NWB ankle DF ROM. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Training facility of the Israeli Defense Forces. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 64 healthy males (age = 19.6 ± 1.0 years, height = 175.0 ± 6.4 cm, and body mass = 71.4 ± 7.7 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Dorsiflexion ROM in WB was measured with an inclinometer and DF ROM in NWB was measured with a universal goniometer. All measurements were taken bilaterally by a single examiner. Results: Weight-bearing ankle DF was greater on the nondominant side compared with the dominant side (P < .001). Non–weight-bearing ankle DF was not different between sides (P = .64). The correlation between WB and NWB DF was moderate, with the NWB DF measurement accounting for 30% to 37% of the variance of the WB measurement. Conclusions: Weight-bearing ankle DF ROM should not be assumed to be bilaterally symmetrical. These findings suggest that side-to-side differences in WB DF may need to be interpreted while considering which side is dominant. The difference in bilateral symmetry between the WB and NWB measurements, as well as the only moderate level of correlation between them, suggests that both measurements should be performed routinely. PMID:25329350

  10. Computed tomography in left-sided and right-sided blunt diaphragmatic rupture: experience with 43 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.-W. [Division of Emergency and Critical Care Radiology, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Wong, Y.-C., E-mail: [Division of Emergency and Critical Care Radiology, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Wang, L.-J.; Fu, C.-J. [Division of Emergency and Critical Care Radiology, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Fang, J.-F.; Lin, B.-C. [Division of Trauma and Emergency, Department of Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China)


    Aim: To investigate differences in the radiographic signs for left and right-sided blunt diaphragmatic rupture (BDR) in order to provide guidance to avoid missing these injuries. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the computed tomography (CT) examinations of 43 patients with BDR treated at our hospital between January 1995 and 2007 was undertaken. The presence of diaphragmatic discontinuity, diaphragmatic thickening, herniation of abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity, collar/hump sign, dependent viscera sign, abnormally elevated 4 cm or more above the dome of the other-sided hemi-diaphragm, and of associated injuries was recorded and their relationship to each other and to BDR diagnosis examined. A comparison between the use of axial and sagittal/coronal reconstruction images in diagnosis was also performed in 15 patients. Results: On axial imaging, left-sided diaphragmatic rupture occurred in 31 patients (72%) and right-sided in 12 (28%). Twenty-nine patients had associated injuries. More than 60% of the patients showed the 'dependent viscera' sign, 'abdominal organ herniation' sign, diaphragm thickening, or had a more than 4 cm elevation of one side of the diaphragm. 'Diaphragmatic discontinuity' and 'stomach herniation' were seen almost exclusively in left-sided rupture. Those with BDR and haemothorax had a significantly lower incidence of 'diaphragm discontinuity' (p = 0.034) than those without haemothorax. Sagittal/coronal reconstruction slightly increased the number of band signs, diaphragmatic discontinuities and diaphragmatic thickenings seen. Conclusions: Of the CT signs examined in this study, when herniation of abdominal organs was used as a diagnostic marker, only a very small fraction of trauma patients identifiable by CT would be missed. Further, CT signs differ for left-sided and right-sided BDR, thus the possibility of BDR should be considered when any of the reported CT signs are

  11. Supply-side and demand-side policies for biosimilars: an overview in 10 European member states (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Kapuśniak, Anna; Caban, Aleksandra; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Mendoza, Cyril; Toumi, Mondher


    ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to provide an overview of biosimilar policies in 10 EU MSs. Methods: Ten EU MS pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) were selected. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify supply-side and demand-side policies in place in the selected countries. Results: Supply-side policies for biosimilars commonly include price linkage, price re-evaluation, and tendering; the use of internal or external reference pricing varies between countries; health technology assessment is conducted in six countries. Regarding demand-side policies, pharmaceutical prescription budgets or quotas and monitoring of prescriptions (with potential financial incentives or penalties) are in place in eight and in seven countries respectively. Switching is generally allowed, but is solely the physician’s responsibility. Automatic substitution is not recommended, or even forbidden, in most EU MSs. Prescription conditions or guidelines that apply to biosimilars are established in nearly all surveyed EU MSs. Conclusions: Important heterogeneity in policies on biosimilars was seen between (and even within) selected countries, which may partly explain variations in biosimilar uptake. Supply-side policies targeting price have been reported to limit biosimilar penetration in the long term, despite short-term savings, while demand-side policies are considered to positively impact uptake. PMID:28740617

  12. Supply-side and demand-side policies for biosimilars: an overview in 10 European member states. (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Kapuśniak, Anna; Caban, Aleksandra; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Mendoza, Cyril; Toumi, Mondher


    This study aimed to provide an overview of biosimilar policies in 10 EU MSs. Methods: Ten EU MS pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) were selected. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify supply-side and demand-side policies in place in the selected countries. Results: Supply-side policies for biosimilars commonly include price linkage, price re-evaluation, and tendering; the use of internal or external reference pricing varies between countries; health technology assessment is conducted in six countries. Regarding demand-side policies, pharmaceutical prescription budgets or quotas and monitoring of prescriptions (with potential financial incentives or penalties) are in place in eight and in seven countries respectively. Switching is generally allowed, but is solely the physician's responsibility. Automatic substitution is not recommended, or even forbidden, in most EU MSs. Prescription conditions or guidelines that apply to biosimilars are established in nearly all surveyed EU MSs. Conclusions: Important heterogeneity in policies on biosimilars was seen between (and even within) selected countries, which may partly explain variations in biosimilar uptake. Supply-side policies targeting price have been reported to limit biosimilar penetration in the long term, despite short-term savings, while demand-side policies are considered to positively impact uptake.

  13. Reliability of side-to-side sonographic cross-sectional area measurements of upper extremity nerves in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto; Martinoli, Carlo


    In sonographic evaluations of peripheral nerves, the healthy, contralateral side may be used as an internal control for the pathologic one. Therefore, the inherent side-to-side differences must be minimal. The goal of this study was to determine the reliability of side-to-side measurements of upper extremity nerves in healthy volunteers. Forty participants with no upper extremity abnormalities were included. Upper limb nerves were evaluated bilaterally at the usual pathologic sites by 3 musculo-skeletal radiologists in separate sessions. To assess intraobserver and interobserver agreement, sonographic examinations were repeated 2 months after the first evaluations. The median nerve, ulnar nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, and radial nerve were considered. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Minimum detectable differences with relative 95% confidence intervals were reported. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were good (0.73 measurement was evaluated, the reliability was 80% to 87%. In general, the healthy contralateral side can be used as an internal control considering that changes in minimum detectable differences are related to the anatomic site considered.

  14. A protein-dependent side-chain rotamer library.

    KAUST Repository

    Bhuyan, M.S.


    Protein side-chain packing problem has remained one of the key open problems in bioinformatics. The three main components of protein side-chain prediction methods are a rotamer library, an energy function and a search algorithm. Rotamer libraries summarize the existing knowledge of the experimentally determined structures quantitatively. Depending on how much contextual information is encoded, there are backbone-independent rotamer libraries and backbone-dependent rotamer libraries. Backbone-independent libraries only encode sequential information, whereas backbone-dependent libraries encode both sequential and locally structural information. However, side-chain conformations are determined by spatially local information, rather than sequentially local information. Since in the side-chain prediction problem, the backbone structure is given, spatially local information should ideally be encoded into the rotamer libraries. In this paper, we propose a new type of backbone-dependent rotamer library, which encodes structural information of all the spatially neighboring residues. We call it protein-dependent rotamer libraries. Given any rotamer library and a protein backbone structure, we first model the protein structure as a Markov random field. Then the marginal distributions are estimated by the inference algorithms, without doing global optimization or search. The rotamers from the given library are then re-ranked and associated with the updated probabilities. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed protein-dependent libraries significantly outperform the widely used backbone-dependent libraries in terms of the side-chain prediction accuracy and the rotamer ranking ability. Furthermore, without global optimization/search, the side-chain prediction power of the protein-dependent library is still comparable to the global-search-based side-chain prediction methods.

  15. Compact, Two-Sided Structural Cold Plate Configuration (United States)

    Zaffetti, Mark


    In two-sided structural cold plates, typically there is a structural member, such as a honeycomb panel, that provides the structural strength for the cold plates that cool equipment. The cold plates are located on either side of the structural member and thus need to have the cooling fluid supplied to them. One method of accomplishing this is to route the inlet and outlet tubing to both sides of the structural member. Another method might be to supply the inlet to one side and the outlet to the other. With the latter method, an external feature such as a hose, tube, or manifold must be incorporated to pass the fluid from one side of the structural member to the other. Although this is a more compact design than the first option, since it eliminates the need for a dedicated supply and return line to each side of the structural member, it still poses problems, as these external features can be easily damaged and are now new areas for potential fluid leakage. This invention eliminates the need for an external feature and instead incorporates the feature internally to the structural member. This is accomplished by utilizing a threaded insert that not only connects the cold plate to the structural member, but also allows the cooling fluid to flow through it into the structural member, and then to the cold plate on the opposite side. The insert also employs a cap that acts as a cover to seal the open area needed to install the insert. There are multiple options for location of o-ring style seals, as well as the option to use adhesive for redundant sealing. Another option is to weld the cap to the cold plate after its installation, thus making it an integral part of the structural member. This new configuration allows the fluid to pass from one cold plate to the other without any exposed external features.

  16. Simulations of the neutral structure within the dusk side aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Parish


    Full Text Available Observations of neutral winds from rocket release experiments within the premidnight and postmidnight substorm recovery phase aurora, show very large E-region neutral winds of several hundred m/s, where winds measured on the dusk side are even larger than those on the dawn side. These large winds are also associated with strong shears, and there is evidence that some of the regions below these shears may be unstable. The mechanisms which generate this strong vertical structure are not well understood. It is also not known whether the acceleration conditions in the pre and post midnight sectors of the aurora may produce significantly different neutral responses on the dawn and dusk sides. Simulations have been performed using a three-dimensional high resolution limited area thermosphere model to try to understand the neutral structure within the dawn and dusk side aurora. When simulations are performed using auroral forcing alone, for equivalent conditions within the dawn and dusk sectors, differences are found in the simulated response on each side. When measured values of auroral forcing parameters, and background winds and tides consistent with recent observations, are used as model inputs, some of the main features of the zonal and meridional wind observations are reproduced in the simulations, but the magnitude of the peak zonal wind around 140 km tends to be too small and the maximum meridional wind around 130 km is overestimated. The winds above 120 km altitude are found to be sensitive to changes in electric fields and ion densities, as was the case for the dawn side, but the effects of background winds and tides on the magnitudes of the winds above 120 km are found to be relatively small on the dusk side. The structure below 120 km appears to be related mainly to background winds and tides rather than auroral forcing, as was found in earlier studies on the dawn side, although the peak magnitudes of simulated wind variations in the 100 to

  17. Firebrand Production from Building Components Fitted with Siding Treatments. (United States)

    Suzuki, Sayaka; Manzello, Samuel L


    Firebrand production from real-scale building components under well-controlled laboratory conditions was investigated. Re-entrant corner assemblies were ignited and during the combustion process, firebrands were collected to determine the size/mass distribution generated from such real-scale building components under varying wind speed. In prior work, a unique ignition methodology was developed to generate firebrands from re-entrant corner assemblies constructed of wood studs and oriented strand board (OSB). In this study, this ignition methodology was applied to re-entrant corners constructed from wood studs/OSB but fitted with actual siding treatments (tar paper and cedar siding) to determine the influence of siding treatments on firebrand generation from wall assemblies. Firebrands were collected with pans filled with water, and then the size and mass of firebrands were measured after drying. The size and mass distributions of firebrands collected in this study were compared with the data from prior component tests as well as the limited studies available in the literature on this topic. Some firebrands were found to be lighter for a given projected area than others, likely produced from cedar siding or tar paper. The effects of applied siding treatments on firebrand production are discussed in detail.

  18. Early and Late Side Effects Associated with Photo(chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günseli Öztürk


    Full Text Available Phototherapy (PUVA ve UVB is a widely used and effective treatment method for a variety of dermatological diseases. Adverse effects associated with phototherapy can be classified as acute and chronic side effects. Acute side effects are mostly related with UV doses and drug intolerance, and include itching, nausea, erythema, edema and phototoxic reactions that sometimes blister formation is seen. Acute side effects are usually moderate and transient. Chronic side effects of phototherapy are early aging of skin, pigmentary changes and increased risk of skin carcinogenesis. The major concern is development of skin cancer. This risk is especially related to long-term exposure and high cumulative doses of PUVA, increase in time and is persistent. Therefore, risk/advantage ratio of phototherapy should be carefully evaluated in each patient, and treatment protocols with minimal UV exposure should be chosen according to the phototherapy guides. Follow-up of the patients for long terms is important in prevention or in reduction of this risk by detecting and treating any premalignant or malignant lesion early. In this article, acute and chronic side effects of phototherapy are reviewed with recent literature findings.

  19. Demand Side Management Performance Evaluation for Commercial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dong


    Full Text Available Demand Side Management in power systems plays an important role in ensuring a reliable power supply and protecting the environment. Demand Side Management in the commercial sector is vital for sustainable development during China’s industrial restructuring. A hybrid multi-criteria decision making framework for evaluating Demand Side Management performance of commercial enterprises is proposed from a sustainability perspective. A fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is employed to determine the weights of the criteria and a fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution is applied to rank Demand Side Management performance. An evaluation index system is built, containing economic, social, environmental and technical criteria associated with 15 sub-criteria. Four groups of expert panels from government departments, research institutions, electricity utilities and commercial enterprises gave judgments on criteria weights and criteria performances for alternatives. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated through a case study in Beijing, in which Demand Side Management performances of four alternatives were ranked. Sensitivity analysis results indicate that the hybrid framework is robust.

  20. Unintended cardiac irradiation during left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy. (United States)

    Goody, R B; O'Hare, J; McKenna, K; Dearey, L; Robinson, J; Bell, P; Clarke, J; McAleer, J J A; O'Sullivan, J M; Hanna, G G


    Cardiac irradiation during left-sided breast radiotherapy may lead to deleterious cardiac side effects. Using image guided radiotherapy, it is possible to exclude the heart from treatment fields and monitor reproducibility of virtual simulation (VS) fields at treatment delivery using electronic portal imaging (EPI). Retrospectively, we evaluate the incidence of cardiac irradiation at VS and subsequent unintended cardiac irradiation during treatment. Patients receiving left-sided radiotherapy to the breast or chest wall, treated with a glancing photon field technique during a four-month period, were included. VS images and EPIs during radiotherapy delivery were visually assessed. The presence of any portion of the heart within the treatment field at VS or during treatment was recorded. Central lung distance and maximum heart distance were recorded. Of 128 patients, 45 (35.1%) had any portion of the heart within the planned treatment field. Of these, inclusion of the heart was clinically unavoidable in 25 (55.6%). Of those with no heart included in the treatment fields at VS, 41 (49.4%) had presence of the heart as assessed on EPI during treatment. Unintended cardiac irradiation during left-sided breast radiotherapy treatment occurs in a sizeable proportion of patients. Despite the use of three-dimensional computed tomography simulation and cardiac shielding, sizeable proportions of patients receiving left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy have unintended cardiac irradiation.

  1. Side Channel Passive Quantum Key Distribution with One Uninformative State (United States)

    Kang, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Qing-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa


    In most of quantum key distribution schemes, real random number generators are required on both sides for preparation and measurement bases choice. In this paper, via entangled photon pairs, we present a side channel passive quantum key distribution scheme, in which random number generator is unneeded on the receiver side. On the sender Alice side, along with massive of signal photons, small amount of uninformative photons are randomly sent to her partner Bob for eavesdropper-presence testing and error estimation. While on the other side channel, without using random number generator Bob do not actively measure the income signals randomly in two non-orthogonal bases. Instead, he just passively register photon click events, in two settled symmetric (i.e. X) bases, and the raw key(click events) is the probable outcomes of a special quantum measurement module constructed by Alice and Bob. Further, security analysis and formulas of security bounds for this scheme is also investigated under reasonable assumptions. Our work shows that the uninformative state employed in this paper is powerful to fight against eavesdropper Eve.

  2. The Dark Side of Computer-Mediated Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunha, J. V.; Carugati, Andrea; Leclercq, A.


    Research on the dark side of computer-mediated control has explained the consequences of computer-mediated control when work is tightly coupled with its electronic representation because information systems record work automatically. Our study complements prior research by addressing the dark side...... of computer-mediated control when work and its electronic representation are loosely coupled, because it is employees who report their work in IT systems. Data from a 15-month ethnographic study of the appropriation of a customer relationship management system in the sales department of a large organization...... reveal that loosely versus tightly coupled computer-mediated control produce key differences that re-specify the dark side of computer-mediated control....

  3. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors. (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A


    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  4. Cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients. (United States)

    Ceylan, Can; Kantar, Mehmet; Tuna, Arzu; Ertam, Ilgen; Aksoylar, Serap; Günaydın, Aslı; Çetingül, Nazan


    Pediatric oncology patients can present with various skin lesions related to both primary disease and immunosuppressive treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients. Sixty-five pediatric oncology patients who were scheduled to undergo chemotherapy from May 2011 to May 2013 were included in the study. Three patients were excluded from the results, as 2 patients died during treatment and 1 patient withdrew from the study; therefore, a total of 62 patients were evaluated for mucocutaneous findings. Patients were grouped according to their oncological diagnoses and a statistical analysis was performed. There was no statistical significance in the incidence of cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy among the different diagnostic groups. Awareness among dermatologists of the possible cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric patients and their causes can promote early diagnosis and treatment in this patient population.

