WorldWideScience

Sample records for c7-c8 propenyl side

  1. Photosensitized cis/trans isomerization of 1-(1-propenyl)cycloalkenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, W.D.; Sanchez, K.A.J.; Chaidez, M.A.; Paulson, D.R. (California State Univ., Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-09-29

    The photosensitized cis/trans isomerization of a series of 1-(1-propenyl)cycloalkenes is reported. A plot of the photostationary state trans/cis ratio vs the sensitizer triplet energy for 1-(1-propenyl)cyclopentene shows a constant trans/cis ratio of {approx} 1.0 with high-energy sensitizers (E{sub T} > 61 kcal/mol). The plot shows one maxima at E{sub T} {approx} 55 kcal/mol with low-energy sensitizers (E{sub T} < 61 kcal/mol). This type of plot is very similar to those obtained with acyclic dienes such as piperylene. The 1-(1-propenyl)cyclohexene system shows a similar plot with high-energy sensitizers, but with low-energy sensitizers this system shows two maxima occurring at 56 and 47 kcal/mol, respectively. This double-maxima plot is rationalized by an unusually low trans/cis decay ratio for the s-cis relaxed triplet state of the 1-(1-propenyl)cyclohexene system. This double maxima is not observed in other diene systems due to a high trans/cis decay ratio for their s-cis relaxed triplet states. The photosensitized cis/trans isomerization of 2-ethylidene-10-methyl-1(9)-octalin was also studied as a model for a conformationally locked s-trans system. The 1-(1-propenyl)cycloheptene system undergoes photosensitized cis/trans isomerization, but photostationary cis/trans isomerization data could not be obtained due to a very efficient photosensitized dimerization of this diene system.

  2. Boosting effect of ortho-propenyl substituent on the antioxidant activity of natural phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Clémentine; Guitard, Romain; Penverne, Christophe; Favier, Dominique; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Seven new antioxidants derived from natural or synthetic phenols have been designed as alternatives to BHT and BHA antioxidants. Influence of various substituents at the ortho, meta and para positions of the aromatic core of phenols on the bond dissociation enthalpy of the ArO-H bond was evaluated using a DFT method B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). This prediction highlighted the ortho-propenyl group as the best substituent to decrease the bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) value. The rate constants of hydrogen transfer from these phenols to DPPH radical in a non-polar and non-protic solvent have been measured and were found to be in agreement with the BDE calculations. For o-propenyl derivatives from 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, BHA, creosol, isoeugenol and di-o-propenyl p-cresol, fewer radicals were trapped by a single phenol molecule, i.e. a lower stoichiometric number. Reaction mechanisms involving the evolution of the primary phenoxyl radical ArO are proposed to rationalise these effects. PMID:26593510

  3. (E-3-Methyl-6-(3-oxo-3-(thiophen-2-yl-1-propenyl-2(3H-benzothiazolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka Ivanova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (E-3-methyl-6-(3-oxo-3-(thiophen-2-yl-1-propenyl-2(3H-benzothiazolone, was synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 3-methyl-2(3H-benzothiazolone-6-carbaldehyde with 2-acetylthiophene in 94% yield. The structure of the target compound was confirmed using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, MS, and elemental analysis.

  4. Allyl/propenyl phenol synthases from the creosote bush and engineering production of specialty/commodity chemicals, eugenol/isoeugenol, in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Vassão, Daniel G; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Bedgar, Diana L; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2014-01-01

    The creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) harbors members of the monolignol acyltransferase, allylphenol synthase, and propenylphenol synthase gene families, whose products together are able to catalyze distinct regiospecific conversions of various monolignols into their corresponding allyl- and propenyl-phenols, respectively. In this study, co-expression of a monolignol acyltransferase with either substrate versatile allylphenol or propenylphenol synthases in Escherichia coli established that various monolignol substrates were efficiently converted into their corresponding allyl/propenyl phenols, as well as providing proof of concept for efficacious conversion in a bacterial platform. This capability thus potentially provides an alternate source to these important plant phytochemicals, whether for flavor/fragrance and fine chemicals, or ultimately as commodities, e.g., for renewable energy or other intermediate chemical purposes. Previous reports had indicated that specific and highly conserved amino acid residues 84 (Phe or Val) and 87 (Ile or Tyr) of two highly homologous allyl/propenyl phenol synthases (circa 96% identity) from a Clarkia species mainly dictate their distinct regiospecific catalyzed conversions to afford either allyl- or propenyl-phenols, respectively. However, several other allyl/propenyl phenol synthase homologs isolated by us have established that the two corresponding amino acid 84 and 87 residues are not, in fact, conserved.

  5. Molecular Interactions in Binary Mixtures of Benzene with 1-Alkanols(C5,C7,C8) at 35℃:An Ultrasonic Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI,A.; IBRAHIM.M; 等

    2003-01-01

    Densities and ultrasonic speeds have been measured in binary mixtures of benzene with 1-pentanol,1-heptanol and 1-octanol,and in the pure components,as a function of compostion at 35℃.The isentropic compressibility,intermolecular free length,relative association,acoustic impedance,isothermal compressibility,thermal expansion coefficient,deviations in isentropic compressibility,excess freee length,excess volume,deviations in ultrasonic speed,excess acoustic impedance,apparent molar compressibility,apparent molar volume,partial molar volume of 1-alkanol in benzene have been calculated from the experimental data of densities and ultrasonic speeds.The variation of these parameters with composition indicates weak interaction between the component molecules and this interaction decreases in the order:1-pentanol>1-heptanol>1-octanol.Further,theoretical values of ultrasonic speeds were evaluated using free length theory,collision factor theory,Nomoto's relation and Van Dael-Vangeel ideal mixing relation.The relative merits of these theories and relations were discussed for these systems.

  6. Density,Viscosity,Refractive Index,and Speed of Sound in Binary Mixtures of Pyridine and 1-Alkanols(C6,C7,C8,C10)at 303.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI Anwar; TARIQ Mohd; NABI Firdosa; SHAHJAHAN

    2008-01-01

    The densities(ρ),viscosities(η),refractive indices(nD),and speeds of sound(u),of binary mixtures of pyridine with 1-hexanoi,1-heptanol,1-octanol and 1-decanol,including those of pure liquids,were measured over the entire composition range at 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure.From these experimental data,the values of excess molar volumes(VE),deviations in isentropic compressibilities(△ks),viscosities(△η),molar refractions(△Rm),apparent and partial molar volumes(Vφ,2 and V0φ,2 ),apparent and partial molar compressibilities(Kφ,2 and K0φ,2 ),of alkanols in pyridine and their corresponding deviations(△V and △K)were calculated.The variations of these parameters with composition of the mixtures suggest that the strength of interactions in these mixtures follow the order:1-hexanol 1-heptanol 1-octanol 1-decanol.All the excess and deviation functions were fitted to Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to determine the fitting coefficients and the standard deviations.

  7. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction ... Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When to Seek Help PSA Rising ...

  8. Graphene Side Gate Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ching-Tzu; Low, Tony; Chiu, Hsin-Ying; Zhu, Wenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Various mesoscopic devices exploit electrostatic side gates for their operation. In this paper, we investigate how voltage-biasing of graphene side gates modulates the electrical transport characteristics of graphene channel. We explore myriads of typical side gated devices such as symmetric dual side gates and asymmetric single side gate biasing, in monolayer and bilayer graphene. The side gates modulate the electrostatic doping in the graphene channel whose effect is reflected in transport ...

  9. Thermoresponsive Poly(2-oxazoline) Molecular Brushes by Living Ionic Polymerization: Kinetic Investigations of Pendant Chain Grafting and Cloud Point Modulation by Backbone and Side Chain Length Variation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning

    2012-04-17

    Molecular brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s were prepared by living anionic polymerization of 2-iso-propenyl-2-oxazoline to form the backbone and subsequent living cationic ring-opening polymerization of 2-n- or 2-iso-propyl-2-oxazoline for pendant chain grafting. In situ kinetic studies indicate that the initiation efficiency and polymerization rates are independent from the number of initiator functions per initiator molecule. This was attributed to the high efficiency of oxazolinium salt and the stretched conformation of the backbone, which is caused by the electrostatic repulsion of the oxazolinium moieties along the macroinitiator. The resulting molecular brushes showed thermoresponsive properties, that is, having a defined cloud point (CP). The dependence of the CP as a function of backbone and side chain length as well as concentration was studied. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. 'Side-by-side'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-01

    France is a nuclear power nation. And this is not going to change. However, at the same time, the country is also pursuing massive investments in the expansion of renewable energies. According to France's President Nicolas Sarkozy, the motto should be: 'side-by-side' rather than 'one or the other'. For the PV sector, whose success was unbroken during the crisis in 2009, the signal is positive and could mean sustained growth. (orig.)

  11. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  12. Analysis of high-order aberration after both side laser in situ keratomileusis operation in treating high myopia%双面准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术治疗高度近视眼术后高阶像差分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉; 张振华

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较双面准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术(both side lasik,BSL)和准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术(Laser in situ keratomileusis,lasik)治疗高度近视眼术后高阶像差的变化.方法 选择BSL和lasik两种术式对高度近视眼手术治疗61例,122只眼.其中,BSL手术30例,60只眼;lasik手术31例,62只眼.使用NIDEK公司生产的OPD-SCAN波前像差分析议,测量术前和术后一周、一个月和三个月暗室6~7 mm自然瞳孔直径的波前像差.结果 1 BSL和lasik两组术前总高阶像差、C7、C8和C12均方根值(RMS值)比较,均P>0.05,差异无统计学意义.2术后一周、一个月和三个月时BSL和lasik两组的总高阶像差、C7、C8和C12RMS值均较术前差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).3.术后一周、一个月和三个月BSL和lasik两组之间总高阶像差、C7、C8和C12RMS值比较,P值均>0.05差异无统计学意义.结论 BSL和lasik两种手术方法治疗高度近视眼,术后高阶像差增加幅度相近似.%Objective To compare the high-order aberration after both side laser in situ keratomileusis (BSL) and laser in situ keratomileusis (Lasik) operation in treating high myopia. Methods BSL and Lasik were both.performed in 61 (122 eyes) patients with high myopia.Among which 30 patients (60 eyes) were randomly selected as BSL group,and 31 patients (62 eyes) were selected as Lasik group.The wavefront aberration were measured in darkroom with normal pupil at preoperatively,1 week,1 month and 3 months postoperatively by OPD-SCAN object aberration apparatus produced in NIDEK company. Results The root mean square (RMS) value of high-order aberration,C7,C8 and C12 in BSL group and Lasik group were not statistically significant at preoperatively (P >0.05).The RMS value of C7,C8 and C12 in BSL group and Lasik group were statistically increased at 1 week,1 month and 3 months postoperatively (P <0.01).The RMS value of C7,C8 and C12 in BSL group and Lasik group were not significantly

  13. One-sided arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    When is an argument to be called one-sided? When is putting forward such an argument fallacious? How can we develop a model for critical discussion, such that a fallaciously one-sided argument corresponds to a violation of a discussion rule? These issues are dealt with within 'the limits of the dial

  14. Side-wall sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, B.

    1969-11-01

    A side-wall sampler which is capable of taking samples from the walls of test holes to a depth of 1,000 ft or more is described. Samples have been extracted from till, clay, silt, and fine- to coarse-grained sands in drift and nonindurated bedrock from more than 1,000 test holes in S. Saskatchewan. Side-hole sampling is faster and cheaper than conventional sampling methods and is ideally suited for geological investigations. Mineralogical paleonto- locical and radiocarbon analyses have been determined on side-hole cores.

  15. Side Payments in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Hauser; Duncan I. Simester; Birger Wernerfelt

    1997-01-01

    Side payments, known politely as gainsharing and pejoratively as bribery, are prevalent in marketing. Indeed, many management schools have added ethics modules to their basic marketing courses to discuss these issues and there is much discussion of side payments in the literature (e.g., Adams 1995, Borrus [Borrus, Amy. 1995. A world of greased palms. (November 6) 36–38.], Mauro [Mauro, Paolo. 1997. Why worry about corruption? . Washington, D.C.], Mohl [Mohl, Bruce. 1996. Auto dealers color su...

  16. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  17. Working the Dark Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjering, Jens Christian Borrebye

    half—dark side—documents the making and nature of the dark side by analyzing a series of legal memos from the Department of Justice's Office of Legal Council and from the White House and concludes by relating its findings to traditional ideas about emergency action, national security, and torture....... By analyzing official reports and testimonies from soldiers partaking in the War On Terror, the dissertation's second part—dark arts—focuses on the transformation of the dark side into a productive space in which “information” and the hunt for said information overshadowed all legal, ethical, or political...

  18. Colorectal cancers choosing sides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albuquerque, Cristina; Bakker, Elvira R. M.; van Veelen, Wendy; Smits, Ron

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the majority of sporadic colorectal cancer which predominantly occur in the distal colon, most mismatch repair deficient tumours arise at the proximal side. At present, these regional preferences have not been explained properly. Recently, we have screened colorectal tumours for mutat

  19. Side effects of ergotamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyler, WJ

    1996-01-01

    Ergotamine has been used for many years in the treatment of migraine, although there is Little formal clinical evidence that it is significantly more efficacious than placebo. A number of side effects associated with ergotamine have been reported in the literature, including myocardial infarction, i

  20. Engineered Ionizable Side Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymes, Gisela D; Grosman, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    One of the great challenges of mechanistic ion-channel biology is to obtain structural information from well-defined functional states. In the case of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels, the open-channel conformation is particularly elusive owing to its transient nature and brief mean lifetime. In this Chapter, we show how the analysis of single-channel currents recorded from mutants engineered to contain single ionizable side chains in the transmembrane region can provide specific information about the open-channel conformation without any interference from the closed or desensitized conformations. The method takes advantage of the fact that the alternate binding and unbinding of protons to and from an ionizable side chain causes the charge of the protein to fluctuate by 1 unit. We show that, in mutant muscle acetylcholine nicotinic receptors (AChRs), this fluctuating charge affects the rate of ion conduction in such a way that individual proton-transfer events can be identified in a most straightforward manner. From the extent to which the single-channel current amplitude is reduced every time a proton binds, we can learn about the proximity of the engineered side chain to the lumen of the pore. And from the kinetics of proton binding and unbinding, we can calculate the side-chain's affinity for protons (pK a), and hence, we can learn about the electrostatic properties of the microenvironment around the introduced ionizable group. The application of this method to systematically mutated AChRs allowed us to identify unambiguously the stripes of the M1, M2 and M3 transmembrane α-helices that face the pore's lumen in the open-channel conformation in the context of a native membrane. PMID:26381938

  1. Pen-side testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen-side diagnostic testing is often required to provide real time information about the health status of an animal or herd. The rapid results are generally needed in the face of a disease outbreak where the diagnostician/clinician is presented with dead or dying animals. Another use of pen-side tests is as part of a preventive medicine/herd health programme, where the information can be used for determining pathogen incidence and prevalence in the herd, identifying potential carrier animals or evaluating subtle changes in overall herd health as a result of management changes. Still another area is as a part of health certification before sale or stocking, or during processing following slaughter. Advanced testing methods, which in the past were only appropriate for use in a laboratory setting, have now been formatted for use in the field. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and immunochromatorgraphy have greatly enhanced diagnostic pen-side capabilities. These test systems allow for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of target antigen or antibody and require little or no scientific equipment. Because of the wide format flexibility these immunochemical technologies allow, they have come to dominate the diagnostic industry, both in the laboratory and in the field. Using liquid phase or precipitating chromogens, the tests can be visually interpreted and do not need instrumentation. Immunochromatography, a simplified assay system, has found widespread application as a field or pen-side test. The entire assay takes only one or two steps, and the results appear within 5-10 minutes. In the future, DNA based diagnostics will become more adaptable for use in the field. The DNA hybridization systems are at present cumbersome and require elevated temperatures. Companies are currently working to develop fast formulas that provide results in less than an hour, have a limited number of steps and can be performed at lower temperatures. (author)

  2. Putting the Side first

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    SIDE Minerals is a relative newcomer to the South African mining industry. It combines coal and anthracite mining and has base and precious metal interests. Side Minerals has offices in Boksburg from where its mining operations in Delmas, Witbank and Carolina in the Eastern Transvaal, and Newcastle in Natal are controlled. Lakeside Colliery at Witbank -a mine with a life expectancy of 15 years - is both an underground and opencast operation with an annual production capacity of 1,2 Mt of high, medium and low grade coal. Opencast extraction there is by the strip mining method. This is done on contract by Concor Mining Opencast Division, a member of the Concor Holding Group. A high wall face provides entry to the underground operations. Eastside Colliery at Carolina, which has the capacity to produce 480 000 tons of coal a year, is currently an opencast operation with underground mining scheduled to begin during 1994. Westside Colliery near Delmas is on a care and maintenance basis, but it has the capacity to produce 600 000 tons of low grade phosphorous coal which is required by the ferro-alloy and steel industries. 2 figs.

  3. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  4. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  5. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Raffaele Dalla; Zinicola, Roberto; Iaria, Maurizio

    2014-08-27

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its incidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perforation. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  6. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raffaele; Dalla; Valle; Roberto; Zinicola; Maurizio; Iaria

    2014-01-01

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anas-tomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its in-cidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perfora-tion. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  7. Side Effects in Steering Fragments

    CERN Document Server

    Wortel, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I will give a formal definition of side effects. I will do so by modifying a system for modelling program instructions and program states, Quantified Dynamic Logic, to a system called DLAf (for Dynamic Logic with Assignments as Formulas), which in contrast to QDL allows assignments in formulas and makes use of short-circuit evaluation. I will show the underlying logic in those formulas to be a variant of short-circuit logic called repetition-proof short-circuit logic. Using DLAf I will define the actual and the expected evaluation of a single instruction. The side effects are then defined to be the difference between the two. I will give rules for composing those side effects in single instructions, thus scaling up our definition of side effects to a definition of side effects in deterministic \\dlaf-programs. Using this definition I will give a classification of side effects, introducing as most important class that of marginal side effects. Finally, I will show how to use our system for calcul...

  8. Side-View Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Santemiz, Pinar; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face recognition techniques to be used in house safety applications. Our aim is to recognize people as they pass through a door, and estimate their location in the house. Here, we compare available databas...

  9. The Moon's near side megabasin and far side bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Since Luna and Lunar Orbiter photographed the far side of the Moon, the mysterious dichotomy between the face of the Moon as we see it from Earth and the side of the Moon that is hidden has puzzled lunar scientists. As we learned more from the Apollo sample return missions and later robotic satellites, the puzzle literally deepened, showing asymmetry of the crust and mantle, all the way to the core of the Moon. This book summarizes the author’s successful search for an ancient impact feature, the Near Side Megabasin of the Moon and the extensions to impact theory needed to find it. The implications of this ancient event are developed to answer many of the questions about the history of the Moon.

  10. Interaction between two side-by-side inverted flags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Cerdeira, Cecilia; Fan, Boyu; Barizien, Antoine; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    The inverted flag instability occurs when an elastic plate that is free at its leading edge and clamped at its trailing edge is subjected to an axial wind. The oscillating motion that follows has received recent attention. However, previous studies have focused on the dynamics of a single flag even though these are rarely found isolated in natural phenomena, such as the fluttering of leaves in the wind. The interaction between two side-by-side inverted flags has been investigated, analyzing the effects of the distance between flags and the wind speed. Both in-phase and anti-phase coupling have been observed for different ranges of these parameters.

  11. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I;

    2015-01-01

    The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects...... be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations......, but in spite of this, few breast cancer patients know and follow the exercise recommendations needed to remain healthy. In this review, we describe the different breast cancer treatments and the related side effects and implications of exercise in relation to these. We propose that exercise could...

  12. Side Effects of Side Effects Information in Drug Information Leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, H. Pander; Klaassen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study in which drug information leaflets given to patients were improved in two ways, first by adding a short introductory paragraph on the nature of side effects generally, and second by adjusting frequency descriptors to more accurately reflect pretesting of the drug. Explains that participants in the study were less likely to…

  13. Peptide nanotube aligning side chains onto one side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yuki; Mitani, Shota; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2016-06-01

    A novel pseudo cyclic penta-β-peptide composed of a β-naphthylalanine, two β-alanines, and a sequence of ethylenediamine-succinic acid (CP5ES) is synthesized and investigated on peptide nanotube (PNT) formation. When the PNT is formed with the maximum number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the cyclic peptides, the sequence enables the alignment of the side chains, naphthyl groups, on one side of the PNT. Microscopic and spectroscopic observations of CP5ES crystals reveal that CP5ES forms rod- or needle-shaped molecular assemblies showing exciton coupling of the Cotton effect and predominant monomer emission, which are different from a reference cyclic tri-β-peptide composed of a β-naphthylalanine and two β-alanines. Insertion of a sequence of ethylenediamine-succinic acid into β-amino acids in the cyclic skeleton is therefore suggested to be effective to make the side chains aligning on one side of the PNT. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27282135

  14. Dark Side of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Side of the Universe (DSU) workshops bring together a wide range of theorists and experimentalists to discuss current ideas on models of the dark side, and relate them to current and future experiments. This year's DSU will take place in the colorful Norwegian city of Bergen. Topics include dark matter, dark energy, cosmology, and physics beyond the standard model. One of the goals of the workshop is to expose in particular students and young researchers to the fascinating topics of dark matter and dark energy, and to provide them with the opportunity to meet some of the best researchers in these areas .

  15. Side-View Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Santemiz, Pinar; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N. J.; Biggelaar, van den, M.

    2011-01-01

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss the use of side-view face recognition in house safety applications. Our goal is to recognize people as they pass through doors in order to estimate their location in the house. In order to preserve p...

  16. Identifying Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Geradin, D.A.A.G.; van Damme, E.E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We review the burgeoning literature on two-sided markets focusing on the different definitions that have been proposed. In particular, we show that the well-known definition given by Evans is a particular case of the more general definition proposed by Rochet and Tirole. We then identify t

  17. The DarkSide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DarkSide-50 at Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS, Italy, is a direct dark matter search experiment based on a liquid argon TPC. DS-50 has completed its first dark matter run using atmospheric argon as target. The detector performances and the results of the first physics run are presented in this proceeding.

  18. Nonprescription ibuprofen: side effect profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, S A; Waksman, J A; Dash, B H

    1992-01-01

    Single doses of nonprescription analgesics are commonly used to treat self-diagnosed conditions. To evaluate the safety of single doses of nonprescription-strength ibuprofen, we examined reported side effects from 15 double-blind, randomized, controlled trials we conducted of the drug to treat various common painful conditions (e.g., headache, sore throat). All studies included placebo and another nonprescription analgesic, acetaminophen. A total of 878 subjects received ibuprofen 200 or 400 mg, 849 acetaminophen 650 or 1000 mg, and 852 placebo. The overall frequency of side effects was comparable: ibuprofen 2.4%, acetaminophen 3.2%, and placebo 2.1%. The frequency of central nervous system symptoms was 0.8%, 2.1%, and 0.9%, respectively. Upper gastro-intestinal upset ranged from 0.8-0.9% of subjects in all groups. We conclude that single doses of nonprescription ibuprofen are well tolerated and demonstrate a side effect profile indistinguishable from that of acetaminophen and placebo. PMID:1437701

  19. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side bearings. 229.69 Section 229.69....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  20. Shortest Paths With Side Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Paolo; Bicchi, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We present a complete characterization of shortest paths to a goal position for a vehicle with unicycle kinematics and a limited range sensor, constantly keeping a given landmark in sight. Previous work on this subject studied the optimal paths in case of a frontal, symmetrically limited Field--Of--View (FOV). In this paper we provide a generalization to the case of arbitrary FOVs, including the case that the direction of motion is not an axis of symmetry for the FOV, and even that it is not contained in the FOV. The provided solution is of particular relevance to applications using side-scanning, such as e.g. in underwater sonar-based surveying and navigation.

  1. 49 CFR 238.217 - Side structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side structure. 238.217 Section 238.217 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.217 Side structure. Each passenger car shall comply with the following: (a) Side posts...

  2. The Lighter Side of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

    1996-10-01

    From the drop of an apple to the stately dance of the galaxies, gravity is omnipresent in the Cosmos. Even with its high profile, gravity is the most enigmatic of all the known basic forces in nature. The Lighter Side of Gravity presents a beautifully clear and completely nontechnical introduction to the phenomenon of this force in all its manifestations. Astrophysicist Jayant Narlikar begins with an historical background to the discovery of the law of gravitation by Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century. Using familiar analogies, interesting anecdotes, and numerous illustrations to get across subtle effects and difficult points to readers, he goes on to describe the general theory of relativity and some of its strange and unfamiliar ideas such as curved spacetime, the bending of light, and black holes. Since first publication in 1982 (W.H. Freeman), Dr. Narlikar has brought his book completely up to date and expanded it to include the discovery of gigantic gravitational lenses in space, the findings of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, the detection of dark matter in galaxies, the investigation of the very early Universe, and other new ideas in cosmology. This lucid and stimulating book presents a clear approach to the intriguing phenomenon of gravity for everyone who has ever felt caught in its grip. Jayant Narlikar is the winner of many astronomical prizes and the author of Introduction to Cosmology (Cambridge University Press, 1993).

  3. Distributed video coding with multiple side information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Brites, C.; Ascenso, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new video coding paradigm which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of some decoder side information. The quality of the side information has a major impact on the DVC rate-distortion (RD) performance in the same way...... the quality of the predictions had a major impact in predictive video coding. In this paper, a DVC solution exploiting multiple side information is proposed; the multiple side information is generated by frame interpolation and frame extrapolation targeting to improve the side information of a single...... estimation mode. Compared with the best available single side information solutions, the proposed DVC solution with multiple side information robustly improves the RD performance for the set of test sequences....

  4. Car Side Structure Crashworthiness in Pole and Moving Deformable Barrier Side Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dazhi; DONG Guang; ZHANG Jinhuan; HUANG Shilin

    2006-01-01

    To clearly understand passenger car structure's crashworthiness in typical side impacts of pole and moving deformable barrier (MDB) impact modes, which could assist the establishment of Chinese vehicle side impact safety regulations, a full midsized car finite element model, calibrated by pole side impact test, was built and the pole side impact according to European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) and the MDB side impact according to ECE R95 regulations were simulated with LS-DYNA. The accelerations and the structure deformations from simulations were compared. It can be concluded that the pole side impact focuses primarily on side structure crashworthiness as a result of large intrusions, while the MDB side impact focuses primarily on full side structure crashworthiness. Accordingly, occupant protection strategies focus on different aspects to improve side impact safety. In the pole side impact the objective is to maintain the passenger compartment and protect the passenger's head from impacting the pole, while in the MDB side impact the objective is to protect the full human body. In the design of the car side structures, at least these two tests should be considered for assessing their side impact crashworthiness. Conducting these two side impact tests as certified tests provides insights into car safety during side impacts.

  5. Right-side and left-side colon cancer follow different pathways to relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Kerry M.; Hummon, Amanda B.; Buechler, Steven

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cancer of the ascending (right-side) colon is different from cancer of the descending (left-side) colon at the molecular level. Using microarray data from 102 right-side colon carcinomas and 95 left-side colon carcinomas we show that different pathways dominate progression to relapse in right-side and left-side colon cancer. Right-side tumors at a high risk for relapse exhibit elevated expression of cell cycle control genes and elevated Wnt signaling. On the oth...

  6. Interference Channels with Correlated Receiver Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Nan; Gunduz, Deniz; Goldsmith, Andrea J.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The problem of joint source-channel coding in transmitting independent sources over interference channels with correlated receiver side information is studied. When each receiver has side information correlated with its own desired source, it is shown that source-channel code separation is optimal. When each receiver has side information correlated with the interfering source, sufficient conditions for reliable transmission are provided based on a joint source-channel coding scheme using the ...

  7. Constrained Source Coding with Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    Lapidoth, Amos; Malär, Andreas; Wigger, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    The source-coding problem with side information at the decoder is studied subject to a constraint that the encoder---to whom the side information is unavailable---be able to compute the decoder's reconstruction sequence to within some distortion. For discrete memoryless sources and finite single-letter distortion measures, an expression is given for the minimal description rate as a function of the joint law of the source and side information and of the allowed distortions at the encoder and ...

  8. Discriminatory Lossy Source Coding: Side Information Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Ravi; Sankar, Lalitha; Poor, H. Vincent

    2011-01-01

    A lossy source coding problem is studied in which a source encoder communicates with two decoders, one with and one without correlated side information with an additional constraint on the privacy of the side information at the uninformed decoder. Two cases of this problem arise depending on the availability of the side information at the encoder. The set of all feasible rate-distortion-equivocation tuples are characterized for both cases. The difference between the informed and uninformed ca...

  9. Nonparametric Analysis of Two-Sided Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Senay Sokullu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an empirical semiparametric model for two-sided markets. Contrary to existing empirical literature on two-sided markets, we do not rely on linear network effects. Instead, network effects and probability distribution functions of net benefits of two sides are specified nonparametrically. The demand functions and the network effect functions of readers and advertisers are estimated by nonparametric IV estimation using a data set from German magazine industry. The ill-posed...

  10. Physiological and skill demands of 'on-side' and 'off-side' games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the physiological and skill demands of 'on-side' and 'off-side' games in elite rugby league players. Sixteen male rugby league players participated in 'on-side' and 'off-side' games. Both small-sided games were played in a 40- × 40-m playing area. The 'off-side' game permitted players to have 3 'plays' while in possession of the ball. Players were permitted to pass backward or forward (to an 'off-side' player). The 'on-side' game also permitted players to have 3 'plays' while in possession of the ball. However, players were only permitted to pass backward to players in an 'on-side' position. Heart rate and movement patterns (via global positioning system) were recorded continuously throughout both games. Data were collected on the distance covered, number of high-acceleration and velocity efforts, and recovery between efforts. Video footage was also taken to track the performance of the players. Post hoc inspection of the footage was undertaken to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals. In comparison to 'on-side' games, 'off-side' games had a greater number of involvements ("touches"), passes, and effective passes. However, the cognitive demands of 'on-side' games were greater than 'off-side' games. 'Off-side' games resulted in a greater total distance covered, greater distance covered in mild and moderate accelerations, and greater distance covered in low, moderate, and high-velocity efforts. There were also a greater number of short duration recovery periods between efforts in 'off-side' games. The results of this study demonstrate that 'off-side' games provide greater physiological and skill demands than 'on-side' games. 'Off-side' games may provide a practical alternative to 'on-side' games for the development of skill and fitness in elite rugby league players.

  11. Source Coding With Encoder Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    Martinian, Emin; Wornell, Gregory W.; Zamir, Ram

    2004-01-01

    We introduce the idea of distortion side information, which does not directly depend on the source but instead affects the distortion measure. We show that such distortion side information is not only useful at the encoder, but that under certain conditions, knowing it at only the encoder is as good as knowing it at both encoder and decoder, and knowing it at only the decoder is useless. Thus distortion side information is a natural complement to the signal side information studied by Wyner a...

  12. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  13. Identifying Cross-Sided Liquidity Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Skjeltorp (Johannes); E. Sojli (Elvira); W.W. Tham (Wing Wah)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study the relevance of the cross-sided externality between liquidity makers and takers from the two-sided market perspective. We use exogenous changes in the make/take fee structure, minimum tick-size and technological shocks for liquidity takers and makers, as exper

  14. Classical data compression with quantum side information

    OpenAIRE

    Devetak, I.; Winter, A.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of classical data compression when the decoder has quantum side information at his disposal is considered. This is a quantum generalization of the classical Slepian-Wolf theorem. The optimal compression rate is found to be reduced from the Shannon entropy of the source by the Holevo information between the source and side information.

  15. Metabolic Network Prediction of Drug Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Itay; Oberhardt, Matthew A; Atias, Nir; Sharan, Roded; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-03-23

    Drug side effects levy a massive cost on society through drug failures, morbidity, and mortality cases every year, and their early detection is critically important. Here, we describe the array of model-based phenotype predictors (AMPP), an approach that leverages medical informatics resources and a human genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) to predict drug side effects. AMPP is substantially predictive (AUC > 0.7) for >70 drug side effects, including very serious ones such as interstitial nephritis and extrapyramidal disorders. We evaluate AMPP's predictive signal through cross-validation, comparison across multiple versions of a side effects database, and co-occurrence analysis of drug side effect associations in scientific abstracts (hypergeometric p value = 2.2e-40). AMPP outperforms a previous biochemical structure-based method in predicting metabolically based side effects (aggregate AUC = 0.65 versus 0.59). Importantly, AMPP enables the identification of key metabolic reactions and biomarkers that are predictive of specific side effects. Taken together, this work lays a foundation for future detection of metabolically grounded side effects during early stages of drug development. PMID:27135366

  16. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  17. Study of turbine with side channel runner

    OpenAIRE

    Jandourek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with proposal of constructional solving turbine with side channel. Basis for the design is lossy characteristics of the valve. The intention is to replace hydraulic closures by turbine with side channel runner. Hydraulic losses in the flow restriction in turn replaced by the electricity generation in the comparable characteristics of valve and turbine.

  18. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the dif

  19. Back-side readout semiconductor photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2014-05-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to semiconductor photomultipliers. In one aspect, a device includes a p-type semiconductor substrate, the p-type semiconductor substrate having a first side and a second side, the first side of the p-type semiconductor substrate defining a recess, and the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate being doped with n-type ions. A conductive material is disposed in the recess. A p-type epitaxial layer is disposed on the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate. The p-type epitaxial layer includes a first region proximate the p-type semiconductor substrate, the first region being implanted with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the p-type epitaxial layer, and a second region disposed on the first region, the second region being doped with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the first region.

  20. Effect of knee joint angle on side-to-side strength ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Williams, Glenn N

    2014-10-01

    Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength are typically tested at different joint angles due to the differences in length-tension relationships of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The efficiency of strength testing can be improved if the same angle can be used to test both the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal angle for isometric knee strength testing by examining the effect of knee angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios. Eighteen active young people (9 males and 9 females) participated in this study. Knee extensor and knee flexor strength were tested on both sides at 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. The effect of knee flexion angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios, raw torque values, and side-to-side flexor-to-extensor torque ratios were assessed. Side-to-side knee extensor peak torque ratios and knee flexor-to-extensor torque ratios differed significantly by knee flexion angle (p = 0.024 and p = 0.011, respectively), but side-to-side knee flexor peak torque ratios did not differ significantly (p = 0.311). When considering both side-to-side peak torque ratios and flexor-to-extensor torque ratios, the values were more symmetrical (i.e., closer to 100%) only at 60° of knee flexion. Our results indicate that both the knee flexors and the knee extensors can be tested clinically at 60° of knee flexion. Our results also indicate that the hamstrings can be tested at any of the 3 angles if the examiner is interested in side-to-side ratios rather than raw torque values. These results may facilitate more efficient and flexible clinical knee strength testing.

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  2. Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yourself during radiation therapy Radiation therapy can damage healthy body tissues in or near the area being treated, which can cause side effects. Many people worry about this part of their cancer treatment. Before ...

  3. Side- ja turvanguamet / Indrek Süld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süld, Indrek

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: 2003 : annual report : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 34-35; 2003 : godovoi ottshjot : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 34-35. Ülevaade AS-i Eesti Raudtee side- ja turvanguameti tegevusest 2003. aastal. Skeem

  4. Two-sided Heterogeneity and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Moxnes, Andreas; Ulltveit-Moe, Karen Helene

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies of firms within industries consistently report substantial heterogeneity in measures of performance such as size and productivity. This paper explores the consequences of joint heterogeneity on the supply side (sellers) and the demand side (buyers) in international trade using a novel transaction-level dataset from Norway. Domestic exporters as well as foreign importers are explicitly identified in each transaction to every destination. The buyer-seller linked data reveal a ...

  5. Reliability in Source Coding with Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Benjamin G.; Wagner, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    We study error exponents for source coding with side information. Both achievable exponents and converse bounds are obtained for the following two cases: lossless source coding with coded information (SCCSI) and lossy source coding with full side information (Wyner-Ziv). These results recover and extend several existing results on source-coding error exponents and are tight in some circumstances. Our bounds have a natural interpretation as a two-player game between nature and the code designe...

  6. Source Coding with Fixed Lag Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    Martinian, Emin; Wornell, Gregory W.

    2004-01-01

    We consider source coding with fixed lag side information at the decoder. We focus on the special case of perfect side information with unit lag corresponding to source coding with feedforward (the dual of channel coding with feedback) introduced by Pradhan. We use this duality to develop a linear complexity algorithm which achieves the rate-distortion bound for any memoryless finite alphabet source and distortion measure.

  7. The Two Sides of Money Laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Corina – Maria ENE

    2014-01-01

    The mainly goal of money laundering is to carry out more and more illegal economic transactions or activities to produce individual or groups gains and then to legitimate them. Money laundering converts illicit source of money generated by criminal activities in order to hide the connection between money and their original illegal activities. This is one of money laundering side. The second side implies corruption. While money laundering is a passing channel for illicit funds due to its crimi...

  8. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  9. Nonlinear time series analysis of knee and ankle kinematics during side by side treadmill walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessler, Jeff A.; De Leone, Charles J.; Gilliland, Sara

    2009-06-01

    Nonlinear time series analysis was used to estimate maximal Lyapunov exponents of select ankle and knee kinematics during three different conditions of treadmill walking: independent, side by side, and side by side with forced synchronization of stepping. Stride to stride variability was significantly increased for the condition in which individuals walked side by side and synchronized unintentionally when compared to the conditions of forced synchronization and independent walking. In addition, standard deviations of three kinematic variables of lower extremity movement were significantly increased during the condition in which unintentional synchronization occurred. No relationship was found between standard deviation and estimates of maximal Lyapunov exponents. An increase in kinematic variability during side by side walking for nonimpaired individuals who are not at risk of falling suggests that variability in certain aspects of performance might be indicative of a healthy system. Modeling this variability for an impaired individual to imitate may have beneficial effects on locomotor function. These results may therefore have implications for the rehabilitation of gait in humans by suggesting that a different functional outcome might be achieved by practicing side by side walking as opposed to more commonly used strategies involving independent walking.

  10. Hematological Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics cause less frequently extrapyramidal system symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and hyperprolactinemia than typical antipsychotics. However hematological side effects such as leukopenia and neutropenia could occur during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. These side effects could lead to life threatening situations and the mortality rate due to drug related agranulocytosis is about 5-10%. There are several hypothesis describing the mechanisms underlying drug induced leukopenia and/or neutropenia such as direct toxic effects of these drugs upon the bone marrow or myeloid precursors, immunologic destruction of the granulocytes or supression of the granulopoiesis. Clozapine is the antipsychotic agent which has been most commonly associated with agranulocytosis. A nitrenium ion which is formed by the bioactivation of clozapine is thought to have an important role in the pathophysiogy of this adverse effect. Aside from clozapine, there are several case reports reporting an association between olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and leukopenia. We did not find any study or case report presenting amisulpride or sulpride related hematological side effects in our literature search. Patients who had hematological side effects during their previous antipsychotic drug treatments and who had lower baseline blood leukocyte counts, have higher risk to develop leukopenia or neutropenia during their current antipsychotic treatment. Once leukopenia and neutropenia develops, drugs thought to be responsible for this side effect should be discontinued or dosages should be lowered. In some cases iniatition of lithium or G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy may be helpful in normalizing blood cell counts. Clinicans should avoid any combination of drugs known to cause hematological side effects. Besides during antipsychotic treatment, infection symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat or

  11. Temporomandibular disorders: the habitual chewing side syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Santana-Mora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. METHODS: The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. RESULTS: Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher's exact test, P = .003 and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002 were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88 degrees versus 46.16(7.25 degrees; P = .001, and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35 degrees versus 48.32(9.53 degrees P = .036 on the symptomatic side. DISCUSSION: The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, "habitual chewing side syndrome", instead of the nonspecific symptom-based "temporomandibular joint disorders"; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side.

  12. [Selected aspects of oral contraception side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Hubert

    2014-12-01

    The first hormonal pill was approved in the 60s of the twentieth century Since that time, oral contraception has been used worldwide by dozens of women due to its high availability as well as relative ease and safety of taking. The main side effects of oral contraception include elevated risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Estrogens increase the probability of VTE development, depending on the dose in medication, and third-generation progestins increase the risk of VTE development more than older-generation progestins. Also, the coexistence of hereditary thrombophilia increases the risk of VTE development in women using oral contraceptives. Other side effects include changes in the carbohydrate and lipid economy Progestins in oral contraceptives decrease HDL cholesterol levels but increase LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. Additionally estrogens are a recognized mitogenic factor for the epithelium of the mammary gland, acting proliferative on the glandular tissue and in the same way influence on the increased risk of breast cancer development. Patients sometimes complain about some subjective side symptoms such as headache, mood changes, nausea, back pain, breast pain and swelling, as well as decreased libido. Some patients discontinue oral contraception due to fear of side effects or temporary ailments before con- sulting their doctor what may result in unintended pregnancy The aim of the following paper was to present most frequent side effects of oral contraception, ways of their moni- toring and diagnosis. PMID:25669065

  13. The DarkSide-50 outer detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdale, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D’Angelo, D.; D’Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Aldo, Ianni; Andrea, Ianni; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; DSkorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.; The DarkSide Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    DarkSide-50 is a dark matter detection experiment searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), in Gran Sasso National Laboratory. For experiments like DarkSide-50, neutrons are one of the primary backgrounds that can mimic WIMP signals. The experiment consists of three nested detectors: a liquid argon time projection chamber surrounded by two outer detectors. The outermost detector is a 10 m by 11 m cylindrical water Cherenkov detector with 80 PMTs, designed to provide shielding and muon vetoing. Inside the water Cherenkov detector is the 4 m diameter spherical boron-loaded liquid scintillator veto, with a cocktail of pseudocumene, trimethyl borate, and PPO wavelength shifter, designed to provide shielding, neutron vetoing, and in situ measurements of the TPC backgrounds. We present design and performance details of the DarkSide-50 outer detectors.

  14. Communication technologies for demand side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities, specifically for the purposes of Demand Side Management (DSM). Demand Side Management has the objective to change the customer`s end use of energy in a manner that benefits both the customer and the utility. For example, peak demand may be reduced, and the peak demand may be relocated to off peak periods. Thus additional investments in generation and network may be avoided. A number of Demand Side Management functions can be implemented if a communication system is available between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The total communication capacity that is needed, will depend on several factors, such as the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number and type of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, while some other functions need to have two-way communication

  15. One-sided flux of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the one-body window-friction pricture for inelastic heavy-ion collisions the one-sided flux of nucleons passing the window in the mean potential plays the role of the frictional form factor. In this paper a quantum mechanical operator for the one-sided flux is defined. Its expectation value calculated with any given many-body wave function yields the number of particles crossing an area element dA vector per unit time in one direction. The quantum one-sided flux is compared to the classical one calculated with a uniform momentum distribution up to the Fermi momentum. The wave function was taken from a model calculation for a fermion gas in a one-dimensional box. 1 figure

  16. Areeda-turner in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the Areeda–Turner rule to two-sided markets. We show that a two-sided monopolist may find it short-run profit-maximizing to charge a price below marginal cost on one side of the market. Hence showing that the price is below marginal cost on one side of a two-sided market cannot be consider

  17. Update on side effects from common vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Benjamin J; Katial, Rohit K

    2004-11-01

    Vaccines have had a tremendous impact on public health by reducing morbidity and mortality from a variety of virulent pathogens. However, unintended side effects continue to pose a potential risk that may outweigh the vaccine's protective attributes. In this review, we discuss recent articles and controversies pertaining to vaccine-associated adverse events. Included in the discussion are influenza, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. The importance and contribution of vaccine constituents (such as thimerosal) to side effects is also reviewed.

