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Sample records for c5a anaphylatoxin receptor

  1. Structural and functional characterization of human and murine C5a anaphylatoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Janus Asbjørn; Yatime, Laure, E-mail: lay@mb.au.dk; Larsen, Casper [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Petersen, Steen Vang [Aarhus University, Bartholin Building, Wilhelm Meyers Allé 4, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Klos, Andreas [Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Andersen, Gregers Rom, E-mail: lay@mb.au.dk [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2014-06-01

    The structure of the human C5aR antagonist, C5a-A8, reveals a three-helix bundle conformation similar to that observed for human C5a-desArg, whereas murine C5a and C5a-desArg both form the canonical four-helix bundle. These conformational differences are discussed in light of the differential C5aR activation properties observed for the human and murine complement anaphylatoxins across species. Complement is an ancient part of the innate immune system that plays a pivotal role in protection against invading pathogens and helps to clear apoptotic and necrotic cells. Upon complement activation, a cascade of proteolytic events generates the complement effectors, including the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Signalling through their cognate G-protein coupled receptors, C3aR and C5aR, leads to a wide range of biological events promoting inflammation at the site of complement activation. The function of anaphylatoxins is regulated by circulating carboxypeptidases that remove their C-terminal arginine residue, yielding C3a-desArg and C5a-desArg. Whereas human C3a and C3a-desArg adopt a canonical four-helix bundle fold, the conformation of human C5a-desArg has recently been described as a three-helix bundle. Here, the crystal structures of an antagonist version of human C5a, A8{sup Δ71–73}, and of murine C5a and C5a-desArg are reported. Whereas A8{sup Δ71–73} adopts a three-helix bundle conformation similar to human C5a-desArg, the two murine proteins form a four-helix bundle. A cell-based functional assay reveals that murine C5a-desArg, in contrast to its human counterpart, exerts the same level of activition as murine C5a on its cognate receptor. The role of the different C5a conformations is discussed in relation to the differential activation of C5a receptors across species.

  2. DMPD: Functions of anaphylatoxin C5a in rat liver: direct and indirect actions onnonparenchymal and parenchymal cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11367531 Functions of anaphylatoxin C5a in rat liver: direct and indirect actions o...ol. 2001 Mar;1(3):469-81. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Functions of anaphylatoxin C5a in rat liver: di...31 Title Functions of anaphylatoxin C5a in rat liver: direct and indirect actions onnonparenchymal and paren

  3. Platelet bound oxLDL shows an inverse correlation with plasma anaphylatoxin C5a in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nording, Henry; Giesser, Annika; Patzelt, Johannes; Sauter, Reinhard; Emschermann, Frederic; Stellos, Konstantinos; Gawaz, Meinrad; Langer, Harald F

    2016-09-01

    Both oxidized lipids as well as the complement system contribute to atherothrombosis. The expression of complement receptors correlates with the expression of platelet activation markers, and platelet bound oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) modulates platelet function. In the present study, we investigated the relationship of markers of complement activation, the anaphylatoxins C5a and C3a, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Two hundred and seven patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) were analyzed in this study. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, plasma levels of oxLDL, C3a, and C5a were measured. Moreover, we assessed platelet bound oxLDL by flow cytometry. The overall level of C5a in the troponin negative group (stable angina (SA) and unstable angina (UA)) compared to the troponin positive group (non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)) did not differ significantly (62.7 ± 32.4 ng/ml versus 65.8 ± 40.3 ng/ml). While C5a and C3a showed a significant correlation with each other (r = 0.25, p < 0.001), there was no statistically significant relationship between C3a and platelet bound oxLDL (r = 0.06, p = 0.37). Furthermore, plasma oxLDL did not correlate with either C3a or C5a. However, we observed a moderate, yet significant negative correlation between plasma C5a and platelet bound oxLDL (r = -0.15, p = 0.04). Partial correlation analysis correcting for the presence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), troponin status or the subgroups SA, UA, NSTEMI, or STEMI did not alter this correlation substantially. Interestingly, flow cytometric analysis of human platelets showed increased expression of C5aR and P-selectin after in vitro stimulation with oxLDL. In conclusion, the complement anaphylatoxin C5a shows an inverse correlation with platelet bound oxLDL. The relationship of oxidized lipids to particular complement components may add to the platelet-lipid interplay in atherogenesis and

  4. Allosterism in human complement component 5a ((h)C5a): a damper of C5a receptor (C5aR) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Soumendra; Sahoo, Amita Rani; Majhi, Bharat Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The phenomena of allosterism continues to advance the field of drug discovery, by illuminating gainful insights for many key processes, related to the structure-function relationships in proteins and enzymes, including the transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), both in normal as well as in the disease states. However, allosterism is completely unexplored in the native protein ligands, especially when a small covalent change significantly modulates the pharmacology of the protein ligands toward the signaling axes of the GPCRs. One such example is the human C5a ((h)C5a), the potent cationic anaphylatoxin that engages C5aR and C5L2 to elicit numerous immunological and non-immunological responses in humans. From the recently available structure-function data, it is clear that unlike the mouse C5a ((m)C5a), the (h)C5a displays conformational heterogeneity. However, the molecular basis of such conformational heterogeneity, otherwise allosterism in (h)C5a and its precise contribution toward the overall C5aR signaling is not known. This study attempts to decipher the functional role of allosterism in (h)C5a, by exploring the inherent conformational dynamics in (m)C5a, (h)C5a and in its point mutants, including the proteolytic mutant des-Arg(74)-(h)C5a. Prima facie, the comparative molecular dynamics study, over total 500 ns, identifies Arg(74)-Tyr(23) and Arg(37)-Phe(51) "cation-π" pairs as the molecular "allosteric switches" on (h)C5a that potentially functions as a damper of C5aR signaling.

  5. New insights for C5a and C5a receptors in sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwei eGao; Chunguang eYan

    2012-01-01

    The complement system plays a central role in inflammation and immunity. Among the complement activation products, C5a is one of the most potent inflammatory peptides with a broad spectrum of functions. There is strong evidence for complement activation including elevated plasma level of C5a in humans and animals with sepsis. C5a exerts its effects through the C5a receptors. Of the two receptors that bind C5a, the C5aR (CD88) is known to mediate signaling activity, whereas the function of t...

  6. Expression of anaphylatoxin receptors on platelets in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, J; Mueller, K A L; Breuning, S; Karathanos, A; Schleicher, R; Seizer, P; Gawaz, M; Langer, H F; Geisler, T

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of components of the complement system or of its receptors has been postulated as a concept for primary and secondary prevention in atherosclerosis and was applied in clinical trials. Although the anaphylatoxin-receptors C3aR and C5aR are commonly associated with inflammatory cells, in vitro studies suggested their expression also on platelets. Expression levels of C3aR and C5aR were measured by flow cytometry in a collective of 302 patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) including patients with stable CAD (n = 152), unstable angina (n = 54), acute myocardial infarction (AMI; Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, n = 70, ST elevation MI, n = 26) or healthy controls (n = 21). Patients with stable CAD, unstable angina or AMI had significantly higher expression of C5aR on platelets in comparison to healthy controls (MFI 14.68 (5.2), 14.56 (5.18) and 13.34 (4.52) versus 10.68 (3.1)); p  0.001 for C3aR, r = 0.76 for C5aR, p < 0.001). Likewise, we observed a positive correlation of C3aR with other molecules associated with platelet activation such as SDF-1. In summary, we observed a positive correlation between the expression of anaphylatoxin-receptors C3aR and C5aR with platelet activation in patients with CAD. Further investigations are needed to study the clinical and mechanistic relevance of these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. C5a negatively regulates toll-like receptor 4-induced immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawlisch, Heiko; Belkaid, Yasmine; Baelder, Ralf; Hildeman, David; Gerard, Craig; Köhl, Jörg

    2005-04-01

    The complement system and the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are two central arms of innate immunity that are critical to host defense as well as the development of adaptive immunity. Most pathogens activate both complement and TLRs, suggesting the potential for crosstalk between the two systems. We show here that the complement-derived C5a anaphylatoxin negatively regulates TLR4- and CD40-induced synthesis of IL-12 family cytokines (IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27) from inflammatory macrophages (M phi s) by extracellular signal-regulated kinase- and phosphoinositide 3 kinase-dependent pathways. This decreased cytokine response translates into a decreased T helper type 1 (Th1) response in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, we found enhanced Th1 immunity in C5a receptor-deficient mice, something that conferred protection from Leishmania major infection. Our findings identify the negative impact of C5a on IL-12 family cytokines as an important mechanism for regulating Th1 polarization in response to innate and adaptive immune network activation.

  8. The complement receptor C5aR1 contributes to renal damage but protects the heart in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sebastian; Rosendahl, Alva; Czesla, Daniel; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Stahl, Rolf A K; Ehmke, Heimo; Kurts, Christian; Zipfel, Peter F; Köhl, Jörg; Wenzel, Ulrich O

    2016-06-01

    Adaptive and innate immune responses contribute to hypertension and hypertensive end-organ damage. Here, we determined the role of anaphylatoxin C5a, a major inflammatory effector of the innate immune system that is generated in response to complement activation, in hypertensive end-organ damage. For this purpose, we assessed the phenotype of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1)-deficient mice in ANG II-induced renal and cardiac injury. Expression of C5aR1 on infiltrating and resident renal as well as cardiac cells was determined using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-C5aR1 reporter knockin mouse. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocytes isolated from the kidney of GFP-C5aR1 reporter mice showed that 28% of CD45-positive cells expressed C5aR1. Dendritic cells were identified as the major C5aR1-expressing population (88.5%) followed by macrophages and neutrophils. Using confocal microscopy, we detected C5aR1 in the kidney mainly on infiltrating cells. In the heart, only infiltrating cells stained C5aR1 positive. To evaluate the role of C5aR1 deficiency in hypertensive injury, an aggravated model of hypertension was used. Unilateral nephrectomy was performed followed by infusion of ANG II (1.5 ng·g(-1)·min(-1)) and salt in wild-type (n = 34) and C5aR1-deficient mice (n = 32). C5aR1-deficient mice exhibited less renal injury, as evidenced by significantly reduced albuminuria. In contrast, cardiac injury was accelerated with significantly increased cardiac fibrosis and heart weight in C5aR1-deficient mice after ANG II infusion. No effect was found on blood pressure. In summary, the C5a:C5aR1 axis drives end-organ damage in the kidney but protects from the development of cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in experimental ANG II-induced hypertension. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Deletion of the complement C5a receptor alleviates the severity of acute pneumococcal otitis media following influenza A virus infection in mice.

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    Hua Hua Tong

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that influenza A virus (IAV promotes adherence, colonization, and superinfection by S. pneumoniae (Spn and contributes to the pathogenesis of otitis media (OM. The complement system is a critical innate immune defense against both pathogens. To assess the role of the complement system in the host defense and the pathogenesis of acute pneumococcal OM following IAV infection, we employed a well-established transtympanically-induced mouse model of acute pneumococcal OM. We found that antecedent IAV infection enhanced the severity of acute pneumococcal OM. Mice deficient in complement C1qa (C1qa-/- or factor B (Bf -/- exhibited delayed viral and bacterial clearance from the middle ear and developed significant mucosal damage in the eustachian tube and middle ear. This indicates that both the classical and alternative complement pathways are critical for the oto-immune defense against acute pneumococcal OM following influenza infection. We also found that Spn increased complement activation following IAV infection. This was characterized by sustained increased levels of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a in serum and middle ear lavage samples. In contrast, mice deficient in the complement C5a receptor (C5aR demonstrated enhanced bacterial clearance and reduced severity of OM. Our data support the concept that C5a-C5aR interactions play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute pneumococcal OM following IAV infection. It is possible that targeting the C5a-C5aR axis might prove useful in attenuating acute pneumococcal OM in patients with influenza infection.

  10. C5a receptor deficiency alters energy utilization and fat storage.

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    Christian Roy

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of whole body C5a receptor (C5aR deficiency on energy metabolism and fat storage.Male wildtype (WT and C5aR knockout (C5aRKO mice were fed a low fat (CHOW or a high fat high sucrose diet-induced obesity (DIO diet for 14 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured weekly. Indirect calorimetry, dietary fatload clearance, insulin and glucose tolerance tests were also evaluated. Liver, muscle and adipose tissue mRNA gene expression were measured by RT-PCR.At week one and 12, C5aRKO mice on DIO had increased oxygen consumption. After 12 weeks, although food intake was comparable, C5aRKO mice had lower body weight (-7% CHOW, -12% DIO as well as smaller gonadal (-38% CHOW, -36% DIO and inguinal (-29% CHOW, -30% DIO fat pads than their WT counterparts. Conversely, in WT mice, C5aR was upregulated in DIO vs CHOW diets in gonadal adipose tissue, muscle and liver, while C5L2 mRNA expression was lower in C5aRKO on both diet. Furthermore, blood analysis showed lower plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels in both C5aRKO groups, with faster postprandial triglyceride clearance after a fatload. Additionally, C5aRKO mice showed lower CD36 expression in gonadal and muscle on both diets, while DGAT1 expression was higher in gonadal (CHOW and liver (CHOW and DIO and PPARγ was increased in muscle and liver.These observations point towards a role (either direct or indirect for C5aR in energy expenditure and fat storage, suggesting a dual role for C5aR in metabolism as well as in immunity.

  11. Reduced expression of C5a receptors on neutrophils from cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Sørensen, O; Leslie, R

    1998-01-01

    MLP was tested by measuring migration and exocytosis of myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin. RESULTS: C5a mean fluorescence on neutrophils from neonates was significantly lower (22.4 (SD 3.5)) than in adult controls (31.5 (3.1)). Neutrophils from neonates migrated poorly towards both C5a and fMLP compared with those...... from adult controls. Exocytosis of myeloperoxidase, but not lactoferrin from neonatal neutrophils stimulated with C5a, was significantly lower than in adult controls. fMLP stimulation, on the other hand, resulted in significantly higher exocytosis in neonates. CONCLUSION: The lower expression of C5a...... receptors on neutrophils from neonates could be related to reduced C5a mediated exocytosis of myeloperoxidase....

  12. Enrichment of C5a-C5aR axis predicts poor postoperative prognosis of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Wei; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiajun; Xia, Yu; Bai, Qi; Xiong, Ying; Qu, Yang; Long, Qilai; Xu, Jiejie; Guo, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Anaphylatoxin C5a and its receptor C5aR on cancer cells constitute a vital axis to cancer progression. In this study, we measured C5aR level by immunohistochemistry in the same cohort of our previous C5a research, and C5a-C5aR axis status was determined by synthesizing C5a and C5aR data. C5aR was an adverse independent prognostic factor for ccRCC patients. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed the unique position of both C5a and C5aR high population in postoperative survival, based on which patients...

  13. Expression and function of C5a receptor in a fatal anaphylaxis after honey bee sting.

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    Töro, Klára; Borka, Katalin; Kardos, Magdolna; Kristóf, István; Sótonyi, Péter

    2011-03-01

    The mechanisms leading to death from anaphylaxis after insect sting involve antigen cross-linkage of antibody molecules that activate immunoglobulin receptors on inflammatory cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the pathomorphology and the expression of C5aR in fatal anaphylaxis in a patient after a fatal insect sting. A 38-year-old women was stung by a honeybee. C5R1 expression was detected in many dilated capillaries in the lungs. Pulmonary epithelial cells did not bind the monoclonal antibody for C5R1; however, intensive cytoplasmic staining was detected in endothelial cells. The findings of this case provide evidence for an active role of complement in fatal anaphylaxis elicited by bee venom. C5aR detection could be useful in the identification of sudden death cases because of unwitnessed fatal insect sting cases. Authors can recommend this immunohistochemical analysis on all sudden unexpected deaths outdoors where a possible bee sting might occur. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Randomized Trial of C5a Receptor Inhibitor Avacopan in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

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    Jayne, David R W; Bruchfeld, Annette N; Harper, Lorraine; Schaier, Matthias; Venning, Michael C; Hamilton, Patrick; Burst, Volker; Grundmann, Franziska; Jadoul, Michel; Szombati, István; Tesař, Vladimír; Segelmark, Mårten; Potarca, Antonia; Schall, Thomas J; Bekker, Pirow

    2017-09-01

    Alternative C activation is involved in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis. However, glucocorticoids used as treatment contribute to the morbidity and mortality of vasculitis. We determined whether avacopan (CCX168), an orally administered, selective C5a receptor inhibitor, could replace oral glucocorticoids without compromising efficacy. In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, adults with newly diagnosed or relapsing vasculitis received placebo plus prednisone starting at 60 mg daily (control group), avacopan (30 mg, twice daily) plus reduced-dose prednisone (20 mg daily), or avacopan (30 mg, twice daily) without prednisone. All patients received cyclophosphamide or rituximab. The primary efficacy measure was the proportion of patients achieving a ≥50% reduction in Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score by week 12 and no worsening in any body system. We enrolled 67 patients, 23 in the control and 22 in each of the avacopan groups. Clinical response at week 12 was achieved in 14 of 20 (70.0%) control patients, 19 of 22 (86.4%) patients in the avacopan plus reduced-dose prednisone group (difference from control 16.4%; two-sided 90% confidence limit, -4.3% to 37.1%; P=0.002 for noninferiority), and 17 of 21 (81.0%) patients in the avacopan without prednisone group (difference from control 11.0%; two-sided 90% confidence limit, -11.0% to 32.9%; P=0.01 for noninferiority). Adverse events occurred in 21 of 23 (91%) control patients, 19 of 22 (86%) patients in the avacopan plus reduced-dose prednisone group, and 21 of 22 (96%) patients in the avacopan without prednisone group. In conclusion, C5a receptor inhibition with avacopan was effective in replacing high-dose glucocorticoids in treating vasculitis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. C5a interaction with both C5aR and C5L2 receptors is required for production of G-CSF during the acute inflammatory response

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmann, Markus; Haggadone, Mikel D.; Zetoune, Firas S.; Sarma, J Vidya; Ward, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The complement activation product, C5a, is a key factor for regulation of inflammatory responses. C5a and C5adesArg bind to their receptors, C5aR and C5L2, but the functional roles of C5L2 remain controversial. We screened the patterns of 23 inflammatory mediators in cultures of LPS-activated mouse peritoneal elicited macrophages (PEMs) in the presence or absence of recombinant mouse C5a. Production of most mediators studied was suppressed by C5a, whereas G-CSF production was enhanced. G-CSF ...

  16. Experimental Malaria in Pregnancy Induces Neurocognitive Injury in Uninfected Offspring via a C5a-C5a Receptor Dependent Pathway.

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    Chloë R McDonald

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The in utero environment profoundly impacts childhood neurodevelopment and behaviour. A substantial proportion of pregnancies in Africa are at risk of malaria in pregnancy (MIP however the impact of in utero exposure to MIP on fetal neurodevelopment is unknown. Complement activation, in particular C5a, may contribute to neuropathology and adverse outcomes during MIP. We used an experimental model of MIP and standardized neurocognitive testing, MRI, micro-CT and HPLC analysis of neurotransmitter levels, to test the hypothesis that in utero exposure to malaria alters neurodevelopment through a C5a-C5aR dependent pathway. We show that malaria-exposed offspring have persistent neurocognitive deficits in memory and affective-like behaviour compared to unexposed controls. These deficits were associated with reduced regional brain levels of major biogenic amines and BDNF that were rescued by disruption of C5a-C5aR signaling using genetic and functional approaches. Our results demonstrate that experimental MIP induces neurocognitive deficits in offspring and suggest novel targets for intervention.

  17. Association of Immune and Metabolic Receptors C5aR and C5L2 with Adiposity in Women

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    Pegah Poursharifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue receptors C5aR and C5L2 and their heterodimerization/functionality and interaction with ligands C5a and acylation stimulating protein (ASP have been evaluated in cell and rodent studies. Their contribution to obesity factors in humans remains unclear. We hypothesized that C5a receptors, classically required for host defense, are also associated with adiposity. Anthropometry and fasting blood parameters were measured in 136 women divided by body mass index (BMI: normal/overweight (≤30 kg/m2; n = 34, obese I (≤45 kg/m2; n = 33, obese II (≤51 kg/m2; n = 33, and obese III (≤80 kg/m2; n = 36. Subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue C5aR and C5L2 expression were analysed. C5L2 expression was comparable between subcutaneous and omental across all BMI groups. Plasma ASP and ASP/omental C5L2 expression increased with BMI (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, resp.. While plasma C5a was unchanged, C5aR expression decreased with increasing BMI in subcutaneous and omental tissues (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, resp., with subcutaneous omental depots. Omental C5L2/C5aR ratio increased with BMI (P < 0.01 with correlations between C5L2/C5aR and waist circumference, HDL-C, and adiponectin. Tissue and BMI differences in receptors and ligands, particularly in omental, suggest relationship to metabolic disturbances and highlight adipose-immune interactions.

  18. Treatment with the C5a receptor antagonist ADC-1004 reduces myocardial infarction in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model

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    Arheden Håkan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, stimulated by the activated complement factor C5a, have been implicated in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. ADC-1004 is a competitive C5a receptor antagonist that has been shown to inhibit complement related neutrophil activation. ADC-1004 shields the neutrophils from C5a activation before they enter the reperfused area, which could be a mechanistic advantage compared to previous C5a directed reperfusion therapies. We investigated if treatment with ADC-1004, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce infarct size and microvascular obstruction in a large animal myocardial infarct model. Methods In anesthetized pigs (42-53 kg, a percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 minutes, followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Twenty minutes after balloon inflation the pigs were randomized to an intravenous bolus administration of ADC-1004 (175 mg, n = 8 or saline (9 mg/ml, n = 8. Area at risk (AAR was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. Infarct size and microvascular obstruction were evaluated by ex vivo MRI. The observers were blinded to the treatment at randomization and analysis. Results ADC-1004 treatment reduced infarct size by 21% (ADC-1004: 58.3 ± 3.4 vs control: 74.1 ± 2.9%AAR, p = 0.007. Microvascular obstruction was similar between the groups (ADC-1004: 2.2 ± 1.2 vs control: 5.3 ± 2.5%AAR, p = 0.23. The mean plasma concentration of ADC-1004 was 83 ± 8 nM at sacrifice. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood-gas data. Conclusions ADC-1004 treatment reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and represents a novel treatment strategy of myocardial infarct with potential clinical applicability.

  19. THE ROLE OF THE N-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF THE COMPLEMENT FRAGMENT RECEPTOR, C5L2, IN LIGAND BINDING

    OpenAIRE

    Scola, Anne-Marie; Higginbottom, Adrian; Lynda J Partridge; Reid, Robert C.; Woodruff, Trent; Taylor, Stephen M.; Fairlie, David P.; Monk, Peter N.

    2006-01-01

    C5L2 is a new cellular receptor found to interact with the human anaphylatoxins complement factor C5a and its C-terminal cleavage product C5a des Arg. The classical human C5a receptor (C5aR) preferentially binds C5a, with a 10-100-fold lower affinity for C5a des Arg. In contrast, C5L2 binds both ligands with nearly equal affinity. C5aR presents acidic and tyrosine residues in its N-terminus that interact with the core of C5a while a hydrophobic pocket formed by the transmembrane helices inter...

  20. Differential Interaction of the Staphylococcal Toxins Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and γ-Hemolysin CB with Human C5a Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaan, András N; Schiepers, Ariën; de Haas, Carla J C; van Hooijdonk, Davy D J J; Badiou, Cédric; Contamin, Hugues; Vandenesch, François; Lina, Gérard; Gerard, Norma P; Gerard, Craig; van Kessel, Kok P M; Henry, Thomas; van Strijp, Jos A G

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is well adapted to the human host. Evasion of the host phagocyte response is critical for successful infection. The staphylococcal bicomponent pore-forming toxins Panton-Valentine leukocidin LukSF-PV (PVL) and γ-hemolysin CB (HlgCB) target human phagocytes through interaction with the complement receptors C5aR1 and C5aR2. Currently, the apparent redundancy of both toxins cannot be adequately addressed in experimental models of infection because mice are resistant to PVL and HlgCB. The molecular basis for species specificity of the two toxins in animal models is not completely understood. We show that PVL and HlgCB feature distinct activity toward neutrophils of different mammalian species, where activity of PVL is found to be restricted to fewer species than that of HlgCB. Overexpression of various mammalian C5a receptors in HEK cells confirms that cytotoxicity toward neutrophils is driven by species-specific interactions of the toxins with C5aR1. By taking advantage of the species-specific engagement of the toxins with their receptors, we demonstrate that PVL and HlgCB differentially interact with human C5aR1 and C5aR2. In addition, binding studies illustrate that different parts of the receptor are involved in the initial binding of the toxin and the subsequent formation of lytic pores. These findings allow a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of pore formation. Finally, we show that the toxicity of PVL, but not of HlgCB, is neutralized by various C5aR1 antagonists. This study offers directions for the development of improved preclinical models for infection, as well as for the design of drugs antagonizing leukocidin toxicity. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Anaphylatoxins Activate Ca2+, Akt/PI3-Kinase, and FOXO1/FoxP3 in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

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    Catharina Busch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is a main target for complement activation in age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a have been thought to mostly play a role as chemoattractants for macrophages and immune cells; here, we explore whether they trigger RPE alterations. Specifically, we investigated the RPE as a potential immunoregulatory gate, allowing for active changes in the RPE microenvironment in response to complement.DesignIn vitro and in vivo analysis of signaling pathways.MethodsIndividual activities of and interaction between the two anaphylatoxin receptors were tested in cultured RPE cells by fluorescence microscopy, western blot, and immunohistochemistry.Main outcome measuresIntracellular free calcium, protein phosphorylation, immunostaining of tissues/cells, and multiplex secretion assay.ResultsSimilar to immune cells, anaphylatoxin exposure resulted in increases in free cytosolic Ca2+, PI3-kinase/Akt activation, FoxP3 and FOXO1 phosphorylation, and cytokine/chemokine secretion. Differential responses were elicited depending on whether C3a and C5a were co-administered or applied consecutively, and response amplitudes in co-administration experiments ranged from additive to driven by C5a (C3a + C5a = C5a or being smaller than those elicited by C3a alone (C3a + C5a < C3a.ConclusionWe suggest that this combination of integrative signaling between C3aR and C5aR helps the RPE to precisely adopt its immune regulatory function. These data further contribute to our understanding of AMD pathophysiology.

  2. Above and beyond C5a Receptor Targeting by Staphylococcal Leucotoxins: Retrograde Transport of Panton-Valentine Leucocidin and γ-Hemolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann-Meisse, Gaëlle; Prévost, Gilles; Jover, Emmanuel

    2017-01-20

    Various membrane receptors associated with the innate immune response have recently been identified as mediators of the cellular action of Staphylococcus aureus leucotoxins. Two of these, the Panton-Valentine leucotoxin LukS-PV/LukF-PV and the γ-hemolysin HlgC/HlgB, bind the C5a complement-derived peptide receptor. These leucotoxins utilize the receptor to induce intracellular Ca 2+ release from internal stores, other than those activated by C5a. The two leucotoxins are internalized with the phosphorylated receptor, but it is unknown whether they divert retrograde transport of the receptor or follow another pathway. Immunolabeling and confocal microscopic techniques were used to analyze the presence of leucotoxins in endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi. The two leucotoxins apparently followed retrograde transport similar to that of the C5a peptide-activated receptor. However, HlgC/HlgB reached the Golgi network very early, whereas LukS-PV/LukF-PV followed slower kinetics. The HlgC/HlgB leucotoxin remained in neutrophils 6 h after a 10-min incubation of the cells in the presence of the toxin with no signs of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was observed 3 h after neutrophils were incubated with LukS-PV/LukF-PV. Such retrograde transport of leucotoxins provides a novel understanding of the cellular effects initiated by sublytic concentrations of these toxins.

  3. Above and beyond C5a Receptor Targeting by Staphylococcal Leucotoxins: Retrograde Transport of Panton–Valentine Leucocidin and γ-Hemolysin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Zimmermann-Meisse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane receptors associated with the innate immune response have recently been identified as mediators of the cellular action of Staphylococcus aureus leucotoxins. Two of these, the Panton–Valentine leucotoxin LukS-PV/LukF-PV and the γ-hemolysin HlgC/HlgB, bind the C5a complement-derived peptide receptor. These leucotoxins utilize the receptor to induce intracellular Ca2+ release from internal stores, other than those activated by C5a. The two leucotoxins are internalized with the phosphorylated receptor, but it is unknown whether they divert retrograde transport of the receptor or follow another pathway. Immunolabeling and confocal microscopic techniques were used to analyze the presence of leucotoxins in endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi. The two leucotoxins apparently followed retrograde transport similar to that of the C5a peptide-activated receptor. However, HlgC/HlgB reached the Golgi network very early, whereas LukS-PV/LukF-PV followed slower kinetics. The HlgC/HlgB leucotoxin remained in neutrophils 6 h after a 10-min incubation of the cells in the presence of the toxin with no signs of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was observed 3 h after neutrophils were incubated with LukS-PV/LukF-PV. Such retrograde transport of leucotoxins provides a novel understanding of the cellular effects initiated by sublytic concentrations of these toxins.

  4. C5a stimulates the proliferation of breast cancer cells via Akt-dependent RGC-32 gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Hu, Xiao-Bo

    2014-12-01

    Complement system activation contributes to various immune and inflammatory diseases, as well as cancers.However, the role of complement activation in the proliferation of cancer cells is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the consequences of complement activation on the proliferation of breast cancer cells and its possible mechanisms. We focused our study on the potential roles of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a in the proliferation of human breast cancer, as two important immune mediators generated after complement activation. Our study revealed that C5a stimulation, but not C3a, enhanced the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. Moreover, the expression of response gene to complement 32 (RGC-32) was pronounced in breast cancer cells in response to C5a stimulation. Notably, blockade of the C5a receptor markedly reduced the expression of RGC-32 and the proliferation of breast cancer cells stimulated by C5a. Meanwhile, silencing of RGC-32 expression reduced the proliferation of breast cancer cells induced by C5a treatment. Further investigation revealed that Akt activation was involved in C5a-induced RGC-32 expression and breast cancer cell proliferation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that C5a may promote the proliferation of breast cancer cells through Akt1 activation of the RGC-32 gene.

  5. Staphylococcal SSL5 inhibits leukocyte activation by chemokines and anaphylatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestebroer, Jovanka; van Kessel, Kok P M; Azouagh, Hafida; Walenkamp, Annemiek M; Boer, Ingrid G J; Romijn, Roland A; van Strijp, Jos A G; de Haas, Carla J C

    2009-01-08

    Staphylococcus aureus secretes several virulence factors modulating immune responses. Staphylococcal superantigen-like (SSL) proteins are a family of 14 exotoxins with homology to superantigens, but with generally unknown function. Recently, we showed that SSL5 binds to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 dependently of sialyl Lewis X and inhibits P-selectin-dependent neutrophil rolling. Here, we show that SSL5 potently and specifically inhibits leukocyte activation by anaphylatoxins and all classes of chemokines. SSL5 inhibited calcium mobilization, actin polymerization, and chemotaxis induced by chemokines and anaphylatoxins but not by other chemoattractants. Antibody competition experiments showed that SSL5 targets several chemokine and anaphylatoxin receptors. In addition, transfection studies showed that SSL5 binds glycosylated N-termini of all G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) but only inhibits stimuli of protein nature that require the receptor N-terminus for activation. Furthermore, SSL5 increased binding of chemokines to cells independent of chemokine receptors through their common glycosaminoglycan-binding site. Importance of glycans was shown for both GPCR and chemokine binding. Thus, SSL5 is an important immunomodulatory protein of S aureus that targets several crucial, initial stages of leukocyte extravasation. It is therefore a potential new antiinflammatory compound for diseases associated with chemoattractants and their receptors and disorders characterized by excessive recruitment of leukocytes.

  6. Switch moiety in agonist/antagonist dual effect of S19 ribosomal protein dimer on leukocyte chemotactic C5a receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Arjun; Shiokawa, Megumi; Nishimura, Takumasa; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuji; Nishino, Norikazu; Shibuya, Yoko; Yamamoto, Tetsuro

    2003-04-01

    The cross-linked homodimer of S19 ribosomal protein (RP S19) induces monocyte predominant infiltration due to a dual effect on the C5a receptor in leukocyte chemotaxis, agonistic to monocytes and antagonistic to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) (H. Nishiura, Y. Shibuya, T. Yamamoto, Lab Invest 1998, 78:1615-1623). The agonistic ligand moiety was recently determined to be -Leu131-Asp132-Arg133- (Y. Shibuya et al, Am J Pathol 2001, 159:2293-2301). In this study we determined the moiety responsible for the antagonistic function. A C-terminal analogue peptide of RP S19, with 18 residues containing the agonistic ligand moiety as a part, reproduced the dual function in the leukocyte chemotaxis. A C5a analogue peptide attracted PMN as well as monocytes. When C-terminal 12 residues of RP S19 after the agonistic moiety, IAGQVAAANKKH, were connected to the C5a peptide, the chimeric peptide newly obtained the dual function, indicating that the C-terminal portion of RP S19 functions as a converter from the agonist to the antagonist. C-terminal truncation analyses indicated that the C-terminal His was not essential but the next Lys was necessary for the converter function. The homodimer of a mutant RP S19 that was truncated for the C-terminal 4 residues lost the monocyte selectivity in the leukocyte infiltration in vivo as in the case of the leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro. These results indicated that the conversion of the RP S19 dimer from agonist to antagonist of C5a receptor is attributed to the IAGQVAAANKK moiety between Ile134 and Lys144.

  7. C5aR expression in a novel GFP reporter gene knock-in mouse: implications for the mechanism of action of C5aR signaling in T cell immunity1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberger, Jason; Zhou, Lin; Miwa, Takashi; Song, Wen-Chao

    2012-01-01

    C5aR is a G protein-coupled receptor for the anaphylatoxin C5a and mediates many pro-inflammatory reactions. C5aR signaling has also been shown to regulate T cell immunity, but its sites and mechanism of action in this process remains uncertain. Here, we created a green fluorescence protein (GFP) knock-in mouse and used GFP as a surrogate marker to examine C5aR expression. GFP was knocked into the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of C5aR by gene targeting. We show that GFP is expressed highly on Gr-1+CD11b+ cells in the blood, spleen and bone marrow (BM), and moderately on CD11b+F4/80+ circulating leukocytes and elicited peritoneal macrophages. No GFP is detected on resting or activated T lymphocytes, nor on splenic myeloid or plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In contrast, 5–20% cultured BM-derived dendritic cells expressed GFP. Interestingly, GFP knock-in prevented cell surface but not intracellular C5aR expression. We conclude that C5aR is unlikely to play an intrinsic role on murine T cells and primary DCs. Instead, its effect on T cell immunity in vivo may involve CD11b+F4/80+ or other C5aR-expressing leukocytes. Further, our data reveal a surprising role of the 3′UTR of C5aR mRNA in regulating C5aR protein targeting to the plasma membrane. PMID:22430734

  8. Identification and characterization of NDT 9513727 [N,N-bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-1-butyl-2,4-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-5-methanamine], a novel, orally bioavailable C5a receptor inverse agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Robbin M; Cortright, Daniel N; Kieltyka, Andrzej P; Yu, Jianying; Baltazar, Carolyn O; Buck, Marianne E; Meade, Robin; Maynard, George D; Thurkauf, Andrew; Chien, Du-Shieng; Hutchison, Alan J; Krause, James E

    2008-12-01

    The complement system represents an innate immune mechanism of host defense that has three effector arms, the C3a receptor, the C5a receptor (C5aR), and the membrane attack complex. Because of its inflammatory and immune-enhancing properties, the biological activity of C5a and its classical receptor have been widely studied. Because specific antagonism of the C5aR could have therapeutic benefit without affecting the protective immune response, the C5aR continues to be a promising target for pharmaceutical research. The lack of specific, potent and orally bioavailable small-molecule antagonists has limited the clinical investigation of the C5aR. We report the discovery of NDT 9513727 [N,N-bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-1-butyl-2,4-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-5-methanamine], a small-molecule, orally bioavailable, selective, and potent inverse agonist of the human C5aR. NDT 9513727 was discovered based on the integrated use of in vitro affinity and functional assays in conjunction with medicinal chemistry. NDT 9513727 inhibited C5a-stimulated responses, including guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding, Ca(2+) mobilization, oxidative burst, degranulation, cell surface CD11b expression and chemotaxis in various cell types with IC(50)s from 1.1 to 9.2 nM, respectively. In C5a competition radioligand binding experiments, NDT 9513727 exhibited an IC(50) of 11.6 nM. NDT 9513727 effectively inhibited C5a-induced neutropenia in gerbil and cynomolgus macaque in vivo. The findings suggest that NDT 9513727 may be a promising new entity for the treatment of human inflammatory diseases.

  9. C5a2 can modulate ERK1/2 signaling in macrophages via heteromer formation with C5a1 and beta-arrestin recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Croker, D.E.; Halai, R.; Kaeslin, G.; Wende, E.; Fehlhaber, B.; Klos, A; Monk, P N; M. A. Cooper

    2014-01-01

    The complement system is a major component of our innate immune system, in which the complement proteins C5a and C5a-des Arg bind to two G-protein-coupled receptors: namely, the C5a receptor (C5a1) and C5a receptor like-2 receptor (C5a2, formerly called C5L2). Recently, it has been demonstrated that C5a, but not C5a-des Arg, upregulates heteromer formation between C5a1 and C5a2, leading to an increase in IL-10 release from human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs). A bioluminescence resonanc...

  10. Complement Receptors C5aR and C5L2 Are Associated with Metabolic Profile, Sex Hormones, and Liver Enzymes in Obese Women Pre- and Postbariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction with sex differences and chronic, low-grade inflammation. We proposed that hepatic expression of immune complement C3 related receptors (C3aR, C5aR, and C5L2 would be associated with pre- or postmenopausal status and metabolic profile in severely obese women. We hypothesized that C5L2/C5aR ratio, potentially influencing the ASP/C5L2 metabolic versus C5a/C5aR immune response, would predict metabolic profiles after weight loss surgery. Materials and Methods. Fasting plasma (hormone, lipid, and enzyme analysis and liver biopsies (RT-PCR gene expression were obtained from 91 women during surgery. Results. Hepatic C5L2 mRNA expression was elevated in pre- versus postmenopausal women (P<0.01 and correlated positively with circulating estradiol, estrone, ApoB, ApoA1, ApoA1/B, waist circumference, age, and LDL-C (all P<0.05. While plasma ASP was lower in pre- versus postmenopausal women (P<0.01, the hepatic C5L2/C5aR mRNA ratio was increased (P<0.001 and correlated positively with estrone (P<0.01 and estradiol (P<0.001 and negatively with circulating ApoB and liver enzymes ALT, AST, and GGT (all P<0.05. Over 12 months postoperatively, liver enzymes in low C5L2/C5aR mRNA ratio group remained higher (ALP and ALT, P<0.05, AST and GGT, P<0.001 2-way-ANOVA. Conclusion. C5L2-C5aR association with other mediators including estrogens may contribute to hepatic metabolic and inflammatory function.

  11. Micrurus snake venoms activate human complement system and generate anaphylatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Gabriela D; Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; de Fátima D Furtado, Maria; van den Berg, Carmen; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2012-01-16

    The genus Micrurus, coral snakes (Serpentes, Elapidae), comprises more than 120 species and subspecies distributed from the south United States to the south of South America. Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and further respiratory arrest within a few hours after envenomation. Clinical observations show mainly neurotoxic symptoms, although other biological activities have also been experimentally observed, including cardiotoxicity, hemolysis, edema and myotoxicity. In the present study we have investigated the action of venoms from seven species of snakes from the genus Micrurus on the complement system in in vitro studies. Several of the Micrurus species could consume the classical and/or the lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, and C3a, C4a and C5a were generated in sera treated with the venoms as result of this complement activation. Micrurus venoms were also able to directly cleave the α chain of the component C3, but not of the C4, which was inhibited by 1,10 Phenanthroline, suggesting the presence of a C3α chain specific metalloprotease in Micrurus spp venoms. Furthermore, complement activation was in part associated with the cleavage of C1-Inhibitor by protease(s) present in the venoms, which disrupts complement activation control. Micrurus venoms can activate the complement system, generating a significant amount of anaphylatoxins, which may assist due to their vasodilatory effects, to enhance the spreading of other venom components during the envenomation process.

  12. Micrurus snake venoms activate human complement system and generate anaphylatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Gabriela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Micrurus, coral snakes (Serpentes, Elapidae, comprises more than 120 species and subspecies distributed from the south United States to the south of South America. Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and further respiratory arrest within a few hours after envenomation. Clinical observations show mainly neurotoxic symptoms, although other biological activities have also been experimentally observed, including cardiotoxicity, hemolysis, edema and myotoxicity. Results In the present study we have investigated the action of venoms from seven species of snakes from the genus Micrurus on the complement system in in vitro studies. Several of the Micrurus species could consume the classical and/or the lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, and C3a, C4a and C5a were generated in sera treated with the venoms as result of this complement activation. Micrurus venoms were also able to directly cleave the α chain of the component C3, but not of the C4, which was inhibited by 1,10 Phenanthroline, suggesting the presence of a C3α chain specific metalloprotease in Micrurus spp venoms. Furthermore, complement activation was in part associated with the cleavage of C1-Inhibitor by protease(s present in the venoms, which disrupts complement activation control. Conclusion Micrurus venoms can activate the complement system, generating a significant amount of anaphylatoxins, which may assist due to their vasodilatory effects, to enhance the spreading of other venom components during the envenomation process.