  5. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Nonlinear response of iceberg side melting to ocean currents (United States)

    FitzMaurice, A.; Cenedese, C.; Straneo, F.


    Icebergs calving into Greenlandic Fjords frequently experience strongly sheared flows over their draft, but the impact of this flow past the iceberg is not fully captured by existing parameterizations. We present a series of novel laboratory experiments to determine the dependence of submarine melting along iceberg sides on a background flow. We show, for the first time, that two distinct regimes of melting exist depending on the flow magnitude and consequent behavior of melt plumes (side-attached or side-detached), with correspondingly different meltwater spreading characteristics. When this velocity dependence is included in melt parameterizations, melt rates estimated for observed icebergs in the attached regime increase, consistent with observed iceberg submarine melt rates. We show that both attached and detached plume regimes are relevant to icebergs observed in a Greenland fjord. Further, depending on the regime, iceberg meltwater may either be confined to a surface layer or distributed over the iceberg draft.

  7. Valve exploiting the principle of a side channel turbine (United States)

    Jandourek, Pavel; Pochylý, František; Haban, Vladimír


    The presented article deals with a side channel turbine, which can be used as a suitable substitute for a pressure reducing valve. Pressure reducing valves are a source of high hydraulic losses. The aim is to replace them by a side channel turbine. With that in mind, hydraulic losses can be replaced by a production of electrical energy at comparable characteristics of the reducing valve and the side channel turbine. The basis for the design is the loss characteristics of the pressure reducing valve. Thereby create a new kind of turbine valve with speed-controlled flow in dependence of the runner revolution. It is technical innovation and new renewable source of energy, which can be in future used in rehabilitation or projecting of pumped-storage power plants. It also increases the power of the power plant.

  8. Harmony Search for Balancing Two-sided Assembly Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindriyanto Dwi Purnomo


    Full Text Available Two-sided assembly lines balancing problems are important problem for large-sized products such as cars and buses, in which, tasks operations can be performed in the two sides of the line. In this paper, Harmony Search algorithm is proposed to solve two-sided assembly lines balancing problems type-I (TALBP-I. The proposed method adopts the COMSOAL heuristic and specific features of TALBP in the Harmony operators – the harmony memory consideration, random selection and pitch adjustment – in order to maintain the local and global search. The proposed method is evaluated based on 6 benchmark problems that are commonly used in TALBP. The experiment results show that the proposed method work well and produces better solution than the heuristic method and genetic algorithm.

  9. Čerenkov free-electron laser with side walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkal, Yashvir, E-mail: [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Accelerator and Beam Physics Laboratory, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Kumar, Vinit [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Accelerator and Beam Physics Laboratory, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)


    In this paper, we have proposed a Čerenkov free-electron laser (CFEL) with metallic side walls, which are used to confine an electromagnetic surface mode supported by a thin dielectric slab placed on top of a conducting surface. This leads to an enhancement in coupling between the optical mode and the co-propagating electron beam, and consequently, performance of the CFEL is improved. We set up coupled Maxwell–Lorentz equations for the system, in analogy with an undulator based conventional FEL, and obtain formulas for the small-signal gain and growth rate. It is shown that small signal gain and growth rate in this configuration are larger compared to the configuration without the side walls. In the nonlinear regime, we solve the coupled Maxwell–Lorentz equations numerically and study the saturation behaviour of the system. It is found that the Čerenkov FEL with side walls saturates quickly, and produces powerful coherent terahertz radiation.

  10. Double-sided porous silicon as template for metal deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumpf, Klemens; Granitzer, Petra [Institute of Physics, Karl-Franzens-University Graz (Austria); Poelt, Peter; Albu, Mihaela [Institute for Electron Microscopy, University of Technology Graz (Austria)


    Mesoporous silicon, achieved by etching of a highly n-doped wafer is used as template for electrochemical metal deposition. The fabrication of porous silicon samples with a porous layer on each side is performed in a double tank electrolytic cell in applying a pulsed current with a frequency of typically 0.1 Hz. Ferromagnetic metals such as Ni and Co are deposited into the pores of the matrices, either the same metal on both sides of the sample, a different metal on each side or an alloy of both. As substrate material also ultrathin silicon wafers with an average thickness of 60 {mu}m are used to achieve a thickness as small as possible of the remaining bulk silicon in between the two porous layers. These fragile templates are also filled with transition metals and investigated magnetically. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Persistent sexual side effects of finasteride: could they be permanent? (United States)

    Irwig, Michael S


    Finasteride has been associated with sexual side effects that may persist despite discontinuation of the medication. In a clinical series, 20% of subjects with male pattern hair loss reported persistent sexual dysfunction for ≥6 years, suggesting the possibility that the dysfunction may be permanent. These subjects also reported a wide range of symptoms including changes in cognition, ejaculate quality, and genital sensation. Other medications have been associated with irreversible neurological effects, such as phenothiazines with tardive dyskinesias. To prospectively study whether the persistent sexual side effects associated with finasteride resolve or endure over time. Subjects (N = 54) with persistent sexual side effects associated with finasteride were reassessed after 9-16 months (mean 14 months). All subjects were otherwise healthy young men without any baseline sexual dysfunction, medical conditions, psychiatric conditions, or use of oral prescription medications prior to taking finasteride for male pattern hair loss. Scores from the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). The participation rate was 81%. At reassessment persistent sexual side effects continued to be present in 96% of subjects. According to the ASEX scores, 89% of subjects met the definition of sexual dysfunction. Neither the length of finasteride use nor the duration of the sexual side effects correlated to changes in scores of sexual dysfunction. In most men who developed persistent sexual side effects (≥3 months) despite the discontinuation of finasteride, the sexual dysfunction continued for many months or years. Although several rat studies have shown detrimental changes to erectile function caused by 5 alpha reductase inhibitors, the persistent nature of these changes is an area of active research. Prescribers of finasteride and men contemplating its use should be made aware of the potential adverse medication effects. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Neglected side effects after radical prostatectomy: a systematic review. (United States)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel


    A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, orgasm-associated pain (OAP), penile shortening (PS), and penile deformity. The aim of this article is to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the above-mentioned side effects. A predefined search strategy was applied in a thorough search of Medline, Web of science, and the online Cochrane library. The PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed, and protocol as well as search strategies was registered at (RN: CRD42012003165). The main outcome measure was incidence rates for the relevant side effects. A total of 43 articles were included. OAI and UISS are experienced by 20-93% of RP patients at least a few times after surgery. Although these issues are associated to postoperative daytime incontinence, previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the only known predicting factor. Alterations of orgasmic function are experienced by approximately 80% after RP. Erectile dysfunction seems to play an important role in waning orgasmic function. OAP is only experienced by a subset of the patients with reported rates varying between 3% and 19%. Sparing of the tips of the seminal vesicles has been shown to double the risk of OAP. PS occurs in 15-68% of RP patients. Nerve sparing and preservation of erectile function may help preserve penile length. With regard to all side effects, studies indicate that they are reduced over time. The sexually related side effects summarized in this review are common after RP. Meanwhile, it is difficult to predict which patients are at risk. Daytime incontinence, previous TURP, a lack of nerve sparing, and erectile dysfunction are all associated with the above-mentioned sexually related

  13. A framework for assessing supply-side wildlife conservation. (United States)

    Phelps, J; Carrasco, L R; Webb, E L


    Market-based, supply-side interventions such as domestication, cultivation, and wildlife farming have been proposed as legal substitutes for wild-collected plants and animals in the marketplace. Based on the literature, we devised a list of the conditions under which supply-side interventions may yield positive conservation outcomes. We applied it to the trade of the orchid Rhynchostylis gigantea, a protected ornamental plant. We conducted a survey of R. gigantea at Jatujak Market in Bangkok, Thailand. Farmed (legal) and wild (illegal, protected) specimens of R. gigantea were sold side-by-side at market. These results suggest farmed specimens are not being substituted for wild plants in the marketplace. For any given set of physical plant characteristics (size, condition, flowers), the origin of the plants (wild vs. farmed) did not affect price. For all price classes, farmed plants were of superior quality to wild-collected plants on the basis of most physical variables. These results suggest wild and farmed specimens represent parallel markets and may not be substitutable goods. Our results with R. gigantea highlight a range of explanations for why supply-side interventions may lack effectiveness, for example, consumer preferences for wild-collected products and low financial incentives for farming. Our results suggest that market-based conservation strategies may not be effective by themselves and may be best utilized as supplements to regulation and education. This approach represents a broad, multidisciplinary evaluation of supply-side interventions that can be applied to other plant and animal species. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Does the habitual mastication side impact jaw muscle activity? (United States)

    Turcio, Karina Helga Leal; Zuim, Paulo Renato Junqueira; Guiotti, Aimée Maria; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Brandini, Daniela Atili


    To compare electrical activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles on the habitual (HMS) and non-habitual mastication side (NHMS), during mastication and in the mandibular postural position. In addition, the increase in electrical activity during mastication was assessed for the HMS and NHMS, analysing both working (WSM) and non-working side during mastication (NWSM). A total of 28 healthy women (18-32 years) participated in the study. They were submitted to Kazazoglu's test to identify the HMS. Bioresearch 'Bio EMG' software and bipolar surface electrodes were used in the exams. The exams were conducted in the postural position and during the unilateral mastication of raisins, on both the HMS and NHMS. The working and non-working side on HMS and NHMS were assessed separately. The obtained data were then statistically analysed with SPSS 20.0, using the Paired Samples Test at a significance level of 95%. The differences in the average EMG values between HMS and NHMS were not statistically significant in the postural position (Temporal p=0.2; Masseter p=0.4) or during mastication (Temporal WSM p=0.8; Temporal NWSM p=0.8; Masseter WSM p=0.6; Masseter NWSM p=0.2). Differences in the increase in electrical activity between the masseter and temporal muscles occurred on the working side, on the HMS and NHMS (p=0.0), but not on the non-working side: HMS (p=0.9) and NHMS (p=0.3). The increase in electrical activity was about 35% higher in the masseter than in the temporal muscle. Mastication side preference does not significantly impact electrical activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during mastication or in postural position. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Coping strategies for antidepressant side effects: an Internet survey. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Takefumi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Koichiro; Mimura, Masaru


    Patients' coping methods to palliate side effects of antidepressants have not been reported in the literature. Through an Internet survey, 856 participants who were diagnosed with depression and receiving antidepressants were recruited to report on the methods of coping with side effects. They were asked which side effect(s) they experienced and to write freely about the way they tried to counteract these effects. We classified active coping methods into the following sub-types: adjustment of prescriptions, additional medication, complementary therapy, consultation with physicians, and daily relief. The prevalence of active coping differed across side effects (from 26.7%, sexual dysfunction, to 89.5%, dry mouth). Events with a lower percentage of active coping were more likely to be managed with "adjustment of prescriptions": (sexual dysfunction, 41.9%; fatigue, 36.8%; sweating, 20.0%; tremor, 42.5%; and somnolence, 31.8%). Further, a strong negative correlation was found between the percentage of participants reporting an adjustment of prescription and that reporting an active coping (r=-0.907, pnegative methods such as vomiting for nausea and weight gain and drinking alcohol for insomnia. Sampling of subjects were biased due to an Internet survey and diagnosis of depression and experience of side effects were self-reported. Patients with depression use various ways in alleviating antidepressants side effects. Some effects such as sexual dysfunction and fatigue may not be amenable to subjective coping efforts and others are sometimes managed inappropriately, which warrants a prudent attention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. US electric utility demand-side management, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

  17. Historical development of side-channel spillway in hydraulic engineering


    Hager, W. H.; Pfister, Michael


    Side-channels are a typical element of earth or rockfill dams to discharge floods sideways instead frontally, such as normally adopted for concrete dams. The side channel received attention from the hydraulics community from the 1920s, once the first large mentioned dams were erected, and its use culminated at Hoover Dam in the mid 1930s, based on a large test program. This paper highlights the major advancement of this basic element of hydraulic structures up to the late 1950s,both describin...

  18. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Yoon Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain.

  19. Integrated resource strategic planning and power demand-side management

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Zhaoguang; Wen, Quan


    Integrated Resource Strategic Planning and Power Demand-Side Management elaborates two important methods - Integrated Resource Strategic Planning (IRSP) and Demand Side Management (DSM) - in terms of methodology modeling, case studies and lessons learned. This book introduces a prospective and realistic theory of the IRSP method and includes typical best practices of DSM for energy conservation and emission reduction in different countries. It can help energy providers and governmental decision-makers formulate policies and make plans for energy conservation and emission reduction, and can hel

  20. An Evaluation of One-Sided and Two-Sided Communication Paradigms on Relaxed-Ordering Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Khaled Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hargrove, Paul H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iancu, Costin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yelick, Katherine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The Cray Gemini interconnect hardware provides multiple transfer mechanisms and out-of-order message delivery to improve communication throughput. In this paper we quantify the performance of one-sided and two-sided communication paradigms with respect to: 1) the optimal available hardware transfer mechanism, 2) message ordering constraints, 3) per node and per core message concurrency. In addition to using Cray native communication APIs, we use UPC and MPI micro-benchmarks to capture one- and two-sided semantics respectively. Our results indicate that relaxing the message delivery order can improve performance up to 4.6x when compared with strict ordering. When hardware allows it, high-level one-sided programming models can already take advantage of message reordering. Enforcing the ordering semantics of two-sided communication comes with a performance penalty. Furthermore, we argue that exposing out-of-order delivery at the application level is required for the next-generation programming models. Any ordering constraints in the language specifications reduce communication performance for small messages and increase the number of active cores required for peak throughput.

  1. Supply-side-demand-side optimization and cost-environment trade offs for China`s coal and electricity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Zhijun; Kuby, M. [Boston University, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Geography, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies


    The authors simultaneously optimize supply-side and demand-size investments for satisfying China`s coal and electricity needs over a 15 year time horizon. The results are compared to equivalent results from a supply-side only optimization assuming a business-as-usual demand scenario. It is estimated that, by shifting investment from energy production and transportation to energy efficiency improvement, China could meet the same energy service demand in 2000 for 7% less cost and 120 million tons (mt) less coal. Alternatively, for greater environmental protection, China could satisfy the same demands at the same cost using 275 mt coal. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  2. $xy$ Position Reconstruction in DarkSide-50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Jason Philip [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    The DarkSide-50 experiment seeks to directly detect dark matter in a liquid argon time projection chamber. In this dissertation, I present an algorithm of my design that determines the position of particle interactions with the liquid argon. This position reconstruction algorithm will be used by DarkSide-50 to reject backgrounds, particularly backgrounds from radioactive elements on the detector surface. The position reconstruction algorithm functions by constructing light response functions (LRFs) that map locations in the detector to the expected distribution of signal in DarkSide-50's 38 photomultiplier tubes. Accurate LRFs cannot be produced by simulations of DarkSide-50's optics because such simulations are known to be awed. Instead, this algorithm constructs LRFs using an iterative process driven by data. Initial, awed LRFs are produced using simulated events but then used to produce new LRFs from data events. Multiple generations of LRFs are created from data with each generation driven to better satisfy a known feature of the detector: the dominant argon-39 background is uniformly distributed. I also discuss a method of discriminating against surface background as an alternative to the common approach of ducialization. This method considers the di erence in goodnessof- t between the best- t reconstructed position and the best- t position at the detector's surface. I conclude by presenting results on the performance and validity of this algorithm, including some discussion of reconstruction errors.

  3. Laparoscopic retroperitoneal repair of a right-sided Bochdalek hernia. (United States)

    Rosen, M J; Ponsky, L; Schilz, R


    Bochdalek hernias are rare congenital diaphragmatic defects. We report a case of a 50-year-old male with chronic shortness of breath who was diagnosed with a right-sided Bochdalek hernia. This hernia was repaired using a laparoscopic retroperitoneal approach.

  4. Balancing islanded residential microgrids using demand side management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, Gerwin; van der Klauw, Thijs; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Feng, Xianyong; Hebner, Robert E.


    Now that the internet of things is emerging, control of domestic assets within the smart micro grids is also gaining interest. Furthermore, these micro grids may operate in islanded mode for short periods. Various demand side management approaches are presented in literature to control these assets.

  5. Numerical simulation of side heating for controlling angular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Side heating; finite element analysis; element birth and death method; manual metal arc welding; angular distortions. ... Element birth and death technique is used to simulate the filler material deposition. ... Institute of Engineering Education and Research, Nashik (Affiliated to University of Pune), Nashik, 422 003, India ...

  6. The Real Supply-Side Economics. Occasional Paper No. 80. (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.

    Economic policy today is often stated in the terms of "demand managers" and "simple supply-siders" who look upon economic policy simply as a matter of stimulus or restraint. It matters little what programs are cut as long as overall spending is reduced to cool inflation. On the other hand, the real supply-side economists…

  7. Social Welfare in One-Sided Matching Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christodoulou, George; Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Frederiksen, Søren Kristoffer Stiil


    We study the Price of Anarchy of mechanisms for the fundamental problem of social welfare maximization in one-sided matching settings, when agents have general cardinal preferences over a finite set of items. We consider both the complete and incomplete information settings and show that the two...

  8. Using demand-side management to decrease transformer ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klauw, Thijs; Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.


    The introduction of local, often uncontrollable, generation units as well as larger loads such as electric vehicles (EVs) causes an increasing amount of stress on our energy supply chain, specifically on the distribution grids. Demand-side management (DSM) is often seen as a potential technology to

  9. The other side of phenotypic plasticity: a developmental system that ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 9, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 4. The other side of phenotypic plasticity: a developmental system that generates an invariant phenotype despite environmental variation. Christian Braendle Marie-Anne Félix. Articles Volume 34 Issue 4 October 2009 pp 543-551 ...