  18. Server-side Statistics Scripting in PHP

    OpenAIRE

    Jan de Leeuw

    1997-01-01

    On the UCLA Statistics WWW server there are a large number of demos and calculators that can be used in statistics teaching and research. Some of these demos require substantial amounts of computation, others mainly use graphics. These calculators and demos are implemented in various different ways, reflecting developments in WWW based computing. As usual, one of the main choices is between doing the work on the client-side (i.e. in the browser) or on the server-side (i.e. on our WWW ser...

  19. Water Quality Performance of Three Side-by-Side Permeable Pavement Surface Materials: Three Year Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities are increasingly installing structural low impact development (LID) practices to mange stormwater and reduce pollutant loads associated with stormwater runoff. Permeable pavement is a LID practice that has limited research on working-scale, side-by-side performance o...

  20. Illinois Early Childhood Program Standards Matrix. (A Side-by-Side Comparison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Human Services, East St. Louis. Head Start State Collaboration Office.

    This document contains a matrix offering a side-by-side comparison of almost 40 criteria among 7 sets of early childhood program standards. The standards are: (1) Head Start Program Performance Standards; (2) Illinois Department of Children and Family Services Child Care Licensing Standards; (3) Illinois Department of Human Services (IDHS) Center…

  1. Computer-mediated communication as a channel for social resistance : The strategic side of SIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Lea, M; Corneliussen, RA; Postmes, T; Ter Haar, W

    2002-01-01

    In two studies, the authors tested predictions derived from the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) concerning the potential of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to serve as a means to resist powerful out-groups. Earlier research using the SIDE model indicates that the anonym

  2. Functionally Graded Ceramics Fabricated with Side-by-Side Tape Casting for Use in Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Bahl, Christian; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm;

    2015-01-01

    Functionally graded ceramic tapes have been fabricated by a side-by-side tape casting technique. This study shows the possibility and describes the main principles of adjacent coflow of slurries resulting in formation of thin plates of graded ceramic material. Results showed that the small variat...

  3. A Numerical Study of Some Potential Sources of Error in Side-by-Side Seismometer Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, L. Gary

    1990-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report presents the results of a series of computer simulations of potential errors in test data, which might be obtained when conducting side-by-side comparisons of seismometers. These results can be used as guides in estimating potential sources and magnitudes of errors one might expect when analyzing real test data. First, the derivation of a direct method for calculating the noise levels of two sensors in a side-by-side evaluation is repeated and extended slightly herein. This bulk of this derivation was presented previously (see Holcomb 1989); it is repeated here for easy reference. This method is applied to the analysis of a simulated test of two sensors in a side-by-side test in which the outputs of both sensors consist of white noise spectra with known signal-to-noise ratios (SNR's). This report extends this analysis to high SNR's to determine the limitations of the direct method for calculating the noise levels at signal-to-noise levels which are much higher than presented previously (see Holcomb 1989). Next, the method is used to analyze a simulated test of two sensors in a side-by-side test in which the outputs of both sensors consist of bandshaped noise spectra with known signal-to-noise ratios. This is a much more realistic representation of real world data because the earth's background spectrum is certainly not flat. Finally, the results of the analysis of simulated white and bandshaped side-by-side test data are used to assist in interpreting the analysis of the effects of simulated azimuthal misalignment in side-by-side sensor evaluations. A thorough understanding of azimuthal misalignment errors is important because of the physical impossibility of perfectly aligning two sensors in a real world situation. The analysis herein indicates that alignment errors place lower limits on the levels of system noise which can be resolved in a side-by-side measurement. It also indicates that alignment errors are the source of the fact that

  4. Protection of the side of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, A; Mills, N J

    1996-07-01

    The side of the head is a frequent impact site for pedal cyclists, motorcyclists, and industrial workers. It is vulnerable to impact, yet many helmet standards do not have impact tests at the side of the helmet. Laboratory impact tests should reproduce the phenomena in real impacts, but usually they do not allow the headform to rotate, or ignore the effect of the neck on the motion of the head. The authors designed a linkage, simulating the flexibility of the neck, for use with anthropomorphic dummies in helmet testing. Impacts at the side of the helmet, normal to the helmet surface, were made with flat and hemispherical strikers. Head rotation during impacts caused the impact site to move, in some cases to below the level protected by the helmet. The peak angular head acceleration correlated with the peak linear accelerations. Neck flexibility means that helmets can protect the head from higher kinetic energy impacts than those specified in standards using immovable headforms or impact anvils. The load spreading efficiency of polypropylene foam, used in soft shell bicycle helmets, is better than that of polystyrene foam. The authors conclude that the side of the head can be protected by a suitable helmet design.

  5. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, or...

  6. Struck by a lance through his side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Boldsen, Jesper Lier

    2010-01-01

    The Danish King Canute the Saint was killed in St Alban church in Odense July 1086. According to a legend the king was kneeling in prayers when a lance thrust to his side killed him. Our re-examination of the skeleton presumed to belong to Canute showed a slimly build man with an approximate...

  7. On one-sided torsion pair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the concept of a torsion pair in a pre-triangulated category induced by Beligiannis and Reiten, the notion of a left (right) torsion pair in the left (right) triangulated category is introduced and investigated. We provide new connections between different aspects of torsion pairs in one-sided triangulated categories, pre-triangulated categories, stable categories and derived categories.

  8. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  9. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  10. Analyzing One-Sided vs. Two-Sided Subduction Arising from Mantle Convection Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. S.; Becker, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Purely thermal plate tectonic generation models struggle to consistently reproduce one-sided subduction as is observed on Earth (Tackley 2000; Van Heck and Tackley 2008; Foley and Becker 2009), and instead produce two-sided subduction where the subducting slab contains a significant flux of material from both plates. The models of Crameri et al. (2012) demonstrate that the implementation of a free upper surface boundary condition and the inclusion of a weak hydrated crust can facilitate one-sided subduction. We employ a similar model configuration to Crameri et al. (2012) to further investigate the dynamics and energetics which are associated with one-sided vs. two-sided subduction. We use a 2D finite difference code based off of the algorithms of I2ELVIS (Gerya and Yuen 2007) where material parameters are tracked on Lagrangian markers and the Stokes and Energy equations are solved on a Cartesian grid. A free surface is implemented by a low viscosity and density 'sticky air layer' (Schmeling et al., 2008; Crameri et al., 2012) with the stabilization routine of Duretz et al. (2011) to prevent the 'drunken seaman' instability (Kaus et al., 2010). The effects of a weak crust, shear heating, a free surface or free slip upper mechanical boundary condition, plasticity as a function of depth or pressure, and the sticky air layer thermal conductivity on one-sided vs. two-sided subduction are investigated. When we observe one-sided subduction it is transient and can smoothly evolve back to a two-sided configuration. In our models, 'sidedness' is a spectrum, rather than either discretely one or two sided, and the models move between the two regimes throughout the model runs. We observe that the thermal conductivity of the sticky air layer can influence the dynamics of the convective domain. Elevated values of thermal conductivity compared to those of rock must be implemented in the sticky air layer in order to maintain a constant temperature at the surface of the convective

  11. Effects of number of side dumps and side dump angles on outlet parameters in a side-dump combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedpoor, M.; Doustdar, M. M.; Soltani, H.; Chegini, M.

    2012-11-01

    A numerical study on the effect of side-dump number on fuel droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been investigated in present paper. The mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit is named as the effective mass fraction. In the first step we have considered a side-dump combustor with two dumps and dump angle of 0o (plumb to cylinder) and by increasing the entrance airflow velocity from 20 to 30, 40 and 50 (m/s) respectively, the mean diameter of fuel droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied. After this step, we have changed the number of dumps from two to four and we have repeated last examination again. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multiphase, multicomponent code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

  12. Server-side Statistics Scripting in PHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan de Leeuw

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available On the UCLA Statistics WWW server there are a large number of demos and calculators that can be used in statistics teaching and research. Some of these demos require substantial amounts of computation, others mainly use graphics. These calculators and demos are implemented in various different ways, reflecting developments in WWW based computing. As usual, one of the main choices is between doing the work on the client-side (i.e. in the browser or on the server-side (i.e. on our WWW server. Obviously, client-side computation puts fewer demands on the server. On the other hand, it requires that the client downloads Java applets, or installs plugins and/or helpers. If JavaScript is used, client-side computations will generally be slow. We also have to assume that the client is installed properly, and has the required capabilities. Requiring too much on the client-side has caused browsing machines such as Netscape Communicator to grow beyond all reasonable bounds, both in size and RAM requirements. Moreover requiring Java and JavaScript rules out such excellent browsers as Lynx or Emacs W3. For server-side computing, we can configure the server and its resources ourselves, and we need not worry about browser capabilities and configuration. Nothing needs to be downloaded, except the usual HTML pages and graphics. In the same way as on the client side, there is a scripting solution, where code is interpreted, or a ob ject-code solution using compiled code. For the server-side scripting, we use embedded languages, such as PHP/FI. The scripts in the HTML pages are interpreted by a CGI program, and the output of the CGI program is send to the clients. Of course the CGI program is compiled, but the statistics procedures will usually be interpreted, because PHP/FI does not have the appropriate functions in its scripting language. This will tend to be slow, because embedded languages do not deal efficiently with loops and similar constructs. Thus a first

  13. The Dark Side of the Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A combo photo released by the China National Space Administration(CNSA)on December 11 shows a crater on the dark side of the moon.This image was reportedly taken by Chang’e-1, the country’s first lunar probe,on December 4. On December 12,a grand ceremony was held in Beijing to celebrate the success of the first stage of China’s lunar probe program.President Hu Jintao announced on the occasion that the

  14. Photon side-bands in mesoscopics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews several applications of photonic side bands, used by Buttiker and Landauer (Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1739 (1982)) in their theory of traversal time in tunneling, in transport and optics of mesoscopic systems. Topics include generalizations of the transmission theory of transport to...... time-dependent situations, optics and transport of mesoscopic systems in THz electromagnetic fields, and phase-measurements of photon-assisted tunneling through a quantum dot. (C) 1998 Academic Press Limited....

  15. The light and dark side of TARP

    OpenAIRE

    Uhde, Andre; Farruggio, Christian; Tobias C. Michalak

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the impact of the first announcement of TARP, the announcement of revised TARP, respective capital infusions under TARP-CPP and capital repayments on changes in shareholder value and the risk exposure of supported U.S. banks. Our analysis reveals a light and a dark side of TARP. While announcements as well as capital repayments may provoke positive wealth effects and a decrease in bank risk, equity capital injections to banks are observed to be a severe imp...

  16. The human side of animal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2001-01-01

    An important element of behavioral research with nonhuman animals is that insights are drawn from it about human behavior, what is called here the human side of animal behavior. This article examines the origins of comparing human behavior to that of other animals, the ways in which such comparisons are described, and considerations that arise in evaluating the validity of those comparisons. The rationale for such an approach originated in the reductionism of experimental physiology and the u...

  17. Opiates and elderly: Use and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L Chau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Diane L Chau1, Vanessa Walker2, Latha Pai3, Lwin M Cho4University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA 1Division Geriatric Medicine, 2Internal Medicine, 3Psychiatry, 4Geriatric Medicine, Sierra Nevada Healthcare System, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Reno, NV, USAAbstract: The evaluation of pain and the subsequent issue of pain control is a clinical challenge that all healthcare providers face. Pain in the elderly population is especially difficult given the myriad of physiological, pharmacological, and psychological aspects of caring for the geriatric patient. Opiates are the mainstay of pain treatment throughout all age groups but special attention must be paid to the efficacy and side effects of these powerful drugs when prescribing to a population with impaired metabolism, excretion and physical reserve. In a random chart review of 300 US veterans, 44% of those receiving an analgesic also received opioids. The increasing use of opiates for pain management by healthcare practitioners requires that those prescribing opioids be aware of the special considerations for treating the elderly. This article will address the precautions one must take when using opiates in the geriatric population, as well as the side effects and ways to minimize them.Keywords: opiates, pain, elderly, side effects

  18. Side-information Scalable Source Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Chao

    2007-01-01

    The problem of side-information scalable (SI-scalable) source coding is considered in this work, where the encoder constructs a progressive description, such that the receiver with high quality side information will be able to truncate the bitstream and reconstruct in the rate distortion sense, while the receiver with low quality side information will have to receive further data in order to decode. We provide inner and outer bounds for general discrete memoryless sources. The achievable region is shown to be tight for the case that either of the decoders requires a lossless reconstruction, as well as the case with degraded deterministic distortion measures. Furthermore we show that the gap between the achievable region and the outer bounds can be bounded by a constant when square error distortion measure is used. The notion of perfectly scalable coding is introduced as both the stages operate on the Wyner-Ziv bound, and necessary and sufficient conditions are given for sources satisfying a mild support condi...

  19. Safety Assessment for a Side-by-side Offloading Mooring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Sun; Qiang He; Shangmao Ai

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the safety properties of an offloading system with side-by-side (SBS) mooring in which the FPSO is moored by a yoke system in the field of BZ25-1,it is necessary to analyze those properties.According to the experience of similar projects,tow strategies of different offloading arrangements were discussed by using the 3-D radiation/diffraction theory and quasi-static time domain method to assess their respective safety properties.Through the safety assessment analysis of different arrangement comparisons,various ways to improve the safety properties of offloading systems with side-by-side mooring were verified by analyzing the tension in the mooring lines and the fender deflection.Through comparison it can be concluded that by enlarging the key factors properly,including the size of the fenders and the hawsers as well as the number of hawsers,a better satiety performance can be achieved.

  20. Side-to-Side Cold Welding for Controllable Nanogap Formation from "Dumbbell" Ultrathin Gold Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaole; Wang, Binjun; Xu, Shang; Lu, Yang; Shen, Yajing

    2016-06-01

    Cold welding has been regarded as a promising bottom-up nanofabrication technique because of its ability to join metallic nanostructures at room temperature with low applied stress and without introducing damage. Usually, the cold welding process can be done instantaneously for ultrathin nanowires (diameter welded in the "side-to-side" mode in a highly controllable manner and can form an extremely small nanogap via a relatively slow welding process (up to tens of minutes, allowing various functional applications). By combining in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis and molecular dynamic simulations, we further reveal the underlying mechanism for this "side-to-side" welding process as being dominated by atom kinetics instead of thermodynamics, which provides critical insights into three-dimensional nanosystem integration as well as the building of functional nanodevices. PMID:27173140

  1. Electronic vs. Open Outcry: Side-by-Side Trading of KCBT Wheat Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Samarth; Brorsen, B. Wade

    2011-01-01

    This study compares liquidity costs of electronic and open-outcry wheat futures contracts traded side-by-side on the Kansas City Board of Trade. Liquidity costs are considerably lower in the electronic market. Liquidity costs in the electronic market are still considerably lower after eliminating the bias created by splitting orders in the electronic market. Price volatility and transaction size are positively related to liquidity costs, while a negative relation is found between daily volume...

  2. 2D flow around stationary side-by-side square columns at low Reynolds number

    OpenAIRE

    Mengzhao, Guan; Shengwei, Ma; Siracusa, Francesca; Chang-Wei, Kang; Teck-Bin Arthur, Lim; Weymouth, Gabriel; Tutty, Owen; Mingyi, Tan; Hudson, Dominic; Kumar Jaiman, Rajeev; Chih-Hua, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Flow over two side-by-side square columns is studied numerically and experimentally at low Reynolds number (Re=100-200) to investigate the effects of the gap distance on the behaviour of the flow. Different gap distances between two square columns are simulated to analyse the interactions of laminar wakes with a gap flow. Four different flow regimes are observed based on different gap distance. Experimental test are performed to validate the simulations. A new water tank has been built specif...

  3. Stabilization of Gob-Side Entry with an Artificial Side for Sustaining Mining Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-sheng Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A concrete artificial side (AS is introduced to stabilize a gob-side entry (GSE. To evaluate the stability of the AS, a uniaxial compression failure experiment was conducted with large and small-scale specimens. The distribution characteristics of the shear stress were obtained from a numerical simulation. Based on the failure characteristics and the variation of the shear stress, a failure criterion was determined and implemented in the strengthening method for the artificial side. In an experimental test, the distribution pattern of the maximum shear stress showed an X shape, which contributed to the failure shape of the specimen. The shear stress distribution and failure shape are induced by a combination of two sets of shear stresses, which implies that failure of the AS follows the twin shear strength theory. The use of anchor bolts, bolts, and anchor bars enhances the shear strength of the artificial side. When this side is stable, the components can constrain the lateral deformation as well as improve the internal friction angle and cohesion. When the AS is damaged, the components prevent the sliding of broken blocks along the shear failure plane and improve the residual strength of the artificial side. When reinforced with an anchor bar, the AS is still stable even after mining operations for three years.

  4. Angle Specific Analysis of Side-to-Side Asymmetry in the Shoulder Rotators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio V. Ruas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although side-to-side asymmetry of the shoulder rotators calculated by independent peak torque (IPT has been used for interpretation of injury risks in athletes, it may not measure strength through the entire range of motion (ROM tested. The aim of this study was to compare side-to-side asymmetry of the shoulder rotators between independent peak torque (IPT and ten-degree angle specific torque (AST. Twenty healthy adult males (24.65 ± 2.4 years performed concentric and eccentric internal rotation (IR and external rotation (ER of the preferred and non-preferred arms on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s through 150° of total ROM. The total ROM was divided into 14 ten-degree angles of the physiological ROM from −90° of ER to 60° of IR. Concentric and eccentric IR IPT (10.5% ± 8.7% and 12.1% ± 7.2% and ER IPT (13.6% ± 9.8% and 8.7% ± 5.6% were significantly less than AST at several angles (p < 0.05. IPT might lead to erroneous interpretations of side-to-side asymmetry in the shoulder rotators and does not represent the entire ROM tested. This information could be used to prescribe strength exercises to enhance overhead performance and reduce risk of shoulder injuries.

  5. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.M., Bruzell; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.;

    2013-01-01

    -office = 39.3% [n = 28]; p >0.05; 95% CI [OR]: 0.198‑1.102) whereas prevalence of gingival irritation was higher after in-office treatment (at-home = 14.0%; in-office = 35.7%; p ... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  6. Cardiologic side effects of psychotropic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Marano; Gianandrea Traversi; Enrico Romagnoli; Valeria Catalano; Marzia Lotrionte; Antonio Abbate; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai; Marianna Mazza

    2011-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs can produce cardiovascular side effects associated with a degree of cardiotoxicity.The coexistence of a heart disease complicates the management of mental illness,can contribute to a reduced quality of life and a worse illness course.The co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders in cardiac patients might affect the clinical outcome and morbidity.Moreover,the complex underlying mechanism that links these two conditions remains unclear.This paper discusses the known cardiovascular complications of psychotropic drugs and analyzes the important implications of antidepressive treatment in patients with previous cardiac history.

  7. The Other Side of GDP Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan Yong; Cai Fang

    2011-01-01

    @@ THE rise of China's GDP ranking has not only led the world to rediscover China, but also reminded China to examine its own development.Both sides of the issue should be considered. On the one hand, China topping Japan [the world's previous second largest economy] in terms of GDP marks the rising of Chinas economic status, which is a milestone in the modern world economic history since Japan replaced the former Federal Republic of Germany as the world's second largest economy in 1968.

  8. Side chain polysiloxanes with phthalocyanine moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ganicz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Side chain polysiloxane with 5-(pentyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine moieties is synthesized by hydrosilylation reaction. The phase behavior and thermooptical properties of the polysiloxane and starting 2-(pent-4-enyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine is examined by POM (Polarizing optical microscopy, TOA (thermooptical analysis, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, AFM (atomic force microscopy and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering studies. The effect of the attachment of phthalocyanine to polysiloxane chains over phase transitions and phase morphology is discussed in details.

  9. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2003-12-01

    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO{sub 2} mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka. (author)

  10. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO2 mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka

  11. The Right Side of Einstein's Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegel, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in observational cosmology have led to attempts to make modifications on both sides of the Einstein equation to explain some of the puzzling new findings. What follows is an examination of the source of gravity that we usually find on the right hand side of Einstein's equation. The outcome is a modified version of the stress-energy tensor that is the source of the gravitational field. The derivation is based on the kinetic theory of a gas of identical particles with no internal structure. The presentation here is in two parts. In Part I, I describe the stress tensor that Xinzhong Chen and I have proposed for the matter tensor for a nonrelativistic gas with input from Hongling Rao and Jean-Luc Thiffeault. Our derivation of the equations of fluid dynamics is based on kinetic theory without recourse to the standard Chapman-Enskog approximation. In Part II, I present the analogous derivation of our form for the stress-energy tensor in the relativistic case. Then I exhibit its application to th...

  12. Antilensing: the bright side of voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; Bacon, David; Meures, Nikolai; Beynon, Emma

    2013-01-11

    More than half of the volume of our Universe is occupied by cosmic voids. The lensing magnification effect from those underdense regions is generally thought to give a small dimming contribution: objects on the far side of a void are supposed to be observed as slightly smaller than if the void were not there, which together with conservation of surface brightness implies net reduction in photons received. This is predicted by the usual weak lensing integral of the density contrast along the line of sight. We show that this standard effect is swamped at low redshifts by a relativistic Doppler term that is typically neglected. Contrary to the usual expectation, objects on the far side of a void are brighter than they would be otherwise. Thus the local dynamics of matter in and near the void is crucial and is only captured by the full relativistic lensing convergence. There are also significant nonlinear corrections to the relativistic linear theory, which we show actually underpredicts the effect. We use exact solutions to estimate that these can be more than 20% for deep voids. This remains an important source of systematic errors for weak lensing density reconstruction in galaxy surveys and for supernovae observations, and may be the cause of the reported extra scatter of field supernovae located on the edge of voids compared to those in clusters. PMID:23383886

  13. THE TWO SIDES OF MONEY LAUNDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina – Maria ENE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mainly goal of money laundering is to carry out more and more illegal economic transactions or activities to produce individual or groups gains and then to legitimate them. Money laundering converts illicit source of money generated by criminal activities in order to hide the connection between money and their original illegal activities. This is one of money laundering side. The second side implies corruption. While money laundering is a passing channel for illicit funds due to its criminal origin source, such funds may derive from corruption offences. All corruption’s forms represent the most important illicit funds branches for money laundering process. Corrupt people methods used to exploit the national and international financial system reflect the relationship between those two criminal activities. Criminals achieve their personal interests by hiding their corruption proceeds and transfer these gains to official economies. Corruption spread in any society entails money laundering spread, and the converse, too. There is a quite “indecent” relationship between money laundering and corruption. This paper tries to identify the multiple connections between the two phenomenons showing the negative impacts these criminal behaviours are having on the national and international economy. We conclude by highlighting the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach in order to fight against money laundering and corruption by integrating these problem frameworks at national level. International community must focus their resources on money laundering and corruption risks areas and maximize their response impact.

  14. Side effects of cytokines approved for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A

    2014-11-01

    Cytokines, currently known to be more than 130 in number, are small MW (aldesleukin (rhIL-2), oprelvekin (rhIL-11), filgrastim and tbo-filgrastim (rhG-CSF), sargramostim (rhGM-CSF), metreleptin (rh-leptin) and the rh-erythropoietins, epoetin and darbepoietin alfa. Anakinra, a recombinant receptor antagonist for IL-1, is in the IL-1 family; recombinant interferons alfa-1, alfa-2, beta-1 and gamma-1 make up the interferon family; palifermin (rhKGF) and becaplermin (rhPDGF) are in the PDGF family; and rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 represent the TGFβ family. The main physicochemical features, FDA-approved indications, modes of action and side effects of these approved cytokines are presented. Underlying each adverse events profile is their pleiotropism, potency and capacity to release other cytokines producing cytokine 'cocktails'. Side effects, some serious, occur despite cytokines being endogenous proteins, and this therefore demands caution in attempts to introduce individual members into the clinic. This caution is reflected in the relatively small number of cytokines currently approved by regulatory agencies and by the fact that 14 of the FDA-approved preparations carry warnings, with 10 being black box warnings. PMID:25270293

  15. On flow equivalence of one-sided topological Markov shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    We introduce notions of suspension and flow equivalence on one-sided topological Markov shifts, which we call one-sided suspension and one-sided flow equivalence, respectively. We prove that one-sided flow equivalence is equivalent to continuous orbit equivalence on one-sided topological Markov shifts. We also show that the zeta function of the flow on a one-sided suspension is a dynamical zeta function with some potential function and that the set of certain dynamical zeta functions is invar...

  16. Demand Side Management in non-residential buildings; Demand Side Management in Nichtwohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungwirth, Johannes [Technische Univ. Muenchen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik (IfE)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the fluctuating supply characteristics and a paradigm shift, the strong expansion of renewable energy generators expect the structure of the concept of energy supply. An integration of renewables into the electricity grid requires new ways to compensate the discrepancy between production and consumption. The implementation of a demand-side management requires an electrical load and the possibility to control consumers in response to an external signal. From this perspective, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on innovative systems for the realization of a demand-side management in non-residential buildings.

  17. Narrating narcolepsy--centering a side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The mass-vaccination with Pandemrix was the most important preventive measure in Sweden during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, and covered 60% of the population. From 2010, an increased incidence of the neurological disease narcolepsy was reported, and an association with Pandemrix was affirmed for more than 200 children and young adults. The parental experience of this side effect provided a starting point for a collectively shaped critical narrative to be acted out in public, but also personalized narratives of continual learning about the disease and its consequences. This didactic functionality resulted in active meaning-making practices about how to handle the aftermath--using dark humor, cognitive tricks, and making themselves and their children's bodies both objects and subjects of knowledge. Using material from interviews with parents, this mixing of knowledge work and political work, and the potential for reflective consciousness, is discussed.

  18. Industrial demand side management: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, M.F.; Conger, R.L.; Foley, T.J. [and others

    1995-05-01

    This report provides an overview of and rationale for industrial demand side management (DSM) programs. Benefits and barriers are described, and data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey are used to estimate potential energy savings in kilowatt hours. The report presents types and examples of programs and explores elements of successful programs. Two in-depth case studies (from Boise Cascade and Eli Lilly and Company) illustrate two types of effective DSM programs. Interviews with staff from state public utility commissions indicate the current thinking about the status and future of industrial DSM programs. A comprehensive bibliography is included, technical assistance programs are listed and described, and a methodology for evaluating potential or actual savings from projects is delineated.

  19. Object detection in side scan sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwu; Cheng, Binbin; Chen, Yao

    2015-12-01

    Automatic target detection is a challenging task as the response from an underwater target may vary greatly depending on its configuration, sonar parameters and the environment. We propose a Z- test algorithm for target detection in side scan sonar image which avoids this problem that covers the variation in the target response. A Z-test is performed on the means of the pixel gray levels within and outside the window area, a detection being called when the value of test statistic feature exceeds a certain threshold. The algorithm is formulated for real-time execution on limited memory commercial-of-the-shelf platforms and is capable of detection objects on the seabed-bottom.

  20. The Siding Spring Hazard at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Bauer, James; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony; Li, Jian-Yang; Samarasinha, Nalin; Stevenson, Rachel; Tricarico, Pasquale

    2014-02-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will pass Mars at the extremely close distance of 136,000 km in Oct 2014, giving Mars orbiting spacecraft an up-close and unprecedented view of this dynamically new comet. However, 100 minutes after the closest approach to the nucleus, Mars passes within 30,000 km of the comet's orbit. Here, large dust grains may be found on impacting trajectories, potentially posing a fatal hazard to the spacecraft. Such large grains must be ejected from the comet nucleus well before the time of encounter. Therefore, we propose IRAC imaging of this comet to assess the present-day gas production rate, which will aid dust impact hazard assessment.

  1. The quantum capacity with symmetric side channels

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, G; Winter, A; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A.; Winter, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We present an upper bound for the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex. Our bound can be interpreted as the capacity of a channel for high-fidelity communication when assisted by the family of all channels mapping symmetrically to their output and environment. The bound seems to be quite tight, and for degradable quantum channels it coincides with the unassisted channel capacity. Using this symmetric side channel capacity, we find new upper bounds on the capacity of the depolarizing channel. We also briefly indicate an analogous notion for distilling entanglement using the same class of (one-way) channels, yielding one of the few genuinely 1-LOCC monotonic entanglement measures.

  2. The two sides of silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Devine, S R

    2001-01-01

    /p/n sup + and essentially two p-n junctions within one device. With increasing bias voltage, as the electric field is extending into the detector bulk from opposite sides of the silicon detector, there are two distinct depletion regions that collect charge signal independently. Summing the signal charge from the two regions, one is able to reconstruct the initial energy of the incident particle. From Transient Current measurements it is apparent that E-field manipulation is possible by excess carrier injection, enabling a high enough E-field to extend across the width of the detector, allowing for efficient charge collection. Results are presented on in situ irradiation of silicon detector's at cryogenic temperature. The results show that irradiation at cryogenic temperatures does not detrimentally effect a silicon detectors performance when compared to its irradiation at room temperature. Operation of silicon devices at cryogenic temperatures offers the advantage of reducing radiation-induced leakage curren...

  3. Side-Scan-Sonar Points for Hudson River, NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Side Scan Point Files. These points correspond to individual pings which produced hte side-scan-sonar backscatter imagery. Sonar data were collected November 6 to...

  4. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW OVER TWO SIDE-BY-SIDE CIRCULAR CYLINDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SARVGHAD-MOGHADDAM Hesam; NOOREDIN Navid; GHADIRI-DEHKORDI Behzad

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper,the unsteady,viscous,incompressible and 2-D flow around two side-by-side circular cylinders was simulated using a Cartesian-staggered grid finite volume based method.A great-source term technique was employed to identify the solid bodies (cylinders) located in the flow field and boundary conditions were enforced by applying the ghost-cell technique.Finally,the characteristics of the flow around two side-by-side cylinders were comprehensively obtained through several computational simulations.The computational simulations were performed for different transverse gap ratios (1.5≤T/D≤4) in laminar (Re =100,200 ) and turbulent (Re =104) regimes,where T and D are the distance between the centers of cylinders and the diameter of cylinders,respectively.The Reynolds number is based on the diameter of cylinders,D.The pressure field and vorticity distributions along with the associated streamlines and the time histories of hydrodynamic forces were also calculated and analyzed for different gap ratios.Generally,different flow patterns were observed as the gap ratio and Reynolds number varied.Accordingly,the hydrodynamic forces showed irregular variations for small gaps while they took a regular pattern at higher spacing ratios.

  5. LARGE EDDY SIMULATION AND SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF FLOW AROUND TWO SQUARE CYLINDERS ARRANGED SIDE BY SIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏英杰; 朱蒙生; 何钟怡

    2004-01-01

    Large eddy simulation cooperated with the second order full extension ETG (Euler-Taylor-Galerkin) finite element method was applied to simulate the flow around two square cylinders arranged side by side at a spacing ratio of 1.5. The second order full extension ETG finite element method was developed by Wang and He. By means of Taylor expansion of terms containing time derivative, time derivative is replaced by space derivative. The function of it is equal to introducing an artificial viscosity term. The streamlines of the flow at different moments were obtained. The time history of drag coefficient, lift coefficient and the streamwise velocity on the symmetrical points were presented. Furthermore, the symmetrical problem of the frequency spectrum of flow around two square cylinders arranged side by side were studied by using the spectral analysis technology. The data obtained at the initial stage are excluded in order to avoid the influence of initial condition on the results. The power spectrums of drag coefficient, lift coefficient, the streamwise velocity on the symmetrical points were analyzed respectively.The results show that although the time domain process of dynamic parameters is nonsymmetrical, the frequency domain process of them is symmetrical under the symmetrical boundary conditions.

  6. Quantitative flow characteristics for side-by-side square cylinders via PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Sercan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, instantaneous and time-averaged flow structures downstream of the sharp-edged single and two and three side-by-side square cylinders (SCs immersed in a uniform open channel water flow were studied by a technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV. Experimental results of wake flow structures were presented for gap ratios (G/D in the range of 1.0”G/D”3.0 for Reynolds number values of 1050, 2450 and 3400. Flow structures depending on the square cylinder (SC configurations and Reynolds number were discussed. It has been found that the development of the vortex shedding as well as the flow structure were substantially altered for side-by-side SCs comparing to the single SC. Asymmetrical and biased wake structures were observed because of the jetlike flow between the SCs for two SCs cases for the gap ratio less than 2.0. Depending on the gap spacing between the SCs, the interaction results of time2 averaged vorticity, velocity vector field, Reynolds stress correlations and streamline patterns in the wake region form a distinguished flow structure. Strouhal numbers for the single square cylinder for 1050≤Re≤3400 are found in the range of 0.12-0.13. The present results have supported the previous works by providing detailed quantitative experimental information with PIV in the wake region of the SC and might be helpful for validation of numerical studies and designers.

  7. Organizational mediators siding with or against the powerful party?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; P. Laskewitz; E. van de Vliert

    1994-01-01

    Examined whether, instead of being impartial, a mediator may side with one party as a function of the disputants' power differences (power balancing theory), the mediator's legitimacy judgments (siding theory), or the disputants' capacity to sanction the mediator (siding theory). A questionnaire stu

  8. Market definition in two-sided markets : Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Geradin, D.A.A.G.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Affeldt, P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the economics of two-sided markets, we provide suggestions for the definition of the relevant market in cases involving two-sided platforms, such as media outlets, online intermediaries, payment cards companies, and auction houses. We also discuss when a one-sided approach may be harmle

  9. Flow and wall shear stress in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomosis of venous coronary artery bypass grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulikakos Dimos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery represents the standard treatment of advanced coronary artery disease. Two major types of anastomosis exist to connect the graft to the coronary artery, i.e., by using an end-to-side or a side-to-side anastomosis. There is still controversy because of the differences in the patency rates of the two types of anastomosis. The purpose of this paper is to non-invasively quantify hemodynamic parameters, such as mass flow and wall shear stress (WSS, in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomoses of patients with CABG using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. Methods One patient with saphenous CABG and end-to-side anastomosis and one patient with saphenous CABG and side-to-side anastomosis underwent 16-detector row computed tomography (CT. Geometric models of coronary arteries and bypasses were reconstructed for CFD analysis. Blood flow was considered pulsatile, laminar, incompressible and Newtonian. Peri-anastomotic mass flow and WSS were quantified and flow patterns visualized. Results CFD analysis based on in-vivo CT coronary angiography data was feasible in both patients. For both types of CABG, flow patterns were characterized by a retrograde flow into the native coronary artery. WSS variations were found in both anastomoses types, with highest WSS values at the heel and lowest WSS values at the floor of the end-to-side anastomosis. In contrast, the highest WSS values of the side-to-side anastomosis configuration were found in stenotic vessel segments and not in the close vicinity of the anastomosis. Flow stagnation zones were found in end-to-side but not in side-to-side anastomosis, the latter also demonstrating a smoother stream division throughout the cardiac cycle. Conclusion CFD analysis of venous CABG based on in-vivo CT datasets in patients was feasible producing qualitative and quantitative information on mass flow and WSS. Differences were found between the two types of anastomosis

  10. Side Chain Engineering in Solution-Processable Conjugated Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo

    2014-01-14

    Side chains in conjugated polymers have been primarily utilized as solubilizing groups. However, these side chains have roles that are far beyond. We advocate using side chain engineering to tune a polymer\\'s physical properties, including absorption, emission, energy level, molecular packing, and charge transport. To date, numerous flexible substituents suitable for constructing side chains have been reported. In this Perspective article, we advocate that the side chain engineering approach can advance better designs for next-generation conjugated polymers. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see §...

  12. Hyperprolactinaemia - a risperidone side-effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahovac, Tanja; Ruzić, Klementina; Medved, Paola; Pavesić-Radonja, Aristea; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta

    2010-03-01

    A 47 year old patient has been treated for psychotic depression for the last 5 years. The illness began manifesting through the symptoms of depressive thoughts, intrapsychic tension, projectivity, derealisation phenomena and pre-psychotic fears. She was treated with a combination of antidepressives, anxiolitics and hypnotics in ambulatory conditions. The therapy applied did not obtain the effects expected due to which an atypical antipsychotic was administered subsequently - risperidone, a 2 mg dose in the evening. After commencing the antipsychotic treatment, the symptoms started to weaken and a steady remission was obtained. Two years after a regular risperidone administration (in combination with fluoxetine, alprazolam and flurazepam) the patient reported some "bleeding" in October 2006. Hormonal blood tests were performed and high prolactin values were registered (2567.0 mIJ/L),due to which a gradual risperidone retractement was indicated. Medicamentous hyperprolactinaemia is a well known side effect of risperidone. A gradual risperidone retractement lead to a lowered and normal prolactin level within a month. PMID:20305606

  13. The Darker Side of the Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Mignolo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Darker Side of the Renaissance focuses on coloniality rather than on Europe’s witch and alchemist hunt. Today I would dare to say also that this expression refers us to the historical foundation of coloniality. At the same time, coloniality statement is called into question, as well as the distinction between the known object and the knowing subject, an assumption on which the Eurocentric project of “modernity” and “modernization” disciplines lie. The preface marks the enunciation with which the statement is stated. That is, it rejects the "point zero epistemology" denounced by Santiago Castro-Gómez. This means the reader should be always pay attention to the ennunciation s/he states him/herself, to the hand drawing the hand. Those of us dwelling at Abya-Yala/America are surrounded by the historical foundation of modernity/coloniality, we are a living part of that process, which only “scientific” alignment can make us believe we are looking at something (e.g., colonization touching what we are today

  14. Dynamic model for automotive side impact crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ludong; Taghvaeeyan, Saber; Rajamani, Rajesh

    2014-07-01

    A rigid body model to represent a side impact crash is constructed using five degrees-of-freedom (dof) for the vehicle and three dof for each occupant in the vehicle. Nonlinear stiffness and damping elements and the presence of physical gaps between several components make the model highly nonlinear. The model is validated using experimental crash test data from a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) database. To simplify the parameter identification process and reduce the number of parameters to be identified at each stage, a two-step process is adopted in which the vehicle is first assumed to be unaffected by the presence of the occupants, and its model parameters are identified. Subsequently, the parameters in the occupant models are identified. The active set method with a performance index that includes both the L2 and L∞ norms is used for parameter identification. A challenge is posed by the fact that the optimisation problem involved is non-convex. To overcome this challenge, a large set of random initial values of parameter estimates is generated and the optimisation method is applied with all these initial conditions. The values of parameters that provide the minimal performance index from the entire set of initial conditions are then chosen as the best parameter values. The optimal parameters values thus identified are shown to significantly improve the match between the model responses and the experimentally measured sensor signals from the NHTSA crash test.

  15. Incentives for demand-side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state`s progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  16. Incentives for demand-side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. (Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state's progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  17. The Dark side of World of Warcraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    understand, perceive or conceptualise fellow players in-side the game world. The analysis of ‘the other’ in WoW rests upon Jean-Paul Sartre’s phenomenological description of ‘the other’ through ‘the look’ in Being and Nothingness (1992). According to Sartre do living beings become aware of themselves through...... as embedded in architectural layout of game world. The ‘look’ of the other can emanate from buildings as Sartre points out in Being and Nothingness or as Michel Foucault teaches us in Discipline and Punish (1995) when he describes how ‘the look’ works as a social disciplining power embedded...... in the architectural design or as this paper argues in the spatial design of WoW. The analysis of ‘the look’ embedded in the spatial design of WoW’s game world and how it influences players perception of each other rests on Foucault’s epistemological insights. The juxtaposition of Sartre’s phenomenology and Foucault...

  18. Cardiovascular side effects of psychopharmacologic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potočnjak, Ines; Degoricija, Vesna; Vukičević Baudoin, Dina; Čulig, Josip; Jakovljević, Miro

    2016-09-15

    WHO defined in 1976 psychopharmaca as drugs affecting psychological functions, behaviour and self-perception. Psychopharmacology is the study of pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a transdisciplinary, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders often occur in cardiac patients and can affect the clinical presentation and morbidity. Cardiovascular (CV) side effects (SE) caused by psychopharmaceutic agents require comprehensive attention. Therapeutic approach can increase placebo and decrease nocebo reactions. The main purpose of this review is to comprehend CV SE of psychotropic drugs (PD). Critical overview of CV SE of PD will be presented in this review. Search was directed but not limited to CV effects of psychopharmacological substances, namely antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antidepressants and stimulants. Literature review was performed and data identified by searches of Medline and PubMed for period from 2004 to 2015. Only full articles and abstracts published in English were included. SE of PD are organized according to the following types of CV effects: cardiac and circulatory effects, abnormalities of cardiac repolarisation and arrhythmias and heart muscle disease. There is wide spectrum and various CV effects of PD. Results of this review are based on literature research. The reviewed data came largely from prevalence studies, case reports, and cross-sectional studies. Psychopharmacotherapy of psychiatric disorders is complex and when concomitantly present with CV disease, presentation of drug SEs can significantly contribute to illness course. Further development of creative psychopharmacotherapy is required to deal with CV effects of PD. PMID:27352209

  19. Hybrid Client Side Phishing Websites Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdous Kausar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phishing tricks to steal personal or credential information by entering victims into a forged website similar to the original site, and urging them to enter their information believing that this site is legitimate. The number of internet users who are becoming victims of phishing attacks is increasing beside that phishing attacks have become more sophisticated. In this paper we propose a client-side solution to protect against phishing attacks which is a Firefox extension integrated as a toolbar that is responsible for checking whether recipient website is trusted or not by inspecting URLs of each requested webpage. If the site is suspicious the toolbar is going to block it. Every URL is evaluated corresponding to features extracted from it. Three heuristics (primary domain, sub domain, and path and Naïve Bayes classification using four lexical features combined with page ranking received from two different services (Alexa, and Google page rank used to classify URL. The proposed method requires no server changes and will prevent internet users from fraudulent sites especially from phishing attacks based on deceptive URLs. Experimental results show that our approach can achieve 48% accuracy ratio using a test set of 246 URL, and 87.5% accuracy ratio by excluding NB addition tested over 162 URL.

  20. [The democratic side of science-fiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecellier, Charles-Henri

    2011-04-01

    Suspicion towards technological advances has progressively grown during the xx(th) century. However, in the XXI(st) century, reading the NBIC (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science) report of the National Science Foundation, we can note that science has caught up with science fiction. These changes in public mentality on one side and in scientific capacities on the other argue for an evolution of the debate on sciences. The recent example of the national debate on nanotechnology in France has clearly shown that the public is no longer waiting for additional sources of scientific knowledge but rather waiting for the recognition of its authority to participate in the definition of the national R&D priority and associated scientific strategies. This is all the more legitimate that these strategies will have profound impact on the future of our societies and therefore cannot be decided only by scientists. Hence, it is crucial to identify innovative tools promoting debate on sciences and their technological spin-off. Here, we contend that science fiction has major assets that could face this challenge and facilitate the dialogue between sciences and society.

  1. Comparison of side effects in myelography with iopamidol and metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong; Kang, Heung Sik; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Seoul Heui; Kwon, Oh Sung; Myung, Ho Gin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    The study was conducted to compare the side effects in myelography of the two non-ionic water-soluble contrast medias, lopamidol (Niopam) and Metrizamide (Amipaque). A total of 111 patients were examined, 64 with lopamidol and 47 with Metrizamide. Side effects consisted of headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, urinary difficulty, muscular pain, seizure, neurobehavioral disturbance, neurological sign change, vital sign change and etc. The common side effects were headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness in order of frequency. Most of the side effects were subsided within 24 hours following myelography. lopamidol myelography caused fewer and milder side effects than Metrizamide study. The side effects were more commonly observed in cervical, thoracic or total myelography than in lumbar myelography with either lopamidol or Metrizamide. There was no significant correlation between incidence of the side effects and premedication with phenobarbital or valium injection before myelography and CSF sampling during the procedure.