  13. Complement factor C5a induces atherosclerotic plaque disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezel, Anouk; de Vries, Margreet R; Lagraauw, H Maxime; Foks, Amanda C; Kuiper, Johan; Quax, Paul HA; Bot, Ilze

    2014-01-01

    Complement factor C5a and its receptor C5aR are expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques; however, a causal relation between C5a and plaque rupture has not been established yet. Accelerated atherosclerosis was induced by placing vein grafts in male apoE−/− mice. After 24 days, when advanced plaques had developed, C5a or PBS was applied locally at the lesion site in a pluronic gel. Three days later mice were killed to examine the acute effect of C5a on late stage atherosclerosis. A significant increase in C5aR in the plaque was detectable in mice treated with C5a. Lesion size and plaque morphology did not differ between treatment groups, but interestingly, local treatment with C5a resulted in a striking increase in the amount of plaque disruptions with concomitant intraplaque haemorrhage. To identify the potential underlying mechanisms, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were treated in vitro with C5a. Both cell types revealed a marked increase in apoptosis after stimulation with C5a, which may contribute to lesion instability in vivo. Indeed, apoptosis within the plaque was seen to be significantly increased after C5a treatment. We here demonstrate a causal role for C5a in atherosclerotic plaque disruptions, probably by inducing apoptosis. Therefore, intervention in complement factor C5a signalling may be a promising target in the prevention of acute atherosclerotic complications. PMID:25124749

  14. Complement factor C5a induces atherosclerotic plaque disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezel, Anouk; de Vries, Margreet R; Lagraauw, H Maxime; Foks, Amanda C; Kuiper, Johan; Quax, Paul H A; Bot, Ilze

    2014-10-01

    Complement factor C5a and its receptor C5aR are expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques; however, a causal relation between C5a and plaque rupture has not been established yet. Accelerated atherosclerosis was induced by placing vein grafts in male apoE(-/-) mice. After 24 days, when advanced plaques had developed, C5a or PBS was applied locally at the lesion site in a pluronic gel. Three days later mice were killed to examine the acute effect of C5a on late stage atherosclerosis. A significant increase in C5aR in the plaque was detectable in mice treated with C5a. Lesion size and plaque morphology did not differ between treatment groups, but interestingly, local treatment with C5a resulted in a striking increase in the amount of plaque disruptions with concomitant intraplaque haemorrhage. To identify the potential underlying mechanisms, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were treated in vitro with C5a. Both cell types revealed a marked increase in apoptosis after stimulation with C5a, which may contribute to lesion instability in vivo. Indeed, apoptosis within the plaque was seen to be significantly increased after C5a treatment. We here demonstrate a causal role for C5a in atherosclerotic plaque disruptions, probably by inducing apoptosis. Therefore, intervention in complement factor C5a signalling may be a promising target in the prevention of acute atherosclerotic complications. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  15. Antagonism of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2 attenuates asthma pathology in mouse eosinophilic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uller, Lena; Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff; Alenmyr, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    in recombinant expression systems in vitro. In vivo effects of TM30089 and ramatroban on tissue eosinophilia and mucus cell histopathology were examined in a mouse asthma model. RESULTS: TM30089, displayed high selectivity for and antagonistic potency on mouse CRTH2 but lacked affinity to TP and many other...... receptors including the related anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a receptors, selected chemokine receptors and the cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 which are all recognized players in allergic diseases. Furthermore, TM30089 and ramatroban, the latter used as a reference herein, similarly inhibited asthma pathology...

  16. C5a and C5aR are elevated in joints of rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis patients, and C5aR blockade attenuates leukocyte migration to synovial fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornum, Lars; Hansen, Anker Jon; Tornehave, Ditte; Fjording, Marianne Scheel; Colmenero, Paula; Wätjen, Inger Falbe; Søe Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Bliddal, Henning; Bartels, Else Marie

    2017-01-01

    Complement activation correlates to rheumatoid arthritis disease activity, and increased amounts of the complement split product C5a is observed in synovial fluids from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Blockade of C5a or its receptor (C5aR) is efficacious in several arthritis models. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of C5a and C5aR in human rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis-both with respect to expression and function. Synovial fluid, blood and synovial samples were obtained from rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and osteoarthritis patients as a less inflammatory arthritis type, and blood from healthy subjects. Cells infiltrating synovial tissue were analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. SF and blood were analysed for biomarkers by flow cytometry or ELISA. The effect of a blocking anti-human C5aR mAb on leukocyte migration was determined using a Boyden chamber. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for comparisons. C5aR+ cells were detected in most rheumatoid arthritis, in all psoriatic arthritis, but not in non-inflammatory control synovia. C5aR+ cells were primarily neutrophils and macrophages. C5aR+ macrophages were mainly found in lymphoid aggregates in close contact with T cells. C5a levels were increased in both rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis synovial fluid compared to osteoarthritis, and in blood from rheumatoid arthritis compared to healthy subjects. Neutrophil and monocyte migration to rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid was significantly inhibited by anti-C5aR. The data support that the C5a-C5aR axis may be driving the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the synovial fluid and synovium in both rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and suggest that C5a or C5aR may be a promising treatment target in both diseases.

  17. C5a and C5aR are elevated in joints of rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis patients, and C5aR blockade attenuates leukocyte migration to synovial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Lars; Hansen, Anker Jon; Tornehave, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    synovial fluid was significantly inhibited by anti-C5aR. The data support that the C5a-C5aR axis may be driving the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the synovial fluid and synovium in both rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and suggest that C5a or C5aR may be a promising treatment target in both......Complement activation correlates to rheumatoid arthritis disease activity, and increased amounts of the complement split product C5a is observed in synovial fluids from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Blockade of C5a or its receptor (C5aR) is efficacious in several arthritis models. The aim...... of this study was to investigate the role of C5a and C5aR in human rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis-both with respect to expression and function. Synovial fluid, blood and synovial samples were obtained from rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and osteoarthritis patients as a less inflammatory...

  18. The C5a/C5aR1 axis controls the development of experimental allergic asthma independent of LysM-expressing pulmonary immune cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Wiese

    Full Text Available C5a regulates the development of maladaptive immune responses in allergic asthma mainly through the activation of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1. Yet, the cell types and the mechanisms underlying this regulation are ill-defined. Recently, we described increased C5aR1 expression in lung tissue eosinophils but decreased expression in airway and pulmonary macrophages as well as in pulmonary CD11b+ conventional dendritic cells (cDCs and monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs during the allergic effector phase using a floxed green fluorescent protein (GFP-C5aR1 knock-in mouse. Here, we determined the role of C5aR1 signaling in neutrophils, moDCs and macrophages for the pulmonary recruitment of such cells and the importance of C5aR1-mediated activation of LysM-expressing cells for the development of allergic asthma. We used LysM-C5aR1 KO mice with a specific deletion of C5aR1 in LysMCre-expressing cells and confirmed the specific deletion of C5aR1 in neutrophils, macrophages and moDCs in the airways and/or the lung tissue. We found that alveolar macrophage numbers were significantly increased in LysM-C5aR1 KO mice. Induction of ovalbumin (OVA-driven experimental allergic asthma in GFP-C5aR1fl/fl and LysM-C5aR1 KO mice resulted in strong but similar airway resistance, mucus production and Th2/Th17 cytokine production. In contrast, the number of airway but not of pulmonary neutrophils was lower in LysM-C5aR1 KO as compared with GFP-C5aR1fl/fl mice. The recruitment of macrophages, cDCs, moDCs, T cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells was not altered in LysM-C5aR1 KO mice. Our findings demonstrate that C5aR1 is critical for steady state control of alveolar macrophage numbers and the transition of neutrophils from the lung into the airways in OVA-driven allergic asthma. However, C5aR1 activation of LysM-expressing cells plays a surprisingly minor role in the recruitment and activation of such cells and the development of the allergic phenotype in OVA-driven experimental

  19. Effects of Bothrops atrox venom and two isolated toxins on the human complement system: Modulation of pathways and generation of anaphylatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaldo, Danilo L; Bernardes, Carolina P; Jacob-Ferreira, Anna L; Nogueira-Santos, Cíntia G; Casare-Ogasawara, Tania M; Pereira-Crott, Luciana S; Sampaio, Suely V

    2016-12-01

    The complement system plays important biological roles, including the activation of inflammatory processes in response to the generation of proteolytic fragments of its components. Here we evaluated the effects of Bothrops atrox venom and two of its toxins (the P-I metalloprotease Batroxase and the acidic phospholipase A 2 BatroxPLA 2 ) on the human complement system, evaluating their effects on the classical (CP), lectin (LP) and alternative (AP) pathways, as well as on different complement components associated to the generation of anaphylatoxins. Primarily, the venom and both toxins modulated the hemolytic activity of the complement CP, with the venom and Batroxase reducing this activity and BatroxPLA 2 increasing it. ELISA deposition assays indicated that B. atrox venom and Batroxase were also capable of modulating all three activation pathways (CP, LP and AP), reducing their activity after incubation with normal human serum (NHS), while BatroxPLA 2 apparently only interfered with AP. Additionally, the venom and Batroxase, but not BatroxPLA 2 , promoted significant degradation of the components C3, C4, Factor B and C1-Inhibitor, as shown by Western blot and SDS-PAGE analyses, also generating anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a and C5a. Therefore, B. atrox venom and Batroxase were able to activate the complement system by direct proteolytic action on several components, generating anaphylatoxins and affecting the activation pathways, while BatroxPLA 2 only interfered with the hemolysis induced by CP and the C3 deposition related to AP. Our results indicate that Batroxase and possibly other metalloproteases should be the main toxins in B. atrox venom to induce pronounced effects on the complement system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is a potent inducer of embryonic chick retina regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Tracy; Luz-Madrigal, Agustin; Reis, Edimara S.; Echeverri Ruiz, Nancy P.; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Tzekou, Apostolia; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.; Lambris, John D.; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the initiation signals for tissue regeneration in vertebrates is one of the major challenges in regenerative biology. Much of the research thus far has indicated that certain growth factors have key roles. Here we show that complement fragment C3a is sufficient to induce complete regeneration of the embryonic chick retina from stem/progenitor cells present in the eye, independent of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling. Instead, C3a induces retina regeneration via STAT3 activation, which in turn activates the injury- and inflammation-responsive factors, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. This activation sets forth regulation of Wnt2b, Six3 and Sox2, genes associated with retina stem and progenitor cells. Thus, our results establish a mechanism for retina regeneration based on injury and inflammation signals. Furthermore, our results indicate a unique function for complement anaphylatoxins that implicate these molecules in the induction and complete regeneration of the retina, opening new avenues of experimentation in the field. PMID:23942241

  1. C5a Increases the Injury to Primary Neurons Elicited by Fibrillar Amyloid Beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael X. Hernandez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available C5aR1, the proinflammatory receptor for C5a, is expressed in the central nervous system on microglia, endothelial cells, and neurons. Previous work demonstrated that the C5aR1 antagonist, PMX205, decreased amyloid pathology and suppressed cognitive deficits in two Alzheimer's Disease (AD mouse models. However, the cellular mechanisms of this protection have not been definitively demonstrated. Here, primary cultured mouse neurons treated with exogenous C5a show reproducible loss of MAP-2 staining in a dose-dependent manner within 24 hr of treatment, indicative of injury to neurons. This injury is prevented by the C5aR1 antagonist PMX53, a close analog of PMX205. Furthermore, primary neurons derived from C5aR1 null mice exhibited no MAP-2 loss after exposure to the highest concentration of C5a tested. Primary mouse neurons treated with both 100 nM C5a and 5 µM fibrillar amyloid beta (fAβ, to model what occurs in the AD brain, showed increased MAP-2 loss relative to either C5a or fAβ alone. Blocking C5aR1 with PMX53 (100 nM blocked the loss of MAP2 in these primary neurons to the level seen with fAβ alone. Similar experiments with primary neurons derived from C5aR1 null mice showed a loss of MAP-2 due to fAβ treatment. However, the addition of C5a to the cultures did not enhance the loss of MAP-2 and the addition of PMX53 to the cultures did not change the MAP-2 loss in response to fAβ. Thus, at least part of the beneficial effects of C5aR1 antagonist in AD mouse models may be due to protection of neurons from the toxic effects of C5a.

  2. Antagonism of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2 attenuates asthma pathology in mouse eosinophilic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cell-derived prostaglandin D2 (PGD2, may contribute to eosinophilic inflammation and mucus production in allergic asthma. Chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells (CRTH2, a high affinity receptor for prostaglandin D2, mediates trafficking of TH2-cells, mast cells, and eosinophils to inflammatory sites, and has recently attracted interest as target for treatment of allergic airway diseases. The present study involving mice explores the specificity of CRTH2 antagonism of TM30089, which is structurally closely related to the dual TP/CRTH2 antagonist ramatroban, and compares the ability of ramatroban and TM30089 to inhibit asthma-like pathology. Methods Affinity for and antagonistic potency of TM30089 on many mouse receptors including thromboxane A2 receptor mTP, CRTH2 receptor, and selected anaphylatoxin and chemokines receptors were determined in recombinant expression systems in vitro. In vivo effects of TM30089 and ramatroban on tissue eosinophilia and mucus cell histopathology were examined in a mouse asthma model. Results TM30089, displayed high selectivity for and antagonistic potency on mouse CRTH2 but lacked affinity to TP and many other receptors including the related anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a receptors, selected chemokine receptors and the cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 which are all recognized players in allergic diseases. Furthermore, TM30089 and ramatroban, the latter used as a reference herein, similarly inhibited asthma pathology in vivo by reducing peribronchial eosinophilia and mucus cell hyperplasia. Conclusion This is the first report to demonstrate anti-allergic efficacy in vivo of a highly selective small molecule CRTH2 antagonist. Our data suggest that CRTH2 antagonism alone is effective in mouse allergic airway inflammation even to the extent that this mechanism can explain the efficacy of ramatroban.

  3. C5a induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in brain vascular endothelial cells in experimental lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Supriya D; Tutino, Vincent M; Redae, Yonas; Meng, Hui; Siddiqui, Adnan; Woodruff, Trent M; Jarvis, James N; Hennon, Teresa; Schwartz, Stanley; Quigg, Richard J; Alexander, Jessy J

    2016-08-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction complicates central nervous system lupus, an important aspect of systemic lupus erythematosus. To gain insight into the underlying mechanism, vascular corrosion casts of brain were generated from the lupus mouse model, MRL/lpr mice and the MRL/MpJ congenic controls. Scanning electron microscopy of the casts showed loss of vascular endothelial cells in lupus mice compared with controls. Immunostaining revealed a significant increase in caspase 3 expression in the brain vascular endothelial cells, which suggests that apoptosis could be an important mechanism causing cell loss, and thereby loss of BBB integrity. Complement activation occurs in lupus resulting in increased generation of circulating C5a, which caused the endothelial layer to become 'leaky'. In this study, we show that C5a and lupus serum induced apoptosis in cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVECs), whereas selective C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) antagonist reduced apoptosis in these cells, demonstrating C5a/C5aR1-dependence. Gene expression of initiator caspases, caspase 1 and caspase 8, and pro-apoptotic proteins death-associated protein kinase 1, Fas-associated protein (FADD), cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor 45 000 MW subunit A-like effector B (CIDEB) and BCL2-associated X protein were increased in HBMVECs treated with lupus serum or C5a, indicating that both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways could be critical mediators of brain endothelial cell apoptosis in this setting. Overall, our findings suggest that C5a/C5aR1 signalling induces apoptosis through activation of FADD, caspase 8/3 and CIDEB in brain endothelial cells in lupus. Further elucidation of the underlying apoptotic mechanisms mediating the reduced endothelial cell number is important in establishing the potential therapeutic effectiveness of C5aR1 inhibition that could prevent and/or reduce BBB alterations and preserve the physiological function of BBB in

  4. HSV neutralization by the microbicidal candidate C5A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, L.; Bobardt, M.D.; Chatterji, U.; van Loenen, F.B.; Verjans, G.M.G.M.; Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.; Gallay, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes is a major risk factor in acquiring human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and is caused by both Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The amphipathic peptide C5A, derived from the non-structural hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein 5A, was shown to prevent HIV-1

  5. HSV neutralization by the microbicidal candidate C5A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. de Witte (Lot); M.D. Bobardt (Michael); U. Chatterji (Udayan); F.B. van Loenen (Freek); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); T.B.H. Geijtenbeek (Teunis); P.A. Gallay (Philippe)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGenital herpes is a major risk factor in acquiring human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and is caused by both Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The amphipathic peptide C5A, derived from the non-structural hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein 5A, was shown to

  6. C5a/C5aR pathway is essential for up-regulating SphK1 expression through p38-MAPK activation in acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yan-Chang; Lu, Chun-Lei; Chen, Ling; Ge, Ke; Yang, Ling-Ling; Li, Wen; Wu, Yuan-Hua

    2016-12-14

    To investigate the role of the complement 5a (C5a)/C5a receptor (C5aR) pathway in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure (ALF) in a mouse model. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to different groups, and intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN) (600 mg/kg and 10 μg/kg) were used to induce ALF. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, at different time points within a 1-wk period, were detected with a biochemistry analyzer. Pathological examination of liver tissue was performed 36 h after ALF induction. Serum complement 5 (C5), C5a, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) and sphingosine-1-phosphate levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Hepatic morphological changes at 36 h after ALF induction were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Expression of C5aR, sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), p38-MAPK and p-p38-MAPK in liver tissue, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and peritoneal exudative macrophages (PEMs) of mice or RAW 264.7 cells was analyzed by western blotting. C5aR mRNA levels were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Activation of C5 and up-regulation of C5aR were observed in liver tissue and PBMCs of mice with ALF. Blockade of C5aR with a C5aR antagonist (C5aRa C5aRa) significantly reduced the levels of serum ALT, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and HMGB1, as well as the liver tissue damage, but increased the survival rates (P liver tissue and PBMCs significantly at 0.5 h after ALF induction. C5aRa pretreatment significantly down-regulated the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK in liver tissues of ALF mice and C5a stimulated PEMs or RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, inhibition of p38-MAPK activity with SB203580 reduced SphK1 protein production significantly in PEMs after C5a stimulation. The C5a/C5aR pathway is essential for up-regulating SphK1 expression

  7. Protective effects of C5a blockade in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czermak, B J; Sarma, V; Pierson, C L

    1999-01-01

    Sepsis in humans is a difficult condition to treat and is often associated with a high mortality rate. In this study, we induced sepsis in rats using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). In rats depleted of the complement factor C3, CLP led to very short survival times (about 4 days). Of the rats...... that underwent CLP ('CLP rats') that were C3-intact and treated with preimmune IgG, most (92%) were dead by 7 days. Blood neutrophils from these rats contained on their surfaces the powerful complement activation product C5a. This group had high levels of bacteremia, and their blood neutrophils when stimulated...... in vitro had greatly reduced production of H2O2, which is known to be essential for the bactericidal function of neutrophils. In contrast, when companion CLP rats were treated with IgG antibody against C5a, survival rates were significantly improved, levels of bacteremia were considerably reduced...

  8. C5a enhances dysregulated inflammatory and angiogenic responses to malaria in vitro: potential implications for placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Conroy

    Full Text Available Placental malaria (PM is a leading cause of maternal and infant mortality. Although the accumulation of parasitized erythrocytes (PEs and monocytes within the placenta is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of PM, the molecular mechanisms underlying PM remain unclear. Based on the hypothesis that excessive complement activation may contribute to PM, in particular generation of the potent inflammatory peptide C5a, we investigated the role of C5a in the pathogenesis of PM in vitro and in vivo.Using primary human monocytes, the interaction between C5a and malaria in vitro was assessed. CSA- and CD36-binding PEs induced activation of C5 in the presence of human serum. Plasmodium falciparum GPI (pfGPI enhanced C5a receptor expression (CD88 on monocytes, and the co-incubation of monocytes with C5a and pfGPI resulted in the synergistic induction of cytokines (IL-6, TNF, IL-1beta, and IL-10, chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1, MIP1alpha, MIP1beta and the anti-angiogenic factor sFlt-1 in a time and dose-dependent manner. This dysregulated response was abrogated by C5a receptor blockade. To assess the potential role of C5a in PM, C5a plasma levels were measured in malaria-exposed primigravid women in western Kenya. Compared to pregnant women without malaria, C5a levels were significantly elevated in women with PM.These results suggest that C5a may contribute to the pathogenesis of PM by inducing dysregulated inflammatory and angiogenic responses that impair placental function.

  9. NOD2-mediated suppression of CD55 on neutrophils enhances C5a generation during polymicrobial sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Jin Oh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD 2 is a cytosolic protein that plays a defensive role in bacterial infection by sensing peptidoglycans. C5a, which has harmful effects in sepsis, interacts with innate proteins. However, whether NOD2 regulates C5a generation during sepsis remains to be determined. To address this issue, cecal ligation & puncture (CLP-induced sepsis was compared in wild type and Nod2-/- mice. Nod2-/- mice showed lower levels of C5a, IL-10, and IL-1β in serum and peritoneum, but higher survival rate during CLP-induced sepsis compared to wild type mice. Injection of recombinant C5a decreased survival rates of Nod2-/- mice rate during sepsis, whereas it did not alter those in wild type mice. These findings suggest a novel provocative role for NOD2 in sepsis, in contrast to its protective role during bacterial infection. Furthermore, we found that NOD2-mediated IL-10 production by neutrophils enhanced C5a generation by suppressing CD55 expression on neutrophils in IL-1β-dependent and/or IL-1β-independent manners, thereby aggravating CLP-induced sepsis. SB203580, a receptor-interacting protein 2 (RIP2 inhibitor downstream of NOD2, reduced C5a generation by enhancing CD55 expression on neutrophils, resulting in attenuation of polymicrobial sepsis. Therefore, we propose a novel NOD2-mediated complement cascade regulatory pathway in sepsis, which may be a useful therapeutic target.

  10. Mesenchymal stromal cells engage complement and complement receptor bearing innate effector cells to modulate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Moll

    Full Text Available Infusion of human third-party mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs appears to be a promising therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD. To date, little is known about how MSCs interact with the body's innate immune system after clinical infusion. This study shows, that exposure of MSCs to blood type ABO-matched human blood activates the complement system, which triggers complement-mediated lymphoid and myeloid effector cell activation in blood. We found deposition of complement component C3-derived fragments iC3b and C3dg on MSCs and fluid-phase generation of the chemotactic anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. MSCs bound low amounts of immunoglobulins and lacked expression of complement regulatory proteins MCP (CD46 and DAF (CD55, but were protected from complement lysis via expression of protectin (CD59. Cell-surface-opsonization and anaphylatoxin-formation triggered complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18-mediated effector cell activation in blood. The complement-activating properties of individual MSCs were furthermore correlated with their potency to inhibit PBMC-proliferation in vitro, and both effector cell activation and the immunosuppressive effect could be blocked either by using complement inhibitor Compstatin or by depletion of CD14/CD11b-high myeloid effector cells from mixed lymphocyte reactions. Our study demonstrates for the first time a major role of the complement system in governing the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs and elucidates how complement activation mediates the interaction with other immune cells.

  11. Properdin-Mediated C5a Production Enhances Stable Binding of Platelets to Granulocytes in Human Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Adam Z; Saggu, Gurpanna; Kulkarni, Koustubh V; Cortes, Claudio; Thurman, Joshua M; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Ferreira, Viviana P

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced levels of platelet/granulocyte aggregates (PGAs) are found in patients suffering from many different inflammatory vascular diseases, and their formation in animal models of vascular disease is associated with increased thromboinflammation and worsened outcomes. The complement system, a part of the innate immune system, influences PGA formation, but the mechanisms for its effects are unknown. In this study, we have defined complement-mediated mechanisms that enhance PGA formation in human whole blood stimulated with thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP) using ex vivo flow cytometry assays. We demonstrate that physiological properdin, a positive regulator of complement alternative pathway activity, increases PGA formation when added to TRAP-stimulated blood. All physiological properdin forms increase PGA formation, but properdin tetramers are the most efficient at increasing complement activity and PGA formation. Inhibition of endogenous properdin, either circulating in the blood or produced locally by leukocytes, impairs TRAP-mediated PGA formation to the same level as specific inhibition of either the alternative or classical pathway. Additionally, blocking the interaction of C5a with its cellular receptor prevents properdin-mediated increases in PGA formation. Adding either properdin tetramers or C5a to whole blood increases CD11b expression on granulocytes, and this increase is prevented by blockade of the C5a-C5a receptor axis. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects of properdin on PGA formation are tightly regulated by Factor H. Cumulatively, our data indicate that properdin enhances PGA formation via increased production of C5a, and that inhibition of properdin function has therapeutic potential to limit thromboinflammation in diseases characterized by increased PGA formation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Differential activation mechanisms of serum C5a in lupus nephritis and neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Yuko; Nagai, Tatsuo; Yoshio, Taku; Hirohata, Shunsei

    2017-03-01

    To explore the role of C5a in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and lupus nephritis (LN). Sera were obtained from 29 patients with NPSLE, 25 with LN, 26 without NPSLE or LN [SLE alone], and 21 healthy donors. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained from 29 NPSLE patients. C5a and C5 were measured by ELISA. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) function was evaluated by Q albumin ([CSF albumin/serum albumin] × 10 3 ). Serum C5a, but not C5, was significantly increased in SLE compared with healthy control. Serum C5a, but not C5, was significantly higher in NPSLE and in LN than in SLE alone. Serum C4, but not C3, was lower in LN than in NPSLE. Q albumin was significantly higher in diffuse NPSLE than in focal NPSLE, whereas there were no significant differences in CSF or serum C5a between both groups. Notably, CSF C5 and C5a were significantly correlated with Q albumin, whereas serum C5a, but not C5, appeared to be inversely correlated with Q albumin. These results disclosed that serum C5a was elevated not only in NPSLE but also in LN through different mechanisms. Moreover, it is suggested that C5a might be consumed during BBB damages.

  13. Synthesis and interactions of sulfated C5a-receptor and CHIPS mimics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunschoten, A.

    2010-01-01

    Post-translational modifications are modifications of peptides or proteins after they have been synthesized in the ribosomes. These post-translational modifications (PTM’s) are intended to augment functional diversity of the 20 natural L-amino acids of which proteins are constructed. PTM’s have

  14. Expression and subcellular targeting of human complement factor C5a in Nicotiana species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, Henrik; Mikschofsky, Heike; Mischofsky, Heike; Koslowski, Roswitha; Meyer, Udo; Broer, Inge; Huckauf, Jana

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated transgenic tobacco plants as an alternative to Escherichia coli for the production of recombinant human complement factor 5a (C5a). C5a has not been expressed in plants before and is highly unstable in vivo in its native form, so it was necessary to establish the most suitable subcellular targeting strategy. We used the strong and constitutive CaMV 35S promoter to drive transgene expression and compared three different subcellular compartments. The yields of C5a in the T(0) transgenic plants were low in terms of the proportion of total soluble protein (TSP) when targeted to the apoplast (0.0002% TSP) or endoplasmic reticulum (0.0003% TSP) but was one order of magnitude higher when targeted to the vacuole (0.001% TSP). The yields could be increased by conventional breeding (up to 0.014% TSP in the T₂ generation). C5a accumulated to the same level in seeds and leaves when targeted to the apoplast but was up to 1.7-fold more abundant in the seeds when targeted to the ER or vacuole, although this difference was less striking in the better-performing lines. When yields were calculated as an amount per gram fresh weight of transgenic plant tissue, the vacuole targeting strategy was clearly more efficient in seeds, reaching 35.8 µg C5a per gram of fresh seed weight compared to 10.62 µg C5a per gram fresh weight of leaves. Transient expression of C5aER and C5aVac in N. benthamiana, using MagnICON vectors, reached up to 0.2% and 0.7% of TSP, respectively, but was accompanied by cytotoxic effects and induced leaf senescence. Western blot of the plant extracts revealed a band matching the corresponding glycosylated native protein and the bioassay demonstrated that recombinant C5a was biologically active.

  15. Expression and subcellular targeting of human complement factor C5a in Nicotiana species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nausch

    Full Text Available We evaluated transgenic tobacco plants as an alternative to Escherichia coli for the production of recombinant human complement factor 5a (C5a. C5a has not been expressed in plants before and is highly unstable in vivo in its native form, so it was necessary to establish the most suitable subcellular targeting strategy. We used the strong and constitutive CaMV 35S promoter to drive transgene expression and compared three different subcellular compartments. The yields of C5a in the T(0 transgenic plants were low in terms of the proportion of total soluble protein (TSP when targeted to the apoplast (0.0002% TSP or endoplasmic reticulum (0.0003% TSP but was one order of magnitude higher when targeted to the vacuole (0.001% TSP. The yields could be increased by conventional breeding (up to 0.014% TSP in the T₂ generation. C5a accumulated to the same level in seeds and leaves when targeted to the apoplast but was up to 1.7-fold more abundant in the seeds when targeted to the ER or vacuole, although this difference was less striking in the better-performing lines. When yields were calculated as an amount per gram fresh weight of transgenic plant tissue, the vacuole targeting strategy was clearly more efficient in seeds, reaching 35.8 µg C5a per gram of fresh seed weight compared to 10.62 µg C5a per gram fresh weight of leaves. Transient expression of C5aER and C5aVac in N. benthamiana, using MagnICON vectors, reached up to 0.2% and 0.7% of TSP, respectively, but was accompanied by cytotoxic effects and induced leaf senescence. Western blot of the plant extracts revealed a band matching the corresponding glycosylated native protein and the bioassay demonstrated that recombinant C5a was biologically active.

  16. Elevated complement factor C5a in maternal and umbilical cord plasma in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Kerina J; Coulthard, Liam G; Finnell, Richard H; Callaway, Leonie K; Taylor, Stephen M; Woodruff, Trent M

    2013-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, encompassing significant short- and long-term health sequelae. Recently, there has been accumulating evidence for a role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of numerous complications of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. The present cross-sectional study compared the plasma concentrations of complement factors C3a and C5a between normotensive pregnancies and pregnancies complicated with either preeclampsia or gestational hypertension alone. We found that maternal plasma C5a concentration was significantly higher in preeclamptic pregnancy than in pregnancy affected by gestational hypertension alone or normotensive pregnancy. Umbilical cord plasma C5a concentrations were also higher in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia compared to gestational hypertension or normotensive pregnancy. Maternal and cord plasma C5a concentrations were significantly correlated, suggesting that C5a can freely diffuse between maternal and fetal circulation. There were no significant differences in C3a concentrations in maternal or cord plasma between any groups. These results support the hypothesis that C5a may play a role in preeclampsia, but not in gestational hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of C5aR1genetic polymorphisms with coronary artery disease in a Han population in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying-Ying; Xie, Xiang; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Pan, Shuo; Adi, Dilare; Chen, Bang-Dang; Liu, Fen

    2015-04-18

    Complement 5a receptor (C5aR) was demonstrated a receptor of complement 5a (C5a) which is involved in many inflammatory diseases. The functional responses attributed to C5a results from its interaction with its receptors C5aR, which stimulates food intake, plays a role in increasing the inflammatory response in adipose tissue as well as the cardiovascular and neural systems. However, There are unknown associations between the SNPs of C5aR1 gene and coronary artery disease (CAD). We examined the role of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C5aR1 gene for CAD using a case-control design, and determined the prevalence of C5aR1 genotypes in 505 CAD patients and 469 age and sex-matched healthy control subjects of Han population. The rs10853784 was found to be associated with CAD in dominant model (CC vs TT + CT, P = 0.004). The difference remained statistically significant after multivariate adjustment (OR = 1.430, 95% CI: 1.087 ~ 1.882, P = 0.011). There was no significant difference in genotype distributions of rs4577202 and rs7250152 between CAD patients and control subjects. The frequency of the haplotype (A-T-C) was significantly higher in the CAD patients than in the controls (P = 0.035), and the haplotype (A-C-T) was significantly lower in the CAD patients than in the control subjects in Chinese Han population (P = 0.002). The results of this study indicate that rs10853784 of C5aR1 gene are associated with CAD in Han population of China, and A-C-T haplotypes may be protective genetic marker and the A-T-C may be risk genetic marker for CAD in Chinese Han population. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2054871241495194 .

  18. A pro-inflammatory role of C5L2 in C5a-primed neutrophils for ANCA-induced activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complement system is crucial for the development of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV. In particular, C5a and its receptor on neutrophils, CD88, play a central role. The functional role of the second receptor of C5a, C5L2, remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated the role of C5L2 in C5a-primed neutrophils for ANCA-induced activation. METHODS: The effect of blocking C5L2 by anti-human C5L2 blocking antibody were tested on respiratory burst and degranulation of C5a-primed neutrophils activated with ANCA, as well as on membrane-bound proteinase 3 (mPR3 and concentration of myeloperoxidase (MPO in supernatant of C5a-primed neutrophils. An antagonist for CD88 was also employed. RESULTS: Blocking C5L2 resulted in a significantly decreased MPO concentration in the supernatant of C5a-primed neutrophils. mPR3 expression increased from 209.0±43.0 in untreated cells to 444.3±60.8 after C5a treatment (P<0.001, and decreased to 375.8±65.44, 342.2±54.3 and 313.7±43.6 by pre-incubating blocking C5L2 antibody at 2.5 µg/ml, 5 µg/ml or 10 µg/ml (compared with C5a-priming group, P<0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively. In C5a-primed neutrophils, subsequently activating with MPO-ANCA-positive IgG, the MFI value was 425.8±160.6, which decreased to 292.8±141.2, 289.7±130.0 and 280.3±136.4 upon pre-incubation with mouse anti-human C5L2 blocking antibody at 2.5 µg/ml, 5 µg/ml or 10 µg/ml (compared with C5a-primed neutrophils, for MPO-ANCA-positive IgG-induced activation, P<0.05, P<0.05, and P<0.05, respectively. Blocking C5L2 also resulted in significantly decreased C5a-primed neutrophils for PR3-ANCA-positive IgG-induced activation. Moreover, the lactoferrin concentration in the supernant significantly decreased in pre-incubation with anti-human C5L2 blocking antibody, compared with C5a-primed neutrophils induced by PR3- or MPO-ANCA-positive IgG. CONCLUSIONS: C5L2 may be implicated in

  19. Treatment with anti-C5aR mAb leads to early-onset clinical and mechanistic effects in the murine delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sara M; Nansen, Anneline; Usher, Pernille A; Sondergaard, Bodil-Cecilie; Mackay, Charles R; Friedrichsen, Birgitte; Chang, Chih-Chuan; Tang, Renhong; Skov, Søren; Haase, Claus; Hornum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Blockade of the complement cascade at the C5a/C5a receptor (C5aR)-axis is believed to be an attractive treatment avenue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effects of such interventions during the early phases of arthritis remain to be clarified. In this study we use the murine delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA) model to study the very early effects of a blocking, non-depleting anti-C5aR mAb on joint inflammation with treatment synchronised with disease onset, an approach not previously described. The DTHA model is a single-paw inflammatory arthritis model characterised by synchronised and rapid disease onset driven by T-cells, immune complexes and neutrophils. We show that a reduction in paw swelling, bone erosion, cartilage destruction, synovitis and new bone formation is apparent as little as 60 h after administration of a single dose of a blocking, non-depleting anti-mouse C5aR mAb. Importantly, infiltration of neutrophils into the joint and synovium is also reduced following a single dose, demonstrating that C5aR signalling during the early stage of arthritis regulates neutrophil infiltration and activation. Furthermore, the number of T-cells in circulation and in the draining popliteal lymph node is also reduced following a single dose of anti-C5aR, suggesting that modulation of the C5a/C5aR axis results in effects on the T cell compartment in inflammatory arthritis. In summary, these data demonstrate that blockade of C5aR leads to rapid and significant effects on arthritic disease development in a DTHA model strengthening the rationale of C5aR-blockade as a treatment strategy for RA, especially during the early stages of arthritis flare.

  20. Biliverdin modulates the expression of C5aR in response to endotoxin in part via mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Kavita; Wegiel, Barbara; Tampe, Jens; Neubauer, Oliver; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Otterbein, Leo E; Bulmer, Andrew C

    2014-06-20

    Macrophages play a crucial role in the maintenance and resolution of inflammation and express a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in response to stressors. Among them, the complement receptor 5a (C5aR) plays an integral role in the development of inflammatory disorders. Biliverdin and bilirubin, products of heme catabolism, exert anti-inflammatory effects and inhibit complement activation. Here, we define the effects of biliverdin on C5aR expression in macrophages and the roles of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in these responses. Biliverdin administration inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced C5aR expression (without altering basal expression), an effect partially blocked by rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR signaling. Biliverdin also reduced LPS-dependent expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Collectively, these data indicate that biliverdin regulates LPS-mediated expression of C5aR via the mTOR pathway, revealing an additional mechanism underlying biliverdin's anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CYP4F18-Deficient Neutrophils Exhibit Increased Chemotaxis to Complement Component C5a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Vaivoda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CYP4Fs were first identified as enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4. CYP4F18 has an unusual expression in neutrophils and was predicted to play a role in regulating LTB4-dependent inflammation. We compared chemotaxis of wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout neutrophils using an in vitro assay. There was no significant difference in the chemotactic response to LTB4, but the response to complement component C5a increased 1.9–2.25-fold in knockout cells compared to wild-type (P < 0.01. This increase was still observed when neutrophils were treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis. There were no changes in expression of other CYP4 enzymes in knockout neutrophils that might compensate for loss of CYP4F18 or lead to differences in activity. A mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate colitis was used to investigate the consequences of increased C5a-dependent chemotaxis in vivo, but there was no significant difference in weight loss, disease activity, or colonic tissue myeloperoxidase between wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout mice. This study demonstrates the limitations of inferring CYP4F function based on an ability to use LTB4 as a substrate, points to expanding roles for CYP4F enzymes in immune regulation, and underscores the in vivo challenges of CYP knockout studies.

  2. GPCR Interaction: 318 [GRIPDB[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Predicted interfaces of C5a anaphylatoxin C5L2 by using the SCD with the alignment provided in GPCR...DB A Anaphylatoxin C5a anaphylatoxin C5L2 C5a anaphylatoxin C5L2 ... Prediction ... 15593372 SCD for GPCRDB subtype 001_002_004_002 ...

  3. Denaturation and unfolding of human anaphylatoxin C3a: an unusually low covalent stability of its native disulfide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jui-Yoa; Lin, Curtis C-J; Salamanca, Silvia; Pangburn, Michael K; Wetsel, Rick A

    2008-12-15

    The complement C3a anaphylatoxin is a major molecular mediator of innate immunity. It is a potent activator of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils and causes smooth muscle contraction. Structurally, C3a is a relatively small protein (77 amino acids) comprising a N-terminal domain connected by 3 native disulfide bonds and a helical C-terminal segment. The structural stability of C3a has been investigated here using three different methods: Disulfide scrambling; Differential CD spectroscopy; and Reductive unfolding. Two uncommon features regarding the stability of C3a and the structure of denatured C3a have been observed in this study. (a) There is an unusual disconnection between the conformational stability of C3a and the covalent stability of its three native disulfide bonds that is not seen with other disulfide proteins. As measured by both methods of disulfide scrambling and differential CD spectroscopy, the native C3a exhibits a global conformational stability that is comparable to numerous proteins with similar size and disulfide content, all with mid-point denaturation of [GdmCl](1/2) at 3.4-5M. These proteins include hirudin, tick anticoagulant protein and leech carboxypeptidase inhibitor. However, the native disulfide bonds of C3a is 150-1000 fold less stable than those proteins as evaluated by the method of reductive unfolding. The 3 native disulfide bonds of C3a can be collectively and quantitatively reduced with as low as 1mM of dithiothreitol within 5 min. The fragility of the native disulfide bonds of C3a has not yet been observed with other native disulfide proteins. (b) Using the method of disulfide scrambling, denatured C3a was shown to consist of diverse isomers adopting varied extent of unfolding. Among them, the most extensively unfolded isomer of denatured C3a is found to assume beads-form disulfide pattern, comprising Cys(36)-Cys(49) and two disulfide bonds formed by two pair of consecutive cysteines, Cys(22)-Cys(23) and Cys(56)-Cys(57), a

  4. Roles for C-X-C chemokines and C5a in lung injury after hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bless, N M; Warner, R L; Padgaonkar, V A

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the roles of the C-X-C chemokines cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) as well as the complement activation product C5a in development of lung injury after hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. During reperfusion, CD11b...... permeability and decreased lung myeloperoxidase content by 93 and 68%, respectively (P C5a-related neutrophil chemotactic activity. Treatment with anti-C5a decreased lung vascular permeability, lung myeloperoxidase, and BAL CINC by 51......, 58, and 23%, respectively (P C5a are required for lung neutrophil recruitment and full induction of lung injury after hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion in rats....

  5. Synergistic enhancement of chemokine generation and lung injury by C5a or the membrane attack complex of complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czermak, B J; Lentsch, A B; Bless, N M

    1999-01-01

    Complement plays an important role in many acute inflammatory responses. In the current studies it was demonstrated that, in the presence of either C5a or sublytic forms of the complement-derived membrane attack complex (MAC), rat alveolar macrophages costimulated with IgG immune complexes...... demonstrated synergistic production of C-X-C (macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant) and C-C (macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and monocyte chemoattractant-1) chemokines. In the absence of the costimulus, C5a or MAC did not induce chemokine generation....... In in vivo studies, C5a and MAC alone caused limited or no intrapulmonary generation of chemokines, but in the presence of a costimulus (IgG immune complexes) C5a and MAC caused synergistic intrapulmonary generation of C-X-C and C-C chemokines but not of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Under these conditions...