  10. Congenital right sided ureteropelvic junction obstruction in right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    V. Singh

    Congenital right sided ureteropelvic junction obstruction in right crossed fused ectopia with extrarenal calyces masquerading as massive retroperitoneal urinoma in a case of blunt trauma abdomen: A diagnostic enigma and novel approach of management. V. Singha,∗. , D.K. Guptaa, M. Pandeyb, V. Kumara a Department ...

  11. Installation, care, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle siding (United States)

    Jack Dwyer; Tony Bonura; Arnie Nebelsick; Sam Williams; Christopher G. Hunt


    This article gives general guidelines for selection, installation, finishing, and maintenance of wood shakes and shingles. The authors gathered information from a variety of sources: research publications on wood finishing, technical data sheets from paint manufacturers, installation instructions for shake and shingle siding, and interviews with experts having...

  12. A Bird and Bee Problem in House Siding (United States)

    Louis F. Wilson; Henry A. Huber


    Plywood house siding made to simulate reverse board-and-batten design is sometimes attacked by woodpeckers because leaf-cutting bees, their prey, make nests in holes in the plywood core. The problem can be prevented by plugging the holes before nesting occurs. If nesting does occur, the nest should be destroyed and then the holes plugged.

  13. How To Refinish Wood Siding With Latex Paints (United States)

    E. A. Mraz


    Every homeowner with painted wood siding and trim at some time faces the job of repainting. In this note a simple test is described to determine whether an old surface will form a satisfactory bond with latex paints, and suggestions are given on preparing the surface to achieve a satisfactory bond.

  14. [Side effects after the usage of Chinese dieting product Meizitanc]. (United States)

    Sein Anand, Jacek; Chodorowski, Zygmunt


    Side effects of self-treatment of eight obese women aged between 28 and 45 (average 36.5) with the body mass index (BMI) between 28 and 32 (average 30) kg/m2 have been described. All these women, without any medical consultation and upon their own will had been using Meizitanc as the only remedy for slimming. They started with a dosage of 1 capsule per day, gradually increasing the Meizitanc dose to 3 capsules a day. The patients had used the drug from 2.5 to 6 (average 3.2) months. There were many side effects observed in all women like palpitation, headache and vertigo, warm feeling, nervousness, and tremor of the hands which was observed in four patients. All these effects appeared during the last few weeks and thus forced them to get the consultation in the Poison Information Centre in the Medical University of Gdańsk. All capsules were examined with the use of gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometer GC/MS. It was found that each capsule contained 10 mg of sibutramine. There was no information about the presence of sibutramine in the composition of Meizitanc on the package and leaflet. After discontinuation of Meizitanc all side effects disappeared. Special caution is advised during the Meizitanc treatment. In case of any side effects like palpitation, headache and vertigo, nervousness or tremor which take place during the Meizitanc treatment the medical consultation is needed.

  15. Milwaukee County User-Side Subsidy Program : A Case Study (United States)


    Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, instituted a user-side subsidy program in June 1978 for handicapped users of taxi and chair-car services. The program is funded entirely by county and state contributions. A distinctive feature of the program is that, unl...

  16. Up-Side-Down (Dyakodo) Teaching and Learning Method of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lithner (2003, 2004) also remarks that most exercises in mathematics textbooks may be solved by mathematically superficial strategies, often without essentially considering the core mathematics of the book section in question. It is along these lines that the up-side-down (dyakodo) teaching and learning method in ...

  17. Towards an Integrated View of Multi-sided Platforms Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan


    How do Multi-Sided Platforms (MSPs) evolve over time? Although MSPs are perceived as highly evolvable socio-technical systems, Platform Evolution remains an elusive topic in the MSP literature with many unanswered questions. In particular, Platform Evolution (PE) as a concept has not been...

  18. Effect of protein crystal hydration on side chain conformational heterogeneity (United States)

    Atakisi, Hakan; Moreau, David; Hopkins, Jesse; Thorne, Robert; Robert Thorne's Group Team

    The structure of protein crystals is determined in part by water-mediated interactions involving both protein surface-ordered (hydration) and bulk water, and so is sensitive to the relative humidity of the environment. Monoclinic lysozyme provides a remarkable model for studying structural changes induced by dehydration, as it maintains excellent order for relative humidities (r.h.) down to 5%, corresponding to solvent content of 9% by volume, much smaller than the 88% (22% by volume) at which lysozyme loses its enzymatic activity. Although the main chain conformation does not change significantly, the effect of dehydration on side chain conformations has not been systematically studied. High resolution (1.1 to 1.7 A) structural data sets for monoclinic lysozyme at r.h. between 99% and 11% have been analyzed to identify major and minor side chain conformers at each humidity, and to map out how the side chain conformational ensemble evolves with hydration. Modest dehydration produces comparable overall effects to cooling to T =100 K, but with conformational changes largely confined to solvent-exposed residues. The largest side chain conformation changes occur at humidities that deplete water within the first two hydration shells.

  19. Using Demand Side Management to Adapt to Water Scarcity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using Demand Side Management to Adapt to Water Scarcity and Climate Change in the Saiss Basin (Morocco). The Saiss is a sub-basin of the Sebou basin in Northern Morocco. Due to decreased precipitation and increased water demand, the surface waters of the Saiss basin have been greatly reduced. At the current ...

  20. Eubiosis and dysbiosis: the two sides of the microbiota. (United States)

    Iebba, Valerio; Totino, Valentina; Gagliardi, Antonella; Santangelo, Floriana; Cacciotti, Fatima; Trancassini, Maria; Mancini, Carlo; Cicerone, Clelia; Corazziari, Enrico; Pantanella, Fabrizio; Schippa, Serena


    The microbial ecosystem of the gastrointestinal tract is characterized by a great number of microbial species living in balance by adopting mutualistic strategies. The eubiosis/dysbiosis condition of the gut microbiota strongly influences our healthy and disease status. This review briefly describes microbiota composition and functions, to then focus on eubiosis and dysbiosis status: the two sides of the microbiota.

  1. Tamoxifen treatment and gynecologic side effects : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJE; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB; Ten Hoor, KA; Hollema, H; Van der Zee, AGJ

    Objective: To review the literature on tamoxifen side effects on the female genital tract and psychosexual function in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data Sources: We used the English-language literature in MEDLINE and reference lists from selected articles. Search terms included:


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    End-to-side nerve suture (ETSNS) has until recently been extensively researched in the laboratory animal (rat and baboon). Lateral sprouting from an intact nerve into an attached nerve does occi.rr, and functional recovery (sensory and motor) has been demonstrated. We have demonstrated conclusively that ETSNS in the ...

  3. Single-Sided Natural Ventilation through a Velux Roof Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhigang; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Fransson, J.


    This paper investigates the single-sided natural ventilation through a VELUX centre pivot roof window under natural weather conditions. The aim of the investigation is to develop an empirical formulation for air flow rate through a roof window based on CFD and tracer gas decay measurement methods...

  4. Imaging findings in right-sided diverticulitis in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogue, Conor O.; Mann, Erika H. [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)


    We report the imaging findings in a case of acute right-sided diverticulitis in a 13-year-old boy. Based on this diagnosis the patient was successfully treated conservatively with intravenous antibiotics. This entity should be considered in patients with right lower quadrant pain and a sonographically normal appendix, particularly in those of Asian or Pacific descent. (orig.)

  5. Congenital right sided ureteropelvic junction obstruction in right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    V. Singh · Congenital right sided ureteropelvic junction obstruction in right crossed fused ectopia with extrarenal calyces masquerading as massive retroperitoneal urinoma in a case of blunt trauma abdomen: A diagnostic enigma and novel approach of management. V. Singha,∗.

  6. Fast and gentle side approach for atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, W.A.; Broekmaat, Joska Johannes; Beerends, R.J.L.; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.


    Atomic force microscopy is one of the most popular imaging tools with atomic resolution in different research fields. Here, a fast and gentle side approach for atomic force microscopy is proposed to image the same surface location and to reduce the time delay between modification and imaging without

  7. High-temperature tenderizing of beef sides: bacterial considerations.


    Wilhelm, K E; Marsh, B B; Lochner, J V


    A microbiological study of an experimental beef-tenderizing treatment, in which lean sides are held at 37 degrees C until transfer to a chiller at 3 h postmortem, was made. The treatment did not cause a significant increase in bacterial numbers or a proliferation of potential pathogens or food-spoiling organisms.

  8. Supply-Side Interventions and Student Learning in Guatemala (United States)

    Vasquez, William F.


    This paper presents estimates of production functions of reading and mathematics test scores to assess the effects of supply-side interventions, such as the provision of a community-based school management programme, bilingual education and multigrade teaching, on student learning in Guatemala. The efficiency and consistency of the estimates is…

  9. Supply-side collaboration for energy-efficient renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.; Mlecnik, E.


    The supply side for nearly zero energy building (nZEB) renovation of owner-occupied single-family houses in Europe is suffering from a severe image problem of lack of knowledge and trust, inefficient construction processes, insufficient quality assurance and communication difficulties with

  10. Numerical modeling of secondary side thermohydraulics of horizontal steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melikhov, V.I.; Melikhov, O.I.; Nigmatulin, B.I. [Research and Engineering Centre of LWR Nuclear Plants Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    A mathematical model for the transient three-dimensional secondary side thermal hydraulics of the horizontal steam generator has been developed. The calculations of the steam generator PGV-1000 and PGV-4 nominal regimes and comparison of numerical and experimental results have been carried out. 7 refs.

  11. Simultaneous in vivo truncation of pectic side chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Borkhardt, Bernhard; Harholt, Jesper


    Despite the wide occurrence of pectin in nature only a few source materials have been used to produce commercial pectins. One of the reasons for this is that many plant species contain pectins with high levels of neutral sugar side chains or that are highly substituted with acetyl or other groups...

  12. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridaemia: An underreported and potentially severe side effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabchi S


    Full Text Available A 57 year-old-woman, with no previous history of dyslipedemia, developed severe hypertriglyceridemia while being treated with capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer. Capecitabine was not discontinued and serum triglyceride levels were normalized after 4 weeks of treatment with fenofibrate. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridemia, as a rare drug-related side effect, seems to be often overlooked by clinicians.

  13. Comparing the side effect profile of the Atypical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antipsychotics have greater efficacy (especially for negative symptoms) and fewer EPSE when compared to the typical antipsychotics. Given the lack of studies directly comparing these agents, we used the Physician Desk Reference (PDR) to calculate the treatment emergent placebo adjusted side effects for these atypical ...

  14. Computers in Small Libraries: Learning Server-Side Scripting (United States)

    Roberts, Gary


    In this column, the author compares and contrasts the most popular scripting languages that are used to create truly dynamic service-oriented Web sites, building a conceptual framework that be can used as a starting point for specific server-side library projects.

  15. Banana-shaped side chain liquid crystalline siloxanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, R.; Koudijs, A.; Giesbers, M.; Reddy, R.A.; Verhulst, T.; Tschierske, C.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.


    Eight banana-shaped side chain liquid crystalline oligomers and polymers have been synthesized by hydrosilylation of vinyl-terminated bent-core mesogens with trimethylsilyl-terminated siloxanes. The synthesized oligomers and polymers, and their olefinic precursors, were investigated by polarizing

  16. Well-defined side-chain liquid-crystalline polysiloxanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, Mark A.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Vancso, Gyula J.


    A route to well-defined side-chain liquid-crystalline polysiloxanes (ratio of weight-to number-average molar masses Mw/Mn < 1.2 is reported. Anionic ring-opening polymerization of pentamethylvinylcyclotrisiloxane yielded a poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-methylvinylsiloxane) backbone. A flexible disiloxane

  17. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Ehsan Shafiei; Henrik Rasmussen; Jakob Stoustrup


    .... Moreover a simulation benchmark is introduced based on the produced model for demand-side management in smart grid. Finally, a potential application of the proposed benchmark in direct control of the power/energy consumption is presented by a simple simulation example.

  18. Handedness and dominant side of symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Bartels, Anna L.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the presence of a possible association between handedness and the side of symptom dominance in 963 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In only 287 patients the hand dominance was registered. Out of 254 right-handed patients, 158 (62%) had a

  19. Intraoperative colonic irrigation in the management of left sided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the safety and benefits of antegrade intraoperative colonic irrigation (lavage) and primary anastomosis, after colonic resection, in the treatment of left sided large bowel emergencies. Design: A prospective descriptive study. Setting: Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Participants: Thirty ...

  20. Left sided trans-thoracic esophagectomy for resectable esophageal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgery is the main stay of treatment for Esophageal Cancer but there is no standard Esophagectomy accepted by all authorities to be superior. The main objective of this study is to present our experience with the left sided trans-thoracic approach in patients with a lower third Esophageal and ...

  1. The Computer & the Right Side of the Brain. (United States)

    McWhinnie, Harold J.

    This paper presents a discussion of the use of microcomputers and computer graphics programs as basic design experiences which relate as much to the right as to the left side of the brain. It reviews selected research in art education that shows the importance of the right brain in various areas of creative behavior and in developing drawing…

  2. a Study on Impact Analysis of Side Kick in Taekwondo (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Young-Shin; Han, Kyu-Hyun

    Taekwondo is a martial art form and sport that uses the hands and feet for attack and defense. Taekwondo basic motion is composed of the breaking, competition and poomsea motions. The side kick is one of the most important breaking motions. The side kick with the front foot can be made in two steps. In the first step, the front foot is extended forward from the back stance free-fighting position. For the second step, the rear foot is followed simultaneously. Then, the side kick is executed while the entire body weight rests on the rear foot. In this paper, the impact analysis on a human model for kicking posture was carried out. The ADAMS/LifeMOD used numerical modeling and simulation for the side kick. The numerical human models for assailant and opponent in competition motion were developed. The maximum impact force on the human body was obtained by experiment and was applied to impact simulation. As a result, the impact displacement and velocity of the numerical human model were investigated.

  3. A folded plate clamped along one side only (United States)

    Nazarov, Serguei A.; Slutskij, Andrey S.


    An asymptotic model of a folded thin elastic plate is posed on two plane domains and contains transmission conditions at the common line segment of their boundaries. These conditions become non-local and inhomogeneous if only one side of the plate is fixed. Solvability and smoothness results and error estimates for the model are derived. xml:lang="fr"

  4. Stable Delay of Microstrip Line with Side Grounded Conductors


    Gazizov, T. R.; Salov, V. K.; Kuksenko, S. P.


    Characteristics of transmission lines are addressed. Wave impedance and per-unit-length delay of the microstrip structure with grounded side conductors on three layers are calculated under different parameters of the structure. A line which provides the desired value of wave impedance and constant per-unit-length delay, at the expense of correction of the gaps on different layers, is proposed.

  5. The Two-Sided Mind: Teaching and Suggestopedia. (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper explores how Georgi Lozanov's Suggestopedia incorporates elements of modern right-brain research. For example, issues in Linda VerLee Williams's "Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind" that are applicable to Suggestopedia include visual thinking, fantasy, multisensory learning, music, and direct experience. In Robert Ornstein's "The…

  6. The Road Side Unit for the A270 Test Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, I.; Driessen, B.J.F.; Heijligers, B.M.R.; Netten, B.D.; Schackmann, P.P.M.


    The design and implementation of the Road Side Unit for the A270 Test Site is presented. It consists of a sensor platform and V2I communication platform with full coverage of the test site. A service platform enables applications to make use of these facilities. The RSU will be used both for the

  7. Left-hand side BBN model for process safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gulijk, C.; Hanea, D.H.; Almeida, K.Q.; Steenhoek, M.; Ale, B.J.M.; Ababei, D.


    This paper describes the blueprint of a model for calculating the left-hand side of the bow-tie for chemical plants is described. The model is based on Non-Parametric Bayesian Belief Nets so that uncertainties are automatically included. Also, the procedure for constructing the elements for the

  8. Black carbon: The reverse of its dark side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Cornelissen, G.; Bucheli, T.D.; Noort, van P.C.M.; Gustafsson, O.


    The emission of black carbon is known to cause major environmental problems. Black carbon particles contribute to global warming, carry carcinogenic compounds and cause serious health risks. Here, we show another side of the coin. We review evidence that black carbon may strongly reduce the risk

  9. Right sided colon cancer at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent studies suggest that right sided colon cancer may have a different clinicopathological behaviour and prognosis from carcinoma in the rest of the colon and especially the rectum. Reports in the Nigerian literature had usually considered colon and rectal cancer together, thereby masking these differences. This study is ...

  10. Patients knowledge about side effects of orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Amalia


    Full Text Available Disharmonious of dental arrangement can possibly create problems for the patient, such as the masticatory function, esthetical, psychosocial, and also the increased risk of trauma and periodontal disease. These are reasons for a patient to seek orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to know the patient’s knowledge about the side effects possibility that they receive during orthodontic treatment. The side effects include pain experience during orthodontic treatment, the possibility of soft tissue damage, email demineralization, loss of tooth vitality, periodontal problem, root resorption, temporomandibular joint disorders, and relapse. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients who registered at Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia on March-June 2009. The participants of this study were 100 patients, consist of 86 women and 14 men respectively. Twenty-seven questions about the side-effects of orthodontic treatment were used to obtain the patient’s knowledge and the result was categorized into 3 groups, good, average and poor. The result of the study showed that patient’s knowledge about the side effect of pain experience during orthodontic treatment was average and the patient’s knowledge about the possibility of soft tissue damage due to orthodontic treatment was good. However, the patient’s knowledge about the possibility of email demineralization, loss of tooth vitality, periodontal problem, root resorption, temporomandibular joint disorders and relapse due to orthodontic treatment was low.