  2. Interface Oscillation in the Side-by-Side (SBS) Tape Casting of Functionally Graded Ceramics (FGCs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Bulatova, Regina; Hattel, Jesper Henri;

    2012-01-01

    slurries. The rheological behavior of the slurries are extracted from experiments and used in the ANSYS FLUENT commercial code to develop a fluid flow model for the non-Newtonian ceramic slurries and evaluate the interface oscillation between the stripes in SBS tape casting. The Numerical results show......Room temperature magnetic refrigeration is a new highly efficient and environmentally protective technology. Although it has not been maturely developed, it shows great applicable prosperity and seems to be a potential substitute for the traditional vapor compression technology. Tape Casting is a...... common process in producing multilayer ceramics, which now is used for producing side-by-side (SBS) functionally graded ceramics (FGCs). These FGCs are mostly used in the magnetic refrigeration sectors due to the varying composition of the magnetocaloric materials so that the magnetic transition...

  3. SIDE-BY-SIDE TESTS OF DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Six differently designed evacuated tubular collectors, ETCs, utilizing solar radiation from all directions, have been investigated experimentally. The evacuated tubular solar collectors investigated include one SLL all-glass ETC from Tshinghua Solar Co., four heat pipe ETCs from Sunda Technolgoy Co....... and one all-glass ETC with heat pipe from Exoheat AB. The collectors have been investigated side-by-side in an outdoor test facility for a long period. During the measurements, the operating conditions – such as weather conditions, inlet and mean solar collector fluid temperatures have been the same. Thus...... a direct performance comparison is possible. The results of the measurements will be presented in this paper. Among other things, the influence on the thermal performance of the absorber design will be explained. Further, it will be illustrated how the thermal performances of the different collector types...

  4. Side by side tests of two SDHW systems with solar collectors with and without antireflection treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Han, Jiangong; Perers, Bengt;

    2015-01-01

    Two low flow SDHW systems based on mantle tanks are tested side by side in a laboratory test facility for solar heating systems under the same weather and operation conditions. The systems are identical with the exception that one system is equipped with a solar collector with antireflection...... agreement between measured and calculated thermal performances for both systems. The extra thermal performance of the system with the solar collector with the anti reflection treated glass cover is a strong function of the solar fraction. In sunny periods with high solar fractions the percentage extra...... treated glass while the other system has a collector with a normal glass. Measurements of the thermal performance of the two systems have been carried out for a long measuring period. The thermal performances of the systems have also been calculated with a detailed simulation model. There is a good...

  5. Detection of Left-Sided and Right-Sided Hearing Loss via Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect hearing loss more efficiently and accurately, this study proposed a new method based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT. Three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance images were obtained from 15 patients with left-sided hearing loss (LHL, 20 healthy controls (HC, and 14 patients with right-sided hearing loss (RHL. Twenty-five FRFT spectrums were reduced by principal component analysis with thresholds of 90%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. The classifier is the single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network (SFN trained by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The results showed that the accuracies of all three classes are higher than 95%. In all, our method is promising and may raise interest from other researchers.

  6. Side-by-Side Comparison of CPV Module and System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Matthew; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah; Ghosal, Kanchan; Burroughs, Scott; Libby, Cara; Enbar, Nadav

    2016-07-01

    A side-by-side comparison is made between concentrator photovoltaic module and system direct current aperture efficiency data with a focus on quantifying system performance losses. The individual losses measured/calculated, when combined, are in good agreement with the total loss seen between the module and the system. Results indicate that for the given test period, the largest individual loss of 3.7% relative is due to the baseline performance difference between the individual module and the average for the 200 modules in the system. A basic empirical model is derived based on module spectral performance data and the tabulated losses between the module and the system. The model predicts instantaneous system direct current aperture efficiency with a root mean square error of 2.3% relative.

  7. Flow Features of Three Side-by-side Circular Cylinders at Low Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Junkao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the fluctuation of kinetic parameter of cylinder matrix in incompressible stationary flow, the flow fluid around three side-by-side circular cylinders are simulated using Immersed Boundary–Lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM. Drag and lift force of the three cylinders are investigated as the interval between each cylinder varied from zero to five times of the cylinder diameter. Five flow patterns are defined according to the vortices structure in the downstream of the cylinders. Power spectrum analysis of lift force is developed to explain the vortex patterns. Through the research, we find the strength and phase of the gap flow play an important role in the vortex formatting process. The vortices shedding from different cylinders neutralize and combine in the near wake, contributing a lot to the variation of forces.

  8. Integrated planning in supply chains with buy-side and sell-side marketplaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roshan Gaonkar; N Viswanadham

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we develop a quadratic programming model for partner selection and planning in integrated supply chain networks embedded with both sell-side and buy-side electronic marketplaces. Such a scenario arises in several practical applications. In particular, we consider a contract manufacturer who procures components from suppliers through a component marketplace and sells its manufactured sub-assemblies to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), through a sub-assembly marketplace. In these web-enabled supply chains, embedded with upstream and downstream electronic marketplaces, we need methods for online supply-chain partner selection based on pricing and delivery schedules. In this paper, we develop and present such a model that selects partners, synchronizes supply chain activities and optimizes the profit through optimal revenue pricing and cost minimization.

  9. 发电侧如何促进需求侧管理%How to Improve Demand Side Management in Generation Side

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳德容

    2002-01-01

    Combining with the practice of DSM in China, the paper analyzes the role of engaging demand side management in generation side. Also it deeply studies how to promote demand side management in generation side, which rarelyinvolves in the published literature all over the world. Besides, it discovers the interactions of interdependence and competition between demand side managenent and generation side operation. Lastly it studies the example of demand side management in generation side in Shenzhen.

  10. Why fruits go to the dark side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. Martin

    2011-11-01

    The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

  11. The Dark Side of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Henry

    1986-10-01

    Wood's The Dark Side of the Earth is another addition to the growing list of books on the recent revolution in the earth sciences. Wood rightly points out that any new book on the topic should break new ground. In the preface, he writes of himself and his book that he has benefited from previous accounts by saving himself research time, and that his book, unlike others, “attempts to tell one complete story of the study of the Earth, geologists, geophysicists, dreamers and all” (p. vi). Wood is ambitious, for his work covers much of 19th-century geology as well as the development, reception, rejection, and eventual acceptance of mobilist ideas. Before discussing the work of the German meteorologist and geophysicist Alfred L. Wegener, American glacial geomorphologist Frank Taylor, and several of their predecessors who proposed “mobilist” ideas, he manages to string together brief descriptions of the contributions of (among others) German mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner, British geologists James Hutten and John Playfair, British engineer William Smith, British geologist Charles Lyell, American geologists James Hall and James Dwight Dana, British volcanologist William Lowthian Green, American geologist Grove Karl Gilbert, French geologist Elie de Beaumont, British geologist and mathematician Osmond Fisher, American geologist Clarence Dutton, British mathematician and physicist Lord Kelvin, Austrian geologist Eduard Suess, French geologist Marcel Bertrand, and American geologist Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin. Moreover, Wood offers an interesting thesis about the revolution in the earth sciences. He claims that the real revolution was not the replacement of fixist views with the mobilist ones of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics, but rather the replacement of geology with the new discipline of the earth sciences in which geophysics and geochemistry play the central role.

  12. Double Sided Si(Ge)/Sapphire/III-Nitride Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of the present invention is a double sided hybrid crystal structure including a trigonal Sapphire wafer containing a (0001) C-plane and having front and rear sides. The Sapphire wafer is substantially transparent to light in the visible and infrared spectra, and also provides insulation with respect to electromagnetic radio frequency noise. A layer of crystalline Si material having a cubic diamond structure aligned with the cubic direction on the (0001) C-plane and strained as rhombohedron to thereby enable continuous integration of a selected (SiGe) device onto the rear side of the Sapphire wafer. The double sided hybrid crystal structure further includes an integrated III-Nitride crystalline layer on the front side of the Sapphire wafer that enables continuous integration of a selected III-Nitride device on the front side of the Sapphire wafer.

  13. Transport properties of a random binary side-coupled chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dong-Sheng; Lu Xiu-Juan; Zhang Yong-Mei; Zhu Chen-Ping

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties of a random binary side-coupled chain by using the transfer-matrix technique. It is found that there are resonant states in the systems with short-range correlations between the host chain atoms and the side-coupled atoms. The analytic expressions for the extended states are also presented in the systems with the side couplings between like atoms and between unlike atoms.

  14. Two-sided Internet Platforms: A Business Model Lifecycle Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Muzellec, Laurent; Ronteau, Sébastien; Lambkin, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Multi-sided platforms bring together two or more distinct but interdependent groups of customers, normally described as B2B and B2C. Two-sided platforms have proliferated rapidly with the Internet and this has led to the development of new business models to monetize innovative value propositions in online markets. This paper puts forward a model of the evolution of the marketing strategies and business models of two-sided Internet businesses. In this model, Internet inter...

  15. On Cascade Source Coding with A Side Information "Vending Machine"

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Behzad; Simeone, Osvaldo; Choudhuri, Chiranjib; Mitra, Urbashi

    2012-01-01

    The model of a side information "vending machine" accounts for scenarios in which acquiring side information is costly and thus should be done efficiently. In this paper, the three-node cascade source coding problem is studied under the assumption that a side information vending machine is available either at the intermediate or at the end node. In both cases, a single-letter characterization of the available trade-offs among the rate, the distortions in the reconstructions at the intermediat...

  16. Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canli Eyüb

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres

  17. Review: Tales from Both Sides of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    Our brain has two hemispheres that specialize in different jobs-the right side processes spatial and temporal information, and the left side controls speech and language. How these two sides come together to create one mind is explained by pioneering neuroscientist Michael Gazzaniga in his new book, Tales from Both Sides of the Brain : A Life in Neuroscience (Ecco/Harper Collins, 2015). Gazzaniga is director of the SAGE Center for the Study of the Mind at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and a Dana Alliance member. PMID:27408671

  18. Measuring side effects after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... side effects. Using pharynx cancer as an example, the purpose of this article is to summarize the possibilities and limitations of different methods for measurement of radiotherapy-induced side effects. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-17......Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... measure is obtainable, and the case of a patient-relevant measure is even rarer. Radiotherapy is often followed by complex symptoms not easily quantifiable by the observer. Quantitative patient reported side effects can be retrieved using validated questionnaires, but this kind of data is often difficult...

  19. Simultaneous in vivo truncation of pectic side chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Borkhardt, Bernhard; Harholt, Jesper;

    2009-01-01

    . These modifications often prevent gelation, which has been a major functional requirement of commercial pectins until recently. We have previously shown that modification of pectin is possible through heterologous expression of pectin degrading enzymes in planta. To test the effect of simultaneous...... modification of the two main neutral pectic side chains in pectic rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI), we constitutively expressed two different enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana that would either modify the galactan or the arabinan side chains, or both side chains simultaneously. Our analysis showed that the...... simultaneous truncation of arabinan and galactan side chains is achievable and does not severely affect the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana....

  20. On Cascade Source Coding with A Side Information "Vending Machine"

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Behzad; Choudhuri, Chiranjib; Mitra, Urbashi

    2012-01-01

    The model of a side information "vending machine" accounts for scenarios in which acquiring side information is costly and thus should be done efficiently. In this paper, the three-node cascade source coding problem is studied under the assumption that a side information vending machine is available either at the intermediate or at the end node. In both cases, a single-letter characterization of the available trade-offs among the rate, the distortions in the reconstructions at the intermediate and at the end node, and the cost in acquiring the side information are derived under given conditions.

  1. Source Coding with a Side Information "Vending Machine"

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Tsachy; Permuter, Haim H.

    2009-01-01

    We study source coding in the presence of side information, when the system can take actions that affect the availability, quality, or nature of the side information. We begin by extending the Wyner-Ziv problem of source coding with decoder side information to the case where the decoder is allowed to choose actions affecting the side information. We then consider the setting where actions are taken by the encoder, based on its observation of the source. Actions may have costs that are commens...

  2. Effects of uniform magnetic field on the interaction of side-by-side rising bubbles in a viscous liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadidi, Amin; Jalali-Vahid, Davood [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Effects of uniform magnetic fields on the interaction and coalescence of side-by-side rising bubbles of dielectric fluids were not studied; so in the present research, effects of different strengths of uniform magnetic field on the interaction of two bubbles rising side by side in a viscous and initially stagnant liquid are studied, numerically. For numerical modeling of the problem, a full computer code was developed to solve the governing equations which are continuity, Navier-Stokes, magnetic field and interface capturing equations which are level set and re-initialization equations. The finite volume method is used for the discretization of the hydrodynamic equations where the finite difference method is used to discretization of the magnetic field equations. The results are compared with available numerical and experimental results which show a good agreement. It is found that the uniform magnetic field can be used for contactless control of side-by-side coalescence of bubbles.

  3. Side-to-side growth discrepancies in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: association with function, activity and social participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Bueno Zonta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate side-to-side discrepancies in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP, and investigate associations of these discrepancies with patients’ age at initiation of physical therapy, motor and cognitive function, and degree of activities and social participation. Method: We obtained eight side-to-side measurements from 24 HCP children with mean age 49.3±5.2 months. Results: Early initiation of physical therapy was associated with lower discrepancy in hand length (p=0.037. Lower foot length discrepancy was associated with lower requirement for caregiver assistance in activities related to mobility. Increased side-to-side discrepancy was associated with reduced wrist extension and increased spasticity. Discrepancy played a larger role in children with hemineglect and in those with right involvement. Conclusion: Increased discrepancy in HCP children was associated with reduced degree of activity/social participation. These results suggest an association between functional use of the extremities and limb growth.

  4. FLOW PAST TWO ROTATING CIRCULAR CYLINDERS IN A SIDE-BY-SIDE ARRANGEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiao-hui; LIN Jian-zhong; TU Cheng-xu; WANG Hao-li

    2009-01-01

    Measurements were performed using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to analyze the modification of flow by the combined effects of the rotation and the Reynolds number on the flow past two rotating circular cylinders in a side-by-side-arrangement at a range of , (α is the rotational speed) at one gap spacing of (T and d are the distance between the centers of two cylinders and the cylinder diameter, respectively). A new Immersed-Lattice Boltzmann Method (ILBM) scheme was used to study the effect of the gap spacing on the flow. The results show that the vortex shedding is suppressed as rotational speed increases. The flow reaches a steady state when the vortex shedding for both cylinders is completely suppressed at critical rotational speed. As the rotational speed further increases, the separation phenomenon in the boundary layers disappears at the attachment rotational speed. The critical rotational speed and attachment rotational speed become small as Reynolds number increases. The absolute rotational speed of cylinders should be large at same critical rotational speed and attachment rotational speed in the case of large Reynolds number. The gap spacing has an important role in changing the pattern of vortex shedding. It is very different in the mechanism of vortex shedding suppression for the flows around two rotating cylinders and single rotating cylinder.

  5. A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B

    1980-08-01

    The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost. PMID:7405890

  6. Numerical Study on Interaction Between Two Bubbles Rising Side by Side in CMC Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wenyuan; YIN Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    A numerical simulation was performed to investigate the interaction of two bubbles rising side by side in shear-thinning fluid using volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with continuous surface force (CSF) method.By considering rheological characteristics of fluid,this approach was able to accurately capture the deformation of bubble interface,and validated by comparing with the experimental results.The rising of bubble pairs with different configurations,including horizontal alignment and oblique alignment,was simulated by the method.The influences of the bubble initial distance and the bubble alignment were studied by analyzing the bubble deformation,rising paths and flow fields surrounding bubbles.The results indicate that within certain initial bubble spacing of S* =3.3(S* =SI/D,SI initial distance between bubbles,and D bubble diameter),the dynamic interaction between two bubbles aligned horizontally shows repulsive effect that decreases with the increase of initial bubble spacing,but weakens to certain degree by the shear-thinning properties of fluid.However,the interaction between two bubbles aligned obliquely presents a repulsive effect for the small angle involved but an attractive impact for the large one,which is yet strengthened by the rheological characteristics of fluid.

  7. Modality-specific communication enabling gait synchronization during over-ground side-by-side walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivotofsky, Ari Z; Gruendlinger, Leor; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2012-10-01

    An attentive observer will notice that unintentional synchronization of gait between two walkers on the street seems to occur frequently. Nonetheless, the rate of occurrence and motor-sensory mechanisms underlying this phase-locking of gait have only recently begun to be investigated. Previous studies have either been qualitative or carried out under non-natural conditions, e.g., treadmill walking. The present study quantitatively examined the potential sensory mechanisms that contribute to the gait synchronization that occurs when two people walk side by side along a straight, over-ground, pathway. Fourteen pairs of subjects walked 70 m under five conditions that manipulated the available sensory feedback. The modalities studied were visual, auditory, and tactile. Movement was quantified using a trunk-mounted tri-axial accelerometer. A gait synchronization index (GSI) was calculated to quantify the phase synchronization of the gait rhythms. Overall, 36% of the walks exhibited synchrony. Tactile and auditory feedback showed the greatest ability to synchronize, while visual feedback was the least effective. The results show that gait synchronization during natural walking is common, quantifiable, and has modality-specific properties.

  8. Side-by-side ANFIS as a useful tool for estimating correlated thermophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieu, Stéphane; Faugeroux, Olivier; Traoré, Adama; Claudet, Bernard; Bodnar, Jean-Luc

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, an artificial intelligence-based approach dealing with the estimation of correlated thermophysical properties is designed and evaluated. This new and "intelligent" approach makes use of photothermal responses obtained when homogeneous materials are subjected to a light flux. Commonly, gradient-based algorithms are used as parameter estimation techniques. Unfortunately, such algorithms show instabilities leading to non-convergence in case of correlated properties to be estimated from a rebuilt impulse response. So, the main objective of the present work was to simultaneously estimate both the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of homogeneous materials, from front-face or rear-face photothermal responses to pseudo random binary signals. To this end, we used side-by-side neuro-fuzzy systems (adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems) trained with a hybrid algorithm. We focused on the impact on generalization of both the examples used during training and the fuzzification process. In addition, computation time was a key point to consider. That is why the developed algorithm is computationally tractable and allows both the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of homogeneous materials to be simultaneously estimated with very good accuracy (the generalization error ranges between 4.6% and 6.2%).

  9. Material Selection for Hawsers for a Side-by-side Offloading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiayu Qian; Liping Sun; Linfeng Song

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a theoretical guide for choosing the material for the hawsers for the FPSO side-by-side offloading system, which is moored by the yoke system, the 3D potential flow theory and full coupled time-domain analysis are presented to study the dynamic response of the offloading system. The MingZhu FPSO offloading system in the field BZ25-1 is simulated here;and four different characteristic fiber ropes are used as the material for the hawsers. To acquire an accurate hawser line tension, the polynomial fitting method is used to calculate the nonlinear stiffness of the hawsers. By comparing the hawser lines’ tension and the relative motion between the FPSO and the shuttle tanker, a suitable material for the hawser lines is chosen and discussed in this paper. The results indicate that the nonlinear stiffness characteristic of the fiber rope has a small effect on the relative motion of the vessels, but the hawser lines’ tension is greatly influenced by the different characteristics of the fiber ropes. The hawser lines’ tension with nonlinear stiffness is in accordance with the one with the upper and lower bound linear stiffness, which proves this method of fitting the fiber ropes’ nonlinear stiffness is reasonable and reliable.

  10. Propulsive performance of unsteady tandem hydrofoils in a side-by-side configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Peter A.; Quinn, Daniel B.; Boschitsch, Birgitt M.; Smits, Alexander J.

    2014-04-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented on two identical bio-inspired hydrofoils oscillating in a side-by-side configuration. The time-averaged thrust production and power input to the fluid are found to depend on both the oscillation phase differential and the transverse spacing between the foils. For in-phase oscillations, the foils exhibit an enhanced propulsive efficiency at the cost of a reduction in thrust. For out-of-phase oscillations, the foils exhibit enhanced thrust with no observable change in the propulsive efficiency. For oscillations at intermediate phase differentials, one of the foils experiences a thrust and efficiency enhancement while the other experiences a reduction in thrust and efficiency. Flow visualizations reveal how the wake interactions lead to the variations in propulsive performance. Vortices shed into the wake from the tandem foils form vortex pairs rather than vortex streets. For in-phase oscillation, the vortex pairs induce a momentum jet that angles towards the centerplane between the foils, while out-of-phase oscillations produce vortex pairs that angle away from the centerplane between the foils.

  11. Organizational mediators siding with or against the powerful party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskewitz, P; Van de Vliert, E; De Dreu, C K W

    1994-01-01

    Instead of being impartial, a mediator may side with one party as a function of the disputants' power differences, the mediator's legitimacy judgments, or the disputants' capacity to sanction the mediator. According to the power balancing theory, a mediator sides with the party that has a power disa

  12. Frictional work in double-sided tablet compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ruiz, A; Wihervaara, M; Hakkinen, M; Juslin, M; Paronen, P

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the friction during double-sided tablet compression. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and lactose were tabletted with a compaction simulator with symmetrical and asymmetrical double-sided sawtooth punch displacement profiles. The estimation of force transmission in a powder column was based on an exponential equation, including the material parameter consisting of both the friction coefficient and Poisson's ratio. This parameter was predetermined from a single-sided compression. A novel equation was derived from a previously presented equation for friction work in single-sided tablet compression. The basic assumption was drawn from the linearly decreasing movement of infinitely thin particle layers, which are produced as the compressing punch surface approaches the other punch. This calculation was also based on the assumption that the equilibrium point, where the particles do not move, is halfway between the punches in the symmetrical profile and at a distance proportional to the amplitudes of the asymmetrical upper and lower sawtooth profiles. The tensile strength of tablets compressed with single-double-sided profiles was identical, and thus the behavior of the materials studied under compression was independent of the compression profiles. The friction work values that were calculated with the proposed expression for double-sided profiles were close to the theoretical values, as estimated by calculations based on compressions with single-sided profiles. In conclusion, the novel mathematical expression opens new possibilities for the evaluation of friction in double-sided compression; for example, in rotary press tabletting. PMID:9109053

  13. Rare combination of dextrocardia with right-sided Poland syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jae Bum; Park, Nam Hee; Keum, Dong Yoon; Kim, Yeo Hyang

    2012-10-01

    The combination of right-sided Poland syndrome and dextrocardia is rare. To our knowledge, reports regarding this subject are lacking in the published literature to date. Previous reports suggested that dextrocardia may be part of the left sided Poland syndrome. We report and discuss this rare combination.

  14. SLAR = USGS Side Looking Airborne Radar Mosaics: 1981 - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) is an image-producing system that derives its name from the fact that the radar beam is transmitted from the side of the...

  15. Weakening of a Polyethylene Chain by Methyl Side Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.C.L.; Wijs, G.A. de; Groot, R.A. de; Meier, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of methyl side groups on the strength of a single polyethylene chain is calculated with Density Functional Theory. Using transition state theory, the scission rate is calculated as function of stress for bonds next to a methyl side group. The increase in the scission rate due to the prese

  16. Side effects of azathioprine in patients with Crohn's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Dirk de; Goullet, M.; Naber, A.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In clinical trials 0-15% of patients discontinued azathioprine due to side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of side effects leading to discontinuation of azathioprine and to determine predictive factors for discontinuation. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort analysis of c

  17. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  18. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica;

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research...... on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug-side effect pairs. For 199...... drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de....

  19. Status and Results from DarkSide-50

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Alden

    2015-01-01

    DarkSide-50 is the first physics detector of the DarkSide dark matter search program. The detector features a dual-phase underground-argon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of 50 kg active mass surrounded by an organic liquid-scintillator neutron veto (30 tons) and a water-Cherenkov muon detector (1000 tons). The TPC is currently fully shielded and operating underground at Gran Sasso National Laboratory. A first run of 1422 kg-day exposure with atmospheric argon represents the most sensitive dark matter search using a liquid argon target. The TPC is now filled with underground argon, greatly reduced in 39Ar, and DarkSide-50 is in its final configuration for an extended dark matter search. Overviews of the design, performance, and results obtained so far with DarkSide-50 will be presented, along with future prospects for the DarkSide program.

  20. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  1. Building the process-drug–side effect network to discover the relationship between biological Processes and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Min

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Side effects are unwanted responses to drug treatment and are important resources for human phenotype information. The recent development of a database on side effects, the side effect resource (SIDER, is a first step in documenting the relationship between drugs and their side effects. It is, however, insufficient to simply find the association of drugs with biological processes; that relationship is crucial because drugs that influence biological processes can have an impact on phenotype. Therefore, knowing which processes respond to drugs that influence the phenotype will enable more effective and systematic study of the effect of drugs on phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between biological processes and side effects of drugs has not yet been systematically researched. Methods We propose 3 steps for systematically searching relationships between drugs and biological processes: enrichment scores (ES calculations, t-score calculation, and threshold-based filtering. Subsequently, the side effect-related biological processes are found by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. Evaluation is conducted in 2 ways: first, by discerning the number of biological processes discovered by our method that co-occur with Gene Ontology (GO terms in relation to effects extracted from PubMed records using a text-mining technique and second, determining whether there is improvement in performance by limiting response processes by drugs sharing the same side effect to frequent ones alone. Results The multi-level network (the process-drug-side effect network was built by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. We generated a network of 74 drugs-168 side effects-2209 biological process relation resources. The preliminary results showed that the process-drug-side effect network was able to find meaningful relationships between biological processes

  2. THE DILEMMA OF DEMAND SIDE POLICIES VERSUS SUPPLY SIDE POLICIES FOR RELAUNCHING CAPITALIST ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRE PRISECARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The first important economic recession in this century started in USA with the burst of real estate bubble followed by the bankruptcy of some investment and commercial banks and the collapse of capital market. The financial-banking crisis spilt over the world economy and caused the second deepest economic recession in the last 80 years. The financial crisis has badly affected almost all market economies and was the result of a combination between market failures and mistakes made in macroeconomic policies. In the financial sector there was not enough regulation and supervision of corporate governance while in goods industry the pressure of over-regulation led to higher factor costs and supply contraction. The direct result of supply side policies and particularly of monetarist instruments is seen now clearly in the USA: large deficits, huge debts, reduced savings, heavy dependence on foreign money (capital and resources, relatively low domestic output and supply.

  3. Analysis of Kirk effect of an innovated high side Side-Isolated N-LDMOS device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ciou Jhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ESOA of LDMOS device is very critical for power device performance. Kirk effect is the one of the major problem which leads to poor ESOA performance. The cause of the problem mainly due to the high beta value of parasitic NPN transistor in the p-body. In this study, we proposed a new 3D high side Side–Isolated N-Channel LDMOS which we have obtained not only benchmark Ron and breakdown performance, but also better ESOA without Kirk effect. We have compared the analysis of Kirk effect between the new device and the conventional N–LDMOS structure with LATID technique for the formation of the p–body of both device structures.

  4. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. PMID:23499979

  5. Immediate Small Side Branch Occlusion after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ostovan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small side branches, albeit less important than their larger counterparts, have not yet received due attention in the literature. Nor has there ever been a comparison between drug-eluting stents and bare metal stents apropos side branch occlusion. The aim of this study was to compare the patency of small (≥0.5 and ≤1.5 mm in diameter side branches with respect to bare metal vs. drug-eluting stents immediately after their deployment.Methods: This prospective bi-center study, conducted between June 2005 and January 2007, enrolled 82 patients treated with ≥1 of two stents (TAXUSTM LiberteTM or LiberteTM. Side branches ≥0.5 and <1.5 mm in diameter arising from the main vessel at the lesion site were evaluated. Results: Thirty-eight patients were treated with 42 LiberteTM stents (58 side branches and forty-four patients with 50 TAXUSTM LiberteTM (102 side branches. The rate of small side branch occlusion was 35.3% (36 in the TAXUSTM LiberteTM group compared to 29.31% (15 in the LiberteTM group (P-value= 0.7. The presence of type 1 side branch morphology (Lefevre classification was the most powerful predictor of small side branch occlusion (P-value=0.03. Conclusion: This study shows that drug-eluting stents are not inferior to bare metal stents as regards small side branch occlusion during coronary stenting

  6. A MADYMO model of near-side human occupants in side impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; King, A I; Cavanaugh, J M

    1994-05-01

    The protection of automotive occupants against broadside collisions is of current interest due to the implementation of a new Federal standard on side impact. There is controversy as to the validity of the standard, the best criterion to assess injury to the thorax and the type and manner in which padding should be used. Although it has been shown in a series of 17 cadaveric tests that paper honeycomb can reduce thoracic injuries dramatically, there are still concerns regarding the loss of air space between the door and the occupant due to the presence of the padding and regarding the loss of protection for the thorax when there is no engagement of the shoulder with the intruding side structure of the car. This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional rigid body model to simulate cadaveric experiments carried out at Wayne State University. Model parameters were chosen to yield human-like responses at the level of the shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis. The model was then used to study the effect of padding on injury parameters related to the nearside occupant when a relatively thick padding is used (up to 100 mm). It was also used to study the increase in force on the thorax when shoulder engagement is lost. Laboratory tests were conducted with full shoulder engagement but in the field most cars have a low beltline (window sill) which effectively eliminates shoulder contact if the arms are outstretched in a normal driving posture. If a sufficiently soft padding was used, the model did not predict an increase in thoracic force level or any of the injury parameters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8078331

  7. Spectral analysis of pressures measured on two high-rise building models in side-by-side arrangement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.J.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van; Blocken, B.

    2013-01-01

    Pressure measurements on a square plan form high-rise building model and two square high-rise building models in side-by-side arrangement were analysed using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to define peak frequencies resulting from interference. For the isolated building model, a reduced frequency

  8. A nationwide Danish cohort study challenging the categorisation into right-sided and left-sided colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Gamborg, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    The categorisation of colon cancer (CC) into right-sided (RCC) and left-sided (LCC) disease may not capture more subtle variances in aetiology and prognosis. In a nationwide study, we investigated differences in clinical characteristics and survival of RCC versus LCC and of the complete range of CC...

  9. Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: which is more effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter; Beck, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Microeconomic theory predicts that if patients are fully insured and providers are paid fee-for-service, utilization of medical services exceeds the efficient level ('moral hazard effect'). In Switzerland, both demand-side and supply-side cost sharing have been introduced to mitigate this problem. Analyzing a panel dataset of about 160,000 adults, we find both types of cost sharing to be effective in curtailing the use of medical services. However, when moral hazard mitigation is traded off against risk selection, the minimum-deductible, supply-side cost sharing option ranks first, followed by the medium-deductible demand-side alternative, making the supply-side option somewhat more effective.

  10. Influence of nozzle random side loads on launch vehicle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nilabh; Tkacik, Peter T.; Keanini, Russell G.

    2010-08-01

    It is well known that the dynamic performance of a rocket or launch vehicle is enhanced when the length of the divergent section of its nozzle is reduced or the nozzle exit area ratio is increased. However, there exists a significant performance trade-off in such rocket nozzle designs due to the presence of random side loads under overexpanded nozzle operating conditions. Flow separation and the associated side-load phenomena have been extensively investigated over the past five decades; however, not much has been reported on the effect of side loads on the attitude dynamics of rocket or launch vehicle. This paper presents a quantitative investigation on the influence of in-nozzle random side loads on the attitude dynamics of a launch vehicle. The attitude dynamics of launch vehicle motion is captured using variable-mass control-volume formulation on a cylindrical rigid sounding rocket model. A novel physics-based stochastic model of nozzle side-load force is developed and embedded in the rigid-body model of rocket. The mathematical model, computational scheme, and results corresponding to side loading scenario are subsequently discussed. The results highlight the influence of in-nozzle random side loads on the roll, pitch, yaw, and translational dynamics of a rigid-body rocket model.

  11. A gecko-inspired double-sided adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengzhi; Gu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoping

    2013-12-21

    Geckos' outstanding abilities to adhere to various surfaces are widely credited to the large actual contact areas of the fibrillar and hierarchical structures on their feet. These special features regulate the essential structural compliance for every attachment and thus provide robust yet reversible adhesions. Inspired by gecko's feet and our commonly used double-faced tape, we have successfully fabricated a gecko-inspired double-sided dry adhesive by using porous anodic alumina template assisted nano-wetting on a stiff polymer. It was determined that the obtained 2-sided structure showed largely decreased effective stiffness compared with its 1-sided counterpart, which favored better compliance and interfacial integrity. We also demonstrated that the repeatable double-sided adhesive improved the macroscopic normal and shear adhesion capacities over the widely-studied 1-side structure by ~50% and ~85%, respectively. By using the synthetic double-sided adhesive, the usage of traditional pressure-sensitive/chemical adhesives could be well avoided. Besides, the double-sided nanostructures showed great potential in finding new interesting properties and practical applications for the synthetic dry adhesives.

  12. Rational Design of Coordination Polymers with Flexible Oxyethylene Side Chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Young; Gao, Chunji; Lee, Suck Hyun; Kwon, O Pil [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    We rationally designed and synthesized metallopolymers with organic 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC) linkers with different lengths of oxyethylene side chains in order to examine the influence of side chains on the coordination characteristics. While in a previous report the BDC linkers with alkyl side chains were found to form three-dimensional (3D) isoreticular metal-organic framework (IRMOF) structures or one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymeric structures with short -O(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}CH{sub 3} or long -O(CH{sub 2}){sub 9}CH{sub 3} side chains, respectively, new BDC linkers with oxyethylene side chains of the same lengths, -(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 3} and -(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}CH{sub 3}, form only 3D IRMOF structures. This result is attributed to the higher flexibility and smaller volume of oxyethylene side chains compared to alkyl side chains

  13. Systematic identification of proteins that elicit drug side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Campillos, Monica;

    2013-01-01

    Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins that...... responsible for hyperesthesia in mice, which, in turn, can be prevented by a drug that selectively inhibits HTR7. Taken together, we show that a large fraction of complex drug side effects are mediated by individual proteins and create a reference for such relations.......Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins that...... cause drug side effects. We integrated phenotypic data obtained during clinical trials with known drug-target relations to identify overrepresented protein-side effect combinations. Using independent data, we confirm that most of these overrepresentations point to proteins which, when perturbed, cause...

  14. Coding with Side Information for Radiation-Tolerant Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, E.; Jeon, S.; Negi, R.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.; Cheng, M. K.

    2011-11-01

    Memory devices aboard spacecraft experience radiation-induced errors either in the form of temporary upsets (soft errors) or permanent defects (hard or stuck-at errors). Error-correcting codes (ECCs) are used to recover memory content from errors where defective cells are either regarded as erasures by the decoder or entire blocks containing defective cells are marked as unusable. In this article, alternative coding schemes are investigated for memory devices in space, where the encoder is provided with the locations of the defective cells, denoted by side information. This coding approach has the potential to improve the overall storage capacity of memory devices, since the information theoretic capacity of a channel where side information is only available at the encoder is the same as the capacity where side information is available at both the encoder and decoder. Spacecraft memory controllers typically scrub memory devices periodically for errors. Partial side information can be obtained during this scrubbing process by comparing the ECC decoder output with its input and thereby avoid the need for additional cell tests or storage overhead. In between scrubbings, the encoder can use this partial side information to account for permanent defects to improve reliability or to increase the storage capacity of onboard memory devices. In order to achieve performance gains for practical memory systems, several coding schemes that adaptively incorporate the codeword with the known side information are proposed in this article. The proposed coding schemes are evaluated by numerical simulations on a memory channel model characterized by soft and hard errors. Simulation results show that while coding with complete side information at the encoder offers the most performance gain compared to when coding without side information is used, coding with partial side information can close the gap between the optimal and current approach without incurring much additional overhead

  15. Cascade Source Coding with a Side Information "Vending Machine"

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Behzad; Choudhuri, Chiranjib; Simeone, Osvaldo; Mitra, Urbashi

    2012-01-01

    The model of a side information "vending machine" (VM) accounts for scenarios in which the measurement of side information sequences can be controlled via the selection of cost-constrained actions. In this paper, the three-node cascade source coding problem is studied under the assumption that a side information VM is available and the intermediate and/or at the end node of the cascade. A single-letter characterization of the achievable trade-off among the transmission rates, the distortions ...

  16. Profit-shifting in two-sided markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how multinational two-sided platform firms set their prices on intra firm transactions. Two-sided platform firms derive income from two customer groups that are connected through at least one positive network externality from one group to the other. A main finding is that even in the absence of taxation transfer prices deviate from marginal cost of production. A second result of the paper is that it is inherently difficult to establish arm s length prices in two sided-markets. ...

  17. Double Sided Watermark Embedding and Detection with Perceptual Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Jidong

    2007-01-01

    In our previous work, we introduced a double-sided technique that utilizes but not reject the host interference. Due to its nice property of utilizing but not rejecting the host interference, it has a big advantage over the host interference schemes in that the perceptual analysis can be easily implemented for our scheme to achieve the locally bounded maximum embedding strength. Thus, in this work, we detail how to implement the perceptual analysis in our double-sided schemes since the perceptual analysis is very important for improving the fidelity of watermarked contents. Through the extensive performance comparisons, we can further validate the performance advantage of our double-sided schemes.

  18. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.

  19. Side Effects and Complications of Dental Materials on Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Atai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of dental materials has had a great impact on the modern dentistry. The materials ranging from polymers to metals have different applications in dentistry. Besides their important role in healing or improving the function of oral tissues, the materials may show side effects which may, in some cases, lead to severe lesions. In this review the side effects have been summarized considering a new classification for dental materials according to the duration of their applications as temporary or permanent materials. The side effects of the materials are then discussed based on clinical and cellular views.

  20. Improved side information generation for distributed video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    information generation method, fewer bits will be requested from the encoder and more reliable decoded frames will be obtained. In this paper, a side information generation method is introduced to further improve the rate-distortion (RD) performance of transform domain distributed video coding. This algorithm......As a new coding paradigm, distributed video coding (DVC) deals with lossy source coding using side information to exploit the statistics at the decoder to reduce computational demands at the encoder. The performance of DVC highly depends on the quality of side information. With a better side...... consists of a variable block size based Y, U and V component motion estimation and an adaptive weighted overlapped block motion compensation (OBMC). The proposal is tested and compared with the results of an executable DVC codec released by DISCOVER group (DIStributed COding for Video sERvices). RD...

  1. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  2. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl;

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted side effects of drugs are a burden on patients and a severe impediment in the development of new drugs. At the same time, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded during clinical trials are an important source of human phenotypic data. It is therefore essential to combine data on drugs......, targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4......, contains data on 1430 drugs, 5880 ADRs and 140 064 drug-ADR pairs, which is an increase of 40% compared to the previous version. For more fine-grained analyses, we extracted the frequency with which side effects occur from the package inserts. This information is available for 39% of drug-ADR pairs, 19...

  3. Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, Christian; Hvilsted, Søren;

    1996-01-01

    Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester structures suitable for permanent optical storage are described. The synthesis and characterization of the polyesters together with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray investigations are discussed. Optical anisotropic investigations and h...

  4. A design of emission regulation with supply side response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitherto, supply side response has received little attention in welfare analysis. Without considering that when a policy environmental changes supply side may change production plan in response to it, a policy evaluation has been conducted. Since 1980s, such a policy evaluation without considering supply side response is much dangerous, and sometimes a probability to select incorrect policy evaluation has become suggested. When government conducts its policy change, expected profit in enterprise changes. Therefore, enterprise must be remade up an optimum strategy on a base of this new expected profit. If an aim of government consists in to maximize welfare of whole society, government needs to conduct a policy evaluation due to welfare analysis under considering such background, here is described to propose an environmental policy considering supply side response. (G.K.)

  5. Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159602.html Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study ... increase risk for joint and tissue disease, including arthritis, new research suggests. "We keep having referrals coming ...

  6. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

  7. A New Method to Analyse Two-Side Tapered Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Guo-Fang; NING Ji-Ping; SHANG Lian-Ju; HAN Qun; CHEN Zhi-Qiang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We discuss the characters of two-side tapered waveguides. Then, based on some approximations, a simple but practical and efficient method is developed to design the taper waveguide. The results are compared with other methods in a good agreement.

  8. Side-Scan-Sonar Lines for Hudson River, NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Side Scan Sonar and Subbottom Profiler Tracklines. Data was collected November 5 to December 15, 2009, in the estuary north from Saugerties to Troy. Fugro utilized...

  9. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability ...

  10. A Case Report of Left-Sided Headache with Rhinocleisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Case Report A patient, with a complaint of a left-sided headache plus a rhinocleisis for a month, was admitted to our hospital. The clinical diagnosis showed that it was a primary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the nasopharynx.

  11. Incorporating Side Information in Probabilistic Matrix Factorization with Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Ryan Prescott; Murray, Iain

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF) is a powerful method for modeling data associated with pairwise relationships, finding use in collaborative filtering, computational biology, and document analysis, among other areas. In many domains, there is additional information that can assist in prediction. For example, when modeling movie ratings, we might know when the rating occurred, where the user lives, or what actors appear in the movie. It is difficult, however, to incorporate this side information into the PMF model. We propose a framework for incorporating side information by coupling together multiple PMF problems via Gaussian process priors. We replace scalar latent features with functions that vary over the space of side information. The GP priors on these functions require them to vary smoothly and share information. We successfully use this new method to predict the scores of professional basketball games, where side information about the venue and date of the game are relevant for the outcome.

  12. Effect of Overlaid Material on Optical Transmission of Side-Polished Fiber Made by Wheel Side Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Chen; Chun-He Bai

    2008-01-01

    The performance of optical power transmission through a side-polished fiber on which materials of different refractive indices were overlaid is investigated. The experiments show that the transmitted optical power through the side-polished fiber varies with the refractive index of the overlaid material. The result of our experiments fits well the theoretical calculation.Side-polished fiber manufactured by wheel polishing method can be used not only to control optical power transmission through the fiber core but also as a refractive index sensor.

  13. Coding Side-Information for Implementing Cubic Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, B. Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the implementation of the cubic public-key transformation, a public-key cryptographic scheme that requires sending of additional side-information. A coding scheme for the side-information, based on the residue number system, is presented. In the conventional one-to-one encryption mapping also, such coding can be used to send additional like that of watermarking, which could be used to detect man-in-the-middle attacks or used for authentication.

  14. A Demand-Side Theory of Antitakeover Defenses

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    This article develops a demand-and-supply framework to analyze the adoption of antitakeover defenses and constructs a demand-side theory of antitakeover provisions ("ATP's"). The article views the decision to go public without ATP's as a decision to produce an unshielded target and shows that the classic literature focused on the costs of producing such a target but barely accounted for demand-side considerations. The article argues that the more firms there are producing unsheilded targets...

  15. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    OpenAIRE

    O. B. Zhukov; A. V. Verzin; P. L. Penkov

    2013-01-01

    One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler k...

  16. Supply-side Issues in the Housing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Wing Hsieh; David Norman; David Orsmond

    2012-01-01

    Supply-side factors can affect the responsiveness of new dwelling construction to changes in housing demand. Recent reports and liaison with industry participants point to a range of supply-side rigidities in the Australian housing market, including the length and complexity of the planning process, issues related to the provision and funding of infrastructure, land ownership and geographical constraints, and other challenges related to infill development. In recognition of this, governments ...

  17. Summary Side Event on Partnerships for Inclusive Business

    OpenAIRE

    Pfisterer, Stella

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDuring the 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan (South Korea) in November 2011, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development together with the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Global Compact, the International Business Leaders Forum, the Bertelsmann Stiftung, the Partnerships Resource Centre and UNDP, hosted a side event about Partnerships for Inclusive Business. A summary of this side event can be found by clicking on the link below.

  18. Polyorchidism: a torted right-sided supernumerary testis

    OpenAIRE

    Thyoka, Mandela; Lall, Anupam; Godse, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Polyorchidism is a rare congenital anomaly defined by the presence of more than two histologically proven testes. The commonest variant is triorchidism, the supernumerary testis being commonly reported on the left side. Most cases of polyorchidism are found incidentally in association with undescended testis, hydrocele, hernia or torsion. We report a right-sided triorchidism in a 15-year-old boy found at time of groin exploration for an irreducible right inguinal hernia.