  6. A New Approach for the Treatment of Arthritis in Mice with a Novel Conjugate of an anti-C5aR1 antibody and C5 siRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Gaurav; Scheinman, Robert I.; Holers, V. Michael; Banda, Nirmal K.

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune joint disease in which the complement system plays an important role. Of the several components of complement, current evidence points to C5 as the most important inducer of inflammation. Several groups generated antibodies or siRNAs or small molecule inhibitors against C5 and C5aR1 (CD88) which have showed some efficacy in RA in animal models. However, none of these candidate therapeutics has moved from bench to bedside. Here we test in CAIA a new therapeutic strategy using a novel anti-C5ab-C5 siRNA conjugate. We first demonstrate that while C5aR2 or C5L2 (GPR77) plays no role in collagen antibody induced arthritis (CAIA), C5aR1 contributes to pathogenesis. We demonstrate that injection of siRNAs blocking either C5, C5aR1 or the combination decreased clinical disease activity (CDA) in mice with CAIA by 45%, 51% and 58%, respectively. Anti-C5 antibody (BB5.1) has only limited efficacy nonetheless significantly reduced arthritis up to 66%. We then generated a novel anti-C5aR1ab-protamine-C5siRNA conjugate. Here we show for the first time that while unconjugated antibody plus siRNAs reduce arthritis by 19%, our an anti-C5aR1ab - protamine - C5 siRNA conjugate was effective in reducing arthritis by 83% along with a parallel decrease in histopathology, C3 deposition, neutrophils and macrophages in the joints of mice with CAIA. These data suggest that by targeting anti-C5 siRNAs to the receptor for its C5a activation fragment (C5aR1), a striking clinical effect can be realized. PMID:25917104

  7. Eculizumab-C5 complexes express a C5a neoepitope in vivo: Consequences for interpretation of patient complement analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per H; Thomas, Anub Mathew; Bergseth, Grethe; Gustavsen, Alice; Volokhina, Elena B; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Barratt-Due, Andreas; Mollnes, Tom E

    2017-09-01

    The complement system has obtained renewed clinical focus due to increasing number of patients treated with eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody inhibiting cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b. The FDA approved indications are paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome, but many other diseases are candidates for complement inhibition. It has been postulated that eculizumab does not inhibit C5a formation in vivo, in contrast to what would be expected since it blocks C5 cleavage. We recently revealed that this finding was due to a false positive reaction in a C5a assay. In the present study, we identified expression of a neoepitope which was exposed on C5 after binding to eculizumab in vivo. By size exclusion chromatography of patient serum obtained before and after infusion of eculizumab, we document that the neoepitope was exposed in the fractions containing the eculizumab-C5 complexes, being positive in this actual C5a assay and negative in others. Furthermore, we confirmed that it was the eculizumab-C5 complexes that were detected in the C5a assay by adding an anti-IgG4 antibody as detection antibody. Competitive inhibition by anti-C5 antibodies localized the epitope to the C5a moiety of C5. Finally, acidification of C5, known to alter C5 conformation, induced a neoepitope reacting identical to the one we explored, in the C5a assays. These data are important for interpretation of complement analyses in patients treated with eculizumab. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. C5a regulates IL-12+ DC migration to induce pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It is well known that complement system C5a is excessively activated during the onset of sepsis. However, it is unclear whether C5a can regulate dentritic cells (DCs to stimulate adaptive immune cells such as Th1 and Th17 in sepsis. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. CLP-induced sepsis was treated with anti-C5a or IL-12. IL-12(+DC, IFNγ(+Th1, and IL-17(+Th17 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. IL-12 was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Our studies here showed that C5a induced IL-12(+DC cell migration from the peritoneal cavity to peripheral blood and lymph nodes. Furthermore, IL-12(+DC cells induced the expansion of pathogenic IFNγ(+Th1 and IL-17(+Th17 cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes. Moreover, IL-12, secreted by DC cells in the peritoneal cavity, is an important factor that prevents the development of sepsis. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that C5a regulates IL-12(+DC cell migration to induce pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells in sepsis.

  9. In vitro and in vivo dependency of chemokine generation on C5a and TNF-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czermak, B J; Sarma, V; Bless, N M

    1999-01-01

    Under a variety of conditions, alveolar macrophages can generate early response cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1), complement components, and chemotactic cytokines (chemokines). In the current studies, we determined the requirements for TNF-alpha and the complement activation product C5a in chemokine...... was studied in rat alveolar macrophages stimulated with IgG immune complexes in the absence or presence of Abs to TNF-alpha or C5a. The rat lung injury model induced by IgG immune complex deposition was employed for in vivo studies. Abs to TNF-alpha or C5a were administered intratracheally or i.......v., and effects on chemokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were quantitated by ELISA. Both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the requirements for TNF-alpha and C5a for full generation of CXC and CC chemokines. In vitro and in vivo blockade of TNF-alpha or C5a resulted in significantly reduced...

  10. Treatment with anti-C5aR mAb leads to early-onset clinical and mechanistic effects in the murine delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Sara Marie; Nansen, Anneline; Usher, Pernille A.

    2015-01-01

    Blockade of the complement cascade at the C5a/C5a receptor (C5aR)-axis is believed to be an attractive treatment avenue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effects of such interventions during the early phases of arthritis remain to be clarified. In this study we use the murine delayed......-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA) model to study the very early effects of a blocking, non-depleting anti-C5aR mAb on joint inflammation with treatment synchronised with disease onset, an approach not previously described. The DTHA model is a single-paw inflammatory arthritis model characterised by synchronised......Ab. Importantly, infiltration of neutrophils into the joint and synovium is also reduced following a single dose, demonstrating that C5aR signalling during the early stage of arthritis regulates neutrophil infiltration and activation. Furthermore, the number of T-cells in circulation and in the draining popliteal...

  11. Compromised neutrophil function and severe bovine E.coli mastitis: is C5a the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Around the periparturient period and during early lactation dairy cows have an elevated risk for clinical mastitis. The severity of Gram-negative infections during these periods has been correlated with reduced neutrophil functions. In this review we focus on the potential role of C5a in the develop...

  12. Eculizumab-C5 complexes express a C5a neoepitope in vivo: Consequences for interpretation of patient complement analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, P.H.; Thomas, A.M.; Bergseth, G.; Gustavsen, A.; Volokhina, E.B.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Barratt-Due, A.; Mollnes, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    The complement system has obtained renewed clinical focus due to increasing number of patients treated with eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody inhibiting cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b. The FDA approved indications are paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome, but

  13. Insoluble immune complexes are most effective at triggering IL-10 production in human monocytes and synergize with TLR ligands and C5a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMartino, Stephen J; Yuan, Weijia; Redecha, Patricia; Ivashkiv, Lionel B; Salmon, Jane E

    2008-04-01

    In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a disease of immune complex (IC) deposition, interleukin-10 (IL-10) is thought to promote B-lymphocyte hyperactivity and autoantibody production. Both ICs and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands have been shown to stimulate the production of IL-10 by human monocytes. Using an in vitro model, we studied how IC solubility, complement activation products, and TLR ligands could affect IL-10 production by human monocytes stimulated with ICs. Human monocytes were stimulated with soluble or insoluble heat-aggregated human IgG with or without TLR ligands or C5a. Cytokine levels in cell culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. To study cytokine signaling, cell lysates were analyzed by Western blot for total or tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3. Insoluble ICs were most effective at stimulating production of IL-10, and costimulation LPS enhanced synthesis of IL-10. In addition, stimulation with insoluble ICs together with C5a enhanced the production of IL-10 by 2-4 fold in either the presence or absence of TLR ligands. Increased STAT3 phosphorylation correlated temporally with enhanced IL-10 production and was reduced by an IL-10 receptor blocking antibody, suggesting that IL-10 was responsible for observed STAT3 phosphorylation. Because the immune deposits of SLE are, by definition, insoluble; and because IL-10 is thought to be important for B-cell hyperactivity and autoantibody production, these observations provide a critical link, bridging current views of B-cell hyperactivity with the early concept that SLE may arise from defective clearance of immune complexes.

  14. A New Approach for the Treatment of Arthritis in Mice with a Novel Conjugate of an Anti-C5aR1 Antibody and C5 Small Interfering RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Gaurav; Scheinman, Robert I; Holers, V Michael; Banda, Nirmal K

    2015-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune joint disease in which the complement system plays an important role. Of the several components of complement, current evidence points to C5 as the most important inducer of inflammation. Several groups generated Abs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or small molecule inhibitors against C5 and C5aR1 (CD88) that have showed some efficacy in RA in animal models. However, none of these candidate therapeutics has moved from bench to bedside. In this study, we test in collagen Ab-induced arthritis (CAIA) a new therapeutic strategy using a novel anti-C5ab-C5 siRNA conjugate. We first demonstrate that although C5aR2 or C5L2 (GPR77) plays no role in CAIA, C5aR1 contributes to pathogenesis. We demonstrate that injection of siRNAs blocking C5, C5aR1, or the combination decreased clinical disease activity in mice with CAIA by 45%, 51%, and 58%, respectively. Anti-C5 Ab (BB5.1) has only limited efficacy, but significantly reduced arthritis up to 66%. We then generated a novel anti-C5aR1 Ab-protamine-C5 siRNA conjugate. To our knowledge, we show for the first time that whereas unconjugated Ab plus siRNAs reduce arthritis by 19%, our anti-C5aR1 Ab-protamine-C5 siRNA conjugate was effective in reducing arthritis by 83% along with a parallel decrease in histopathology, C3 deposition, neutrophils, and macrophages in the joints of mice with CAIA. These data suggest that by targeting anti-C5 siRNAs to the receptor for its C5a activation fragment (C5aR1), a striking clinical effect can be realized. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. The effect of lutein supplementation on blood plasma levels of complement factor D, C5a and C3d.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Tian

    Full Text Available Lutein is selectively taken up by the primate retina and plays an important role as a filter for harmful blue light and as an antioxidant. Recent studies have shown that lutein has systemic anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary lutein has been associated with reduced circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers such as CRP and sICAM. Whether lutein also affects activation of the complement system has not yet been addressed and was the purpose of the study described here. Seventy-two subjects with signs of early macular degeneration were randomly assigned to receive either a 10 mg lutein supplement or a placebo during one year. EDTA blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months. Complement factor D (CFD, a rate limiting component of the alternative pathway of complement activation and the complement activation products C5a and C3d were determined in the plasma samples by ELISA. A significant 0.11 µg/ml monthly decrease in plasma CFD concentration was observed in the lutein group (p<0.001, resulting in a 51% decrease from 2.3 µg/ml at baseline to 1.0 µg/ml at 12 months. The C5a concentration showed a significant 0.063ng/ml monthly decrease in the lutein group (p<0.001 resulting in a 36% decrease from 2.2ng/ml at baseline to 1.6ng/ml at 12 months. The C3d concentration showed a significant 0.19µg/ml monthly decrease in the lutein group (p=0.004 that gave rise to a 9% decrease from 15.4µg/ml at baseline to 14.4µg/ml at 12 months. In the placebo group we found a significant 0.04 µg/ml monthly decrease in plasma CFD concentration, whereas no changes were observed for C5a and C3d. Lutein supplementation markedly decreases circulating levels of the complement factors CFD, C5a and C3d levels, which might allow a simple method to control this inflammatory pathway of the innate immune system.

  16. Evaluation of the Flying Qualities Requirements of MIL-F-8785B (ASG) using the C-5A Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-20

    ft. . * CA1&.;J’.7 TAKEOIF KT 4firi 5~ttdW v C dPOAC( Q-%) 111 V 1S 0.000 ft .11 2.0 , Aproach Spe j ta H LmI) a N.) r--AI f v 10.OOaft. .1 2.0 56 C...35 70 Cor.mpor i son For the C-5A airplane, this requirement translates into the following: Maximum Wheel Minimum Wheel Level Categor Force force A

  17. Augmentation of Antitumor T-Cell Responses by Increasing APC T-Cell C5a/C3a-C5aR/C3aR Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    three receptors. Mass Spec (MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS analyses are in progress to confirm this complex, identify potential...Carraro F, Allavena P, Giavazzi R. Identification of thrombin-like activity in ovarian cancer associated ascites and modulation of multiple cytokine

  18. Influence of a silicon (Si14)-based coating substrate for biomaterials on fibroblast growth and human C5a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebl, B; Hopperdietzel, C; Hünigen, H; Jung, F; Scharnagl, N

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts in biomaterial development there is still a lack on substrates for cardiovascular tissue engineering approaches which allow the establishment of a tight a functional endothelial layer on their surface to provide hemocompatibility. The study aimed to test the biocompatibility of a silicon (Si14)-based coating substrate (Supershine Medicare, Permanon) which was designed to resist temperatures from -40°C up to 300°C and which allows the use of established heat-inducing sterilization techniques respectively. By X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it could be validated that this substrate is able to establish a 40-50 nm thick layer of silica, oxygen and carbon without including any further elements from the substrate on an exemplary selection of materials (silicone, soda-lime-silica glass, stainless steel). Analysis of the LDH-release, the cell activity/proliferation (MTS assay) and the cell phenotype after growing 3T3 cells with extracts of the coated materials did not indicate any signs of cytotoxicity. Additionally by measuring the C5a release after exposure of the coated materials with human serum it could be demonstrated, that the coating had no impact on the activation of the complement system. These results generally suggest the tested substrate as a promising candidate for the coating of materials which are aimed to be used in cardiovascular tissue engineering approaches.

  19. Differential interaction of the staphylococcal toxins panton-valentine leukocidin and γ-hemolysin CB with human C5a receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, András N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357396995; Schiepers, Ariën; De Haas, Carla J C; Van Hooijdonk, Davy D J J; Badiou, Cédric; Contamin, Hugues; Vandenesch, François; Lina, Gérard; Gerard, Norma P.; Gerard, Craig; Van Kessel, Kok P M; Henry, Thomas; Van Strijp, Jos A G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074307053

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is well adapted to the human host. Evasion of the host phagocyte response is critical for successful infection. The staphylococcal bicomponent pore-forming toxins Panton-Valentine leukocidin LukSF-PV (PVL) and γ-hemolysin CB (HlgCB) target human phagocytes through interaction

  20. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  1. Formyl peptide receptor chimeras define domains involved in ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, H D; Holmes, R; Vilander, L R; Adams, R R; Manzana, W; Jolley, D; Andrews, W H

    1993-02-05

    We have begun to study the structural requirements for the binding of formyl peptides to their specific receptors. As an initial approach, we constructed C5a-formyl peptide receptor chimeras. Unique (and identical) restriction sites were introduced within the transmembrane domains of these receptors that allowed for the exchange of specific areas. Four types of chimeric receptors were generated. 1) The C5a receptor was progressively substituted by the formyl peptide receptor. 2) The formyl peptide receptor was progressively substituted by the C5a receptor. 3) Specific domains of the C5a receptor were substituted by the corresponding domain of the formyl peptide receptor. 4) Specific domains of the formyl peptide receptor were replaced by the same corresponding domain of the C5a receptor. Wild type and chimeric receptors were transfected into COS 7 cells and their ability to bind formyl peptide determined, taking into account efficiency of transfection and expression of chimeric protein. Based on these results, a ligand binding model is presented in which the second, third, and fourth extracellular (and/or their transmembrane) domains together with the first transmembrane domain form a ligand binding pocket for formyl peptides. It is proposed that the amino-terminal domain plays a role by presumably providing a "lid" to the pocket. The carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail appears to modulate ligand binding by regulating receptor affinity.

  2. Inhibition of C5a-induced actin polymerization, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils incubated in a glucose-based dialysis solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, G J; Andre, M; Böhler, J; Norgauer, J; Lubrich-Birkner, I; Steinhauer, H B; Schollmeyer, P J

    1993-01-01

    Chemotaxis and phagocytosis are important functions of phagocytic cells, which are closely related to cytoskeletal reorganization. These functions may be abnormal in phagocytes of uremic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In order to examine whether these abnormalities result from treatment, we studied actin polymerization (AP), as an index of cytoskeletal alterations, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) of healthy subjects. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils were exposed to either a hepes buffer or a glucose-based dialysis solution (GBDS) of different pH's (5.2, 7.4) and different glucose concentrations (1.36%, 2.27%, 3.86%). After incubation for 0, 5, or 20 minutes, cells were activated with 10 nmol/L C5a-complement. AP was measured as filamentous (F) actin content by NBD phallacidin staining and FACS analysis. Chemotaxis of PMNs was measured in Boyden chambers. In addition, phagocytosis of zymosan particles was assessed. Prior exposure to GBDS pH 5.2 of each glucose concentration immediately and completely inhibited AP in response to 10 nmol/L C5a-complement, reduced chemotaxis (> 95%), and completely inhibited phagocytosis. The inhibition was pH-dependent, since GBDS pH 7.4 caused less inhibition of these functions. We conclude that glucose-based dialysis solutions are cytotoxic towards neutrophils and completely inhibit their ability to display responses requiring cytoskeletal reorganization.

  3. Monoclonal antibodies targeting the antifibrinolytic activity of activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor but not the anti-inflammatory activity on osteopontin and C5a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, F; Ammollo, C T; Gils, A; Declerck, P J; Colucci, M

    2013-12-01

    Recently, anti-thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) mAbs selectively inhibiting plasmin-mediated TAFI activation were shown to stimulate fibrinolysis in vitro and in vivo, suggesting, in contrast to other findings, that plasmin-mediated TAFI activation plays an important role in fibrinolysis regulation. To further characterize the effects of two plasmin-specific anti-TAFI mAbs (MA-TCK11A9 and MA-TCK26D6) on TAFI-dependent inhibition of fibrinolysis. Both mAbs inhibited plasmin-mediated but not thrombin/thrombomodulin-mediated TAFI activation, whereas neither inhibited the cleavage of hippuryl-arginine by activated TAFI (TAFIa). They stimulated tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis in different clot lysis models through a TAFI-dependent mechanism, especially in the presence of thrombomodulin (TM), a condition in which TAFI is largely activated by the thrombin-TM complex. In a fibrinolysis-based TAFIa activity assay, both mAbs inhibited TAFIa, whereas other mAbs targeting thrombin-TM-mediated TAFI activation did not. The inhibition of TAFIa activity, however, was substrate-specific, because neither mAb inhibited the cleavage of thrombin-activated osteopontin and C5a by TAFIa, thus sparing the anti-inflammatory activity of TAFIa. Our anti-TAFI mAbs, by selectively inhibiting TAFIa activity on fibrin, may represent the prototype of a new class of TAFI inhibitors with improved pharmacologic activity. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. The role of the complement system in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid

    2017-03-01

    In addition to being a component of innate immunity and an ancient defense mechanism against invading pathogens, complement activation also participates in the adaptive immune response, inflammation, hemostasis, embryogenesis, and organ repair and development. Activation of the complement system via classical, lectin, or alternative pathways generates anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and membrane attack complex (C5b-9) and opsonizes targeted cells. Complement activation end products and their receptors mediate cell-cell interactions that regulate several biological functions in the extravascular tissue. Signaling of anaphylatoxin receptors or assembly of membrane attack complex promotes cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, and migration in addition to reducing apoptosis. As a result, complement activation in the tumor microenvironment enhances tumor growth and increases metastasis. In this Review, I discuss immune and nonimmune functions of complement proteins and the tumor-promoting effect of complement activation.

  5. Salivary levels of secretary IgA, C5a and alpha 1-antitrypsin in sulfur mustard exposed patients 20 years after the exposure, Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Mostafaie, Ali; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Yaraee, Roya; Pourfarzam, Shahryar; Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammadreza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Sharifnia, Zarin; Naghizadeh, Mohammad-Mehdi; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2013-11-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong toxic agent that causes acute and chronic health effects on a myriad of organs following exposure. Although the primary targets of inhaled mustard gas are the epithelia of the upper respiratory tract, the lower respiratory tract is the focus of the current study, and upper tract complications remain obscure. To our knowledge there is no study addressing the secretory IgA (S-IgA), C5a, alpha 1 antitrypsin (A1AT) in the saliva of SM-exposed victims. In this study, as many as 500 volunteers, including 372 SM-exposed cases and 128 control volunteers were recruited. A 3 ml sample of saliva was collected from each volunteer, and the level of secretory IgA, C5a, and alpha 1 antitrypsin in the samples were compared between the two groups. The SM-exposed group showed a significantly higher amount of salivary alpha 1 antitrypsin and secretary IgA compared to the control group (p<.006 and p<.018 respectively). The two groups showed no significant difference (p=0.192) in the level of C5a. The results also showed that the level of salivary A1AT is more than that of IgA in severely injured cases. The findings presented here provide valuable insight for both researchers and practitioners dealing with victims of the chemical warfare agent, sulfur mustard. This research indicates that certain branches of the inflammatory processes mandate serious attention in therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of C5 Activation Products in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Ward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Complement activation products are known to be generated in the setting of both experimental and human sepsis. C5 activation products (C5a anaphylatoxin and the membrane attack complex [MAC] C5b-9 are generated during sepsis following infusion of endotoxin, or after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, which produces polymicrobial sepsis. C5a reacts with its receptors C5aR and C5L2 in a manner that creates the “cytokine storm”, and is associated with development of multiorgan failure (MOF. A number of other complications arising from the interaction of C5a with its receptors include apoptosis of lymphoid cells, loss of innate immune functions of neutrophils (PMNs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, cardiomyopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and complications associated with MOF. Neutralization of C5a in vivo or absence/blockade of C5a receptors greatly reduces the adverse events in the setting of sepsis, markedly attenuates MOF, and greatly improves survival. Regarding the possible role of C5b-9 in sepsis, the literature is conflicting. Some studies suggest that C5b-9 is protective, while other studies suggest the contrary. Clearly, in human sepsis, C5a and its receptors may be logical targets for interception.

  7. Modified Low Density Lipoprotein Stimulates Complement C3 Expression and Secretion via Liver X Receptor and Toll-like Receptor 4 Activation in Human Macrophages*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilenko, Denis A.; Kudriavtsev, Igor V.; Trulioff, Andrey S.; Shavva, Vladimir S.; Dizhe, Ella B.; Missyul, Boris V.; Zhakhov, Alexander V.; Ischenko, Alexander M.; Perevozchikov, Andrej P.; Orlov, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    Complement C3 is a pivotal component of three cascades of complement activation. C3 is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions and is involved in atherogenesis. However, the mechanism of C3 accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions is not well elucidated. We show that acetylated low density lipoprotein and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) increase C3 gene expression and protein secretion by human macrophages. Modified LDL (mLDL)-mediated activation of C3 expression mainly depends on liver X receptor (LXR) and partly on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), whereas C3 secretion is increased due to TLR4 activation by mLDL. LXR agonist TO901317 stimulates C3 gene expression in human monocyte-macrophage cells but not in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. We find LXR-responsive element inside of the promoter region of the human C3 gene, which binds to LXRβ in macrophages but not in HepG2 cells. We show that C3 expression and secretion is decreased in IL-4-treated (M2) and increased in IFNγ/LPS-stimulated (M1) human macrophages as compared with resting macrophages. LXR agonist TO901317 potentiates LPS-induced C3 gene expression and protein secretion in macrophages, whereas oxLDL differently modulates LPS-mediated regulation of C3 in M1 or M2 macrophages. Treatment of human macrophages with anaphylatoxin C3a results in stimulation of C3 transcription and secretion as well as increased oxLDL accumulation and augmented oxLDL-mediated up-regulation of the C3 gene. These data provide a novel mechanism of C3 gene regulation in macrophages and suggest new aspects of cross-talk between mLDL, C3, C3a, and TLR4 during development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:22194611

  8. Staphylococcal SSL5 inhibits leukocyte activation by chemokines and anaphylatoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bestebroer, Jovanka; van Kessel, Kok P. M.; Azouagh, Hafida; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.; Boer, Ingrid G. J.; Romijn, Roland A.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; de Haas, Carla J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus secretes several virulence factors modulating immune responses. Staphylococcal superantigen-like (SSL) proteins are a family of 14 exotoxins with homology to superantigens, but with generally unknown function. Recently, we showed that SSL5 binds to P-selectin glycoprotein

  9. Differential capacity for complement receptor-mediated immune evasion by Porphyromonas gingivalis depending on the type of innate leukocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishengallis, G; Krauss, J L; Jotwani, R; Lambris, J D

    2017-04-01

    The complement system plays a central role in immunity and inflammation, although certain pathogens can exploit complement to undermine protective immunity. In this context, the periodontal keystone pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis was previously shown by our group to evade killing by neutrophils or macrophages through exploitation of complement C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) and complement receptor 3 (CR3). Here, we examined whether P. gingivalis uses complement receptors to also subvert killing by dendritic cells. In line with earlier independent studies, intracellular viable P. gingivalis bacteria could be recovered from mouse bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) or human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) exposed to the pathogen. However, in the presence of C5a, the intracellular survival of P. gingivalis was significantly decreased in a C5aR1-dependent way. Further work using wild-type and receptor-knockout BMDC showed that, in the presence of C3a, the C3a receptor (C3aR) similarly enhanced the intracellular killing of P. gingivalis. In contrast, C5aR2, an alternative receptor for C5a (G protein-coupled receptor 77), was associated with increased intracellular P. gingivalis viable counts, consistent with the notion that C5aR2 functions as a negative regulator of C5aR1 activity. Moreover, P. gingivalis failed to use CR3 as a phagocytic receptor in BMDC, in contrast to our earlier findings in macrophages where CR3-mediated uptake promotes P. gingivalis survival. Collectively, these data show that complement receptors mediate cell-type-specific effects on how innate leukocytes handle P. gingivalis, which appears to exploit complement to preferentially evade those cells (neutrophils and macrophages) that are most often encountered in its predominant niche, the periodontal pocket. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Roles for NHERF1 and NHERF2 on the regulation of C3a receptor signaling in human mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan Subramanian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anaphylatoxin C3a binds to the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR, C3aR and activates divergent signaling pathways to induce degranulation and cytokine production in human mast cells. Adapter proteins such as the Na(+/H(+ exchange regulatory factor (NHERF1 and NHERF2 have been implicated in regulating functions of certain GPCRs by binding to the class I PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/Zo1 motifs present on their cytoplasmic tails. Although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, the possibility that it interacts with NHERF proteins to modulate signaling in human mast cells has not been determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, we found that NHERF1 and NHERF2 are expressed in human mast cell lines (HMC-1, LAD2 and CD34(+-derived primary human mast cells. Surprisingly, however, C3aR did not associate with these adapter proteins. To assess the roles of NHERFs on signaling downstream of C3aR, we used lentiviral shRNA to stably knockdown the expression of these proteins in human mast cells. Silencing the expression of NHERF1 and NHERF2 had no effect on C3aR desensitization, agonist-induced receptor internalization, ERK/Akt phosphorylation or chemotaxis. However, loss of NHERF1 and NHERF2 resulted in significant inhibition of C3a-induced mast cell degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine production. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, it does not associate with NHERF1 and NHERF2. Surprisingly, these proteins provide stimulatory signals for C3a-induced degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine generation in human mast cells. These findings reveal a new level of complexity for the functional regulation of C3aR by NHERFs in human mast cells.

  11. The androgen receptor and estrogen receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterkamp, H.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) and the estrogen receptors (ER) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) family. These NRs are distinguished from the other transcription factors by their ability to control gene expression upon ligand binding (steroids, retinoids, thyroid hormone, vitamin D, fatty

  12. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current clinical practice employs the use of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), as biomarkers to appropriately select patients that would benefit from targeted therapy against these major molecular pathways of the disease. This study aims at ...

  13. Signal transduction by the formyl peptide receptor. Studies using chimeric receptors and site-directed mutagenesis define a novel domain for interaction with G-proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatruda, T T; Dragas-Graonic, S; Holmes, R; Perez, H D

    1995-11-24

    The binding of small peptide ligands to high affinity chemoattractant receptors on the surface of neutrophils and monocytes leads to activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins, stimulation of phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC), and subsequently to the inflammatory response. It was recently shown (Amatruda, T. T., Gerard, N. P., Gerard, C., and Simon, M. I. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 10139-10144) that the receptor for the chemoattractant peptide C5a specifically interacts with G alpha 16, a G-protein alpha subunit of the Gq class, to trigger ligand-dependent stimulation of PI-PLC in transfected cells. In order to further characterize this chemoattractant peptide signal transduction pathway, we transfected cDNAs encoding the formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine receptor (fMLPR) into COS cells and measured the production of inositol phosphates. Ligand-dependent activation of PI-PLC was seen in COS cells transfected with the fMLPR and G alpha 16 and stimulated with fMLP but not in cells transfected with receptor alone or with receptor plus G alpha q. Chimeric receptors in which the N-terminal extracellular domain, the second intracellular domain, or the intracellular C-terminal tail of the fMLP receptor was replaced with C5a receptor domains (Perez, H. D., Holmes, R., Vilander, L. R., Adams, R. R., Manzana, W., Jolley, D., and Andrews, W. H. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2292-2295) were capable of ligand-dependent activation of PI-PLC when co-transfected with G alpha 16. A chimeric receptor exchanging the first intracellular domain of the fMLPR was constitutively activated, stimulating PI-PLC in the absence of ligand. Constitutive activation of PI-PLC, to a level 233% of that seen in cells transfected with wild-type fMLP receptors, was dependent on G alpha 16. Site-directed mutagenesis of the first intracellular domain of the fMLPR (amino acids 54-62) reveals this to be a domain necessary for ligand-dependent activation of G alpha 16. These results suggest that

  14. Lipophorin Receptor: The Insect Lipoprotein Receptor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. Lipophorin Receptor: The Insect Lipoprotein Receptor. G Ravikumar N B Vijayaprakash. General Article Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 748-755. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003576.htm Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood ...

  16. Androgen receptor abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); G.G.J.M. Kuiper (George); C. Ris-Stalpers (Carolyn); H.C.J. van Rooij (Henri); G. Romalo (G.); G. Trifiro (Gianluca); E. Mulder (Eppo); L. Pinsky (L.); H.U. Schweikert (H.); J. Trapman (Jan)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human androgen receptor is a member of the superfamily of steroid hormone receptors. Proper functioning of this protein is a prerequisite for normal male sexual differentiation and development. The cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA and the elucidation of

  17. Cross-linking of Fc gamma receptor IIa and Fc gamma receptor IIIb induces different proadhesive phenotypes on human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, M; Siegel, M E; Edberg, J C; Kimberly, R P

    1997-10-15

    Activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) plays an important role in vascular injury associated with systemic vasculitis and in models of autoantibody- and immune complex-mediated disease. The potential role of intravascular activation of PMN, however, is confounded by the observation that some stimuli injected i.v. (e.g., IL-8 and C5a) lead to L-selectin shedding by PMN, which inhibits attachment to endothelium and may be functionally anti-inflammatory. To explore the impact of Fc gamma receptor (Fc gamma R)-mediated activation on the PMN adhesive phenotype, Fc gamma RIIa (CD32) and Fc gamma RIIIb (Cd16) were targeted with receptor-specific reagents, and the expression of adhesion molecules-mediating rolling (L-selectin) and firm adhesion (CD11b/CD18) was measured. Engagement of either Fc gamma RIIa or Fc gamma RIIIb leads to activation, demonstrated by degranulation (upregulation of CD66b), and to increased expression of total CD11b/CD18 and functional CD11b/CD18 (I-domain). In contrast, L-selectin shedding induced by PMN Fc gamma R was divergent. Despite the 5- to 10-fold greater expression and engagement at saturation, activation via Fc gamma RIIIb led to little or no change in L-selectin expression. Stimulation of PMN with intact murine anti-receptor IgG1 showed a contribution of Fc gamma RIIa receptor polymorphisms, underscoring the direct influences of Fc gamma R allotypes on receptor function. These observations suggest that Fc gamma RIIIb-mediated activation of circulating PMN may lead to a proadhesive phenotype likely to promote systemic vascular damage. This Fc gamma R-mediated adhesive phenotype will vary with the receptors engaged and their allotypes, which, in turn, reflect properties of the immune complex and the genetics of the host.

  18. Characterization of Pharmacologic and Pharmacokinetic Properties of CCX168, a Potent and Selective Orally Administered Complement 5a Receptor Inhibitor, Based on Preclinical Evaluation and Randomized Phase 1 Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Pirow; Dairaghi, Daniel; Seitz, Lisa; Leleti, Manmohan; Wang, Yu; Ertl, Linda; Baumgart, Trageen; Shugarts, Sarah; Lohr, Lisa; Dang, Ton; Miao, Shichang; Zeng, Yibin; Fan, Pingchen; Zhang, Penglie; Johnson, Daniel; Powers, Jay; Jaen, Juan; Charo, Israel; Schall, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The complement 5a receptor has been an attractive therapeutic target for many autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. However, development of a selective and potent C5aR antagonist has been challenging. Here we describe the characterization of CCX168 (avacopan), an orally administered selective and potent C5aR inhibitor. CCX168 blocked the C5a binding, C5a-mediated migration, calcium mobilization, and CD11b upregulation in U937 cells as well as in freshly isolated human neutrophils. CCX168 retains high potency when present in human blood. A transgenic human C5aR knock-in mouse model allowed comparison of the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the molecule. CCX168 effectively blocked migration in in vitro and ex vivo chemotaxis assays, and it blocked the C5a-mediated neutrophil vascular endothelial margination. CCX168 was effective in migration and neutrophil margination assays in cynomolgus monkeys. This thorough in vitro and preclinical characterization enabled progression of CCX168 into the clinic and testing of its safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic profiles in a Phase 1 clinical trial in 48 healthy volunteers. CCX168 was shown to be well tolerated across a broad dose range (1 to 100 mg) and it showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics. An oral dose of 30 mg CCX168 given twice daily blocked the C5a-induced upregulation of CD11b in circulating neutrophils by 94% or greater throughout the entire day, demonstrating essentially complete target coverage. This dose regimen is being tested in clinical trials in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry with trial ID ISRCTN13564773.

  19. Class I Cytokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinocher, Helena

    The members of the class I cytokine receptor family are involved in a wide range of cellular processes and of high pharmaceutical importance, however, even though the transmembrane receptors have been studied for decades, it has not been fully elucidated yet, how these receptors induce their intr......The members of the class I cytokine receptor family are involved in a wide range of cellular processes and of high pharmaceutical importance, however, even though the transmembrane receptors have been studied for decades, it has not been fully elucidated yet, how these receptors induce...... their intracellular response. The overall goal of this thesis was to improve the understanding of class I cytokine receptor activation and regulation at an atomic level. Two members of the class I cytokine receptor family, the human growth hormone receptor (hGHR), and the human erythropoietin receptor (hEPOR) have...... the traptamers on the hEPOR TMD dimeric complex in detergent micelles. To gain a better understanding of hGHR regulation a point mutation in the hGHR intracellular domain (ICD), which has recently been linked to lung cancer, was characterized. The mutation was found to decrease binding of suppressor of cytokine...

  20. GABA receptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Doo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    GABA is primary an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is localized in inhibitory interneurons. GABA is released from presynaptic terminals and functions by binding to GABA receptors. There are two types of GABA receptors, GABA{sub A}-receptor that allows chloride to pass through a ligand gated ion channel and GABA{sub B}-receptor that uses G-proteins for signaling. The GABA{sub A}-receptor has a GABA binding site as well as a benzodiazepine binding sites, which modulate GABA{sub A}-receptor function. Benzodiazepine GABAA receptor imaging can be accomplished by radiolabeling derivates that activates benzodiazepine binding sites. There has been much research on flumazenil (FMZ) labeled with {sup 11}C-FMZ, a benzodiazepine derivate that is a selective, reversible antagonist to GABAA receptors. Recently, {sup 18}F-fluoroflumazenil (FFMZ) has been developed to overcome {sup 11}C's short half-life. {sup 18}F-FFMZ shows high selective affinity and good pharmacodynamics, and is a promising PET agent with better central benzodiazepine receptor imaging capabilities. In an epileptic focus, because the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor amount is decreased, using '1{sup 1}C-FMZ PET instead of {sup 18}F-FDG, PET, restrict the foci better and may also help find lesions better than high resolution MR. GABA{sub A} receptors are widely distributed in the cerebral cortex, and can be used as an viable neuronal marker. Therefore it can be used as a neuronal cell viability marker in cerebral ischemia. Also, GABA-receptors decrease in areas where neuronal plasticity develops, therefore, GABA imaging can be used to evaluate plasticity. Besides these usages, GABA receptors are related with psychological diseases, especially depression and schizophrenia as well as cerebral palsy, a motor-related disorder, so further in-depth studies are needed for these areas.

  1. [Nuclear receptors PPARalpha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soska, V

    2006-06-01

    Mechanism of the fibrates action is mediated by nuclear PPARalpha receptors (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor). These receptors regulate a number of genes that are involved both in lipids and lipoproteins metabolism and other mediators (e.g. inflammatory mediatores). Due to PPARalpha activation by fibrates, triglycerides and small dense LDL concentration is decreased, HDL cholesterol is increased and both inflammation and prothrombotic status are reduced. These effects are very important in patients with metabolic syndrom.

  2. Glutamate receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Bunch, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    The neurotransmitter (S)-glutamate [(S)-Glu] is responsible for most of the excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The effect of (S)-Glu is mediated by both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Glutamate receptor agonists are generally a-amino acids with one or more...... stereogenic centers due to strict requirements in the agonist binding pocket of the activated state of the receptor. By contrast, there are many examples of achiral competitive antagonists. The present review addresses how stereochemistry affects the activity of glutamate receptor ligands. The review focuses...... mainly on agonists and discusses stereochemical and conformational considerations as well as biostructural knowledge of the agonist binding pockets, which is useful in the design of glutamate receptor agonists. Examples are chosen to demonstrate how stereochemistry not only determines how the agonist...

  3. Lipophorin Receptor: The Insect Lipoprotein Receptor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    five structural and functional domains, which are discussed here. (Figure 1). Figure 1. Structure of lipophorin receptor. 3 Vitellogenesis: The process by which the yolk is formed and accumulated in the ovum as a source of nutrients for the egg development. Vitellogenin and lipophorin are the major yolk pro- tein precursors in ...

  4. Muscarinic receptor oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsango, Sara; Ward, Richard J; Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Milligan, Graeme

    2017-11-14

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been classically described as monomeric entities that function by binding in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio to both ligand and downstream signalling proteins. However, in recent years, a growing number of studies has supported the hypothesis that these receptors can interact to form dimers and higher order oligomers although the molecular basis for these interactions, the overall quaternary arrangements and the functional importance of GPCR oligomerization remain topics of intense speculation. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors belong to class A of the GPCR family. Each muscarinic receptor subtype has its own particular distribution throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the central nervous system, muscarinic receptors regulate several sensory, cognitive, and motor functions while, in the peripheral nervous system, they are involved in the regulation of heart rate, stimulation of glandular secretion and smooth muscle contraction. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have long been used as a model for the study of GPCR structure and function and to address aspects of GPCR dimerization using a broad range of approaches. In this review, the prevailing knowledge regarding the quaternary arrangement for the various muscarinic acetylcholine receptors has been summarized by discussing work ranging from initial results obtained using more traditional biochemical approaches to those generated with more modern biophysical techniques. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Serotonin Receptors in Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Laura Cristina; Rodríguez, Angelina; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus. Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, considering that they can be localized as autosynaptic, presynaptic, and postsynaptic receptors, even colocalized within the same cell and being target of homo- and heterodimerization. Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. PMID:22629209

  6. Glutamate receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandt, Mette; Johansen, Tommy N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Homologation and substitution on the carbon backbone of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu, 1], as well as absolute stereochemistry, are structural parameters of key importance for the pharmacological profile of (S)-Glu receptor ligands. We describe a series of methyl-substituted 2-aminoadipic acid (AA.......g., IC(50) = 300 microM for (2R,4S)-4-methyl-AA (5d)]. The two unsaturated analogs (S)- (7a) and (R)-(E)-Delta(4)-5-methyl-AA (7b) turned out to be a weak AMPA receptor agonist and a weak mixed NMDA/AMPA receptor antagonist, respectively....

  7. AMPA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Mellor, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR), subtype of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (IGRs), mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS), and are involved in many neurological disorders, as well as being a key player...... polyamines are known to modulate the function of these receptors in vivo. In this study, recent developments in the medicinal chemistry of polyamine-based ligands are given, particularly focusing on the use of solid-phase synthesis (SPS) as a tool for the facile generation of libraries of polyamine toxin...

  8. Receptors for anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itsikson, N A; Chupakhin, O N [I. Ya. Postovsky Institute of Organic Synthesis, Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Morzherin, Yu Yu; Matern, A I [B N Yeltsin Urals State Technical University - UPI (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-30

    The published data on receptors for anions with different geometry are generalised. Special attention is given to the analysis of binding abilities of organic ligands. Structural features of complex-forming agents and their properties are considered.

  9. Somatostatin receptor skintigrafi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karin; Nielsen, Jørn Theil; Rehling, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) is a very valuable imaging technique for visualisation of a diversity of neuroendocrine tumours. The sensitivity for localisation of carcinoid tumours is high, but somewhat lower for other neuroendocrine tumours. The methodology, multiple clinical aspects...