  11. Influence of cutting conditions on chip side curl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo


    The paper describes the influence of local variations of contact length, cutting speed and material constraint, showing the effect of lubrication, on the side curl of the chip. The following examples are illustrated by experiments: cutting of a tube vs. cutting of a bar; cutting using a tool...

  12. intraoperative colonic irrigation in the management of left sided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 1, 2000 ... Castrati G., Scotti M., Fiorone E. and Arrigoni G. L'intervento di Hartmann nelle lesioni complicate del retto sigma. Minerva. Chir. 1989; 44:1485-8. 30. Amsterdam E. and Krispin M. Primary resection with colocolostomy for obstructive carcinoma of the left side of the colon. Amer. J. Surg. 1985; 150:558-60.

  13. Enhanced Single-Sided Ventilation with Overhang in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Park


    Full Text Available Enhancing the ventilation performance of energy-efficient buildings with single-sided openings is important because their ventilation performance is poor and strongly depends on the wind conditions. We considered an overhang as a potential building façade for improving the single-sided ventilation performance. We performed numerical simulations of three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flows over an idealized building with an overhang in order to investigate the effect of the overhang on the ventilation performance. Parametric studies were systematically carried out where the overhang length, wind speed, and wind direction were varied. The numerical results showed that the overhang drastically enhanced the ventilation rate in the windward direction regardless of the wind speed. This is because, for windward cases, the overhang produces a vortex with strong flow separation near the tip of the overhang, which promotes a net airflow exchange at the entrance and increases the ventilation rate. However, the ventilation rates for the leeward and side cases are slightly decreased with the overhang. Using an overhang with single-sided ventilation greatly reduces the local mean age of air (LMA in the windward direction but increases it in the leeward direction.

  14. Compositional diversity of near-, far-side transitory zone around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 1. Compositional diversity of near-, far-side ... The selected endmembers were linearly unmixed and resolved for mineralogy using United States Geological Survey (USGS) library spectra of minerals. These mineralogically resolved endmembers were ...

  15. Fighting Spam on the Sender Side: A Lightweight Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Wouter Willem; Moreira Moura, Giovane; Pras, Aiko; Aagesen, Finn Arve; Knapskog, Svein Johan


    Spam comprises approximately 90 to 95 percent of all e-mail traffic on the Internet nowadays, and it is a problem far from being solved. The losses caused by spam are estimated to reach up to \\$87 billion yearly. When fighting spam, most of the proposals focus on the receiver-side and are usually

  16. Three entropic classes of side chain in a globular protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Dennis C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Krishnan, Marimuthu [International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderbad (India); Smith, Jeremy C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baudry, Jerome Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The relationship between the NMR methyl group axial order parameter and the side chain conformational entropy is investigated in inhibitor-bound and apo human HIV protease using molecular dynamics simulation. Three distinct entropic classes of methyl-bearing side chains, determined by the topological distance of the methyl group from the protein backbone (i.e., the number of -bonds between the C and the carbon of the CH3 group), are revealed by atomistic trajectory analyses performed in the local frame of reference of individual methyl probes. The results demonstrate that topologically equivalent methyl groups experience similar nonbonded microenvironments regardless of the type of residues to which they are attached. Similarly, methyl groups that belong to the same side chain but that are not topologically equivalent exhibit different thermodynamic and dynamic properties. As a result, the two-parameter classification (based upon entropy and methyl axial order parameter) of side chains described here permits improved estimates of the conformational entropies of proteins from NMR motional parameters.

  17. Delayed Presentation of Right-Sided Congenital Diaphargmatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) commonly occurs on the left and the patients usually present during neonatal period with respiratory distress. Rarely, the condition may occur on the right and the presentation may be delayed. This is a report of a patient with a right sided CDH who presented at three months but the ...

  18. Side effects of drugs used in directly observed treatment short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The study assessed the side effects of drugs used in directly observed treatment short course in a newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients at the chest unit of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital in Enugu State, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study, involving a 3-year review of case files of TB patients ...

  19. Upward Pricing Pressure in Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affeldt, P.; Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.


    Abstract: Pricing pressure indices have recently been proposed as alternative screening devices for horizontal mergers involving differentiated products. We extend the concept of Upward Pricing Pressure (UPP) proposed by Farrell and Shapiro (2010) to two-sided markets. Examples of such markets are

  20. Optimizing Lumber Production through Improved Accuracy of Side ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maximum yield of useful product from each tree in order to sustain the wood industry. This work looks at the effect of the accuracy of side clearance of band saw teeth on the surface quality of sawn lumber as well as the level of adherence to quality standards when sawing. Triplochiton scleroxylon (Wawa). The results ...

  1. Acoustic Resonance in Cylindrical Tubes with Side Branches (United States)


    branches and tubes that change diameter. 4. Musical Instrument Design A flute is essentially a hollow tube with a way at one end to modulate integer (1,2,3,…). 12 Figure 5. Tube with no holes. The addition of a side branch effectively changes the length of the tube, so in a flute

  2. Server-side Filtering and Aggregation within a Distributed Environment (United States)

    Currey, J. C.; Bartle, A.


    Intercalibration, validation, and data mining use cases require more efficient access to the massive volumes of observation data distributed across multiple agency data centers. The traditional paradigm of downloading large volumes of data to a centralized server or desktop computer for analysis is no longer viable. More analysis should be performed within the host data centers using server-side functions. Many comparative analysis tasks require far less than 1% of the available observation data. The Multi-Instrument Intercalibration (MIIC) Framework provides web services to find, match, filter, and aggregate multi-instrument observation data. Matching measurements from separate spacecraft in time, location, wavelength, and viewing geometry is a difficult task especially when data are distributed across multiple agency data centers. Event prediction services identify near coincident measurements with matched viewing geometries near orbit crossings using complex orbit propagation and spherical geometry calculations. The number and duration of event opportunities depend on orbit inclinations, altitude differences, and requested viewing conditions (e.g., day/night). Event observation information is passed to remote server-side functions to retrieve matched data. Data may be gridded, spatially convolved onto instantaneous field-of-views, or spectrally resampled or convolved. Narrowband instruments are routinely compared to hyperspectal instruments such as AIRS and CRIS using relative spectral response (RSR) functions. Spectral convolution within server-side functions significantly reduces the amount of hyperspectral data needed by the client. This combination of intelligent selection and server-side processing significantly reduces network traffic and data to process on local servers. OPeNDAP is a mature networking middleware already deployed at many of the Earth science data centers. Custom OPeNDAP server-side functions that provide filtering, histogram analysis (1D

  3. Side effects of desmopressin in patients with bleeding disorders. (United States)

    Stoof, S C M; Cnossen, M H; de Maat, M P M; Leebeek, F W G; Kruip, M J H A


    Desmopressin is frequently used in patients with bleeding disorders because of its prohaemostatic effects. In recent years desmopressin use increased due to reported high incidence of inhibitors in mild haemophilia after clotting factor infusion and the rising costs of clotting factor concentrates. The safety and frequency of side effects have hardly been assessed in well-designed studies. We therefore prospectively evaluated side effects of desmopressin in a large unselected cohort of bleeding disorder patients, who received a desmopressin test dose. Blood was drawn prior to, one, three, six and 24 h after desmopressin. Primary outcome was change in serum sodium, haematocrit, serum- and urine osmolality, body weight and vital signs. Self-reported side effects were evaluated as secondary outcome. In total, 108 patients were included, median age 30 years, the majority of whom had von Willebrand disease type 1 (76%). A significant change in water balance parameters was observed. Four patients (4%) had hyponatraemia (≤135 mmol L(-1) ) after 24 h but no severe hyponatraemia occurred (≤125 mmol L(-1) ). After infusion, 41 (38%) patients were hypotensive (≤90 mmHg SBP and/or ≤60 mmHg DBP) and 10 (9%) presented with tachycardia (>100 min(-1) ). However, none of these effects sustained at 24 h. Infusion was discontinued in one patient because of tachycardia, nausea and malaise. Self-reported side effects included: headache, fatigue, flush and dizziness. Observed side effects correspond with the known antidiuretic and vasomotor effects of desmopressin. Changes in parameters were temporary and not clinically relevant. In conclusion, our study supports desmopressin use as a safe treatment option in patients with various bleeding disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Side-sloped surfaces substantially affect lower limb running kinematics. (United States)

    Damavandi, Mohsen; Eslami, Mansour; Pearsall, David J


    Running on side-sloped surfaces is a common obstacle in the environment; however, how and to what extent the lower extremity kinematics adapt is not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of side-sloped surfaces on three-dimensional kinematics of hip, knee, and ankle during stance phase of running. Ten healthy adult males ran barefoot along an inclinable runway in level (0°) and side-sloped (10° up-slope and down-slope inclinations, respectively) configurations. Right hip, knee, and ankle angles along with their time of occurrence were analysed using repeated measures MANOVA. Up-slope hip was more adducted (p = 0.015) and internally rotated (p = 0.030). Knee had greater external rotations during side-sloped running at heel-strike (p = 0.005), while at toe-off, it rotated externally and internally during up-slope and down-slope running, respectively (p = 0.001). Down-slope ankle had greatest plantar flexion (p = 0.001). Up-slope ankle had greatest eversion compared with down-slope (p = 0.043), while it was more externally rotated (p = 0.030). These motion patterns are necessary to adjust the lower extremity length during side-sloped running. Timing differences in the kinematic events of hip adduction and external rotation, and ankle eversion were observed (p = 0.006). Knowledge on these alterations is a valuable tool in adopting strategies to enhance performance while preventing injury.

  5. Coupling Motion and Energy Harvesting of Two Side-by-Side Flexible Plates in a 3D Uniform Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibo Dong


    Full Text Available The fluid-structure interaction problems of two side-by-side flexible plates with a finite aspect ratio in a three-dimensional (3D uniform flow are numerically studied. The plates’ motions are entirely passive under the force of surrounding fluid. By changing the aspect ratio and transverse distance, the coupling motions, drag force and energy capture performance are analyzed. The mechanisms underlying the plates’ motion and flow characteristics are discussed systematically. The adopted algorithm is verified and validated by the simulation of flow past a square flexible plate. The results show that the plate’s passive flapping behavior contains transverse and spanwise deformation, and the flapping amplitude is proportional to the aspect ratio. In the side-by-side configuration, three distinct coupling modes of the plates’ motion are identified, including single-plate mode, symmetrical flapping mode and decoupled mode. The plate with a lower aspect ratio may suffer less drag force and capture less bending energy than in the isolated situation. The optimized selection for obtaining higher energy conversion efficiency is the plate flapping in single-plate mode, especially the plate with a higher aspect ratio. The findings of this work provide several new physical insights into the understanding of fish schooling and are expected to inspire the developments of underwater robots or energy harvesters.

  6. Influence of the side-by-side arrangement on the performance of a small Savonius wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Choon-Man


    Full Text Available Scaled-down Savonius turbine rotors arrayed side-by-side are introduced to analyze the effects of design parameters on the performance between turbine rotors. Unsteady flow simulation and experimental measurement have been performed to compare turbine performance and validate the numerical simulation of the turbine rotor. Commercial code, SC/Tetra, which uses an unstructured grid system, has been used to solve the three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. Single turbine rotors and two turbine rotors arrayed side-by-side were numerically analyzed. The distance between rotor tips is 0.5 times the rotor diameter. Throughout the numerical simulation, the power coefficient obtained by the time-averaged result of unsteady flow simulation was found to be in good agreement with the experimental result. A discussion on the design parameters using both a single and arrayed turbine rotors is presented based on the results of the unsteady flow simulation, including the flow field, power coefficient, velocity and vorticity contours.

  7. Side-by-side determination of workers' exposure to wood dust with IOM and open-faced samplers. (United States)

    Cavlović, Anka Ozana; Beljo Lučić, Ružica; Jug, Matija; Radmanović, Kristijan; Bešlić, Ivan


    Woodworkers' exposure to airborne particles is measured with different sampling techniques throughout the world. Due to a great number of exposure data obtained with different samplers, European countries have aimed over the last ten years to find a conversion factor for mass concentrations that would render these measurements comparable. Following the accepted EU standards and regulations, we replaced a 25 mm open-faced (OF) filter holder with an IOM head to determine woodworkers' exposure to inhalable dust and establish an IOM/OF sampler ratio that might serve as a reliable factor for converting the existing OF data to IOM dust mass concentration in the industrial environment. For this side-by-side sampling we used personal 25 mm OF (N=29) and IOM (N=29) sampling heads over eight working hours. The obtained IOM/OF ratios ranged between 0.7 and 2.3. However, mass concentrations obtained by IOM and OF samplers did not significantly differ. Our findings suggest that there is no need for conversion of the existing OF data for workers exposed to wood dust, provided that dust mass concentrations in the working environment range between 1 mg m-3 and 7 mg m-3. Future side-by-side measurements should also involve environments with low wood dust mass concentrations.

  8. Comparison of oncological outcomes of right-sided colon cancer versus left-sided colon cancer after curative resection: Which side is better outcome? (United States)

    Lim, Dae Ro; Kuk, Jung Kul; Kim, Taehyung; Shin, Eung Jin


    There are embryological origins, anatomical, histological, genetic, and immunological differences between right-sided colon cancer (RCC) and left-sided colon cancer (LCC). Many studies have sought to determine the survival and prognosis according to tumor location. This study aimed to analyze outcomes between RCC and LCC. Between January 2000 and December 2012, data on 414 patients who underwent curative resection for RCC and LCC were retrieved from a retrospective database. Propensity score matching (1:1) was performed and RCC was identified in 207 and LCC in 207 patients. On average, RCC exhibited a more advanced N stage, increased tumor size, more frequently poorly differentiated tumors, more harvested lymph nodes, and more positivity of lymphovascular invasion than LCC. With a median follow-up of 66.7 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for RCC and LCC were 82.1% and 88.7%, respectively, (P cancers, the DFS rates were 61.1% (RCC) and 81.9% (LCC; P colon cancer is needed.

  9. Influence of a combo side airbag on the risk for basilar skull fracture in a far-side occupant. (United States)

    Viano, David C; Burnett, Roger; Parenteau, Chantal S


    The impact force to the head and neck were measured in sled tests with and without inflation of a combo airbag for a far-side occupant to determine the risk for basilar skull fracture. Sled tests were run at 24 and 32 km/h (15 and 20 mph) with and without inflation of a combo side airbag to analyze the effect of cross-car diving into the side interior. The matched tests involved one pair at 24 km/h and another at 32 km/h. The 24 km/h pair involved a lap-shoulder-belted 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the series at 32 km/h involved an unbelted 5th percentile Hybrid III. The dummy was ballasted to 69.5 kg (153 lb) and laid on the right side. The dummy was positioned 30.5 cm (12(″)) from the far-side interior to ensure the full sled delta V occurred before head impact. The buck consisted of a 2001 Ford Taurus. The combo thorax-head side airbag was stored in the seatback. The airbag was triggered about 120 ms before the head impact. The head, chest, and pelvis were instrumented with triaxial accelerometers and the upper and lower neck, thoracic spine, and lumbar spine had transducers measuring triaxial loads and moments. High-speed video recorded different views of the dummy motion. Dummy kinematics and biomechanical responses were compared to study the influence of inflating the side airbag on the head and neck. The top of the head impacted the far side. The force of impact was similar with and without the airbag as the head compressed the airbag and loaded the vehicle interior trim behind the airbag. The peak force on the head was primarily from neck load as torso augmentation occurred. For the 24 km/h (15 mph) tests, the peak force was 4.7 kN (1055 lb) without and 4.8 kN (1088 lb) with the airbag and there was over 2.67 kN (600 lb) of lap belt load. The peak head acceleration was 93 g without and 72 g with the airbag. For the 32 km/h (20 mph) tests, the force on the head was 15.3 kN (3433 lb) without and 15.2 kN (3406 lb) with the airbag, although the

  10. Performance evaluation of a computed radiography imaging device using a typical "front side" and novel "dual side" readout storage phosphors. (United States)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A; Schueler, Beth A


    The Fourier-space modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (nNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of a computed radiography (CR) x-ray imaging device were measured. Two different storage phosphor screens were used in conjunction with a single CR reader (Fuji, Clearview, CS). One of the storage phosphor plates (ST-BD) had a clear backing material which allowed "dual side read" of the latent image from both the "front" and "back" sides of the phosphor. The other phosphor plate had a light occluding backing material, limiting the readout to front side only (ST-VI). The standard RQA-5 beam quality was used. The MTF was measured using a 1 mm thick tungsten edge device. Compared to the ST-55BD phosphor, the ST-VI phosphor was found to have modestly higher MTF at all spatial frequencies. The nNPS(f) and DQE(f) were measured for nominal incident exposure levels ranging from 0.1 to 10 mR. The dual side read phosphor demonstrated superior DQE, especially at low spatial frequencies. At the frequency 0.5 cycles/mm, the DQE values for the 1 mR exposure were 0.36 and 0.21 for the ST-55BD and ST-VI phosphor plates, respectively. The differences between the spatial-frequency dependent DQE of the two plates can be attributed to the increased signal collection efficiency of the dual side read plates and differences in storage phosphor structure noise.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas ELsayed Mohamed Abutaleb


    Full Text Available Background: Control of balance is a complex motor skill that involves integration of sensory inputs and the planning and execution of flexible movement patterns. Carrying side packs is famous in our society especially shoulder side packs. Most students carry shoulder side packs and they don't care about the way to carry them to be more balanced. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of carrying shoulder side pack on dynamic postural stability and to determine the best way of carrying a shoulder side pack either on the dominant side or non-dominant side that doesn’t affect dynamic postural stability in young healthy female. Methods: Sixty female volunteers aged from 18 to 25 years old participated in the study. Biodex balance system was used to measure the dynamic postural stability in three different occasions (without carrying a shoulder side pack, with carrying a shoulder side pack on the dominant side, and on the non-dominant side with a rest period in between. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test were used to compare dynamic posture balance without carrying and during carrying a shoulder side pack on dominant and non-dominant sides. Analysis revealed that overall, anteroposterior and mediolateral stability indexes reduced significantly (P<0.0001 when carrying shoulder side pack on dominant side in comparison with when carrying shoulder side pack on non-dominant side and without carrying bag. Conclusion: It was concluded that carrying a shoulder side pack on the non-dominant side didn't disturb the postural stability when compared to carrying on the dominant side so, we recommend the students to carry shoulder side packs on the non-dominant side.