  19. The Side Effects of Insecticide Efficient Biocidals to Beneficial Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Şimşek, Muharrem; ÖZKAN, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Unawares usage of biocidals effects not only natural resources, environment and human health but also can damage beneficial insects which suppresses pests. Herein, the side effects of insecticide efficient biocidals to important beneficial insects was handled and measures on sustainable biocidal usages was discussed. The side effects of Deltamethrin, Azadirachtin, Spinosad and Bacillus thuringinensis biocidals to certain important beneficial insects were evaluated with literature data. Negati...

  20. UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF RIGHT SIDED BOCHDALEK HERNIA IN AN ADULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of abdominal content through a persistent embryonic pleuroperitonial hiatus is most common form of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Bochdalek hernia is a congenital anomaly in neonatal and postnatal patients and occur in about one in 2,200 to 12,500 live births, but it is rare in adults . 1 75% to 90% occur on left side . 2,3,4 Here we present a rare case of 24 years old male patient with Bochdalek hernia on right side

  1. Demand-side management for energy in the region

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar Davidovich Gitelman; Boris Evgenyevich Ratnikov; Mikhail Viktorovich Kozhevnikov

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with a promising approach to solving the problem of investment in the regional electric power industry — the application of demand-side management, the essence of which lies in proactive interaction of energy companies with customers, based on the balance of economic interests. The features of the concept and its tools are revealed, positive results of its implementation for energy market players and the region are shown, and examples of demand-side management pr...

  2. A Two-Sided Optimization for Theater Ballistic Missile Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, G.; Carlyle, M.; Diehl, D; Kline, J.; Wood, K.

    2005-01-01

    Operations Research, 53, pp. 263-275. Center for Infrastructure Defense (CID) Paper. We describe JOINT DEFENDER, a new two-sided optimization model for planning the pre-positioning of defensive missile interceptors to counter an attack threat. In our basic model, a defender pre-positions ballistic missile defense platforms to minimize the worst-case damage an attacker can achieve; we assume that the attacker will be aware of defensive pre-positioning decisions, and that both sides have ...

  3. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: An unusual side effect of meropenem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalel Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient was hospitalized as a case of pneumonia. He was diabetic, hypertensive and post Hepatitis "C" "H-C". He reported skin eruption following administration of meropenem. Skin biopsy revealed acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. To elucidate this side effect, we conducted a literature search - this is the second case induced by meropenem. The diagnosis was made after excluding all other possible causes. Dermatologists and clinicians must be aware of this an unusual side effect.

  4. Side chain and backbone ordering in a polypeptide

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Y; Hansmann, U H E

    2006-01-01

    We report results from multicanonical simulations of polyglutamic acid chains of length of ten residues. For this simple polypeptide we observe a decoupling of backbone and side-chain ordering in the folding process. While the details of the two transitions vary between the peptide in gas phase and in an implicit solvent, our results indicate that, independent of the specific surroundings, upon continuously lowering the temperature side-chain ordering occurs only after the backbone topology is completely formed.

  5. Single Sided Messaging v. 0.6.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-20

    Single-Sided Messaging (SSM) is a portable, multitransport networking library that enables applications to leverage potential one-sided capabilities of underlying network transports. It also provides desirable semantics that services for highperformance, massively parallel computers can leverage, such as an explicit cancel operation for pending transmissions, as well as enhanced matching semantics favoring large numbers of buffers attached to a single match entry. This release supports TCP/IP, shared memory, and Infiniband.

  6. Single-Sided Electromagnetic Induction Heating Based on IGBT

    OpenAIRE

    Song Wang; Guangda Li; Xiaokun Li

    2014-01-01

    A single-sided induction heating system based on IGBT is proposed. The system includes the series resonant circuit, control circuit, and auxiliary circuit. The main circuit includes rectifier, filter, inverter, and resonant circuit. A drive circuit is designed for IGBT combing some protection circuits. We have a simulation of the single-sided induction heating system in ANSYS. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results. The performance of the system is promising. And al...

  7. Left-sided gallbladder: Its clinical significance and imaging presentations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the importance of preoperative diagnosis and presentation of left-sided gallbladder using ultrasound (US), CT and angiography.METHODS: Retrospective review of 1482 patients who underwent enhanced CT scanning was performed. Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed if a right-sided ligamentum teres was present. The image presentations on US, CT and angiography were also reviewed.RESULTS: Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed in nine patients. The associated abnormalities on CT imaging included portal vein anomalies, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe of the liver,club-shaped portal vein in the right lobe of the liver, and difficulty in identifying segment Ⅳ. Angiography in six of nine patients demonstrated abnormal portal venous system (trifurcation type in four of six patients). The main hepatic arteries followed the portal veins in all six patients. The segment Ⅳ artery was identified in four of six patients using angiography, although segment Ⅳ was difficult to define on CT imaging. Hepatectomy was performed in three patients with concomitant liver tumor and the diagnosis of left-sided gallbladder was confirmed intraoperatively.CONCLUSION: Left-sided gallbladder is an important clinical entity in hepatectomy due to its associated portal venous and biliary anomalies. It should be considered in US, CT and angiography images that demonstrate no definite segment IV, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe, and club-shaped right anterior portal vein.

  8. Perceived side effects of oral contraceptives among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Goodwin, M S

    1980-11-22

    Knowledge and attitudes of adolescent females regarding the side effects of oral contraceptives were investigated. The data source was a large study of sexual and contraceptive attitudes and experience. The questionnaire responses of 486 single females attending 10 birth control and pregnancy counseling centers in Ontario, Canada were examined. The age range of the subjects was from 13-20; 71% were attending school and 69% were living at home. They were attending the centers in order to obtain contraceptives (55%), to renew OC prescriptions (20%), or to receive pregnancy counseling (25%). 29% of the subjects had used OCs before coming to the clinic, but 91% planned to use OC after their clinic visit. 8% were planning to use an IUD; 1% were planning to use a diaphragm; and less than 1% were planning to have their boyfriend use condoms. 85% of the subjects indicated that they had heard abut side effcts of OCs with weight gain as the best known side effect. Other side effects familiar to many included nausea, circulatory disorders, headaches, emotional changes, menstrual problems and cancer. About 1/2 of the subjects had learned about these side effects from the mass media or female friends, 25% from a school sex education class, 15% from their mothers, and 3% from a physician. Despite knowledge regarding side effects, most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward OCs with 59% believing that the advnatages outweighed any disadvantages. PMID:7448666

  9. Double-sided FoxFET biased microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the field effect transistor, integrated onto AC-coupled silicon detectors, as a novel technique for biasing the implanted p+ strips [P.P. Allport et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 310 (1991) 155], was first employed for the OPAL microvertex detector. The detector has proved very successful, with ladders of three single-sided detectors showing signal/noise of 22 : 1 with MX5 readout electronics [P.P. Allport et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 324 (1993) 34; Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 32 (1993) 208]. This technique has been extended to bias also the n+ strips and p strips on the ohmic side of a double-sided detector [P.P. Allport et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A, to be submitted]. Full-size detectors with orthogonal readout have been fabricated by Micron and tested with MX7 readout on both sides. Both the junction and ohmic sides of these detectors have similar signal/noise values to those for single-sided wafers [P.P. Allport et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A, to be submitted]. Test structures have been irradiated with beta particles to study the radiation hardness of the devices, and probe station electrical measurements of the detectors and test structures are presented. ((orig.))

  10. Distribution side of pleural effusion in heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Kyu; Park, Young Ha; Jung, Se Young; Park, Seog Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-02-15

    The interrelationship between the etiology of pleural effusion and the side of its occurrence has been a subject of clinical interest for many years. It has often been stated that pleural effusion caused by congestive heart failure tends to occur on the right side. However, some authors contended that such a side proclivity is not reliable. In the present study, the authors investigated the laterally of effusion caused by various cardiovascular diseases complicated by heart failure. We reviewed the chest X-ray films and clinical records of 68 patients with proven pleural effusion resulted from heart failure. 1. There were 34 men and 34 women with the age ranging from 10 to 84 years with the mean of 59. 2. The diagnoses were rheumatic heart disease (2 patients), coronary heart disease (10 patients), hypertensive heart disease (8 patients), mitral valvular disease (18 patients), aortic valvular disease (3 patients), and miscellaneous (27 patients). 3. 34 patients had unilateral pleural effusion, 25 and 9, right and left, respectively. Of the 34 patients with bilateral effusion, 13 patients had predominantly right-sided effusion, 5 patients had predominantly left-sided effusion and 16 patients had evenly distributed bilateral effusion. Thus, 55.8% of effusion was right-sided.

  11. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  12. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  13. Whose side are you on? Relational orientations and their impacts on side-taking among Dutch and Chinese employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huadong; Van de Vliert, Evert; Shi, Kan; Huang, Xu

    2008-01-01

    Informal relationships often influence employees who intervene in an interpersonal conflict between colleagues. We investigate and report the effects of relational orientations (reciprocity orientation and communal orientation) on employee preference of choosing sides between an acquaintance and a f

  14. Meta-sided Exchange Rings and Their Extensions%Meta-sided exchange环及其扩张

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉琴; 何建伟; 卲海琴

    2010-01-01

    讨论了meta-sided exchange环的性质.证明了如果R是Abelian meta-sided exchange环,则对R的任意素理想P,都有R/P是局部环;如果R是Abelian环,(S,≤)是严格序幺半群且对任意s∈S,都有0≤s,则广义幂级数环[[RS,≤

  15. Application of side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum in gastric bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ri-Xing; Yan, Wen-Mao; Li, You-Guo; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the feasibility of side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). METHODS Seventy-seven patients received side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum by utilization of linear stapler in LRYGB from April 2012 to July 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS All patients were successfully completed laparoscopic gastric bypass with the side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum. No patient was switched to laparotomy during operation. No early complications including gastrointestinal anastomotic bleeding, fistula, obstruction, deep vein thrombosis, incision infections, intra-abdominal hernia complications were found. One patient complicated with stricture of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1.3%) and six patients complicated with incomplete intestinal obstruction (7.8%). BMI and HbA1c determined at 3, 6, 12, 24 mo during follow up period were significantly reduced compared with preoperative baselines respectively. The percentage of patients who maintain HbA1c (%) < 6.5% without taking antidiabetic drugs reached to 61.0%, 63.6%, 75.0%, and 63.6% respectively. The outcome parameters of concomitant diseases were significantly improved too. CONCLUSION Present surgery is a safety and feasibility procedure. It is effective to lighten the body weight of patients and improve type 2 diabetes and related complications. PMID:27729746

  16. A protein-dependent side-chain rotamer library.

    KAUST Repository

    Bhuyan, M.S.

    2011-12-14

    Protein side-chain packing problem has remained one of the key open problems in bioinformatics. The three main components of protein side-chain prediction methods are a rotamer library, an energy function and a search algorithm. Rotamer libraries summarize the existing knowledge of the experimentally determined structures quantitatively. Depending on how much contextual information is encoded, there are backbone-independent rotamer libraries and backbone-dependent rotamer libraries. Backbone-independent libraries only encode sequential information, whereas backbone-dependent libraries encode both sequential and locally structural information. However, side-chain conformations are determined by spatially local information, rather than sequentially local information. Since in the side-chain prediction problem, the backbone structure is given, spatially local information should ideally be encoded into the rotamer libraries. In this paper, we propose a new type of backbone-dependent rotamer library, which encodes structural information of all the spatially neighboring residues. We call it protein-dependent rotamer libraries. Given any rotamer library and a protein backbone structure, we first model the protein structure as a Markov random field. Then the marginal distributions are estimated by the inference algorithms, without doing global optimization or search. The rotamers from the given library are then re-ranked and associated with the updated probabilities. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed protein-dependent libraries significantly outperform the widely used backbone-dependent libraries in terms of the side-chain prediction accuracy and the rotamer ranking ability. Furthermore, without global optimization/search, the side-chain prediction power of the protein-dependent library is still comparable to the global-search-based side-chain prediction methods.

  17. Generating Single-sided Subduction with Parameterized Mantle Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. J.; Tan, E.; Ma, K. F.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction on Earth is one-sided, where one oceanic plate sinks beneath the overriding plate. However, subduction zones in most numerical models tends to develop two-sided subduction, where both plates sink to the mantle. In this study, we use numerical model to find out how the existence of low viscosity wedge (LVW) can enable single-sided subduction and affects the flow in the subduction system.At the mantle wedge, water released from dehydrated oceanic crust serpentinized the mantle, which forms the LVW. LVW is an important part of the subduction system and provides efficient lubricant between the subducting slab and overriding lithosphere. Single-sided subduction can be generated in numerical models by different techniques, including prescribed plate velocity, non-Newtonian rheology, and free surface. These techniques either requires kinematic boundary condition, which produce mantle flow inconsistent with the buoyancy, or costs great amount of computational resources when solving nonlinear equations. In this study, we tried to generating single-sided subduction with Newtonian viscosity and free slip surface. A set of tracers representing hydrated oceanic crust are placed near the surface. As the tracers subducted with the lithosphere, we assume that the oceanic crust becomes dehydrated and serpentinizes the mantle wedge above. A parameterized LVW is placed above the subducted tracers in the models. We test with different upper/lower depth limits of the LVW and the viscosity of the LVW. Both overriding plate and subducting plate's surface velocity relative to the trench is calculated in order to determine whether the subduction is one-sided.Results of our numerical models show that not only the low viscosity wedge above the slab is essential for the formation of one-side subduction, a low viscosity layer in between two tectonic plates is also needed to provide the slab efficient lubricant after the subduction started. On the other hand, the plate's age, which

  18. Triptans and CNS side-effects: pharmacokinetic and metabolic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodick, D W; Martin, V

    2004-06-01

    Triptans are the treatment of choice for acute migraine. While seemingly a homogenous group of drugs, results from a meta-analysis reveal significant differences in efficacy and tolerability among oral triptans. The incidence of drug-related central nervous system (CNS) side-effects with some triptans is as high as 15% and may be associated with functional impairment and reduced productivity. The occurrence of adverse events associated with triptans in general, and CNS side-effects in particular, may lead to a delay in initiating or even avoidance of an otherwise effective treatment. Potential explanations for differences among triptans in the incidence of CNS side-effects may relate to pharmacological and pharmacokinetic differences, including receptor binding, lipophilicity, and the presence of active metabolites. Of the triptans reviewed, at clinically relevant doses, almotriptan 12.5 mg, naratriptan 2.5 mg and sumatriptan 50 mg had the lowest incidence of CNS side-effects, while eletriptan 40 and 80 mg, rizatriptan 10 mg and zolmitriptan 2.5 and 5 mg had the highest incidence. The most likely explanations for the differences in CNS side-effects among triptans are the presence of active metabolites and high lipophilicity of the parent compound and active metabolites. Eletriptan, rizatriptan and zolmitriptan have active metabolites, while lipophilicity is lowest for almotriptan and sumatriptan. If CNS side-effects are a clinically relevant concern in the individual patient, use of a triptan with a low incidence of CNS side-effects may offer the potential for earlier initiation of treatment and more effective outcomes. PMID:15154851

  19. Predicting bed form roughness: the influence of lee side angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Winter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Flow transverse bedforms (ripples and dunes) are ubiquitous in rivers and coastal seas. Local hydrodynamics and transport conditions depend on the size and geometry of these bedforms, as they constitute roughness elements at the bed. Bedform influence on flow energy must be considered for the understanding of flow dynamics, and in the development and application of numerical models. Common estimations or predictors of form roughness (friction factors) are based mostly on data of steep bedforms (with angle-of-repose lee slopes), and described by highly simplified bedform dimensions (heights and lengths). However, natural bedforms often are not steep, and differ in form and hydraulic effect relative to idealised bedforms. Based on systematic numerical model experiments, this study shows how the hydraulic effect of bedforms depends on the flow structure behind bedforms, which is determined by the bedform lee side angle, aspect ratio and relative height. Simulations reveal that flow separation behind bedform crests and, thus, a hydraulic effect is induced at lee side angles steeper than 11 to 18° depending on relative height, and that a fully developed flow separation zone exists only over bedforms with a lee side angle steeper than 24°. Furthermore, the hydraulic effect of bedforms with varying lee side angle is evaluated and a reduction function to common friction factors is proposed. A function is also developed for the Nikuradse roughness (k s), and a new equation is proposed which directly relates k s to bedform relative height, aspect ratio and lee side angle.

  20. Early and Late Side Effects Associated with Photo(chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günseli Öztürk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phototherapy (PUVA ve UVB is a widely used and effective treatment method for a variety of dermatological diseases. Adverse effects associated with phototherapy can be classified as acute and chronic side effects. Acute side effects are mostly related with UV doses and drug intolerance, and include itching, nausea, erythema, edema and phototoxic reactions that sometimes blister formation is seen. Acute side effects are usually moderate and transient. Chronic side effects of phototherapy are early aging of skin, pigmentary changes and increased risk of skin carcinogenesis. The major concern is development of skin cancer. This risk is especially related to long-term exposure and high cumulative doses of PUVA, increase in time and is persistent. Therefore, risk/advantage ratio of phototherapy should be carefully evaluated in each patient, and treatment protocols with minimal UV exposure should be chosen according to the phototherapy guides. Follow-up of the patients for long terms is important in prevention or in reduction of this risk by detecting and treating any premalignant or malignant lesion early. In this article, acute and chronic side effects of phototherapy are reviewed with recent literature findings.

  1. Source Coding When the Side Information May Be Delayed

    CERN Document Server

    Simeone, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    For memoryless sources, delayed side information at the decoder does not improve the rate-distortion function. However, this is not the case for more general sources with memory, as demonstrated by a number of works focusing on the special case of (delayed) feedforward. In this paper, a setting is studied in which the encoder is potentially uncertain about the delay with which measurements of the side information are acquired at the decoder. Assuming a hidden Markov model for the sources, at first, a single-letter characterization is given for the set-up where the side information delay is arbitrary and known at the encoder, and the reconstruction at the destination is required to be (near) lossless. Then, with delay equal to zero or one source symbol, a single-letter characterization is given of the rate-distortion region for the case where side information may be delayed or not, unbeknownst to the encoder. The characterization is further extended to allow for additional information to be sent when the side ...

  2. Novel high torque bearingless two-sided rotary ultrasonic motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; CHEN Wei-shan; XIE Tao; LIU Jun-kao

    2007-01-01

    Applications are limited at present because the currently available ultrasonic motors (USMs) do not provide sufficiently high torque and power. The conventional travelling-wave USM needs the bearing to support, which required lubricant. To solve the above problem, a bearingless travelling-wave USM is designed. First, a novel structure of the two-sided USM consisting ora two-sided teeth stator and two disk-type rotors is designed. And the excitation principle of the two-sided travelling-wave USM is analyzed. Then, using ANSYS software, we set up the model of the stator to predict the excitation frequency and modal response of the stator. The shape of the vibration mode was obtained. Last, the load characteristics of the USM are measured using experimental method. The maximum stall torque and the no-load speed were obtained. The results showed that the characteristics of the two-sided USM are better than those of the conventional one-sided USM.

  3. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women.

  4. Neuropsychologic side-effects of tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Markus J; Spartà, Giuseppina; Laube, Guido F; Miozzari, Marco; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    Calcineurin inhibition with tacrolimus has been used after renal transplantation (RTPL) as rescue therapy for insufficient immunological control or if cyclosporin A (CSA) toxicity occurred. Neurologic side-effects occur but are rare in children, usually presenting as tremor; however, serious complications, e.g. the posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are also documented. Twenty children (10 girls) were switched to tacrolimus: 11 (55%) for immunological reasons (n = 9: steroid-resistant rejection; n = 2: recurrent rejections) and nine for CSA side-effects. Tacrolimus was started at a median of 8 wk (range 10 d to 8.7 yr) after RTPL and was continued for a median of 2.5 yr (range 5 wk to 4.6 yr). Renal function significantly improved over a period of 12 months following conversion to tacrolimus (glomerular filtration rate 56 +/- 19 vs. 66 +/- 16 mL/min/1.73 m2; p side-effects were neuropsychological and behavioral symptoms in three children, ranging from anorexia nervosa-like symptoms with weight loss, amenorrhea, depression and school problems to severe insomnia and to aggressive and anxious behavior in one child. Only the latter child was exposed to toxic tacrolimus blood levels. All side-effects were fully reversible after discontinuation of tacrolimus. In conclusion, tacrolimus had a beneficial effect on renal function and was well tolerated in the majority of pediatric patients. However, neuropsychologic and behavioral side-effects are important and maybe underrecognized in children. PMID:12709079

  5. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women. PMID:27001402

  6. Individual-motivational factors in the acceptability of demand-side and supply-side measures to reduce carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As more than a third of all carbon dioxide emissions in the UK are generated by the domestic sector, individuals need to make drastic changes to their current lifestyle in order to play their part in climate change mitigation. Not only do they need to change their personal behaviour, they also have to accept new low-carbon technologies in order to decarbonise the energy they are using. This study uses an adapted version of the Value–Belief-Norm (VBN) model () to examine individual-motivational factors in the acceptability of demand-side and supply-side strategies to reduce carbon emissions. The study found that environmental identity, climate change concern, and personal norms are all significantly associated with the acceptability of both demand-side measures and supply-side technologies. While personal values were also important, their associations were mediated by more specific factors. Overall, the adapted VBN model was better able to explain the acceptability of low-carbon behaviours than of low-carbon energy-supply technologies. Concern about energy security appeared to be of limited importance. It was negatively associated with the willingness to engage in low-carbon behaviours, suggesting that a shift in focus towards energy security issues may not necessarily help a transition to a low-carbon society. - Highlights: ► An adapted VBN model is proposed to study environmentally significant behaviour.► Environmental identity is important for both demand-side and supply-side measures.► Energy security concern is of limited importance to support for supply-side measures.► Energy security concern reduces the willingness to engage in low-carbon behaviours.

  7. Interstrand side chain--side chain interactions in a designed beta-hairpin: significance of both lateral and diagonal pairings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syud, F A; Stanger, H E; Gellman, S H

    2001-09-12

    The contributions of interstrand side chain-side chain contacts to beta-sheet stability have been examined with an autonomously folding beta-hairpin model system. RYVEV(D)PGOKILQ-NH2 ((D)P = D-proline, O = ornithine) has previously been shown to adopt a beta-hairpin conformation in aqueous solution, with a two-residue loop at D-Pro-Gly. In the present study, side chains that display interstrand NOEs (Tyr-2, Lys-9, and Leu-11) are mutated to alanine or serine, and the conformational impact of the mutations is assessed. In the beta-hairpin conformation Tyr-2 and Leu-11 are directly across from one another (non-hydrogen bonded pair). This "lateral" juxtaposition of two hydrophobic side chains appears to contribute to beta-hairpin conformational stability, which is consistent with results from other beta-sheet model studies and with statistical analyses of interstrand residue contacts in protein crystal structures. Interaction between the side chains of Tyr-2 and Lys-9 also stabilizes the beta-hairpin conformation. Tyr-2/Lys-9 is a "diagonal" interstrand juxtaposition because these residues are not directly across from one another in terms of the hydrogen bonding registry between the strands. This diagonal interaction arises from the right-handed twist that is commonly observed among beta-sheets. Evidence of diagonal side chain-side chain contacts has been observed in other autonomously folding beta-sheet model systems, but we are not aware of other efforts to determine whether a diagonal interaction contributes to beta-sheet stability.

  8. Development, prototyping and characterization of double sided silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkar, Anita; Singh, Arvind; Aggarwal, Bharti; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Murali Krishna, L. V.; Das, D.

    2016-10-01

    Double sided DC-coupled silicon strip detectors with geometry of 65 mm×65 mm have been developed in India for nuclear physics experiments. The detectors have 64 P+ strips on the front side and 64 N+ strips on the backside with a pitch of 0.9 mm. These detectors were fabricated using a twelve mask layer process involving double sided wafer processing technology. Semiconductor process and device simulations were carried out in order to theoretically estimate the impact of important design and process parameters on the breakdown voltage of detectors. The performance of the first lot of prototype detectors has been studied using static characterization tests and using an alpha source. The characterization results demonstrate that the detectors have low leakage currents and good uniformity over the detector area of about 40 cm2. Overview of the detector design, fabrication process, simulation results and initial characterization results of the detectors are presented in this paper.

  9. A NUMERICAL STUDY ON SIDE HULL OPTIMIZATION FOR TRIMARAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Min; ZHANG Shi-lian

    2011-01-01

    Due to the interaction between the main hull and side hulls, different layouts and lengths of side hulls affect the wave loads significantly.Based on three-dimensional potential theory and Green's function, this article gives the significant values for wave loads, including vertical shear forces and vertical bending moments at different locations on the main hull, and transverse bending moments at the junction of the cross structure and main hull.In addition, a parametric optimization of wave loads for different layouts and lengths of side hulls were perfomed.Several speeds and wave headings were also considered.Finally, spectral analysis was conducted to attain load distribution.The conclusions of this study are conducive to the design and optimization of this new type of ship.

  10. Epidermoid cyst radiologically mistaken as a left sided subpulmonic effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameh, Ibrahim Sersar; Gewaeli, NourEldeen Noaman; Hamza, Usama Ali; Awadalla, Mohammed Mounir el-said

    2003-09-01

    A 33-year-old female had a left sided chest pain for the last 3 months. Chest X-ray showed a left basal opacity. Computed tomography chest suggested a left sided subpulmonic effusion (17.5x12.2x13 cm) with thick enhanced walls with marked collapse of the left lower lobe and displacement of the heart and mediastinum to the right side. Trial of thoracocentesis was done and it was positive. Trial of intercostal tube insertion was done with a sense of very thick pleura and the patient developed a vasovagal attack. Accordingly, exploratory thoracotomy was decided. Intraoperative assessment showed a huge anterosuperior mediastinal cyst attached to the pericardium and was successfully resected. The pathological findings were compatible with epidermoid cyst. PMID:17670071

  11. Čerenkov free-electron laser with side walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkal, Yashvir; Kumar, Vinit

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a Čerenkov free-electron laser (CFEL) with metallic side walls, which are used to confine an electromagnetic surface mode supported by a thin dielectric slab placed on top of a conducting surface. This leads to an enhancement in coupling between the optical mode and the co-propagating electron beam, and consequently, performance of the CFEL is improved. We set up coupled Maxwell-Lorentz equations for the system, in analogy with an undulator based conventional FEL, and obtain formulas for the small-signal gain and growth rate. It is shown that small signal gain and growth rate in this configuration are larger compared to the configuration without the side walls. In the nonlinear regime, we solve the coupled Maxwell-Lorentz equations numerically and study the saturation behaviour of the system. It is found that the Čerenkov FEL with side walls saturates quickly, and produces powerful coherent terahertz radiation.

  12. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management``, presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  15. Robotic complete mesocolic excision for right-sided colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozben, Volkan; Baca, Bilgi; Atasoy, Deniz; Bayraktar, Onur; Aghayeva, Afag; Cengiz, Turgut Bora; Erguner, Ilknur; Karahasanoglu, Tayfun; Hamzaoglu, Ismail

    2016-10-01

    Complete mesocolic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation for right-sided colon cancer has been proven to provide superior oncologic outcomes and survival advantage when compared to standard lymphadenectomy [1]. A number of studies comparing conventional laparoscopic versus open CME have shown feasibility and safety of the laparoscopic approach with acceptable oncological profile and postoperative outcomes [2, 3]. The introduction of robotic systems with its technical advantages, including improved vision, better ergonomics and precise dissection, has further revolutionized minimally invasive approach in colorectal surgery. However, there seems to be a relatively slow adoption of robotic approach in the CME technique for right-sided colon cancer. This video demonstrates our detailed operative technique and feasibility for performing right-sided CME robotically. The surgical procedure is performed with a medial-to-lateral approach through four 8-mm robotic and one assistant ports. First, the ileocolic vessels are isolated, clipped and transected near their origins. Cephalad dissection continues along the ventral aspect of the superior mesenteric vein. Staying in the embryological planes between the mesocolon and retroperitoneal structures, mesenteric dissection is extended up to the root of the right colic vessels, if present, and the middle colic vessels, which are clipped and divided individually near their origins. After the terminal ileum is transected using an endolinear staple, the colon is mobilized fully from gastrocolic tissue and then from its lateral attachments. The transverse colon is transected under the guidance of near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Creation of an intracorporeal side-to-side ileotransversostomy anastomosis and extraction of the specimen complete the operation. We consider robotic CME to be feasible, safe and oncologically adequate for the treatment of right-sided colon cancer. Its technical advantages may lead to further

  16. Variable-focus side-firing endoscopic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemberg, Vladimir G.; Black, Michael

    1996-05-01

    Conventional side-firing fiber technology exhibits performance limitations and utilizes expensive single-use only devices which often require multiple fibers for laser prostatectomy. Another limitation of existing side-firing fiber technology is its inability to focus the beam to create incisions for urologic applications such as laser TURP (transurethral resectional prostatectomy), tumor necrosis, lithotripsy, genital warts, and photodynamic therapy. Newly introduced variable-focus side-firing endoscopic device utilizes either one or two lenses and a mirror, onto a single cylinder of molded glass. The laser beam exits the optical fiber, passes through the lens, strikes the cylindrical mirror, and traverses the cylindrical surface. Depending on the design, the laser beam is reflected at the angles ranging from 30 degrees to 120 degrees out of the cylindrical lens. A second lens can be formed onto the side of the cylindrical surface at the beam's exit point. Another advantage of the innovative side-firing device is its capability to provide versatile matching to multiple laser wavelengths from 360 nm to 2.5 microns, and achieve power densities great enough to perform vaporization, incision and coagulation of tissue. Precise focusing of the laser beam results in reduced tissue necrosis of surrounding the treatment area as well as in decreased laser radiation back-scattering. Surgeons can very the focus by adjusting the distance from the tip to the target area. The variable focus side-firing device provides a focused beam at the range of 1.0 to 1.5 mm, for incision. Outside this range, it produces a defocused beam for coagulation.

  17. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Yoon Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain.

  18. The veto system of the DarkSide-50 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2016-03-16

    Nuclear recoil events produced by neutron scatters form one of the most important classes of background in WIMP direct detection experiments, as they may produce nuclear recoils that look exactly like WIMP interactions. In DarkSide-50, we both actively suppress and measure the rate of neutron-induced background events using our neutron veto, composed of a boron-loaded liquid scintillator detector within a water Cherenkov detector. This paper is devoted to the description of the neutron veto system of DarkSide-50, including the detector structure, the fundamentals of event reconstruction and data analysis, and basic performance parameters.

  19. Light scattering of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Á.; Lörincz, E.; Ramanujam, P.S.;

    2002-01-01

    Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering characteris...... for the domain size in thin liquid crystalline polyester layers being responsible for the dominant light scattering. The characteristic domain Sizes obtained from the Fourier transformation of polarization microscopic Pictures confirm these values.......Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering...

  20. Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebger, I; Rutloh, M; Hoffmann, U;

    2002-01-01

    -g) is achieved by a low power density (1 mW/cm(2) and dose of 0.5 mW/cm(2)s). Higher power densities result in a decrease of the maximum dichroism and, finally, the initially induced small anisotropy is erased during continuing light exposure. At a constant high power density of about 700 mW/cm(2......The photoorientation process in a polyester with 4-cyano-4'-alkoxyazobenzene side group and long methylene spacers in the side and the main-chain was studied as a function of irradiation with linearly polarized light of 488 nm under systematic variation of the power density and temperature...

  1. FINANCIAL SIDE ANALYSIS OF LOCAL AUTONOMY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICHIM CRISTINEL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Financial side of local autonomy expresses the capacity of local communities to have their own revenue and expenditure budget, distinct from that of the state in which revenues can cover expenses incurred to meet their requirements. The analysis of financial autonomy of administrative-territorial units in Romania is an interesting but complex approach given that some factors are actually difficult to predict and quantify.The purpose of this paper is to clarify the meaning of financial side of local autonomy and analyze this in Romania based on indicators established in recent years for measuring the position of administrative-territorial units in relation to central government.

  2. US electric utility demand-side management, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-26

    The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

  3. The veto system of the DarkSide-50 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agnes, P; Albuquerque, I F M; Alexander, T; Alton, A K; Arisaka, K; Back, H O; Baldin, B; Biery, K; Bonfini, G; Bossa, M; Bottino, B; Brigatti, A; Brodsky, J; Budano, F; Bussino, S; Cadeddu, M; Cadonati, L; Cadoni, M; Calaprice, F; Canci, N; Candela, A; Cao, H; Cariello, M; Carlini, M; Catalanotti, S; Cavalcante, P; Chepurnov, A; Cocco, A G; Covone, G; Crippa, L; D'Angelo, D; D'Incecco, M; Davini, S; De Cecco, S; De Deo, M; De Vincenzi, M; Derbin, A; Devoto, A; Di Eusanio, F; Di Pietro, G; Edkins, E; Empl, A; Fan, A; Fiorillo, G; Fomenko, K; Foster, G; Franco, D; Gabriele, F; Galbiati, C; Giganti, C; Goretti, A M; Granato, F; Grandi, L; Gromov, M; Guan, M; Guardincerri, Y; Hackett, B R; Herner, K R; Hungerford, E V; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I; Johnson, T; Jollet, C; Keeter, K; Kendziora, C L; Kobychev, V; Koh, G; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kubankin, A; Li, X; Lissia, M; Lombardi, P; Luitz, S; Ma, Y; Machulin, I N; Mandarano, A; Mari, S M; Maricic, J; Marini, L; Martoff, C J; Meregaglia, A; Meyers, P D; Miletic, T; Milincic, R; Montanari, D; Monte, A; Montuschi, M; Monzani, M E; Mosteiro, P; Mount, B J; Muratova, V N; Musico, P; Napolitano, J; Nelson, A; Odrowski, S; Orsini, M; Ortica, F; Pagani, L; Pallavicini, M; Pantic, E; Parmeggiano, S; Pelczar, K; Pelliccia, N; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Pordes, S; Pugachev, D A; Qian, H; Randle, K; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Reinhold, B; Renshaw, A L; Romani, A; Rossi, B; Rossi, N; Rountree, S D; Sablone, D; Saggese, P; Saldanha, R; Sands, W; Sangiorgio, S; Savarese, C; Segreto, E; Semenov, D A; Shields, E; Singh, P N; Skorokhvatov, M D; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Stanford, C; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Tatarowicz, J; Testera, G; Tonazzo, A; Trinchese, P; Unzhakov, E V; Vishneva, A; Vogelaar, B; Wada, M; Walker, S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Watson, A W; Westerdale, S; Wilhelmi, J; Wojcik, M M; Xiang, X; Xu, J; Yang, C; Yoo, J; Zavatarelli, S; Zec, A; Zhong, W; Zhu, C; Zuzel, G

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear recoil events produced by neutron scatters form one of the most important classes of background in WIMP direct detection experiments, as they may produce nuclear recoils that look exactly like WIMP interactions. In DarkSide-50, we both actively suppress and measure the rate of neutron-induced background events using our neutron veto, composed of a boron-loaded liquid scintillator detector within a water Cherenkov detector. This paper is devoted to the description of the neutron veto system of DarkSide-50, including the detector structure, the fundamentals of event reconstruction and data analysis, and basic performance parameters.

  4. Nonchamber, Root-Side, Inert-Gas Purging During Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, William F.; Rybicki, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Improved apparatus distributes inert gas to protect against oxidation on root side of weld during welding and after welding while joint remains hot. Simple and lightweight; readily moved along weld path in synchronism with torch. Because it concentrates inert gas where needed, consumes gas at relatively low rate, and not necessary to monitor oxygen content of protective atmosphere. Apparatus does not obscure view of root side of weld. Used for full-penetration plasma-arc welding of such reactive metals as aluminum/lithium alloys and titanium.

  5. Integrated resource strategic planning and power demand-side management

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Zhaoguang; Wen, Quan

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Resource Strategic Planning and Power Demand-Side Management elaborates two important methods - Integrated Resource Strategic Planning (IRSP) and Demand Side Management (DSM) - in terms of methodology modeling, case studies and lessons learned. This book introduces a prospective and realistic theory of the IRSP method and includes typical best practices of DSM for energy conservation and emission reduction in different countries. It can help energy providers and governmental decision-makers formulate policies and make plans for energy conservation and emission reduction, and can hel

  6. Supply-side-demand-side optimization and cost-environment trade offs for China`s coal and electricity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Zhijun; Kuby, M. [Boston University, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Geography, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1997-02-01

    The authors simultaneously optimize supply-side and demand-size investments for satisfying China`s coal and electricity needs over a 15 year time horizon. The results are compared to equivalent results from a supply-side only optimization assuming a business-as-usual demand scenario. It is estimated that, by shifting investment from energy production and transportation to energy efficiency improvement, China could meet the same energy service demand in 2000 for 7% less cost and 120 million tons (mt) less coal. Alternatively, for greater environmental protection, China could satisfy the same demands at the same cost using 275 mt coal. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Synthesis of Bisphenols Carrying Long Hydrocarbon Side Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-zhe; JIANG Nan-zhe; ZHANG Jian; JIANG Ri-shan

    2005-01-01

    Bisphenols containing long aliphatic hydrocarbon side chains were synthesized by the condensation of phenol with aldehyde or ketone in the presence of heteropolyacid. Their structures were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and element analysis. The experiment results show that when heteropolyacid was used as a catalyst, these bisphenols were obtained in high selectivity and high yields.

  8. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Rash (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points A rash is an irritated area of ... requires immediate medical attention. Why do people with HIV develop rash? A rash is an irritated area ...

  9. Demand-Side Job Development and System Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbride, Dennis; Stensrud, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Authors discuss demand-side job development as a model for improving and providing rehabilitation services to consumers and employers. It stresses quality employment outcomes, consumer choice and empowerment, and a productive partnership between consumer and counselor. Delineates systemic challenges this model poses to traditional vocational…

  10. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridaemia: An underreported and potentially severe side effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabchi S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year-old-woman, with no previous history of dyslipedemia, developed severe hypertriglyceridemia while being treated with capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer. Capecitabine was not discontinued and serum triglyceride levels were normalized after 4 weeks of treatment with fenofibrate. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridemia, as a rare drug-related side effect, seems to be often overlooked by clinicians.

  11. Black carbon: The reverse of its dark side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Cornelissen, G.; Bucheli, T.D.; Noort, van P.C.M.; Gustafsson, O.

    2006-01-01

    The emission of black carbon is known to cause major environmental problems. Black carbon particles contribute to global warming, carry carcinogenic compounds and cause serious health risks. Here, we show another side of the coin. We review evidence that black carbon may strongly reduce the risk pos

  12. Worldsid small female side impact dummy specifications and prototype evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, B.W.; Meijer, R.; Bermond, F.; Bortenschlager, K.; Hynd, D.; Martinez, L.; Ferichola, G.

    2007-01-01

    The WorldSID program was set up to develop a new, worldwide acceptable, advanced technology, side impact crash test dummy for improved assessment of injury risk to car occupants in lateral collisions. Following the release of the mid-sized male WorldSID, the development of the small female WorldSID

  13. Neck forces and moments and head accelerations in side impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoganandan, N.; Pintar, F.A.; Maiman, D.J.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Although side-impact sled studies have investigated chest, abdomen, and pelvic injury mechanics, determination of head accelerations and the associated neck forces and moments is very limited. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the temporal forces and moments at

  14. Optimization of Circular Side Door Beam for Crashworthiness Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Sharmi Raja Husin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural optimization related to crashworthiness and energy absorption capability is particularly importance to the automotive industry. The optimization involves highly nonlinear computational analysis and design with many material and structure parameters. This paper presents a crashworthiness design of the circular side door beam which attach to the side door structures. The response surface method (RSM is utilized to formulate the complex crashworthiness design problem in the case of optimization. In this study, side door beam will be optimized. The beams in circular shape were studied and compared. The focus is on finding an optimum cross-section shape of the beam in order to improve the energy absorption character.  An optimization problem is formulated to find the maximum energy absorbed with the maximum peak load as a constraint, the shape of the beam cross section and the thickness as variable. The structure optimum design and simulation analysis of automobile side-door beam was carried out by using Finite Element (FE method.

  15. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  16. Single-Sided Natural Ventilation through a Velux Roof Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhigang; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Fransson, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the single-sided natural ventilation through a VELUX centre pivot roof window under natural weather conditions. The aim of the investigation is to develop an empirical formulation for air flow rate through a roof window based on CFD and tracer gas decay measurement methods...

  17. a Study on Impact Analysis of Side Kick in Taekwondo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Young-Shin; Han, Kyu-Hyun

    Taekwondo is a martial art form and sport that uses the hands and feet for attack and defense. Taekwondo basic motion is composed of the breaking, competition and poomsea motions. The side kick is one of the most important breaking motions. The side kick with the front foot can be made in two steps. In the first step, the front foot is extended forward from the back stance free-fighting position. For the second step, the rear foot is followed simultaneously. Then, the side kick is executed while the entire body weight rests on the rear foot. In this paper, the impact analysis on a human model for kicking posture was carried out. The ADAMS/LifeMOD used numerical modeling and simulation for the side kick. The numerical human models for assailant and opponent in competition motion were developed. The maximum impact force on the human body was obtained by experiment and was applied to impact simulation. As a result, the impact displacement and velocity of the numerical human model were investigated.

  18. Vehicle side slip estimator using load sensing bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan, A.; Corno, M.; Holweg, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of load based vehicle side slip estimation.Different techniques to measure tyre forces have been presented over the years; so far no technique has made it to the market. This paper considers a new technology based on loadsensing bearings, which provides tyreforc

  19. The Two-Sided Mind: Teaching and Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper explores how Georgi Lozanov's Suggestopedia incorporates elements of modern right-brain research. For example, issues in Linda VerLee Williams's "Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind" that are applicable to Suggestopedia include visual thinking, fantasy, multisensory learning, music, and direct experience. In Robert Ornstein's "The…

  20. Gecko-inspired bidirectional double-sided adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengzhi; Gu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoping

    2014-05-14

    A new concept of gecko-inspired double-sided adhesives (DSAs) is presented. The DSAs, constructed by dual-angled (i.e. angled base and angled tip) micro-pillars on both sides of the backplane substrate, are fabricated by combinations of angled etching, mould replication, tip modification, and curing bonding. Two types of DSA, symmetric and antisymmetric (i.e. pillars are patterned symmetrically or antisymmetrically relative to the backplane), are fabricated and studied in comparison with the single-sided adhesive (SSA) counterparts through both non-conformal and conformal tests. Results indicate that the DSAs show controllable and bidirectional adhesion. Combination of the two pillar-layers can either amplify (for the antisymmetric DSA, providing a remarkable and durable adhesion capacity of 25.8 ± 2.8 N cm⁻² and a high anisotropy ratio of ∼8) or counteract (for the symmetric DSA, generating almost isotropic adhesion) the adhesion capacity and anisotropic level of one SSA (capacity of 16.2 ± 1.7 N cm⁻² and anisotropy ratio of ∼6). We demonstrate that these two DSAs can be utilized as a facile fastener for two individual objects and a small-scale delivery setup, respectively, complementing the functionality of the commonly studied SSA. As such, the double-sided patterning is believed to be a new branch in the further development of biomimetic dry adhesives.

  1. Locomotion in Stroke Subjects: Interactions between Unaffected and Affected Sides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloter, Evelyne; Wirz, Markus; Dietz, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensorimotor interactions between unaffected and affected sides of post-stroke subjects during locomotion. In healthy subjects, stimulation of the tibial nerve during the mid-stance phase is followed by electromyography responses not only in the ipsilateral tibialis anterior, but also in the proximal arm…

  2. Collusion in Markets with Imperfect Price Information on Both Sides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    The paper considers tacit collusion in markets which are not fully transparent on both sides. Consumers only detect prices with some probability before deciding which firm to purchase from, and each firm only detects the other firm's price with some probability. Increasing transparency on the...