  10. Muscarinic receptor oligomerization

    OpenAIRE

    Marsango, Sara; Ward, Richard J.; Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Milligan, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been classically described as monomeric entities that function by binding in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio to both ligand and downstream signalling proteins. However, in recent years, a growing number of studies has supported the hypothesis that these receptors can interact to form dimers and higher order oligomers although the molecular basis for these interactions, the overall quaternary arrangements and the functional importance of GPCR oligomerization...

  11. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bosscher, Karolien

    2010-05-31

    The ancient two-faced Roman god Janus is often used as a metaphor to describe the characteristics of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1), which exhibits both a beneficial side, that serves to halt inflammation, and a detrimental side responsible for undesirable effects. However, recent developments suggest that the Glucocorticoid Receptor has many more faces with the potential to express a range of different functionalities, depending on factors that include the tissue type, ligand type, receptor variants, cofactor surroundings and target gene promoters. This behavior of the receptor has made the development of safer ligands, that trigger the expression program of only a desirable subset of genes, a real challenge. Thus more knowledge-based fundamental research is needed to ensure the design and development of selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators capable of reaching the clinic. Recent advances in the characterization of novel selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators, specifically in the context of anti-inflammatory strategies, will be described in this review. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetics of Taste Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Bosak, Natalia P.; Lin, Cailu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Reed, Danielle R.; Nelson, Theodore M.

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical “tastes” as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications. PMID:23886383

  13. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cannabinoid receptors in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, J M; Agraval, J; Gleeson, D; Heasman, K; Glass, M

    2006-03-01

    Two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are expressed in mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The presence of cannabinoid receptors in invertebrates has been controversial, due to conflicting evidence. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, using expanded search parameters. Evidence presented in the literature varied in validity, ranging from crude in vivo behavioural assays to robust in silico ortholog discovery. No research existed for several clades of invertebrates; we therefore tested for cannabinoid receptors in seven representative species, using tritiated ligand binding assays with [3H]CP55,940 displaced by the CB1-selective antagonist SR141716A. Specific binding of [3H]CP55,940 was found in neural membranes of Ciona intestinalis (Deuterstoma, a positive control), Lumbricusterrestris (Lophotrochozoa), and three ecdysozoans: Peripatoides novae-zealandiae (Onychophora), Jasus edwardi (Crustacea) and Panagrellus redivivus (Nematoda); the potency of displacement by SR141716A was comparable to measurements on rat cerebellum. No specific binding was observed in Actinothoe albocincta (Cnidaria) or Tethya aurantium (Porifera). The phylogenetic distribution of cannabinoid receptors may address taxonomic questions; previous studies suggested that the loss of CB1 was a synapomorphy shared by ecdysozoans. Our discovery of cannabinoid receptors in some nematodes, onychophorans, and crustaceans does not contradict the Ecdysozoa hypothesis, but gives it no support. We hypothesize that cannabinoid receptors evolved in the last common ancestor of bilaterians, with secondary loss occurring in insects and other clades. Conflicting data regarding Cnidarians precludes hypotheses regarding the last common ancestor of eumetazoans. No cannabinoid receptors are expressed in sponges, which probably diverged before the origin of the eumetazoan ancestor.

  15. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  16. Taste Receptors in Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors were first identified on the tongue, where they initiate a signaling pathway that communicates information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has shown that taste receptors are also expressed in a myriad of other tissues, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important sentinels of innate immunity. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein coupled–receptors that detect bitter, sweet, and savory tastes, followed by an overview of extraoral taste receptors and in-depth discussion of studies demonstrating the roles of taste receptors in airway innate immunity. Future research on extraoral taste receptors has significant potential for identification of novel immune mechanisms and insights into host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25323130

  17. Human presynaptic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicker, Eberhard; Feuerstein, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Presynaptic receptors are sites at which transmitters, locally formed mediators or hormones inhibit or facilitate the release of a given transmitter from its axon terminals. The interest in the identification of presynaptic receptors has faded in recent years and it may therefore be justified to give an overview of their occurrence in the autonomic and central nervous system; this review will focus on presynaptic receptors in human tissues. Autoreceptors are presynaptic receptors at which a given transmitter restrains its further release, though in some instances may also increase its release. Inhibitory autoreceptors represent a typical example of a negative feedback; they are tonically activated by the respective endogenous transmitter and/or are constitutively active. Autoreceptors also play a role under pathophysiological conditions, e.g. by limiting the massive noradrenaline release occurring during congestive heart failure. They can be used for therapeutic purposes; e.g., the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist mirtazapine is used as an antidepressant and the inverse histamine H3 receptor agonist pitolisant has been marketed as a new drug for the treatment of narcolepsy in 2016. Heteroreceptors are presynaptic receptors at which transmitters from adjacent neurons, locally formed mediators (e.g. endocannabinoids) or hormones (e.g. adrenaline) can inhibit or facilitate transmitter release; they may be subject to an endogenous tone. The constipating effect of the sympathetic nervous system or of the antihypertensive drug clonidine is related to the activation of inhibitory α2-adrenoceptors on postganglionic parasympathetic neurons. Part of the stimulating effect of adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system during stress is related to its facilitatory effect on noradrenaline release via β2-adrenoceptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatigue and Workload in Four-Man C-5A Cockpit Crews (Volant Galaxy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    were repl icI iuns of the tesI -mission iineraries, but with a navigator assigned to each/{-rew. Suviaries of the scheduled, itineraries and mission...POSTPONING SOME TASKS; HIGH CHANCE OF ERROR !i7. UiNMANAGABLE; POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS; UNACCEPTABLE ,, ’,, 2 , I , MP Place Coments on Reverse Figure 1. On

  19. Selective steroid oxyfunctionalisation by CYP154C5, a bacterial cytochrome P450

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases – able to regio- and stereoselectively hydroxylate non-activated carbon atoms – are important enzymes for the synthesis of valuable intermediates in the production of steroid hormones in the pharmaceutical industry. However, up to now only a few bacterial enzymes able to hydroxylate steroids have been reported. CYP154C5 from Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152, a bacterial P450 monooxygenase, was previously shown to convert testosterone to 16α-hydroxytestosterone. Since the hydroxylation at 16α-position is of special interest for the pharmaceutical industry, we have studied this enzyme in more detail to investigate its activity and selectivity in bioconversions of further steroids. Results CYP154C5 was coexpressed in Escherichia coli together with putidaredoxin and putidaredoxin reductase from Pseudomonas putida as redox partners for electron transfer and applied in bioconversions of various pregnanes and androstanes [pregnenolone (1), dehydroepiandrosterone (2), progesterone (3), androstenedione (4), testosterone (5) and nandrolone (6)]. Structure elucidation of the formed products revealed an exclusive regio- and stereoselectivity of CYP154C5, always yielding the corresponding 16α-hydroxylated steroids. Application of whole cells expressing the three components, P450, Pdx and PdR, in steroid biotransformations resulted in significantly higher conversions and total turnover numbers (TTN) compared to reactions using cell-free extracts. Additionally, considerably higher substrate loads (up to 15 mM) were tolerated by the whole-cell system. Furthermore, turnover numbers (TON) were determined for the six different steroids using whole cells. Thus, testosterone was found to be the worst substrate with a TON of only 0.8 μmol substrate consumed min-1 μmol-1 CYP154C5, while progesterone and pregnenolone were converted the fastest resulting in TON of 3.3 μmol substrate consumed min-1 μmol-1 CYP154C5. Conclusion CYP154C5 from N. farcinica constitutes a promising catalyst due to its high regio- and stereoselectivity in the hydroxylation of different steroids as well as its efficient expression in E. coli at high yields. Using this enzyme, 16α-hydroxylated steroids, which are important precursors for the synthesis of high value steroidal drugs in the pharmaceutical industry, can be selectively produced on preparative scale with TTN (μmol substrate consumed μmol-1 CYP154C5) exceeding 2000. PMID:24134652

  20. In-vitro activation of complement system by lactic acidosis in newborn and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Hecke

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complement activation occurs secondary to a variety of external stimuli. Lactic acidosis has been previously shown to activate the complement factors C3a and C5a. In the present investigation we examined the differential effect of lactic acidosis on anaphylatoxin levels in cord and adult blood. Furthermore we aimed to determine if the entire complement cascade could be activated by lactic acidosis.

  1. Taste receptors for umami: the case for multiple receptors1234

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhari, Nirupa; Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Umami taste is elicited by many small molecules, including amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) and nucleotides (monophosphates of inosinate or guanylate, inosine 5′-monophosphate and guanosine-5′-monophosphate). Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind the umami tastants. Over the past 15 y, several receptors have been proposed to underlie umami detection in taste buds. These receptors include 2 glutamate-selective G protein–coupled receptors,...

  2. Solubilized benzodiazepine receptors for use in receptor assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.J; Stegeman, M; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R.A

    In the development of non-radioactive receptor assays for benzodiazepines, employing fluorescent ligands, it was observed that the fluorescence measurements were hampered by the background fluorescence of the receptor preparation. This receptor preparation is a brain tissue homogenate in which the

  3. Metformin and insulin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneri, R.; Gullo, D.; Pezzino, V.

    The authors evaluated the effect of metformin (N,N-dimethylbiguanide), a biguanide known to be less toxic than phenformin, on insulin binding to its receptors, both in vitro and in vivo. Specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding to cultured IM-9 human lymphocytes and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was determined after preincubation with metformin. Specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding to circulating monocytes was also evaluated in six controls, eight obese subjects, and six obese type II diabetic patients before and after a short-term treatment with metformin. Plasma insulin levels and blood glucose were also measured on both occasions. Metformin significantly increased insulin binding in vitro to both IM-9 lymphocytes and MCF-7 cells; the maximum increment was 47.1% and 38.0%, respectively. Metformin treatment significantly increased insulin binding in vivo to monocytes of obese subjects and diabetic patients. Scatchard analysis indicated that the increased binding was mainly due to an increase in receptor capacity. Insulin binding to monocytes of normal controls was unchanged after metformin as were insulin levels in all groups; blood glucose was significantly reduced after metformin only in diabetic patients. These data indicate that metformin increases insulin binding to its receptors in vitro and in vivo. The effect in vivo is observed in obese subjects and in obese type II diabetic patients, paralleling the clinical effectiveness of this antidiabetic agent, and is not due to receptor regulation by circulating insulin, since no variation in insulin levels was recorded.

  4. Ginkgolides and glycine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaracz, Stanislav; Nakanishi, Koji; Jensen, Anders A.

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgolides from the Ginkgo biloba tree are diterpenes with a cage structure consisting of six five-membered rings and a unique tBu group. They exert a variety of biological properties. In addition to being antagonists of the platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR), it has recently been shown...

  5. Meeting report: nuclear receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuckermann, Jan; Bourguet, William; Mandrup, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The biannual European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) conference on nuclear receptors was organized by Beatrice Desvergne and Laszlo Nagy and took place in Cavtat near Dubrovnik on the Adriatic coast of Croatia September 25-29, 2009. The meeting brought together researchers from all over...

  6. Angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and receptor Mas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villela, Daniel; Leonhardt, Julia; Patel, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas are components of the protective arms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), i.e. they both mediate tissue protective and regenerative actions. The spectrum of actions of these two receptors and their signalling mechanisms display striking...... the phenomenon of blockade of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] actions by AT2R antagonists and vice versa. Such mechanisms may comprise dimerization of the receptors or dimerization-independent mechanisms such as lack of specificity of the receptor ligands used in the experiments or involvement of the Ang-(1...

  7. [GABA receptors: structure and functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiurenkov, I N; Perfilova, V N

    2010-10-01

    Data on the structure, localization, physiology, and pharmacology of GABA receptors are reviewed. These receptors belong to cis-loop receptors and consist of 16 subunits in various combinations and occur in both central nervous system and peripheral organs. There are a great number of their allosteric modulators, agonists and antagonists. Activation of GABA receptors is accompanied by changes in the permeability of plasmatic membranes for chloride ions, which is followed by depolarization (presynaptic inhibition) or hyperpolarization (postsynaptic inhibition). GABA receptors contain some topographically different binding sites, intended for the interaction both with the main mediator (GABA) and with allosteric regulators such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, convulsants, ethanol, and neurosteroids.

  8. Levamisole receptors: a second awakening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard J.; Robertson, Alan P.; Buxton, Samuel K.; Beech, Robin N.; Charvet, Claude L.; Neveu, Cedric

    2012-01-01

    Levamisole and pyrantel are old (1965) but useful anthelmintics that selectively activate nematode acetylcholine ion-channel receptors; they are used to treat roundworm infections in humans and animals. Interest in their actions has surged, giving rise to new knowledge and technical advances, including an ability to reconstitute receptors that reveal more details of modes of action/resistance. We now know that the receptors are plastic and may form diverse species-dependent subtypes of receptor with different sensitivities to individual cholinergic anthelmintics. Understanding the biology of the levamisole receptors is expected to inform other studies on anthelmintics (ivermectin and emodepside) that act on ion-channels. PMID:22607692

  9. The complement system and toll-like receptors as integrated players in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovland, Anders; Jonasson, Lena; Garred, Peter

    2015-01-01

    of innate immunity. The complement system and toll-like receptors (TLRs), and the crosstalk between them, may be of particular interest both with respect to pathogenesis and as therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis. Animal studies indicate that inhibition of C3a and C5a reduces atherosclerosis. In humans...... modified LDL-cholesterol activate complement and TLRs leading to downstream inflammation, and histopathological studies indicate that the innate immune system is present in atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, clinical studies have demonstrated that both complement and TLRs are upregulated in atherosclerotic...... diseases, although interventional trials have this far been disappointing. However, based on recent research showing an intimate interplay between complement and TLRs we propose a model in which combined inhibition of both complement and TLRs may represent a potent anti-inflammatory therapeutic approach...

  10. Structural biology of GABAB receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangaj, Aurel; Fan, Qing R

    2017-10-12

    Metabotropic GABAB receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates slow and prolonged inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. It functions as a constitutive heterodimer composed of the GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits. Each subunit contains three domains; the extracellular Venus flytrap module, seven-helix transmembrane region and cytoplasmic tail. In recent years, the three-dimensional structures of GABAB receptor extracellular and intracellular domains have been elucidated. These structures reveal the molecular basis of ligand recognition, receptor heterodimerization and receptor activation. Here we provide a brief review of the GABAB receptor structures, with an emphasis on describing the different ligand-bound states of the receptor. We will also compare these with the known structures of related GPCRs to shed light on the molecular mechanisms of activation and regulation in the GABAB system, as well as GPCR dimers in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolutionary analysis of functional divergence among chemokine receptors, decoy receptors and viral receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi eDaiyasu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemokine receptors (CKRs function in the inflammatory response and in vertebrate homeostasis. Decoy and viral receptors are two types of CKR homologues with modified functions from those of the typical CKRs. The decoy receptors are able to bind ligands without signaling. On the other hand, the viral receptors show constitutive signaling without ligands. We examined the sites related to the functional difference. At first, the decoy and viral receptors were each classified into five groups, based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis. A multiple amino acid sequence alignment between each group and the CKRs was then constructed. The difference in the amino acid composition between the group and the CKRs was evaluated as the Kullback-Leibler (KL information value at each alignment site. The KL information value is considered to reflect the difference in the functional constraints at the site. The sites with the top 5% of KL information values were selected and mapped on the structure of a CKR. The comparisons with decoy receptor groups revealed that the detected sites were biased on the intracellular side. In contrast, the sites detected from the comparisons with viral receptor groups were found on both the extracellular and intracellular sides. More sites were found in the ligand-binding pocket in the analyses of the viral receptor groups, as compared to the decoy receptor groups. Some of the detected sites were located in the GPCR motifs. For example, the DRY motif of the decoy receptors was often degraded, although the motif of the viral receptors was basically conserved. The observations for the viral receptor groups suggested that the constraints in the pocket region are loose and that the sites on the intracellular side are different from those for the decoy receptors, which may be related to the constitutive signaling activity of the viral receptors.

  12. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  13. Pattern recognition receptors: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutagny, Nadege; Fitzgerald, Katherine A

    2006-07-01

    The vertebrate immune system consists of two inter-related components, the innate and adaptive responses, which are required for the resolution of infection. The innate immune response is critical for the immediate protection from infection and for marshalling the B- and T-cell responses of the adaptive response. A key component of the innate immune response is germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that detect pathogens. Several families of these pattern recognition receptors have now been described. Microbial recognition by these receptors triggers appropriate immune responses, including the direct uptake and killing of pathogens and/or initiation of intracellular signaling pathways that culminate in the activation of immune responsive transcriptional programs. Pattern recognition receptors include soluble receptors in serum (collectins), transmembrane receptors on cell surfaces or vacuolar membranes (C-type lectins and Toll-like receptors) or cytoplasmic sensors (NACHT-LRR proteins and RNA helicases). Roles for these pattern recognition receptor families are emerging in the susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections and in acute and chronic conditions, such as sepsis, autoimmune disease and atherosclerosis. These findings suggest that the selective targeting of pattern recognition receptors and the pathways they trigger may be useful clinically. Progress towards therapeutics designed to target Toll-like receptor signaling is already well underway. This review will describe our current understanding of innate immune sensors and the mechanisms regulating their activity.

  14. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  15. [GABAC receptors: structure and functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N

    2011-01-01

    Data on the structure, localization, physiology and pharmacology of GABA(C) receptors are reviewed. Thece receptors belong to cys-loop receptors and consist of rho1-3 subunits representing pentamers with five subunits that form a chloride channel. They are found in both central nervous system and peripheral organs. The pentamer can be homomeric, consisting of five similar protomers (e.g., p1), or heteromeric (pseudo-homomeric), consisting of rho1 and rho2 subunits. Chloride channel function also depends on the GABA(C) receptor subunit composition. The activation of GABAc receptors is accompanied by a change in the permeability of plasmatic membranes for C1 ions, which is followed by depolarization (presynaptic inhibition) or hyperpolarization (postsynaptic inhibition). There are a great number of the allosteric modulators, agonists and antagonists of GABA(C) receptors.

  16. Uncompetitive antagonism of AMPA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine F; Tikhonov, Denis B; Bølcho, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Philanthotoxins are uncompetitive antagonists of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors presumed to bind to the pore-forming region, but a detailed molecular mechanism for this interaction is missing. Here a small library of novel philanthotoxins was designed and synthesized using a solid-phase strategy. ...... polyamine toxins antagonize the AMPA receptor ion channel and provide the basis for rational development of uncompetitive antagonists of AMPA receptors....

  17. Dimerization of nuclear receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Pierre; Bourguet, William

    2013-01-01

    Multicellular organisms require specific intercellular communication to properly organize the complex body plan during embryogenesis and maintain its properties and functions during the entire life. While growth factors, neurotransmitters, and peptide hormones bind to membrane receptors, thereby inducing the activity of intracellular kinase cascades or the JAK-STAT signaling pathways, other small signaling compounds such as steroid hormones, certain vitamins, and metabolic intermediates enter, or are generated, within the target cells and bind to members of a large family of nuclear receptors (NRs). NRs are ligand-inducible transcription factors that control a plethora of biological phenomena, thus orchestrating complex events like development, organ homeostasis, immune function, and reproduction. NR-NR interactions are of major importance in these regulatory processes, as NRs regulate their target genes by binding to cognate DNA response elements essentially as homo- or heterodimers. A number of structural and functional studies have provided significant insights as to how combinatorial NRs rely on protein-protein contacts that discriminate geometric features of their DNA response elements, thereby allowing both binding site diversity and physiological specificity. Here, we will review our current understanding of NR-NR interactions and provide protocols for a number of experimental approaches that are useful for their study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Axonal GABAA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Federico F; Marty, Alain; Stell, Brandon M

    2008-09-01

    Type A GABA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are well established as the main inhibitory receptors in the mature mammalian forebrain. In recent years, evidence has accumulated showing that GABA(A)Rs are prevalent not only in the somatodendritic compartment of CNS neurons, but also in their axonal compartment. Evidence for axonal GABA(A)Rs includes new immunohistochemical and immunogold data: direct recording from single axonal terminals; and effects of local applications of GABA(A)R modulators on action potential generation, on axonal calcium signalling, and on neurotransmitter release. Strikingly, whereas presynaptic GABA(A)Rs have long been considered inhibitory, the new studies in the mammalian brain mostly indicate an excitatory action. Depending on the neuron that is under study, axonal GABA(A)Rs can be activated by ambient GABA, by GABA spillover, or by an autocrine action, to increase either action potential firing and/or transmitter release. In certain neurons, the excitatory effects of axonal GABA(A)Rs persist into adulthood. Altogether, axonal GABA(A)Rs appear as potent neuronal modulators of the mammalian CNS.

  19. The Staphylococcal Toxins γ-Hemolysin AB and CB Differentially Target Phagocytes by Employing Specific Chemokine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaan, András N.; Vrieling, Manouk; Wallet, Pierre; Badiou, Cédric; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Ohneck, Elizabeth A.; Benito, Yvonne; de Haas, Carla J.C.; Day, Christopher J.; Jennings, Michael P.; Lina, Gérard; Vandenesch, François; van Kessel, Kok P.M.; Torres, Victor J.; van Strijp, Jos A.G.; Henry, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Evasion of the host phagocyte response by Staphylococcus aureus is crucial to successful infection with the pathogen. γ-Hemolysin AB and CB (HlgAB, HlgCB) are bicomponent pore-forming toxins present in almost all human S. aureus isolates. Cellular tropism and contribution of the toxins to S. aureus pathophysiology are poorly understood. Here, we identify the chemokine receptors CXCR1, CXCR2 and CCR2 as targets for HlgAB, and the complement receptors C5aR and C5L2 as targets for HlgCB. The receptor expression patterns allow the toxins to efficiently and differentially target phagocytic cells. Murine neutrophils are resistant to HlgAB and HlgCB. CCR2 is the sole murine receptor orthologue compatible with γ-Hemolysin. In a murine peritonitis model, HlgAB contributes to S. aureus bacteremia in a CCR2-dependent manner. HlgAB-mediated targeting of CCR2+ cells highlights the involvement of inflammatory macrophages during S. aureus infection. Functional quantification identifies HlgAB and HlgCB as major secreted staphylococcal leukocidins. PMID:25384670

  20. Possible Relevance of Receptor-Receptor Interactions between Viral- and Host-Coded Receptors for Viral-Induced Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F. Agnati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that some viruses, such as the cytomegalovirus, code for G-protein coupled receptors not only to elude the immune system, but also to redirect cellular signaling in the receptor networks of the host cells. In view of the existence of receptor-receptor interactions, the hypothesis is introduced that these viral-coded receptors not only operate as constitutively active monomers, but also can affect other receptor function by interacting with receptors of the host cell. Furthermore, it is suggested that viruses could also insert not single receptors (monomers, but clusters of receptors (receptor mosaics, altering the cell metabolism in a profound way. The prevention of viral receptor-induced changes in host receptor networks may give rise to novel antiviral drugs that counteract viral-induced disease.

  1. New horizons for lipoprotein receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Olav M.; Dagil, Robert; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2013-01-01

    The lipoprotein receptor (LR) family constitutes a large group of structurally closely related receptors with broad ligand-binding specificity. Traditionally, ligand binding to LRs has been anticipated to involve merely the complement type repeat (CR)-domains omnipresent in the family. Recently...

  2. Coronavirus spike-receptor interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, H.

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses cause important diseases in humans and animals. Coronavirus infection starts with the virus binding with its spike proteins to molecules present on the surface of host cells that act as receptors. This spike-receptor interaction is highly specific and determines the virus’ cell, tissue

  3. Dopamine Receptors and Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hisahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive extrapyramidal motor disorder. Pathologically, this disease is characterized by the selective dopaminergic (DAergic neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra. Correcting the DA deficiency in PD with levodopa (L-dopa significantly attenuates the motor symptoms; however, its effectiveness often declines, and L-dopa-related adverse effects emerge after long-term treatment. Nowadays, DA receptor agonists are useful medication even regarded as first choice to delay the starting of L-dopa therapy. In advanced stage of PD, they are also used as adjunct therapy together with L-dopa. DA receptor agonists act by stimulation of presynaptic and postsynaptic DA receptors. Despite the usefulness, they could be causative drugs for valvulopathy and nonmotor complication such as DA dysregulation syndrome (DDS. In this paper, physiological characteristics of DA receptor familyare discussed. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and specific adverse effects of pharmaceutical DA receptor agonist.

  4. Probing Biased Signaling in Chemokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarandi, Roxana Maria; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine system mediates leukocyte migration during homeostatic and inflammatory processes. Traditionally, it is described as redundant and promiscuous, with a single chemokine ligand binding to different receptors and a single receptor having several ligands. Signaling of chemokine receptors...

  5. Heterotypic interactions between transferrin receptor and transferrin receptor 2

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, TM; Blackwell, AD; Giannetti, AM; Bjorkman, PJ; Enns, CA

    2003-01-01

    Cellular iron uptake in most tissues occurs via endocytosis of diferric transferrin (Tf) bound to the transferrin receptor (TfR). Recently, a second transferrin receptor, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2), has been identified and shown to play a critical role in iron metabolism. TfR2 is capable of Tf-mediated iron uptake and mutations in this gene result in a rare form of hereditary hemochromatosis unrelated to the hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE. Unlike TfR, TfR2 expression is not contro...

  6. Estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) - renaissance receptor or receptor renaissance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divekar, Shailaja D; Tiek, Deanna M; Fernandez, Aileen; Riggins, Rebecca B

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are founding members of the orphan nuclear receptor (ONR) subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Twenty-seven years of study have yet to identify cognate ligands for the ERRs, though they have firmly placed ERRα and ERRγ at the intersection of cellular metabolism and oncogenesis. The pace of discovery for novel functions of ERRβ, however, has until recently been somewhat slower than that of its family members. ERRβ has also been largely ignored in summaries and perspectives of the ONR literature. Here, we provide an overview of established and emerging knowledge of ERRβ in mouse, man, and other species, highlighting unique aspects of ERRβ biology that set it apart from the other two estrogen-related receptors, with a focus on the impact of alternative splicing on the structure and function of this receptor.

  7. Cloning of human and mouse EBI1, a lymphoid-specific G-protein-coupled receptor encoded on human chromosome 17q12-q21.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickart, V L; Raport, C J; Godiska, R; Byers, M G; Eddy, R L; Shows, T B; Gray, P W

    1994-10-01

    A lymphoid-specific member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family has been identified by PCR with degenerate oligonucleotides. We have determined that this receptor, also reported as the Epstein-Barr-induced cDNA EBI1, is expressed in normal lymphoid tissues and in several B- and T-lymphocyte cell lines. While the function and the ligand for EBI1 remain unknown, its sequence and gene structure suggest that it is related to the receptors that recognize chemoattractants, such as interleukin-8, RANTES, C5a, and fMet-Leu-Phe. Like the chemoattractant receptors, EBI1 contains intervening sequences near its 5' end; however, EBI1 is unique in that both of its introns interrupt the coding region of the first extracellular domain. The gene is encoded on human chromosome 17q12-q21.2. None of the other G-protein-coupled receptors has been mapped to this region, but the C-C chemokine family has been mapped to 17q11-q21. The mouse EBI1 cDNA has also been isolated and encodes a protein with 86% identity to the human homolog.

  8. Stargazin Modulation of AMPA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana A. Shaikh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast excitatory synaptic signaling in the mammalian brain is mediated by AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors. In neurons, AMPA receptors co-assemble with auxiliary proteins, such as stargazin, which can markedly alter receptor trafficking and gating. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer measurements to map distances between the full-length, functional AMPA receptor and stargazin expressed in HEK293 cells and to determine the ensemble structural changes in the receptor due to stargazin. In addition, we used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study the structural and conformational distribution of the receptor and how this distribution is affected by stargazin. Our nanopositioning data place stargazin below the AMPA receptor ligand-binding domain, where it is well poised to act as a scaffold to facilitate the long-range conformational selection observations seen in single-molecule experiments. These data support a model of stargazin acting to stabilize or select conformational states that favor activation.

  9. Lysophospholipid receptors in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Hirotaka; Chun, Jerold

    2015-05-01

    Lysophospholipids (LPs), including lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), sphingosine 1-phospate (S1P), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), and lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS), are bioactive lipids that transduce signals through their specific cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors, LPA1-6, S1P1-5, LPI1, and LysoPS1-3, respectively. These LPs and their receptors have been implicated in both physiological and pathophysiological processes such as autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, fibrosis, pain, cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, bone formation, fertility, organismal development, and other effects on most organ systems. Advances in the LP receptor field have enabled the development of novel small molecules targeting LP receptors for several diseases. Most notably, fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya, Novartis), an S1P receptor modulator, became the first FDA-approved medicine as an orally bioavailable drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. This success is currently being followed by multiple, mechanistically related compounds targeting S1P receptor subtypes, which are in various stages of clinical development. In addition, an LPA1 antagonist, BMS-986020 (Bristol-Myers Squibb), is in Phase 2 clinical development for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, as a distinct compound, SAR100842 (Sanofi) for the treatment of systemic sclerosis and related fibrotic diseases. This review summarizes the current state of drug discovery in the LP receptor field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear receptors outside the nucleus: extranuclear signalling by steroid receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ellis R.; Hammes, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors mediate numerous crucial biological processes and are classically thought to function as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. However, it has been known for more than 50 years that steroids evoke rapid responses in many organs that cannot be explained by gene regulation. Mounting evidence indicates that most steroid receptors in fact exist in extranuclear cellular pools, including at the plasma membrane. This latter pool, when engaged by a steroid ligand, rapidly activates signals that affect various aspects of cellular biology. Research into the mechanisms of signalling instigated by extranuclear steroid receptor pools and how this extranuclear signalling is integrated with responses elicited by nuclear receptor pools provides novel understanding of steroid hormone signalling and its roles in health and disease. PMID:27729652

  11. Taste receptors for umami: the case for multiple receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nirupa; Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D

    2009-09-01

    Umami taste is elicited by many small molecules, including amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) and nucleotides (monophosphates of inosinate or guanylate, inosine 5'-monophosphate and guanosine-5'-monophosphate). Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind the umami tastants. Over the past 15 y, several receptors have been proposed to underlie umami detection in taste buds. These receptors include 2 glutamate-selective G protein-coupled receptors, mGluR4 and mGluR1, and the taste bud-expressed heterodimer T1R1+T1R3. Each of these receptors is expressed in small numbers of cells in anterior and posterior taste buds. The mGluRs are activated by glutamate and certain analogs but are not reported to be sensitive to nucleotides. In contrast, T1R1+T1R3 is activated by a broad range of amino acids and displays a strongly potentiated response in the presence of nucleotides. Mice in which the Grm4 gene is knocked out show a greatly enhanced preference for umami tastants. Loss of the Tas1r1 or Tas1R3 genes is reported to depress but not eliminate neural and behavioral responses to umami. When intact mammalian taste buds are apically stimulated with umami tastants, their functional responses to umami tastants do not fully resemble the responses of a single proposed umami receptor. Furthermore, the responses to umami tastants persist in the taste cells of T1R3-knockout mice. Thus, umami taste detection may involve multiple receptors expressed in different subsets of taste cells. This receptor diversity may underlie the complex perception of umami, with different mixtures of amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides yielding subtly distinct taste qualities.

  12. Taste receptors for umami: the case for multiple receptors1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Umami taste is elicited by many small molecules, including amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) and nucleotides (monophosphates of inosinate or guanylate, inosine 5′-monophosphate and guanosine-5′-monophosphate). Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind the umami tastants. Over the past 15 y, several receptors have been proposed to underlie umami detection in taste buds. These receptors include 2 glutamate-selective G protein–coupled receptors, mGluR4 and mGluR1, and the taste bud–expressed heterodimer T1R1+T1R3. Each of these receptors is expressed in small numbers of cells in anterior and posterior taste buds. The mGluRs are activated by glutamate and certain analogs but are not reported to be sensitive to nucleotides. In contrast, T1R1+T1R3 is activated by a broad range of amino acids and displays a strongly potentiated response in the presence of nucleotides. Mice in which the Grm4 gene is knocked out show a greatly enhanced preference for umami tastants. Loss of the Tas1r1 or Tas1R3 genes is reported to depress but not eliminate neural and behavioral responses to umami. When intact mammalian taste buds are apically stimulated with umami tastants, their functional responses to umami tastants do not fully resemble the responses of a single proposed umami receptor. Furthermore, the responses to umami tastants persist in the taste cells of T1R3-knockout mice. Thus, umami taste detection may involve multiple receptors expressed in different subsets of taste cells. This receptor diversity may underlie the complex perception of umami, with different mixtures of amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides yielding subtly distinct taste qualities. PMID:19571230

  13. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Steroid receptors in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T; Sato, B; Matsumoto, K; Ono, K

    1980-05-01

    Using the whole-cell incubation system at 37 degrees C, the specific bindings for 3H-dexamethasone, 3H-estradiol-17 beta, 3H-dihydrotestosterone and 3H-R5020 were measured in the purified, putative osteoblasts isolated from fetal rat calvaria by collagenase digestion. More than 90% of the purified cells contained intense alkaline phosphatase activity. The specific binding for 3H-dexamethasone with high affinity and low capacity was demonstrated in the isolated osteoblasts. Most of the binding was found in the nuclear fraction, indicating nucler binding of the 3H-dexamethasone-receptor complex. The apparent dissociation constant (Kd) for 3H-dexamethasone was estimated to be 3.3 x 10(-9)M and the number of binding sites was calculated to be 65 fmol/ml (4 x 10(6) cells) or 9,750 binding sites per cell. High salt: sucrose gradient analysis of nuclear extracts revealed a radioactive 4.0 S peak. These results indicate that the purified osteoblasts are among the target cells for glucocorticoids. On the other hand, the specific bindings for 3H-estradiol-17 beta and 3H-dihydrotestosterone were not detectable in the isolated osteoblasts, which suggests that estrogens and androgens act on osteoblasts only indirectly.

  15. Quantitative receptor radioautography in the study of receptor-receptor interactions in the nucleus tractus solitarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fior-Chadi D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS in the dorsomedial medulla comprises a wide range of neuropeptides and biogenic amines. Several of them are related to mechanisms of central blood pressure control. Angiotensin II (Ang II, neuropeptide Y (NPY and noradrenaline (NA are found in the NTS cells, as well as their receptors. Based on this observation we have evaluated the modulatory effect of these peptide receptors on a2-adrenoceptors in the NTS. Using quantitative receptor radioautography, we observed that NPY and Ang II receptors decreased the affinity of a2-adrenoceptors for their agonists in the NTS of the rat. Cardiovascular experiments agreed with the in vitro data. Coinjection of a threshold dose of Ang II or of the NPY agonists together with an ED50 dose of adrenergic agonists such as NA, adrenaline and clonidine counteracted the depressor effect produced by the a2-agonist in the NTS. The results provide evidence for the existence of an antagonistic interaction between Ang II at1 receptors and NPY receptor subtypes with the a2-adrenoceptors in the NTS. This receptor interaction may reduce the transduction over the a2-adrenoceptors which can be important in central cardiovascular regulation and in the development of hypertension

  16. Molecules Great and Small: The Complement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathern, Douglas R; Heeger, Peter S

    2015-09-04

    The complement cascade, traditionally considered an effector arm of innate immunity required for host defense against pathogens, is now recognized as a crucial pathogenic mediator of various kidney diseases. Complement components produced by the liver and circulating in the plasma undergo activation through the classical and/or mannose-binding lectin pathways to mediate anti-HLA antibody-initiated kidney transplant rejection and autoantibody-initiated GN, the latter including membranous glomerulopathy, antiglomerular basement membrane disease, and lupus nephritis. Inherited and/or acquired abnormalities of complement regulators, which requisitely limit restraint on alternative pathway complement activation, contribute to the pathogenesis of the C3 nephropathies and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Increasing evidence links complement produced by endothelial cells and/or tubular cells to the pathogenesis of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury and progressive kidney fibrosis. Data emerging since the mid-2000s additionally show that immune cells, including T cells and antigen-presenting cells, produce alternative pathway complement components during cognate interactions. The subsequent local complement activation yields production of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, which bind to their respective receptors (C3aR and C5aR) on both partners to augment effector T-cell proliferation and survival, while simultaneously inhibiting regulatory T-cell induction and function. This immune cell-derived complement enhances pathogenic alloreactive T-cell immunity that results in transplant rejection and likely contributes to the pathogenesis of other T cell-mediated kidney diseases. C5a/C5aR ligations on neutrophils have additionally been shown to contribute to vascular inflammation in models of ANCA-mediated renal vasculitis. New translational immunology efforts along with the development of pharmacologic agents that block human complement components and receptors now permit

  17. Allosteric modulation of chemoattractant receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Cesta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemoattractants control selective leukocyte homing via interactions with a dedicated family of related GPCR. Emerging evidence indicates that the signalling activity of these receptors, as for other GPCR, is influenced by allosteric modulators, which interact with the receptor in a binding site distinct from the binding site of the endogenous agonist and modulate the receptor signalling activity in response to the orthosteric ligand. Allosteric modulators have a number of potential advantages over orthosteric agonists/antagonists as therapeutic agents and offer unprecedented opportunities to identify extremely selective drug leads. Here we resume evidence of allosterism in the context of chemoattractant receptors, discussing in particular its functional impact on functional selectivity and probe/concentration dependence of orthosteric ligands activities.

  18. Sialic Acid Receptors of Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosovich, Mikhail; Herrler, Georg; Klenk, Hans Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acid linked to glycoproteins and gangliosides is used by many viruses as a receptor for cell entry. These viruses include important human and animal pathogens, such as influenza, parainfluenza, mumps, corona, noro, rota, and DNA tumor viruses. Attachment to sialic acid is mediated by receptor binding proteins that are constituents of viral envelopes or exposed at the surface of non-enveloped viruses. Some of these viruses are also equipped with a neuraminidase or a sialyl-O-acetyl-esterase. These receptor-destroying enzymes promote virus release from infected cells and neutralize sialic acid-containing soluble proteins interfering with cell surface binding of the virus. Variations in the receptor specificity are important determinants for host range, tissue tropism, pathogenicity, and transmissibility of these viruses.

  19. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is designed to foster the development of a comprehensive understanding of the structure, function, and role in disease...

  20. Insulin receptor signaling in cones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajala, Ammaji; Dighe, Radhika; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Anderson, Robert E; Rajala, Raju V S

    2013-01-01

    .... To date there are no studies on the insulin receptor signaling in cones; however, mRNA levels of IR signaling proteins are significantly higher in cone-dominant neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl...

  1. History of retinoic acid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbrook, Doris M; Chambon, Pierre; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Asson-Batres, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of retinoic acid receptors arose from research into how vitamins are essential for life. Early studies indicated that Vitamin A was metabolized into an active factor, retinoic acid (RA), which regulates RNA and protein expression in cells. Each step forward in our understanding of retinoic acid in human health was accomplished by the development and application of new technologies. Development cDNA cloning techniques and discovery of nuclear receptors for steroid hormones provided the basis for identification of two classes of retinoic acid receptors, RARs and RXRs, each of which has three isoforms, α, β and ɣ. DNA manipulation and crystallographic studies revealed that the receptors contain discrete functional domains responsible for binding to DNA, ligands and cofactors. Ligand binding was shown to induce conformational changes in the receptors that cause release of corepressors and recruitment of coactivators to create functional complexes that are bound to consensus promoter DNA sequences called retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) and that cause opening of chromatin and transcription of adjacent genes. Homologous recombination technology allowed the development of mice lacking expression of retinoic acid receptors, individually or in various combinations, which demonstrated that the receptors exhibit vital, but redundant, functions in fetal development and in vision, reproduction, and other functions required for maintenance of adult life. More recent advancements in sequencing and proteomic technologies reveal the complexity of retinoic acid receptor involvement in cellular function through regulation of gene expression and kinase activity. Future directions will require systems biology approaches to decipher how these integrated networks affect human stem cells, health, and disease.

  2. Receptor antibodies as novel therapeutics for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussar, Siegfried; Vienberg, Sara Gry; Kahn, C Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies to receptors can block or mimic hormone action. Taking advantage of receptor isoforms, co-receptors, and other receptor modulating proteins, antibodies and other designer ligands can enhance tissue specificity and provide new approaches to the therapy of diabetes and other diseases....

  3. Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Mark A.

    2000-03-22

    Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy.

  4. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Starostik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple excitatory neurotransmitters have been identified in the mammalian taste transduction, with few studies focused on inhibitory neurotransmitters. Since the synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is expressed in a subset of mouse taste cells, we hypothesized that other components of the GABA signaling pathway are likely expressed in this system. GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A and GABA(C or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analysis, we investigated the expression of different GABA signaling molecules in the mouse taste system. Taste receptor cells (TRCs in the circumvallate papillae express multiple subunits of the GABA(A and GABA(B receptors as well as multiple GATs. Immunocytochemical analyses examined the distribution of the GABA machinery in the circumvallate papillae. Both GABA(A-and GABA(B- immunoreactivity were detected in the peripheral taste receptor cells. We also used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP in either the Type II taste cells, which can respond to bitter, sweet or umami taste stimuli, or in the Type III GAD67 expressing taste cells. Thus, we were able to identify that GABAergic receptors are expressed in some Type II and Type III taste cells. Mouse GAT4 labeling was concentrated in the cells surrounding the taste buds with a few positively labeled TRCs at the margins of the taste buds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of GABAergic receptors localized on Type II and Type III taste cells suggests that GABA is likely modulating evoked taste responses in the mouse taste bud.