  12. Side scanner for supermarkets: a new scanner design standard (United States)

    Cheng, Charles K.; Cheng, J. K.


    High speed UPC bar code has become a standard mode of data capture for supermarkets in the US, Europe, and Japan. The influence of the ergonomics community on the design of the scanner is evident. During the past decade the ergonomic issues of cashier in check-outs has led to occupational hand-wrist cumulative trauma disorders, in most cases causing carpal tunnel syndrome, a permanent hand injury. In this paper, the design of a side scanner to resolve the issues is discussed. The complex optical module and the sensor for aforesaid side scanner is described. The ergonomic advantages offer the old counter mounted vertical scanner has been experimentally proved by the industrial funded study at an independent university.

  13. Demand and Supply Side Management Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Hajizadeh, Amin; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud


    operational scenarios. Afterwards, the SSM strategy based on adaptive fuzzy control is proposed to control of power flow between hybrid renewable sources and PEVs of the main building for a short time interval. Moreover, an fuzzy sliding power control strategy for the controlling of battery energy storage......This paper proposes simultaneous Demand Side Management (DSM) and Supply Side Management (SSM) Strategies for smart Zero Energy Building (ZEB). The proposed DSM algorithm based upon game theory determines the optimal reference power of each power units during time interval of 5 min under three...... is introduced to keep the balance between the requested power from building, PEV and output power of hybrid power generation resources. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the capability of the proposed power and energy flow control strategy....

  14. Complicated right-sided Bochdalek hernia in an adult. (United States)

    Agrafiotis, A C; Kotzampassakis, N; Boudaka, W


    Bochdalek hernias on the right side of the diaphragm are very rarely diagnosed in adults. We report a case of a 52-year-old female patient, who presented to the emergency department with acute intestinal obstruction. Plain and cross-sectional imaging identified a large right-sided Bochdalek hernia containing small bowel loops and the right colon. A laparoscopic approach was performed. The herniated intestinal loops and the right colon were reduced into the abdominal cavity. The diaphragmatic defect was closed using clips with reinforcement by a prosthetic polypropylene mesh. A mini median laparotomy was performed to ensure the viability of the bowel and a few stitches were inserted on superficial lesions of the serosa. The recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital 6 days after admission. Nine months later the patient is doing well.

  15. Right sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Narkhed, Shrikhande DY, Prasant Nigwekar, Santosh Yadav, Haresh Kasodariya


    Full Text Available A diaphragmatic hernia is defined as a communication between abdominal and thoracic cavity with or without abdominal contents in the thorax. The true incidence of Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is 1 in 5000 live births while right side diaphragmatic hernia (15% is rare comparing to left side diaphragmatic hernia (85% because liver plugs the opening. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia typically refers to Bochdalek form, other forms are rarer. Despite advances in neonatal intensive care, congenital diaphragmatic hernia is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The posterolateral right congenital DH is a rare diaphragmatic defect. Females are twice affected than that of males. The symptoms are non characteristic and patients with this disease maybe without symptoms for a long period. The main tool for diagnosis of congenital DH is radiography. Surgical correction is required.

  16. Drug target identification using side-effect similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Gavin, Anne-Claude


    binding assays, of which 11 reveal inhibition constants equal to less than 10 micromolar. Nine of these were tested and confirmed in cell assays, documenting the feasibility of using phenotypic information to infer molecular interactions and hinting at new uses of marketed drugs.......Targets for drugs have so far been predicted on the basis of molecular or cellular features, for example, by exploiting similarity in chemical structure or in activity across cell lines. We used phenotypic side-effect similarities to infer whether two drugs share a target. Applied to 746 marketed...... drugs, a network of 1018 side effect-driven drug-drug relations became apparent, 261 of which are formed by chemically dissimilar drugs from different therapeutic indications. We experimentally tested 20 of these unexpected drug-drug relations and validated 13 implied drug-target relations by in vitro...

  17. Glucocorticoids in nephrology I: pharmacology and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pajek


    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids have been used in clinical medicine since 1940s. Despite the time-long use they are still a subject of active ongoing research. We describe the mode of action, pharmacology and side effects to enable proper prescription of these drugs. Glucocorticoids exert genomic and non-genomic effects, the latter become important at higher doses. The nomenclature of dosage ranges and the principles of dosage adjustments are given. Glucocortioid use is associated with frequent and important side effects in numerous organ systems. Prophylactic treatments for osteoporosis and infections are described. The suppression of hypothalamic-hypophyseal hormonal axis determines the need for gradual glucocorticoid withdrawal and supplementation after discontinuation. Finally, glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome is described.

  18. The Meteoroid Fluence at Mars Due to Comet Siding Spring (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.


    Long-period comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) is headed for a close encounter with Mars on 2014 Oct 19. A collision between the comet and the planet has been ruled out, but the comets coma may envelop Mars and its man-made satellites. We present an analytic model of the dust component of cometary comae that describes the spatial distribution of cometary dust and meteoroids and their size distribution. If the coma reaches Mars, we estimate a total incident particle fluence on the planet and its satellites of 0.01 particles per square meter. We compare our model with numerical simulations, data from past comet missions, and recent Siding Spring observations.

  19. Tramadol, Pharmacology, Side Effects, and Serotonin Syndrome: A Review. (United States)

    Beakley, Burton D; Kaye, Adam M; Kaye, Alan D


    Serotonin syndrome is a mild to potentially life-threatening syndrome associated with excessive serotonergic activity within the central nervous system. Serotonin syndrome is associated with medication use, drug interactions, and overdose. While serotonin syndrome is often associated with the use of selective serotonin inhibitors (SSRI), an increasing number of reports are being presented involving the use of tramadol. This review article contains an overview of serotonin syndrome while specifically looking at tramadol's pharmacology and risk factors for serotonin syndrome. With tramadol's increasing popularity, the goal of this article is to make physicians more alert and aware of this potential side effect associated with tramadol. In conclusion, with the increasing incidence of serotonin syndrome, prescribing physicians should be aware of and educate their patients on the potential side effects of tramadol. It is important that the prescribing physician reviews patient medications for concurrent serotonergic drugs and monitors for potential abuse.

  20. The human dark side: evolutionary psychology and original sin. (United States)

    Lee, Joseph; Theol, M


    Human nature has a dark side, something important to religions. Evolutionary psychology has been used to illuminate the human shadow side, although as a discipline it has attracted criticism. This article seeks to examine the evolutionary psychology's understanding of human nature and to propose an unexpected dialog with an enduring account of human evil known as original sin. Two cases are briefly considered: murder and rape. To further the exchange, numerous theoretical and methodological criticisms and replies of evolutionary psychology are explored jointly with original sin. Evolutionary psychology can partner with original sin since they share some theoretical likenesses and together they offer insights into the nature of what it means to be human.

  1. Management of acute regurgitation in left-sided cardiac valves. (United States)

    Mokadam, Nahush A; Stout, Karen K; Verrier, Edward D


    The management of acute, severe cardiac valvular regurgitation requires expeditious multidisciplinary care. Although acute, severe valvular regurgitation can be a true surgical emergency, accurate diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions require clinical acumen, appropriate imaging, and sound judgment. An accurate and timely diagnosis is essential for successful outcomes and requires appropriate expertise and a sufficiently high degree of suspicion in a variety of settings. Whereas cardiovascular collapse is the most obvious and common presentation of acute cardiac valvular regurgitation, findings may be subtle, and the clinical presentation can often be nonspecific. Consequently, other acute conditions such as sepsis, pneumonia, or nonvalvular heart failure may be mistaken for acute valvular regurgitation. In comparison with that of the right-sided valves, regurgitation of the left-sided valves is more common and has greater clinical impact. Therefore, this review focuses on acute regurgitation of the aortic and mitral valves.

  2. Persisting asymmetries of vision after right side lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill


    report experiments were used to estimate psychophysical parameters related to visual capacity and attentional weighting in 26 patients with stroke in the right side of the brain. The results were analyzed using Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention......Visual neglect and extinction are well-known effects of lesions in the right hemisphere. This study shows that even with minor or no clinical signs of these deficits, and in the stable phase of recovery, asymmetric visual perception is common after right side lesions. Whole, partial and colour....... Psychological Review, 97, 523-547]) including bootstrap estimation of the measurement error related to each test result [Habekost, T., & Bundesen, C. (2003). Patient assessment based on a theory of visual attention (TVA): Subtle deficits after a right frontal-subcortical lesion. Neuropsychologia, 41, 1171...

  3. The higher you climb: Dark side personality and job level. (United States)

    Gøtzsche-Astrup, Oluf; Jakobsen, Joan; Furnham, Adrian


    The purpose of this study was to explore the idea that there are dark side personality differences in the profiles of people at different levels in organizations. This study replicates and extends existing leadership research by focusing on self-defeating behavioral tendencies. A Danish consultancy provided data on 264 adults based on assessment reports. This paper explored linear and quadratic relationships between personality and de facto job level. More senior managers scored high on Cluster B/Moving Against Others scales of Bold, Colorful and Imaginative, and low on Cautious and Dutiful. These Danish data are compared to data from Great Britain and New Zealand which show very similar findings. Practice should take into account that dark side personality traits associated with an assertive, sometimes hostile, interpersonal orientation, predict leadership level up to a point. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Suspected side effects to the quadrivalent human papilloma vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Theibel, Ann Cathrine; Pors, Kirsten


    INTRODUCTION: The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous...... system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine. METHODS: We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. RESULTS: All...... consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced...

  5. Martian Metallic Ions Deposited by Comet Siding Spring Defy Expectations (United States)

    Crismani, Matteo; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Plane, John; Jain, Sonal; Deighan, Justin; Yelle, Roger V.; Evans, J. Scott


    On October 19th 2014, comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) had a close encounter with Mars and deposited cometary dust particles into the Martian atmosphere. Dust that impacted Mars was readily identifiable as the meteoric deposition of Mg, Fe, Na, etc. by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) and Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) on the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft. While Mg+ from comet Siding Spring and in a persistent layer was identified previously by IUVS, this is the first remote sensing report on the abundance, spatial distribution and temporal evolution of Mg, Fe, and Fe+. Subsequent evolution of the distributions of ions and neutrals indicate distinct physical mechanisms for distribution. We find vertical and latitudinal inhomogeneities that are inconsistent with expected dynamical transport mechanisms.

  6. Choice of cochlear implant side in a paediatric population. (United States)

    Sürmelioğlu, O; Cetik, F; Tarkan, O; Ozdemir, S; Tuncer, U; Kiroğlu, M; Sahin, R


    To compare the effect of right- or left-sided cochlear implantation on listening skills in a paediatric population. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the listening skills performance data of children who were operated on and followed up at the Çukurova University Department of Otorhinolaryngology between 2007 and 2011. Sixty-three patients were included in the study. Patients were evaluated using the Listening Progress Profile, the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale and the littlEARS test. The mean age of the children was two years (range of one to five years). Twenty-nine patients were male and 34 were female. Twenty-eight patients were implanted in the right ear and 35 in the left ear. There were no statistically significant differences between right and left ear implantees in terms of listening skills performance. This study indicates that the choice of cochlear implant side is not crucial for the development of listening skills.

  7. Light scattering of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Á.; Lörincz, E.; Ramanujam, P.S.


    Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering characteris...... for the domain size in thin liquid crystalline polyester layers being responsible for the dominant light scattering. The characteristic domain Sizes obtained from the Fourier transformation of polarization microscopic Pictures confirm these values.......Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering...... characteristics than the liquid crystalline polyester. The amorphous samples have negligible polarization part orthogonal to the incident beam. the liquid crystalline samples have relative high orthogonal polarization part in light scattering, The light scattering results can be used to give a lower limit...

  8. A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine. (United States)

    Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing


    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.

  9. Alternatif Material Hood dan Side Panel Mobil Angkutan Pedesaan Multiguna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ihsan


    Full Text Available Mobil merupakan sarana transportasi yang banyak digunakan oleh manusia baik untuk kepentingan pribadi maupun umum. Pada tahun 2013 Teknik Mesin ITS bekerja sama dengan PT. Karya Tugas Anda membuat sebuah prototype mobil pick up multiguna pedesaan. Berat total prototype mobil dan box tersebut adalah 1200 Kg. Sedangkan dengan engine 650 cc dan daya 38,23 - 43,33 HP, berat mobil terlalu berat (rancangan beban total maksimum mobil dan penumpang/ barang adalah 1500 Kg. Untuk itu dilakukan kajian terhadap hood dan side panel mobil tersebut pada body bagian depan maupun box (body bagian belakang. Setelah perancangan tersebut selesai, dilanjutkan dengan merancang sambungan hood dan side panel mobil tersebut. Sambungan menggabungkan antara material pelat dengan komposit dan material komposit dengan komposit. Sambungan dianalisa kekuatannya terhadap gaya-gaya/ beban yang mungkin terjadi saat mobil digunakan. Selanjutnya dilakukan perancangan proses pembuatan hood dan side panel mobil dari bahan komposit. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah hood berdimensi 1176 mm x 453 mm dan side panel mobil dengan dimensi 558 mm x 430,5 mm. Bahan kedua komponen adalah komposit tipe E-Glass yang memiliki keuntungan lebih ringan daripada bahan sebelumnya, yaitu mild steel. Ketebalan hood yang dipilih sebesar 2 mm. Ketebalan hood tersebut aman, yaitu mampu menerima tegangan ekuivalen maksimum 7,9769 MPa dan lebih kecil daripada tegangan ijin material komposit yaitu 1020 MPa. Deformasi yang pada hood adalah sebesar 0,0247 mm. Berat dari hood mengalami perubahan, dimana dengan menggunakan bahan mild steel berat hood adalah 7,536 kg. Jika menggunakan bahan komposit berat hood menjadi 2,327 kg, hampir 69,12% lebih ringan dari sebelumnya.

  10. A Rare Side Effect of Metformin: Metformin-Induced Hepatotoxicity


    Aksay, Ersin


    Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic agent that is commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While metformin-associated metabolic acidosis is a widely recognized side effect of this drug, metformin-induced hepatotoxicity has been rarely reported in the literature. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old male in whom metformin-associated lactic acidosis and metformin-induced hepatotoxicity developed.

  11. C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring vs. Mars) (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea; Cooke, William


    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring): recently discovered long period comet. Will have close encounter with Mars on October 19, 2014. Collision is extremely unlikely. Passing through the coma and/or tail is likely. Increases risk to Martian spacecraft. Meteoroids (100 microns or larger): approx. or <20% chance of impact per square meter due to coma and tail. Gas may also a ect Martian atmosphere.

  12. Review of Apraxia: The cognitive side of motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Ferreiro, Silvia


    Reviews the book, Apraxia: The Cognitive Side of Motor Control by G. Goldenberg (see record 2013-31133-000). The book makes a significant contribution to the study of this multifaceted syndrome, especially in relation to limb apraxia, the author’s main research area. Despite more than 100 years o...... and current state of apraxia research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)...

  13. Common side reactions of the glycosyl donor in chemical glycosylation. (United States)

    Christensen, Helle M; Oscarson, Stefan; Jensen, Henrik H


    Chemical glycosylation is central to carbohydrate chemistry and is generally recognised as a challenging reaction. This review describes the most reoccurring side reactions of glycosyl donors in glycosylation and how scientists have attempted to explain their observations and in some cases succeeded in solving a particular encountered problem. The topics covered are donor hydrolysis, elimination to form glycals, intermolecular aglycon transfer of thioglycosides and glycosyl imidate rearrangement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect. (United States)

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M


    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy.

  15. Ketamine for Pain Management-Side Effects & Potential Adverse Events. (United States)

    Allen, Cheryl A; Ivester, Julius R


    An old anesthetic agent, ketamine is finding new use in lower doses for analgesic purposes. There are concerns stemming from its potential side effects-specifically psychomimetic effects. These side effects are directly related to dose amount. The doses used for analgesic purposes are much lower than those used for anesthesia purposes. A literature review was performed to ascertain potential side effects and/or adverse events when using ketamine for analgesia purposes. The search included CINAHL, PubMed, and Ovid using the search terms "ketamine," "ketamine infusion," "pain," "adverse events," "practice guideline," and "randomized controlled trial." Searches were limited to full-text, peer-reviewed articles and systematic reviews. Initially 1,068 articles were retrieved. The search was then narrowed by using the Boolean connector AND with various search term combinations. After adjusting for duplication, article titles and abstracts were reviewed, leaving 25 articles for an in-depth analysis. Specific exclusion criteria were then applied. The literature supports the use of ketamine for analgesic purposes, and ketamine offers a nonopioid option for the management of some pain conditions. Because ketamine is still classified as an anesthetic agent, health care institutions should develop their own set of policies and protocols for the administration of ketamine. By using forethought and understanding of the properties of ketamine, appropriate care may be planned to mitigate potential side effects and adverse events so that patients are appropriately cared for and their pain effectively managed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Single sided tomography of extremely large dense objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoe, R.S.