  3. Left-hand side BBN model for process safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gulijk, C.; Hanea, D.H.; Almeida, K.Q.; Steenhoek, M.; Ale, B.J.M.; Ababei, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the blueprint of a model for calculating the left-hand side of the bow-tie for chemical plants is described. The model is based on Non-Parametric Bayesian Belief Nets so that uncertainties are automatically included. Also, the procedure for constructing the elements for the mode

  4. Making "cents" of the business side of nurse practitioner practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster-Tucker, AtNena

    2016-03-15

    Nurse practitioners produce excellent patient outcomes and should be allowed to practice to the full extent of their education and training. In addition to clinical skills, nurse practitioners need to understand the business side of practice in order to ensure fair and equitable compensation.

  5. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Åsa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte;

    2015-01-01

    ), and vitality (VT) in the mefloquine group compared to matched controls. CONCLUSION: The most frequent acute psychiatric problems were anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Data indicated that subjects experiencing acute mefloquine adverse side effects may develop long-term mental health problems...... with a decreased sense of global quality of life with lack of energy, nervousness, and depression....

  6. EPA'S PHOTOVOLTAIC DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT COST-SHARED DEMONSTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses an investigation of how photovoltaics (PV) may be used as both a pollution-mitigating energy replacement for fossil fuels and a demand-side management (DSM) option to reduce peak electrical demands of commercial and residential buildings. leven electric utilit...

  7. U.S. EPA'S PHOTOVOLTAIC DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses an investigation of how photovoltaic (PV) may be used as both a pollution-mitigating energy replacement for fossil fuels and a demand-side management (DSM) option to reduce peak electrical demands of commercial and residential buildings. leven electric utiliti...

  8. Supply-side collaboration for energy-efficient renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.; Mlecnik, E.

    2015-01-01

    The supply side for nearly zero energy building (nZEB) renovation of owner-occupied single-family houses in Europe is suffering from a severe image problem of lack of knowledge and trust, inefficient construction processes, insufficient quality assurance and communication difficulties with home-owne

  9. Photoinduced Circular Anisotropy in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, M.;

    1997-01-01

    We report for the first time the inducing of large circular anisotropy in previously unoriented films of side-chain azobenzene polyesters on illumination with circularly polarized light at a wavelength of 488 nm. The circular dichroism and optical activity are measured simultaneously in real time...

  10. Demand-side management programs and electric competition in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As state regulators, and perhaps the federal government, move to implement competition among generators for retail sales, demand-side management programs as designed will become unsustainable. But while retail competition threatens them, it may eliminate the value to perpetuating those programs as well

  11. $xy$ Position Reconstruction in DarkSide-50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Jason Philip [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The DarkSide-50 experiment seeks to directly detect dark matter in a liquid argon time projection chamber. In this dissertation, I present an algorithm of my design that determines the position of particle interactions with the liquid argon. This position reconstruction algorithm will be used by DarkSide-50 to reject backgrounds, particularly backgrounds from radioactive elements on the detector surface. The position reconstruction algorithm functions by constructing light response functions (LRFs) that map locations in the detector to the expected distribution of signal in DarkSide-50's 38 photomultiplier tubes. Accurate LRFs cannot be produced by simulations of DarkSide-50's optics because such simulations are known to be awed. Instead, this algorithm constructs LRFs using an iterative process driven by data. Initial, awed LRFs are produced using simulated events but then used to produce new LRFs from data events. Multiple generations of LRFs are created from data with each generation driven to better satisfy a known feature of the detector: the dominant argon-39 background is uniformly distributed. I also discuss a method of discriminating against surface background as an alternative to the common approach of ducialization. This method considers the di erence in goodnessof- t between the best- t reconstructed position and the best- t position at the detector's surface. I conclude by presenting results on the performance and validity of this algorithm, including some discussion of reconstruction errors.

  12. Existence theorems for differential inclusions with nonconvex right hand side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove some new existence theorems for differential inclusions with a nonconvex right hand side, which is lower semicontinuous or continuous in the state variable, measurable in the time variable and takes values in a finite or infinite dimensional separable Banach space.

  13. Construct Validity of Measures of Becker's Side Bet Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lynn M.; Tetrick, Lois E.; Shore, Ted H.; Barksdale, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Becker's side bet theory (remaining in a job because of perceived costs of leaving) was tested using data from 327 working business students. Three factors were most consistent with the theory: bureaucratic organization, nonwork-related concerns, and adjustment to social position. Attachment to the organization was significantly linked to tangible…

  14. Influence of cutting conditions on chip side curl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the influence of local variations of contact length, cutting speed and material constraint, showing the effect of lubrication, on the side curl of the chip. The following examples are illustrated by experiments: cutting of a tube vs. cutting of a bar; cutting using a tool...

  15. Tamoxifen treatment and gynecologic side effects : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJE; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB; Ten Hoor, KA; Hollema, H; Van der Zee, AGJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on tamoxifen side effects on the female genital tract and psychosexual function in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data Sources: We used the English-language literature in MEDLINE and reference lists from selected articles. Search terms included: "tamoxife

  16. A Frame Nucleus on a Two-side Prequantale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUShao-xian; WANGShun-qin; MAFei-fei

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a Frame nucleus and prime elements in a Prequantale are defined. The concrete structure of a Frame prequantic quotient is considered, and the relation between the half-prime element and the Frame nucleus in a two-side Prequantale are obtained.

  17. Upward Pricing Pressure in Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affeldt, P.; Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Pricing pressure indices have recently been proposed as alternative screening devices for horizontal mergers involving differentiated products. We extend the concept of Upward Pricing Pressure (UPP) proposed by Farrell and Shapiro (2010) to two-sided markets. Examples of such markets are t

  18. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects. PMID:22129319

  19. Managing Change: the people side of implementing CRM processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hann, David

    2006-01-01

    This report has been produced with the remit of analysing the people side of change management with regard to a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) process implementation at Jupiter Design (Jupiter). An increasing churn of clients and 12- years of growth has made Jupiter realise they must maximise revenues from existing clients. The adoption of a CRM approach has been suggested as a possible solution.

  20. West Side Story: over de herontwikkeling van een voormalig industriegebied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melik, R.G. van; Aalst, I. van; Weesep, J. van

    2007-01-01

    Op Manhattan is nauwelijks nog ruimte voor de gestaag groeiende vraag naar woningen en kantoren. Uitzondering vormt de Far West Side, een voormalig industriegebied ten westen van Midtown. Projectontwikkelaars, lokale ondernemers, bewoners en adviseurs buitelen over elkaar heen met plannen voor de he

  1. Method for double-sided processing of thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  2. Numerical modeling of secondary side thermohydraulics of horizontal steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melikhov, V.I.; Melikhov, O.I.; Nigmatulin, B.I. [Research and Engineering Centre of LWR Nuclear Plants Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A mathematical model for the transient three-dimensional secondary side thermal hydraulics of the horizontal steam generator has been developed. The calculations of the steam generator PGV-1000 and PGV-4 nominal regimes and comparison of numerical and experimental results have been carried out. 7 refs.

  3. Handedness and dominant side of symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Bartels, Anna L.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the presence of a possible association between handedness and the side of symptom dominance in 963 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In only 287 patients the hand dominance was registered. Out of 254 right-handed patients, 158 (62%) had a right

  4. Server-side Filtering and Aggregation within a Distributed Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, J. C.; Bartle, A.

    2015-12-01

    Intercalibration, validation, and data mining use cases require more efficient access to the massive volumes of observation data distributed across multiple agency data centers. The traditional paradigm of downloading large volumes of data to a centralized server or desktop computer for analysis is no longer viable. More analysis should be performed within the host data centers using server-side functions. Many comparative analysis tasks require far less than 1% of the available observation data. The Multi-Instrument Intercalibration (MIIC) Framework provides web services to find, match, filter, and aggregate multi-instrument observation data. Matching measurements from separate spacecraft in time, location, wavelength, and viewing geometry is a difficult task especially when data are distributed across multiple agency data centers. Event prediction services identify near coincident measurements with matched viewing geometries near orbit crossings using complex orbit propagation and spherical geometry calculations. The number and duration of event opportunities depend on orbit inclinations, altitude differences, and requested viewing conditions (e.g., day/night). Event observation information is passed to remote server-side functions to retrieve matched data. Data may be gridded, spatially convolved onto instantaneous field-of-views, or spectrally resampled or convolved. Narrowband instruments are routinely compared to hyperspectal instruments such as AIRS and CRIS using relative spectral response (RSR) functions. Spectral convolution within server-side functions significantly reduces the amount of hyperspectral data needed by the client. This combination of intelligent selection and server-side processing significantly reduces network traffic and data to process on local servers. OPeNDAP is a mature networking middleware already deployed at many of the Earth science data centers. Custom OPeNDAP server-side functions that provide filtering, histogram analysis (1D

  5. Coupling Motion and Energy Harvesting of Two Side-by-Side Flexible Plates in a 3D Uniform Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibo Dong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fluid-structure interaction problems of two side-by-side flexible plates with a finite aspect ratio in a three-dimensional (3D uniform flow are numerically studied. The plates’ motions are entirely passive under the force of surrounding fluid. By changing the aspect ratio and transverse distance, the coupling motions, drag force and energy capture performance are analyzed. The mechanisms underlying the plates’ motion and flow characteristics are discussed systematically. The adopted algorithm is verified and validated by the simulation of flow past a square flexible plate. The results show that the plate’s passive flapping behavior contains transverse and spanwise deformation, and the flapping amplitude is proportional to the aspect ratio. In the side-by-side configuration, three distinct coupling modes of the plates’ motion are identified, including single-plate mode, symmetrical flapping mode and decoupled mode. The plate with a lower aspect ratio may suffer less drag force and capture less bending energy than in the isolated situation. The optimized selection for obtaining higher energy conversion efficiency is the plate flapping in single-plate mode, especially the plate with a higher aspect ratio. The findings of this work provide several new physical insights into the understanding of fish schooling and are expected to inspire the developments of underwater robots or energy harvesters.

  6. Control mechanism and technique of floor heave with reinforcing solid coal side and floor corner in gob-side coal entry retaining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; Yong; Bai; Jianbiao; Yan; Shuai; Xu; Ying; Wang; Xiangyu; Ma; Shuqi

    2012-01-01

    Floor heave is the most common convergence in gob-side entry retaining.The paper analyzes the form,process and characteristics of gob-side entry retaining with the comprehensive methods of theoretical analysis,numerical simulation and the field trial.Research results present that bending and folding floor heave is the main factor in the stage of the first panel mining;squeezing and fluidity floor heave plays a great role in the stable stage of gob-side entry retaining;the combination of the former two factors affects mainly the stage of the second mining ahead;abutment pressure is a fundamental contribution to the serious floor heave of gob-side entry retaining,and sides corners of solid coal body are key part in the case of floor heave controlling of gob-side entry retaining.Floor heave of gob-side entry retaining can be significantly controlled by reinforcing sides and corners of solid coal body,and influence rules on the floor heave of gob side entry retaining of sides supporting strength and the bottom bolt orientation in solid coal side are obtained.Research results have been successfully applied in gob-side entry retaining of G20-F23070 face haulage roadway in #2 coal mine of Pingmei Group,and the field observation shows that the proposed technique is an effective way in controlling the floor heave of gob-side entry retaining.

  7. Control mechanism and technique of floor heave with reinforcing solid coal side and floor corner in gob-side coal entry retaining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yong; Bai Jianbiao; Yan Shuai; Xu Ying; Wang Xiangyu; Ma Shuqi

    2012-01-01

    Floor heave is the most common convergence in gob-side entry retaining.The paper analyzes the form,process and characteristics of gob-side entry retaining with the comprehensive methods of theoretical analysis,numerical simulation and the field trial.Research results present that bending and folding floor heave is the main factor in the stage of the first panel mining; squeezing and fluidity floor heave plays a great role in the stable stage of gob-side entry retaining; the combination of the former two factors affects mainly the stage of the second mining ahead; abutment pressure is a fundamental contribution to the serious floor heave of gob-side entry retaining,and sides comers of solid coal body are key part in the case of floor heave controlling of gob-side entry retaining.Floor heave of gob-side entry retaining can be significantly controlled by reinforcing sides and comers of solid coal body,and influence rules on the floor heave of gob side entry retaining of sides supporting strength and the bottom bolt orientation in solid coal side are obtained.Research results have been successfully applied in gob-side entry retaining of G20-F23070 face haulage roadway in #2 coal mine of Pingmei Group,and the field observation shows that the proposed technique is an effective way in controlling the floor heave of gob-side entry retaining.

  8. Comparison of the Complications between Left Side and Right Side Subclavian Vein Catheter Placement in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Tarbiat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Percutaneous subclavian vein catheterization is one of the most common invasive procedures performed in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to compare left and right subclavian vein catheter placement via the infraclavicular approach in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery.Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was performed in193 patients. The technique applied for cannulation was infraclavicular approach for both the right and the left sides. Subclavian vein of other side was attempted only when catheterization at initial side was unsuccessful at two attempts. The success and complication rates were compared for the two sides.Results: On193 patients, catheterization attempts were performed. 177 catheterizations (91.7% were successful during the first attempt, 105 (92.1% on the right side and 72 (91.1% on the left side. There was no significant difference between success rate and side of catheterization. Malposition of the catheter tip on the right side (9.6% was significantly more than the left side (0% (P= 0.003. The differences in other complications on two sides were statistically insignificant.Conclusion: Compared with the right side, insertion of the cannula on the left side resulted in fewer catheter tip misplacements. Incidence of cannulation failure and other complications were similar on both sides.

  9. Persisting asymmetries of vision after right side lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2006-01-01

    Visual neglect and extinction are well-known effects of lesions in the right hemisphere. This study shows that even with minor or no clinical signs of these deficits, and in the stable phase of recovery, asymmetric visual perception is common after right side lesions. Whole, partial and colour...... report experiments were used to estimate psychophysical parameters related to visual capacity and attentional weighting in 26 patients with stroke in the right side of the brain. The results were analyzed using Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention....... Psychological Review, 97, 523-547]) including bootstrap estimation of the measurement error related to each test result [Habekost, T., & Bundesen, C. (2003). Patient assessment based on a theory of visual attention (TVA): Subtle deficits after a right frontal-subcortical lesion. Neuropsychologia, 41, 1171...

  10. Adaptive-Rate Compressive Sensing Using Side Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, Garrett; Bhattacharya, Sourabh; Chellappa, Rama; Başar, Tamer

    2015-11-01

    We provide two novel adaptive-rate compressive sensing (CS) strategies for sparse, time-varying signals using side information. The first method uses extra cross-validation measurements, and the second one exploits extra low-resolution measurements. Unlike the majority of current CS techniques, we do not assume that we know an upper bound on the number of significant coefficients that comprises the images in the video sequence. Instead, we use the side information to predict the number of significant coefficients in the signal at the next time instant. We develop our techniques in the specific context of background subtraction using a spatially multiplexing CS camera such as the single-pixel camera. For each image in the video sequence, the proposed techniques specify a fixed number of CS measurements to acquire and adjust this quantity from image to image. We experimentally validate the proposed methods on real surveillance video sequences.

  11. Drug target identification using side-effect similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Gavin, Anne-Claude;

    2008-01-01

    Targets for drugs have so far been predicted on the basis of molecular or cellular features, for example, by exploiting similarity in chemical structure or in activity across cell lines. We used phenotypic side-effect similarities to infer whether two drugs share a target. Applied to 746 marketed...... drugs, a network of 1018 side effect-driven drug-drug relations became apparent, 261 of which are formed by chemically dissimilar drugs from different therapeutic indications. We experimentally tested 20 of these unexpected drug-drug relations and validated 13 implied drug-target relations by in vitro...... binding assays, of which 11 reveal inhibition constants equal to less than 10 micromolar. Nine of these were tested and confirmed in cell assays, documenting the feasibility of using phenotypic information to infer molecular interactions and hinting at new uses of marketed drugs....

  12. Nuclear Recoil Calibration of DarkSide-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edkins, Erin; DarkSide Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    DarkSide-50 dark matter experiment is a liquid argon time projection chamber (TPC) surrounded by a liquid scintillator active neutron veto, designed for the direct detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The success of such an experiment is dependent upon a detailed understanding of both the expected signal and backgrounds, achieved using radioactive calibration sources of known energies. Nuclear recoils provide a measurement of both the expected signal and the most dangerous background, as nuclear recoils from neutrons cannot be distinguished from a dark matter signal on an event-by-event basis in the TPC. In this talk, I will present the DS-50 calibration system, and analysis of the results of the calibration of DarkSide-50 to nuclear recoils using radioactive neutron sources. See also the DS-50 presentations by X. Xiang and G. Koh.

  13. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 4, side-notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a number of side-notes pertaining to the first three volumes of the Energy Perspectives series of reports. Various topics are discussed by the authors of the first three volumes of the perspectives in the meetings held by the Energy Perspectives Working Group. The sixteen side-notes presented here cover the following topics: General conditions, fossil resources, the influence of climate warming, CO2 emissions trading (Joint Implementation JI and Clean Development Mechanism CDM), definition of potentials, air traffic, imported renewable electricity, hydro power, electricity cost calculation, sensitivity analysis of centralised power production facilities, heat-pumps and their power consumption, cold spells and heat-waves, risk and its perception, the 2000-Watt society and international and national energy perspectives

  14. The higher you climb: Dark side personality and job level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche-Astrup, Oluf; Jakobsen, Joan; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    provided data on 264 adults based on assessment reports. This paper explored linear and quadratic relationships between personality and de facto job level. More senior managers scored high on Cluster B/Moving Against Others scales of Bold, Colorful and Imaginative, and low on Cautious and Dutiful......The purpose of this study was to explore the idea that there are dark side personality differences in the profiles of people at different levels in organizations. This study replicates and extends existing leadership research by focusing on self-defeating behavioral tendencies. A Danish consultancy....... These Danish data are compared to data from Great Britain and New Zealand which show very similar findings. Practice should take into account that dark side personality traits associated with an assertive, sometimes hostile, interpersonal orientation, predict leadership level up to a point....

  15. Suspected side effects to the quadrivalent human papilloma vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Theibel, Ann Cathrine; Pors, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine. METHODS: We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. RESULTS: All......INTRODUCTION: The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous...... consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced...

  16. Side effects of cancer therapies. International classification and documentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication presents and explains verified, international classification and documentation systems for side effects induced by cancer treatments, applicable in general and clinical practice and clinical research, and covers in a clearly arranged manner the whole range of treatments, including acute and chronic side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgery, or combined therapies. The book fills a long-felt need in tumor documentation and is a major contribution to quality assurance in clinical oncology in German-speaking countries. As most parts of the book are bilingual, presenting German and English texts and terminology, it satisfies the principles of interdisciplinarity and internationality. The tabulated form chosen for presentation of classification systems and criteria facilitate the user's approach as well as application in daily work. (orig./CB)

  17. Psychological side effects of immune therapies: symptoms and pathomechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, David; Kovacs, Peter; Eszlari, Nora; Gonda, Xenia; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    Immunotherapies revolutionised the treatment of several disorders but show specific side-effect profiles which frequently involve psychological symptoms. Long term interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy can cause wide-ranging psychiatric side-effects from fatigue, insomnia, anxiety to full-blown depression. This treatment-emergent depression shares several symptoms with major depressive disorder (MDD) with a predominance of somatic/neurovegetative symptoms, and can be treated with antidepressants. However, this experience directed research to inflammatory mechanisms in MDD. MDD has been confirmed as a heterogeneous disorder with a subgroup of patients suffering from low-grade chronic inflammation and frequently resistant to traditional antidepressant treatment. Thus future research should develop strategies to identify those MDD patients who could benefit from drugs acting through inflammatory pathways. PMID:27456240

  18. Photophysical characteristics of polyaniline with photochromic azobenzene side groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wei; Huang Kun; Wan Mei-Xiang

    2005-01-01

    Photochromic characteristics and optical molecular reorientation in conducting polymer such as polyaniline derivatives containing photochromic azobenzene moieties (PAPNPAPOA) in side chain are studied. Changes in the UV-vis absorption, refractive index, thickness, contact angle and morphology of these films after irradiation of a linearly polarized light with a wavelength of 365nm are measured. The trans-cis isomerization of PAPNPAPOA is proved irreversible even after withdrawing the UV light for a long time. That the structure of main-chain attends by the trans-cis isomerization of side-chain is confirmed by the absorption and the solution colour during the UV irradiation. These effects are discussed by taking the trans-cis isomerization of azobenzene into consideration.

  19. The human dark side: evolutionary psychology and original sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph; Theol, M

    2014-04-01

    Human nature has a dark side, something important to religions. Evolutionary psychology has been used to illuminate the human shadow side, although as a discipline it has attracted criticism. This article seeks to examine the evolutionary psychology's understanding of human nature and to propose an unexpected dialog with an enduring account of human evil known as original sin. Two cases are briefly considered: murder and rape. To further the exchange, numerous theoretical and methodological criticisms and replies of evolutionary psychology are explored jointly with original sin. Evolutionary psychology can partner with original sin since they share some theoretical likenesses and together they offer insights into the nature of what it means to be human.

  20. Flap Side-Edge Noise: Acoustic Analysis of Sen's Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Jay C.; Martin, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The two-dimensional flap side-edge flow model developed by Sen is analyzed to reveal the noise production potential of the proposed mechanism. The model assumes that a vortex will form at the equilibrium position off the side edge of the flap. The vortex is then perturbed away from the equilibrium position by incoming turbulence causing it to oscillate and thus radiate sound. The noise field is calculated three-dimensionally by taking the flap to have a finite chord. Spectra and directivity of the farfield sound are presented. In addition, the effect of retarded time differences is evaluated. The parameters in the model are related to typical aircraft parameters and noise reduction possibilities are proposed.

  1. Directional Enhanced Probe for Side-Illumination Tip Enhanced Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Hongming; Cao, Zhengmin; He, Yingbo; Cheng, Yuqing; Li, Jiafang; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a high-performance apertureless near-field probe made of a tapered metal tip with a set of periodic shallow grooves near the apex. The spontaneous emission from a single emitter near the tip is investigated systematically for the side-illumination tip enhanced spectroscopy (TES). In contrast with the bare tapered metal tip in conventional side-illumination TES, the corrugated probe not only enhances strongly local excitation field but also concentrates the emission directivity, which leads to high collection efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, we propose an asymmetric TES tip based on two coupling nanorods with different length at the apex to realize unidirectional enhanced emission rate from a single emitter. Interestingly, we find that the radiation pattern is sensitive to the emission wavelength and the emitter positions respective to the apex, which can result in an increase of signal-to-noise ratio by suppressing undesired signal. The proposed asymmetrical corrugated probe...

  2. Detached Eddy Simulation of Flap Side-Edge Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Shankar K.; Shariff, Karim R.

    2016-01-01

    Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) of flap side-edge flow was performed with a wing and half-span flap configuration used in previous experimental and numerical studies. The focus of the study is the unsteady flow features responsible for the production of far-field noise. The simulation was performed at a Reynolds number (based on the main wing chord) of 3.7 million. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were performed as a precursor to the DES. The results of these precursor simulations match previous experimental and RANS results closely. Although the present DES simulations have not reached statistical stationary yet, some unsteady features of the developing flap side-edge flowfield are presented. In the final paper it is expected that statistically stationary results will be presented including comparisons of surface pressure spectra with experimental data.

  3. Holographic Gratings in Azobenzene Side-Chain Polymethacrylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andruzzi, Luisa; Altomare, Angelina; Ciardelli, Francesco;

    1999-01-01

    Optical storage properties of thin unoriented liquid crystalline and amorphous side-chain azobenzene polymethacrylate films are examined by polarization holographic measurements. The investigated materials are free radical copolymers derived from two photochromic monomers, 6-(4-oxy-4'-cyanoazoben......Optical storage properties of thin unoriented liquid crystalline and amorphous side-chain azobenzene polymethacrylate films are examined by polarization holographic measurements. The investigated materials are free radical copolymers derived from two photochromic monomers, 6-(4-oxy-4...... polarizing optical microscopy. Atomic force microscopy investigations have been carried out on the polarization holographic gratings recorded in the polymethacrylate films. A surface relief grating has been found to appear in all films after irradiation. The copolymers with 50-75% dye content exhibit the...

  4. Application Neutrality and a Paradox of Side Payments

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan; Kesidis, George

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing debate over "net neutrality" covers a broad set of issues related to the regulation of public networks. This paper contains two separate contributions: (a) an extension of the quadratic-utility framework we proposed in a previous paper to study the impact of side payments in a system involving pluralities of access and content providers; and (b) a variation of this model to deal with the question of application neutrality. Our analysis of the generalized framework (a) reveals an interesting "paradox" that did not occur with monopolistic players: side payments handicap the providers who perceive them. Application neutrality (b) refers to price discrimination: ISPs charging consumers different fees depending on their use of the network (web surfing, VoIP, file sharing, etc.). We analyze the consequences of such discrimination for a simple two-application setting.

  5. The dark side of the rings of Uranus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pater, Imke; Hammel, H B; Showalter, Mark R; van Dam, Marcos A

    2007-09-28

    The rings of Uranus are oriented edge-on to Earth in 2007 for the first time since their 1977 discovery. This event provides a rare opportunity to observe their dark (unlit) side, where dense rings darken to near invisibility, but faint rings become much brighter. We present a ground-based infrared image of the unlit side of the rings that shows that the system has changed dramatically since previous views. A broad cloud of faint material permeates the system but is not correlated with the well-known narrow rings or with the embedded dust belts imaged by the Voyager spacecraft. Although some differences can be explained by the unusual viewing angle, we conclude that the dust distribution within the system has changed substantially since the 1986 Voyager encounter and that it occurs on much larger scales than has been seen in other planetary systems. PMID:17717152

  6. Coding for quantum channels with side information at the transmitter

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of coding for quantum channels with side information that is available ahead of time at the transmitter but not at the receiver. We find a single-letter expression for the entanglement-assisted quantum capacity of such channels which closely parallels Gel'fand and Pinsker's solution to the classical version of the same problem. This theorem can also be used to find a lower bound on the unassisted quantum capacity of these channels.

  7. Characterization and localization of side population cells in the lens

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Mikako; Toyoda, Chizuko; Kaneko, Yuka; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Aizu-Yokota, Eriko; Takehana, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Side population (SP) cells were isolated and the possibility whether lens epithelial cells contain stem cells was investigated. Methods Mouse lens epithelial cells were stained by Hoechst 33342 and then sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The expression of stem cell markers in sorted SP cells and the main population of epithelial cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Localization of SP cells in the mouse lens was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Resul...

  8. Protection of UPQC Against the Load Side Short Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Axente, Iurie, (Thesis); Basu, Malabika; Conlon, Michael; Gaughan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a protection scheme for protecting the series inverter of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC). The proposed scheme protects the series inverter from overcurrents and overvoltages, which appear during short-circuit faults on the load side of the UPQC. The main protection element is a crowbar connected across the secondary of the series transformer and consists of a pair of antiparallel connected thyristors, which is governed by a simple Zener diode-based control circ...

  9. Online Truthful Mechanisms for Multi-sided Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Moran; Gonen, Rica

    2016-01-01

    The study of mechanisms for multi-sided markets has received an increasingly growing attention from the research community, and is motivated by the numerous examples of such markets on the web and in electronic commerce, including: online advertising exchanges, stock exchanges, business-to-business commerce and bandwidth allocation. Many of these examples represent dynamic and uncertain environments, and thus, require, in fact, online mechanisms. Unfortunately, as far as we know, no previousl...

  10. Effects of Moving Side Walls on Confined Granular Packings

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Chand; Zubair Ahmed Memon; Abdul Qadir

    2011-01-01

    Granular materials have numerous industrial and geophysical applications. However, many phenomenon exhibited by granular media are not yet fully explained. Nowadays simulation has emerged as an important tool to investigate the complex properties exhibited by granular media. The influence of side walls movement of a granular column is investigated by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The evolution of stress profile and deflection of vertical stresses is due to d...

  11. Parathyroid adenoma on the ipsilateral side of thyroid hemiagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kroeker, Teresa R.; Stancoven, Kevin M.; Preskitt, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a parathyroid adenoma on the ipsilateral side of thyroid hemiagenesis—which, to our knowledge, is the third reported case of this entity. A 41-year-old man with nephrolithiasis was found to have elevated calcium and intact parathyroid hormone levels. Both ultrasound and technetium sestamibi scintigraphy with single photon emission computed tomography confirmed left thyroid hemiagenesis and an adenoma in the left inferior thyroid bed. The patient underwent left neck explor...

  12. Side Effects Exhibited by Athletes Using Anabolic Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid S. Khodasevich; Tat'yana V. Voskoboinikova

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the general problems of the use of anabolic steroids by athletes. The main reason they are banned in sports is because they artificially increase human performance by stimulating various metabolisms, as well as stimulating the constructive and energetic metabolism processes. The prohibited anabolic steroids are not only harmful to the athletes’ health but they also pose a very real threat to their life. Information regarding the side effects of anabolic steroids can be ef...

  13. Alignment of Innovation Policy Objectives: a demand side perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Maria Bodas Freitas; Nick von Tunzelmann

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at a better understanding of the interaction between design of public support for innovation at different levels of policy-making, and firms’ innovation activities. How do firms respond to the incentives offered by various policies? We propose an analytical framework to examine the alignment of technology and innovation policy objectives from a demand-side perspective, that is, from the perspective of firms that benefit from policy support. The framework builds on existing...

  14. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler kidney, basin area left renal vein, aorto-mesenteric portion; the scrotum with a sample Trombetta, phlebography аnd phlebotonometry basin left renal vein and the common iliac vein. Renospermatic reflux was detected in 89 (81 %, ileospermatic 12 (11 % and mixed 9 (8 % patients. Patients with reflux ileospermatic excluded from the study. The 96 patients with left-sided varicocele underwent venography and phlebotonometry in 37 (38.5 % were renal venous hypertension, with 35 of them that it was due to aorto-mesenteric compression, and in 2 cases an anomaly development – annular renal vein. Our data are comparable with the results of other authors. Patients with mesenteric compressed statistically significant reduction in the diameter of renal veins in the aorto-mesenteric portion and increased blood flow in this region, and expand prestenosis left renal vein and reduce flow velocity in this region compared with the group without renal phlebohypertension. Patients with renal phlebohypertension subsequently held shunt types of operations performed in patients with normotension occlusive types of operations. An integrated assessment of patients with left-side allows to make a holistic understanding of the basic mechanisms of disease etiology and select the appropriate type of surgery.

  15. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler kidney, basin area left renal vein, aorto-mesenteric portion; the scrotum with a sample Trombetta, phlebography аnd phlebotonometry basin left renal vein and the common iliac vein. Renospermatic reflux was detected in 89 (81 %, ileospermatic 12 (11 % and mixed 9 (8 % patients. Patients with reflux ileospermatic excluded from the study. The 96 patients with left-sided varicocele underwent venography and phlebotonometry in 37 (38.5 % were renal venous hypertension, with 35 of them that it was due to aorto-mesenteric compression, and in 2 cases an anomaly development – annular renal vein. Our data are comparable with the results of other authors. Patients with mesenteric compressed statistically significant reduction in the diameter of renal veins in the aorto-mesenteric portion and increased blood flow in this region, and expand prestenosis left renal vein and reduce flow velocity in this region compared with the group without renal phlebohypertension. Patients with renal phlebohypertension subsequently held shunt types of operations performed in patients with normotension occlusive types of operations. An integrated assessment of patients with left-side allows to make a holistic understanding of the basic mechanisms of disease etiology and select the appropriate type of surgery.

  16. A one-sided Prime Ideal Principle for noncommutative rings

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Manuel L.

    2009-01-01

    Completely prime right ideals are introduced as a one-sided generalization of the concept of a prime ideal in a commutative ring. Some of their basic properties are investigated, pointing out both similarities and differences between these right ideals and their commutative counterparts. We prove the Completely Prime Ideal Principle, a theorem stating that right ideals that are maximal in a specific sense must be completely prime. We offer a number of applications of the Completely Prime Idea...

  17. The 727/JT8D refan side nacelle airloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. W.; Vadset, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    Airloads on the 727/JT8D refan side engine nacelle are presented. These consist of surface static pressure distributions from two low speed wind tunnel tests. External nacelle surface pressures are from testing of a flow-through, body mounted nacelle model, and internal inlet surface pressures are from performance testing of a forced air inlet model. The method for obtaining critical airloads on nacelle components and a representative example are discussed.

  18. [New side effects of proton pump inhibitors; time for reflection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, N J; Numans, M E

    2016-01-01

    Large population studies published recently have revealed additional risks of chronic use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Dementia and renal failure were reported as long-term follow-up side effects of chronic use, in addition to the previously known increased risk for various infections, osteoporosis and metabolic disturbances. In the light of ongoing over-prescription of PPIs, this should lead to reconsideration of individual indications. PMID:27334088

  19. Coding one-sided violence from media reports

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Event datasets on political violence, which are comprised of coded collected news reports, have enjoyed a renaissance within the academic community. The inclusion of civilian fatalities within these datasets is a promising and welcomed advancement regarding the availability of data on one-sided violence. However, these datasets are often criticised due to their heavy reliance on media records, which may be tainted by biases. So far, little attention has been paid to the specific problems that...

  20. Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Piasek; Agnieszka Bartoszek; Jacek Namieśnik

    2009-01-01

    Almost all clinically used antitumor drugs exhibit toxic side effects affecting heart function. Because of cardiotoxicity during anticancer chemotherapy, effective doses of cytostatics have to be limited, which may worsen antitumor efficacy. The cardiotoxicity induced by cytostatics of the anthracycline group in particular results, among others, from massive stimulation of ROS. It has therefore been suggested that some phytochemicals with high antioxidant potential, when administered together...

  1. The Future of Open Spaces on the Upper West Side

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Bosselmann; Kevin Gilson; Todd Bressi; Norman Davis; Carol Isen; Richard Sinkhoff; Matt Taecker; Greg Levesque; Rajeev Bhatia; Fred Bauman; Edward Arens; David Ernest; Gail McEachern; The Parks Council

    1990-01-01

    Parks and open spaces on Manhattan's Upper West Side are an important resource for people from all parts of New York City. Central Park and Riverside Park -- which are neighborhood amenities for Upper West Siders -- are two of the city's greatest treasures. These parks, both designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, provide a natural setting against the backdrop of the city; they are places where people can take refuge from high-density living conditions to relax or play. More and more peop...

  2. Efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato Side effects of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pastura

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Revisar os principais efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato, em curto e longo prazos, no tratamento de crianças com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção (TDAH. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão de literatura nos últimos doze anos através de pesquisa no Medline e Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Dentre os efeitos colaterais que surgem em curto prazo, prevalecem a redução de apetite, insônia, cefaléia e dor abdominal, sendo a maioria autolimitada, dose-dependente e de média intensidade. Dentre aqueles em longo prazo, são descritas alterações discretas de pressão arterial e freqüência cardíaca e uma possível discreta diminuição da estatura. O abuso e a dependência ao medicamento são observados muito raramente. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil de efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato é seguro, não parecendo justificar o seu uso constrito no Brasil, ante os benefícios robustos amplamente demonstrados na literatura.OBJECTIVE: To review main short-term and long-term side effects of methylphenidate in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Disorder in children. SOURCE OF DATA: a 12-year review in Medline and Lilacs. RESULTS: Among those side effects showed in the short-term, anorexia, insomnia, headache and abdominal pain are the most common ones, being the majority self-limited, dose-dependent and of medium intensity. Long-term side effects consist of mild blood pressure and heart rate increase and possible light growth suppression effect. Abuse and dependency are very rare. CONCLUSIONS: Methylphenidate side effects profile is safe and does not seem to justify its restricted use in Brazil, considering its solid benefits widely demonstrated in literature.

  3. Internet Regulation, Two-Sided Pricing, and Sponsored Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jullien, Bruno; Sand-Zantman, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    We consider a network that intermediates traffic between free content providers and consumers. Two-sided pricing of consumers and content providers allows profit extraction by the network and transmission of information on the social value of content. Profit maximizing tariffs give the content providers the option to sponsor the traffic of consumers. We show that a cost-oriented price-cap on the charge to content providers improves social welfare, while banning discrimination or imposing zero...

  4. Characterization of Side Population Cells from Human Airway Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Hackett, Tillie-Louise; Shaheen, Furquan; Johnson, Andrew; Wadsworth, Samuel; Pechkovsky, Dmitri V; Jacoby, David B.; Kicic, Anthony; Stick, Stephen M.; Knight, Darryl A.

    2008-01-01

    The airway epithelium is the first line of contact with the inhaled external environment and is continuously exposed to and injured by pollutants, allergens, and viruses. However, little is known about epithelial repair and in particular the identity and role of tissue resident stem/progenitor cells that may contribute to epithelial regeneration. The aims of the present study were to identify, isolate, and characterize side population (SP) cells in human tracheobronchial epithelium. Epithelia...

  5. Server-side verification of client behavior in cryptographic protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Andrew; Cochran, Robert; Nesfield, Marie; Reiter, Michael K.; Sturton, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Numerous exploits of client-server protocols and applications involve modifying clients to behave in ways that untampered clients would not, such as crafting malicious packets. In this paper, we demonstrate practical verification of a cryptographic protocol client's messaging behavior as being consistent with the client program it is believed to be running. Moreover, we accomplish this without modifying the client in any way, and without knowing all of the client-side inputs driving its behav...

  6. Coherent CVA and FVA with Liability Side Pricing of Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Wujiang

    2015-01-01

    This article presents FVA and CVA of a bilateral derivative in a coherent manner, based on recent developments in fair value accounting and ISDA standards. We argue that a derivative liability, after primary risk factors being hedged, resembles in economics an issued variable funding note, and should be priced at the market rate of the issuer's debt. For the purpose of determining the fair value, the party on the liability side is economically neutral to make a deposit to the other party, whi...

  7. The non-algorithmic side of the mind

    OpenAIRE

    Zizzi, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a non-algorithmic side of the mind, conjectured by Penrose on the basis of G\\"odel's first incompleteness theorem, is investigated here in terms of a quantum metalanguage. We suggest that, besides human ordinary thought, which can be formalized in a computable, logical language, there is another important kind of human thought, which is Turing-non-computable. This is methatought, the process of thinking about ordinary thought. Metathought can be formalized as a metalanguage, ...

  8. CFD Simulation of Airflow in the Side-Platform Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Adibi Omid; Farhanieh Bijan; Afshin Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Design of an appropriate ventilation system is one of the main concerns in the construction of subways. In this paper, thermal comforts of side-platform stations are investigated by numerical methods. For the numerical simulation, grids are generated by structured methods and governing equations are discretized by finite volume methods. In the numerical simulation, second order upwind and second order central difference scheme are used to consider the convection and diffusion terms of momentu...

  9. Funding global public goods: the dark side of multilateralism

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Patrick; Urpelainen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The funding of global public goods, such as climate mitigation, presents a complex strategic problem. Potential recipients demand side payments for implementing projects that furnish global public goods, and donors can cooperate to provide the funding. We offer a game-theoretic analysis of this problem. In our model, a recipient demands project funding. Donors can form a multilateral program to jointly fund the project. If no program is formed, bilateral funding remains a possibility. We find...

  10. Steepening of Waves at the Dusk Side Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, F.; Kahr, N.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Leinweber, H. K.; Bromund, K. R.; Anderson, B. J.; Le, G.; Chutter, M.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.; Le Contel, O.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of the dynamic dusk side magnetopause show abundant evidence for the passage of surfaces waves that may have been created or amplified by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). That instability is fed by the flow shear of plasma across the magnetopause boundary. Wave amplification by the KHI involves steepening of the waves' leading edges, which precedes wave breaking and conversion into KH vortices. Indeed, magnetopause surface waves featuring steeper leading edges have been observed in numerous occasions. By contrast, observations of steeper trailing edges in magnetopause surface waves are rare, and it is unclear how they develop. Chen et al. [J. Geophys. Res., 98, 5727 (1993)] suggested that this inverse wave steepening could originate from the release of magnetic tension in the magnetosheath (plasma depletion layer), based on ISEE measurements. However, more recent findings by Plaschke et al. [J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1483 (2013)] based on THEMIS multi-spacecraft measurements suggest that this explanation may not always be applicable. New light can be shed on this phenomenon by the newly launched Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, which consists of four spacecraft that measure fields and particles with unprecedented time resolution. On July 9th, the MMS spacecraft began to obtain data regularly in a small-scale tetrahedron of about 160 km on a side. This tetrahedron may with time be further reduced to a size of about 10 km on a side. In this tetrahedral configuration, when close to apogee, the spacecraft stay in the (dusk side) magnetopause region over long periods of time, making possible a routine determination of wave steepness by timing analysis. We present a study thereof, relating our findings to local magnetospheric/magnetosheath and upstream conditions.

  11. High prevalence of side population in human cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, Maximilian; Zeimet, Alain G; Fiegl, Heidi; Wolf, Barbara; Huber, Julia; Klocker, Helmut; Gastl, Guenther; Sopper, Sieghart; Wolf, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell lines are essential platforms for performing cancer research on human cells. We here demonstrate that, across tumor entities, human cancer cell lines harbor minority populations of putative stem-like cells, molecularly defined by dye extrusion resulting in the side population phenotype. These findings establish a heterogeneous nature of human cancer cell lines and argue for their stem cell origin. This should be considered when interpreting research involving these model systems.

  12. Nan Goldin: The Other Side : photography and gender identity

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Summary In my dissertation I analyse selected photographs in the photo-book The Other Side (first published in 1992) by artist Nan Goldin (born 1953). They all portray biological males in different degrees of feminisation. My intention is to see whether the pictures illustrate the development of the discourse on gender identity from ca 1970 to the early 1990s. My intention is also to analyse what relation there may be between photography and the formation of new gender identities. The ...

  13. Price Competition between Road Side Units Operators in Vehicular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    FUX, Vladimir; Maillé, Patrick; Cesana, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular networks, besides supporting safety- oriented applications, are nowadays expected to provide effec- tive communication infrastructure also for supporting leisure- oriented application including content sharing, gaming and In- ternet access on the move. This work focuses on Vehicle to Infras- tructure (V2I) scenarios, where multiple content providers own a physical infrastructure of Road Side Units (RSUs) which they use to sell contents to moving vehicles. Content provider/RSU owners...

  14. Alternatif Material Hood dan Side Panel Mobil Angkutan Pedesaan Multiguna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ihsan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobil merupakan sarana transportasi yang banyak digunakan oleh manusia baik untuk kepentingan pribadi maupun umum. Pada tahun 2013 Teknik Mesin ITS bekerja sama dengan PT. Karya Tugas Anda membuat sebuah prototype mobil pick up multiguna pedesaan. Berat total prototype mobil dan box tersebut adalah 1200 Kg. Sedangkan dengan engine 650 cc dan daya 38,23 - 43,33 HP, berat mobil terlalu berat (rancangan beban total maksimum mobil dan penumpang/ barang adalah 1500 Kg. Untuk itu dilakukan kajian terhadap hood dan side panel mobil tersebut pada body bagian depan maupun box (body bagian belakang. Setelah perancangan tersebut selesai, dilanjutkan dengan merancang sambungan hood dan side panel mobil tersebut. Sambungan menggabungkan antara material pelat dengan komposit dan material komposit dengan komposit. Sambungan dianalisa kekuatannya terhadap gaya-gaya/ beban yang mungkin terjadi saat mobil digunakan. Selanjutnya dilakukan perancangan proses pembuatan hood dan side panel mobil dari bahan komposit. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah hood berdimensi 1176 mm x 453 mm dan side panel mobil dengan dimensi 558 mm x 430,5 mm. Bahan kedua komponen adalah komposit tipe E-Glass yang memiliki keuntungan lebih ringan daripada bahan sebelumnya, yaitu mild steel. Ketebalan hood yang dipilih sebesar 2 mm. Ketebalan hood tersebut aman, yaitu mampu menerima tegangan ekuivalen maksimum 7,9769 MPa dan lebih kecil daripada tegangan ijin material komposit yaitu 1020 MPa. Deformasi yang pada hood adalah sebesar 0,0247 mm. Berat dari hood mengalami perubahan, dimana dengan menggunakan bahan mild steel berat hood adalah 7,536 kg. Jika menggunakan bahan komposit berat hood menjadi 2,327 kg, hampir 69,12% lebih ringan dari sebelumnya.