  5. Nuclear Receptors, RXR, and the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald M; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-03-27

    Isolation of genes encoding the receptors for steroids, retinoids, vitamin D, and thyroid hormone and their structural and functional analysis revealed an evolutionarily conserved template for nuclear hormone receptors. This discovery sparked identification of numerous genes encoding related proteins, termed orphan receptors. Characterization of these orphan receptors and, in particular, of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) positioned nuclear receptors at the epicenter of the "Big Bang" of molecular endocrinology. This Review provides a personal perspective on nuclear receptors and explores their integrated and coordinated signaling networks that are essential for multicellular life, highlighting the RXR heterodimer and its associated ligands and transcriptional mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear Receptors, RXR & the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald M.; Mangelsdorf, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Isolation of genes encoding the receptors for steroids, retinoids, vitamin D and thyroid hormone, and their structural and functional analysis revealed an evolutionarily conserved template for nuclear hormone receptors. This discovery sparked identification of numerous genes encoding related proteins, termed orphan receptors. Characterization of these orphan receptors, and in particular of the retinoid X receptor (RXR), positioned nuclear receptors at the epicenter of the “Big Bang” of molecular endocrinology. This review provides a personal perspective on nuclear receptors and explores their integrated and coordinated signaling networks that are essential for multi-cellular life, highlighting the RXR heterodimer and its associated ligands and transcriptional mechanism. PMID:24679540

  7. Prognostic Value of Estrogen Receptor alpha and Progesterone Receptor Conversion in Distant Breast Cancer Metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, Laurien D. C.; Moelans, Cathy B.; Meijer, S. L.; van Slooten, Henk-Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Wesseling, Jelle; Westenend, Pieter J.; Bart, Joost; Seldenrijk, Cornelis A.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Oudejans, Joost; van der Valk, Paul; van Gils, Carla H.; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in the receptor profile of primary breast cancers to their metastases (receptor conversion) have been described for the estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and progesterone receptor (PR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of receptor conversion for ER alpha and

  8. A new family of insect tyramine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Klærke, Dan Arne; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2005-01-01

    in the genomic databases from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the honeybee Apis mellifera. These four tyramine or tyramine-like receptors constitute a new receptor family that is phylogenetically distinct from the previously identified insect octopamine/tyramine receptors. The Drosophila tyramine...... receptor is, to our knowledge, the first cloned insect G protein-coupled receptor that appears to be fully specific for tyramine....

  9. Toll-like receptors in neonatal sepsis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, Fiona M

    2013-06-01

    Toll-like receptors are vital transmembrane receptors that initiate the innate immune response to many micro-organisms. The discovery of these receptors has improved our understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and these receptors play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple neonatal conditions such as sepsis and brain injury. Toll-like receptors, especially TLRs 2 and 4, are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia and sepsis.

  10. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2016-05-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)-forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. Copyright © 2016 by U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  11. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  12. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  13. Acidosis activates complement system in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Emeis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the in vitro effect of different form s of acidosis (pH 7.0 on the formation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Metabolic acidosis due to addition of hydrochloric acid (10 μ mol/ml blood or lactic acid (5.5 μ mol/ml to heparin blood (N=12 caused significant activation of C3a and C5a compared to control (both p=0.002. Respiratory acidosis activated C3a (p=0.007 and C5a (p=0.003 compared to normocapnic controls. Making blood samples with lactic acidosis hypocapnic resulted in a median pH of 7.37. In this respiratory compensated metabolic acidosis, C3a and C5a were not increased. These experiments show that acidosis itself and not lactate trigger for activation of complement components C3 and C5.

  14. Emerging GLP-1 receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have become available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents exploit the physiological effects of GLP-1, which is able to address several of the pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1R agonists...

  15. Osteopontin interaction with integrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kläning, Eva

    Osteopontin is a negatively charged and unstructured protein that is found in many types of tissue in humans. Osteopontin can interact with many different types of cells via interaction with integrins, which are a particular class of receptors expressed on the cellular surface. Via contact...... with integrins, osteopontin can affect cellular behaviour in both normal and disease-related contexts....

  16. Chemokine receptors in allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castan, L; Magnan, A; Bouchaud, G

    2017-05-01

    Under homeostatic conditions, as well as in various diseases, leukocyte migration is a crucial issue for the immune system that is mainly organized through the activation of bone marrow-derived cells in various tissues. Immune cell trafficking is orchestrated by a family of small proteins called chemokines. Leukocytes express cell-surface receptors that bind to chemokines and trigger transendothelial migration. Most allergic diseases, such as asthma, rhinitis, food allergies, and atopic dermatitis, are generally classified by the tissue rather than the type of inflammation, making the chemokine/chemokine receptor system a key point of the immune response. Moreover, because small antagonists can easily block such receptors, various molecules have been developed to suppress the recruitment of immune cells during allergic reactions, representing potential new drugs for allergies. We review the chemokines and chemokine receptors that are important in asthma, food allergies, and atopic dermatitis and their respectively developed antagonists. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation...

  18. Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herkenham, M.; Lynn, A.B.; Little, M.D.; Johnson, M.R.; Melvin, L.S.; de Costa, B.R.; Rice, K.C. (National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-03-01

    (3H)CP 55,940, a radiolabeled synthetic cannabinoid, which is 10-100 times more potent in vivo than delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was used to characterize and localize a specific cannabinoid receptor in brain sections. The potencies of a series of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as competitors of (3H)CP 55,940 binding correlated closely with their relative potencies in several biological assays, suggesting that the receptor characterized in our in vitro assay is the same receptor that mediates behavioral and pharmacological effects of cannabinoids, including human subjective experience. Autoradiography of cannabinoid receptors in brain sections from several mammalian species, including human, reveals a unique and conserved distribution; binding is most dense in outflow nuclei of the basal ganglia--the substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus--and in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Generally high densities in forebrain and cerebellum implicate roles for cannabinoids in cognition and movement. Sparse densities in lower brainstem areas controlling cardiovascular and respiratory functions may explain why high doses of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol are not lethal.

  19. Are olfactory receptors really olfactive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Any living organism interacts with and responds specifically to environmental molecules by expressing specific olfactory receptors. This specificity will be first examined in causal terms with particular emphasis on the mechanisms controlling olfactory gene expression, cell-to-cell interactions a...

  20. Evolution of neurotransmitter receptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, J C; di Porzio, U; Robinson, D A; Shreeve, S M; Lai, J; Kerlavage, A R; Fracek, S P; Lentes, K U; Fraser, C M

    1988-01-01

    The presence of hormones, neurotransmitters, their receptors and biosynthetic and degradative enzymes is clearly not only associated with the present and the recent past but with the past several hundred million years. Evidence is mounting which indicates substantial conservation of protein structure and function of these receptors and enzymes over these tremendous periods of time. These findings indicate that the evolution and development of the nervous system was not dependent upon the formation of new or better transmitter substances, receptor proteins, transducers and effector proteins but involved better utilization of these highly developed elements in creating advanced and refined circuitry. This is not a new concept; it is one that is now substantiated by increasingly sophisticated studies. In a 1953 article discussing chemical aspects of evolution (Danielli, 1953) Danielli quotes Medawar, "... endocrine evolution is not an evolution of hormones but an evolution of the uses to which they are put; an evolution not, to put it crudely, of chemical formulae but of reactivities, reaction patterns and tissue competences." To also quote Danielli, "In terms of comparative biochemistry, one must ask to what extent the evolution of these reactivities, reaction patterns and competences is conditional upon the evolution of methods of synthesis of new proteins, etc., and to what extent the proteins, etc., are always within the synthetic competence of an organism. In the latter case evolution is the history of changing uses of molecules, and not of changing synthetic abilities." (Danielli, 1953). Figure 4 outlines a phylogenetic tree together with an indication of where evidence exists for both the enzymes that determine the biosynthesis and metabolism of the cholinergic and adrenergic transmitters and their specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. This figure illustrates a number of important points. For example, the evidence appears to show that the transmitters

  1. Mechanism for the activation of glutamate receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spina

  2. Roles of xenobiotic receptors in vascular pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lei; Zhang, Zihui; Luo, Xiaoqin

    2014-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), 2 closely related and liver-enriched members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a nonnuclear receptor transcription factor (TF), are major receptors/TFs regulating the expression of genes for the clearance and detoxification of xenobiotics. They are hence defined as "xenobiotic receptors". Recent studies have demonstrated that PXR, CAR and AhR also regulate the expression of key proteins involved in endobiotic responses such as the metabolic homeostasis of lipids, glucose, and bile acid, and inflammatory processes. It is suggested that the functions of PXR, CAR and AhR may be closely implicated in the pathogeneses of metabolic vascular diseases, such as hyperlipidemia, atherogenesis, and hypertension. Therefore, manipulation of the activities of these receptors may provide novel strategies for the treatment of vascular diseases. Here, we review the pathophysiological roles of PXR, CAR and AhR in the vascular system.

  3. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  4. The substance P/NK-1 receptor system: NK-1 receptor antagonists ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The substance P (SP)/neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor system plays an important role in cancer. SP promotes the proliferation of tumour cells, angiogenesis and the migration of tumour cells. We review the involvement of SP, the NK-1 receptor and NK-1 receptor antagonists in cancer. Tumour cells overexpress NK-1 receptors, ...

  5. Repeated blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors, but not of glucocorticoid receptors impairs food rewarded spatial learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, B. R.; Korte, S. M.; Buwalda, B.; La Fleur, S. E.; Bohus, B.; Luiten, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    Corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex influence a variety of behaviours including cognition, learning and memory. These hormones act via two intracellular receptors, the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These two receptor types display a high concentration and

  6. Repeated blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors, but not of glucocorticoid receptors impairs food rewarded spatial learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, BRK; Korte, SM; Buwalda, B; la Fleur, SE; Bohus, B; Luiten, PGM

    Corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex influence a variety of behaviours including cognition, learning and memory. These hormones act via two intracellular receptors, the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These two receptor types display a high concentration and

  7. Angiotensin receptors in the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, L.J.; Voors, AA; Buikema, H; van Gilst, WH

    2002-01-01

    The angiotensin II receptors mediate the effects of the renin-angiotensin system, which has an important role in cardiovascular (patho)physiology. Four types of angiotensin receptors are known, of which the type 1 (AT,) and the type 2 (AT(2)) receptors are the most important. Stimulation of the AT,

  8. The brain mineralocorticoid receptor and stress resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heegde, Freija; De Rijk, Roel H.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.

    Stress exposure activates the HPA-axis and results in the release of corticosteroids which bind to two receptor types in the brain: the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). While the role of the GR in stress reactivity has been extensively studied, the MR has

  9. Muscarinic receptors and drugs in cardiovascular medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.; Doods, H. N.

    1995-01-01

    The parasympathetic system and its associated muscarinic receptors have been the subject of a renaissance of interest for the following two main reasons: (1) the association of endothelial muscarinic receptors and the nitric oxide (NO) pathway; (2) the discovery of several muscarinic receptor

  10. Cloning of partial putative gonadotropin hormone receptor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Glycoprotein hormone receptor; gonadotropin receptor; Labeo rohita; luteinizing hormone receptor; mariner transposon; PCR cloning. Abstract. A search for the presence of mariner-like elements in the Labeo rohita genome by polymerase chain reaction led to the amplification of a partial DNA sequence coding ...

  11. COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN OF RECEPTOR SELECTIVE TRAIL VARIANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, Almer M.; Szegezdi, Eva; Reis, Carlos R.; Tur, Vicente; Quax, Wim J.; Samali, Afshin; Serrano, Luis; Wallach, D; Kovalenko, A; Feldman, M

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potential anticancer drug that selectively induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells by interacting with death receptors DR4 and DR5. TRAIL can also bind to decoy receptors (DcR1, DcR2, and osteoprotegerin receptor) that

  12. Sensing intracellular pathogens-NOD-like receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietdijk, Svend T.; Burwell, Timothy; Bertin, John; Coyle, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    The innate immune system uses different molecules that sense pathogen associated molecular patterns. These include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-1-like receptors (RLRs) and the NOD-like receptors (NLRs). The NLRs, consisting of more than 20 related family members, are present in the cytosol and

  13. Receptor conversion in distant breast cancer metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, L.D.C.

    2013-01-01

    The routine pathological work-up of breast cancer includes the evaluation of the estrogen receptor (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) which reveals biological information about the tumour as well as provides predictive biomarkers regarding hormonal

  14. Chapter 8. Activation mechanisms of chemokine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia C; Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2009-01-01

    , more research has to be done in this field. Chemokine receptors are interesting tools in this matter. First, the chemokine system has a high degree of promiscuity that allows several chemokines to target one receptor in different ways, as well as a single chemokine ligand to target several receptors...

  15. Interaction proteomics reveals brain region-specific AMPA receptor complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, N.; Pandya, N.J.; Koopmans, F.T.W.; Castelo-Szekelv, V.; van der Schors, R.C.; Smit, A.B.; Li, K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain is mediated by glutamate acting on postsynaptic AMPA receptors. Recent studies have revealed a substantial number of AMPA receptor auxiliary proteins, which potentially contribute to the regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking, subcellular receptor

  16. Activation of Neuropeptide FF Receptors by Kisspeptin Receptor Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Kisspeptin is a member of the RFamide neuropeptide family that is implicated in gonadotropin secretion. Because kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling is implicated in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction, GPR54 ligands represent promising therapeutic agents against endocrine secretion disorders. In the present study, the selectivity profiles of GPR54 agonist peptides were investigated for several GPCRs, including RFamide receptors. Kisspeptin-10 exhibited potent binding and activation of neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR1 and NPFFR2). In contrast, short peptide agonists bound with much lower affinity to NPFFRs while showing relatively high selectivity toward GPR54. The possible localization of secondary kisspeptin targets was also demonstrated by variation in the levels of GnRH release from the median eminence and the type of GPR54 agonists used. Negligible affinity of the reported NPFFR ligands to GPR54 was observed and indicates the unidirectional cross-reactivity between both ligands. PMID:24900254

  17. Soluble Extracellular Domain of Death Receptor 5 Inhibits TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis by Disrupting Receptor-Receptor Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vunnam, Nagamani; Lo, Chih Hung; Grant, Benjamin D; Thomas, David D; Sachs, Jonathan N

    2017-09-15

    Dysregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor signaling is a key feature of various inflammatory disorders. Current treatments for TNF-related diseases function either by sequestering ligand or blocking ligand-receptor interactions, which can cause dangerous side effects by inhibiting the receptors that are not involved in the disease condition. Thus, alternate strategies that target receptor-receptor interactions are needed. We hypothesized that the soluble extracellular domain (ECD) of long isoform of death receptor 5 (DR5) could block endogenous receptor assembly, mimicking the biological effect of decoy receptors that lack the death domain to trigger apoptosis. Using live-cell fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies, we demonstrated that soluble ECD disrupts endogenous DR5-DR5 interactions. Cell viability assays were used to demonstrate the complete inhibition of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by the ECD, although TRAIL is still able to bind to the receptor. Importantly, we used mutagenesis to prove that the inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by the ECD predominantly comes from the disruption of DR5 oligomerization and not ligand sequestration. Inhibition of death receptor activation should have important therapeutic applications in diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. More generally, this approach should be generalized to enable the inhibition of other TNF receptor signaling mechanisms that are associated in a wide range of clinical conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Sigma 1 receptor modulation of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling: potentiation of opioid transduction independent from receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Felix J; Kovalyshyn, Ivanka; Burgman, Maxim; Neilan, Claire; Chien, Chih-Cheng; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2010-04-01

    sigma Ligands modulate opioid actions in vivo, with agonists diminishing morphine analgesia and antagonists enhancing the response. Using human BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells that natively express opioid receptors and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells transfected with a cloned mu opioid receptor, we now demonstrate a similar modulation of opioid function, as assessed by guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTP gamma S) binding, by sigma(1) receptors. sigma Ligands do not compete opioid receptor binding. Administered alone, neither sigma agonists nor antagonists significantly stimulated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. Yet sigma receptor selective antagonists, but not agonists, shifted the EC(50) of opioid-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding by 3- to 10-fold to the left. This enhanced potency was seen without a change in the efficacy of the opioid, as assessed by the maximal stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. sigma(1) Receptors physically associate with mu opioid receptors, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation studies in transfected HEK cells, implying a direct interaction between the proteins. Thus, sigma receptors modulate opioid transduction without influencing opioid receptor binding. RNA interference knockdown of sigma(1) in BE(2)-C cells also potentiated mu opioid-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. These modulatory actions are not limited to mu and delta opioid receptors. In mouse brain membrane preparations, sigma(1)-selective antagonists also potentiated both opioid receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding, suggesting a broader role for sigma receptors in modulating G-protein-coupled receptor signaling.

  19. On the Mechanism of Gating Charge Movement of ClC-5, a Human Cl−/H+ Antiporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifarelli, Giovanni; De Stefano, Silvia; Zanardi, Ilaria; Pusch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    ClC-5 is a Cl−/H+ antiporter that functions in endosomes and is important for endocytosis in the proximal tubule. The mechanism of transport coupling and voltage dependence in ClC-5 is unclear. Recently, a transport-deficient ClC-5 mutant (E268A) was shown to exhibit transient capacitive currents. Here, we studied the external and internal Cl− and pH dependence of the currents of E268A. Transient currents were almost completely independent of the intracellular pH. Even though the transient currents are modulated by extracellular pH, we could exclude that they are generated by proton-binding/unbinding reactions. In contrast, the charge movement showed a nontrivial dependence on external chloride, strongly supporting a model in which the movement of an intrinsic gating charge is followed by the voltage-dependent low-affinity binding of extracellular chloride ions. Mutation of the external Glu-211 (a residue implicated in the coupling of Cl− and proton transport) to aspartate abolished steady-state transport, but revealed transient currents that were shifted by ∼150 mV to negative voltages compared to E268A. This identifies Gluext as a major component of the gating charge underlying the transient currents of the electrogenic ClC-5 transporter. The molecular events underlying the transient currents of ClC-5 emerging from these results can be explained by an inward movement of the side chain of Gluext, followed by the binding of extracellular Cl− ions. PMID:22824269

  20. [The insuline receptor: structure and function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyts, P

    2005-01-01

    About 35 years after the first in vitro studies of the insulin receptor, considerable progress has been accomplished in the structural biology of the insulin-receptor interaction, and of the receptor tyrosine kinase family in general. This brief review attempts to assemble the various pieces of the puzzle, despite the lack of a detailed crystallographic structure of the insulin-receptor complex, and to establish a model that explains the mechanism of receptor activation, its negative cooperativity, and the triggering of intracellular signalling pathways.

  1. Receptor-Heteromer Investigation Technology and its application using BRET

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, Elizabeth K. M.; Pfleger, Kevin D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Receptor heteromerization has the potential to alter every facet of receptor functioning, leading to new pharmacological profiles with increased signaling diversity and regulation from that of the monomeric receptor, or indeed receptor homomer. An understanding of the molecular consequences of receptor heteromerization will provide new insights into the physiology and pathology mediated by receptors, expanding the possibilities for pharmacological discovery. Particularly advantageous approach...

  2. Differences in the interaction of acetylcholine receptor antibodies with receptor from normal, denervated and myasthenic human muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Lefvert, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of acetylcholine receptor antibodies with different kinds of human skeletal muscle receptor was investigated. The reaction of most receptor antibodies was strongest with receptor from a patient with myasthenia gravis and with receptor from denervated muscle. Results obtained with these receptors were well correlated. The binding of most receptor antibodies to receptor from functionally normal muscle was much weaker and also qualitatively different. In a few patients with moder...

  3. Regulation of AMPA receptor lateral movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgdorff, Aren J.; Choquet, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    An essential feature in the modulation of the efficacy of synaptic transmission is rapid changes in the number of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors at post-synaptic sites on neurons. Regulation of receptor endo- and exocytosis has been shown to be involved in this process. Whether regulated lateral diffusion of receptors in the plasma membrane also participates in receptor exchange to and from post-synaptic sites remains unknown. We analysed the lateral mobility of native AMPA receptors containing the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 in rat cultured hippocampal neurons, using single-particle tracking and video microscopy. Here we show that AMPA receptors alternate within seconds between rapid diffusive and stationary behaviour. During maturation of neurons, stationary periods increase in frequency and length, often in spatial correlation with synaptic sites. Raising intracellular calcium, a central element in synaptic plasticity, triggers rapid receptor immobilization and local accumulation on the neuronal surface. We suggest that calcium influx prevents AMPA receptors from diffusing, and that lateral receptor diffusion to and from synaptic sites acts in the rapid and controlled regulation of receptor numbers at synapses.

  4. Targeting nuclear receptors with marine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Qianrong; Li, Yong

    2014-01-27

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators.

  5. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators.

  6. Receptor arrays optimized for natural odor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Zwicker, David; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Natural odors typically consist of many molecules at different concentrations. It is unclear how the numerous odorant molecules and their possible mixtures are discriminated by relatively few olfactory receptors. Using an information-theoretic model, we show that a receptor array is optimal for this task if it achieves two possibly conflicting goals: (i) each receptor should respond to half of all odors and (ii) the response of different receptors should be uncorrelated when averaged over odors presented with natural statistics. We use these design principles to predict statistics of the affinities between receptors and odorant molecules for a broad class of odor statistics. We also show that optimal receptor arrays can be tuned to either resolve concentrations well or distinguish mixtures reliably. Finally, we use our results to predict properties of experimentally measured receptor arrays. Our work can thus be used to better understand natural olfaction and it also suggests ways to improve artificial sensor...

  7. Molecular determinants of NMDA receptor internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, K W; Standley, S; McCallum, J; Dune Ly, C; Ehlers, M D; Wenthold, R J

    2001-08-01

    Although synaptic AMPA receptors have been shown to rapidly internalize, synaptic NMDA receptors are reported to be static. It is not certain whether NMDA receptor stability at synaptic sites is an inherent property of the receptor, or is due to stabilization by scaffolding proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that NMDA receptors are internalized in both heterologous cells and neurons, and we define an internalization motif, YEKL, on the distal C-terminus of NR2B. In addition, we show that the synaptic protein PSD-95 inhibits NR2B-mediated internalization, and that deletion of the PDZ-binding domain of NR2B increases internalization in neurons. This suggests an involvement for PSD-95 in NMDA receptor regulation and an explanation for NMDA receptor stability at synaptic sites.

  8. Taste Receptors: Regulators of Sinonasal Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Ryan M.; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Lee, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors in the oral cavity guide our preferences for foods, preventing toxic ingestions and encouraging proper nutrient consumption. More recently, expression of taste receptors has been demonstrated in other locations throughout the body, including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and brain. The extent and specific roles of extraoral taste receptors are largely unknown, but a growing body of evidence suggests that taste receptors in the airway serve a critical role in sensing bacteria and regulating innate immunity. This review will focus on the function of bitter and sweet taste receptors in the human airway, with particular emphasis on T2R38, a bitter taste receptor found in sinonasal ciliated cells, and the bitter and sweet receptors found on specialized sinonasal solitary chemosensory cells. The importance of these novel taste receptor‐immune circuits in the human airway and their clinical relevance in airway disease will also be reviewed. PMID:27819057

  9. Neurosteroid regulation of GABAA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sheryl S.; Shen, Hui; Gong, Qi Hua; Zhou, Xiangping

    2007-01-01

    Neurosteroids, such as the progesterone metabolite 3α-OH-5α[β]-pregnan-20-one (THP or [allo]pregnanolone), function as potent positive modulators of the GABAA receptor (GABAR) when acutely administered. However, fluctuations in the circulating levels of this steroid at puberty, across endogenous ovarian cycles, during pregnancy or following chronic stress produce periods of prolonged exposure and withdrawal, where changes in GABAR subunit composition may occur as compensatory responses to sustained levels of inhibition. A number of laboratories have demonstrated that both chronic administration of THP as well as its withdrawal transiently increase expression of the α4 subunit of the GABAR in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in in vitro neuronal systems. Receptors containing this subunit are insensitive to benzodiazepine (BDZ) modulation and display faster deactivation kinetics, which studies suggest underlie hyperexcitability states. Similar increases in α4 expression are triggered by withdrawal from other GABA-modulatory compounds, such as ethanol and BDZ, suggesting a common mechanism. Other studies have reported puberty or estrous cycle-associated increases in δ-GABAR, the most sensitive target of these steroids which underlies a tonic inhibitory current. In the studies reported here, the effect of steroids on inhibition, which influence anxiety state and seizure susceptibility, depend not only on the subunit composition of the receptor but also on the direction of Cl- current generated by these target receptors. The effect of neurosteroids on GABAR function thus results in behavioral outcomes relevant for pubertal mood swings, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and catamenial epilepsy, which are due to fluctuations in endogenous steroids. PMID:17512983

  10. Functional Characterization of Odorant Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-07

    benzaldehyde, will then be expressed and functionally characterized in Sf9 insect cells using a baculovirus expression system. a. Construction and...Preferential expression of the Drosophila rutabaga gene in mushroom bodies, neural centers for learning in insects . Neuron 9, 619-627. Helfand, S. L...containing G-protein linked receptor that couples a novel odorant binding domain consisting of the 1-15 moiety (and perhaps part of the adrenaline

  11. The complement system and toll-like receptors as integrated players in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Anders; Jonasson, Lena; Garred, Peter; Yndestad, Arne; Aukrust, Pål; Lappegård, Knut T; Espevik, Terje; Mollnes, Tom E

    2015-08-01

    Despite recent medical advances, atherosclerosis is a global burden accounting for numerous deaths and hospital admissions. Immune-mediated inflammation is a major component of the atherosclerotic process, but earlier research focus on adaptive immunity has gradually switched towards the role of innate immunity. The complement system and toll-like receptors (TLRs), and the crosstalk between them, may be of particular interest both with respect to pathogenesis and as therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis. Animal studies indicate that inhibition of C3a and C5a reduces atherosclerosis. In humans modified LDL-cholesterol activate complement and TLRs leading to downstream inflammation, and histopathological studies indicate that the innate immune system is present in atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, clinical studies have demonstrated that both complement and TLRs are upregulated in atherosclerotic diseases, although interventional trials have this far been disappointing. However, based on recent research showing an intimate interplay between complement and TLRs we propose a model in which combined inhibition of both complement and TLRs may represent a potent anti-inflammatory therapeutic approach to reduce atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. A new family of insect tyramine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Klaerke, Dan A; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2005-12-16

    The Drosophila Genome Project database contains a gene, CG7431, annotated to be an "unclassifiable biogenic amine receptor." We have cloned this gene and expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells. After testing various ligands for G protein-coupled receptors, we found that the receptor was specifically activated by tyramine (EC(50), 5x10(-7)M) and that it showed no cross-reactivity with beta-phenylethylamine, octopamine, dopa, dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, tryptamine, serotonin, histamine, and a library of 20 Drosophila neuropeptides (all tested in concentrations up to 10(-5) or 10(-4)M). The receptor was also expressed in Xenopus oocytes, where it was, again, specifically activated by tyramine with an EC(50) of 3x10(-7)M. Northern blots showed that the receptor is already expressed in 8-hour-old embryos and that it continues to be expressed in all subsequent developmental stages. Adult flies express the receptor both in the head and body (thorax/abdomen) parts. In addition to the Drosophila tyramine receptor gene, CG7431, we found another closely related Drosophila gene, CG16766, that probably also codes for a tyramine receptor. Furthermore, we annotated similar tyramine-like receptor genes in the genomic databases from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the honeybee Apis mellifera. These four tyramine or tyramine-like receptors constitute a new receptor family that is phylogenetically distinct from the previously identified insect octopamine/tyramine receptors. The Drosophila tyramine receptor is, to our knowledge, the first cloned insect G protein-coupled receptor that appears to be fully specific for tyramine.

  13. DMPD: Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15379975 Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor... Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. PubmedID 15379975 Title Signa...l transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. Authors

  14. Complex GABAB receptor complexes: how to generate multiple functionally distinct units from a single receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan eXU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, acts on both ligand-gated and G protein-coupled receptors, the GABAA/C and GABAB receptors, respectively. The later play important roles in modulating many synapses, both at the pre- and post-synaptic levels, and are then still considered as interesting targets to treat a number of brain diseases, including addiction. For many years, several subtypes of GABAB receptors were expected, but cloning revealed only two genes that work in concert to generate a single type of GABAB receptor composed of two subunits. Here we will show that the signaling complexity of this unit receptor type can be largely increased through various ways, including receptor stoichiometry, subunit isoforms, membrane expression and localization, crosstalk with other receptors or interacting proteins. These recent data revealed how complexity of a receptor unit can be increased, observation that certainly are not unique to the GABAB receptor.

  15. The lactate receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 81/hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morland, Cecilie; Lauritzen, Knut Huso; Puchades, Maja

    2015-01-01

    , and schizophrenia and in the deposition of phosphorylated tau protein in Alzheimer's disease. HCAR1 could serve to ameliorate these conditions and might also act through downstream mechanisms other than cAMP. Lactate exits cells through monocarboxylate transporters in an equilibrating manner and through astrocyte......We have proposed that lactate is a “volume transmitter” in the brain and underpinned this by showing that the lactate receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81, also known as HCA1 or HCAR1), which promotes lipid storage in adipocytes, is also active in the mammalian brain. This includes...... the cerebral neocortex and the hippocampus, where it can be stimulated by physiological concentrations of lactate and by the HCAR1 agonist 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate to reduce cAMP levels. Cerebral HCAR1 is concentrated on the postsynaptic membranes of excitatory synapses and also is enriched at the blood...

  16. Effect of nonpersistent pesticides on estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Zoechling, Alfred; Gerster, Petra; Ivanova, Margarita M; Teng, Yun; Klinge, Carolyn M; Schildberger, Barbara; Gartner, Michael; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-10-01

    Nonpersistent pesticides are considered less harmful for the environment, but their impact as endocrine disruptors has not been fully explored. The pesticide Switch was applied to grape vines, and the maximum residue concentration of its active ingredients was quantified. The transactivation potential of the pesticides Acorit, Frupica, Steward, Reldan, Switch, Cantus, Teldor, and Scala and their active compounds (hexythiazox, mepanipyrim, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos-methyl, cyprodinil, fludioxonil, boscalid, fenhexamid, and pyrimethanil) were tested on human estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR) and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in vitro. Relative binding affinities of the pure pesticide constituents for AR and their effect on human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines were evaluated. Residue concentrations of Switch's ingredients were below maximum residue limits. Fludioxonil and fenhexamid were ERα agonists (EC50 -values of 3.7 and 9.0 μM, respectively) and had time-dependent effects on endogenous ERα-target gene expression (cyclin D1, progesterone receptor, and nuclear respiratory factor 1) in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Fludioxonil, mepanipyrim, cyprodinil, pyrimethanil, and chlorpyrifos-methyl were AhR-agonists (EC50 s of 0.42, 0.77, 1.4, 4.6, and 5.1 μM, respectively). Weak AR binding was shown for chlorpyrifos-methyl, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, and fludioxonil. Assuming a total uptake which does not take metabolism and clearance rates into account, our in vitro evidence suggests that pesticides could activate pathways affecting hormonal balance, even within permitted limits, thus potentially acting as endocrine disruptors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  17. Protein Connectivity in Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Eismann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemotaxis sensory system allows bacteria such as Escherichia coli to swim towards nutrients and away from repellents. The underlying pathway is remarkably sensitive in detecting chemical gradients over a wide range of ambient concentrations. Interactions among receptors, which are predominantly clustered at the cell poles, are crucial to this sensitivity. Although it has been suggested that the kinase CheA and the adapter protein CheW are integral for receptor connectivity, the exact coupling mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present a statistical-mechanics approach to model the receptor linkage mechanism itself, building on nanodisc and electron cryotomography experiments. Specifically, we investigate how the sensing behavior of mixed receptor clusters is affected by variations in the expression levels of CheA and CheW at a constant receptor density in the membrane. Our model compares favorably with dose-response curves from in vivo Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements, demonstrating that the receptor-methylation level has only minor effects on receptor cooperativity. Importantly, our model provides an explanation for the non-intuitive conclusion that the receptor cooperativity decreases with increasing levels of CheA, a core signaling protein associated with the receptors, whereas the receptor cooperativity increases with increasing levels of CheW, a key adapter protein. Finally, we propose an evolutionary advantage as explanation for the recently suggested CheW-only linker structures.

  18. Characterization of astrocytic and neuronal benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons express benzodiazepine receptors. Neuronal benzodiazepine receptors were of high-affinity, K{sub D} values were 7.5-43 nM and the densities of receptors (B{sub max}) were 924-4131 fmol/mg protein. Astrocytes posses a high-affinity benzodiazepine receptor, K{sub D} values were 6.6-13 nM. The B{sub max} values were 6,033-12,000 fmol/mg protein. The pharmacological profile of the neuronal benzodiazepine receptor was that of the central-type benzodiazepine receptor, where clonazepam has a high-affinity and Ro 5-4864 (4{prime}-chlorodiazepam) has a low-affinity. Whereas astrocytic benzoidazepine receptor was characteristic of the so called peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, which shows a high-affinity towards Ro 5-4863, and a low-affinity towards clonazepam. The astrocytic benzodiazepine receptors was functionally correlated with voltage dependent calcium channels, since dihydropyridines and benzodiazepines interacted with ({sup 3}H) diazepam and ({sup 3}H) nitrendipine receptors with the same rank order of potency, showing a statistically significant correlation. No such correlation was observed in neurons.

  19. Molecular identification of the first SIFamide receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars M; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    enigmatic. Here, we have identified the Drosophila gene (CG10823) coding for the SIFamide receptor. When expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, the receptor is only activated by Drosophila SIFamide (EC(50), 2x10(-8)M) and not by a library of 32 other insect neuropeptides and eight biogenic amines....... Database searches revealed SIFamide receptor orthologues in the genomes from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the silkworm Bombyx mori, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, and the honey bee Apis mellifera. An alignment of the five insect SIFamide or SIFamide-like receptors showed, again......, an impressive sequence conservation (67-77% amino acid sequence identities between the seven-transmembrane areas; 82-87% sequence similarities). The identification of well-conserved SIFamide receptor orthologues in all other insects with a sequenced genome, suggests that the SIFamide/receptor couple must have...

  20. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  1. P2X receptors in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2015-01-01

    basolateral P2X receptors stimulate ion secretion via an increase of [Ca2+]i. In absorptive epithelia like the renal tubule P2X receptor stimulation mediates the inhibition of NaCl, Mg2+ and water transport in the thick ascending limb and the distal convoluted tubule, respectively. The underlying signaling......P2X receptors are ubiquitously expressed in all epithelial tissues but their functional roles are less well studied. Here we review the current state of knowledge by focusing on functional effects of P2X receptor in secretory and in absorptive tissues. In glandular tissue like the parotid gland...... pathways that inhibit epithelial absorption are currently not well understood. Epithelial P2X7 receptors show pronounced up-regulation during varies diseased states highlighting a role of purinergic signaling in epithelial pathophysiology. Importantly, functional effects of epithelial P2X receptors cover...

  2. Subtype selective kainic acid receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl

    2009-01-01

    (S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, activating the plethora of glutamate receptors (GluRs). In broad lines, the GluRs are divided into two major classes: the ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic Glu receptors (m......GluRs). Within the iGluRs, five subtypes (KA1, KA2, iGluR5-7) show high affinity and express full agonist activity upon binding of the naturally occurring amino acid kainic acid (KA). Thus these receptors have been named the KA receptors. This review describes all-to our knowledge-published KA receptor agonists...

  3. Nuclear Receptors in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Velázquez, Jorge A.; Carrillo-Córdova, Luis D.; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C.; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear receptors comprise a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that are involved in important aspects of hepatic physiology and pathophysiology. There are about 48 nuclear receptors in the human. These nuclear receptors are regulators of many hepatic processes including hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, bile acid homeostasis, drug detoxification, inflammation, regeneration, fibrosis, and tumor formation. Some of these receptors are sensitive to the levels of molecules that control lipid metabolism including fatty acids, oxysterols, and lipophilic molecules. These receptors direct such molecules to the transcriptional networks and may play roles in the pathogenesis and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the involvement of nuclear receptors in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may offer targets for the development of new treatments for this liver disease. PMID:22187655

  4. Nuclear Receptors in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. López-Velázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors comprise a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that are involved in important aspects of hepatic physiology and pathophysiology. There are about 48 nuclear receptors in the human. These nuclear receptors are regulators of many hepatic processes including hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, bile acid homeostasis, drug detoxification, inflammation, regeneration, fibrosis, and tumor formation. Some of these receptors are sensitive to the levels of molecules that control lipid metabolism including fatty acids, oxysterols, and lipophilic molecules. These receptors direct such molecules to the transcriptional networks and may play roles in the pathogenesis and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the involvement of nuclear receptors in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may offer targets for the development of new treatments for this liver disease.

  5. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyan Yang; Qianrong Li; Yong Li

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the ext...

  6. Angiotensin II receptors in the gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, G.; Millan, M.A.; Harwood, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    The presence of components of the renin-angiotensin system in ovaries and testes suggests that angiotensin II (AII) is involved in gonadal function, and thus we sought to characterize receptors for AII in rat and primate gonads. In the testes, autoradiographic studies showed receptors in the interstitium in all species. In rat interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptors coincided with hCG receptors indicating that AII receptors are located on the Leydig cells. In Leydig cells and membranes from rat and rhesus monkey prepuberal testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogues and of high affinity (Kd=nM). During development, AII receptor content in rat testes decreases with age parallel to a fall in the ratio of interstitial to tubular tissue. In the ovary, the distribution of AII receptors was dependent on the stage of development, being high in the germinal epithelium and stromal tissue between five and 15 days, and becoming localized in secondary follicles in 20-and 40-day-old rats. No binding was found in primordial or primary follicles. In rhesus monkey ovary, AII receptors were higher in stromal tissue and lower in granulosa and luteal cells of the follicles. Characterization of the binding in rat and monkey ovarian membranes showed a single class of sites with a Kd in the nmol/L range and specificity similar to that of the adrenal glomerulosa and testicular AII receptors. Receptors for AII were also present in membrane fractions from PMSG/hCG primed rat ovaries. Infusion of AII (25 ng/min) or captopril (1.4 micrograms/min) during the PMSG/hCG induction period had no effect on ovarian weight or AII receptor concentration in the ovaries.

  7. Effect of purification followed by solubilization of receptor material on quantitative receptor assays for anticholinergic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smisterova, J.; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R.A

    In order to optimize quantitative receptor assays for anticholinergics, the different receptor preparations resulting from the purification and the solubilization of the P2 pellet From the calf striatum were evaluated. The dissociation constants for two chemically different anticholinergics, the

  8. ABA Receptors: Past, Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jianjun [Harvard University; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the key plant stress hormone. Consistent with the earlier studies in support of the presence of both membrane- and cytoplasm-localized ABA receptors, recent studies have identified multiple ABA receptors located in various subcellular locations. These include a chloroplast envelope-localized receptor (the H subunit of Chloroplast Mg2+-chelatase/ABA Receptor), two plasma membrane-localized receptors (G-protein Coupled Receptor 2 and GPCR-type G proteins), and one cytosol/nucleus-localized Pyrabactin Resistant (PYR)/PYR-Like (PYL)/Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor 1 (RCAR). Although the downstream molecular events for most of the identified ABA receptors are currently unknown, one of them, PYR/PYL/RACR was found to directly bind and regulate the activity of a long-known central regulator of ABA signaling, the A-group protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). Together with the Sucrose Non-fermentation Kinase Subfamily 2 (SnRK2s) protein kinases, a central signaling complex (ABA-PYR-PP2Cs-SnRK2s) that is responsible for ABA signal perception and transduction is supported by abundant genetic, physiological, biochemical and structural evidence. The identification of multiple ABA receptors has advanced our understanding of ABA signal perception and transduction while adding an extra layer of complexity.

  9. Soluble cytokine receptors in biological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Crespo, Fabian A; Sun, Xichun

    2002-08-01

    Due to their fundamental involvement in the pathogenesis of many diseases, cytokines constitute key targets for biotherapeutic approaches. The discovery that soluble forms of cytokine receptors are involved in the endogenous regulation of cytokine activity has prompted substantial interest in their potential application as immunotherapeutic agents. As such, soluble cytokine receptors have many advantages, including specificity, low immunogenicity and high affinity. Potential disadvantages, such as low avidity and short in vivo half-lifes, have been addressed by the use of genetically-designed receptors, hybrid proteins or chemical modifications. The ability of many soluble cytokine receptors to inhibit the binding and biological activity of their ligands makes them very specific cytokine antagonists. Several pharmaceutical companies have generated a number of therapeutic agents based on soluble cytokine receptors and many of them are undergoing clinical trials. The most advanced in terms of clinical development is etanercept (Enbrel, Immunex), a fusion protein between soluble TNF receptor Type II and the Fc region of human IgG1. This TNF-alpha; antagonist was the first soluble cytokine receptor to receive approval for use in humans. In general, most agents based on soluble cytokine receptors have been safe, well-tolerated and have shown only minor side effects in the majority of patients. Soluble cytokine receptors constitute a new generation of therapeutic agents with tremendous potential for applications in a wide variety of human diseases. Two current areas of research are the identification of their most promising applications and characterisation of their long-term effects.