    One can envision many circumstances where radiography could be valuable but is frustrated by the geometry of the object to be radiographed. For example, extremely large objects, the separation of rocket propellants from the skin of solid fuel rocket motor, the structural integrity of an underground tank or hull of a ship, the location of buried objects, inspection of large castings etc. The author has been investigating ways to do this type of radiography and as a result has developed a technique which can be used to obtain three dimensional radiographs using Compton scattered radiation from a monochromatic source and a high efficiency, high resolution germanium spectrometer. This paper gives specific details of the reconstruction technique and presents the results of numerous numerical simulations and compares these simulations to spectra obtained in the laboratory. In addition the author presents the results of calculations made for the development of an alternative single sided radiography technique which will permit inspection of the interior of large objects. As a benchmark the author seeks to obtain three dimensional images with a resolution of about one cubic centimeter in a concrete cube 30 centimeters on a side. Such a device must use photons of very high energy. For example 30 cm of concrete represents about 15 mean free paths for photons of 100 keV, whereas at 1 MeV the attenuation is down to about five mean free paths. At these higher energies Compton scattering becomes much more probable. Although this would appear to be advantageous for single sided imaging techniques, such techniques are hampered by two side effects. In this paper the results are given of numerous Monte Carlo calculations detailing the extent of the multiple scattering and the feasibility of a variety of imaging schemes is explored.

  17. Impact of Demand Side Management in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponnaganti, Pavani; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna


    Demand Side Management (DSM) is an efficient flexible program which helps distribution network operators to meet the future critical peak demand. It is executed in cases of not only technical issues like voltage sag or swell, transformer burdening, cable congestions, but also to increase the degree...... vehicle, electric heating etc. are present. Simulations are carried out in Danish low voltage grid for summer and winter cases....

  18. Side Effects Exhibited by Athletes Using Anabolic Steroids


    Leonid S. Khodasevich; Tat'yana V. Voskoboinikova


    The article examines the general problems of the use of anabolic steroids by athletes. The main reason they are banned in sports is because they artificially increase human performance by stimulating various metabolisms, as well as stimulating the constructive and energetic metabolism processes. The prohibited anabolic steroids are not only harmful to the athletes’ health but they also pose a very real threat to their life. Information regarding the side effects of anabolic steroids can be ef...

  19. Thin-Film Evaporative Cooling for Side-Pumped Laser (United States)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)


    A system and method are provided for cooling a crystal rod of a side-pumped laser. A transparent housing receives the crystal rod therethrough so that an annular gap is defined between the housing and the radial surface of the crystal rod. A fluid coolant is injected into the annular gap such the annular gap is partially filled with the fluid coolant while the radial surface of the crystal rod is wetted as a thin film all along the axial length thereof.

  20. Blind river dolphin: first side-swimming cetacean. (United States)

    Herald, E S; Brownell, R L; Frye, F L; Morris, E J; Evans, W E; Scott, A B


    The blind river dolphin (Platanista gangetica), first written about by Pliny the Elder in A.D. 72, was found (10 November 1968) to be the first known side-swimming cetacean. The rudimentary eye lacks the lens, but anatomical evidence suggests that the eye may serve as a light sensor. The underwater sound emissions of this species, although similar to those of the Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis), appear to be produced constantly.

  1. Pharmaceutical ethics and physician liability in Side Effects. (United States)

    Dhiman, Gaurav J; Amber, Kyle T


    We review Side Effects, a 2013 film involving bioethics, pharmaceuticals, and financial conspiracies. After the main character Emily unsuccessfully attempts suicide, she begins receiving care from a psychiatrist, Dr. Banks. Following numerous events, she is placed on a fictional antidepressant, Ablixa, which leads her to suffer from sleepwalking. During an episode of sleepwalking she commits a serious crime. The film poses an interesting dilemma: How responsible would the physician be in this instance? We analyze this question by applying numerous ethical principles.

  2. Efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato Side effects of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pastura


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Revisar os principais efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato, em curto e longo prazos, no tratamento de crianças com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção (TDAH. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão de literatura nos últimos doze anos através de pesquisa no Medline e Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Dentre os efeitos colaterais que surgem em curto prazo, prevalecem a redução de apetite, insônia, cefaléia e dor abdominal, sendo a maioria autolimitada, dose-dependente e de média intensidade. Dentre aqueles em longo prazo, são descritas alterações discretas de pressão arterial e freqüência cardíaca e uma possível discreta diminuição da estatura. O abuso e a dependência ao medicamento são observados muito raramente. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil de efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato é seguro, não parecendo justificar o seu uso constrito no Brasil, ante os benefícios robustos amplamente demonstrados na literatura.OBJECTIVE: To review main short-term and long-term side effects of methylphenidate in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Disorder in children. SOURCE OF DATA: a 12-year review in Medline and Lilacs. RESULTS: Among those side effects showed in the short-term, anorexia, insomnia, headache and abdominal pain are the most common ones, being the majority self-limited, dose-dependent and of medium intensity. Long-term side effects consist of mild blood pressure and heart rate increase and possible light growth suppression effect. Abuse and dependency are very rare. CONCLUSIONS: Methylphenidate side effects profile is safe and does not seem to justify its restricted use in Brazil, considering its solid benefits widely demonstrated in literature.

  3. Supply Side Constraints on Export Development in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Freckleton


    Full Text Available Este artículo examina los impedimientos por el lado de la oferta que afectan al desarollo de la exportación en Jamaica. El análisis se basa en un examen de exportadores jamaicanos no tradicionales. Los resultados indican que los exportadores jamaicanos hacen frente a impedimientos significativos por el lado de la oferta incluyendo la falta de acceso a capital, insuficiencia de innovaciones, altos costos energéticos y deficiencias infraestructurales. El artículo concluye que en el caso de los países en vías de desarollo afectados por impedimientos por el lado de la oferta se hace necesario tomar medidas que les permitan la ventaja de acceder a los mercados disponibles. En el caso de Jamaica, las medidas requeridas para aliviar los impedimientos por el lado de la oferta incluyen el establecimiento de instituciones financieras de riesgo, el estímulo de la innovación y el desarrollo de la infraestructura. English: This article examines the supply side constraints affecting export development in Jamaica. The analysis is based on a survey of non-traditional exporters. The results of the survey indicates that Jamaican exporters face significant supply side constraints including lack of access to capital, insufficient innovation, high energy costs and infrastructural deficiencies. The article concludes that in the cases of those developing countries facing binding supply side constraints, measures to relax such constraints are necessary to allow them to take full advantage of available market access. In the case of Jamaica, measures required to relax supply side constraints include establishment of venture capital institutions, stimulation of innovation and upgrading of infrastructure.

  4. Sides of "The" Unitarity Triangle: Results from Belle and Babar


    Kinoshita, K.


    The principal goal of the B-factories is to test the CKM paradigm through measurements that overconstrain the shape of the so-called Unitarity Triangle. The sides of the triangle are evaluated through absolute values of several elements of the CKM matrix, so achieving high precision on these is an important aspect of the B-factory program. Recent results from Belle and Babar are presented.

  5. Stable Delay of Microstrip Line with Side Grounded Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Gazizov


    Full Text Available Characteristics of transmission lines are addressed. Wave impedance and per-unit-length delay of the microstrip structure with grounded side conductors on three layers are calculated under different parameters of the structure. A line which provides the desired value of wave impedance and constant per-unit-length delay, at the expense of correction of the gaps on different layers, is proposed.

  6. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of nat...... of naturally-occurring nucleobases and non-naturally-occurring nucleobases attached to a polyamide backbone, and contain alkylamine side chains....

  7. Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, Christian; Hvilsted, Søren


    and holographic storage in one particular polyester are described in detail and polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data complementing the optical data are presented. Optical and atomic force microscope investigations point to a laser-induced aggregation as responsible for permanent optical storage.......Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester structures suitable for permanent optical storage are described. The synthesis and characterization of the polyesters together with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray investigations are discussed. Optical anisotropic investigations...

  8. Extrapyramidal side effects as a consequence of treatment with neuroleptics


    Shirley Fumi Taniguchi; Maria de Lourdes Rabelo Pequeno; Wanessa Alves Frederico; Seizi Oga


    Objective: To check the occurrence of extrapyramidal side effects inpatients receiving neuroleptic drugs, how these effects are treated,and to observe the occurrence of hallucinations caused by treatmentof extrapyramidal symptoms. Methods: The present study analyzedmedical records and interviewed 39 schizophrenic patients beingtreated in a public primary care clinic located in the southern partof the city of São Paulo, who had previously agreed to participatein the project. Results: Among 39 ...

  9. Reversible right-sided heart failure secondary to carcinoid crisis. (United States)

    Soto Herrera, Mariana; Restrepo, José A; Díaz, Jesús H; Ramos, Andrés; Felipe Buitrago, Andrés; Gómez Mejía, Mabel


    Carcinoid crisis is an infrequent and little-described complication of neuroendocrine tumors that can be life threatening. It may develop during induction of anesthesia, intraoperatively, during tumor manipulation and arterial embolization, or even spontaneously. The massive release of neuroendocrine substances can lead to potentially fatal complications. Somatostatin analogs inhibit the release of these substances and are the mainstay of treatment. The following case report describes a patient with reversible acute right-sided heart failure posterior to hepatic artery embolization.

  10. The colour of the dark side of the Moon (United States)

    Thejll, P.; Flynn, C.; Gleisner, H.; Andersen, T.; Ulla, A.; O-Petersen, M.; Darudi, A.; Schwarz, H.


    Aims: "Earthshine" is the dim light seen on the otherwise dark side of the Moon, particularly when it is close to new. "Earthlight", or reflected sunlight from the Earth, is the source of Earthshine. Using B and V band CCD images of both the dark and bright sides of the Moon, we aim to estimate the Johnson photometry B - V colour of the Earthshine for the first time since the late 1960s. From these measurements we are also able to quantify the colour of Earthlight. Methods: We present images of the Moon taken with a small refractor in Hawaii, in B and V bands and taken under favourable conditions so that scattered light in both bands almost completely cancels, yielding a map of the surface in B - V colour. Co-addition of 100 such images taken in rapid succession substantially improves the signal-to- noise ratio, and several sources of photometric bias are eliminated by use of relative methods. Results: The earthlit dark side of the Moon is observed to be 0.150 ± 0.005 mag bluer in B - V than the sunlit bright side, in good agreement with the only known previous measurement of this quantity from 1967. Arguing on the basis of the change in B - V for sunlight reflected once off the Moon, we derive a colour for earthlight of B - V = 0.44 ± 0.02 mag (without applying a small, uncertain, phase-dependent reddening correction). The absence of a colour-gradient in the B - V image implies that the scattering properties of the atmosphere+optical system are almost exactly matched in the two wavelength bands, the consequences of which are discussed.

  11. A Comparison of the Single-sided (Gen II) and Double-sided (Gen I) Combat Arms Earplugs (CAE): Acoustic Properties, Human Performance, and User Acceptance (United States)


    A Comparison of the Single-sided (Gen II) and Double-sided (Gen I) Combat Arms Earplugs (CAE): Acoustic Properties, Human Performance, and...and Double-sided (Gen I) Combat Arms Earplugs (CAE): Acoustic Properties, Human Performance, and User Acceptance Mary Binseel, Kara Cave, Joel...Double-sided (Gen I) Combat Arms Earplugs (CAE): Acoustic Properties, Human Performance, and User Acceptance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  12. Internet of Things, Challenges for Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA


    Full Text Available The adoption of any new product means also the apparition of new issues and challenges, and this is especially true when we talk about a mass adoption. The advent of Internet of Things (IoT devices will be, in the authors of this paper opinion, the largest and the fastest product adoption yet to be seen, as several early sources were predicting a volume of 50 billion IoT devices to be active by 2020 [1][2]. While later forecasts reduced the predicted amount to about 20-30 billion devices [3], even for such “reduced” number, demand side management issues are foreseeable, for the potential economic impact of IoT applications in 2025 will be between 3.9 and $11.1 trillion USD [4]. Not only that new patterns will emerge in energy consumption and Internet traffic, but we predict that the sheer amount of data produced by this quantity of IoT devices will give birth to a new sort of demand side management, the demand side management of IoT data. How will this work is yet to be seen but, at the current moment, one can at least identify the bits and pieces that will constitute it. This paper is intended to serve as short guide regarding the possible challenges raised by the adoption of IoT devices. The data types and structures, lifecycle and patterns will be briefly discussed throughout the following article.

  13. Misconceptions about the side effects of combined oral contraceptive pills. (United States)

    Küçük, Mert; Aksu, Hilmiye; Sezer, Selda Demircan


    Although combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs) are one of the most commonly used methods of contraception in western countries, they are taken by only a minority of sexually active women in Turkey. The purpose of this research has been to define women's specific misconceptions with regard to the side effects of COCPs. This descriptive and cross-sectional research was conducted on 418 reproductive aged women who agreed to participate. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a questionnaire which assessed socio-demographic characteristics and women's beliefs about the side effects of COCPs. It is observed that 45.2% believed that the pills cause weight gain. Another 7.9% of the cases held the belief that COCPs cause cancer. A group of 13.4% of the subjects thought that COCPs lead to infertility, 28.7% believed that they cause headache, 41.1% believed that they cause acne and/or an increase in body hair, and 11.7% were afraid that they cause a decrease in libido. The present study has shown that misconceptions about the side effects of COCPs were considerably prevalent among this cohort group of Turkish women. Healthcare professionals have the potential of playing an important role in dispersing these misconceptions.

  14. Kinematic analysis of the double side kick in pointfighting, kickboxing. (United States)

    Hölbling, Dominik; Preuschl, Emanuel; Hassmann, Michaela; Baca, Arnold


    The double side kick is a frequently used technique in pointfighting on which most offensive kicking techniques are based on. The aim of the study was to identify parameters, e.g., trunk and leg positions, durations and velocities that affect successful technique execution. 44 fighters, male and female, including European and World champions, participated in the research. The participants performed double side kicks to a punching bag with the target at chest level. 10 international experts scored (1-10 points; interrater correlation ICC (3,1): 0.952) videos of the best individual trial for quality of technique execution. Based on the average of the scores participants were categorised into 2 equally sized groups. For kinematic data acquisition, a Vicon 3D-motion capturing system was used. The normalised knee height of the kick leg (KHK), normalised absolute distance to the frontal shoulder (DKS) at the end of both chambering phases, the horizontal velocity during both chambering phases (KEV), the durations of all 6 functional phases and total duration, were analysed. KHK1, KHK2, DKS1 and DKS2, total duration as well as 4 out of 6 phase durations and KEV1 showed significant differences between groups in two-sided t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test for not normally distributed variables.

  15. Cutaneous side-effects during therapy of melanoma by vemurafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ankudowicz


    Full Text Available Introduction. Vemurafenib is a selective inhibitor of serine-threonine kinase BRAF used in the treatment of advanced melanoma with BRAF mutation. Effectiveness of this drug was confirmed in a large clinical trial, which led to the increase of its usage. During treatment with vemurafenib, particular attention should be paid to the numerous side effects, including those concerning the skin. Vemurafenib is highly toxic to the skin. Skin lesions occurring during the treatment of melanoma with this medicament can be divided into: early (observed 3 to 6 weeks after beginning treatment, late (observed 6 weeks after beginning treatment and hypersensitivity reactions to vemurafenib. Objective. Presentation of vemurafenib toxic effects on the skin and side effects that can be caused by this drug. Case report. We present a 58-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma who was treated with vemurafenib. During the course of therapy, numerous adverse reactions, including inflammatory tumors, emergence of a number of melanocytic naevi, skin horns, alopecia, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and palmar erythrodysesthesia were observed. She was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, an antibiotic, circulation-improving preparations and local moisturizing and keratolytic treatment. The patient remains under the care of oncologists and dermatologists. Conclusions. The new generation anti-cancer drugs bring hope for a cure or prolongation of life, but can also significantly reduce the quality of life by inducing both general and local adverse side effects. Oncological patients should also be taken care of by dermatologists.

  16. Cochlear implantation for single-sided deafness and tinnitus suppression. (United States)

    Holder, Jourdan T; O'Connell, Brendan; Hedley-Williams, Andrea; Wanna, George

    To quantify the potential effectiveness of cochlear implantation for tinnitus suppression in patients with single-sided deafness using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. The study included 12 patients with unilateral tinnitus who were undergoing cochlear implantation for single-sided deafness. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory was administered at the patient's cochlear implant candidacy evaluation appointment prior to implantation and every cochlear implant follow-up appointment, except activation, following implantation. Patient demographics and speech recognition scores were also retrospectively recorded using the electronic medical record. A significant reduction was found when comparing Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score preoperatively (61.2±27.5) to the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score after three months of cochlear implant use (24.6±28.2, p=0.004) and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score beyond 6months of CI use (13.3±18.9, p=0.008). Further, 45% of patients reported total tinnitus suppression. Mean CNC word recognition score improved from 2.9% (SD 9.4) pre-operatively to 40.8% (SD 31.7) by 6months post-activation, which was significantly improved from pre-operative scores (p=0.008). The present data is in agreement with previously published studies that have shown an improvement in tinnitus following cochlear implantation for the large majority of patients with single-sided deafness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Extrapyramidal side effects as a consequence of treatment with neuroleptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Fumi Taniguchi


    Full Text Available Objective: To check the occurrence of extrapyramidal side effects inpatients receiving neuroleptic drugs, how these effects are treated,and to observe the occurrence of hallucinations caused by treatmentof extrapyramidal symptoms. Methods: The present study analyzedmedical records and interviewed 39 schizophrenic patients beingtreated in a public primary care clinic located in the southern partof the city of São Paulo, who had previously agreed to participatein the project. Results: Among 39 patients studied, 85% presentedextrapyramidal symptoms. Of these, 69.7% were treated for theside effects, 73.9% were treated with biperiden and 26.09% hadtheir neuroleptic drug reduced. Out of those patients treated withbiperiden, 70.5% had side effects, such as hallucination and delusion,blurred vision, somnolence and verbal memory deficit. Conclusions:The majority of patients (85% undergoing treatment with neurolepticdrugs developed motor side effects. When these extrapyramidalsymptoms were treated with central action anticholinergic drugs(biperiden, hallucination and/or delusion occurred in 52.94% ofpatients – probably because of increased dopaminergic activity asa consequence of cholinergic activity reduction caused by biperidenin the mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways.