  15. A Rare Side Effect of Metformin: Metformin-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    AKSAY, Ersin

    2007-01-01

    Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic agent that is commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While metformin-associated metabolic acidosis is a widely recognized side effect of this drug, metformin-induced hepatotoxicity has been rarely reported in the literature. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old male in whom metformin-associated lactic acidosis and metformin-induced hepatotoxicity developed.

  16. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  17. Brinzolamide-timolol suspension: acceptability and side effect profile

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty MD; Fraser SG; Phelan PS

    2011-01-01

    MD Doherty, SG Fraser, PS PhelanSunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, UKBackground: This study aimed to determine the frequency, nature, and impact of side effects associated with the use of brinzolamide-timolol suspension, a topical ocular antihypertensive preparation.Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 76 consecutive patients attending the Sunderland Eye Infirmary Glaucoma Service who were using the brinzolamide-timolol suspension. The questions related specifically t...

  18. Demand-Side Management Programs Under Retail Electricity Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Demand-side management programs comprise subsidies from franchised electric utilities for the purchase of high-efficiency appliances, e.g., air conditioners. Competition in power generation threatens the viability of these programs. However, it should also reduce the warrant for them. Under regulation, the justification for such programs depends, somewhat paradoxically, on below marginal-cost pricing. Eliminating regulation should permit pricing flexibility to discourage excessive on-peak ene...

  19. Thin-Film Evaporative Cooling for Side-Pumped Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method are provided for cooling a crystal rod of a side-pumped laser. A transparent housing receives the crystal rod therethrough so that an annular gap is defined between the housing and the radial surface of the crystal rod. A fluid coolant is injected into the annular gap such the annular gap is partially filled with the fluid coolant while the radial surface of the crystal rod is wetted as a thin film all along the axial length thereof.

  20. Residual Distributed Compressive Video Sensing Based on Double Side Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian; SU Kai-Xiong; WANG Wei-Xing; LAN Cheng-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a novel technology to acquire and reconstruct sparse signals below the Nyquist rate. It has great potential in image and video acquisition and processing. To effectively improve the sparsity of signal being measured and reconstructing efficiency, an encoding and decoding model of residual distributed compressive video sensing based on double side information (RDCVS-DSI) is proposed in this paper. Exploiting the characteristics of image itself in the frequency domain and the correlation between successive frames, the model regards the video frame in low quality as the first side information in the process of coding, and generates the second side information for the non-key frames using motion estimation and compensation technology at its decoding end. Performance analysis and simulation experiments show that the RDCVS-DSI model can rebuild the video sequence with high fidelity in the consumption of quite low complexity. About 1∼5 dB gain in the average peak signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed frames is observed, and the speed is close to the least complex DCVS, when compared with prior works on compressive video sensing.

  1. Enhancing Electromagnetic Side-Channel Analysis in an Operational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montminy, David P.

    Side-channel attacks exploit the unintentional emissions from cryptographic devices to determine the secret encryption key. This research identifies methods to make attacks demonstrated in an academic environment more operationally relevant. Algebraic cryptanalysis is used to reconcile redundant information extracted from side-channel attacks on the AES key schedule. A novel thresholding technique is used to select key byte guesses for a satisfiability solver resulting in a 97.5% success rate despite failing for 100% of attacks using standard methods. Two techniques are developed to compensate for differences in emissions from training and test devices dramatically improving the effectiveness of cross device template attacks. Mean and variance normalization improves same part number attack success rates from 65.1% to 100%, and increases the number of locations an attack can be performed by 226%. When normalization is combined with a novel technique to identify and filter signals in collected traces not related to the encryption operation, the number of traces required to perform a successful attack is reduced by 85.8% on average. Finally, software-defined radios are shown to be an effective low-cost method for collecting side-channel emissions in real-time, eliminating the need to modify or profile the target encryption device to gain precise timing information.

  2. The Spanish regulation of the photovoltaic demand-side generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is usually expected that demand-side generation gains momentum in places where retail grid parity is being reached. This is, for example, the case of photovoltaic generation in Spain. However, many different support schemes can be implemented. In Spain, the PV promotion policy gave priority to the ground-mounted installations. For years, the coupling of customer-side generation with excess energy exports was never specifically considered. Nonetheless, some months ago this option was suggested as a way to recover Spain's PV sector from the current moratorium on the RES-E policy. A first decree draft on on-site generation was issued, its central point being the consideration of electricity exports as delayed consumption rights. But several barriers hindered its entry into force. Finally, a second decree draft was issued in July 2013, which is expected to enter into force soon. This second draft impedes the economic viability of demand-side generation, thus complicating the recovery of the Spanish PV sector

  3. Beta-blocker therapy: identification and management of side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, K E; Froman, D; Morrison, A S; Holmes, K D; Howes, D G

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new beta-Blocker Visual Analog Scale designed to identify and quantify the impact that the side effects of beta-blocker therapy have on people's lives, and the self-management practices people use to mediate their influence. Instruments included the 20-item beta-Blocker Visual Analog Scale and the Profile of Mood States. Subjects had hypertension; 51 men were involved in a larger study involving antihypertensive medications and exercise, and 19 men and women were receiving beta-blocker therapy as first-line drug of choice. Estimates of internal consistency reliability, content validity, and concurrent and discriminant validity were moderately strong. The most problematic side effects were related to lack of sleep, vivid or active dreams, lack of energy and pep, diminished interest in sexual activity, and changes in vision. Among self-management practices used to mediate side effects were planning rest and activity periods, thinking carefully before reacting, and seeking out others for support. PMID:1680114

  4. Selective cleavage enhanced by acetylating the side chain of lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Leixiaomeng; Chen, Tingting; Xue, Gaiqing; Zu, Lily; Fang, Weihai

    2013-01-01

    Selective cleavage is of great interest in mass spectrometry studies as it can help sequence identification by promoting simple fragmentation pattern of peptides and proteins. In this work, the collision-induced dissociation of peptides containing internal lysine and acetylated lysine residues were studied. The experimental and computational results revealed that multiple fragmentation pathways coexisted when the lysine residue was two amino acid residues away from N-terminal of the peptide. After acetylation of the lysine side-chain, b(n)+ ions were the most abundant primary fragment products and the Lys(Ac)-Gly amide bond became the dominant cleavage site via an oxazolone pathway. Acetylating the side-chain of lysine promoted the selective cleavage of Lys-Xxx amide bond and generated much more information of the peptide backbone sequence. The results re-evaluate the selective cleavage due to the lysine basic side-chain and provide information for studying the post-translational modification of proteins and other bio-molecules containing Lys residues. PMID:23303756

  5. Highly conductive side chain block copolymer anion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhu; Hickner, Michael A

    2016-06-28

    Block copolymers based on poly(styrene) having pendent trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium (with four carbon ring-ionic group alkyl linkers) or benzyltrimethyl ammonium groups with a methylene bridge between the ring and ionic group were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation radical (RAFT) polymerization as anion exchange membranes (AEMs). The C4 side chain polymer showed a 17% increase in Cl(-) conductivity of 33.7 mS cm(-1) compared to the benzyltrimethyl ammonium sample (28.9 mS cm(-1)) under the same conditions (IEC = 3.20 meq. g(-1), hydration number, λ = ∼7.0, cast from DMF/1-propanol (v/v = 3 : 1), relative humidity = 95%). As confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the side chain block copolymers with tethered ammonium cations showed well-defined lamellar morphologies and a significant reduction in interdomain spacing compared to benzyltrimethyl ammonium containing block copolymers. The chemical stabilities of the block copolymers were evaluated under severe, accelerated conditions, and degradation was observed by (1)H NMR. The block copolymer with C4 side chain trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium motifs displayed slightly improved stability compared to that of a benzyltrimethyl ammonium-based AEM at 80 °C in 1 M NaOD aqueous solution for 30 days. PMID:27216558

  6. Price Competition in Two-Sided Markets with Heterogeneous Consumers and Network Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    We model a two-sided market with heterogeneous customers and two heterogeneous network effects. In our model, customers on each market side care differently about both the number and the type of customers on the other side. Examples of two-sided markets are online platforms or daily newspapers. In t

  7. 49 CFR 230.96 - Main, side, and valve motion rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Locomotives and Tenders Driving Gear § 230.96 Main, side, and valve motion rods. (a) General. Main, side or... defective main rods, side rods, and valve gear components. (c) Bearings and bushings. Bearings and bushings.... The total amount of side motion of each rod on its crank pin shall not exceed 1/4 inch. (e) Oil...

  8. Side chain conformational averaging in human dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Lisa M; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2014-02-25

    The three-dimensional structures of the dihydrofolate reductase enzymes from Escherichia coli (ecDHFR or ecE) and Homo sapiens (hDHFR or hE) are very similar, despite a rather low level of sequence identity. Whereas the active site loops of ecDHFR undergo major conformational rearrangements during progression through the reaction cycle, hDHFR remains fixed in a closed loop conformation in all of its catalytic intermediates. To elucidate the structural and dynamic differences between the human and E. coli enzymes, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of side chain flexibility and dynamics in complexes of hDHFR that represent intermediates in the major catalytic cycle. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation dispersion experiments show that, in marked contrast to the functionally important motions that feature prominently in the catalytic intermediates of ecDHFR, millisecond time scale fluctuations cannot be detected for hDHFR side chains. Ligand flux in hDHFR is thought to be mediated by conformational changes between a hinge-open state when the substrate/product-binding pocket is vacant and a hinge-closed state when this pocket is occupied. Comparison of X-ray structures of hinge-open and hinge-closed states shows that helix αF changes position by sliding between the two states. Analysis of χ1 rotamer populations derived from measurements of (3)JCγCO and (3)JCγN couplings indicates that many of the side chains that contact helix αF exhibit rotamer averaging that may facilitate the conformational change. The χ1 rotamer adopted by the Phe31 side chain depends upon whether the active site contains the substrate or product. In the holoenzyme (the binary complex of hDHFR with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), a combination of hinge opening and a change in the Phe31 χ1 rotamer opens the active site to facilitate entry of the substrate. Overall, the data suggest that, unlike ecDHFR, hDHFR requires minimal backbone conformational rearrangement as

  9. Time-Domain Simulation for Coupled Motions of Three Barges Moored Side-by-Side in Floatover Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鑫; 杨建民; 李欣; 徐亮瑜

    2015-01-01

    Simulating the coupled motions of multiple bodies in the time domain is a complex problem because of the strong hydrodynamic interactions and coupled effect of various mechanical connectors. In this study, we investigate the hydrodynamic responses of three barges moored side-by-side in a floatover operation in the frequency and time domains. In the frequency domain, the damping lid method is adopted to improve the overestimated hydrodynamic coefficients calculated from conventional potential flow theory. A time-domain computing program based on potential flow theory and impulse theory is compiled for analyses that consider multibody hydrodynamic interactions and mechanical effects from lines and fenders. Correspondingly, an experiment is carried out for comparison with the numerical results. All statistics, time series, and power density spectra from decay and irregular wave tests are in a fairly good agreement.

  10. WAKE PATTERNS OF FLOW PAST A PAIR OF CIRCULAR CYLINDERS IN SIDE-BY-SIDE ARRANGEMENTS AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A flow past two side-by-side identical circular cylinders was numerically investigated with the unstructured spectral element method. From the computational results at various non-dimensional distances between cylinder centers T/D and the Reynolds number Re, a total of nine kinds of wake patterns were observed: four steady wake patterns, including single bluff-body steady pattern, separated double-body steady pattern and transition steady pattern for sub-critical Reynolds numbers and biased steady pattern for super-critical Reynolds numbers, and five unsteady wake patterns, including single bluff-body periodic pattern, biased quasi-steady pattern, quasi-periodic (flip-flopping) pattern, in-phase-synchronized pattern and anti-phase-synchronized pattern. Time evolution of lift and drag coefficients corresponding to each unsteady wake pattern was given.

  11. Numerical simulation of fluid flow of two rotating side-by-side circular cylinders by Lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Hasan; Sedighi, Kurosh; Farhadi, Mousa; Pirouz, Mohammad Mohammadi; Fattahi, Ehsan

    2010-03-01

    A numerical investigation of the two-dimensional laminar flow around side-by-side rotating circular cylinders using Lattice Boltzmann method is conducted. The effects of variation of rotational speed ratio β and different gap spacings g* at Reynolds number of 100 are studied. A various range of rotational speed ratio 0 ≤ β ≤ 2 for four different gap spacings of 3, 1.5, 0.7 and 0.2 are investigated. Flow conditions and its characteristics, such as lift and drag coefficients and Strouhal number, is studied. The results indicated that as β increases, the flow changes its condition from periodic to steady after a critical rotational speed. Results also indicated that variation of the gap spacing and rotational speed has significant effect on wake pattern. Wake pattern in turn has significant effect on the Strouhal number. Finally, the result is compared with experimental and other numerical data.

  12. Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieliński, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jarosław

    2010-10-01

    In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

  13. Numerical study of two-dimensional flow around two side-by-side circular cylinders at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Sintu; Nagarajan, Kaushik Kumar; Sinhamahapatra, K. P.

    2016-05-01

    Incompressible flows at low Reynolds numbers over two identical side-by-side circular cylinders have been investigated numerically using unstructured finite volume method. The gap between the cylinders (g) and Reynolds number (Re) considered in the study lies respectively in the range of 0.2 ≤ g/D ≤ 4.0 (D being the diameter of the cylinder) and 20 ≤ Re ≤ 160. Low Reynolds number steady flows are given considerable importance. Two types of wakes are observed in the steady flow regime; the first type is characterized by attached vortices as in the case of an isolated cylinder and the other type is identified by detached standing vortices in the downstream. Reynolds number at which flow turns unsteady is quantified for each gap width. Five different types of wake patterns are observed in the unsteady flow regime: single bluff body wake, deflected wake, flip-flopping wake, in-phase synchronized, and anti-phase synchronized wakes. Present simulations of the evolution of single bluff-body wake demonstrate presence of vortices in the gap side too. The very long time simulations show that below a limiting Re depending on the gap, there is a transition of fully developed initial anti-phase flow to the in-phase flow at a later time. The limiting Reynolds number for this phase bifurcation phenomenon is evaluated in the (Re, g/D) space. A properly calibrated reduced order model based stability analysis is carried out to investigate the phase transition.

  14. A Side-by-side Comparison of Eddy Covariance and Bowen Ratio Evapotranspiration From a Northern Great Basin Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, B. F.; Jasoni, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    Development of new ground water resources in rural lands surrounding urban areas of the arid western United States has been identified as a key to maintaining urban growth. The extent and rate at which ground water can be sustainably extracted, while minimizing environmental impacts, depends to a large degree on how much of the existing resource escapes back to the atmosphere via the process of evapotranspiration (ET). ET is the sum of water that evaporates (E) from soil surfaces and is transpired (T) from plant leaves. This study was conducted in a northeast/southwest trending closed basin, bounded by mountains on all sides, with no surface water outflow. The playa which is located in the center of the basin encompasses 59,600 hectares, while phreatophytic plants bordering the playa encompass 20,000 hectares. ET data was collected from a sagebrush/greasewood plant community from October 2004 to August 2008 by the Bowen Ratio technique. Eddy covariance ET monitoring equipment was installed in April of 2007 and a side-by-side comparison was conducted from April to October, 2007. At the end of the study period a 25% difference in ET was calculated between the eddy covariance and Bowen ratio techniques. The major factors for the differences in ET from the two different methods will be presented.

  15. Difference between right and left side in total knee and unicondylar knee replacement: An interesting observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Thirumal Selvan

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an observation made about the differences between right and left side in case of total knee and unicondylar knee replacement. It was found that unicondylar knee replacement was performed more commonly on the left side (66%, as compared to only 34% on right side, where as total knee replacement was more common on the right side (64% as compared to 36% on left side. The exact clinical utility of this difference is yet to be known.

  16. Side by Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    Every city, town, and village in America has been affected by the Great Recession, but of course some have felt a bigger impact than others. In Port Angeles, Washington, on the northern edge of the Olympic Peninsula, the latest downturn is just one more twist of the economic vise that's been tightening steadily since at least the mid-'90s. During…

  17. LONGSHOT operation with anode-side magnetic field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LONGSHOT experiment uses a radially magnetically-insulated ion diode to generate an annular ion beam for ion-ring formation studies. The insulating magnetic field had been produced by coils on the cathode side of the diode gap, and flux-shaping conducting surfaces on the anode side. In this configuration, the about 100 keV, about 50 A/cm2, 400 nsec proton beam showed at least 2.50 half-angle divergence 15 cm from the gap, after traversing the cross-magnetic field region of the return flux of the insulating field coils. We have recently eliminated this return flux by relocating the coils to the anode side of the gap so that the return flux is behind the anode and out of the beam path. With proper location and configuration of coils and anode surface and using a flux-excluding cathode tip we now get the same or greater ion current output, but the divergence 15 cm from the gap is reduced to 0 half-angle. Divergence is measured by apertures followed by damage targets. This improvement is presumably due to elimination of all magnetic field downstream of the gap. It is significant that the ion optics are not degraded by using a flux-excluding cathode, which gives highly distorted, curved applied magnetic field lines at the cathode. This gap, in both original and new configurations, gives ion current densities a factor of 30 or more above Child-Langmuir flow for the geometric gap, so the virtual cathode electron flow must be located very near the anode surface, and the diamagnetism of the electron flow must modify the magnetic field in such a way as to produce a flat effective cathode. Experimental results from the present diode, and also preliminary results from LONGSHOT II, a scaled-up version of this new configuration, are presented

  18. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF CONCURRENT TWO-SIDED LENS PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kozeruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to modernize technology for obtaining high-accuracy lenses with fine centre. Presently their operating surfaces are fixed  to an accessory with the help of adhesive substance that leads to elastic deformation in glass and causes local errors in lens parts.A mathematical model for concurrent two-sided processing of high-accuracy optical parts with spherical surfaces has been developed in the paper. The paper presents analytical expressions that permit to calculate sliding speed at any point on the processed spherical surface depending on type and value of technological equipment settings. Calculation of parameter Q = Pv in a diametric section of the convexo-concave lens has been carried out while using these expressions together with functional dependence of pressure on contact zone еarea of tool and part bedding surfaces.Theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out with the purpose to study changes in Q parameter according to the processed lens surface for various setting parameters of the technological equipment and their optimum values ensuring preferential stock removal in the central or boundary part zone or uniform distribution of the removal along the whole processed surface have been determined in the paper.The paper proposes a machine tool scheme for concurrent two-sided grinding and polishing of lenses while fixing their side (cylindrical surface. Machine tool kinematics makes it possible flexibly and within wide limits to change its setting parameters  that significantly facilitates the control of form-building process of parts with highly-precise spherical surfaces.Methodology for investigations presupposes the following: mathematical simulation of highly-precise spherical surface form-building process under conditions of forced closing, execution of numerical and experimental studies.  

  19. Side-Branching Statistics of Plant Root Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollen, N.; Malamud, B.

    2001-12-01

    Many studies exist that characterise plant root architecture by calculating the fractal dimension of the root network, but few studies quantify the branching characteristics of the root network. This paper examines the Tokunaga side-branching statistics for the root systems of four plants--Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris), Lucern (Medicago sativa), Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and White Clover (Trifolium michelianum)--and compares the resulting statistics to those calculated by similar means (by other authors) for the Kentucky and Powder River drainage basins and several Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) models. The plant root networks studied all contained similar numbers of different order roots, but the side-branching statistics differed, offering one explanation for the differing visual appearance of the branching root networks. The White Clover plant had similar Tokunaga branching statistics to the drainage networks and DLA models. This may be due to the dichotomous root structure of the White Clover plant, which produces a network that is much more similar in appearance to the two drainage networks and DLA models than the other three plants, which had herringbone root. All of the root networks, drainage basins, and DLA models had branching networks that could be quantified well to very well by Tokunaga side-branching statistics. For many years, engineers have avoided implementation of stabilisation schemes involving vegetation, due to the inherent problems involved in the quantification of their dynamic and complex root structures. The use of Tokunaga statistics as a simplifying measure of root branching characteristics, may aid in this aspect, as well as others, such as the modelling of nutrient or water uptake.

  20. A dual-sided coded-aperture radiation detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, R. D.; Hood, W. E.; Polichar, R. M.; Cardone, F. H.; Chavez, L. G.; Grubbs, S. G.; Huntley, B. P.; Kuharski, R. A.; Shyffer, R. T.; Fabris, L.; Ziock, K. P.; Labov, S. E.; Nelson, K.

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a large-area, mobile, coded-aperture radiation imaging system for localizing compact radioactive sources in three dimensions while rejecting distributed background. The 3D Stand-Off Radiation Detection System (SORDS-3D) has been tested at speeds up to 95 km/h and has detected and located sources in the millicurie range at distances of over 100 m. Radiation data are imaged to a geospatially mapped world grid with a nominal 1.25- to 2.5-m pixel pitch at distances out to 120 m on either side of the platform. Source elevation is also extracted. Imaged radiation alarms are superimposed on a side-facing video log that can be played back for direct localization of sources in buildings in urban environments. The system utilizes a 37-element array of 5×5×50 cm 3 cesium-iodide (sodium) detectors. Scintillation light is collected by a pair of photomultiplier tubes placed at either end of each detector, with the detectors achieving an energy resolution of 6.15% FWHM (662 keV) and a position resolution along their length of 5 cm FWHM. The imaging system generates a dual-sided two-dimensional image allowing users to efficiently survey a large area. Imaged radiation data and raw spectra are forwarded to the RadioNuclide Analysis Kit (RNAK), developed by our collaborators, for isotope ID. An intuitive real-time display aids users in performing searches. Detector calibration is dynamically maintained by monitoring the potassium-40 peak and digitally adjusting individual detector gains. We have recently realized improvements, both in isotope identification and in distinguishing compact sources from background, through the installation of optimal-filter reconstruction kernels.

  1. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Ilka A. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Extrapyramidal side effects with low doses of amisulpride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Nikhiles; Singh, Om P; Sen, Subrata

    2014-04-01

    Amisulpride, the newly introduced antipsychotic in India, is claimed to be effective in both positive and negative symptom schizophrenia and related disorders, though it has little or no action on serotonergic receptors. Limbic selectivity and lower striatal dopaminergic receptor binding capacity causes very low incidence of EPS. But, in clinical practice, we are getting EPS with this drug even at lower doses. We have reported three cases of akathisia, acute dystonia, and drug-induced Parkinsonism with low doses of amisulpride. So, we should keep this side effect in mind when using amisulpride. In fact, more studies are required in our country to find out the incidence of EPS and other associated mechanism.

  3. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Population and housing: A two-sided relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara H. Mulder

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the relationship between population and housing. I argue that this relationship is two-sided. On the one hand, the size of a population, and particularly the number of households, determines the demand for housing. On the other hand, the availability of suitable and affordable housing may attract certain categories of migrants. It also influences young people's opportunities to leave the parental home, marry or cohabit, and have children. Furthermore, home-ownership hampers residential mobility and migration by binding people to a place.

  5. Side Effects Exhibited by Athletes Using Anabolic Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid S. Khodasevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the general problems of the use of anabolic steroids by athletes. The main reason they are banned in sports is because they artificially increase human performance by stimulating various metabolisms, as well as stimulating the constructive and energetic metabolism processes. The prohibited anabolic steroids are not only harmful to the athletes’ health but they also pose a very real threat to their life. Information regarding the side effects of anabolic steroids can be effectively used while working with athletes, their parents, the coaching staff and sports doctors to keep athletes healthy and to promote the goal of “winning without doping”.

  6. The Dark Side of Software Engineering Evil on Computing Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Rost, Johann

    2010-01-01

    Betrayal! Corruption! Software engineering? Industry experts Johann Rost and Robert L. Glass explore the seamy underbelly of software engineering in this timely report on and analysis of the prevalance of subversion, lying, hacking, and espionage on every level of software project management. Based on the authors' original research and augmented by frank discussion and insights from other well-respected figures, The Dark Side of Software Engineering goes where other management studies fear to tread -- a corporate environment where schedules are fabricated, trust is betrayed, millions of dollar

  7. On the one-sided Tanaka equation with drift

    CERN Document Server

    Karatzas, Ioannis; Shkolnikov, Mykhaylo

    2011-01-01

    We study questions of existence and uniqueness of weak and strong solutions for a one-sided Tanaka equation with constant drift \\lambda. We observe a dichotomy in terms of the values of the drift parameter: for \\lambda\\leq 0, there exists a strong solution which is pathwise unique, thus also unique in distribution; whereas for \\lambda>0, the equation has a unique in distribution weak solution, but no strong solution (and not even a weak solution that spends zero time at the origin). We also show that strength and pathwise uniqueness are restored to the equation via suitable "Brownian perturbations".

  8. The Afghan Mission: The Other Side of the COIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk MORAVEC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article called “The Afghan Mission: The Other Side of the COIN” brings an evaluation of NATO and the Taliban strategies in contemporary Afghanistan. The strategic choice of both actors is researched using the concept of the “centers of gravity” and confronted with a specific situation on the ground. Furthermore, additional attention is paid to the struggle for hearts and minds and its role in NATO’s strategy. The paper is concluded with the determination of a single center of gravity of the NATO-Taliban confrontation which is offered as the evaluation criterion for further steps to be used in the Afghan war.

  9. Demand side integration aspects in active distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestro, Federico; Baitch, Alex; Pilo, Fabrizio;

    2013-01-01

    will be implemented in practice? How will regulatory frameworks and connection agreements evolve to support ADSs? The present work provides some information about the closer and closer integration between network planning and Demand Side Integration that is foreseen in the future and shows the......This paper presents an overview of the activities of CIGRE Working Group WG C6.19 (WG), focusing on the planning and optimization of active distribution systems. A key challenge in planning Active Distribution Systems (ADSs) is the uncertainty of the future, i.e., what level of active management...

  10. Demand Side Management in Pellet Production: Internal and External Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigants Haralds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a demand side management case study: how to save energy and how research and data analysis help to create an energy management system in a pellet production facility; and shows ways to implement the EU energy efficiency directive in production facilities. The study carried out in this research serves as a far-reaching step that can be taken to improve energy efficiency during the operation mode of technological equipment. The benchmarking methodology is used for analysis of results.

  11. Pandemic influenza vaccines and neuraminidase inhibitors: efficacy and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, D

    2011-01-01

    At the time of the outbreak of the pandemic of New Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic influenza vaccines became available via an accelerated registration procedure. In 2005 large stocks of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir were built up in the Netherlands and other western countries. There was considerable doubt about the efficacy of this medicine. Initially reported positive effects of the drug were largely based on unpublished research, which was sponsored by the manufacturer and was partially written by ghostwriters. There now have been reports of rare and serious side effects. The first reports on the severity of the pandemic in Australia and New Zealand indicated a mild course.

  12. Deploying Server-side File System Monitoring at NERSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uselton, Andrew

    2009-05-01

    The Franklin Cray XT4 at the NERSC center was equipped with the server-side I/O monitoring infrastructure Cerebro/LMT, which is described here in detail. Insights gained from the data produced include a better understanding of instantaneous data rates during file system testing, file system behavior during regular production time, and long-term average behaviors. Information and insights gleaned from this monitoring support efforts to proactively manage the I/O infrastructure on Franklin. A simple model for I/O transactions is introduced and compared with the 250 million observations sent to the LMT database from August 2008 to February 2009.

  13. Photorealistic ray tracing to visualize automobile side mirror reflective scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hocheol; Kim, Kyuman; Lee, Gang; Lee, Sungkoo; Kim, Jingu

    2014-10-20

    We describe an interactive visualization procedure for determining the optimal surface of a special automobile side mirror, thereby removing the blind spot, without the need for feedback from the error-prone manufacturing process. If the horizontally progressive curvature distributions are set to the semi-mathematical expression for a free-form surface, the surface point set can then be derived through numerical integration. This is then converted to a NURBS surface while retaining the surface curvature. Then, reflective scenes from the driving environment can be virtually realized using photorealistic ray tracing, in order to evaluate how these reflected images would appear to drivers.

  14. Primary Control by ON/OFF Demand-Side Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Andersen, Palle;

    2013-01-01

    We consider an aggregator managing a portfolio of ON/OFF demand-side devices. The devices are able to shift con- sumption in time within certain energy limitations; moreover, the devices are able to measure the system frequency and switch ON and OFF accordingly. We show how the aggregator can...... manage the portfolio of devices to collectively provide a primary reserve delivery in an unbundled liberalized electricity market setting under current regulations. Furthermore, we formulate a binary linear optimization problem that minimizes the aggregator’s cost of providing a primary reserve delivery...

  15. Managing a live music performance: A supply-side analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Manners; Melville Saayman; Martinette Kruger

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and objective: The purpose of this research is to determine what managers regard as important critical success factors in ensuring a memorable visitor experience at a live music performance.Problem investigated: When organising a live music performance, it is evident that the various characteristics that form part of the visitor experience have to be considered. The critical success factors of live music performances from the supply side are fundamental, since the costs of organising ...

  16. STUDY ON SIDE REACTION IN THE SYNTHESIS OF HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; LI Aimin; TAO Weihua; YANG Weiben

    2008-01-01

    The systematical study about side reactions have revealed the formation mechanism of oxygen-containing groups of hypercrosslinked polymers.Surface chemistry and functionality of the polymers are characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and contact angle.The results showed that the ether groups were from chioromethylated reaction, and the alcohol groups arose from partial hydrolysis of chloromethyl groups during the post-crosslinking reaction, and the carbonyl functionality was formed by further oxidation of the alcohol groups.Catalyst and solvent used in the postcrosslinking reaction would greatly influence the surface chemistry of the polymer.

  17. [Non-steroidal antirheumatics: side-effects and interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, M

    1982-08-28

    Side effects of non-steroidal antirheumatic drugs (NSAD) may occur in any organ system, since the prostaglandins, the synthesis of which is inhibited by NSAD, play a role in numerous adverse cellular processes throughout the body. Besides these physiologic regulations there are adverse effects of NSAD, such as bone marrow aplasia, of unexplained etiology. The interactions of NSAD are of clinical relevance in drug types such as the salicylates, pyrazolons and fenamic acids (e.g. interactions with cumarin derivatives). The clinically relevant interactions of NSAD are discussed in detail. PMID:6982512

  18. STUDY ON SIDE REACTION IN THE SYNTHESIS OF HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The systematical study about side reactions have revealed the formation mechanism of oxygen-containing groups of hypercrosslinked polymers. Surface chemistry and functionality of the polymers are characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and contact angle. The results showed that the ether groups were from chloromethylated reaction, and the alcohol groups arose from partial hydrolysis of chloromethyl groups during the post-crosslinking reaction, and the carbonyl functionality was formed by further oxidation of the alcohol groups. Catalyst and solvent used in the postcrosslinking reaction would greatly influence the surface chemistry of the polymer.

  19. Single intrinsic Josephson junction with double-sided fabrication technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, L. X.; Torstensson, M.; Yurgens, A.; Winkler, D.; Lin, C. T.; Liang, B.

    2006-05-01

    We make stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) embedded in the bulk of very thin (d⩽100nm) Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystals. By precisely controlling the etching depth during the double-sided fabrication process, the stacks can be reproducibly tailor-made to be of any microscopic height (0-9nmIJJ (0-6), including the important case of a single junction. We discuss reproducible gaplike features in the current-voltage characteristics of the samples at high bias.

  20. Preventing side-channel effects in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Ivan; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim

    2016-03-01

    The role of the side channels in the continuous-variable quantum key distribution is studied. It is shown how the information leakage through a side channel from the trusted sender station increases the vulnerability of the protocols to the eavesdropping in the main quantum communication channel. Moreover, the untrusted noise infusion by an eavesdropper on the trusted receiving side breaks the security even for a purely attenuating main quantum channel. As a method to compensate for the effect of the side-channel leakage on the sender side, we suggest several types of manipulations on the side-channel input. It is shown that by applying the modulated coherent light on the input of the side channel that is optimally correlated to the modulation on the main signal and optionally introducing additional squeezing in the case of the squeezed-state protocol, the negative influence of the lossy side channel on the sender side can be completely removed. For the trusted receiving side, the method of optimal monitoring of the residual noise from the side-channel noise infusion is suggested and shown to be able to completely eliminate the presence of the noisy side channel. We therefore prove that the side-channel effects can be completely removed using feasible operations if the trusted parties access the respective parts of the side channels.

  1. Interaction of a hot jet with two cold side jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouali Nassira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spreading of the multijet in terms of both the velocity and temperature field depends strongly on the flow type related to the velocity and temperature ratios between the cold side jets to the hot central one. This is the reason why the present work focuses on numerical investigation of non isothermal three parallel non-ventilated turbulent plane jets. As well, it seems natural to pick as reference the available experimental data. The numerical predictions confirm the three types (A, B, C of flow patterns given by the available flow visualization and reveal a fourth that will be called type D. The purpose of the present study is to explore the effect of the velocity ratio on the decay rates of the velocity and temperature in the fully developed region. It is found that the addition of side jets increase the rate of decrease of the centerline velocity for the flow of type A and decreases in the other cases. The effect of various types of flow on the rate of decrease of the velocity and the temperature in the fully developed flow region are investigated in details: This led to establish several correlations of the rate of decrease that play an important role in the diffusion of momentum and temperature.

  2. Steam Generator Group Project: Task 10, Secondary side examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concludes an effort to examine and assess from the secondary side, the condition of the retired-from-service Surry 2A steam generator. It is includes photographs of degradation of various components or regions in a generic recirculating type steam generator. The photographic detail given in the text (and the previous report NUREG/CR-3843, PNL-5033) have not been readily available to many investigators outside the Nuclear Steam Supply Vendors and Users. The photographs include views of Inconel 600 heat exchanger tubes (0.875 diameter [nominal] x 0.050 inch wall) showing deformed and intergranularly stress-corrosion cracked U-bends, tube denting in the support plate, intergranular attack and thinning (both in the tube sheet region), support plat deformation and cracking at flow slots and in ligaments between flow holes and tube holes. In addition, photographs of tube pitting, anti-vibration bar fretting, and the sludge pile are presented. An experimental stress analysis was conducted on a distorted Row 1 tube in the region of a compressed flow slot between the 6th and 7th (top) support plates. During removal of the tube, relaxation strains were measured and residual stresses calculated. Finally a cursory metallurgical failure analysis was conducted on a broken U-bend (R1C91) to determine its mode of failure. A rotabroach boring technique was used to make multiple penetrations with minimal damage to the secondary side, at various locations on the shell

  3. Advancing the Power and Utility of Server-Side Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulker, Dave; Gallagher, James

    2016-01-01

    During the upcoming Summer 2016 meeting of the ESIP Federation (July 19-22), OpenDAP will hold a Developers and Users Workshop. While a broad set of topics will be covered, a key focus is capitalizing on recent EOSDIS-sponsored advances in Hyrax, OPeNDAPs own software for server-side realization of the DAP2 and DAP4 protocols. These Hyrax advances are as important to data users as to data providers, and the workshop will include hands-on experiences of value to both. Specifically, a balanced set of presentations and hands-on tutorials will address advances in1.server installation,2.server configuration,3.Hyrax aggregation capabilities,4.support for data-access from clients that are HTTP-based, JSON-based or OGC-compliant (especially WCS and WMS),5.support for DAP4,6.use and extension of server-side computational capabilities, and7.several performance-affecting matters.Topics 2 through 7 will be relevant to data consumers, data providers andnotably, due to the open-source nature of all OPeNDAP softwareto developers wishing to extend Hyrax, to build compatible clients and servers, andor to employ Hyrax as middleware that enables interoperability across a variety of end-user and source-data contexts. A session for contributed talks will elaborate the topics listed above and embrace additional ones.

  4. AISMIG--an interactive server-side molecule image generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohne-Lang, Andreas; Groch, Wolf-Dieter; Ranzinger, René

    2005-07-01

    Using a web browser without additional software and generating interactive high quality and high resolution images of bio-molecules is no longer a problem. Interactive visualization of 3D molecule structures by Internet browsers normally is not possible without additional software and the disadvantage of browser-based structure images (e.g. by a Java applet) is their low resolution. Scientists who want to generate 3D molecular images with high quality and high resolution (e.g. for publications or to render a molecule for a poster) therefore require separately installed software that is often not easy to use. The alternative concept is an interactive server-side rendering application that can be interfaced with any web browser. Thus it combines the advantage of the web application with the high-end rendering of a raytracer. This article addresses users who want to generate high quality images from molecular structures and do not have software installed locally for structure visualization. Often people do not have a structure viewer, such as RasMol or Chime (or even Java) installed locally but want to visualize a molecule structure interactively. AISMIG (An Interactive Server-side Molecule Image Generator) is a web service that provides a visualization of molecule structures in such cases. AISMIG-URL: http://www.dkfz-heidelberg.de/spec/aismig/. PMID:15980568

  5. Automated Client-side Sanitizer for Code Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyaneshwar K. Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are useful for various online services. These web applications are becoming ubiquitous in our daily lives. They are used for multiple purposes such as e-commerce, financial services, emails, healthcare services and many other captious services. But the presence of vulnerabilities in the web application may become a serious cause for the security of the web application. A web application may contain different types of vulnerabilities. Cross-site scripting is one of the type of code injection attacks. According to OWASP TOP 10 vulnerability report, Cross-site Scripting (XSS is among top 5 vulnerabilities. So this research work aims to implement an effective solution for the prevention of cross- site scripting vulnerabilities. In this paper, we implemented a novel client-side XSS sanitizer that prevents web applications from XSS attacks. Our sanitizer is able to detect cross-site scripting vulnerabilities at the client-side. It strengthens web browser, because modern web browser do not provide any specific notification, alert or indication of security holes or vulnerabilities and their presence in the web application.

  6. Finite-sided deformation spaces of complete affine 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Charette, Virginie; Goldman, William M

    2011-01-01

    A Margulis spacetime is a complete affine 3-manifold M with nonsolvable fundamental group. Associated to every Margulis spacetime is a noncompact complete hyperbolic surface S. We show that every Margulis spacetime is orientable, even though S may be nonorientable. We classify Margulis spacetimes when S is homeomorphic to a two-holed cross-surface, that is, the complement of two disjoint discs in the real projective plane. We show that every such manifold is homeomorphic to a solid handlebody of genus two, and admits a fundamental polyhedron bounded by crooked planes. Furthermore, the deformation space is a bundle of convex quadrilateral cones over the space of marked hyperbolic structures. The sides of each quadrilateral cone are defined by invariants of the two boundary components and the two orientation-reversing simple curves. The two-holed cross-surface, together with the three-holed sphere, are the only topologies for which the deformation space of complete affine structures is finite-sided.

  7. Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Piasek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost all clinically used antitumor drugs exhibit toxic side effects affecting heart function. Because of cardiotoxicity during anticancer chemotherapy, effective doses of cytostatics have to be limited, which may worsen antitumor efficacy. The cardiotoxicity induced by cytostatics of the anthracycline group in particular results, among others, from massive stimulation of ROS. It has therefore been suggested that some phytochemicals with high antioxidant potential, when administered together with antitumor agents, could decrease the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and reduce the risk of heart failure. This review summarizes findings of studies undertaken to identify edible plants or phytochemicals isolated from them displaying cardioprotective properties during chemotherapy. Such properties have been shown for such foods as grapes, garlic, tomato, spinach, and beetroot. A protective role on the heart is also displayed by melatonin (a hormone synthesized by the pineal gland, but also present in many edible plants, chalcones (precursors of all known flavonoids, some herbal dietary supplements, vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, and semisynthetic flavonoid 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER. Although to date only a limited number of investigations have been carried out, their results suggest that dietary intervention with antioxidants found in edible plants may be a safe and effective way of alleviating the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy and preventing heart failure.

  8. Side-effects of protein kinase inhibitors on ion channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Youn Kyoung Son; Hongzoo Park; Amy L Firth; Won Sun Park

    2013-12-01

    Protein kinases are one of the largest gene families and have regulatory roles in all aspects of eukaryotic cell function. Modulation of protein kinase activity is a desirable therapeutic approach for a number of human diseases associated with aberrant kinase activity, including cancers, arthritis and cardiovascular disorders. Several strategies have been used to develop specific and selective protein kinase modulators, primarily via inhibition of phosphorylation and down-regulation of kinase gene expression. These strategies are effective at regulating intracellular signalling pathways, but are unfortunately associated with several undesirable effects, particularly those that modulate ion channel function. In fact, the side-effects have precluded these inhibitors from being both useful experimental tools and therapeutically viable. This review focuses on the ion channel side-effects of several protein kinase inhibitors and specifically on those modulating K+, Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels. It is hoped that the information provided with a detailed summary in this review will assist the future development of novel specific and selective compounds targeting protein kinases both for experimental tools and for therapeutic approaches.

  9. Purification and characterization of corticosteroid side chain isomerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corticosteroid side chain isomerase of rat liver catalyzes the interconversion of the ketol (20-oxo-21-ol) and (20-hydroxy-21-al) forms of the corticosteroid side chain. The enzyme has now been purified to apparent homogeneity from rat liver cytosol by sequential chromatography on anionic, hydroxylapatite, and gel filtration columns. Ketol-aldol isomerization is followed by measuring the exchange of tritium from 21-tritiated steroids with water. The native enzyme is a dimer of MW 44,000. The isoelectric point is 4.8 ± 0.1 pH units. The purified enzyme is stimulated by Co3+ or Ni2+. The enzyme utilizes 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, and 17-deoxycortisol as substrate but not cortisol, tetrahydrocortisol, and prednisolone. Tritium-water exchange of (21S)-[21-3H]DOC is a pseudo-first-order reaction; 21-3H exchange from the 21R isomer proceeds with first-order kinetics only after a lag associated with its epimerization to the 21S form

  10. Experimental research on daylight performance of side lighting light pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUYanpeng; MAChongfang

    2003-01-01

    Natural daylight has more and more been used in modem buildings to save building energy consumption in China. Light pipe is one of the effective way to reduce electricity consumption for lighting, it can transmit light from outdoor to the room without generating excessive heat. Experimental apparatus of side lighting light pipe is described in this paper. Light pipe for side daylighting purpose was installed in the Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Technology. It was 2.6m long, with diameters of 360mm.The performance of the light pipe for whole day had been measured. The highest iUuminance was 488lux on Dec.26,2002, obtained from the point beneath the center of the diffuser of the light pipe 1450mm. The ratio of internal illuminance to external was 0.23 %. Because it has many advantages to improve energy efficiency in buildings, light pipe will be populanzed in the near future in China.

  11. Wide spread spectrum watermarking with side information and interference cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Guelvouit, Gaëtan Le; 10.1117/12.476839

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, a popular method used for additive watermarking is wide spread spectrum. It consists in adding a spread signal into the host document. This signal is obtained by the sum of a set of carrier vectors, which are modulated by the bits to be embedded. To extract these embedded bits, weighted correlations between the watermarked document and the carriers are computed. Unfortunately, even without any attack, the obtained set of bits can be corrupted due to the interference with the host signal (host interference) and also due to the interference with the others carriers (inter-symbols interference (ISI) due to the non-orthogonality of the carriers). Some recent watermarking algorithms deal with host interference using side informed methods, but inter-symbols interference problem is still open. In this paper, we deal with interference cancellation methods, and we propose to consider ISI as side information and to integrate it into the host signal. This leads to a great improvement of extraction performance ...