  10. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating using predictive computational...

  11. Regulation of AMPA receptors in spinal nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Qing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The functional properties of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methy-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA receptors in different brain regions, such as hippocampus and cerebellum, have been well studied in vitro and in vivo. The AMPA receptors present a unique characteristic in the mechanisms of subunit regulation during LTP (long-term potentiation and LTD (long-term depression, which are involved in the trafficking, altered composition and phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits. Accumulated data have demonstrated that spinal AMPA receptors play a critical role in the mechanism of both acute and persistent pain. However, less is known about the biochemical regulation of AMPA receptor subunits in the spinal cord in response to painful stimuli. Recent studies have shown that some important regulatory processes, such as the trafficking of AMPA receptor subunit, subunit compositional changes, phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits, and their interaction with partner proteins may contribute to spinal nociceptive transmission. Of all these regulation processes, the phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits is the most important since it may trigger or affect other cellular processes. Therefore, these study results may suggest an effective strategy in developing novel analgesics targeting AMPA receptor subunit regulation that may be useful in treating persistent and chronic pain without unacceptable side effects in the clinics.

  12. The melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetha eRamachandrappa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The five melanocortin receptors named MC1R-MC5R have diverse physiological roles encompassing pigmentation, steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis and feeding behaviour as well as exocrine function. Since their identification almost 20 years ago much has been learnt about these receptors. As well as interacting with their endogenous ligands the melanocortin peptides, there is now a growing list of important peptides that can modulate the way these receptors signal, acting as agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists. The discovery of MRAPs as a novel accessory factor to the melanocortin receptors provides further insight into the regulation of these important GPCRs.

  13. Furosemide interactions with brain GABAA receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Korpi, Esa R; Lüddens, Hartmut

    1997-01-01

    The loop diuretic furosemide is known to antagonize the function of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct interaction of furosemide with the GABAA receptors by autoradiography and ligand binding studies with native rat and human receptors and with recombinant receptors composed of rat subunits.Autoradiography with [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]-TBPS) as a ligand indicated that furosemide (0.1–1 mM) reversed the 5...

  14. Diffusion barriers constrain receptors at synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Renner

    Full Text Available The flux of neurotransmitter receptors in and out of synapses depends on receptor interaction with scaffolding molecules. However, the crowd of transmembrane proteins and the rich cytoskeletal environment may constitute obstacles to the diffusion of receptors within the synapse. To address this question, we studied the membrane diffusion of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(AR subunits clustered (γ2 or not (α5 at inhibitory synapses in rat hippocampal dissociated neurons. Relative to the extrasynaptic region, γ2 and α5 showed reduced diffusion and increased confinement at both inhibitory and excitatory synapses but they dwelled for a short time at excitatory synapses. In contrast, γ2 was ~3-fold more confined and dwelled ~3-fold longer in inhibitory synapses than α5, indicating faster synaptic escape of α5. Furthermore, using a gephyrin dominant-negative approach, we showed that the increased residency time of γ2 at inhibitory synapses was due to receptor-scaffold interactions. As shown for GABA(AR, the excitatory glutamate receptor 2 subunit (GluA2 of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR had lower mobility in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses but a higher residency time at excitatory synapses. Therefore barriers impose significant diffusion constraints onto receptors at synapses where they accumulate or not. Our data further reveal that the confinement and the dwell time but not the diffusion coefficient report on the synapse specific sorting, trapping and accumulation of receptors.

  15. Neuropeptide Receptor Transcriptome Reveals Unidentified Neuroendocrine Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Naoki; Yamamoto, Sachie; Žitňan, Dušan; Watanabe, Ken; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Satake, Honoo; Kaneko, Yu; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Kataoka, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptides are an important class of molecules involved in diverse aspects of metazoan development and homeostasis. Insects are ideal model systems to investigate neuropeptide functions, and the major focus of insect neuropeptide research in the last decade has been on the identification of their receptors. Despite these vigorous efforts, receptors for some key neuropeptides in insect development such as prothoracicotropic hormone, eclosion hormone and allatotropin (AT), remain undefined. In this paper, we report the comprehensive cloning of neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptors from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and systematic analyses of their expression. Based on the expression patterns of orphan receptors, we identified the long-sought receptor for AT, which is thought to stimulate juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the corpora allata (CA). Surprisingly, however, the AT receptor was not highly expressed in the CA, but instead was predominantly transcribed in the corpora cardiaca (CC), an organ adjacent to the CA. Indeed, by using a reverse-physiological approach, we purified and characterized novel allatoregulatory peptides produced in AT receptor-expressing CC cells, which may indirectly mediate AT activity on the CA. All of the above findings confirm the effectiveness of a systematic analysis of the receptor transcriptome, not only in characterizing orphan receptors, but also in identifying novel players and hidden mechanisms in important biological processes. This work illustrates how using a combinatorial approach employing bioinformatic, molecular, biochemical and physiological methods can help solve recalcitrant problems in neuropeptide research. PMID:18725956

  16. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    KAUST Repository

    Melcher, Karsten

    2010-08-22

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Olfactory receptors in the mouse septal organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Jan F; Gussing, Fredrik; Bohm, Staffan; Breer, Heinz; Strotmann, Jörg

    2004-05-15

    In this study we have identified a repertoire of chemosensory receptors expressed in the septal organ (SO). The results suggest that septal organ neurons are specified to express receptor genes belonging to class II olfactory receptors that are also expressed in the main olfactory epithelium. We found no evidence for the expression of members from the vomeronasal receptor gene families. In the SO, no topography analogous to the receptor expression zones of the main olfactory epithelium was evident. The majority of identified receptors corresponds to genes with restricted expression in the medial and lateral zones of the main olfactory epithelium. This coincides with the expression of olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM) throughout the SO, which is considered as a marker for the medial-lateral zones. In contrast, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression, a characteristic marker for the dorsal zone, was lacking in the SO. Most of the receptor types were found to be expressed in rather few SO neurons; as an exception, the receptor mOR244-3 was observed in a very high proportion of cells. Although a very high fraction of SO neurons expressed mOR244-3, we found no evidence for the coexpression of different receptors in individual cells. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Somatostatin receptors in differentiated ovarian tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reubi, J.C.; Horisberger, U.; Klijn, J.G.; Foekens, J.A. (Sandoz Research Institute Berne, (Switzerland))

    1991-05-01

    The presence of somatostatin receptors was investigated in 57 primary human ovarian tumors using in vitro receptor autoradiography with three different somatostatin radioligands, {sup 125}I-(Tyr11)-somatostatin-14, {sup 125}I-(Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25)-somatostatin-28, or {sup 125}I-(Tyr3)-SMS 201-995. Three cases, all belonging to epithelial tumors, were receptor positive; specifically 1 of 42 adenocarcinomas, 1 of 3 borderline malignancies, and 1 of 2 cystadenomas. Four other epithelial tumors (3 fibroadenomas, 1 Brenner tumor), 4 sex cord-stromal tumors (2 fibrothecomas, 2 granulosa cell tumors), and 2 germ cell tumors (1 dysgerminoma, 1 teratoma) were receptor negative. In the positive cases, the somatostatin receptors were localized on epithelial cells exclusively, were of high affinity (KD = 4.6 nmol/l (nanomolar)), and specific for somatostatin analogs. These receptors bound somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 radioligands with a higher affinity than the octapeptide (Tyr3)-SMS 201-995. Healthy ovarian tissue had no somatostatin receptors. A subpopulation of relatively well-differentiated ovarian tumors, therefore, was identified pathobiochemically on the basis of its somatostatin receptor content. This small group of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors may be a target for in vivo diagnostic imaging with somatostatin ligands.

  19. Postsynaptic GABAB receptors enhance extrasynaptic GABAA receptor function in dentate gyrus granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wucheng; Higgs, Matthew H; Spain, William J; Ransom, Christopher B

    2013-02-27

    Ambient GABA in the brain tonically activates extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors, and activity-dependent changes in ambient GABA concentration can also activate GABA(B) receptors. To investigate an interaction between postsynaptic GABA(B) and GABA(A) receptors, we recorded GABA(A) currents elicited by exogenous GABA (10 μm) from dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGCs) in adult rat hippocampal slices. The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (20 μm) enhanced GABA(A) currents. This enhancement was blocked by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 55845 and intracellular solutions containing the GTP analog GDP-β-s, indicating that baclofen was acting on postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors. Modulation of GABA(A) currents by postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors was not observed in CA1 pyramidal cells or layer 2/3 cortical pyramidal neurons. Baclofen reduced the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) but did not alter sIPSC amplitude or kinetics. Thus, GABA(A) receptors activated at synapses were not modulated by postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors. In contrast, tonic GABA currents and currents activated by the GABA(A) receptor δ subunit-selective agonist THIP (10 μm) were potentiated by baclofen. Our data indicate that postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors enhance the function of extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors, including δ subunit-containing receptors that mediate tonic inhibition in DGGCs. The modulation of GABA(A) receptor function by postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors is a newly identified mechanism that will influence the inhibitory tone of DGGCs when GABA(B) and GABA(A) receptors are both activated.

  20. Autoinmunidad y receptores tipo Toll = Autoimmunity and toll-like receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Ossa Giraldo, Ana Claudia; Úsuga Perilla, Xiomara

    2012-01-01

    La respuesta inmune innata está conformada por un conjunto de mecanismos que permiten reconocer los componentes propios del organismo y diferenciarlos de los microorganismos invasores para generar una primera línea de defensa. Este reconocimiento está mediado por diferentes receptores presentes en la superficie y en el interior de células inmunes y no inmunes; entre ellos se encuentran los siguientes: receptores tipo Toll (RTT), receptores de lectinas tipo C, receptores tipo GIR (genes induci...

  1. The endocrinology of taste receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Egan, Josephine M.

    2016-01-01

    Levels of obesity have reached epidemic proportions on a global scale, which has led to considerable increases in health problems and increased risk of several diseases, including cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, cancer and diabetes mellitus. People with obesity consume more food than is needed to maintain an ideal body weight, despite the discrimination that accompanies being overweight and the wealth of available information that overconsumption is detrimental to health. The relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake throughout an individual’s lifetime is far more complicated than previously thought. An improved comprehension of the relationships between taste, palatability, taste receptors and hedonic responses to food might lead to increased understanding of the biological underpinnings of energy acquisition, as well as why humans sometimes eat more than is needed and more than we know is healthy. This Review discusses the role of taste receptors in the tongue, gut, pancreas and brain and their hormonal involvement in taste perception, as well as the relationship between taste perception, overeating and the development of obesity. PMID:25707779

  2. Autophagy and the (prorenin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Jean Binger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The (prorenin receptor (PRR is a newly reported member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS; a hormonal cascade responsible for regulating blood pressure. Originally, the identification of PRR was heralded as the next drug target of the RAS, of which such therapies would have increased benefits against target-organ damage and hypertension. However, in the years since its discovery several conditional knockout mouse models of PRR have demonstrated an essential role for this receptor unrelated to the renin-angiotensin system and blood pressure. Deletion of PRR in podocytes or cardiomyocytes resulted in the rapid onset of organ failure, eventuating in animal mortality after only a matter of weeks. In both cases, deletion of PRR resulted in the intracellular accumulation of autophagosomes and misfolded proteins, indicating a disturbance in autophagy. In light of the fact that the majority of PRR is located intracellularly, this molecular function appears to be more relevant than its ability to bind to high, non-physiological concentrations of (prorenin. This review will focus on the role of PRR in autophagy and its importance in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Understanding the link between PRR, autophagy and how its loss results in cell death will be essential for deciphering its role in physiology and pathology.

  3. Metabotropic glutamate receptors in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lumeng J; Wall, Brian A; Wangari-Talbot, Janet; Chen, Suzie

    2017-03-15

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are widely known for their roles in synaptic signaling. However, accumulating evidence suggests roles of mGluRs in human malignancies in addition to synaptic transmission. Somatic cell homeostasis presents intriguing possibilities of mGluRs and glutamate signaling as novel targets for human cancers. More recently, aberrant glutamate signaling has been shown to participate in the transformation and maintenance of various cancer types, including glioma, melanoma skin cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer, indicating that genes encoding mGluRs, GRMs, can function as oncogenes. Here, we provide a review on the interactions of mGluRs and their ligand, glutamate, in processes that promote the growth of tumors of neuronal and non-neuronal origins. Further, we discuss the evolution of riluzole, a glutamate release inhibitor approved for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but now fashioned as an mGluR1 inhibitor for melanoma therapy and as a radio-sensitizer for tumors that have metastasized to the brain. With the success of riluzole, it is not far-fetched to believe that other drugs that may act directly or indirectly on other mGluRs can be beneficial for multiple applications. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors, 5 years on'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Androgen receptor drives cellular senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Mirochnik

    Full Text Available The accepted androgen receptor (AR role is to promote proliferation and survival of prostate epithelium and thus prostate cancer progression. While growth-inhibitory, tumor-suppressive AR effects have also been documented, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we for the first time link AR anti-cancer action with cell senescence in vitro and in vivo. First, AR-driven senescence was p53-independent. Instead, AR induced p21, which subsequently reduced ΔN isoform of p63. Second, AR activation increased reactive oxygen species (ROS and thereby suppressed Rb phosphorylation. Both pathways were critical for senescence as was proven by p21 and Rb knock-down and by quenching ROS with N-Acetyl cysteine and p63 silencing also mimicked AR-induced senescence. The two pathways engaged in a cross-talk, likely via PML tumor suppressor, whose localization to senescence-associated chromatin foci was increased by AR activation. All these pathways contributed to growth arrest, which resolved in senescence due to concomitant lack of p53 and high mTOR activity. This is the first demonstration of senescence response caused by a nuclear hormone receptor.

  5. Cannabinoid receptors in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryciw, Deanne H; McAinch, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    The endocannabinoid system modulates cell signaling targets that are essential for energy homeostasis. Endocannabinoids bind to G protein-coupled receptors in the central nervous system and periphery, including the kidney. Modulation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and CB2 activity in the kidney in diabetes and obesity has been identified as potential therapeutic target to reduce albuminuria and renal fibrosis. This review will highlight the results of recent studies that have identified a role for CB1 and CB2 in normal and pathological renal conditions. CB1 and CB2 have been reported to play key roles in renal function and dysfunction. Recent studies have determined that antagonism of CB1 and agonism of CB2 in diabetic nephropathy and obesity associated kidney disease can reduce albuminuria, potentially by acting on both the glomeruli and tubules. Emerging studies have also identified a role for CB1 in renal diseases associated with fibrosis, with CB1 upregulated in multiple models of human nephropathies. Emerging studies using isolated cells, rodent models, and human studies have identified a critical role for the endocannabinoid system in renal function and disease. Thus, therapeutics that modulate the activity of CB1 and CB2 in renal disease could become clinically relevant.

  6. From anion receptors to transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Philip A

    2011-03-15

    Cystic fibrosis is the most well-known of a variety of diseases termed channelopathies, in which the regulation of ion transport across cell membranes is so disrupted that the threshold of a pathology is passed. The human toll exacted by these diseases has led a number of research groups, including our own, to create compounds that mediate ion transport across lipid bilayers. In this Account, we discuss three classes of synthetic compounds that were refined to bind and transport anions across lipid bilayer membranes. All of the compounds were originally designed as anion receptors, that is, species that would simply create stable complexes with anions, but were then further developed as transporters. By studying structurally simple systems and varying their properties to change the degree of preorganization, the affinity for anions, or the lipophilicity, we have begun to rationalize why particular anion transport mechanisms (cotransport or antiport processes) occur in particular cases. For example, we have studied the chloride transport properties of receptors based on the closely related structures of isophthalamide and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide: the central ring in each case was augmented with pendant methylimidazole groups designed to cotransport H(+) and Cl(-). We observed that the more preorganized pyridine-based receptor was the more efficient transporter, a finding replicated with a series of isophthalamides in which one contained hydroxyl groups designed to preorganize the receptor. This latter class of compound, together with the natural product prodigiosin, can transport bicarbonate (as part of a chloride/bicarbonate antiport process) across lipid bilayer membranes. We have also studied the membrane transport properties of calix[4]pyrroles. Although the parent meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole functions solely as a Cs(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter, other compounds with increased anion affinities can function through an antiport process. One example is octafluoro

  7. The substance P/NK-1 receptor system: NK-1 receptor antagonists ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-27

    Apr 27, 2015 ... This overexpression suggests the possibility of specific treatment against tumour cells using. NK-1 receptor ... NK-1 receptor may be a promising target in the treatment of cancer; NK-1 receptor antagonists could act as specific drugs against tumour cells; ... agents and stem cell research). Thus, it remains ...

  8. The G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, C; Smajilovic, S; Wellendorph, P

    2014-01-01

    GPRC6A (G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, subtype A) is a class C G protein-coupled receptor, that has been cloned from human, mouse and rat. Several groups have shown that the receptor is activated by a range of basic and small aliphatic L-α-amino acids of which L-arginine, L-lysine...

  9. A novel fluorescent receptor assay : Based upon receptors embedded in labeled liposomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viel, Gerhard Theodoor

    1999-01-01

    Receptor proteins play an essential role in life. All organisms, from bacteria to plants, animals and human beings use receptors for their response to (external) signals. By definition, a receptor is a (macro) molecule which is able to recognize a distinct chemical entity (e.g. a hormone or

  10. Immune Response to Snake Envenoming and Treatment with Antivenom; Complement Activation, Cytokine Production and Mast Cell Degranulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Shelley F.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Shahmy, Seyed; Mohamed, Fahim; Abeysinghe, Chandana; Karunathilake, Harendra; Ariaratnam, Ariaranee; Jacoby-Alner, Tamara E.; Cotterell, Claire L.; Brown, Simon G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities worldwide. In addition to the clinical effects of envenoming, treatment with antivenom frequently causes serious adverse reactions, including hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylaxis) and pyrogenic reactions. We aimed to investigate the immune responses to Sri Lankan snake envenoming (predominantly by Russell's viper) and antivenom treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Plasma concentrations of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI), anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a, C5a; markers of complement activation), mast cell tryptase (MCT), and histamine were measured in 120 Sri Lankan snakebite victims, both before and after treatment with antivenom. Immune mediator concentrations were correlated with envenoming features and the severity of antivenom-induced reactions including anaphylaxis. Envenoming was associated with complement activation and increased cytokine concentrations prior to antivenom administration, which correlated with non-specific systemic symptoms of envenoming but not with coagulopathy or neurotoxicity. Typical hypersensitivity reactions to antivenom occurred in 77/120 patients (64%), satisfying criteria for a diagnosis of anaphylaxis in 57/120 (48%). Pyrogenic reactions were observed in 32/120 patients (27%). All patients had further elevations in cytokine concentrations, but not complement activation, after the administration of antivenom, whether a reaction was noted to occur or not. Patients with anaphylaxis had significantly elevated concentrations of MCT and histamine. Conclusions/Significance We have demonstrated that Sri Lankan snake envenoming is characterized by significant complement activation and release of inflammatory mediators. Antivenom treatment further enhances the release of inflammatory mediators in all patients, with anaphylactic reactions characterised by high levels of mast

  11. Immune response to snake envenoming and treatment with antivenom; complement activation, cytokine production and mast cell degranulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley F Stone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities worldwide. In addition to the clinical effects of envenoming, treatment with antivenom frequently causes serious adverse reactions, including hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylaxis and pyrogenic reactions. We aimed to investigate the immune responses to Sri Lankan snake envenoming (predominantly by Russell's viper and antivenom treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma concentrations of Interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI, anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a, C5a; markers of complement activation, mast cell tryptase (MCT, and histamine were measured in 120 Sri Lankan snakebite victims, both before and after treatment with antivenom. Immune mediator concentrations were correlated with envenoming features and the severity of antivenom-induced reactions including anaphylaxis. Envenoming was associated with complement activation and increased cytokine concentrations prior to antivenom administration, which correlated with non-specific systemic symptoms of envenoming but not with coagulopathy or neurotoxicity. Typical hypersensitivity reactions to antivenom occurred in 77/120 patients (64%, satisfying criteria for a diagnosis of anaphylaxis in 57/120 (48%. Pyrogenic reactions were observed in 32/120 patients (27%. All patients had further elevations in cytokine concentrations, but not complement activation, after the administration of antivenom, whether a reaction was noted to occur or not. Patients with anaphylaxis had significantly elevated concentrations of MCT and histamine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated that Sri Lankan snake envenoming is characterized by significant complement activation and release of inflammatory mediators. Antivenom treatment further enhances the release of inflammatory mediators in all patients, with anaphylactic reactions characterised by high

  12. Complement Activation and STAT4 Expression Are Associated with Early Inflammation in Diabetic Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnion, Kenji M; Krishna, Neel K; Pallera, Haree K; Pineros-Fernandez, Angela; Rivera, Magdielis Gregory; Hair, Pamela S; Lassiter, Brittany P; Huyck, Ryan; Clements, Mary A; Hood, Antoinette F; Rodeheaver, George T; Cottler, Patrick S; Nadler, Jerry L; Dobrian, Anca D

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic non-healing wounds are a major clinical problem. The mechanisms leading to poor wound healing in diabetes are multifactorial but unresolved inflammation may be a major contributing factor. The complement system (CS) is the most potent inflammatory cascade in humans and contributes to poor wound healing in animal models. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) is a transcription factor expressed in immune and adipose cells and contributes to upregulation of some inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Persistent CS and STAT4 expression in diabetic wounds may thus contribute to chronic inflammation and delayed healing. The purpose of this study was to characterize CS and STAT4 in early diabetic wounds using db/db mice as a diabetic skin wound model. The CS was found to be activated early in the diabetic wounds as demonstrated by increased anaphylatoxin C5a in wound fluid and C3-fragment deposition by immunostaining. These changes were associated with a 76% increase in nucleated cells in the wounds of db/db mice vs. The novel classical CS inhibitor, Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1) reduced inflammation when added directly or saturated in an acellular skin scaffold, as reflected by reduced CS components and leukocyte infiltration. A significant increase in expression of STAT4 and the downstream macrophage chemokine CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 were also found in the early wounds of db/db mice compared to non-diabetic controls. These studies provide evidence for two new promising targets to reduce unresolved inflammation and to improve healing of diabetic skin wounds.

  13. A bioluminescence resonance energy transfer 2 (BRET2) assay for monitoring seven transmembrane receptor and insulin receptor crosstalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanni, Samra Joke; Kulahin, Nikolaj; Jorgensen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The angiotensin AT1 receptor is a seven transmembrane (7TM) receptor, which mediates the regulation of blood pressure. Activation of angiotensin AT1 receptor may lead to impaired insulin signaling indicating crosstalk between angiotensin AT1 receptor and insulin receptor signaling pathways. To el...

  14. GPCR Interaction: 319 [GRIPDB[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Predicted interfaces of C3a anaphylatoxin by using the SCD with the alignment provided in GPCR...DB A Anaphylatoxin C3a anaphylatoxin C3a anaphylatoxin ... Prediction ... 15593372 SCD for GPCRDB subtype 001_002_004_003 ...

  15. Neurosteroids and GABA-A receptor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingde eWang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids represent a class of endogenous steroids that are synthesized in the brain, the adrenals and the gonads and have potent and selective effects on the GABAA-receptor. 3α-hydroxy A-ring reduced metabolites of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone and testosterone are positive modulators of GABAA-receptor in a non-genomic manner. Allopregnanolone (3α-OH-5α-pregnan-20-one, 5α-androstane-3α, 17α-diol (Adiol and 3α5α-tetrahydrodeoxy-corticosterone (3α5α-THDOC enhance the GABA mediated Cl− currents acting on a site (or sites distinct from the GABA, benzodiazepine, barbiturate and picrotoxin binding sites. 3α5α-P and 3α5α-THDOC potentiate synaptic GABAA-receptor function and activate delta-subunit containing extrasynaptic receptors that mediate tonic currents. On the contrary, 3β-OH pregnanesteroids and pregnenolone sulfate (PS are GABAA-receptor antagonists and induce activation-dependent inhibition of the receptor. The activities of neurosteroid are dependent on brain regions and types of neurons. In addition to the slow genomic action of the parent steroids, the non-genomic and rapid actions of neurosteroids play a significant role in the GABAA-receptor function and shift in mood and memory function. This review describes molecular mechanisms underlying neurosteroid action on the GABAA receptor, mood changes and cognitive functions.

  16. How calcium makes endocytic receptors attractive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian B F; Moestrup, Søren K

    2014-01-01

    'lynchpin' that stabilizes favorable positioning of ligand-attractive receptor residues. In addition to explaining how calcium depletion can cause ligand-receptor dissociation, the new data add further insight into how acidification contributes to dissociation through structural changes that affect...

  17. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF QUANTITATIVE RECEPTOR ASSAYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMISTEROVA, J; ENSING, K; DEZEEUW, RA

    Receptor assays occupy a particular position in the methods used in bioanalysis, as they do not exploit the physico-chemical properties of the analyte. These assays make use of the property of the analyte to bind to the specific binding site (receptor) and to competitively replace a labelled ligand

  18. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A polypeptide presenting an epitope cross-reactive with an epitope of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and/or having uPA binding activity, is described.......A polypeptide presenting an epitope cross-reactive with an epitope of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and/or having uPA binding activity, is described....

  19. Transient receptor potential channels in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Scholze, Alexandra; Zhu, Zhiming

    2006-01-01

    The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated.......The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated....

  20. The P2X7 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Torben Madsen; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2014-01-01

    from an increase in bone resorption and the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta and has been shown to not only mediate the inflammatory response but also to strongly stimulate bone degradation. The purinergic P2X7 receptor is central in the processing...... receptor in immune-mediated bone loss and -osteoporosis....

  1. The Integrin Receptor in Biologically Relevant Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalli, Antreas C.; Róg, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric (αβ) cell surface receptors that are potential therapeutic targets for a number of diseases. Despite the existence of structural data for all parts of integrins, the structure of the complete integrin receptor is still not available. We have used available structural d...

  2. Enantioselective Transport by a Steroidal Guanidinium Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baragaña, Beatriz; Blackburn, Adrian G.; Breccia, Perla; Davis, Anthony P.; Mendoza, Javier de; Padrón-Carrillo, José M.; Prados, Pilar; Riedner, Jens; Vries, Johannes G. de

    2002-01-01

    The cationic steroidal receptors 9 and 11 have been synthesized from cholic acid 3. Receptor 9 extracts N-acetyl-α-amino acids from aqueous media into chloroform with enantioselectivities (L:D) of 7-10:1. The lipophilic variant 11 has been employed for the enantioselective transport of

  3. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    response. PR are expressed in multiple human tissues including the uterus, mammary gland , brain, pancreas, thymus , bone, ovary, testes, and in the...ABSTRACT Progesterone receptors (PR) are critical mediators of mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression. Progestin...receptors (PR) are critical for massive breast epithelial cell expansion during mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression

  4. Receptors, G proteins, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollmann, Markus W.; Strumper, Danja; Herroeder, Susanne; Durieux, Marcel E.

    2005-01-01

    Membrane receptors coupling to intracellular G proteins (G protein-coupled receptors) form one of the major classes of membrane signaling proteins. They are of great importance to the practice of anesthesiology because they are involved in many systems of relevance to the specialty (cardiovascular

  5. Structural Mapping of Adenosine Receptor Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespers, Willem; Schiedel, Anke C; Heitman, Laura H

    2018-01-01

    The four adenosine receptors (ARs), A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, constitute a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with exceptional foundations for structure-based ligand design. The vast amount of mutagenesis data, accumulated in the literature since the 1990s, has been recently supplemente...

  6. Evidence of paired M2 muscarinic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, L.T.; Ballesteros, L.A.; Bichajian, L.H.; Ferrendelli, C.A.; Fisher, A.; Hanchett, H.E.; Zhang, R. (Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Binding assays involving various antagonists, including N-(3H) methylscopolamine, (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate, AFDX-116, pirenzepine, and propylbenzilylcholine mustard, disclosed only a single population of M2 muscarinic receptors in membranes from the rat brainstem (medulla, pons, and colliculi). However, competition curves between N-(3H)methylscopolamine and various agonists, including oxotremorine, cis-dioxolane, and acetylethylcholine mustard, showed approximately equal numbers of guanine nucleotide-sensitive high affinity (H) sites and guanine nucleotide-insensitive low affinity (L) sites. This 50% H phenomenon persisted in different buffers, at different temperatures, after the number of receptors was halved (and, thus, the remaining receptor to guanine nucleotide-binding protein ratio was doubled), after membrane solubilization with digitonin, and when rabbit cardiac membranes were used instead of rat brainstem membranes. Preferential occupation of H sites with acetylethylcholine mustard, and of L sites with quinuclidinyl benzilate or either mustard, yielded residual free receptor populations showing predominantly L and H sites, respectively. Low concentrations of (3H)-oxotremorine-M labeled only H sites, and the Bmax for these sites was 49% of the Bmax found with (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate plus guanine nucleotide. These and other results are most consistent with the idea that H and L receptor sites exist on separate but dimeric receptor molecules and with the hypothesis that only the H receptors cycle between high and low affinity, depending upon interactions between this receptor molecule and a guanine nucleotide-binding protein.

  7. Polymorphisms in human muscarinic receptor subtype genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Teitsma, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of polymorphisms have been reported in muscarinic receptor subtype genes, mostly in M₁ and M₂ and, to a lesser extent, M₃ receptors. Most studies linking such genetic variability to phenotype have been performed for brain functions, but a more limited amount of information is also

  8. Opioid receptor trafficking and interaction in nociceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Bao, L; Li, S

    2015-01-01

    Opiate analgesics such as morphine are often used for pain therapy. However, antinociceptive tolerance and dependence may develop with long-term use of these drugs. It was found that μ-opioid receptors can interact with δ-opioid receptors, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance can be reduced by blocking δ-opioid receptors. Recent studies have shown that μ- and δ-opioid receptors are co-expressed in a considerable number of small neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. The interaction of μ-opioid receptors with δ-opioid receptors in the nociceptive afferents is facilitated by the stimulus-induced cell-surface expression of δ-opioid receptors, and contributes to morphine tolerance. Further analysis of the molecular, cellular and neural circuit mechanisms that regulate the trafficking and interaction of opioid receptors and related signalling molecules in the pain pathway would help to elucidate the mechanism of opiate analgesia and improve pain therapy. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24611685

  9. Nuclear receptors in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgyin, Lilla; Erdős, Edina; Bojcsuk, Dóra; Balint, Balint L

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that translate information about the lipid environment into specific genetic programs, a property that renders them good candidates to be mediators of rapid adaptation changes of a species. Lipid-based morphogens, endocrine hormones, fatty acids and xenobiotics might act through this class of transcription factors making them regulators able to fine-tune physiological processes. Here we review the basic concepts and current knowledge on the process whereby small molecules act through nuclear receptors and contribute to transgenerational changes. Several molecules shown to cause transgenerational changes like phthalates, BPA, nicotine, tributylin bind and activate nuclear receptors like ERs, androgen receptors, glucocorticoid receptors or PPARγ. A specific subset of observations involving nuclear receptors has focused on the effects of environmental stress or maternal behaviour on the development of transgenerational traits. While these effects do not involve environmental ligands, they change the expression levels of Estrogen and glucocorticoid receptors of the second generation and consequently initiate an altered genetic program in the second generation. In this review we summarize the available literature about the role of nuclear receptors in transgenerational inheritance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regulation of gonadotropin receptor gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); R. Kraaij (Robert); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe receptors for the gonadotropins differ from the other G protein-coupled receptors by having a large extracellular hormone-binding domain, encoded by nine or ten exons. Alternative splicing of the large pre-mRNA of approximately 100 kb can result in mRNA species that encode truncated

  11. Thermogenic characterization of ghrelin receptor null mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that increases food intake and promotes adiposity, and these physiological functions of ghrelin are mediated through its receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin/GHS-R signaling plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis....

  12. In vivo studies of opiate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Duelfer, T.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstroem, B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To study opiate receptors noninvasively in vivo using positron emission tomography, techniques for preferentially labeling opiate receptors in vivo can be used. The rate at which receptor-bound ligand clears from the brain in vivo can be predicted by measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride and 100 microM guanyl-5'-imidodiphosphate, the drug distribution coefficient, and the molecular weight. A suitable ligand for labeling opiate receptors in vivo is diprenorphine, which binds to mu, delta, and kappa receptors with approximately equal affinity in vitro. However, in vivo diprenorphine may bind predominantly to one opiate receptor subtype, possibly the mu receptor. To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters. Radiochemical methods for the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled diprenorphine and lofentanil are presented.

  13. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedrick D Dotson

    Full Text Available TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  14. Neutral anion receptors: design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    After the development of synthetic cation receptors in the late 1960s, only in the past decade has work started on the development of synthetic neutral anion receptors. Combination and preorganization of different anion binding groups, like amides, urea moieties, or Lewis acidic metal centers lead

  15. Identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of retinoid X and retinoic acid receptors via quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Motonori; Shudo, Koichi; Kagechika, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Understanding and identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of a ligand is an important issue in the field of drug discovery. Using a combination of classical molecular mechanics and quantum mechanical calculations, this report assesses the receptor subtype selectivity for the human retinoid X receptor (hRXR) and retinoic acid receptor (hRAR) ligand-binding domains (LBDs) complexed with retinoid ligands. The calculated energies show good correlation with the experimentally reported binding affinities. The technique proposed here is a promising method as it reveals the origin of the receptor subtype selectivity of selective ligands.

  16. Current Research on Opioid Receptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Chao, Dongman; Lazarus, Lawrence H.; Xia, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The use of opioid analgesics has a long history in clinical settings, although the comprehensive action of opioid receptors is still less understood. Nonetheless, recent studies have generated fresh insights into opioid receptor-mediated functions and their underlying mechanisms. Three major opioid receptors (μ-opioid receptor, MOR; δ-opioid receptor, DOR; and κ-opioid receptor, KOR) have been cloned in many species. Each opioid receptor is functionally sub-classified into several pharmacological subtypes, although, specific gene corresponding each of these receptor subtypes is still unidentified as only a single gene has been isolated for each opioid receptor. In addition to pain modulation and addiction, opioid receptors are widely involved in various physiological and pathophysiological activities, including the regulation of membrane ionic homeostasis, cell proliferation, emotional response, epileptic seizures, immune function, feeding, obesity, respiratory and cardiovascular control as well as some neurodegenerative disorders. In some species, they play an essential role in hibernation. One of the most exciting findings of the past decade is the opioid-receptor, especially DOR, mediated neuroprotection and cardioprotection. The up-regulation of DOR expression and DOR activation increase the neuronal tolerance to hypoxic/ischemic stress. The DOR signal triggers (depending on stress duration and severity) different mechanisms at multiple levels to preserve neuronal survival, including the stabilization of homeostasis and increased pro-survival signaling (e.g., PKC-ERK-Bcl 2) and anti-oxidative capacity. In the heart, PKC and KATP channels are involved in the opioid receptor-mediated cardioprotection. The DOR-mediated neuroprotection and cardioprotection have the potential to significantly alter the clinical pharmacology in terms of prevention and treatment of life-threatening conditions like stroke and myocardial infarction. The main purpose of this article

  17. ETA-receptor antagonists or allosteric modulators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Mey, Jo G R; Compeer, Matthijs G; Lemkens, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The paracrine signaling peptide endothelin-1 (ET1) is involved in cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic pain. It acts on class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) but displays atypical pharmacology. It binds tightly to ET receptor type A (ET(A)) and causes long-lasting effects. In resista......The paracrine signaling peptide endothelin-1 (ET1) is involved in cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic pain. It acts on class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) but displays atypical pharmacology. It binds tightly to ET receptor type A (ET(A)) and causes long-lasting effects......(A) and that ERAs and the physiological antagonist allosterically reduce ET(A) functions. Combining the two-state model and the two-domain model of GPCR function and considering receptor activation beyond agonist binding might lead to better anti-endothelinergic drugs. Future studies could lead to compounds...

  18. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are historically the most successful family of drug targets. In recent times it has become clear that the pharmacology of these receptors is far more complex than previously imagined. Understanding of the pharmacological regulation of GPCRs now extends beyond...... simple competitive agonism or antagonism by ligands interacting with the orthosteric binding site of the receptor to incorporate concepts of allosteric agonism, allosteric modulation, signaling bias, constitutive activity, and inverse agonism. Herein, we consider how evolving concepts of GPCR...... pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...

  19. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensler, J M; Silverman, B L; Sanghavi, J; Goolsby, C; Speck, G; Brizio-Molteni, L; Molteni, A

    2000-10-01

    The etiology of gynecomastia is unknown. There seems to be no increased incidence of malignancies in patients with idiopathic gynecomastia; however, patients with Klinefelter syndrome exhibit an increased incidence of malignancy. The authors reviewed the results of 34 patients with gynecomastia diagnosed in adolescence who, following initial evaluation, had a mastectomy. The estrogen and progesterone receptors were analyzed in these patients. Three of the patients were diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. These three patients exhibited elevated amounts of estrogen and progesterone receptors. None of the patients who were not diagnosed with this syndrome demonstrated significant elevation of their estrogen or progesterone receptors. The presence of elevated estrogen and progesterone receptors in patients with Klinefelter syndrome provides a potential mechanism by which these patients may develop breast neoplasms. The absence of elevated estrogen and progesterone receptors in patients with idiopathic gynecomastia may serve to clarify why these patients' disease rarely degenerates into malignancy.

  20. Molecular pharmacology of human NMDA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Maiken; Hansen, Kasper Bø; Andersen, Karen Toftegaard

    2012-01-01

    current knowledge of the relationship between NMDA receptor structure and function. We summarize studies on the biophysical properties of human NMDA receptors and compare these properties to those of rat orthologs. Finally, we provide a comprehensive pharmacological characterization that allows side......-by-side comparison of agonists, un-competitive antagonists, GluN2B-selective non-competitive antagonists, and GluN2C/D-selective modulators at recombinant human and rat NMDA receptors. The evaluation of biophysical properties and pharmacological probes acting at different sites on the receptor suggest...... that the binding sites and conformational changes leading to channel gating in response to agonist binding are highly conserved between human and rat NMDA receptors. In summary, the results of this study suggest that no major detectable differences exist in the pharmacological and functional properties of human...

  1. The AT2 Receptor and Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esquitino, Veronica Valero; Danyel, Leon Alexander; Steckelings, Ulrike M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes current knowledge about the role of the angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor in inflammation. The first section provides an overview about molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory action of the AT2 receptor. This section is followed by a rev......This chapter summarizes current knowledge about the role of the angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor in inflammation. The first section provides an overview about molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory action of the AT2 receptor. This section is followed...... by a review of the existing literature addressing the role of the AT2 receptor in a wide range of disorders, in which acute or chronic inflammation is an essential contributor to the pathology. These disorders comprise cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, renal, and autoimmune diseases.Taken as a whole...

  2. Ror receptor tyrosine kinases: orphans no more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer L; Kuntz, Steven G; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-11-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) proteins are a conserved family of tyrosine kinase receptors that function in developmental processes including skeletal and neuronal development, cell movement and cell polarity. Although Ror proteins were originally named because the associated ligand and signaling pathway were unknown, recent studies in multiple species have now established that Ror proteins are Wnt receptors. Depending on the cellular context, Ror proteins can either activate or repress transcription of Wnt target genes and can modulate Wnt signaling by sequestering Wnt ligands. New evidence implicates Ror proteins in planar cell polarity, an alternative Wnt pathway. Here, we review the progress made in understanding these mysterious proteins and, in particular, we focus on their function as Wnt receptors.

  3. Sigma-2 receptor ligands QSAR model dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rescifina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data have been obtained from the Sigma-2 Receptor Selective Ligands Database (S2RSLDB and refined according to the QSAR requirements. These data provide information about a set of 548 Sigma-2 (σ2 receptor ligands selective over Sigma-1 (σ1 receptor. The development of the QSAR model has been undertaken with the use of CORAL software using SMILES, molecular graphs and hybrid descriptors (SMILES and graph together. Data here reported include the regression for σ2 receptor pKi QSAR models. The QSAR model was also employed to predict the σ2 receptor pKi values of the FDA approved drugs that are herewith included.

  4. Frontal affinity chromatography in characterizing immobilized receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleri, E; Temporini, C; Massolini, G

    2011-04-05

    The state-of-the-art in frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) applied to receptor of pharmaceutical interest is here reported. This review will first discuss the principles of FAC for ligand characterization (K(d) determination) and for screening studies, and will examine the different strategies that have been followed for the immobilization of a broad range of receptors (cytosolic and membrane receptors). Several reported applications will then be presented demonstrating that FAC is an interesting tool enabling convenient and efficient screening in the identification of new potential ligands. Moreover new applications of FAC including dual binding site assay, receptor subtype characterization, and multi-receptor binding experiments will be underlined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of retinoic receptors in lung carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi-Vamos Ferenc

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several in vitro and in vivo studies have examined the positive and negative effects of retinoids (vitamin A analogs in premalignant and malignant lesions. Retinoids have been used as chemopreventive and anticancer agents because of their pleiotropic regulator function in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation and apoptosis through interaction with two types of nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors. Recent investigations have gradually elucidated the function of retinoids and their signaling pathways and may explain the failure of earlier chemopreventive studies. In this review we have compiled basic and recent knowledge regarding the role of retinoid receptors in lung carcinogenesis. Sensitive and appropriate biological tools are necessary for screening the risk population and monitoring the efficacy of chemoprevention. Investigation of retinoid receptors is important and may contribute to the establishment of new strategies in chemoprevention for high-risk patients and in the treatment of lung cancer.