  18. Heat transfer modeling of double-side arc welding

    CERN Document Server

    Sun Jun Sheng; Zhang Yan Ming


    If a plasma arc and a TIG arc are connected in serial and with the plasma arc placed on the obverse side and the TIG arc on the opposite side of the workpiece, a special double-side arc welding (DSAW) system will be formed, in which the PAW current is forced to flow through the keyhole along the thickness direction so as to compensate the energy consumed for melting the workpiece and improve the penetration capacity of the PAW arc. By considering the mechanics factors which influence the DSAW pool geometric shape, the control equations of the pool surface deformation are derived, and the mathematics mode for DSAW heat transfer is established by using boundary-fitted non-orthogonal coordinate systems. With this model, the difference between DSAW and PAW heat transfer is analyzed and the reason for the increase of DSAW penetration is explained from the point of heat transfer. The welding process experiments show that calculated results are in good agreement with measured ones

  19. Development, prototyping and characterization of double sided silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topkar, Anita, E-mail:; Singh, Arvind; Aggarwal, Bharti; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Murali Krishna, L.V.; Das, D.


    Double sided DC-coupled silicon strip detectors with geometry of 65 mm×65 mm have been developed in India for nuclear physics experiments. The detectors have 64 P{sup +} strips on the front side and 64 N{sup +} strips on the backside with a pitch of 0.9 mm. These detectors were fabricated using a twelve mask layer process involving double sided wafer processing technology. Semiconductor process and device simulations were carried out in order to theoretically estimate the impact of important design and process parameters on the breakdown voltage of detectors. The performance of the first lot of prototype detectors has been studied using static characterization tests and using an alpha source. The characterization results demonstrate that the detectors have low leakage currents and good uniformity over the detector area of about 40 cm{sup 2}. Overview of the detector design, fabrication process, simulation results and initial characterization results of the detectors are presented in this paper.

  20. Highly conductive side chain block copolymer anion exchange membranes. (United States)

    Wang, Lizhu; Hickner, Michael A


    Block copolymers based on poly(styrene) having pendent trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium (with four carbon ring-ionic group alkyl linkers) or benzyltrimethyl ammonium groups with a methylene bridge between the ring and ionic group were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation radical (RAFT) polymerization as anion exchange membranes (AEMs). The C4 side chain polymer showed a 17% increase in Cl(-) conductivity of 33.7 mS cm(-1) compared to the benzyltrimethyl ammonium sample (28.9 mS cm(-1)) under the same conditions (IEC = 3.20 meq. g(-1), hydration number, λ = ∼7.0, cast from DMF/1-propanol (v/v = 3 : 1), relative humidity = 95%). As confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the side chain block copolymers with tethered ammonium cations showed well-defined lamellar morphologies and a significant reduction in interdomain spacing compared to benzyltrimethyl ammonium containing block copolymers. The chemical stabilities of the block copolymers were evaluated under severe, accelerated conditions, and degradation was observed by (1)H NMR. The block copolymer with C4 side chain trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium motifs displayed slightly improved stability compared to that of a benzyltrimethyl ammonium-based AEM at 80 °C in 1 M NaOD aqueous solution for 30 days.

  1. Results from the DarkSide-50 Dark Matter Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Alden [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    While there is tremendous astrophysical and cosmological evidence for dark matter, its precise nature is one of the most significant open questions in modern physics. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a particularly compelling class of dark matter candidates with masses of the order 100 GeV and couplings to ordinary matter at the weak scale. Direct detection experiments are aiming to observe the low energy (<100 keV) scattering of dark matter off normal matter. With the liquid noble technology leading the way in WIMP sensitivity, no conclusive signals have been observed yet. The DarkSide experiment is looking for WIMP dark matter using a liquid argon target in a dual-phase time projection chamber located deep underground at Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. Currently filled with argon obtained from underground sources, which is greatly reduced in radioactive 39Ar, DarkSide-50 recently made the most sensitive measurement of the 39Ar activity in underground argon and used it to set the strongest WIMP dark matter limit using liquid argon to date. This work describes the full chain of analysis used to produce the recent dark matter limit, from reconstruction of raw data to evaluation of the final exclusion curve. The DarkSide- 50 apparatus is described in detail, followed by discussion of the low level reconstruction algorithms. The algorithms are then used to arrive at three broad analysis results: The electroluminescence signals in DarkSide-50 are used to perform a precision measurement of ii longitudinal electron diffusion in liquid argon. A search is performed on the underground argon data to identify the delayed coincidence signature of 85Kr decays to the 85mRb state, a crucial ingredient in the measurement of the 39Ar activity in the underground argon. Finally, a full description of the WIMP search is given, including development of cuts, efficiencies, energy scale, and exclusion

  2. 49 CFR 231.2 - Hopper cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends. (United States)


    ... 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hopper cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends... cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends. (Cars with sides more than 36 inches above the floor are...

  3. Price Competition in Two-Sided Markets with Heterogeneous Consumers and Network Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    We model a two-sided market with heterogeneous customers and two heterogeneous network effects. In our model, customers on each market side care differently about both the number and the type of customers on the other side. Examples of two-sided markets are online platforms or daily newspapers. In

  4. Thickness control and interface quality as functions of slurry formulation and casting speed in side-by-side tape casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Jabbari, Mirmasoud; Kaiser, Andreas


    A novel method of co-casting called side-by-side tape casting was developed aiming to form thin functionally graded films with varying properties within a single plane. The standard organic-based recipe was optimized to co-cast slurries into thick graded tapes. Performed numerical simulations...... identified the stable flow beneath the blade with a shear rate profile independent of slurry viscosity as long as the slurry load in the casting tank was low. Thickness and interface shape could be well predicted if the rheological behaviour of slurries is known and the processing parameters are well......-controlled. A well-defined steep interface was obtained by co-casting slurries with similar viscosities above 4000mPas at a speed of 40cm/min. The elastic properties of green tapes were proven to be defined by the binder concentration in the recipe formulation. The interfaces in graded tapes were shown to withstand...

  5. Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side (United States)

    Bieliński, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jarosław


    In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

  6. Difference between right and left side in total knee and unicondylar knee replacement: An interesting observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Thirumal Selvan


    Full Text Available We report an observation made about the differences between right and left side in case of total knee and unicondylar knee replacement. It was found that unicondylar knee replacement was performed more commonly on the left side (66%, as compared to only 34% on right side, where as total knee replacement was more common on the right side (64% as compared to 36% on left side. The exact clinical utility of this difference is yet to be known.

  7. Reliability of measuring the passive range of shoulder horizontal adduction using a smartphone in the supine versus the side-lying position. (United States)

    Lim, Jin-Yong; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Jung-Seok


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability of the measurement of the passive range of motion (PROM) of shoulder horizontal adduction (SHA) measurements using a smartphone for the assessment posterior shoulder tightness (PST) between the side-lying and supine test positions. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-seven subjects (mean ± age, 24.9 ± 3.5 years) without shoulder pathology were included in this study. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities were determined using intraclass correlation coefficients. The SHA PROM of each subject's dominant shoulder was measured using a smartphone by two investigators in two positions: the standard supine position, and a side-lying position on the tested side. [Results] The intra-rater reliability of the supine measurements was fair to good (ICC3,1 = 0.72-0.89), and for the side-lying measurements was excellent (ICC3,1 = 0.95-0.97). The inter-rater reliability of the supine measurements was fair (ICC2,2 = 0.79) and for the side-lying measurements was excellent (ICC2,2 = 0.94). [Conclusion] These results suggest that for healthy subjects, measurements of SHA using smartphones in the side-lying position has superior intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities compared to the standard supine position.

  8. Side by Side (United States)

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld


    Every city, town, and village in America has been affected by the Great Recession, but of course some have felt a bigger impact than others. In Port Angeles, Washington, on the northern edge of the Olympic Peninsula, the latest downturn is just one more twist of the economic vise that's been tightening steadily since at least the mid-'90s. During…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kozeruk


    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to modernize technology for obtaining high-accuracy lenses with fine centre. Presently their operating surfaces are fixed  to an accessory with the help of adhesive substance that leads to elastic deformation in glass and causes local errors in lens parts.A mathematical model for concurrent two-sided processing of high-accuracy optical parts with spherical surfaces has been developed in the paper. The paper presents analytical expressions that permit to calculate sliding speed at any point on the processed spherical surface depending on type and value of technological equipment settings. Calculation of parameter Q = Pv in a diametric section of the convexo-concave lens has been carried out while using these expressions together with functional dependence of pressure on contact zone еarea of tool and part bedding surfaces.Theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out with the purpose to study changes in Q parameter according to the processed lens surface for various setting parameters of the technological equipment and their optimum values ensuring preferential stock removal in the central or boundary part zone or uniform distribution of the removal along the whole processed surface have been determined in the paper.The paper proposes a machine tool scheme for concurrent two-sided grinding and polishing of lenses while fixing their side (cylindrical surface. Machine tool kinematics makes it possible flexibly and within wide limits to change its setting parameters  that significantly facilitates the control of form-building process of parts with highly-precise spherical surfaces.Methodology for investigations presupposes the following: mathematical simulation of highly-precise spherical surface form-building process under conditions of forced closing, execution of numerical and experimental studies.  

  10. Thoracic injury metrics with side airbag: Stationary and dynamic occupants (United States)

    Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, Frank A


    Objective Injury risk from side airbag deployment has been assessed using stationary out-of-position occupant test protocols. However, stationary conditions may not always represent real world environments. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of torso side airbag deployment on close-proximity occupants, comparing a stationary test protocol with dynamic sled conditions. Methods Chest compression and viscous metrics were quantified from sled tests utilizing post-mortem human specimens and computational simulations with three boundary conditions: rigid wall, ideal airbag interaction, and close-proximity airbag deployment. PMHS metrics were quantified from chestband contour reconstructions. The parametric effect of ΔV on close-proximity occupant was examined with the computational model. Results PMHS injuries suggested close-proximity occupants may sustain visceral trauma, which was not observed in occupants subjected to rigid wall or ideal airbag boundary conditions. Peak injury metrics were also elevated with close-proximity occupant relative to other boundary conditions. The computational model indicated decreasing influence of airbag on compression metrics with increasing ΔV. Airbag influence on viscous metric was greatest with close-proximity occupant at ΔV = 7.0 m/s, at which the response magnitude was greater than linear summation of metrics resulting from rigid impact and stationary close-proximity interaction. Conclusions These results suggest that stationary close-proximity occupants may not represent the only scenario of side airbag deployment harmful to the thoracoabdominal region. The sensitivity of the viscous metric and implications for visceral trauma are also discussed. PMID:20730691

  11. Side Channel Attacks on STTRAM and Low Overhead Countermeasures (United States)


    4(a)). B. Adding 1-bit parity: The objective of this prevention technique is to merge multi- ple supply current levels in the side channel current...bits with the last bit value decided by the parity of the 4 bits. By doing this we can merge 5 states (Fig. 5) into 3 states. Compared to un- coded...obfuscate the signature, we propose to add multi- ple random bits in the word during write. This technique further complicates and merges the states in

  12. The Dark Side of Software Engineering Evil on Computing Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Rost, Johann


    Betrayal! Corruption! Software engineering? Industry experts Johann Rost and Robert L. Glass explore the seamy underbelly of software engineering in this timely report on and analysis of the prevalance of subversion, lying, hacking, and espionage on every level of software project management. Based on the authors' original research and augmented by frank discussion and insights from other well-respected figures, The Dark Side of Software Engineering goes where other management studies fear to tread -- a corporate environment where schedules are fabricated, trust is betrayed, millions of dollar

  13. A method for siding and sequencing human ribs. (United States)

    Mann, R W


    Siding and sequencing (that is, putting in anatomical order) human ribs are essential to the proper examination and documentation of injuries to the chest. The paucity of information regarding sequencing nonfleshed human ribs makes it particularly difficult for physical anthropologists and medicolegal authorities to differentiate the midthoracic ribs. It was found that ribs could be accurately sequenced without the aid of a comparative skeleton using such features as maximum (relative) rib length, the size and shape of the articular facets, the distance between the articular facets and rib angle, and the height of the rib heads relative to one another.

  14. Decision support program for congestion management using demand side flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmat, Ayman; Pinson, Pierre; Usaola, Julio


    In the past decades, Distribution System Operators (DSOs) have been mitigating distribution networks (DNs) contingencies by opting to grid reinforcements. However, this approach is not always cost and time efficient. Demand Side Flexibility (DSF) is one of the recent alternatives used in DNs...... congestion management. Consequently, new market players such as aggregators are needed to handle DSF transaction between customers and DSOs. This paper proposes and models a decision support program (DSP) to optimize the total cost charged by the DSO for using DSF services. Moreover, the energy rebound...

  15. The Afghan Mission: The Other Side of the COIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk MORAVEC


    Full Text Available This article called “The Afghan Mission: The Other Side of the COIN” brings an evaluation of NATO and the Taliban strategies in contemporary Afghanistan. The strategic choice of both actors is researched using the concept of the “centers of gravity” and confronted with a specific situation on the ground. Furthermore, additional attention is paid to the struggle for hearts and minds and its role in NATO’s strategy. The paper is concluded with the determination of a single center of gravity of the NATO-Taliban confrontation which is offered as the evaluation criterion for further steps to be used in the Afghan war.

  16. Population and housing: A two-sided relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara H. Mulder


    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the relationship between population and housing. I argue that this relationship is two-sided. On the one hand, the size of a population, and particularly the number of households, determines the demand for housing. On the other hand, the availability of suitable and affordable housing may attract certain categories of migrants. It also influences young people's opportunities to leave the parental home, marry or cohabit, and have children. Furthermore, home-ownership hampers residential mobility and migration by binding people to a place.

  17. Demand Side Management in Pellet Production: Internal and External Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigants Haralds


    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a demand side management case study: how to save energy and how research and data analysis help to create an energy management system in a pellet production facility; and shows ways to implement the EU energy efficiency directive in production facilities. The study carried out in this research serves as a far-reaching step that can be taken to improve energy efficiency during the operation mode of technological equipment. The benchmarking methodology is used for analysis of results.

  18. Primary Control by ON/OFF Demand-Side Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Andersen, Palle


    manage the portfolio of devices to collectively provide a primary reserve delivery in an unbundled liberalized electricity market setting under current regulations. Furthermore, we formulate a binary linear optimization problem that minimizes the aggregator’s cost of providing a primary reserve delivery......We consider an aggregator managing a portfolio of ON/OFF demand-side devices. The devices are able to shift con- sumption in time within certain energy limitations; moreover, the devices are able to measure the system frequency and switch ON and OFF accordingly. We show how the aggregator can...

  19. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Ilka A. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Buccal-sided mandibular angle exostosis - A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Basha


    Full Text Available Buccal exostoses are benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the maxilla and less commonly, the mandible. They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over the years. They are painless and self-limiting, but occasionally may become several centimeters across and then contribute to periodontal disease of the adjacent teeth by forcing food during chewing in toward the teeth instead of away from them, as is normally the case. The following paper presents a very rare case of buccal-sided mandibular angle exoxtosis and its management with surgical exploration.

  1. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan


    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Deploying Server-side File System Monitoring at NERSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uselton, Andrew


    The Franklin Cray XT4 at the NERSC center was equipped with the server-side I/O monitoring infrastructure Cerebro/LMT, which is described here in detail. Insights gained from the data produced include a better understanding of instantaneous data rates during file system testing, file system behavior during regular production time, and long-term average behaviors. Information and insights gleaned from this monitoring support efforts to proactively manage the I/O infrastructure on Franklin. A simple model for I/O transactions is introduced and compared with the 250 million observations sent to the LMT database from August 2008 to February 2009.

  3. Hermetic electronics package with dual-sided electrical feedthrough configuration (United States)

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.


    A hermetic electronics package includes a metal case with opposing first and second open ends, with each end connected to a first feedthrough construction and a second feedthrough construction. Each feedthrough contruction has an electrically insulating substrate and an array of electrically conductive feedthroughs extending therethrough, with the electrically insulating substrates connected to the opposing first and second open ends, respectively, of the metal case so as to form a hermetically sealed enclosure. A set of electronic components are located within the hermetically sealed enclosure and are operably connected to the feedthroughs of the first and second feedthrough constructions so as to electrically communicate outside the package from opposite sides of the package.