  12. Development and Application of One-Sided Piezoelectric Actuating Micropump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three types of one-sided actuating piezoelectric micropumps are studied in this paper. In the first type, one-sided actuating micropump with two check valves can enhance the flow rate and prevent the back flow in suction mode to keep the flow in one direction. Furthermore, the frequency modulator is applied in the micropump to adjust and promote the maximum flow rate higher than 5.0 mL/s. In the second type, valveless micropump with secondary chamber shows that the secondary chamber plays a key role in the application of the valveless micropump. It not only keeps the flow in one direction but also makes the flow rate of the pump reach 0.989 mL/s. In addition, when a nozzle/diffuser element is used in valveless micropump, the flow rate can be further improved to 1.183 mL/s at a frequency of 150 Hz. In the third type, piezoelectric actuating pump is regarded as an air pump in the application of a microfuel cell system, which can increase more air inlet to improve the fuel/air reaction and further increase the performance of fuel cell.

  13. The Other Side of Gravity and Geometry: Antigravity and Anticurvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Wanas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity is one of the four known fundamental interactions used to study and interpret physical phenomenae. It governs diverse phenomenae, especially those connected with large-scale structures. From more than one decade, existing gravity theories have suffered from some problems, when confronting their predictions with the results of some experiments and observations. This situation has led to many suggestions, none of which is final, so far. Here, we show that the assumption of existence of another side of gravity, a repulsive gravity or antigravity, together with its attractive side, may give a satisfactory solution to gravity problems. We caught here two pieces of evidence for the existence of antigravity in nature. The first is on the laboratory scale, the COW experiment, and the second is on the cosmic scale, SN type Ia observation. On the other hand, we show how gravity theories can predict antigravity, using a new defined geometric object called Parameterized anticurvature. This shows clearly how Einstein's geometrization philosophy can solve recent gravity problems in a satisfactory and easy way. Also, it may throw some light on the mystery of physical nature of “Dark Energy.”

  14. Right-Sided Infective Endocarditis and Pulmonary Infiltrates: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahoud, Jad; Sharif Yakan, Ahmad; Saad, Hala; Kanj, Souha S

    2016-01-01

    Sixty years after its initial description, right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) still poses a challenge to all medical practitioners. Epidemiological data reveal a rising incidence attributable to the global surge in the number of intravenous drug users and the increased use of central vascular catheters and implantable cardiac devices. RSIE differs from left-sided infective endocarditis in more than just the location of the involved cardiac valve. They have different clinical presentations, diagnostic findings, and prognoses; hence, they require different management strategies. Cardiac murmurs and systemic emboli are usually absent in RSIE, whereas pulmonary embolism and its related complications dominate the clinical picture. Diagnostic delay of RSIE is secondary to the similarity in its initial presentation to other entities. Complications may ensue as a result of this delay. Diagnosis can be initially confirmed by using transthoracic echocardiography, except in patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillator, where a transesophageal echocardiogram is necessary. Various factors may increase mortality and morbidity in RSIE such as tricuspid valve vegetation size, fungal etiology, and low CD4 cell count in HIV patients. Oxacillin and vancomycin had been the traditionally used agents for the treatment of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. More recently, daptomycin has shown promising results, which has led to its Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of S. aureus bacteremia and associated RSIE. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive update on RSIE including epidemiology, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis. PMID:26501991

  15. Fractionation of proteins with two-sided electro-ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käppler, Tobias; Posten, Clemens

    2007-03-10

    Downstream processing is a major challenge in bioprocess industry due to the high complexity of bio-suspensions itself, the low concentration of the product and the stress sensitivity of the valuable target molecules. A multitude of unit operations have to be joined together to achieve an acceptable purity and concentration of the product. Since each of the unit operations leads to a certain product loss, one important aim in downstream-research is the combination of different separation principles into one unit operation. In the current work a dead-end membrane process is combined with an electrophoresis operation. In the past this concept has proven successfully for the concentration of biopolymers. The present work shows that using different ultrafiltration membranes in a two-sided electro-filter apparatus with flushed electrodes brought significant enhancement of the protein fractionation process. Due to electrophoretic effects, the filtration velocity could be kept on a very high level for a long time, furthermore, the selectivity of a binary separation process carried out exemplarily for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LZ) could be greatly increased; in the current case up to a value of more than 800. Thus the new two-sided electro-ultrafiltration technique achieves both high product purity and short separation times.

  16. A supply sided analysis of leading MOOC platforms and universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Peters

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investing in education is generally considered as a promising strategy to fight poverty and increase prosperity. This applies to all levels of an economy reaching from individuals to local communities and countries and has a global perspective as well. However, high-quality education is often costly and not available anytime anywhere. Therefore, any promising concept that might help to democratize education is worth pursuing, in a sense that it makes education accessible for everybody without any restrictions. The characteristics attributed to MOOC – Massive Open Online Courses are promising to contribute to this objective. Hence, our objective is to analyse MOOC as it currently operates. Obviously, there is a huge demand for free high-quality education anytime anywhere but a shortage on the supply side. So, we will concentrate on supply-sided effects and study MOOC platforms as well as content providers, particularly universities. We focus our research on some of the leading platforms and universities worldwide. Relative to their size Australia and the Netherlands are very active players in the MOOC sector. Germany is lagging behind and leading universities in the UK seem to virtually refrain from offering MOOC. Our research also shows the leading role of US universities and platform providers.

  17. Improvement of FBR multi-sided comparison system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the general assessment system developed last year was improved so that we could perform multi-sided comparison and evaluation between FBR cycle reactor models quantitatively and objectively. At first, we developed multi-sided evaluation system written in VBA. And then many processes (calculation of coefficients for utility functions, analysis by MUF, and pair comparison, etc.) could be performed on a Personal Computer with simple operation. And the following functions were also added in the system; consideration of uncertainty in design data on evaluated results, estimation of the potential of FBR, the absolute evaluation method to get over the weakness of AHP, and so on. Moreover, a concept of comparison with compact reactors and the way of including a new evaluation item, public acceptance, in the evaluation structure are discussed. Although it is important to consider public acceptance for introduction of FBR, it was not included in the assessment structure of the previous study. In this study, we pointed out that public acceptance as a new assessment item of the FBR cycles evaluation system should be included. Ideas to include the item in the system in phase 2 were also discussed. Due to the improvement of the system in this study, we believe that the FBR cycle's evaluation system is becoming more sophisticated than the previous version. (author)

  18. Clinical Features of Right-sided Infective Endocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉; 伍卫; 王景峰; 张燕; 张小玲

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss thepathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of right-sided infective endocarditis (RIE) . Methods To investigate retrospectively the clinical data of patients with RIE admitted in our hospital from Jan 1985 to Dec 2000.Results There were 17 cases of RIE (12 male, 5female, mean age 22 years), among which 7 with congenital heart disease, 1 with pacemaker implantation and 9 with a history of intravenous drug abuse but without underlying heart disease. Fever and multiple pulmonary emboli were the major clinical manifestations. Blood cultures were positive in 8 cases with Staphylococcus aureus as the predominant microorganism. Echocardiography detected right heart vegetations in all cases, with tricuspid valve as the structure most frequently affected. Most patients were successfully treated with antimicrobials. The outcome was favourable, with a mortality of 11.8 % . Conclusions The clinical features of RIE are different from that of left-sided infective endocarditis (LIE) . Echocardiography plays an important role in the diagnosis of RIE.

  19. Measurement of Bd mixing using opposite-side flavor tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Blumenschein, U; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lesne, V; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; McCarthy, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Peters, K; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; vanden Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2006-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the $B^0_d$ mixing frequency and the calibration of an opposite-side flavor tagger in the D{\\O}experiment. Various properties associated with the $b$ quark on the opposite side of the reconstructed $B$ meson were combined using a likelihood-ratio method into a single variable with enhanced tagging power. Its performance was tested with data, using a large sample of reconstructed semileptonic $B \\to \\mu \\dzero X$ and $B \\to \\mu \\dst X$ decays, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 1 fb$^{-1}$. The events were divided into groups depending on the value of the combined tagging variable, and an independent analysis was performed in each group. Combining the results of these analyses, the overall effective tagging power was found to be eD^2 = (2.48 \\pm 0.21 (stat.) ^{+0.08}_{-0.06} (syst.))%. The measured $B^0_d$ mixing frequency dmd = 0.506 \\pm 0.020 {\\rm (stat) \\pm 0.016 (syst) ps}^{-1} is in good agreement with the world average value.

  20. CORTICAL CLEANUP WITHOUT SIDE PORT IN SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to achieve complete cortical cleanup and avoid problems related with sideport during Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS so as to have a good visual out come with minimal recovery period, and a better quality of life. After nucleus delivery, cortical cleanup is an important step in any cataract surgical procedure. Cortex especially subincisional area (11 to 1 o’clock is difficult to manage intraoperatively. Bimanual irrigation aspiration through two side ports, aspiration by J cannula, iris massage manoeuver, ice cream scoop manoeuver are various techniques of cortical matter aspiration. We acquired the technique of aspiration of subincisional cortex without using side port in all cases by paying attention on type of cataract, status of pupil, use of Adrenalin mixed BSS intraoperatively, Tunnel construction, Capsulorhexis size and capsular rim size at 12 o’clock. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this retrospective study of 1 year from 2013 to 2014, 60 patients (60 eyes aged 40 years or older attending the General Ophthalmic Department were included in the study group with another group of 60 patients (60 eyes as controls. The study was on age related cataracts which are basically. 1 Cortical cataract 2 Nuclear cataract 3 Subcapsular cataract. Proper assessment of cortical cataract based on its maturity such as a Immature b Mature c Hyper mature and d Morgagnian cataract, nucleus for its opalescence and color, size of posterior subcapsular opacity and pupillary status (Dilating well or not with mydriatics were taken into consideration. Eyes with pseudoexfoliation having poor pupillary dilation were also included. Eyes with congenital anomalies, congenital cataract, gross corneal and retinal pathologies, and glaucoma were excluded. RESULTS Among 60 study eyes in the study group 35 presented with cortical, 20 with nuclear cataract and 5 with posterior subcapsular cataracts. In 58(96.6% cases, sideport was not required; 3(5% eyes

  1. Study on mechanism of reinforcing sides to control floor heave of extraction opening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Tao

    2005-01-01

    Roadway surrounding rock is a compound structure consisted of roof, floor and sides. The sides of extraction opening is the weak coal mass, which affect immediately the stability of floor. It was simulated by numerical calculation for the strength of sides coal to affect the floor heave, the higher strength of sides coal is, the lower degree of floor heave was. So it was put forward reinforcing sides to control floor heave of extraction opening,and it was proved by engineering practice that the floor heave of deep extraction opening can be controlled to a certain degree by reinforcing sides of roadway.

  2. Deaf students and scientists side-by-side: Self-efficacy and modeling in real-world earth science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Patricia Jane

    Deaf and hard of hearing students from five high schools were involved in an earth science project on geological faults. Variables of interest were self-efficacy in science and self-efficacy in career decision-making. The influence and characteristics of role models for deaf and hard of hearing students were also examined. Social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) was used as the theoretical base in this mixed method study. The fault curriculum unit was a collaborative project between Geosciences faculty at the University of Massachusetts and SOAR-High, an earth science program coordinated by the Clerc Center at Gallaudet University. Students participated in three interconnected learning components: (a) classroom experiments using a specially designed sandbox unit to model changes that take place in the earth's crust; (b) videoconferences with geoscientists; and (c) a five-day field trip where students, teachers, and scientists worked side-by-side in the field studying faults in Utah. Quantitative and qualitative data focused on science self-efficacy, career decision-making self-efficacy, and the influence of role models. Results suggested that active, student-centered learning activities had a positive impact on science self-efficacy and career decision making self-efficacy.

  3. Vortex Structures and Behavior of a Flow Past Two Rotating Circular Cylinders Arranged Side-by-Side

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiao-Hui; LIN Jian-Zhong; NIE De-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We present a study on the vortex structures and behavior of a Sow past two rotating circular cylinders arranged side-by-side at a range of absolute rotational speeds (|a| ≤ 2) for two different gap spacings g* = 1.5 and 0.7 at Reynolds numbers Re = 160 and 200. The results show that the flow becomes stabilized and finally steady beyond the critical rotational speed as|a| increases, regardless of the variation in Re and g". The value of critical rotational speed increases with increasing Re. The wake patterns change in the unsteady regimes for g* = 1.5 and 0.7. With increasing|a|, the time-averaged drag coefficient Cd decreases and the lift coefficient Cl increases, respectively. Cp at Re = 160 and g* = 0.7 decreases rapidly, resulting in the smallest value at the same |a| for 1 ≤ |a|≤ 2. Cd augments with increasing g* at the same|a|. For g* = 1.5, Cd has a little disparity between the cases of Re = 160 and 200. For the How past two still cyhnders, (C)L is inversely proportional to g* of two cylinders for a fixed |a|, and is not dependent on Re.

  4. Efficacy of semielevated side-lying positioning during bottle-feeding of very preterm infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne; Knafl, George J; Hodges, Eric A; Nix, William B

    2014-01-01

    Very preterm (VP, ≤30 wk gestational age) infants are at risk for impaired lung function, which significantly limits their ability to eat. A semielevated side-lying (ESL) position is a feeding strategy that may improve oral feeding by supporting breathing during feeding. The study evaluated the efficacy of the ESL position compared with the semielevated supine (ESU) position on physiological stability and feeding performance of bottle-fed VP infants. Using a within-subject crossover design, 6 VP infants were bottle-fed twice on 1 day, in both the ESL and ESU positions in a random order. Physiological stability (heart rate, oxygen saturation [SaO2], and respiratory characteristics) and feeding performance (percent intake, proficiency, efficiency, and duration of feeding) were measured before and/or during feeding. Very preterm infants fed in the ESL position demonstrated significantly less variation in heart rate, less severe and fewer decreases in heart rate, respiratory rate that was closer to the prefeeding state, shorter and more regular intervals between breaths, and briefer feeding-related apneic events. No significant differences for SaO2 or feeding performance were found. The findings indicate that the ESL position may support better regulation of breathing during feeding, thereby allowing VP infants to better maintain physiological stability throughout feeding.

  5. Side-to-side comparisons of bone mineral density in upper and lower limbs of collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Barbara S; Harmon-Clayton, Karen; Ward, Kenneth D; Klesges, Robert C; Vukadinovich, Christopher M; Cantler, Edwin D

    2002-11-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of participation in various sports on side-to-side (contralateral) differences in bone mineral density (BMD) of the upper and lower limbs. The BMD of the arms and legs was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The subjects were 184 collegiate athletes, both men and women, who participated in NCAA Division I-A baseball, basketball, football, golf, soccer, tennis, cross-country, indoor/outdoor track, and volleyball. Results revealed greater BMD of the right arms compared with the left arms for all teams, with the most pronounced differences observed in men's and women's tennis and men's baseball. Differences in the lower limbs were less common. No significant differences in lower limb BMD were found in the women. In men, differences in lower limb BMD were found in the football and tennis teams, with the nondominant leg having greater bone mass. Recognition of contralateral differences in bone density may be of particular interest to strength and conditioning professionals as they consider the need to include bilateral and unilateral training programs in an effort to maximize performance and minimize stress-related injuries. PMID:12423190

  6. Discussion on the Extensions of Meta-sided Exchange Rings%Meta-sided Exchange环的性质及扩张

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐再良; 张清

    2008-01-01

    陈焕艮对exchange环做了推广,提出了meta-sided exchange环的概念.本文在概念的基础上,利用exchange环的性质,研究meta-sided exchange环的一些重要性质及其扩张,得到一些与exchange环类似的结论,同时发现meta-sided exchange并没有上述exchange环的对称结构,并对meta-sided exchange环进行了比深入的刻画.

  7. [Pneumothorax during right-sided nephrectomy in a heifer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, K; Muggli, E; Gerspach, C; Schramm, S; Dettwiler, M; Bach, F; Ringer, S

    2016-01-01

    A 250-kg heifer had signs of colic attributable to urolithiasis of the right kidney. Medical treatment did not result in resolution of clinical signs, and nephrectomy was carried out. The surgery was started with the heifer standing, and the 13th rib was resected. However, during blunt dissection of the kidney, air suddenly entered the pleural space and the heifer had acute severe dyspnoea. The hole in the pleural cavity was sutured and a chest drain was placed. Inhalation anaesthesia was then induced and nephrectomy could be completed without further complications. The heifer was discharged 11 days postoperatively, and was healthy and had been integrated into the herd 12 months after surgery. Pneumothorax must be considered a possible complication of rib resection in right-sided nephrectomy in cattle. PMID:26526735

  8. Optimization studies of the ITER low field side reflectometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, S J; Wilgen, J B; Bigelow, T S; Hanson, G R; Harvey, R W; Smirnov, A P

    2010-10-01

    Microwave reflectometry will be used on ITER to measure the electron density profile, density fluctuations due to MHD/turbulence, edge localized mode (ELM) density transients, and as an L-H transition monitor. The ITER low field side reflectometer system will measure both core and edge quantities using multiple antenna arrays spanning frequency ranges of 15-155 GHz for the O-mode system and 55-220 GHz for the X-mode system. Optimization studies using the GENRAY ray-tracing code have been done for edge and core measurements. The reflectometer launchers will utilize the HE11 mode launched from circular corrugated waveguide. The launched beams are assumed to be Gaussian with a beam waist diameter of 0.643 times the waveguide diameter. Optimum launcher size and placement are investigated by computing the antenna coupling between launchers, assuming the launched and received beams have a Gaussian beam pattern.

  9. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stoustrup

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while estimating the cold reservoir temperatures as well. The models developed for each module as well as for the overall integrated system are validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The results show that the model is able to estimate the actual electrical power consumption with a high fidelity. Moreover a simulation benchmark is introduced based on the produced model for demand-side management in smart grid. Finally, a potential application of the proposed benchmark in direct control of the power/energy consumption is presented by a simple simulation example.

  10. Security Issues of Solar Energy Harvesting Road Side Unit (RSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba I. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular network security had spanned and covered a wide range of security related issues. Howeversolar energy harvesting Road Side Unit (RSU security was not defined clearly, it is this aspect that is considered in this paper. In this work, we will suggest an RSU security model to protect it against different internal and external threats. The main goal is to protect RSU specific data (needed for its operation as well as its functionality and accessibility. The suggested RSU security model must responds to many objectives, it should ensure that the administrative information exchanged is correct and undiscoverable (information authenticity and privacy, the source (e.g., VANET server is who he claims to be (message integrity and source authentication and the system is robust and available (using Intrusion Detection System (IDS. In this paper, we suggest many techniques to strength RSU security and they were prototyped using an experimental model based on Ubicom IP2022 network processor development kit .

  11. An unexpected side-effect of a commonly used drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández González, Francisco; Miranda, Samayra; Santiago Casiano, Mónica; Nieves, José; Adorno, Edgardo; Fernández González, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 68 year-old-female patient with clinical features of drug-induced lupus erythematosus after five years of treatment with amiodarone. She presented generalized skin rash, arthralgia on upper and lower extremities, associated with difficulty to walk. Remarkable laboratory results revealed a positive antinuclear antibody test and a skin rash biopsy showing a superficial and deep perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and eosinophils. Once the etiology of the patient's symptoms was identified, the culprit drug was removed and she had a complete remission of all signs and symptoms. Early diagnose should be recognized for prompt intervention and avoid further complications associated with this rare side-effect.

  12. Side-gated ultrathin-channel nanopore FET sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Itaru; Oura, Takeshi; Haga, Takanobu; Ando, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Jiro; Mine, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Takeshi; Hatano, Toshiyuki; Akahori, Rena; Yokoi, Takahide; Anazawa, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    A side-gated, ultrathin-channel nanopore FET (SGNAFET) is proposed for fast and label-free DNA sequencing. The concept of the SGNAFET comprises the detection of changes in the channel current during DNA translocation through a nanopore and identifying the four types of nucleotides as a result of these changes. To achieve this goal, both p- and n-type SGNAFETs with a channel thicknesses of 2 or 4 nm were fabricated, and the stable transistor operation of both SGNAFETs in air, water, and a KCl buffer solution were confirmed. In addition, synchronized current changes were observed between the ionic current through the nanopore and the SGNAFET’s drain current during DNA translocation through the nanopore.

  13. Glycan Side Reaction May Compromise ETD-Based Glycopeptide Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darula, Zsuzsanna; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.

    2014-06-01

    Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) is one of the most frequently used buffer ingredients. Among other things, it is recommended and is usually used for lectin-based affinity enrichment of glycopeptides. Here we report that sialic acid, a common `capping' unit in both N- and O-linked glycans may react with this chemical, and this side reaction may compromise glycopeptide identification when ETD spectra are the only MS/MS data used in the database search. We show that the modification may alter N- as well as O-linked glycans, the Tris-derivative is still prone to fragmentation both in `beam-type' CID (HCD) and ETD experiments, at the same time—since the acidic carboxyl group was `neutralized'—it will display a different retention time than its unmodified counterpart. We also suggest solutions that—when incorporated into existing search engines—may significantly improve the reliability of glycopeptide assignments.

  14. Side-gated ultrathin-channel nanopore FET sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Itaru; Oura, Takeshi; Haga, Takanobu; Ando, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Jiro; Mine, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Takeshi; Hatano, Toshiyuki; Akahori, Rena; Yokoi, Takahide; Anazawa, Takashi

    2016-03-18

    A side-gated, ultrathin-channel nanopore FET (SGNAFET) is proposed for fast and label-free DNA sequencing. The concept of the SGNAFET comprises the detection of changes in the channel current during DNA translocation through a nanopore and identifying the four types of nucleotides as a result of these changes. To achieve this goal, both p- and n-type SGNAFETs with a channel thicknesses of 2 or 4 nm were fabricated, and the stable transistor operation of both SGNAFETs in air, water, and a KCl buffer solution were confirmed. In addition, synchronized current changes were observed between the ionic current through the nanopore and the SGNAFET's drain current during DNA translocation through the nanopore.

  15. Improved dual sided doped memristor: modelling and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Shrivastava

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Memristor as a novel and emerging electronic device having vast range of applications suffer from poor frequency response and saturation length. In this paper, the authors present a novel and an innovative device structure for the memristor with two active layers and its non-linear ionic drift model for an improved frequency response and saturation length. The authors investigated and compared the I–V characteristics for the proposed model with the conventional memristors and found better results in each case (different window functions for the proposed dual sided doped memristor. For circuit level simulation, they developed a SPICE model of the proposed memristor and designed some logic gates based on hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductor memristive logic (memristor ratioed logic. The proposed memristor yields improved results in terms of noise margin, delay time and dynamic hazards than that of the conventional memristors (single active layer memristors.

  16. Robust Watermarking Scheme with Side Information and Template Matching Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jie(郭捷); Fang Tao; Shi Pengfei

    2004-01-01

    Digital watermarking has been proposed for the copyright protections of multimedia products. In this paper, a robust and blind watermarking scheme is presented. The concept of communication with side information is applied at the encoder to improve the probability of detection within acceptable fidelity, while the template matching technique is employed to estimate the undergone attacks in attacking channel. This scheme is optimized by the optimal design of the encoder to match with the media content and the decoder to adapt to the attack channel state. Experiments show that our method is robust against some common attacks such as filtering, compression, rotation, scaling, cropping and translation. It can be applied to both color and gray images.

  17. An Efficient Method against Side-Channel Attacks on ECC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuanggen; HU Yupu; XU Wensheng

    2006-01-01

    Side-channel attacks(SCA) may exploit leakage information to break cryptosystems. In this paper we present a new SCA resistant Elliptic Curve scalar multiplication algorithm. The proposed algorithm, builds a sequence of bit-strings representing the scalar k, characterized by the fact that all bit-strings are different from zero; this property will ensure a uniform computation behavior for the algorithm, and thus will make it secure against simple power analysis attacks(SPA). With other randomization techniques, the proposed countermeasures do not penalize the computation time. The proposed scheme is more efficient than M(O)ller' one, its cost being about 5% to 10% smaller than M(O)ller' one.

  18. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  19. Indirect Control for Demand Side Management – A Conceptual Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; You, Shi; Biegel, Benjamin;

    2012-01-01

    correct definition, either as a control or a market concept. This paper aims to provide a conceptual introduction to "indirect control" for management of small and distributed demand side resources. A review of control concepts and an analysis of "indirectness" features are provided to create a framework......The concept of “indirect control” has become a relevant discussion term in relation to activation distributed and small-scale demand and generation units to provide resources for power system balancing. The term and its association with price signals has, however caused some confusion as to its...... for systematic classification of indirect control strategies. The concepts developed then enable a discussion of control performance and valuation of direct- and indirect control strategies....

  20. CFD Simulation of Airflow in the Side-Platform Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adibi Omid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of an appropriate ventilation system is one of the main concerns in the construction of subways. In this paper, thermal comforts of side-platform stations are investigated by numerical methods. For the numerical simulation, grids are generated by structured methods and governing equations are discretized by finite volume methods. In the numerical simulation, second order upwind and second order central difference scheme are used to consider the convection and diffusion terms of momentum and energy equations, respectively. Results of this study show that in term of thermal comfort, region next to the hallway and the middle part of the platform is the worst zones of the station. In these zones, air velocity is very low (less than 0.5m/s and the air temperature reaches to 34°C which is more than its limit (Tmax≤32°C.

  1. Brazing techniques for side-coupled electron accelerator structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collaboration between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), started in 1979, has led to the development of an advanced c-w microtron accelerator design. The four 2380-MHz NBS accelerating structures, containing a total of 184 accelerating cavities, have been fabricated and delivered. New fabrication methods, coupled with refinements of hydrogen-furnace brazing techniques described in this paper, allow efficient production of side-coupled structures. Success with the NBS RTM led to Los Alamos efforts on similar 2450-MHz accelerators for the microtron accelerator operated by the Nuclear Physics Department of the University of Illinois. Two accelerators (each with 17 cavities) have been fabricated; in 1986, a 45-cavity accelerator is being fabricated by private industry with some assistance from Los Alamos. Further private industry experience and refinement of the described fabrication techniques may allow future accelerators of this type to be completely fabricated by private industry

  2. [Pneumothorax during right-sided nephrectomy in a heifer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, K; Muggli, E; Gerspach, C; Schramm, S; Dettwiler, M; Bach, F; Ringer, S

    2016-01-01

    A 250-kg heifer had signs of colic attributable to urolithiasis of the right kidney. Medical treatment did not result in resolution of clinical signs, and nephrectomy was carried out. The surgery was started with the heifer standing, and the 13th rib was resected. However, during blunt dissection of the kidney, air suddenly entered the pleural space and the heifer had acute severe dyspnoea. The hole in the pleural cavity was sutured and a chest drain was placed. Inhalation anaesthesia was then induced and nephrectomy could be completed without further complications. The heifer was discharged 11 days postoperatively, and was healthy and had been integrated into the herd 12 months after surgery. Pneumothorax must be considered a possible complication of rib resection in right-sided nephrectomy in cattle.

  3. Neutrophils in Cancer: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Uribe-Querol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and are considered to be the first line of defense during inflammation and infections. In addition, neutrophils are also found infiltrating many types of tumors. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs have relevant roles in malignant disease. Indeed neutrophils may be potent antitumor effector cells. However, increasing clinical evidence shows TANs correlate with poor prognosis. The tumor microenvironment controls neutrophil recruitment and in turn TANs help tumor progression. Hence, TANs can be beneficial or detrimental to the host. It is the purpose of this review to highlight these two sides of the neutrophil coin in cancer and to describe recent studies that provide some light on the mechanisms for neutrophil recruitment to the tumor, for neutrophils supporting tumor progression, and for neutrophil activation to enhance their antitumor functions.

  4. Critical Questions About Left-Sided Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Román, J Alberto; Vilacosta, Isidre; López, Javier; Sarriá, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Research in different topics in cardiovascular medicine is evolving rapidly. However, this is not the case for endocarditis, despite its being the cardiovascular disease with the highest mortality and, at the same time, the entity with relatively less scientific evidence supporting its treatment. Many problems are delaying research: it is an uncommon disease, few multicenter registries are ongoing, financing for research in this topic is lacking, randomization is costly, difficult, and considered unethical by some, and conclusions coming from propensity score analysis are taken as if they came from randomized trials. In this review, we put forward the main issues in need of evidence and propose a different approach to advance the understanding of left-sided infective endocarditis. We summarize the limited evidence available, the questions that are pending, and how we should proceed to answer them.

  5. Side-effects of improving CERN's spam filter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To further improve the fight against spam (unsolicited email), CERN implemented in June a mechanism that returns electronic mail messages to the sender if the originating server is wrongly configured. This "reverse DNS lookup" is an increasingly widespread technique to identify whether the sending e-mail server is legitimate and has a valid host name. This change has nearly doubled the spam rejection efficiency at CERN. However, it has a known side-effect. A small number of correspondents are sending legitimate electronic mail to CERN from mail servers that are incorrectly configured (in technical terms, they do not have a reverse DNS registration). These persons will have their messages returned to them with an error message, provided their sender address is valid. The typical error message that the correspondent receives in such cases is "Relaying denied. No reverse DNS configured for IP". If a correspondent complains to you that emails they are sending you at CERN are being returned with...

  6. Interactions between planar grafted neurofilament side-arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark J; Hoh, Jan H

    2011-06-16

    The side-arms of neurofilaments (NFs) have been proposed to be highly disordered, leading to an entropically and electrostatically based repulsion that modulates interfilament spacing. To characterize the behavior of two interacting polymer brushes in a system of this type, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of neurofilament brushes using a four bead reduced amino acid set coarse-grained model. In these simulations, we examined components of the neurofilament brush, NF-L, NF-M, and phosphorylated NF-H (NF-HP), individually. Each protein type was grafted to planar surfaces and simulations were performed for a range of separations of two apposed grafted surfaces. The calculated force-separation curves show the force increases as the reciprocal separation as predicted for polyelectrolyte brushes at high salt. All three systems can be overlapped on a single force-separation curve, which is not expected given the variation in amino acid sequence and charges on the polymers. Examination of structural properties shows scaling behavior in the average brush height, end-to-end distance, and the density interpenetration. Some of this scaling can be understood in terms of treating the NF proteins as effective polyelectrolytes, but some cannot suggesting a distinct polyampholyte behavior. Correlations are found between oppositely charged residues in opposite brushes. However, these correlations are weak in comparison to the strong correlations within each brush. In comparison with recent experimental data that observes condensed and expanded gel states, our results suggest that the condensed state structure involves significant interdigitation of the side-arms. PMID:21598932

  7. Side 2: MSM positioning of STIS CCD Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kailash

    2000-07-01

    The MSM positions for different STIS modes are slightly different when the STIS is run through side 2 than when it is run from side 1. These MSM positions for various STIS prime CCD modes shall be confirmed by taking images with the IM Pt/Cr/Ne calibration lamp. For first order long-slit modes, the exposures shall be made through 52x0.1arcsec slit. For the echelle modes, the exposures shall be made through echelle slits of the nominal height, to avoid order confusion. One exposure shall be taken for each prime mode except for the medium dispersion{M}, long slit modes. For the medium dispersion, long-slit modes, additional exposures shall be taken at the long and short wavelength settings of the nominal scan range. Exposures shall be sufficiently long to bring out enough line features to confirm wavelength identifications, with sufficient signal to noise to reveal the shadows of the fiducials in the long slit images to confirm spatial pointing. This activity will test all primary modes and test the extremes of the MSM scanning cylinders by observing the extreme settings of the modes. RESULTS: All images will be downlinked and analyzed. The results are confirmation of the standard MSM encoder values for each mode. If the wavelength shifts are less than the budgeted value, the changes will be handled through updating the siaf files. If excess shifts are seen, new MSM positions will be derived and uplinked to the onboard MSM pointing table. Any modes for which revised MSM positions are uplinked will have to be re-observed for confirmation that the correct offsets were applied.

  8. Side 2: MSM Positioning of STIS MAMA Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kailash

    2000-07-01

    The MSM positions for different STIS modes are slightly different when the STIS is run through side 2 than when it is run from side 1. These MSM positions for various STIS prime MAMA modes shall be confirmed by taking images with the IM Pt/Cr/Ne calibration lamp. For first order long-slit modes, the exposures shall be made through 52x0.1arcsec slit. For the echelle modes, the exposures shall be made through echelle slits of the nominal height, to avoid order confusion. One exposure shall be taken for each prime mode except for the medium dispersion{M}, long slit modes. For the medium dispersion, long-slit modes, additional exposures shall be taken at the long and short wavelength settings of the nominal scan range. Exposures shall be sufficiently long to bring out enough line features to confirm wavelength identifications, with sufficient signal to noise to reveal the shadows of the fiducials in the long slit images to confirm spatial pointing. This activity will test all primary modes and test the extremes of the MSM scanning cylinders by observing the extreme settings of the modes. RESULTS: All images will be downlinked and analyzed. The results are confirmation of the standard MSM encoder values for each mode. If the wavelength shifts are less than the budgeted value, the changes will be handled through updating the siaf files. If excess shifts are seen, new MSM positions will be derived and uplinked to the onboard MSM pointing table. Any modes for which revised MSM positions are uplinked will have to be re-observed for confirmation that the correct offsets were applied.

  9. Intelligent demand side management of residential building energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Maruti N.

    Advent of modern sensing technologies, data processing capabilities and rising cost of energy are driving the implementation of intelligent systems in buildings and houses which constitute 41% of total energy consumption. The primary motivation has been to provide a framework for demand-side management and to improve overall reliability. The entire formulation is to be implemented on NILM (Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring System), a smart meter. This is going to play a vital role in the future of demand side management. Utilities have started deploying smart meters throughout the world which will essentially help to establish communication between utility and consumers. This research is focused on investigation of a suitable thermal model of residential house, building up control system and developing diagnostic and energy usage forecast tool. The present work has considered measurement based approach to pursue. Identification of building thermal parameters is the very first step towards developing performance measurement and controls. The proposed identification technique is PEM (Prediction Error Method) based, discrete state-space model. The two different models have been devised. First model is focused toward energy usage forecast and diagnostics. Here one of the novel idea has been investigated which takes integral of thermal capacity to identify thermal model of house. The purpose of second identification is to build up a model for control strategy. The controller should be able to take into account the weather forecast information, deal with the operating point constraints and at the same time minimize the energy consumption. To design an optimal controller, MPC (Model Predictive Control) scheme has been implemented instead of present thermostatic/hysteretic control. This is a receding horizon approach. Capability of the proposed schemes has also been investigated.

  10. Radiotherapy and "new" drugs-new side effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Maximilian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Targeted drugs have augmented the cancer treatment armamentarium. Based on the molecular specificity, it was initially believed that these drugs had significantly less side effects. However, currently it is accepted that all of these agents have their specific side effects. Based on the given multimodal approach, special emphasis has to be placed on putative interactions of conventional cytostatic drugs, targeted agents and other modalities. The interaction of targeted drugs with radiation harbours special risks, since the awareness for interactions and even synergistic toxicities is lacking. At present, only limited is data available regarding combinations of targeted drugs and radiotherapy. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on such combined treatments. Materials and methods Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms pubmed database was searched: Radiotherapy AND cetuximab/trastuzumab/panitumumab/nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, sunitinib/sorafenib/lapatinib/gefitinib/erlotinib/sirolimus, thalidomide/lenalidomide as well as erythropoietin. For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. Results Several classes of targeted substances may be distinguished: Small molecules including kinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors, antibodies, and anti-angiogenic agents. Combination of these agents with radiotherapy may lead to specific toxicities or negatively influence the efficacy of RT. Though there is only little information on the interaction of molecular targeted radiation and radiotherapy in clinical settings, several critical incidents are reported. Conclusions The addition of molecular targeted drugs to conventional radiotherapy outside of approved regimens or clinical trials warrants a careful consideration especially when used in conjunction in hypo-fractionated regimens. Clinical trials are urgently needed in order to

  11. Interactive client side data visualization with d3.js

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodzianko, A.; Versteeg, R.; Johnson, D. V.; Soltanian, M. R.; Versteeg, O. J.; Girouard, M.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience data associated with near surface research and operational sites is increasingly voluminous and heterogeneous (both in terms of providers and data types - e.g. geochemical, hydrological, geophysical, modeling data, of varying spatiotemporal characteristics). Such data allows scientists to investigate fundamental hydrological and geochemical processes relevant to agriculture, water resources and climate change. For scientists to easily share, model and interpret such data requires novel tools with capabilities for interactive data visualization. Under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Subsurface Insights is developing the Predictive Assimilative Framework (PAF): a cloud based subsurface monitoring platform which can manage, process and visualize large heterogeneous datasets. Over the last year we transitioned our visualization method from a server side approach (in which images and animations were generated using Jfreechart and Visit) to a client side one that utilizes the D3 Javascript library. Datasets are retrieved using web service calls to the server, returned as JSON objects and visualized within the browser. Users can interactively explore primary and secondary datasets from various field locations. Our current capabilities include interactive data contouring and heterogeneous time series data visualization. While this approach is very powerful and not necessarily unique, special attention needs to be paid to latency and responsiveness issues as well as to issues as cross browser code compatibility so that users have an identical, fluid and frustration-free experience across different computational platforms. We gratefully acknowledge support from the US Department of Energy under SBIR Award DOE DE-SC0009732, the use of data from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Sustainable Systems SFA Rifle field site and collaboration with LBNL SFA scientists.

  12. Informed spectral analysis: audio signal parameter estimation using side information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourer, Dominique; Marchand, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Parametric models are of great interest for representing and manipulating sounds. However, the quality of the resulting signals depends on the precision of the parameters. When the signals are available, these parameters can be estimated, but the presence of noise decreases the resulting precision of the estimation. Furthermore, the Cramér-Rao bound shows the minimal error reachable with the best estimator, which can be insufficient for demanding applications. These limitations can be overcome by using the coding approach which consists in directly transmitting the parameters with the best precision using the minimal bitrate. However, this approach does not take advantage of the information provided by the estimation from the signal and may require a larger bitrate and a loss of compatibility with existing file formats. The purpose of this article is to propose a compromised approach, called the 'informed approach,' which combines analysis with (coded) side information in order to increase the precision of parameter estimation using a lower bitrate than pure coding approaches, the audio signal being known. Thus, the analysis problem is presented in a coder/decoder configuration where the side information is computed and inaudibly embedded into the mixture signal at the coder. At the decoder, the extra information is extracted and is used to assist the analysis process. This study proposes applying this approach to audio spectral analysis using sinusoidal modeling which is a well-known model with practical applications and where theoretical bounds have been calculated. This work aims at uncovering new approaches for audio quality-based applications. It provides a solution for challenging problems like active listening of music, source separation, and realistic sound transformations.

  13. Brinzolamide-timolol suspension: acceptability and side effect profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty MD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available MD Doherty, SG Fraser, PS PhelanSunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, UKBackground: This study aimed to determine the frequency, nature, and impact of side effects associated with the use of brinzolamide-timolol suspension, a topical ocular antihypertensive preparation.Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 76 consecutive patients attending the Sunderland Eye Infirmary Glaucoma Service who were using the brinzolamide-timolol suspension. The questions related specifically to effects on daily life, blurring of vision, stinging, irritation, and acceptability compared with any drops previously used. Respondents were asked to grade their answers to these questions using a numerical scale from 0 to 10.Results: Seventy-six patients (100% responded, comprising 58 females and 18 males, aged 68–95 years, treated for 3–7 months. Quality of life was not significantly affected, with the majority of patients recording a response between 0 and 2. Visual blurring was a more prominent feature, with the most common scores being 3 and 4. Stinging did not appear to be a prominent feature, with 0 as the most common response. Similarly, irritation was not a common finding, with most respondents scoring 0 and 1. Finally, the brinzolamide-timolol suspension compared favorably with previously used drops, with the vast majority of patients expressing a preference for this suspension over other topical medications.Conclusion: Brinzolamide-timolol suspension appears to be a well tolerated and acceptable medication, with minimal effect on patient quality of life.Keywords: intraocular pressure, glaucoma, quality of life, side effects

  14. Wear and Thermal Stress Analysis of Side Dam for Twin Roll Strip Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao-feng; DI Hong-shuang; ZHANG Xiao-ming; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua

    2004-01-01

    The side dam technology for twin roll strip casting was discussed. The effect of pre-heating temperature, material and design of side dam on the process stability and surface quality of products was analyzed. The wear and erosion of side dam for different steel grades were described. Two types of side dam designs, namely integral type and combined type, were used in the experiment, and the suitable position of side dam was determined by experiment. The results show that the combined side dam is better than the integral one in process stability and long service life. The temperature fields and thermal stress fields in side dam during strip casting were analyzed using the finite element analysis software, and the causes of side dam cracking were explained.

  15. Augmentation of partially regenerated nerves by end-to-side side-to-side grafting neurotization: experience based on eight late obstetric brachial plexus cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moharram Ashraf N

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The effect of end-to-side neurotization of partially regenerated recipient nerves on improving motor power in late obstetric brachial plexus lesions, so-called nerve augmentation, was investigated. Methods Eight cases aged 3 – 7 years were operated upon and followed up for 4 years (C5,6 rupture C7,8T1 avulsion: 5; C5,6,7,8 rupture T1 avulsion:1; C5,6,8T1 rupture C7 avulsion:1; C5,6,7 ruptureC8 T1 compression: one 3 year presentation after former neurotization at 3 months. Grade 1–3 muscles were neurotized. Grade0 muscles were neurotized, if the electromyogram showed scattered motor unit action potentials on voluntary contraction without interference pattern. Donor nerves included: the phrenic, accessory, descending and ascending loops of the ansa cervicalis, 3rd and 4th intercostals and contralateral C7. Results Superior proximal to distal regeneration was observed firstly. Differential regeneration of muscles supplied by the same nerve was observed secondly (superior supraspinatus to infraspinatus regeneration. Differential regeneration of antagonistic muscles was observed thirdly (superior biceps to triceps and pronator teres to supinator recovery. Differential regeneration of fibres within the same muscle was observed fourthly (superior anterior and middle to posterior deltoid regeneration. Differential regeneration of muscles having different preoperative motor powers was noted fifthly; improvement to Grade 3 or more occurred more in Grade2 than in Grade0 or Grade1 muscles. Improvements of cocontractions and of shoulder, forearm and wrist deformities were noted sixthly. The shoulder, elbow and hand scores improved in 4 cases. Limitations The sample size is small. Controls are necessary to rule out any natural improvement of the lesion. There is intra- and interobserver variability in testing muscle power and cocontractions. Conclusion Nerve augmentation improves cocontractions and muscle power in the biceps, pectoral

  16. Early and Late Side Effects Associated with Photo(chemo)therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Günseli Öztürk

    2010-01-01

    Phototherapy (PUVA ve UVB) is a widely used and effective treatment method for a variety of dermatological diseases. Adverse effects associated with phototherapy can be classified as acute and chronic side effects. Acute side effects are mostly related with UV doses and drug intolerance, and include itching, nausea, erythema, edema and phototoxic reactions that sometimes blister formation is seen. Acute side effects are usually moderate and transient. Chronic side effects of phototherapy are ...

  17. STS-38 Pilot Culbertson rolls through CCT side hatch during egress training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Pilot Frank L. Culbertson, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), rolls through the side hatch of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Assisted by technicians, Culbertson practices emergency egress through the side hatch using the crew escape system (CES) pole which extends out the side hatch. The inflated safety cushion breaks Culbertson's fall as he rolls out of the side hatch.