  6. Sugars, Sweet Taste Receptors, and Brain Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen A.; Owyang, Chung

    2017-01-01

    Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of taste 1 receptor member 2 (T1R2) and taste 1 receptor member 3 (T1R3). Accumulating evidence shows that sweet taste receptors are ubiquitous throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the hypothalamus. These sweet taste receptors are heavily involved in nutrient sensing, monitoring changes in energy stores, and triggering metabolic and behavioral responses to maintain energy balance. Not surprisingly, these pathways are heavily regulated by external and internal factors. Dysfunction in one or more of these pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of common diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:28672790

  7. Novel receptors for bacterial protein toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gudula; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Aktories, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    While bacterial effectors are often directly introduced into eukaryotic target cells by various types of injection machines, toxins enter the cytosol of host cells from endosomal compartments or after retrograde transport via Golgi from the ER. A first crucial step of toxin-host interaction is receptor binding. Using optimized protocols and new methods novel toxin receptors have been identified, including metalloprotease ADAM 10 for Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin, laminin receptor Lu/BCAM for Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor CNF1, lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) for Clostridium difficile transferase CDT and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 1 for Clostridium perfringens TpeL toxin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Real-Time G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Imaging to Understand and Quantify Receptor Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Aymerich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and their regulation by agonists and antagonists is fundamental to develop more effective drugs. Optical methods using fluorescent-tagged receptors and spinning disk confocal microscopy are useful tools to investigate membrane receptor dynamics in living cells. The aim of this study was to develop a method to characterize receptor dynamics using this system which offers the advantage of very fast image acquisition with minimal cell perturbation. However, in short-term assays photobleaching was still a problem. Thus, we developed a procedure to perform a photobleaching-corrected image analysis. A study of short-term dynamics of the long isoform of the dopamine type 2 receptor revealed an agonist-induced increase in the mobile fraction of receptors with a rate of movement of 0.08 μm/s For long-term assays, the ratio between the relative fluorescence intensity at the cell surface versus that in the intracellular compartment indicated that receptor internalization only occurred in cells co-expressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. These results indicate that the lateral movement of receptors and receptor internalization are not directly coupled. Thus, we believe that live imaging of GPCRs using spinning disk confocal image analysis constitutes a powerful tool to study of receptor dynamics.

  9. Gβ promotes pheromone receptor polarization and yeast chemotropism by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Amber; Tian, Wei; Waszczak, Nicholas; Wang, Xin; Cao, Youfang; Suchkov, Dmitry; Bar, Eli; Metodiev, Metodi V; Liang, Jie; Arkowitz, Robert A; Stone, David E

    2016-04-12

    Gradient-directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and growth (chemotropism) are processes that are essential to the development and life cycles of all species. Cells use surface receptors to sense the shallow chemical gradients that elicit chemotaxis and chemotropism. Slight asymmetries in receptor activation are amplified by downstream signaling systems, which ultimately induce dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. During the mating response of budding yeast, a model chemotropic system, the pheromone receptors on the plasma membrane polarize to the side of the cell closest to the stimulus. Although receptor polarization occurs before and independently of actin cable-dependent delivery of vesicles to the plasma membrane (directed secretion), it requires receptor internalization. Phosphorylation of pheromone receptors by yeast casein kinase 1 or 2 (Yck1/2) stimulates their internalization. We showed that the pheromone-responsive Gβγ dimer promotes the polarization of the pheromone receptor by interacting with Yck1/2 and locally inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. We also found that receptor phosphorylation is essential for chemotropism, independently of its role in inducing receptor internalization. A mathematical model supports the idea that the interaction between Gβγ and Yck1/2 results in differential phosphorylation and internalization of the pheromone receptor and accounts for its polarization before the initiation of directed secretion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Specification of the cholesterol interaction with the oxytocin receptor using a chimeric receptor approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Volker; Gimpl, Gerald

    2012-02-15

    The oxytocin receptor specifically requires cholesterol to maintain and stabilize its high-affinity agonist binding. Here, we applied a receptor chimeric approach to coarsely localize the cholesterol binding domain of the oxytocin receptor. During these studies, we identified the specific dependence on cholesterol as a common property of the oxytocin-vasopressin receptor family. We asked whether the oxytocin receptor maintains or loses its cholesterol dependence when parts of the receptor are exchanged by the corresponding fragments of the cholecystokinin receptor that does not show a specific cholesterol dependence. One of the chimeric receptors revealed full oxytocin binding activity, was capable of signal transduction, and its cholesterol dependence was nearly indistinguishable from that of the oxytocin receptor itself. The data suggest that at least the C-terminal segments of the oxytocin receptor including transmembrane domains 6 and 7 do not participate in cholesterol binding. Thus, the binding sites for the modulator cholesterol and for the agonist oxytocin are therefore most likely colocalized in the N-terminal segment of the oxytocin receptor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Steroid Hormone Receptor Signals as Prognosticators for Urothelial Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of preclinical or clinical evidence suggesting that steroid hormone receptor-mediated signals play a critical role in urothelial tumorigenesis and tumor progression. These receptors include androgen receptor, estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, progesterone receptor, vitamin D receptor, retinoid receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and others including orphan receptors. In particular, studies using urothelial cancer tissue specimens have demonstrated that elevated or reduced expression of these receptors as well as alterations of their upstream or downstream pathways correlates with patient outcomes. This review summarizes and discusses available data suggesting that steroid hormone receptors and related signals serve as biomarkers for urothelial carcinoma and are able to predict tumor recurrence or progression.

  12. Progesterone receptor levels independently predict survival in endometrial adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Anette Lynge

    1995-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) contents were determined by biochemical (dextran charcoal-coated (DCC) assay) and immunohistochemical (ICA) methods in biopsies from 145 primary endometrial adenocarcinomas and those with eligible receptor measurements were analyzed with respect...

  13. Receptor Quaternary Organization Explains G Protein-Coupled Receptor Family Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Felce

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The organization of Rhodopsin-family G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs at the cell surface is controversial. Support both for and against the existence of dimers has been obtained in studies of mostly individual receptors. Here, we use a large-scale comparative study to examine the stoichiometric signatures of 60 receptors expressed by a single human cell line. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer- and single-molecule microscopy-based assays, we found that a relatively small fraction of Rhodopsin-family GPCRs behaved as dimers and that these receptors otherwise appear to be monomeric. Overall, the analysis predicted that fewer than 20% of ∼700 Rhodopsin-family receptors form dimers. The clustered distribution of the dimers in our sample and a striking correlation between receptor organization and GPCR family size that we also uncover each suggest that receptor stoichiometry might have profoundly influenced GPCR expansion and diversification.

  14. Functionally biased signalling properties of 7TM receptors - opportunities for drug development for the ghrelin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, B; Holliday, N; Madsen, A N

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The ghrelin receptor is a 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptor involved in a variety of physiological functions including growth hormone secretion, increased food intake and fat accumulation as well as modulation of reward and cognitive functions. Because of its important role in metabolism...... and energy expenditure, the ghrelin receptor has become an important therapeutic target for drug design and the development of anti-obesity compounds. However, none of the compounds developed so far have been approved for commercial use. Interestingly, the ghrelin receptor is able to signal through several...... review, we have described how ligands and mutations in the 7TM receptor may bias the receptors to favour either one G-protein over another or to promote G-protein independent signalling pathways rather than G-protein-dependent pathways. For the ghrelin receptor, both agonist and inverse agonists have...

  15. Stoichiometry of δ subunit containing GABAA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Mortensen, M; Smart, T G

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the stoichiometry of the major synaptic αβγ subunit-containing GABAA receptors has consensus support for 2α:2β:1γ, a clear view of the stoichiometry of extrasynaptic receptors containing δ subunits has remained elusive. Here we examine the subunit stoichiometry of recombinant α4β3δ receptors using a reporter mutation and a functional electrophysiological approach. Experimental Approach Using site-directed mutagenesis, we inserted a highly characterized 9′ serine to leucine mutation into the second transmembrane (M2) region of α4, β3 and δ subunits that increases receptor sensitivity to GABA. Whole-cell, GABA-activated currents were recorded from HEK-293 cells co-expressing different combinations of wild-type (WT) and/or mutant α4(L297S), β3(L284S) and δ(L288S) subunits. Key Results Recombinant receptors containing one or more mutant subunits showed increased GABA sensitivity relative to WT receptors by approximately fourfold, independent of the subunit class (α, β or δ) carrying the mutation. GABA dose–response curves of cells co-expressing WT subunits with their respective L9′S mutants exhibited multiple components, with the number of discernible components enabling a subunit stoichiometry of 2α, 2β and 1δ to be deduced for α4β3δ receptors. Varying the cDNA transfection ratio by 10-fold had no significant effect on the number of incorporated δ subunits. Conclusions and Implications Subunit stoichiometry is an important determinant of GABAA receptor function and pharmacology, and δ subunit-containing receptors are important mediators of tonic inhibition in several brain regions. Here we demonstrate a preferred subunit stoichiometry for α4β3δ receptors of 2α, 2β and 1δ. PMID:24206220

  16. Cocaine Inhibits Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling via Sigma-1-D2 Receptor Heteromers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Bonaventura, Jordi; Brugarolas, Marc; Farré, Daniel; Aguinaga, David; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carmen; Ferre, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Under normal conditions the brain maintains a delicate balance between inputs of reward seeking controlled by neurons containing the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and inputs of aversion coming from neurons containing the D2-like family of dopamine receptors. Cocaine is able to subvert these balanced inputs by altering the cell signaling of these two pathways such that D1 reward seeking pathway dominates. Here, we provide an explanation at the cellular and biochemical level how cocaine may achieve this. Exploring the effect of cocaine on dopamine D2 receptors function, we present evidence of σ1 receptor molecular and functional interaction with dopamine D2 receptors. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, we discovered that D2 receptors (the long isoform of the D2 receptor) can complex with σ1 receptors, a result that is specific to D2 receptors, as D3 and D4 receptors did not form heteromers. We demonstrate that the σ1-D2 receptor heteromers consist of higher order oligomers, are found in mouse striatum and that cocaine, by binding to σ1 -D2 receptor heteromers, inhibits downstream signaling in both cultured cells and in mouse striatum. In contrast, in striatum from σ1 knockout animals these complexes are not found and this inhibition is not seen. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which the initial exposure to cocaine can inhibit signaling via D2 receptor containing neurons, destabilizing the delicate signaling balance influencing drug seeking that emanates from the D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons in the brain. PMID:23637801

  17. Membrane topology of insulin receptors reconstituted into lipid vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen; Christiansen, K.; Carlsen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, insulin receptors, membrane reconstitution, electron microscopy, quaternary structure, immunogold labeling......Anatomy, insulin receptors, membrane reconstitution, electron microscopy, quaternary structure, immunogold labeling...

  18. Orexin-1 receptor-cannabinoid CB1 receptor heterodimerization results in both ligand-dependent and -independent coordinated alterations of receptor localization and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, James; Pediani, John D; Canals, Meritxell; Milasta, Sandra; Milligan, Graeme

    2006-12-15

    Following inducible expression in HEK293 cells, the human orexin-1 receptor was targeted to the cell surface but became internalized following exposure to the peptide agonist orexin A. By contrast, constitutive expression of the human cannabinoid CB1 receptor resulted in a predominantly punctate, intracellular distribution pattern consistent with spontaneous, agonist-independent internalization. Expression of the orexin-1 receptor in the presence of the CB1 receptor resulted in both receptors displaying the spontaneous internalization phenotype. Single cell fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging indicated the two receptors were present as heterodimers/oligomers in intracellular vesicles. Addition of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR-141716A to cells expressing only the CB1 receptor resulted in re-localization of the receptor to the cell surface. Although SR-141716A has no significant affinity for the orexin-1 receptor, in cells co-expressing the CB1 receptor, the orexin-1 receptor was also re-localized to the cell surface by treatment with SR-141716A. Treatment of cells co-expressing the orexin-1 and CB1 receptors with the orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-674042 also resulted in re-localization of both receptors to the cell surface. Treatment with SR-141716A resulted in decreased potency of orexin A to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 only in cells co-expressing the two receptors. Treatment with SB-674042 also reduced the potency of a CB1 receptor agonist to phosphorylate ERK1/2 only when the two receptors were co-expressed. These studies introduce an entirely novel pharmacological paradigm, whereby ligands modulate the function of receptors for which they have no significant inherent affinity by acting as regulators of receptor heterodimers.

  19. Pharmacological analysis of calcium antagonist receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    This work focuses on two aspects of the action of calcium antagonist drugs, namely, the interaction of drugs with receptors for verapamil-like calcium antagonists, and the interactions of drugs with voltage-sensitive calcium fluxes in rat brain synaptosomes. From binding studies I have found that the ligand of choice for labeling the verapamil receptor is (-)(/sup 3/H)desmethoxy-verapamil. This drug labels potently, reversibly and stereoselectively two receptors in membranes prepared from rat brain and rabbit skeletal muscle tissues. In equilibrium studies dihydropyridine calcium antagonists interact in a non-competitive fashion, while many non-DHPs are apparently competitive. In-depth kinetic studies in skeletal muscle membranes indicate that the two receptors are linked in a negative heterotropic fashion, and that low-affinity binding of (-) (/sup 3/H)desmethoxy-verapamil may be to the diltiazem receptor. However, these studies were not able to distinguish between the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to spatially separate, allosterically coupled receptors, and the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to a subsite of the verapamil receptor.

  20. Pattern-recognition receptors in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Cardell, Lars Olaf

    2012-05-01

    The pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). They recognize various microbial signatures or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response. Eosinophils are multifunctional leucocytes involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including parasitic helminth infection, allergic diseases, tissue injury and tumour immunity. Human eosinophils express several PRRs, including TLR1-5, TLR7, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, Dectin-1 and RAGE. Receptor stimulation induces survival, oxidative burst, activation of the adhesion system and release of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), chemokines (interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-α) and cytotoxic granule proteins (eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein). It is also evident that eosinophils play an immunomodulatory role by interacting with surrounding cells. The presence of a broad range of PRRs in eosinophils indicates that they are not only involved in defence against parasitic helminths, but also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. From a clinical perspective, eosinophilic PRRs seem to be involved in both allergic and malignant diseases by causing exacerbations and affecting tumour growth, respectively. © 2012 The Authors. Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Sex hormone receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abreo, Nina; Hindenburg, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    The dependency of certain breast cancers on estrogen is undeniably one of the most important observations in oncology. Since this early observation, there has been a tremendous effort to define the precise roles of the estrogen receptor (ER) in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Estrogen signaling pathways can also be exploited as effective targets for cancer treatment. Both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent receptor activation pathways have been successfully blocked by hormonal therapies including selective ER modulators such as tamoxifen, by blocking and accelerating the degradation of ER (fulvestrant), and by depleting tissue levels of estrogen (aromatase inhibitors). Because of the immense prognostic and predictive value of the ER and PR receptor, accurately defining hormone dependency is also of paramount importance. Despite this avalanche of discovery and development resulting in improved outcome for the patient, resistance to these therapies, both intrinsic and acquired, is well known. Uncovering the various mechanisms of resistance has deepened scientific understanding of posttranslational modifications of these receptors, as well as their cross talk with other receptor families such as the HER-2/neu receptor. The recent discovery that orphan estrogen-related receptors may also play an important role in breast cancer is just starting to be appreciated. A clear understanding of the historical perspective and the intricacies of ER structure and function is required to improve current therapeutic strategies for breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Particle aggregation during receptor-mediated endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sheng; Kosmrlj, Andrej

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis of particles is driven by large binding energy between ligands on particles and receptors on a membrane, which compensates for the membrane bending energy and for the cost due to the mixing entropy of receptors. While the receptor-mediated endocytosis of individual particle is well understood, much less is known about the joint entry of multiple particles. Here, we demonstrate that the endocytosis of multiple particles leads to a kinetically driven entropic attraction, which may cause the aggregation of particles observed in experiments. During the endocytosis particles absorb nearby receptors and thus produce regions, which are depleted of receptors. When such depleted regions start overlapping, the corresponding particles experience osmotic-like attractive entropic force. If the attractive force between particles is large enough to overcome the repulsive interaction due to membrane bending, then particles tend to aggregate provided that they are sufficiently close, such that they are not completely engulfed before they come in contact. We discuss the necessary conditions for the aggregation of cylindrical particles during receptor-mediated endocytosis and comment on the generalization to spherical particles.

  3. Action mechanisms of Liver X Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbi, Chiara; Warner, Margaret [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, University of Houston, 3056 Cullen Blv, 77204 Houston, Texas (United States); Gustafsson, Jan-Åke, E-mail: jgustafs@central.uh.edu [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, University of Houston, 3056 Cullen Blv, 77204 Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum S-141 86 (Sweden)

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • LXRα and LXRβ are ligand-activated nuclear receptors. • They share oxysterol ligands and the same heterodimerization partner, RXR. • LXRs regulate lipid and glucose metabolism, CNS and immune functions, and water transport. - Abstract: The two Liver X Receptors, LXRα and LXRβ, are nuclear receptors belonging to the superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. They share more than 78% homology in amino acid sequence, a common profile of oxysterol ligands and the same heterodimerization partner, Retinoid X Receptor. LXRs play crucial roles in several metabolic pathways: lipid metabolism, in particular in preventing cellular cholesterol accumulation; glucose homeostasis; inflammation; central nervous system functions and water transport. As with all nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of LXR is the result of an orchestration of numerous cellular factors including ligand bioavailability, presence of corepressors and coactivators and cellular context i.e., what other pathways are activated in the cell at the time the receptor recognizes its ligand. In this mini-review we summarize the factors regulating the transcriptional activity and the mechanisms of action of these two receptors.

  4. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  5. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  6. Orexin/hypocretin receptor signalling cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, J P; Leonard, C S

    2014-01-01

    Orexin (hypocretin) peptides and their two known G-protein-coupled receptors play essential roles in sleep-wake control and powerfully influence other systems regulating appetite/metabolism, stress and reward. Consequently, drugs that influence signalling by these receptors may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treating sleep disorders, obesity and addiction. It is therefore critical to understand how these receptors operate, the nature of the signalling cascades they engage and their physiological targets. In this review, we evaluate what is currently known about orexin receptor signalling cascades, while a sister review (Leonard & Kukkonen, this issue) focuses on tissue-specific responses. The evidence suggests that orexin receptor signalling is multifaceted and is substantially more diverse than originally thought. Indeed, orexin receptors are able to couple to members of at least three G-protein families and possibly other proteins, through which they regulate non-selective cation channels, phospholipases, adenylyl cyclase, and protein and lipid kinases. In the central nervous system, orexin receptors produce neuroexcitation by postsynaptic depolarization via activation of non-selective cation channels, inhibition of K⁺ channels and activation of Na⁺/Ca²⁺ exchange, but they also can stimulate the release of neurotransmitters by presynaptic actions and modulate synaptic plasticity. Ca²⁺ signalling is also prominently influenced by these receptors, both via the classical phospholipase C-Ca²⁺ release pathway and via Ca²⁺ influx, mediated by several pathways. Upon longer-lasting stimulation, plastic effects are observed in some cell types, while others, especially cancer cells, are stimulated to die. Thus, orexin receptor signals appear highly tunable, depending on the milieu in which they are operating. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. N-glycosylation of the β2 adrenergic receptor regulates receptor function by modulating dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaona; Zhou, Mang; Huang, Wei; Yang, Huaiyu

    2017-07-01

    N-glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). However, it remains unknown how N-glycosylation affects GPCR signaling. β2 adrenergic receptor (β2 AR) has three N-glycosylation sites: Asn6, Asn15 at the N-terminus, and Asn187 at the second extracellular loop (ECL2). Here, we show that deletion of the N-glycan did not affect receptor expression and ligand binding. Deletion of the N-glycan at the N-terminus rather than Asn187 showed decreased effects on isoproterenol-promoted G-protein-dependent signaling, β-arrestin2 recruitment, and receptor internalization. Both N6Q and N15Q showed decreased receptor dimerization, while N187Q did not influence receptor dimerization. As decreased β2 AR homodimer accompanied with reduced efficiency for receptor function, we proposed that the N-glycosylation of β2 AR regulated receptor function by influencing receptor dimerization. To verify this hypothesis, we further paid attention to the residues at the dimerization interface. Studies of Lys60 and Glu338, two residues at the receptor dimerization interface, exhibited that the K60A/E338A showed decreased β2 AR dimerization and its effects on receptor signaling were similar to N6Q and N15Q, which further supported the importance of receptor dimerization for receptor function. This work provides new insights into the relationship among glycosylation, dimerization, and function of GPCRs. Peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F, EC 3.2.2.11); endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase A (Endo-A, EC 3.2.1.96). © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Ghrelin receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eKaiya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered three years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates.

  9. Immunohistochemical assessment of oestrogen and progesterone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabau, D A; Thorpe, S M; Knoop, A

    2000-01-01

    Two different methods to determine steroid receptors were analysed with respect to their ability to estimate prognosis in primary breast cancer patients. The immunohistochemical assay (IHA) was compared with the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) method of receptor determination. A random sample of 281...... of patients, receptor positive cases fared better than negative cases in all situations. Investigation of the prognostic power revealed that classification based on IHA allowed better discrimination of patients than classification based on the DCC method. The reason for this difference might be because...

  10. Residues essential for Panton-Valentine leukocidin S component binding to its cell receptor suggest both plasticity and adaptability in its interaction surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit-Joseph Laventie

    Full Text Available Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a bicomponent staphylococcal leukotoxin, is involved in the poor prognosis of necrotizing pneumonia. The present study aimed to elucidate the binding mechanism of PVL and in particular its cell-binding domain. The class S component of PVL, LukS-PV, is known to ensure cell targeting and exhibits the highest affinity for the neutrophil membrane (Kd∼10(-10 M compared to the class F component of PVL, LukF-PV (Kd∼10(-9 M. Alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to identify the residues involved in LukS-PV binding to the neutrophil surface. Nineteen single alanine mutations were performed in the rim domain previously described as implicated in cell membrane interactions. Positions were chosen in order to replace polar or exposed charged residues and according to conservation between leukotoxin class S components. Characterization studies enabled to identify a cluster of residues essential for LukS-PV binding, localized on two loops of the rim domain. The mutations R73A, Y184A, T244A, H245A and Y250A led to dramatically reduced binding affinities for both human leukocytes and undifferentiated U937 cells expressing the C5a receptor. The three-dimensional structure of five of the mutants was determined using X-ray crystallography. Structure analysis identified residues Y184 and Y250 as crucial in providing structural flexibility in the receptor-binding domain of LukS-PV.

  11. Nicotinic receptors, memory, and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) modulate the neurobiological processes underlying hippocampal learning and memory. In addition, nicotine's ability to desensitize and upregulate certain nAChRs may alter hippocampus-dependent memory processes. Numerous studies have examined the effects of nicotine on hippocampus-dependent learning, as well as the roles of low- and high-affinity nAChRs in mediating nicotine's effects on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. These studies suggested that while acute nicotine generally acts as a cognitive enhancer for hippocampus-dependent learning, withdrawal from chronic nicotine results in deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory. Furthermore, these studies demonstrated that low- and high-affinity nAChRs functionally differ in their involvement in nicotine's effects on hippocampus-dependent learning. In the present chapter, we reviewed studies using systemic or local injections of acute or chronic nicotine, nAChR subunit agonists or antagonists; genetically modified mice; and molecular biological techniques to characterize the effects of nicotine on hippocampus-dependent learning.

  12. Endogenous Receptor Agonists: Resolving Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bannenberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled resolution or the physiologic resolution of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response at the tissue level is essential to return to homeostasis. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events that control the termination of acute inflammation is needed in molecular terms given the widely held view that aberrant inflammation underlies many common diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of arachidonic acid and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA–derived lipid mediators in regulating the resolution of inflammation. Using a functional lipidomic approach employing LC-MS-MS–based informatics, recent studies, reviewed herein, uncovered new families of local-acting chemical mediators actively biosynthesized during the resolution phase from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These new families of local chemical mediators are generated endogenously in exudates collected during the resolution phase, and were coined resolvins and protectins because specific members of these novel chemical families control both the duration and magnitude of inflammation in animal models of complex diseases. Recent advances on the biosynthesis, receptors, and actions of these novel anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators are reviewed with the aim to bring to attention the important role of specific lipid mediators as endogenous agonists in inflammation resolution.

  13. Teleost Chemokines and Their Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Bird

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly.

  14. Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Julie Ladeby; Blaabjerg, Morten; Bogetofte Thomasen, Helle

    2015-01-01

    differentiated an immortalized, forebrain-derived stem cell line in the presence or absence of glutamate and with addition of either the group I mGluR agonist DHPG or the selective antagonists; MPEP (mGluR5) and LY367385 (mGluR1). Characterization of differentiated cells revealed that both mGluR1 and mGluR5 were...... present on the cells. Addition of glutamate to the growth medium significantly increased cell proliferation and reduced cell death, resulting in increased cell numbers. In the presence of glutamate, selective activation of group I mGluRs reduced gliogenesis, whereas selective inhibition of group I m...... is, however, needed to realise their therapeutic potential. Glutamate and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) affect proliferation and survival of rodent NSCs both during embryonic and postnatal development. To investigate the role of group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) on human NSCs, we...

  15. Teleost Chemokines and Their Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steve; Tafalla, Carolina

    2015-11-11

    Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly.

  16. Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton mediates receptor cross talk: An emerging concept in tuning receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Pieta K.; Batista, Facundo D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton in the control of receptor signaling. This may be of particular importance in the context of immune receptors, such as the B cell receptor, where dysregulated signaling can result in autoimmunity and malignancy. Here, we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling receptor compartmentalization, dynamics, and clustering as a means to regulate receptor signaling through controlling the interactions with protein partners. We propose that the actin cytoskeleton is a point of integration for receptor cross talk through modulation of protein dynamics and clustering. We discuss the implication of this cross talk via the cytoskeleton for both ligand-induced and low-level constitutive (tonic) signaling necessary for immune cell survival. PMID:26833785

  17. Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard J.; Adams, Julian J.; Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Wan, Yu; McKinstry, William J.; Palethorpe, Kathryn; Seeber, Ruth M.; Monks, Thea A.; Eidne, Karin A.; Parker, Michael W.; Waters, Michael J. (UWA); (St. Vincent); (Queensland)

    2010-07-13

    Growth hormone is believed to activate the growth hormone receptor (GHR) by dimerizing two identical receptor subunits, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase associated with the cytoplasmic domain. However, we have reported previously that dimerization alone is insufficient to activate full-length GHR. By comparing the crystal structure of the liganded and unliganded human GHR extracellular domain, we show here that there is no substantial change in its conformation on ligand binding. However, the receptor can be activated by rotation without ligand by inserting a defined number of alanine residues within the transmembrane domain. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and coimmunoprecipitation studies suggest that receptor subunits undergo specific transmembrane interactions independent of hormone binding. We propose an activation mechanism involving a relative rotation of subunits within a dimeric receptor as a result of asymmetric placement of the receptor-binding sites on the ligand.

  18. Structure of Leptin Receptor Related with Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toleikis, Zigmantas

    The hormone leptin is central to obesity, but the molecular processes underlying the activation of the leptin receptor are unknown. To further the understanding of the system, an atomic resolution structure of this cytokine type I receptor in the unbound inactive form and in the activated bound...... form is a necessity. Here, the solution state structures of two of the seven extracellular domains of the receptor are presented: the D2 and the D5CA domains. The latter is a double-mutant (C604A, C613A). The function of the D2 domain is unknown, but data indicate that it increases the signaling...... of the receptor, while the D5 domain is the central leptin-binding domain, implicated in the first steps of activation. Both domains are characterized by a fibronectin type III fold and both contain a conserved WSXWS motif (X represents an unconserved amino acid residue), a distinct feature of the cytokine...

  19. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...

  20. Measuring receptor recycling in polarized MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luciana; Apodaca, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of proteins such as channels, pumps, and receptors is critical for epithelial cell function. In this chapter we present a method to measure receptor recycling in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells using an iodinated ligand. We describe a technique to iodinate transferrin (Tf), we discuss how (125)I-Tf can be used to label a cohort of endocytosed Tf receptor, and then we provide methods to measure the rate of recycling of the (125)I-Tf-receptor complex. We also show how this approach, which is easily adaptable to other proteins, can be used to simultaneously measure the normally small amount of (125)I-Tf transcytosis and degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The cardioprotective effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.N.A. van den; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Frohlich, G.M.; Deinum, J.; Hausenloy, D.J.; Riksen, N.P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite state-of-the-art reperfusion therapy, morbidity and mortality remain significant in patients with an acute myocardial infarction. Therefore, novel strategies to limit myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury are urgently needed. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are attractive

  2. Steroid hormone receptors in male breast diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, M M; Oshima, C F; Lopes, M P; Widman, A; Franco, E L; Brentani, M M

    1986-01-01

    Estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), glucocorticoid (GR) and androgen (AR) receptors were assayed in tumor samples from 8 cases of male breast cancer (MBC) and 20 cases of male gynecomastia. Seven out of eight (87.5%) male tumor samples had positive ER assays with values ranging from 12 to 180 fmol/mg protein. Of the seven ER positive cases of MBC, six, had positive PR activity with high titers. Positive GR and AR values were also detected in 75% of MBC cases. Concentrations of all four receptors were significantly correlated with each other. With gynecomastic tissue, the proportion of receptor-positive patients was 20% ER, 20% PR, 20% AR, and 45% GR. Except for GR, steroid receptor values for MBC individuals were significantly higher than those of gynecomastia patients.

  3. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  4. Agonism and antagonism at the insulin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Louise; Hansen, Bo Falck; Jensen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Insulin can trigger metabolic as well as mitogenic effects, the latter being pharmaceutically undesirable. An understanding of the structure/function relationships between insulin receptor (IR) binding and mitogenic/metabolic signalling would greatly facilitate the preclinical development of new...... insulin analogues. The occurrence of ligand agonism and antagonism is well described for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other receptors but in general, with the exception of antibodies, not for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In the case of the IR, no natural ligand or insulin analogue has been...... shown to exhibit antagonistic properties, with the exception of a crosslinked insulin dimer (B29-B'29). However, synthetic monomeric or dimeric peptides targeting sites 1 or 2 of the IR were shown to be either agonists or antagonists. We found here that the S961 peptide, previously described to be an IR...

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Dopamine Receptor Mediated Neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sealfon, Stuart

    2000-01-01

    ... of the cellular changes characteristic of this process. Evidence from our laboratory and others suggest that activation of dopamine receptors can oppose the induction of apoptosis in dopamine neurons...

  6. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  7. Fluctuation correlation models for receptor immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcade, B.

    2017-12-01

    Nanoscale dynamics with cycles of receptor diffusion and immobilization by cell-external-or-internal factors is a key process in living cell adhesion phenomena at the origin of a plethora of signal transduction pathways. Motivated by modern correlation microscopy approaches, the receptor correlation functions in physical models based on diffusion-influenced reaction is studied. Using analytical and stochastic modeling, this paper focuses on the hybrid regime where diffusion and reaction are not truly separable. The time receptor autocorrelation functions are shown to be indexed by different time scales and their asymptotic expansions are given. Stochastic simulations show that this analysis can be extended to situations with a small number of molecules. It is also demonstrated that this analysis applies when receptor immobilization is coupled to environmental noise.

  8. Tripodal receptors for cation and anion sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman, [Unknown; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing

  9. Gαs signalling of the CB1 receptor and the influence of receptor number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, David B; Cawston, Erin E; Grimsey, Natasha L; Hunter, Morag R; Korde, Anisha; Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Glass, Michelle

    2017-08-01

    CB1 receptor signalling is canonically mediated through inhibitory Gαi proteins, but occurs through other G proteins under some circumstances, Gαs being the most characterized secondary pathway. Determinants of this signalling switch identified to date include Gαi blockade, CB1 /D2 receptor co-stimulation, CB1 agonist class and cell background. Hence, we examined the effects of receptor number and different ligands on CB1 receptor signalling. CB1 receptors were expressed in HEK cells at different levels, and signalling characterized for cAMP by real-time BRET biosensor -CAMYEL - and for phospho-ERK by AlphaScreen. Homogenate and whole cell radioligand binding assays were performed to characterize AM6544, a novel irreversible CB1 receptor antagonist. In HEK cells expressing high levels of CB1 receptors, agonist treatment stimulated cAMP, a response not known to be mediated by receptor number. Δ(9) -THC and BAY59-3074 increased cAMP only in high-expressing cells pretreated with pertussis toxin, and agonists demonstrated more diverse signalling profiles in the stimulatory pathway than the canonical inhibitory pathway. Pharmacological CB1 receptor knockdown and Gαi 1 supplementation restored canonical Gαi signalling to high-expressing cells. Constitutive signalling in both low- and high-expressing cells was Gαi -mediated. CB1 receptor coupling to opposing G proteins is determined by both receptor and G protein expression levels, which underpins a mechanism for non-canonical signalling in a fashion consistent with Gαs signalling. CB1 receptors mediate opposite consequences in endpoints such as tumour viability depending on expression levels; our results may help to explain such effects at the level of G protein coupling. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Selectivity of Odorant Receptors in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    Selectivity of odorant receptors in insects Jonathan D. Bohbot and Joseph C. Dickens* Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, Plant Sciences...Germany Guenter Gisselmann, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany *Correspondence: Joseph C. Dickens, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory...Building 007, Room 030, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. e-mail: joseph.dickens@ars.usda.gov Insect olfactory receptors (ORs

  11. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...response to collagen in prostate cancer . The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of DDRs in prostate cancer . During

  12. Brain masculinization requires androgen receptor function

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Takashi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kawano, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Yoshikatsu; Sekine, Keisuke; Fukuda, Toru; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Krust, Andrée; Yamada, Takashi; NAKAMICHI, YUKO; Yamamoto, Yoko; Nakamura, Takashi; Yoshimura, Kimihiro; Yoshizawa, Tatsuya

    2004-01-01

    Testicular testosterone produced during a critical perinatal period is thought to masculinize and defeminize the male brain from the inherent feminization program and induce male-typical behaviors in the adult. These actions of testosterone appear to be exerted not through its androgenic activity, but rather through its conversion by brain aromatase into estrogen, with the consequent activation of estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated signaling. Thus, the role of androgen receptor (AR) in perinatal...

  13. Structure of a Streptococcal Adhesin Carbohydrate Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    from the cell wall polysac- dental plaque. The carbohydrate receptor on Strepto- charide of S. sanguis HI is: a-L-Rhap-( 1--2)-a-i-Rhap- coccus sanguis ...8217H) correlation experi- Streptococctzs sanguis , Actinomyces uiscosis, and Actinomyces ments. The configurations of the glycosidic linkages naeslundii...to act as ad-sequence of the glycosyl residues was determined by a hesin receptors have been studied in detail to date. S. sanguis This investigation

  14. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  15. Increased Accuracy of Ligand Sensing by Receptor Internalization and Lateral Receptor Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Gerardo; Endres, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Many types of cells can sense external ligand concentrations with cell-surface receptors at extremely high accuracy. Interestingly, ligand-bound receptors are often internalized, a process also known as receptor-mediated endocytosis. While internalization is involved in a vast number of important functions for the life of a cell, it was recently also suggested to increase the accuracy of sensing ligand as overcounting of the same ligand molecules is reduced. A similar role may be played by receptor diffusion om the cell membrane. Fast, lateral receptor diffusion is known to be relevant in neurotransmission initiated by release of neurotransmitter glutamate in the synaptic cleft between neurons. By binding ligand and removal by diffusion from the region of release of the neurotransmitter, diffusing receptors can be reasonably expected to reduce the local overcounting of the same ligand molecules in the region of signaling. By extending simple ligand-receptor models to out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics, we show that both receptor internalization and lateral diffusion increase the accuracy with which cells can measure ligand concentrations in the external environment. We confirm this with our model and give quantitative predictions for experimental parameters values. We give quantitative predictions, which compare favorably to experimental data of real receptors.

  16. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhardt, Julia; Villela, Daniel C.; Teichmann, Anke

    2017-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may......, subfamily C-member 6. Dimerization of the AT2R was abolished when it was mutated at cysteine residue 35. AT2R and MAS stimulation with the respective agonists, Compound 21 or angiotensin-(1-7), significantly induced CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression. Effects of each agonist were blocked...

  17. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors increases 5-HT2A receptor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Krey, Gesa

    2009-01-01

    Major depression is associated with both dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and serotonergic deficiency, not the least of the 5-HT2A receptor. However, how these phenomena are linked to each other, and whether a low 5-HT2A receptor level is a state or a trait marker of depre......Major depression is associated with both dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and serotonergic deficiency, not the least of the 5-HT2A receptor. However, how these phenomena are linked to each other, and whether a low 5-HT2A receptor level is a state or a trait marker...... of depression is unknown. In mice with altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression we investigated 5-HT2A receptor levels by Western blot and 3H-MDL100907 receptor binding. Serotonin fibre density was analyzed by stereological quantification of serotonin transporter immunopositive fibers. To establish...... an effect of GR activation on 5-HT2A levels, mature organotypic hippocampal cultures were exposed to corticosterone with or without GR antagonist mifepristone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone. In GR under-expressing mice, hippocampal 5-HT2A receptor protein levels were decreased...

  18. Receptors and transduction of umami taste stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie

    2009-07-01

    L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides, such as GMP and IMP, elicit the "umami" taste, also known as the fifth taste. This review will highlight recent advancements in our understanding of umami taste receptors and their downstream signaling effectors in taste receptor cells. Several G protein-coupled receptors that bind umami stimuli have been identified in taste buds, including the heterodimer T1R1/T1R3, truncated and brain forms of mGluR4 and mGluR1, brain mGluR2, and brain mGluR3. Further, ionotropic glutamate receptors are expressed in taste cells and may play a role in glutamate transduction or signaling between taste cells and/or nerve fibers. Knockout of T1R1 or T1R3 reduces, but does not eliminate, responses to umami stimuli, suggesting that multiple receptors contribute to umami taste. The signaling effectors downstream of umami G protein-coupled receptors involve Gbetagamma activation of PLCbeta2 to elicit Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and activation of a cation channel, TRPM5. In fungiform and palatal taste buds, T1R1/T1R3 is co-expressed with Galpha gustducin and transducin, but the Galpha proteins involved in circumvallate taste buds have not been identified. In most taste fields, however, cAMP antagonizes responses to umami stimuli, suggesting that the Galpha subunit serves to modulate umami taste sensitivity.

  19. Targeting the TAM Receptors in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline G. Huey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Targeted inhibition of members of the TAM (TYRO-3, AXL, MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases has recently been investigated as a novel strategy for treatment of hematologic malignancies. The physiologic functions of the TAM receptors in innate immune control, natural killer (NK cell differentiation, efferocytosis, clearance of apoptotic debris, and hemostasis have previously been described and more recent data implicate TAM kinases as important regulators of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. The TAM receptors are aberrantly or ectopically expressed in many hematologic malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia, B- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. TAM receptors contribute to leukemic phenotypes through activation of pro-survival signaling pathways and interplay with other oncogenic proteins such as FLT3, LYN, and FGFR3. The TAM receptors also contribute to resistance to both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and targeted agents, making them attractive therapeutic targets. A number of translational strategies for TAM inhibition are in development, including small molecule inhibitors, ligand traps, and monoclonal antibodies. Emerging areas of research include modulation of TAM receptors to enhance anti-tumor immunity, potential roles for TYRO-3 in leukemogenesis, and the function of the bone marrow microenvironment in mediating resistance to TAM inhibition.

  20. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  1. Vitamin D receptors and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Christine S; Ruppe, Mary D; Grubbs, Elizabeth G

    2011-01-01

    To describe the function and metabolism of the vitamin D hormone and the role of the vitamin D receptor and the calcium-sensing receptor in the secretion of parathyroid hormone. A review of the literature was undertaken regarding the function and metabolism of vitamin D; the role of the vitamin D receptor and calcium-sensing receptor in the secretion of parathyroid hormone; and the contemporary research regarding the interaction of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in patients with vitamin D deficiency, primary hyperparathyroidism, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Over the last several years, great interest has been generated about the interaction of vitamin D and the parathyroid glands, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and bone in relation to calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Vitamin D has an important role in calcium and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Likewise, the vitamin D axis appears to be involved with the development of both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The specific mechanism by which vitamin D interacts with the parathyroid gland to bring about observed effects is not yet fully understood. Future studies investigating the relationship of the vitamin D receptor, calcium-sensing receptor, and parathyroid glands are needed to enhance our knowledge of vitamin D deficiency and primary and secondary vitamin D deficiency.