  4. Kinematic analysis of a side volley in soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrdaković Vladimir


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze kinematic variables of side volley in elite soccer players, as well as examining kinematic variables adjustment in relation to the change of velocity and height of incoming ball. Thirty professional soccer players participated in this study. The experimental protocol implied kicking the ball towards the subject at three different velocities and three different heights. The analysis included a total of the following seven dependent variables: Maximum linear velocity of the foot, the knee and the hip (V_FOOT_max, V_KNEE_max, V_HIP_max, Maximum knee and hip joint angular velocities (W_KNEE_max, W_HIP_max, Distance between the foot and the hip at impact with the ball (D_hip.foot_tk, and Angle between the shoulder and hip axis and the hip and foot axis at impact with the ball (α_SHF_tk. Also, for the purpose of descriptive kinematic analysis, the variables of changed angles and hip and knee joint angular velocities were used in different phases of side volley performance, as well as the variables of changed linear velocity of the foot, the knee and the hip. The variables of side volley kinematics were measured with the 3D kinematic analysis system (Qualisys. The effects of the ball height and velocity, and their interaction, on dependent kinematic variables were tested by using the statistical method of two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures (two-way ANOVA. The velocity and height of the incoming ball had a significant effect on V_ FOOT_max in the sense that, as ball velocity grew, V_FOOT_max increased as well, while as ball height increased, V_FOOT_max dropped. A similar effects of the ball velocity and ball height was observed for V_ HIP_max, but is observed only a tendency towards statistical significance. Also, it was observed that increased speed of the incoming ball affected increase of D_hip.foot_tk, as well as α_SHF_tk, while values of W_HIP_max were decreased. The statistical analysis

  5. A back side configured pointed dipole plasmonic optical antenna array enhanced quantum dot infrared photodetector (United States)

    Lu, Xuejun; Mojaverian, Neda; Li, Lin; Gu, Guiru; Zhang, Yingjie; Kemsri, Thitikorn


    In this paper, we report a back side configured pointed dipole optical antenna array enhanced quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). In this configuration, the light illumination is from the substrate side (i.e. back side illumination), goes through the QDIP and then reaches the optical antenna array. The near-field electric fields (E-fields) are simulated for both top and back side illuminations. The back side configured pointed dipole antenna array gives stronger E-fields than the top side configuration. The physical mechanism for the difference is analyzed. A longwave infrared QDIP with the back side configured pointed dipole optical antenna array was fabricated and tested. The measurements agree well with the simulation. Compared with the top side configured optical antenna array, the back side configured optical antenna array allows easier fabrication of large format (e.g. 640 × 512 or 1024 × 1024) focal plane arrays and provides higher plasmonic enhancement.

  6. Deep Neural Network Based Demand Side Short Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyoung Ryu


    Full Text Available In the smart grid, one of the most important research areas is load forecasting; it spans from traditional time series analyses to recent machine learning approaches and mostly focuses on forecasting aggregated electricity consumption. However, the importance of demand side energy management, including individual load forecasting, is becoming critical. In this paper, we propose deep neural network (DNN-based load forecasting models and apply them to a demand side empirical load database. DNNs are trained in two different ways: a pre-training restricted Boltzmann machine and using the rectified linear unit without pre-training. DNN forecasting models are trained by individual customer’s electricity consumption data and regional meteorological elements. To verify the performance of DNNs, forecasting results are compared with a shallow neural network (SNN, a double seasonal Holt–Winters (DSHW model and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and relative root mean square error (RRMSE are used for verification. Our results show that DNNs exhibit accurate and robust predictions compared to other forecasting models, e.g., MAPE and RRMSE are reduced by up to 17% and 22% compared to SNN and 9% and 29% compared to DSHW.

  7. Supply-side cost sharing when patients and doctors collude. (United States)

    Vaithianathan, Rhema


    Doctors and patients generally share a common interest in maximizing the quality of care. Purchasers of health care on the other hand, desire cost-effective levels of quality. We consider the purchaser's problem of implementing supply-side cost sharing when patients and doctors are asymmetrically informed and can collude to advance their own joint interests in maximal quality. Such collusion can be interpreted as the sort of informal side-payments that are observed in transitional and developing economies. It may also be interpreted as a "formal" (but unregulated) case of physician balance billing. We show that both collusion-proof schemes and collusion-inducing schemes can implement cost-effective care. A number of policy implications are discussed. In particular, more permissive advertising of referred services (such as pharmaceuticals) and more informed patients will increase the cost of implementing collusion-proof mechanisms. If patients have a high willingness to pay or are informed, then allowing collusion may be preferred.

  8. Are forensic experts biased by the side that retained them? (United States)

    Murrie, Daniel C; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Guarnera, Lucy A; Rufino, Katrina A


    How objective are forensic experts when they are retained by one of the opposing sides in an adversarial legal proceeding? Despite long-standing concerns from within the legal system, little is known about whether experts can provide opinions unbiased by the side that retained them. In this experiment, we paid 108 forensic psychologists and psychiatrists to review the same offender case files, but deceived some to believe that they were consulting for the defense and some to believe that they were consulting for the prosecution. Participants scored each offender on two commonly used, well-researched risk-assessment instruments. Those who believed they were working for the prosecution tended to assign higher risk scores to offenders, whereas those who believed they were working for the defense tended to assign lower risk scores to the same offenders; the effect sizes (d) ranged up to 0.85. The results provide strong evidence of an allegiance effect among some forensic experts in adversarial legal proceedings.

  9. The protein side of the central dogma: permanence and change. (United States)

    Morange, Michel


    There are two facets to the central dogma proposed by Francis Crick in 1957. One concerns the relation between the sequence of nucleotides and the sequence of amino acids, the second is devoted to the relation between the sequence of amino acids and the native three-dimensional structure of proteins. 'Folding is simply a function of the order of the amino acids,' i.e. no information is required for the proper folding of a protein other than the information contained in its sequence. This protein side of the central dogma was elaborated in a scientific context in which the characteristics and functions of proteins, and the mechanisms of protein folding, were seen very differently. This context, which made the folding problem a simple one, supported the bold proposition of Francis Crick. The protein side of the central dogma was not challenged by the discovery of prions if one adopts the definition of information given by Francis Crick. It might have been challenged by the discovery that regulatory enzymes exist in different conformations, and the evidence for the existence of chaperones assisting protein folding. But it was not, and folding remains what it was for Francis Crick, 'simply a function of the order of amino acids'. But the meaning of 'function' has dramatically changed. It is no longer the result of simple physicochemical laws, but that of a long evolutionary process which has optimized protein folding. Molecular mechanistic explanations have to be allied with evolutionary explanations, in a way characteristic of present biology.

  10. Efficient processing of 3-sided range queries with probabilistic guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaporis, Alexis; Papadopoulos, Apostolos; Sioutas, Spyros


    over the O(log n) update time bound achieved by the classic Priority Search Tree of McCreight [23], as well as over the Fusion Priority Search Tree of Willard [30], which requires O(log n/log log n) time for all operations. Moreover, we externalize this solution, gaining O(logB n + t/B) worst case...... and O(logBlogn) amortized expected with high probability I/Os for query and update operations respectively, where B is the disk block size. Then, combining the Modified Priority Search Tree [27] with the Priority Search Tree [23], we achieve a query time of O(log log n + t) expected with high......This work studies the problem of 2-dimensional searching for the 3-sided range query of the form [a, b] x (-∞, c] in both main and external memory, by considering a variety of input distributions. A dynamic linear main memory solution is proposed, which answers 3-sided queries in O(log n + t) worst...

  11. Heart rate differences in small sided games in formative basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gracia


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine and learn the heart rate responses of basketball players in small-sided or modified games, in order to develop a more effective workout plan in the future. The study sample consisted of 19 basketball players from a National Championship Club, 12 of them in the U’14 category and the remaining 7 belonging to the U’16 category. Small-sided games were 3x3 and 4x4 with a duration of 4 minutes and an active break of 3 minutes. Significant differences (p<0.05 were found referring to the relations established between 3x3 without feedback and 3x3 with feedback in vigorous exercise; in 3x3 without feedback and 3x3 with feedback in moderate exercise; in 3x3 and 3x3 with average heart rate; in 4x4 and 4x4 with average heart rate and in 4x4 and 4x4 with average heart rate related to game categories.Keywords:

  12. Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Piasek


    Full Text Available Almost all clinically used antitumor drugs exhibit toxic side effects affecting heart function. Because of cardiotoxicity during anticancer chemotherapy, effective doses of cytostatics have to be limited, which may worsen antitumor efficacy. The cardiotoxicity induced by cytostatics of the anthracycline group in particular results, among others, from massive stimulation of ROS. It has therefore been suggested that some phytochemicals with high antioxidant potential, when administered together with antitumor agents, could decrease the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and reduce the risk of heart failure. This review summarizes findings of studies undertaken to identify edible plants or phytochemicals isolated from them displaying cardioprotective properties during chemotherapy. Such properties have been shown for such foods as grapes, garlic, tomato, spinach, and beetroot. A protective role on the heart is also displayed by melatonin (a hormone synthesized by the pineal gland, but also present in many edible plants, chalcones (precursors of all known flavonoids, some herbal dietary supplements, vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, and semisynthetic flavonoid 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER. Although to date only a limited number of investigations have been carried out, their results suggest that dietary intervention with antioxidants found in edible plants may be a safe and effective way of alleviating the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy and preventing heart failure.

  13. Unintended Side Effects of Digital Transition: Perspectives of Japanese Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sugiyama


    Full Text Available The core of the digital transition is the representation of all kinds of real-world entities and processes and an increasing number of cognitive processes by digital information and algorithms on computers. These allow for seemingly unlimited storage, operation, retrieval, and transmission capacities that make digital tools economically available for all domains of society and empower human action, particularly combined with real-world interfaces such as displays, robots, sensors, 3D printers, etc. Digital technologies are general-purpose technologies providing unprecedented potential benefits for sustainability. However, they will bring about a multitude of potential unintended side effects, and this demands a transdisciplinary discussion on unwanted societal changes as well as a shift in science from analog to digital modeling and structure. Although social discourse has begun, the topical scope and regional coverage have been limited. Here, we report on an expert roundtable on digital transition held in February 2017 in Tokyo, Japan. Drawing on a variety of disciplinary backgrounds, our discussions highlight the importance of cultural contexts and the need to bridge local and global conversations. Although Japanese experts did mention side effects, their focus was on how to ensure that AI and robots could coexist with humans. Such a perspective is not well appreciated everywhere outside Japan. Stakeholder dialogues have already begun in Japan, but greater efforts are needed to engage a broader collection of experts in addition to stakeholders to broaden the social debate.

  14. Interaction of a hot jet with two cold side jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouali Nassira


    Full Text Available Spreading of the multijet in terms of both the velocity and temperature field depends strongly on the flow type related to the velocity and temperature ratios between the cold side jets to the hot central one. This is the reason why the present work focuses on numerical investigation of non isothermal three parallel non-ventilated turbulent plane jets. As well, it seems natural to pick as reference the available experimental data. The numerical predictions confirm the three types (A, B, C of flow patterns given by the available flow visualization and reveal a fourth that will be called type D. The purpose of the present study is to explore the effect of the velocity ratio on the decay rates of the velocity and temperature in the fully developed region. It is found that the addition of side jets increase the rate of decrease of the centerline velocity for the flow of type A and decreases in the other cases. The effect of various types of flow on the rate of decrease of the velocity and the temperature in the fully developed flow region are investigated in details: This led to establish several correlations of the rate of decrease that play an important role in the diffusion of momentum and temperature.

  15. Front-Side Microstrip Line Feeding a Raised Antenna Patch (United States)

    Hodges, Richard; Hoppe, Daniel


    An improved design concept for a printed-circuit patch antenna and the transmission line that feeds the patch calls for (1) a microstrip transmission line on the front (radiative) side of a printed-circuit board based on a thin, high-permittivity dielectric substrate; (2) using the conductor covering the back side of the circuit board as a common ground plane for both the microstrip line and the antenna patch; (3) supporting the antenna patch in front of the circuit board on a much thicker, lower-permittivity dielectric spacer layer; and (4) connecting the microstrip transmission line to the patch by use of a thin wire or narrow ribbon that extends through the thickness of the spacer and is oriented perpendicularly to the circuit-board plane. The thickness of the substrate is typically chosen so that a microstrip transmission line of practical width has an impedance between 50 and 100 ohms. The advantages of this design concept are best understood in the context of the disadvantages of prior design concepts, as explained

  16. Advancing the Power and Utility of Server-Side Aggregation (United States)

    Fulker, Dave; Gallagher, James


    During the upcoming Summer 2016 meeting of the ESIP Federation (July 19-22), OpenDAP will hold a Developers and Users Workshop. While a broad set of topics will be covered, a key focus is capitalizing on recent EOSDIS-sponsored advances in Hyrax, OPeNDAPs own software for server-side realization of the DAP2 and DAP4 protocols. These Hyrax advances are as important to data users as to data providers, and the workshop will include hands-on experiences of value to both. Specifically, a balanced set of presentations and hands-on tutorials will address advances in1.server installation,2.server configuration,3.Hyrax aggregation capabilities, for data-access from clients that are HTTP-based, JSON-based or OGC-compliant (especially WCS and WMS), for DAP4,6.use and extension of server-side computational capabilities, and7.several performance-affecting matters.Topics 2 through 7 will be relevant to data consumers, data providers andnotably, due to the open-source nature of all OPeNDAP softwareto developers wishing to extend Hyrax, to build compatible clients and servers, andor to employ Hyrax as middleware that enables interoperability across a variety of end-user and source-data contexts. A session for contributed talks will elaborate the topics listed above and embrace additional ones.

  17. Side effects of ropinirole in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Titlic, M; Tonkic, A; Jukic, I; Lusic, I; Dikanovic, M


    Results achieved in treating the Parkinson's disease (PD) by the dopamine receptor agonist, ropinirole, have been hampered by its side effects. According to the MEDLINE, the most common side effects of ropinirole are extreme sleepiness and/or sudden sleep attacks, nausea, dyspepsia, vertigo, orthostatic hypotension and leg oedema. The prospective research included PD patients who were administered non-ergoline dopamine agonist, ropinirole, over this period of time. The control group of patients were treated with levodopa. The research included 50 patients: 31 women and 19 men, of the mean age of 61.4 +/- 4.3 years. One patient reported sleepiness and one of them sudden sleep attacks. Nausea was experienced by three patients, and vertigo by two. Depression, orthostatic hypotension, leg oedema, dyspepsia, dry cough and hypersalivation were registered in particular cases. The control group of PD patients, treated with levodopa, comprised 52 patients, 33 women and 19 men of the mean age of 63.2 +/- 4.1 years. In the control group, nausea was registered in two patients. The non-ergoline dopamine agonist, ropinirole, most commonly causes nausea and sleepiness, less commonly uncontrollable sleep attacks, vertigo, dyspepsia, orthostatic hypotension, leg oedema. Dry cough and hypersalivation are recorded sporadically (Tab. 1, Ref. 22).

  18. Local Side Effects of Sublingual and Oral Immunotherapy. (United States)

    Passalacqua, Giovanni; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is increasingly used worldwide, and several products have been recently registered as drugs for respiratory allergy by the European Medicine Agency and the Food and Drug Administration. Concerning inhalant allergens, the safety of SLIT is overall superior to that of subcutaneous immunotherapy in terms of systemic adverse events. No fatality has been ever reported, and episodes of anaphylaxis were described only exceptionally. Looking at the historical and recent trials, most (>90%) adverse events are "local" and confined to the site of administration. For this reason, a specific grading system has been developed by the World Allergy Organization to classify and describe local adverse events. There is an increasing amount of literature concerning oral desensitization for food allergens, referred to as oral immunotherapy. Also, in this case, local side effects are predominant, although systemic adverse events are more frequent than with inhalant allergens. We review herein the description of local side effects due to SLIT, with a special focus on large trials having a declared sample size calculation. The use of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities nomenclature for adverse events is mentioned in this context, as recommended by regulatory agencies. It is expected that a uniform classification/grading of local adverse events will improve and harmonize the surveillance and reporting on the safety of SLIT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Suspected side effects to the quadrivalent human papilloma vaccine. (United States)

    Brinth, Louise; Theibel, Ann Cathrine; Pors, Kirsten; Mehlsen, Jesper


    The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine. We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. All patients had symptoms consistent with pronounced autonomic dysfunction including different degrees of orthostatic intolerance, severe non-migraine-like headache, excessive fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, gastrointestinal discomfort and widespread pain of a neuropathic character. We found consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced in these patients and to evaluate the possibility and the nature of any causal link and hopefully establish targeted treatment options. not relevant. not relevant.

  20. The Other Side of Gravity and Geometry: Antigravity and Anticurvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Wanas


    Full Text Available Gravity is one of the four known fundamental interactions used to study and interpret physical phenomenae. It governs diverse phenomenae, especially those connected with large-scale structures. From more than one decade, existing gravity theories have suffered from some problems, when confronting their predictions with the results of some experiments and observations. This situation has led to many suggestions, none of which is final, so far. Here, we show that the assumption of existence of another side of gravity, a repulsive gravity or antigravity, together with its attractive side, may give a satisfactory solution to gravity problems. We caught here two pieces of evidence for the existence of antigravity in nature. The first is on the laboratory scale, the COW experiment, and the second is on the cosmic scale, SN type Ia observation. On the other hand, we show how gravity theories can predict antigravity, using a new defined geometric object called Parameterized anticurvature. This shows clearly how Einstein's geometrization philosophy can solve recent gravity problems in a satisfactory and easy way. Also, it may throw some light on the mystery of physical nature of “Dark Energy.”