  18. Test methods for evaluating and comparing the performance of side impact barrier faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coo, P.J.A. de; Roberts, A.; Seeck, A.; Cesari, D.

    1998-01-01

    Side-impact safety of passenger cars is assessed in Europe in a full-scale test using a moving barrier. The front of this barrier is deformable and represents the stiffness of an 'average' car. The EU Directive 96/27/EC on side impact protection has adopted the EEVC Side Impact Test Procedure, inclu

  19. Hypoglossal motoneurons in newborn mice receive respiratory drive from both sides of the medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarras-Wahlberg, S; Rekling, J C

    2009-01-01

    correlations, where large-amplitude XII-bursts on one side was synchronized with small-amplitude XII-burst on the contralateral side. These characteristic amplitude correlations suggest that hypoglossal motoneurons receive respiratory drive from bilateral sources. Retrograde labeling confirmed that commissural...... in bilateral XII nerves. Hypoglossal motoneurons receive respiratory drive from both sides of the medulla, possibly mediated by contralaterally projecting dendrites....

  20. DMPD: Targeting bacterial endotoxin: two sides of a coin. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17405910 Targeting bacterial endotoxin: two sides of a coin. Bosshart H, Heinzelman...n M. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Jan;1096:1-17. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Targeting bacterial endotoxin:... two sides of a coin. PubmedID 17405910 Title Targeting bacterial endotoxin: two sides of a coin. Authors Bo

  1. Managing a live music performance: A supply-side analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Manners

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and objective: The purpose of this research is to determine what managers regard as important critical success factors in ensuring a memorable visitor experience at a live music performance.Problem investigated: When organising a live music performance, it is evident that the various characteristics that form part of the visitor experience have to be considered. The critical success factors of live music performances from the supply side are fundamental, since the costs of organising live music performances are high, the needs of the visitors are constantly changing and competition plays a major role in the success of such events. Management furthermore constantly needs to be aware of the ever-changing external environment by determining what factors visitors consider to be vital for a rewarding experience at a major music event. This is extremely important since the concept of experience has become more pervasive, mainly given that the event sector, such as live music performances, has adopted experience as a tool to make individual businesses more competitive, as the organisations operating within this sector exist to provide consumers with an experience.Design and/or methodology and/or approach: A qualitative research method, by means of interviews, was used to obtain the relevant information from the selected participants. All the data collected in the process were transcribed into text and presented in narrative form. The six steps of data analysis and interpretation were applied to analyse the data.Findings and impications: The following four major themes emerged from the analysis; each theme was differentiated in terms of various categories and subcategories. Theme 1:The most important aspects for a memorable visitor experience; Theme 2:Main purpose when organising a live music performance; Theme 3:Important aspects regarding the management of a live music performance; Theme 4:Timing of event management. Based

  2. What Motivates Lay Third Parties to Take Sides in a Conflict? Examining the Relationships between the Big Five Personality Traits and Side-taking Motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huadong; Li, Chaoping; Wang, Qing; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn

    2011-01-01

    Taking sides is one of the reactions available to third parties in handling a dispute. From the perspective of individual differences, this study was aimed at identifying lay third parties' motives for side taking and exploring their relations with the Big Five personality traits. We tested our assu

  3. Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-08-01

    This technology evaluation was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory on behalf of the Federal Energy Management Program. The objective was to quantify the benefits side stream filtration provides to a cooling tower system. The evaluation assessed the performance of an existing side stream filtration system at a cooling tower system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Spallation Neutron Source research facility. This location was selected because it offered the opportunity for a side-by-side comparison of a system featuring side stream filtration and an unfiltered system.

  4. Side-to-side range of movement variability in variants of the median and radial neurodynamic test sequences in asymptomatic people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalioraitis, Vaidas; Robinson, Kim; Hall, Toby

    2014-08-01

    Side-to-side discrepancy in range of motion (ROM) during upper limb neurodynamic testing is used in part to identify abnormal peripheral nerve mechanosensitivity and is one of three factors to consider in determining a positive test. Large side-to-side variability is reported for some variants of the upper limb neurodynamic test sequences, however discrepancies for other test variants are unknown. Hence the purpose of this study was to evaluate side-to-side discrepancy in elbow flexion ROM during two variants of upper limb neurodynamic test sequence for the median and radial nerves. 51 asymptomatic subjects (26 females, mean age 29.69 years) were evaluated. A uniaxial electrogoniometer was used to measure elbow flexion ROM at onset of resistance (R1) and onset of discomfort (P1) during the median and radial neurodynamic tests on each side. Reliability was determined by testing 20 subjects twice and was found to be good (ICC greater than 0.88 and SEM less than 4.02°). There was no significant difference in mean ROM between sides. Lower-bound scores indicate that intra-individual, inter-limb differences of more than 15° for the median nerve and 11° for the radial nerve exceeds the range of normal ROM asymmetry on neurodynamic testing at R1 and P1. Correlation of ROM between limbs was significant with R(2) values of 0.62 and 0.85 for the median and radial nerves respectively. These finding provide clinicians with information regarding normal side-to-side variability in ROM during two commonly used variants of neurodynamic tests. PMID:24703935

  5. Client-Side Event Processing for Personalized Web Advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stühmer, Roland; Anicic, Darko; Sen, Sinan; Ma, Jun; Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stojanovic, Nenad

    The market for Web advertisement is continuously growing and correspondingly, the number of approaches that can be used for realizing Web advertisement are increasing. However, current approaches fail to generate very personalized ads for a current Web user that is visiting a particular Web content. They mainly try to develop a profile based on the content of that Web page or on a long-term user's profile, by not taking into account current user's preferences. We argue that by discovering a user's interest from his current Web behavior we can support the process of ad generation, especially the relevance of an ad for the user. In this paper we present the conceptual architecture and implementation of such an approach. The approach is based on the extraction of simple events from the user interaction with a Web page and their combination in order to discover the user's interests. We use semantic technologies in order to build such an interpretation out of many simple events. We present results from preliminary evaluation studies. The main contribution of the paper is a very efficient, semantic-based client-side architecture for generating and combining Web events. The architecture ensures the agility of the whole advertisement system, by complexly processing events on the client. In general, this work contributes to the realization of new, event-driven applications for the (Semantic) Web.

  6. The dark side of Taiwan's globalization success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, R

    2000-01-01

    Government regulators and researchers in Taiwan (Republic of China) express optimism about their country's economic success in its transition from a traditional society to a first world, industrialized nation. But this economic success, as measured by the standards and ideology of globalization, also has a dark side for many ordinary workers, especially Taiwan's 300,000 foreign workers. The promise of growth and future prosperity is conditional upon global economic practices and an adherence to a science-technology ideological perspective that shapes political content. Multiple centers of opposition and critical thinking have no public presence in Taiwan; nor do organizational defiance and resistance by trade unions. Instead, individuals and small human rights groups seek to reveal areas of human degradation and suffering in a response to poverty and the American dream. Meanwhile, the dominant ideological perspective as articulated by globalism seeps into and directs all public policy on the work environment so that it is coherent with the neoliberal political agenda of multinational corporations. This direction is being questioned by students of the work environment and by labor activists in North America, who report the deterioration of working conditions and worsening of government regulatory instruments for protecting workers from physical, mental, and social risk and harm in the workplace. PMID:11127019

  7. Electricity deregulation, spot price patterns and demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines extensive hourly or half-hourly power price data from 14 deregulated power markets. It analyzes average diurnal patterns, relationship to system load, volatility, and consistency over time. Diurnal patterns indicate the average price spread between off-peak and on-peak and weekend vs. weekday power consumption. Volatility is measured by price velocity: the average normalized hourly change in power price, calculated daily. The calculated price velocity is broken down into an expected component that arises from the diurnal pattern and an unexpected component that arises from unknown factors. The analysis reveals significant differences among markets, suggesting that demand-side management (DSM) of power consumption is far more difficult in some markets than in others. At one extreme, Spain, Britain and Scandinavia show consistent diurnal price patterns, a stable relationship between price and system load, and a low unexplained component of price volatility. A power consumer in these markets could form a reasonable expectation of a reward for DSM of elective power consumption. At the other extreme, two markets in Australia show erratic diurnal price patterns from year to year, low correlation between price and system load, and a high amount of unexpected price velocity. A power consumer in these markets would have far greater difficulty in realizing a benefit from DSM. Markets that experienced one period of very high prices without a clear external cause, such as California and Alberta, appear to have a significant longer-term erosion of public support for deregulation. (author)

  8. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA.

  9. Corticosteroid-related central nervous system side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ciriaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids have been used since the 50s as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of several pathologies such as asthma, allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, and dermatological disorders. Corticosteroids have three principal mechanisms of action: 1 inhibit the synthesis of inflammatory proteins blocking NF-kB, 2 induce the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins by IkB and MAPK phosphatase I, and 3 inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2. The efficacy of glucocorticoids in alleviating inflammatory disorders results from the pleiotropic effects of the glucocorticoid receptors on multiple signaling pathways. However, they have adverse effects: Growth retardation in children, immunosuppression, hypertension, hyperglycemia, inhibition of wound repair, osteoporosis, metabolic disturbances, glaucoma, and cataracts. Less is known about psychiatric or side effects on central nervous system, as catatonia, decreased concentration, agitation, insomnia, and abnormal behaviors, which are also often underestimated in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to highlight the correlation between the administration of corticosteroids and CNS adverse effects, giving a useful guide for prescribers including a more careful assessment of risk factors and encourage the use of safer doses of this class of drugs.

  10. Track Detection in Railway Sidings Based on MEMS Gyroscope Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a two-step technique for real-time track detection in single-track railway sidings using low-cost MEMS gyroscopes. The objective is to reliably know the path the train has taken in a switch, diverted or main road, immediately after the train head leaves the switch. The signal delivered by the gyroscope is first processed by an adaptive low-pass filter that rejects noise and converts the temporal turn rate data in degree/second units into spatial turn rate data in degree/meter. The conversion is based on the travelled distance taken from odometer data. The filter is implemented to achieve a speed-dependent cut-off frequency to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Although direct comparison of the filtered turn rate signal with a predetermined threshold is possible, the paper shows that better detection performance can be achieved by processing the turn rate signal with a filter matched to the rail switch curvature parameters. Implementation aspects of the track detector have been optimized for real-time operation. The detector has been tested with both simulated data and real data acquired in railway campaigns.

  11. Track detection in railway sidings based on MEMS gyroscope sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broquetas, Antoni; Comerón, Adolf; Gelonch, Antoni; Fuertes, Josep M; Castro, J Antonio; Felip, Damià; López, Miguel A; Pulido, José A

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a two-step technique for real-time track detection in single-track railway sidings using low-cost MEMS gyroscopes. The objective is to reliably know the path the train has taken in a switch, diverted or main road, immediately after the train head leaves the switch. The signal delivered by the gyroscope is first processed by an adaptive low-pass filter that rejects noise and converts the temporal turn rate data in degree/second units into spatial turn rate data in degree/meter. The conversion is based on the travelled distance taken from odometer data. The filter is implemented to achieve a speed-dependent cut-off frequency to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Although direct comparison of the filtered turn rate signal with a predetermined threshold is possible, the paper shows that better detection performance can be achieved by processing the turn rate signal with a filter matched to the rail switch curvature parameters. Implementation aspects of the track detector have been optimized for real-time operation. The detector has been tested with both simulated data and real data acquired in railway campaigns. PMID:23443376

  12. Extragalactic sources with one-sided radio structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A list has been compiled of 49 extragalactic sources, most of them identified with quasars that appear to have a one-sided (D2 type) radio structure characterized b.v a single outer component displaced from a compact central (nuclear) component coincident with the optical object. The observed properties of a subsample of 28 D2 quasars that have an overall angular size larger than 5 arcsec are briefly discussed and compared with those of normal (D1 type) double quasars. It is found that the central components in most D2 sources account for more than half the total flux density at high frequencies in contrast to the D1 quasars which generally have less than 20 percent of their total flux density in a central component. This makes it very unlikely that D2 sources are just those D1s in which there is a large intrinsic difference in the flux densities or separations of the two outer components. The observed properties of D2 sources are easier to understand in the relativistic beaming interpretation in which their axes areinclined at smaller angles with the line of sight compared to D1 sources. (author)

  13. Demand Side Management in Pellet Production: Internal and External Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigants, Haralds; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a demand side management case study: how to save energy and how research and data analysis help to create an energy management system in a pellet production facility; and shows ways to implement the EU energy efficiency directive in production facilities. The study carried out in this research serves as a far-reaching step that can be taken to improve energy efficiency during the operation mode of technological equipment. The benchmarking methodology is used for analysis of results. Internal and external factors and indicators, which affect energy management potential in pellet production are analysed. Analysis of external factors is based on the state legal framework regulating the development of the energy sector. Methodology on the analysis of energy demand includes the internal energy management of an enterprise. The experimental results discussed in this paper show that particular steps, which are oriented to specific use of technological equipment, could play significant role in energy efficiency improvement in industry which is illustrated by the pre-milling process in the pellet production system using power.

  14. Side effects of normalising radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, R; Murray-Smith, R

    1996-05-01

    Normalisation of the basis function activations in a Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is a common way of achieving the partition of unity often desired for modelling applications. It results in the basis functions covering the whole of the input space to the same degree. However, normalisation of the basis functions can lead to other effects which are sometimes less desirable for modelling applications. This paper describes some side effects of normalisation which fundamentally alter properties of the basis functions, e.g. the shape is no longer uniform, maxima of basis functions can be shifted from their centres, and the basis functions are no longer guaranteed to decrease monotonically as distance from their centre increases--in many cases basis functions can 'reactivate', i.e. re-appear far from the basis function centre. This paper examines how these phenomena occur, discusses their relevance for non-linear function approximation and examines the effect of normalisation on the network condition number and weights.

  15. Workplace violence: the dark side of organisational life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speedy, Sandra

    2006-05-01

    This paper draws on a diverse range of research literature addressing workplace violence, which constitutes one component of the dark side of organisational life. This selective review of the literature has been drawn from the disciplines of nursing, management, psychology and organisational culture. The paper focuses bullying and mobbing in the workplace, addressing its types, causes, the characteristics of bullies and targets and the generalised impact of bullying and mobbing. It also examines whether there are gender issues pertinent to the health care sector. Consideration will also be given to the impact on the individual, group and organization, given the apparent epidemic proportions workplace violence has reached. Ultimately, the question will arise: how can the workplace violence be abolished, specifically within the health care sector, given that we live in a global environment characterised by international bullying (Crawford 1999)? This is a challenge because workplace violence is perpetuated within organisations, due either to cultures of acceptance, or fear of retribution should it be acknowledged and acted upon (or both). PMID:16696606

  16. Electrostatic Self-Assembled Multilayers from Side Chain Azo Polyelectrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庹新林; 陈峥; 邓永红; 王晓工; 刘德山

    2002-01-01

    Photoresponsive behavior and self-assembly properties of three side chain azo polyelectrolytes, poly (2-(4-phenylazophenoxy) ethanol-co-acrylic acid) (PPAPE), poly (2-(4-(4′-nitrophenylazo) phenoxy) ethanol-co-acrylic acid) (PNAPE), and poly (2-(4-(4′-ethoxyphenylazo) phenoxy) ethanol-co-acrylic acid) (PEAPE), were studied. These polyelectrolytes with different degrees of functionalization of azo chromophores were fabricated into nano-composite multilayers using two types of dipping solutions through a layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembling process. Results show that the ratio between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and H2O significantly influences the photoresponsive behavior of PNAPE in THF-H2O mixture. The THF-H2O dipping solution, used in this work for self-assembly of hydrophobic polyelectrolytes, is proved to be as applicable as aqueous dipping solution for normal self-assembly of hydrophobic polyelectrolytes. However, significant differences in the multilayer growth between the two systems were also observed, which resulted from the remarkable difference of the existing forms of the polyelectrolytes in these two dipping solutions.

  17. Demand-side management pricing options in electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989 Ontario Hydro implemented optional time-of-use (TOU) rates at the wholesale level for all municipal utilities in the province. At the same time, mandatory TOU rates were implemented for large users (customers with loads in excess of 5 MW) served by municipal utilities and Ontario Hydro's direct customers. To fully explore the potential of rate structures as demand-side management (DSM) tools, Ontario Hydro retained a consulting firm to carry out a survey of innovative rate structures in other jurisdications. The survey was intended to identify: the status quo of rate structures in other jurisdictions that were designed specifically to encourage DSM; a profile of the cost basis of the rate structures, for example whether traditional embedded cost of service analyses or contentious methods such as marginal cost pricing were used; whether innovative rates have been successful, and customer reactions and attitudes; and how innovative rates fit into the overall strategy of the utilities. It was found that TOU, interruptible and end-use targeted rates are the rate structures of choice for many utilities. Most are concerned with deferring capacity, reducing peak demand, and shifting load out of peak periods. Most utilities report success with their programs and satisfaction with the present form of the programs. 5 tabs

  18. Acoustic resonance in MEMS scale cylindrical tubes with side branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, John F.; Holthoff, Ellen L.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Marcus, Logan S.

    2014-05-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a useful monitoring technique that is well suited for trace gas detection. This method routinely exhibits detection limits at the parts-per-million (ppm) or parts-per-billion (ppb) level for gaseous samples. PAS also possesses favorable detection characteristics when the system dimensions are scaled to a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) design. One of the central issues related to sensor miniaturization is optimization of the photoacoustic cell geometry, especially in relationship to high acoustical amplification and reduced system noise. Previous work relied on a multiphysics approach to analyze the resonance structures of the MEMS scale photo acoustic cell. This technique was unable to provide an accurate model of the acoustic structure. In this paper we describe a method that relies on techniques developed from musical instrument theory and electronic transmission line matrix methods to describe cylindrical acoustic resonant cells with side branches of various configurations. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the ease and accuracy of this method. All experimental results were within 2% of those predicted by this theory.

  19. Traditional Jewelry on Both Sides of the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chaushev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Ancient times Danube River acts as stabile and almost uncontested Northern border of Bulgarian lands. For a very long period it divides different populations speaking different languages, developing different cultures and political units. In the same times Danube River unites it is both banks by cheap and easy to manage transportation. More than this Danube as a liquid border connects populations from the both banks with Central Europe serving as a vehicle for people, goods, money and ideas. The aim of this article is to explore one particular segment of culture connections - the evolution of traditional jewelry from 19th to early 20th century in the region of Northern Bulgaria and Southern Romania. The focus is on snake or dragon motifs carved on belt buckles originated from both sides of the border. This and related believes and cult practices reveals close cultural and commercial ties crossing Danube River. During my research I came across material that showed that those motifs were found in several Balkan countries (Serbia and Greece. The decoration of this traditional jewelry is typical for the Orient, but it is common among the Christian population of the Balkan Peninsula. It shows that in those times the Danube River was acting mostly as natural, not as a political or cultural border.

  20. Exact single-sided inverse scattering in three-dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Omer, Harun

    2012-01-01

    During the past three years, Wapenaar, Snieder, Broggini and others have developed an algorithm to compute the Green's function for any point inside a medium to points on the surface from measurements on that surface only. Their algorithm is based on focusing an incoming wavefield to a single point in order to create a virtual source at the focus. The procedure has been justified only by heuristic arguments. In this paper I am using simple physical arguments to prove an integral equation for single-sided, higher-dimensional inverse scattering. This integral equation is equivalent to the Wapenaar iteration algorithm. The equation will be exact, including all internal multiple reflections. The derivation makes use of time-invariance but does not use the explicit form of the wave equation. It is therefore not only applicable to the acoustic wave equation, but also to other time-reversal invariant systems. Potential areas include seismology, electronics, microwave and ultrasonic inverse scattering as well as quan...

  1. Solving modified systems with multiple right-hand sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoncini, V.; Gallopoulos, E. [Univ. of Patras (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    In this talk we discuss the iterative solution of large linear systems of the form (A + USV{sup H})X = B, where A is an n x n non-Hermitian matrix, USV{sup H} is a rank-r modification of A and B is of rank s with s, r {much_lt} n. We analyze several approaches that exploit the structure of the coefficient matrix so as to solve the systems more efficiently than if one were to apply a non-hermitian solver to the original systems. In the development of procedures, we take into account the presence of both the low-rank modification and the several right-hand sides. Interesting issues connected to this problem originate from the quest for techniques that accelerate the underlying iterative solvers: preconditioning (e.g. inner-outer iteration strategies), domain decomposition, and continuation methods. Experiments are provided to analyze the behavior of the methods depending on the structure of the rectangular matrices. Preconditioning strategies are explored for an efficient implementation on the transformed systems.

  2. Effects of Moving Side Walls on Confined Granular Packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Chand

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials have numerous industrial and geophysical applications. However, many phenomenon exhibited by granular media are not yet fully explained. Nowadays simulation has emerged as an important tool to investigate the complex properties exhibited by granular media. The influence of side walls movement of a granular column is investigated by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The evolution of stress profile and deflection of vertical stresses is due to different bead sizes, coefficient of friction between grains and confining wall is investigated by using large-scale discrete element MD simulations in 3D. In such a configuration, it is found that apparent mass systemically increases with the increase in diameter of granules. As soon as the wall stops moving, the column attains equilibrium. The stress profiles are in good agreement with the Janssen form for high friction coefficient, while some deviations remain for smaller values of friction coefficient. The wall movement augments the number of particle-wall and particle-particle forces at the Coulomb criterion. The results indicate the variation in shielding of vertical stresses in granular column; it can be attributed to the fiction between the beads and the confining walls of the container.

  3. Blind Cartography for Side Channel Attacks: Cross-Correlation Cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Sauvage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Side channel and fault injection attacks are major threats to cryptographic applications of embedded systems. Best performances for these attacks are achieved by focusing sensors or injectors on the sensible parts of the application, by means of dedicated methods to localise them. Few methods have been proposed in the past, and all of them aim at pinpointing the cryptoprocessor. However it could be interesting to exploit the activity of other parts of the application, in order to increase the attack's efficiency or to bypass its countermeasures. In this paper, we present a localisation method based on cross-correlation, which issues a list of areas of interest within the attacked device. It realizes an exhaustive analysis, since it may localise any module of the device, and not only those which perform cryptographic operations. Moreover, it also does not require a preliminary knowledge about the implementation, whereas some previous cartography methods require that the attacker could choose the cryptoprocessor inputs, which is not always possible. The method is experimentally validated using observations of the electromagnetic near field distribution over a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. The matching between areas of interest and the application layout in the FPGA floorplan is confirmed by correlation analysis.

  4. [Analgesics in geriatric patients. Adverse side effects and interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Pain is a widespread symptom in clinical practice. Older adults and chronically ill patients are particularly affected. In multimorbid geriatric patients, pharmacological pain treatment is an extension of a previously existing multimedication. Besides the efficacy of pain treatment, drug side effects and drug-drug interactions have to be taken into account to minimize the health risk for these patients. Apart from the number of prescriptions, the age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes significantly increase the risk among older adults. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is widespread but NSAIDs have the highest risk of adverse drug reactions and drug interactions. In particular, the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and coagulation systems are affected. Apart from the known toxic effect on the liver (in high doses), paracetamol (acetaminophen) has similar risks although to a lesser degree. According to current data, metamizol is actually better than its reputation suggests. The risk of potential drug interactions seems to be low. Apart from the risk of sedation in combination with other drugs, tramadol and other opioids can induce the serotonin syndrome. Among older adults, especially in the case of polypharmacy, an individualized approach should be considered instead of sticking to the pain management recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in order to minimize drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. PMID:26152872

  5. Aromatic polyesters with photosensitive side chains: Synthesis, characterization and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nechifor Marioara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New aromatic polyesters with photosensitive groups in their pendant chains were prepared from a diphenol carrying as substituent a cinnamoyl group extended with a flexible oxyethyleneoxy spacer and different aromatic dicarboxylic acids via direct polyesterification reaction in the presence of tosyl chloride/pyridine/dimethylformamide system as condensing agent. The resulting polyesters were characterized using Fourier-transform IR, proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance and ultraviolet spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, wide-angle X-ray diffractometry, gel permeation chromatography, viscosity measurement and solubility test. These polyarylates had moderate inherent viscosities ranging from 0.37 to 0.54 dL g-1, good solubility in polar aprotic solvents, and afforded transparent, colorless and apparently tough films by casting from their solutions. Their glass-transition temperatures ranged from 136 to 154°C. All of them did not show significant decomposition below 320°C and retained 38-47 % weight at 700°C in nitrogen atmosphere. The presence of cinnamoyl chromophore endowed these polymers with the ability to react to ultraviolet light which resulted in photodimerization between cinnamoyl side groups upon irradiation at l = 365 nm and cross-linking the polymers chains in the absence of photo-initiators or photo-sensitizers. As a consequence, the polymer films became insoluble in organic solvents.

  6. Massive proteinuria: a possible side effect of pyrantel pamoate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Pietro; Bersani, Iliana; Bottaro, Giorgia; Vitelli, Ottavio; Liberatore, Pio; Gatto, Antonio; del Bufalo, Francesca; Romano, Valerio; Stabile, Achille

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced renal injury represents a frequent clinical entity. The most common drugs associated with acute tubular necrosis are aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, radiocontrast agents, and cyclosporine, but no data exist about the potential renal toxicity due to anthelmintics administration. Anthelmintics are commonly considered quite safe agents, and side effects such as gastrointestinal, neurologic, hematologic, or hepatic injury have been only rarely described. We report a 4-year-old boy with persistent massive proteinuria without any other symptoms/signs suggesting nephrotic syndrome (NS). The only relevant anamnestic data was the administration of pyrantel pamoate due to oxyuriasis 7 days before the proteinuria development. The patient was affected by NS diagnosed 6 months before and treated with a 12-week course of corticosteroids. During follow-up, carried out at 3 and 6 months after discharge, he did not show further episodes of proteinuria, and no clinical symptoms/signs suggesting a relapse of NS were ever detected. Considering that the proteinuria observed in our patient spontaneously disappeared after 10 days without any treatment, apart from the interruption of the anthelmintic therapy, we would like to alert pediatricians about the possible occurrence of anthelmintics-related renal complications especially among predisposed patients and to perform a watchful waiting not considering the presence of even massive proteinuria as a certain sign of NS relapse. PMID:21500989

  7. High-Resolution Underwater Mapping Using Side-Scan Sonar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Burguera

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to generate high-resolution sea floor maps using a Side-Scan Sonar(SSS. This is achieved by explicitly taking into account the SSS operation as follows. First, the raw sensor data is corrected by means of a physics-based SSS model. Second, the data is projected to the sea-floor. The errors involved in this projection are thoroughfully analysed. Third, a probabilistic SSS model is defined and used to estimate the probability of each sea-floor region to be observed. This probabilistic information is then used to weight the contribution of each SSS measurement to the map. Because of these models, arbitrary map resolutions can be achieved, even beyond the sensor resolution. Finally, a geometric map building method is presented and combined with the probabilistic approach. The resulting map is composed of two layers. The echo intensity layer holds the most likely echo intensities at each point in the sea-floor. The probabilistic layer contains information about how confident can the user or the higher control layers be about the echo intensity layer data. Experimental results have been conducted in a large subsea region.

  8. High-Resolution Underwater Mapping Using Side-Scan Sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguera, Antoni; Oliver, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to generate high-resolution sea floor maps using a Side-Scan Sonar(SSS). This is achieved by explicitly taking into account the SSS operation as follows. First, the raw sensor data is corrected by means of a physics-based SSS model. Second, the data is projected to the sea-floor. The errors involved in this projection are thoroughfully analysed. Third, a probabilistic SSS model is defined and used to estimate the probability of each sea-floor region to be observed. This probabilistic information is then used to weight the contribution of each SSS measurement to the map. Because of these models, arbitrary map resolutions can be achieved, even beyond the sensor resolution. Finally, a geometric map building method is presented and combined with the probabilistic approach. The resulting map is composed of two layers. The echo intensity layer holds the most likely echo intensities at each point in the sea-floor. The probabilistic layer contains information about how confident can the user or the higher control layers be about the echo intensity layer data. Experimental results have been conducted in a large subsea region.

  9. Theca interna: the other side of bovine follicular atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Leigh J; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Dharmarajan, Arun M; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2004-10-01

    Currently, histological classifications of ovarian follicular atresia are almost exclusively based on the morphology of the membrana granulosa without reference to the theca interna. Atresia in the bovine small antral ovarian follicle has been redefined into antral or basal atresia where cell death commences initially within antral or basal regions of the membrana granulosa, respectively. To examine cell death in the theca interna in the two types of atretic follicles, bovine ovaries were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Follicles were classified as healthy, antral atretic, or basal atretic. Follicle diameter was recorded and sections stained with lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia to identify endothelial cells or with an antibody to cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage to identify steroidogenic cells and combined with TUNEL labeling to identify dead cells. The numerical density of steroidogenic cells within the theca interna was significantly reduced (P basal atretic follicles in comparison with other follicles. Cell death was greater in both endothelial cells (P basal atretic follicles compared with healthy and antral atretic follicles. Thus, we conclude that the theca interna is susceptible to cell death early in atresia, particularly in basal atretic follicles. PMID:15175236

  10. Identification of side population cells in chicken embryonic gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelard, Elodie; Raucci, Franca; Montillet, Guillaume; Pain, Bertrand

    2015-02-01

    The side population (SP) phenotype, defined by the ability of a cell to efflux fluorescent dyes such as Hoechst, is common to several stem/progenitor cell types. In avian species, SP phenotype has been identified in pubertal and adult testes, but nothing is known about its expression during prenatal development of a male gonad. In this study, we characterized the Hoechst SP phenotype via the cytofluorimetric analysis of disaggregated testes on different days of chicken embryonic development. Male prenatal gonads contained a fraction of SP cells at each stage analyzed. At least two main SP fractions, named P3 and P4, were identified. The percentage of P3 fraction decreased as development proceeds, whereas P4 cell number was not affected by gonad growth. Functional inhibition of BCRP1 channel membrane using Verapamil and/or Ko143 showed that P3, but not P4 phenotype, was dependent on BCRP1 activity. Molecular analysis of both P3- and P4-sorted fractions revealed a differential RNA expression pattern, indicating that P3 cells mainly contained germinal stem cell markers, whereas P4 was preferentially composed of both Sertoli and Leydig cell progenitor markers. Finally, these findings provided evidence that the SP phenotype is a common feature of both germ and somatic cells detected in chicken developing testis.

  11. Experimental studies of vertical mixing patterns in open channel flow generated by two delta wings side-by-side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Garrett

    Open channel raceway bioreactors are a low-cost system used to grow algae for biofuel production. Microalgae have many promises when it comes to renewable energy applications, but many economic hurdles must be overcome to achieve an economic fuel source that is competitive with petroleum-based fuels. One way to make algae more competitive is to improve vertical mixing in algae raceway bioreactors. Previous studies show that mixing may be increased by the addition of mechanisms such as airfoils. The circulation created helps move the algae from the bottom to top surface for necessary photosynthetic exchange. This improvement in light utilization allowed a certain study to achieve 2.2-2.4 times the amount of biomass relative to bioreactors without airfoils. This idea of increasing mixing in open channel raceways has been the focus of the Utah State University (USU) raceway hydraulics group. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are all methods used at USU to computationally and experimentally quantify mixing in an open channel raceway. They have also been used to observe the effects of using delta wings (DW) in increasing vertical mixing in the raceway. These efforts showed great potential in the DW in increasing vertical mixing in the open channel bioreactor. However, this research begged the question, does the DW help increase algae growth? Three algae growth experiments comparing growth in a raceway with and without DW were completed. These experiments were successful, yielding an average 27.1% increase in the biomass. The DW appears to be a promising method of increasing algae biomass production. The next important step was to quantify vertical mixing and understand flow patterns due to two DWs side-by-side. Raceway channels are wider as they increase in size; and arrays of DWs will need to be installed to achieve quality mixing throughout the bioreactor. Quality mixing was attained for

  12. Exploring Tradeoffs in Demand-side and Supply-side Management of Urban Water Resources using Agent-based Modeling and Evolutionary Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta, L.; Berglund, E. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Urban water supply systems may be managed through supply-side and demand-side strategies, which focus on water source expansion and demand reductions, respectively. Supply-side strategies bear infrastructure and energy costs, while demand-side strategies bear costs of implementation and inconvenience to consumers. To evaluate the performance of demand-side strategies, the participation and water use adaptations of consumers should be simulated. In this study, a Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) framework is developed to simulate consumer agents that change their consumption to affect the withdrawal from the water supply system, which, in turn influences operational policies and long-term resource planning. Agent-based models are encoded to represent consumers and a policy maker agent and are coupled with water resources system simulation models. The CAS framework is coupled with an evolutionary computation-based multi-objective methodology to explore tradeoffs in cost, inconvenience to consumers, and environmental impacts for both supply-side and demand-side strategies. Decisions are identified to specify storage levels in a reservoir that trigger (1) increases in the volume of water pumped through inter-basin transfers from an external reservoir and (2) drought stages, which restrict the volume of water that is allowed for residential outdoor uses. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for Arlington, Texas, water supply system to identify non-dominated strategies for an historic drought decade. Results demonstrate that pumping costs associated with maximizing environmental reliability exceed pumping costs associated with minimizing restrictions on consumer water use.

  13. Different K+–Na+ inter-diffusion kinetics between the air side and tin side of an ion-exchanged float aluminosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The difference between the diffusion characteristics of K+–Na+ ions in float glass on the air and tin sides was first demonstrated. ► The diffusion coefficient is more sensitive to temperature and time on the tin than on the air sides. ► The activation energy on the tin side is about three times larger than that on the air side. - Abstract: The difference between the inter-diffusion kinetics of K+–Na+ in the air and tin sides of an ion-exchanged float aluminosilicate glass was investigated as a function of the exchange temperature and time. The potassium concentration profiles of the ion-exchanged glass surface were experimentally measured by electron microprobe analysis, and the diffusion coefficient was calculated by the Boltzmann-Montano approach. On the tin side of the ion-exchanged glass, the diffusion of K+–Na+ ions is hindered by tin. The diffusion coefficient is also more sensitive to temperature and time on the tin than on the air sides. The results would be useful in guiding the strengthening process of float glass by one step ion-exchange or two step ion-exchange to obtain engineered stress profile (ESP) glasses.

  14. Electropolymerization of Polypyrrole Films in Aqueous Solution with Side-Coupler Agent with Side-Coupler Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-López, H. M.; Aguilar-Hernandez, J. R.; Garcia-Borquez, A.; Hernandez-Perez, M. A.; Contreras-Puente, G. S.

    A preliminary study of the electrochemical synthesis and optical characterizacion of the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) was carried out, in order to understand the in-situ electropoliymerization of PPy. Electropolymerization was performed in a three electrode cell by using freshly prepared monomer solutions in presence of a side-coupler agent to hydrophobic groups: sodium dodecylsulfate (DDS), in order to improve the adherence polymer film to the surface of the working electrode. The adherence of the polymer film promotes either the ionic or electronic transport at the interface solution-working electrode. A polar chemical reactive, sodium tetrafluoroborate, TFB, was also used. In order to taylor and optimize the physical properties of the PPy films we varied some parameters during the electropolymerization: the monomer concentration, the electrolyte concentration, pH of the solution and the cell potential. This allowed us to control the oxidation level (impurification or doping) of the polymer. The obtained PPy films were characterized by using UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy. Moreover through scanning electronic microscopy we were able to observe well developed helical structures of polypyrrole.

  15. US-guided percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: comparative study of right-sided and left-sided approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Cha, Soon Joo [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    To compare the feasibility and safety of US-guided right and left percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Between March 1998 and May 1999, 32 patients underwent 36 US-guided right or left PTBD in referred order, alternatively. The causes of biliary obstruction were bile duct stone (n=2), bile duct carcinoma (n=10), carcinoma of the pancreas (n=9), GB carcinoma (n=7), metastasis to the porta hepatis (n=3), and carcinoma of the ampulla of vater (n=1). Technical success, procedure time, fluoroscopic time, and complications were evaluated. PTBD was successful in 94% of both right and left approach. The average procedure time was 9.7 {+-}3.8 min. in the right approach and 9.6 {+-}3.1 min. in the left approach, respectively (p=0.794). The average fluoroscopic time were 3.9{+-}2.4 min. in the right approach and 3.8{+-}2.2 min. in the left approach (p=0.892). A major complication, bile peritonitis, occurred in one of 16 patient with right-sided approach. Minor complications occurred in six right (2 hemobilia, 3 tube malfunction, 1 cholangitis) and three left (1 hemobilia, 1 fever, 1cholangitis) PTBD. There were no significant difference in the complication rates between right and left PTBD (p=0.729). There were no significant differences in feasibility and safety in US-guided right and left PTBD.

  16. GrayStarServer: Server-side spectrum synthesis with a browser-based client-side user interface

    CERN Document Server

    Short, C Ian

    2016-01-01

    I present GrayStarServer (GSS), a stellar atmospheric modeling and spectrum synthesis code of pedagogical accuracy that is accessible in any web browser on commonplace computational devices and that runs on a time-scale of a few seconds. The addition of spectrum synthesis annotated with line identifications extends the functionality and pedagogical applicability of GSS beyond that of its predecessor, GrayStar3 (GS3). The spectrum synthesis is based on a line list acquired from the NIST atomic spectra database, and the GSS post-processing and user interface (UI) client allows the user to inspect the plain text ASCII version of the line list, as well as to apply macroscopic broadening. Unlike GS3, GSS carries out the physical modeling on the server side in Java, and communicates with the JavaScript and HTML client via an asynchronous HTTP request. I also describe other improvements beyond GS3 such as more realistic modeling physics and use of the HTML element for higher quality plotting and rendering of result...

  17. Double-Sided Opportunities Using Chemical Lift-Off Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Anne M; Liao, Wei-Ssu; Weiss, Paul S

    2016-08-16

    We discuss the origins, motivation, invention, development, applications, and future of chemical lift-off lithography, in which a specified pattern of a self-assembled monolayer is removed, i.e., lifted off, using a reactive, patterned stamp that is brought into contact with the monolayer. For Au substrates, this process produces a supported, patterned monolayer of Au on the stamp in addition to the negative pattern in the original molecular monolayer. Both the patterned molecular monolayer on the original substrate and the patterned supported metal monolayer on the stamp are useful as materials and for further applications in sensing and other areas. Chemical lift-off lithography effectively lowers the barriers to and costs of high-resolution, large-area nanopatterning. On the patterned monolayer side, features in the single-nanometer range can be produced across large (square millimeter or larger) areas. Patterns smaller than the original stamp feature sizes can be produced by controlling the degree of contact between the stamp and the lifted-off monolayer. We note that this process is different than conventional lift-off processes in lithography in that chemical lift-off lithography removes material, whereas conventional lift-off is a positive-tone patterning method. Chemical lift-off lithography is in some ways similar to microtransfer printing. Chemical lift-off lithography has critical advantages in the preparation of biocapture surfaces because the molecules left behind are exploited to space and to orient functional(ized) molecules. On the supported metal monolayer side, a new two-dimensional material has been produced. The useful important chemical properties of Au (vis-à-vis functionalization with thiols) are retained, but the electronic and optical properties of bulk Au or even Au nanoparticles are not. These metal monolayers do not quench excitation and may be useful in optical measurements, particularly in combination with selective binding due to

  18. Molecular Etiology of Hereditary Single-Side Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Hye; Kim, Ah Reum; Choi, Hyun Seok; Kim, Min Young; Chun, Eun Hi; Oh, Seung-Ha; Choi, Byung Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL)/single-side deafness (SSD) is a frequently encountered disability in children. The etiology of a substantial portion of USNHL/SSD still remains unknown, and genetic causes have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, the authors evaluated the heritability of USNHL/SSD. The authors sequentially recruited 50 unrelated children with SSD. For an etiologic diagnosis, we performed a rigorous review on the phenotypes of family members of all children and conducted, if necessary, molecular genetic tests including targeted exome sequencing of 129 deafness genes. Among the 50 SSD children cohort, the authors identify 4 (8%) unrelated SSD probands from 4 families (SH136, SB173, SB177, and SB199) with another hearing impaired family members. Notably, all 4 probands in our cohort with a familial history of SSD also have pigmentary abnormalities such as brown freckles or premature gray hair within first degree relatives, which may indicate that genes whose products are involved with pigmentary disorder could be candidates for heritable SSD. Indeed, SH136 and SB199 turned out to segregate a mutation in MITF and PAX3, respectively, leading to a molecular diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome (WS). We report, for the first time in the literature, a significant heritability of pediatric SSD. There is a strong association between the heritability of USNHL/SSD and the pigmentary abnormality, shedding a new light on the understanding of the molecular basis of heritable USNHL/SSD. In case of children with congenital SSD, it would be mandatory to rigorously screen pigmentary abnormalities. WS should also be included in the differential diagnosis of children with USNHL/SSD, especially in a familial form. PMID:26512583

  19. Flow Cytometry of the Side Population: Tips & Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Sales-Pardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Side Population (SP has become an important hallmark for the definition of the stem cell compartment, especially in the detection of these cells and in their physical isolation by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. SP cells are CD34neg and were discovered using ultraviolet excitation based on the efflux of Hoechst 33342 (Ho342. Although the method works as originally described, we believe that this method is difficult for most investigators. First, because the ability to discriminate SP cells is based on the differential retention of Ho342 during a functional assay; second, because of the difficulties in setting the right experimental and acquisition conditions; and third, because the analysis of the acquired data requires an extensive expertise on flow cytometry to accurately detect the SP events. Methods: First of all and mainly for the SP application, the laser beam paths were exhaustively checked to ensure the lowest coefficients of variation. Blood suspensions were prepared by erythrocyte lysis with ammonium chloride and hematopoietic cells were labeled with Ho342. Results: The Ho342 concentration and the staining procedure are critical for the optimal resolution of the SP cells. Although UV laser alignment is very important to resolve the dim tail that outlines the SP, the problem with Ho342 excitation is not the Hoechst Blue emission, but rather the Hoechst Red's (because of the weak emission. Conclusions: Each laboratory must establish its own expected ranges based on its instrument and results may vary slightly due to instrument differences such as the narrowness of the band pass filters, laser power, laser emission wavelength, nozzle type, differential of pressure, light collection system (cuvette versus jet-in-air and beam shaping optics.

  20. Mars Express Observations During Comet Siding Spring Mars Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, H.; Witasse, O. G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bibring, J. P.; Giuranna, M.; Gurnett, D. A.; Holmstrom, M.; Jaumann, R.; Montmessin, F.; Morgan, D. D.; Orosei, R.

    2014-12-01

    The fly-by of Mars by Comet Siding Spring provides an absolutely unique opportunity both to study at close range an Oort Cloud comet, and to study from short distance and even in situ, the interaction of cometary gas and dust with a planetary atmosphere. Mars Express has been in orbit around Mars since December 2003 and the spacecraft and its instruments are still performing very well. After an initial worry about the safety of the spacecraft it has now been established that the risk for damage to the spacecraft is acceptable. A small phasing of the orbit was done in June in order to "hide" the spacecraft behind Mars during the time of the closest approach of the comet. Apart from that no special precautions are planned and a full set of observations of the comet and of Mars will be performed during the days around the closest approach. The cometary activity is being closely monitored and if new information of a possible increased risk appears, a safe spacecraft pointing and switching off non-essential instruments and sub-systems can be performed at a late stage. The planned observations include imaging and taking spectral data of the comet nucleus and the coma, stellar occultation measurements through the coma, and observations of the Martian atmosphere and ionosphere. In situ observations of energetic particles and local plasma density measurements will be performed at several occasions and topside ionospheric sounding will be done. Detection of direct impacts on the spacecraft will be attempted as well as optical detection of meteor showers in the Martian atmosphere and remote observations of the hydrogen corona. Mars Express instruments involved in the observations include HRSC, SpicaM, Omega, Aspera, MARSIS and PFS.