  2. Melanocortin Receptors, Melanotropic Peptides and Penile Erection

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen H.; Mayorov, Alexander V.; Balse-Srinivasan, Preeti; Hruby, Victor J.; Vanderah, Todd W.; Wessells, Hunter

    2009-01-01

    Penile erection is a complex physiologic event resulting from the interactions of the nervous system on a highly specialized vascular organ. Activation of central nervous system melanocortinergic (MC) receptors with either endogenous or synthetic melanotropic ligands may initiate and/or facilitate spontaneous penile erection. While the CNS contains principally the MC3 and MC4 receptor subtypes, there is conflicting data as to which receptor mediates erection. Although the MC4R is emerging as the principle effector of MC induced erection, the role of the MC3R is poorly understood. Manipulation of each receptor subtype with newly synthesized receptor specific agonists and antagonists, as well as knockout mice, has elucidated their individual contributions. Novel data from our laboratories suggests that antagonism of forebrain MC3R may enhance melanocortin-induced erections. Furthermore, melanocortin agents may interact with better-studied systems such as oxytocinergic pathways at the hypothalamic, brainstem or spinal level. Current therapies for erectile dysfunction target end organ vascular tissue. Manipulation of MC receptors may provide an alternative, centrally mediated therapeutic approach for erectile and other sexual dysfunctions. The non-specific “superpotent” MC agonist, PT-141, which is the carboxylate derivative of MT-II, has reached phase II human trials. Through their centrally mediated activity, melanocortin agonists have potential to treat erectile dysfunction as well as possible applications to the unmet medical needs of decreased sexual motivation and loss of libido. PMID:17584130

  3. ROR-Family Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Sigmar; Rauschenberger, Verena; Schambony, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    ROR-family receptor tyrosine kinases form a small subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), characterized by a conserved, unique domain architecture. ROR RTKs are evolutionary conserved throughout the animal kingdom and act as alternative receptors and coreceptors of WNT ligands. The intracellular signaling cascades activated downstream of ROR receptors are diverse, including but not limited to ROR-Frizzled-mediated activation of planar cell polarity signaling, RTK-like signaling, and antagonistic regulation of WNT/β-Catenin signaling. In line with their diverse repertoire of signaling functions, ROR receptors are involved in the regulation of multiple processes in embryonic development such as development of the axial and paraxial mesoderm, the nervous system and the neural crest, the axial and appendicular skeleton, and the kidney. In humans, mutations in the ROR2 gene cause two distinct developmental syndromes, recessive Robinow syndrome (RRS; MIM 268310) and dominant brachydactyly type B1 (BDB1; MIM 113000). In Robinow syndrome patients and animal models, the development of multiple organs is affected, whereas BDB1 results only in shortening of the distal phalanges of fingers and toes, reflecting the diversity of functions and signaling activities of ROR-family RTKs. In this chapter, we give an overview on ROR receptor structure and function. We discuss their signaling functions and role in vertebrate embryonic development with a focus on those developmental processes that are affected by mutations in the ROR2 gene in human patients. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metal ions and human sperm mannose receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoff, S; Cooper, G W; Centola, G M; Jacob, A; Hershlag, A; Hurley, I R

    2000-09-01

    Zinc and lead concentrations were measured in seminal plasma from fertile donors, infertile men with varicocoele and men undergoing work-ups for in vitro fertilization. Ejaculated spermatozoa from these subjects were incubated in vitro with various metal ions and/or dibromoethane and dibromochloropropane. Mannose receptor expression was correlated with metal and toxicant levels. Sperm distributions of potassium channels were compared with lead ions and calcium channels with zinc ions. Mannose receptor expression by capacitated spermatozoa increased linearly with seminal plasma zinc levels, and correlated inversely with lead levels. Cobalt had no effect on mannose receptor expression, but nickel had a concentration-dependent biphasic effect. Mannose receptor expression was not affected by dibromoethane and dibromochloropropane if the cholesterol content of the sperm membrane was high, but mannose receptor expression was decreased in low cholesterol spermatozoa by exposures below estimated permissive exposure limits. Potassium channels and lead ions co-localized over the entire head of human spermatozoa, while both calcium channels and zinc ions were confined to the equatorial segment of the head. Mannose receptor expression on the external surface of the human sperm plasma membrane is a biomarker for the effects of transition and heavy metals and organic toxicants on sperm fertility potential.

  5. Receptor-mediated signalling at plasmodesmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eFaulkner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodesmata (PD generate continuity between plant cells via the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (ER and plasma membrane (PM, allowing movement of different classes of molecules between cells. Proteomic data indicates that the PD PM hosts many receptors and receptor kinases, as well as lipid raft and tetraspanin enriched microdomain associated proteins, suggesting the hypothesis that the PD PM is specialised with respect to both composition and function. PD-located receptor proteins and receptor kinases are responsible for perception of microbe associated molecular patterns at PD and initiate signalling that mediates changes to PD flux. In addition, developmentally relevant receptor kinases have different interactions dependent upon whether located at the PD PM or the cellular PM. The implications of these findings are that receptor-mediated signalling in PD membranes differs from that in the cellular PM and, in light the identification of PD-located proteins associated with membrane microdomains and the role of membrane microdomains in analogous signalling processes in animals, suggests that the PD PM contains specialised signalling platforms.

  6. Dopamine receptors - physiological understanding to therapeutic intervention potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emilien, G; Maloteaux, JM; Hoogenberg, K; Cragg, S

    1999-01-01

    There are two families of dopamine (DA) receptors, called D(1) and D(2), respectively. The D(1) family consists of D(1)- and D(5)-receptor subtypes and the D(2) family consists of D(2)-, D(3)-, and D(4)-receptor subtypes. The amino acid sequences of these receptors show that they all belong to a

  7. Opioid receptor desensitization: mechanisms and its link to tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane eAllouche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Opioid receptors are part of the class A of G-protein coupled receptors and the target of the opiates, the most powerful analgesic molecules used in clinic. During a protracted use, a tolerance to analgesic effect develops resulting in a reduction of the effectiveness. So understanding mechanisms of tolerance is a great challenge and may help to find new strategies to tackle this side effect. This review will summarize receptor-related mechanisms that could underlie tolerance especially receptor desensitization. We will focus on the latest data obtained on molecular mechanisms involved in opioid receptor desensitization: phosphorylation, receptor uncoupling, internalization and post-endocytic fate of the receptor.

  8. Expression of Plant Receptor Kinases in Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Hidefumi; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2017-01-01

    Although more than 600 single-transmembrane receptor kinase genes have been found in the Arabidopsis genome, only a few of them have known physiological functions, and even fewer plant receptor kinases have known specific ligands. Ligand-binding analysis must be operated using the functionally expressed receptor form. However, the relative abundance of native receptor kinase molecules in the plasma membrane is often quite low. Here, we present a method for stable and functional expression of plant receptor kinases in tobacco BY-2 cells that allows preparation of microsomal fractions containing the receptor. This procedure provides a sufficient amount of receptor proteins while maintaining its ligand-binding activities.

  9. Molecular modeling of the human serotonin(1A) receptor : role of membrane cholesterol in ligand binding of the receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paila, Yamuna Devi; Tiwari, Shrish; Sengupta, Durba; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin(1A) receptors are important neurotransmitter receptors and belong to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Although it is an important drug target, the crystal structure of the serotonin(1A) receptor has not been solved yet. Earlier homology models of the serotonin(1A)

  10. Development and validation of fluorescent receptor assays based on the human recombinant estrogen receptor subtypes alpha and beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de boer, T; Otjens, D; Muntendam, A; Meulman, E; van Oostijen, M; Ensing, K

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of two fluorescent receptor assays for the hRec-estrogen receptor subtypes alpha and beta. As a labelled ligand an autofluorescent phyto-estrogen (coumestrol) has been used. The estrogen receptor (ER) belongs to the nuclear receptor family, a

  11. Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism in unique VLDL receptor, LDL receptor, and LRP triple-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espirito Santo, S.M.S.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Goudriaan, J.R.; Bensadoun, A.; Bovenschen, N.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Vlijmen, B.J.M. van

    2005-01-01

    The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) are the three main apolipoprotein E-recognizing endocytic receptors involved in the clearance of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins from plasma.

  12. The Cannabinoid Receptor CB1 Modulates the Signaling Properties of the Lysophosphatidylinositol Receptor GPR55*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargl, Julia; Balenga, Nariman; Parzmair, Gerald P.; Brown, Andrew J.; Heinemann, Akos; Waldhoer, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) 55 (GPR55) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) are co-expressed in many tissues, predominantly in the central nervous system. Seven transmembrane spanning (7TM) receptors/GPCRs can form homo- and heteromers and initiate distinct signaling pathways. Recently, several synthetic CB1 receptor inverse agonists/antagonists, such as SR141716A, AM251, and AM281, were reported to activate GPR55. Of these, SR141716A was marketed as a promising anti-obesity drug, but was withdrawn from the market because of severe side effects. Here, we tested whether GPR55 and CB1 receptors are capable of (i) forming heteromers and (ii) whether such heteromers could exhibit novel signaling patterns. We show that GPR55 and CB1 receptors alter each others signaling properties in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that the co-expression of FLAG-CB1 receptors in cells stably expressing HA-GPR55 specifically inhibits GPR55-mediated transcription factor activation, such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells and serum response element, as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) activation. GPR55 and CB1 receptors can form heteromers, but the internalization of both receptors is not affected. In addition, we observe that the presence of GPR55 enhances CB1R-mediated ERK1/2 and nuclear factor of activated T-cell activation. Our data provide the first evidence that GPR55 can form heteromers with another 7TM/GPCR and that this interaction with the CB1 receptor has functional consequences in vitro. The GPR55-CB1R heteromer may play an important physiological and/or pathophysiological role in tissues endogenously co-expressing both receptors. PMID:23161546

  13. Anti-opioid receptor antibody recognition of a binding site on brain and leukocyte opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, D J; DeCosta, B R; Kim, C H; Jacobson, A E; Bost, K L; Rice, K C; Blalock, J E

    1990-05-01

    Opioid receptors reportedly exist on neuronal tissue of central and peripheral origin as well as on cells of the immune system. Previously, an opioid receptor has been purified from the neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cell line, NG108-15 cells. In an effort to compare these results with opioid receptors isolated from primary neuronal tissue, we employed a methodology based on the molecular recognition theory to develop a monoclonal antibody which was used to isolate and biochemically characterize murine brain opioid receptors. We herein report the purification of an opioid receptor from mouse brain with a molecular weight of 65,000 daltons (range was 62-70 kD under reducing conditions) using a monoclonal antibody to an (the) opioid receptor. In situ labeling experiments with the delta-class selective opioid receptor affinity ligand, cis-(+)-3-methylfentanylisothiocyanate (SUPERFIT) of brain membrane confirmed these observations. Moreover, SUPERFIT, when coupled to the binding site, could block the recognition of the receptor by the monoclonal antibody. However, the selective, mu-class opioid receptor affinity reagent, 2-(p-ethoxybenzyl)-1-N,N-diethylaminoethyl-5-isothiocyanatobenz imidazole was ineffective at masking the binding site from recognition by the monoclonal antibody. Likewise, opioid-like receptors were purified from murine leukocytes which migrated at a molecular weight of 58,000 daltons under nonreducing conditions and 70,000 daltons under reducing conditions. In addition, immunoaffinity-purified receptor is shown to specifically bind the delta-class-selective opioid ligand, cis-(+)-3-methylfentanylisothiocyanate as well as the endogenous opioid peptides, beta-endorphin and [Met]-enkephalin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The Insect Ortholog of the Human Orphan Cytokine Receptor CRLF3 Is a Neuroprotective Erythropoietin Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Hahn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo mediates various cell homeostatic responses to environmental challenges and pathological insults. While stimulation of vertebrate erythrocyte production is mediated by homodimeric “classical” Epo receptors, alternative receptors are involved in neuroprotection. However, their identity remains enigmatic due to complex cytokine ligand and receptor interactions and conflicting experimental results. Besides the classical Epo receptor, the family of type I cytokine receptors also includes the poorly characterized orphan cytokine receptor-like factor 3 (CRLF3 present in vertebrates including human and various insect species. By making use of the more simple genetic makeup of insect model systems, we studied whether CRLF3 is a neuroprotective Epo receptor in animals. We identified a single ortholog of CRLF3 in the beetle Tribolium castaneum, and established protocols for primary neuronal cell cultures from Tribolium brains and efficient in vitro RNA interference. Recombinant human Epo as well as the non-erythropoietic Epo splice variant EV-3 increased the survival of serum-deprived brain neurons, confirming the previously described neuroprotective effect of Epo in insects. Moreover, Epo completely prevented hypoxia-induced apoptotic cell death of primary neuronal cultures. Knockdown of CRLF3 expression by RNA interference with two different double stranded RNA (dsRNA fragments abolished the neuroprotective effect of Epo, indicating that CRLF3 is a crucial component of the insect Epo-responsive receptor. This suggests that a common urbilaterian ancestor of the orphan human and insect cytokine receptor CRLF3 served as a neuroprotective receptor for an Epo-like cytokine. Our work also suggests that vertebrate CRLF3, like its insect ortholog, might represent a tissue protection-mediating receptor.

  15. Role of CXC chemokine receptor type 4 as a lactoferrin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Yoshiharu; Aoki, Reiji; Uchida, Ryo; Tajima, Atsushi; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin exerts its biological activities by interacting with receptors on target cells, including LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1/CD91), intelectin-1 (omentin-1), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the effects mediated by these receptors are not sufficient to fully explain the many functions of lactoferrin. C-X-C-motif cytokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a ubiquitously expressed G-protein coupled receptor for stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12). Lactoferrin was found to be as capable as SDF-1 in blocking infection by an HIV variant that uses CXCR4 as a co-receptor (X4-tropic HIV), suggesting that lactoferrin interacts with CXCR4. We addressed whether CXCR4 acts as a lactoferrin receptor using HaCaT human keratinocytes and Caco-2 human intestinal cells. We found that bovine lactoferrin interacted with CXCR4-containing lipoparticles, and that this interaction was not antagonized by SDF-1. In addition, activation of Akt in response to lactoferrin was abrogated by AMD3100, a small molecule inhibitor of CXCR4, or by a CXCR4-neutralizing antibody, suggesting that CXCR4 functions as a lactoferrin receptor able to mediate activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Lactoferrin stimulation mimicked many aspects of SDF-1-induced CXCR4 activity, including receptor dimerization, tyrosine phosphorylation, and ubiquitination. Cycloheximide chase assays indicated that turnover of CXCR4 was accelerated in response to lactoferrin. These results indicate that CXCR4 is a potent lactoferrin receptor that mediates lactoferrin-induced activation of Akt signaling.

  16. BRET biosensor analysis of receptor tyrosine kinase functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana eSiddiqui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET is an improved version of earlier resonance energy transfer technologies used for the analysis of biomolecular protein interaction. BRET analysis can be applied to many transmembrane receptor classes, however the majority of the early published literature on BRET has focused on G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR research. In contrast, there is limited scientific literature using BRET to investigate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK activity. This limited investigation is surprising as RTKs often employ dimerization as a key factor in their activation, as well as being important therapeutic targets in medicine, especially in the cases of cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative and respiratory conditions. In this review, we consider an array of studies pertinent to RTKs and other non-GPCR receptor protein-protein signaling interactions; more specifically we discuss receptor-protein interactions involved in the transmission of signaling communication. We have provided an overview of functional BRET studies associated with the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK super family involving: neurotrophic receptors (e.g. tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR; insulinotropic receptors (e.g. insulin receptor (IR and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR and growth factor receptors (e.g. ErbB receptors including the EGFR, the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR and the c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR. In addition, we review BRET-mediated studies of other tyrosine kinase-associated receptors including cytokine receptors, i.e. leptin receptor (OB-R and the growth hormone receptor (GHR. It is clear even from the relatively sparse experimental RTK BRET evidence that there is tremendous potential for this technological application for the functional investigation of RTK biology.

  17. Regulation and binding of pregnane X receptor by nuclear receptor corepressor silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Li, Chia-Wei; Chen, Liuh-Yow; Ghosh, Jagadish C; Chen, J Don

    2006-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is an orphan nuclear receptor predominantly expressed in liver and intestine. PXR coordinates hepatic responses to prevent liver injury induced by environmental toxins. PXR activates cytochrome P450 3A4 gene expression upon binding to rifampicin (Rif) and clotrimazole (CTZ) by recruiting transcriptional coactivators. It remains unclear whether and how PXR regulates gene expression in the absence of ligand. In this study, we analyzed interactions between PXR and the silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) and determined the role of SMRT in regulating PXR activity. We show that SMRT interacts with PXR in glutathione S-transferase pull-down, yeast two-hybrid, and mammalian two-hybrid assays. The interaction is mediated through the ligand-binding domain of PXR and the SMRTs' nuclear receptor-interacting domain 2. The PXR-SMRT interaction is sensitive to species-specific ligands, and Rif causes an exchange of the corepressor SMRT with the p160 coactivator known as receptor-associated coactivator 3 (RAC3). Deletion of the PXR's activation function 2 helix enhances SMRT binding and abolishes ligand-dependent dissociation of SMRT. Coexpression of PXR with SMRT results in colocalization at discrete nuclear foci. Finally, transient transfection assays show that overexpression of SMRT inhibits PXR's transactivation of the Cyp3A4 promoter, whereas silencing of SMRT enhances the reporter expression. Taken together, our results suggest that the corepressor SMRT may bind to and regulate the transcriptional activity of PXR.

  18. Receptor Expression in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ronald B.

    1996-01-01

    One on the most persistent problems with long-term space flight is atrophy of skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscle is unique as a tissue in the body in that its ability to undergo atrophy or hypertrophy is controlled exclusively by cues from the extracellular environment. The mechanism of communication between muscle cells and their environment is through a group of membrane-bound and soluble receptors, each of which carries out unique, but often interrelated, functions. The primary receptors include acetyl choline receptors, beta-adrenergic receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, insulin receptors, growth hormone (i.e., somatotropin) receptors, insulin-like growth factor receptors, and steroid receptors. This project has been initiated to develop an integrated approach toward muscle atrophy and hypertrophy that takes into account information on the populations of the entire group of receptors (and their respective hormone concentrations), and it is hypothesized that this information can form the basis for a predictive computer model for muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. The conceptual basis for this project is illustrated in the figure below. The individual receptors are shown as membrane-bound, with the exception of the glucocorticoid receptor which is a soluble intracellular receptor. Each of these receptors has an extracellular signalling component (e.g., innervation, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, etc.), and following the interaction of the extracellular component with the receptor itself, an intracellular signal is generated. Each of these intracellular signals is unique in its own way; however, they are often interrelated.

  19. Cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) increases striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Schulz, Sybille; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; de Bruin, Kora; van den Brink, Wim; Booij, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) alters rewarding properties and intake of food and drugs. Additionally, striatal dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability has been implicated in reward function. This study shows that chronic treatment of rats with rimonabant (1.0 and

  20. A CSF-1 Receptor Phosphotyrosine 559 Signaling Pathway Regulates Receptor Ubiquitination and Tyrosine Phosphorylation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Song, Da; Cai, Yunfei; Yu, Wenfeng; Yeung, Yee-Guide; Stanley, E. Richard

    2011-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation involves ligand-induced receptor dimerization and transphosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1)-induced CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination were studied in mouse macrophages. Phosphorylation of CSF-1R Tyr-559, required for the binding of Src family kinases (SFKs), was both necessary and sufficient for these responses and for c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation and all three responses were inhibited by SFK inhibitors. In c-Cbl-deficient macrophages, CSF-1R ubiquitination and tyrosine phosphorylation were substantially inhibited. Reconstitution with wild-type, but not ubiquitin ligase-defective C381A c-Cbl rescued these responses, while expression of C381A c-Cbl in wild-type macrophages suppressed them. Analysis of site-directed mutations in the CSF-1R further suggests that activated c-Cbl-mediated CSF-1R ubiquitination is required for a conformational change in the major kinase domain that allows amplification of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and full receptor activation. Thus the results indicate that CSF-1-mediated receptor dimerization leads to a Tyr-559/SFK/c-Cbl pathway resulting in receptor ubiquitination that permits full receptor tyrosine phosphorylation of this class III RTK in macrophages. PMID:21041311

  1. The WSXWS motif in cytokine receptors is a molecular switch involved in receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagil, Robert; Knudsen, Maiken J.; Olsen, Johan Gotthardt

    2012-01-01

    The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is activated by binding of prolactin in a 2:1 complex, but the activation mechanism is poorly understood. PRLR has a conserved WSXWS motif generic to cytokine class I receptors. We have determined the nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the membrane...

  2. Vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Hassager, C; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and estrogen receptor (ER) genes in relation to biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum osteocalcin and urinary collagen type I degradation products (CrossLaps), and to study ER genotypes in relation to serum lipoproteins, blood...

  3. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor TR4 Is a Vitamin A-activated Nuclear Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Xu, Yong; Chan, Cee-Wah; Tanabe, Osamu; Kruse, Schoen W.; Reynolds, Ross; Engel, James Douglas; Xu, H. Eric (Michigan-Med); (Van Andel)

    2015-11-30

    Testicular receptors 2 and 4 (TR2/4) constitute a subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in spermatogenesis, lipid and lipoprotein regulation, and the development of the central nervous system. Currently, little is known about the structural features and the ligand regulation of these receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the ligand-free TR4 ligand binding domain, which reveals an autorepressed conformation. The ligand binding pocket of TR4 is filled by the C-terminal half of helix 10, and the cofactor binding site is occupied by the AF-2 helix, thus preventing ligand-independent activation of the receptor. However, TR4 exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity on multiple promoters, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, or ligand binding substantially reduce the transcriptional activity of this receptor. Importantly, both retinol and retinoic acid are able to promote TR4 to recruit coactivators and to activate a TR4-regulated reporter. These findings demonstrate that TR4 is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and suggest that retinoids might have a much wider regulatory role via activation of orphan receptors such as TR4.

  4. Epidermal-growth-factor receptors generate Ras.GTP more efficiently than insulin receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osterop, A.P.R.M.; Medema, R.H.; Zon, G.C.M. van der; Bos, J.L.; Möller, W.; Maassen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Activation of the Ras proto-oncogene contributes in general to mitogenic activation of cells. We show here that epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates Ras.GTP formation very efficiently in a variety of cell lines expressing endogenous EGF receptors only. Maximal activation of the receptor converts

  5. All three LDL receptor homology regions of the LDL receptor-related protein bind multiple ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Johnny E; Shin, William D; Knauer, Mary F; Knauer, Daniel J; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2003-11-11

    The three complete human LDL receptor homology regions of the LDL receptor-related protein (sLRP2, sLRP3, and sLRP4) have been expressed in Pichia pastoris SMD1168 with constitutive coexpression of the receptor-associated protein (RAP). Each sLRP was purified to homogeneity after deglycosylation using a combination of anion-exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing confirmed the identity of each fragment at purified yields of several milligrams per liter. Despite the large number of disulfide linkages and glycosylation sites in each LDL receptor homology region (sLRP), all were shown to be competent for binding to several LRP1 ligands. Each sLRP also bound human RAP, which is thought to be a generalized receptor antagonist, in solution-binding experiments. As expected, sLRP2 bound the receptor-binding domain of alpha(2)-macroglobulin (residues 1304-1451). All three sLRPs bound human apolipoprotein-enriched beta very low density lipoprotein, the canonical ligand for this receptor. All three sLRPs also bound lactoferrin and thrombin-protease nexin 1 complexes. Only sLRP4 bound thrombin-antithrombin III complexes. The results show that binding-competent LDL receptor homology regions (sLRPs) can be produced in high yield in P. pastoris and readily purified. Each sLRP has binding sites for multiple ligands, but not all ligand binding could be competed by RAP.

  6. Biased signaling of G protein-coupled receptors - From a chemokine receptor CCR7 perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Astrid Sissel; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Hjortø, Gertrud M

    2018-01-01

    Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) and their associated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) work in a concerted manner to govern immune cell positioning in time and space. Promiscuity of both ligands and receptors, but also biased signaling within the chemokine system, adds to the complexity of how...

  7. Receptors as microprocessors: pharmacological nuance on metabotropic glutamate receptors 1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenakin, Terry

    2006-07-03

    G protein-coupled receptors have revealed themselves to be complex information-processing units that may be exploited for subtle therapeutic signaling effects. Thus, ligands may not only turn receptors on and off, but may also select from their repertoire of signaling effects to further refine drug response.

  8. Cloning and sequence analysis of the human brain beta-adrenergic receptor. Evolutionary relationship to rodent and avian beta-receptors and porcine muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, F Z; Lentes, K U; Gocayne, J; Fitzgerald, M; Robinson, D; Kerlavage, A R; Fraser, C M; Venter, J C

    1987-01-26

    Two cDNA clones, lambda-CLFV-108 and lambda-CLFV-119, encoding for the beta-adrenergic receptor, have been isolated from a human brain stem cDNA library. One human genomic clone, LCV-517 (20 kb), was characterized by restriction mapping and partial sequencing. The human brain beta-receptor consists of 413 amino acids with a calculated Mr of 46480. The gene contains three potential glucocorticoid receptor-binding sites. The beta-receptor expressed in human brain was homology with rodent (88%) and avian (52%) beta-receptors and with porcine muscarinic cholinergic receptors (31%), supporting our proposal [(1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 272 276] that adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are structurally related. This represents the first cloning of a neurotransmitter receptor gene from human brain.

  9. Receptor oligomerization in family B1 of G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Sarah Norklit; Ørgaard, Anne; Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    , the glucagon receptor, and the receptors for parathyroid hormone (PTHR1 and PTHR2). The dysregulation of several family B1 receptors is involved in diseases, such as diabetes, chronic inflammation, and osteoporosis which underlines the pathophysiological importance of this GPCR subfamily. In spite of this......, investigation of family B1 receptor oligomerization and especially its pharmacological importance is still at an early stage. Even though GPCR oligomerization is a well-established phenomenon, there is a need for more investigations providing a direct link between these interactions and receptor functionality...... in family B1 GPCRs. One example of the functional effects of GPCR oligomerization is the facilitation of allosterism including cooperativity in ligand binding to GPCRs. Here, we review the currently available data on family B1 GPCR homo- and heteromerization, mainly based on BRET investigations. Furthermore...

  10. The bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: A receptor with low affinity for benzodiazepines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parola, A.L.; Laird, H.E. II (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The density of bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) in four tissues was highest in adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex PBR cofractionated with a mitochondrial membrane marker enzyme and could be solubilized with intact ligand binding properties using digitonin. The membrane bound and soluble mitochondrial receptors were pharmacologically characterized and showed the rank order of potency to inhibit ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding was PK 11195 > protoporphyrin IX > benzodiazepines. ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding to bovine adrenal mitochondria was unaffected by diethylpyrocarbonate, a histidine residue modifying reagent that decreased binding to rat liver mitochondria by 70%. ({sup 3}H)PK 14105 photolabeled the bovine PBR and the Mr was estimated under nondenaturing and denaturing conditions. These results demonstrate the bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is pharmacologically and biochemically distinct from the rat receptor, but the receptor component photolabeled by an isoquinoline ligand has a similar molecular weight.

  11. Methylation of the phosphate oxygen moiety of phospholipid-methoxy(polyethylene glycol) conjugate prevents PEGylated liposome-mediated complement activation and anaphylatoxin production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Hamad, I.; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2006-01-01

    Methoxy(polyethylene glycol), mPEG, -grafted liposomes are known to exhibit prolonged circulation time in the blood, but their infusion into a substantial percentage of human subjects triggers immediate non-IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. These reactions are strongly believed to arise fr...

  12. Neuroactive Steroids: Receptor Interactions and Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kald Beshir Tuem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroactive steroids (NASs are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs. NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors. Among these, NSs (especially allopregnanolone have high potency and extensive GABA-A receptors and hence demonstrate anticonvulsant, anesthetic, central cytoprotectant, and baroreflex inhibitory effects. NSs are also involved in mood and learning via serotonin and anti-nociceptive activity via T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Moreover, they are modulators of mitochondrial function, synaptic plasticity, or regulators of apoptosis, which have a role in neuroprotective via voltage-dependent anion channels receptors. For proper functioning, NASs need to be in their normal level, whereas excess and deficiency may lead to abnormalities. When they are below the normal, NSs could have a part in development of depression, neuro-inflammation, multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. On the other hand, stress and attention deficit disorder could occur during excessive level. Overall, NASs are very important molecules with major neuropsychiatric activity.

  13. Cellular receptors for human enterovirus species A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorihiro eNishimura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Human enterovirus species A (HEV-A is one of the four species of HEV in the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae. Among HEV-A, coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 and enterovirus 71 (EV71 are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. Some other types of HEV-A are commonly associated with herpangina. Although HFMD and herpangina due to HEV-A are common febrile diseases among infants and children, EV71 can cause various neurological diseases, such as aseptic meningitis and fatal encephalitis.Recently, two human transmembrane proteins, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 and scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2, were identified as functional receptors for EV71 and CVA16. In in vitro infection experiments using the prototype HEV-A strains, PSGL-1 and SCARB2 could be responsible for the specific receptors for EV71 and CVA16. However, the involvement of both receptors in the in vitro and in vivo infections of clinical isolates of HEV-A has not been clarified yet. To elucidate a diverse array of the clinical outcome of HEV-A-associated diseases, the identification and characterization of HEV-A receptors may provide useful information in understanding the HEV-A pathogenesis at a molecular level.

  14. Receptors: How low can you go?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H Steven

    2018-01-04

    The EGF receptor plays a key role in many cancers, where it is often overabundant or overactive. Anti-EGF receptor therapies have proven useful in treating some cancers, but their effectiveness is limited because tumors commonly become resistant. To develop better therapies, it would be helpful to know which EGF receptor signals drive the growth of tumors. This should be predictable from the percentage of occupied receptors on the tumor cells, but this cannot be measured directly. It should also be possible to infer the level of occupancy by measuring the amount of ligand either made by the tumor itself or available from the surrounding environment. However, locally produced ligands are consumed as fast as they are produced (DeWitt et al., 2001) and only low levels – of the magnitude of picomoles – are found in extracellular fluids accessible by tumors, such as the blood (Chien et al., 1997). This lack of information on either the level of occupied receptors or available ligands within tumors is a critical knowledge gap in identifying the signaling events that drive their growth.

  15. Binding characteristics of swine erythrocyte insulin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieberg, G.; Bryan, G.S.; Sartin, J.L.; Williams, J.C.; Prince, T.J.; Kemppainen, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    Crossbred gilts had 8.8 +/- 1.1% maximum binding of ( SVI)insulin to insulin receptors on erythrocytes. The number of insulin-binding sites per cell was 137 +/- 19, with a binding affinity ranging from 7.4 X 10(7)M-1 to 11.2 X 10(7)M-1 and mean of 8.8 X 10(7)M-1. Pregnant sows had a significant increase in maximum binding due to an increase in number of receptor sites per cell. Lactating sows fed a high-fiber diet and a low-fiber diet did not develop a significant difference in maximum binding of insulin. Sows fed the low-fiber diet had a significantly higher number of binding sites and a significantly lower binding affinity than did sows fed a high-fiber diet. Receptor-binding affinity was lower in the low-fiber diet group than in cycling gilts, whereas data from sows fed the high-fiber diet did not differ from data for cycling gilts. Data from this study indicated that insulin receptors of swine erythrocytes have binding characteristics similar to those in other species. Pregnancy and diet will alter insulin receptor binding in swine.

  16. Roles of transferrin receptors in erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Soichiro; Masuda, Taro; Uchiyama, Tatsuki; Ohmori, Katsuyuki; Koeffler, H Phillip; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2016-07-01

    Erythropoiesis requires large amounts of iron for hemoglobin synthesis, which is mainly provided by macrophages and the intestines in a transferrin (Tf)-bound form. Bone marrow erythroblasts incorporate Tf through endocytosis, which is mediated by transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). Recently, human TFR1, aside from its role as a Tf receptor, was also found to be a receptor for the H-subunit of ferritin (FTH). In humans, hematopoietic erythroid precursor cells express high levels of TFR1 and specifically take up the FTH homopolymer (H-ferritin). H-ferritin inhibits the formation of burst forming unit-erythroid colonies in vitro. TFR2, which is also a Tf receptor, is predominantly expressed in hepatocytes and erythroid precursor cells. In the liver, TFR2 forms a complex with HFE, a hereditary hemochromatosis-associated protein, and acts as an iron sensor. In mice, hepatocyte-specific knockout of the TFR2 gene has been shown to cause systemic iron-overload with decreased expression of hepcidin, the central regulator of iron homeostasis. In erythroid cells, TFR2 forms a complex with the erythropoietin receptor and facilitates its trafficking to the cell membrane. Moreover, hematopoietic cell-specific knockout of the TFR2 gene causes microcytic erythrocytosis in mice. This review focuses on the molecular evolution and functions of these TFRs and their ligands.

  17. Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists--current prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Giuseppe; Di Fabio, Romano

    2007-09-01

    The isolation of substance P (SP) in 1931, and the later discovery of its preferred neurokinin (NK)1 receptor, led to an intense research effort aimed at elucidating the biological role of SP, particularly within the central nervous system. There is now a large body of evidence to support the hypothesis that SP is one of the most important neurotransmitters and neuromodulators present in the brain. Its pharmacology has been intimately linked to the pathophysiology of several relevant neurological and psychiatric disorders, namely nociception, migraine, asthma, nausea, inflammatory bowel syndrome, urinary incontinence, anxiety and depression. This wide therapeutic potential triggered an unprecedented research effort, both preclinically and clinically, to identify appropriate NK1 receptor antagonists and transform them into effective drugs. To date, despite huge investments made by some of the largest pharmaceutical groups worldwide, aprepitant (MK-869, an anti-emetic agent) remains the only NK1 receptor antagonist on the market. Nevertheless, the 'NK1 receptor antagonist race' is not over, as witnessed by the significant number of patents and scientific publications claiming the discovery of new NK1 receptor antagonists issued in recent years. This review describes the most relevant results obtained in this field in the period 2005 to 2006.

  18. Calcitonin receptor expression in medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappagli, Virginia; Potes, Catarina Soares; Ferreira, Luciana Bueno; Tavares, Catarina; Eloy, Catarina; Elisei, Rossella; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Wookey, Peter J; Soares, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Calcitonin expression is a well-established marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC); yet the role of calcitonin receptor (CTR), its seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor, remains to be established in C-cells derived thyroid tumors. The aim of this work was to investigate CTR expression in MTC and to correlate such expression with clinicopathological features in order to evaluate its possible role as a prognostic indicator of disease aggressiveness and outcome. Calcitonin receptor expression was analyzed in a series of 75 MTCs by immunohistochemistry, and by qPCR mRNA quantification in specimens from four patients. Statistical tests were used to evaluate the correlation between CTR expression and the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of patients and tumors. Calcitonin receptor expression was detected in 62 out of 75 samples (82.7%), whereas 13 of the 75 samples (17.3%) were completely negative. CTR expression was significantly associated with expression of cytoplasmatic phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 and osteopontin, as well as with wild type RET/RAS genes and absence of tumor stroma, suggesting that CTR expression do not associate with clinicopathological signs of worse prognosis. Calcitonin receptor expression appears to be associated in MTC with more differentiated status of the neoplastic cells.

  19. Radiolabelled GLP-1 receptor antagonist binds to GLP-1 receptor-expressing human tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, PO Box 62, Berne (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    Radiolabelled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been shown to successfully image benign insulinomas in patients. For the somatostatin receptor targeting of tumours, however, it was recently reported that antagonist tracers were superior to agonist tracers. The present study therefore evaluated various forms of the {sup 125}iodinated-Bolton-Hunter (BH)-exendin(9-39) antagonist tracer for the in vitro visualization of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in rats and humans and compared it with the agonist tracer {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. Receptor autoradiography studies with {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide agonist or {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) antagonist radioligands were performed in human and rat tissues. The antagonist {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) labelled at lysine 19 identifies all human and rat GLP-1 target tissues and GLP-1 receptor-expressing tumours. Binding is of high affinity and is comparable in all tested tissues in its binding properties with the agonist tracer {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. For comparison, {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) with the BH labelled at lysine 4 did identify the GLP-1 receptor in rat tissues but not in human tissues. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) labelled with {sup 125}I-BH at lysine 19 is an excellent GLP-1 radioligand that identifies human and rat GLP-1 receptors in normal and tumoural tissues. It may therefore be the molecular basis to develop suitable GLP-1 receptor antagonist radioligands for in vivo imaging of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in patients. (orig.)

  20. Genetic variants of dopamine D2 receptor impact heterodimerization with dopamine D1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błasiak, Ewa; Łukasiewicz, Sylwia; Szafran-Pilch, Kinga; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2017-04-01

    The human dopamine D2 receptor gene has three polymorphic variants that alter its amino acid sequence: alanine substitution by valine in position 96 (V96A), proline substitution by serine in position 310 (P310S) and serine substitution by cysteine in position 311 (S311C). Their functional role has never been the object of extensive studies, even though there is some evidence that their occurrence correlates with schizophrenia. The HEK293 cell line was transfected with dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (or genetic variants of the D2 receptor), coupled to fluorescent proteins which allowed us to measure the extent of dimerization of these receptors, using a highly advanced biophysical approach (FLIM-FRET). Additionally, Fluoro-4 AM was used to examine changes in the level of calcium release after ligand stimulation of cells expressing different combinations of dopamine receptors. Using FLIM-FRET experiments we have shown that in HEK 293 expressing dopamine receptors, polymorphic mutations in the D2 receptor play a role in dimmer formation with the dopamine D1 receptor. The association level of dopamine receptors is affected by ligand administration, with variable effects depending on polymorphic variant of the D2 dopamine receptor. We have found that the level of heteromer formation is reflected by calcium ion release after ligand stimulation and have observed variations of this effect dependent on the polymorphic variant and the ligand. The data presented in this paper support the hypothesis on the role of calcium signaling regulated by the D1-D2 heteromer which may be of relevance for schizophrenia etiology. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. EVALUATION OF A PURIFICATION PROCEDURE FOR THE MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR FOR THE PURPOSE OF QUANTITATIVE RECEPTOR ASSAYS OF ANTICHOLINERGICS .A. THE MEMBRANE-BOUND RECEPTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMISTEROVA, J; ENSING, K; DEZEEUW, RA

    1995-01-01

    The presented purification procedure for the muscarinic receptor from calf striatum includes the extraction of lipids with hexane in the first step and the removal of 39% of non-receptor proteins with 2 M NaCl in the second step. The simplicity of such an approach to the purification of the receptor

  2. Multiple autophosphorylation sites of the epidermal growth factor receptor are essential for receptor kinase activity and internalization. Contrasting significance of tyrosine 992 in the native and truncated receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorkin, A; Helin, K; Waters, C M

    1992-01-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor autophosphorylation sites in the regulation of receptor functions has been studied using cells transfected with mutant EGF receptors. Simultaneous point mutation of 4 tyrosines (Y1068, Y1086, Y1148, Y1173) to phenylalanine, as well as removal of ...

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Opioid Receptor-Dependent Signaling and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hasani, Ream; Bruchas, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Opioid receptors have been targeted for the treatment of pain and related disorders for thousands of years, and remain the most widely used analgesics in the clinic. Mu (μ), kappa (κ), and delta (δ) opioid receptors represent the originally classified receptor subtypes, with opioid receptor like-1 (ORL1) being the least characterized. All four receptors are G-protein coupled, and activate inhibitory G-proteins. These receptors form homo- and hetereodimeric complexes, signal to kinase cascades, and scaffold a variety of proteins. In this review, we discuss classical mechanisms and developments in understanding opioid tolerance, opioid receptor signaling, and highlight advances in opioid molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and human genetics. We put into context how opioid receptor signaling leads to the modulation of behavior with the potential for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we conclude that there is a continued need for more translational work on opioid receptors in vivo. PMID:22020140

  4. Brain CB2 Receptors: Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Roche

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although previously thought of as the peripheral cannabinoid receptor, it is now accepted that the CB2 receptor is expressed in the central nervous system on microglia, astrocytes and subpopulations of neurons. Expression of the CB2 receptor in the brain is significantly lower than that of the CB1 receptor. Conflicting findings have been reported on the neurological effects of pharmacological agents targeting the CB2 receptor under normal conditions. Under inflammatory conditions, CB2 receptor expression in the brain is enhanced and CB2 receptor agonists exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. These findings have prompted research into the CB2 receptor as a possible target for the treatment of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Neuroinflammatory alterations are also associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and polymorphisms in the CB2 gene have been reported in depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. This review will examine the evidence to date for a role of brain CB2 receptors in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  5. DMPD: Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15031527 Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and virus... (.csml) Show Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. PubmedID 1503...1527 Title Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and virus

  6. The Leptin Receptor Complex: Heavier Than Expected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauman, Joris; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, leptin and the leptin receptor (ObR) regulate the body weight by balancing food intake and energy expenditure. However, this adipocyte-derived hormone also directs peripheral processes, including immunity, reproduction, and bone metabolism. Leptin, therefore, can act as a metabolic switch connecting the body’s nutritional status to high energy consuming processes. We provide an extensive overview of current structural insights on the leptin–ObR interface and ObR activation, coupling to signaling pathways and their negative regulation, and leptin functioning under normal and pathophysiological conditions (obesity, autoimmunity, cancer, … ). We also discuss possible cross-talk with other receptor systems on the receptor (extracellular) and signaling cascade (intracellular) levels. PMID:28270795

  7. Pattern recognition receptors in HIV transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teunis B. Geijtenbeek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs, Langerhans cells (LCs and macrophages are innate immune cells that reside in genital and intestinal mucosal tissues susceptible to HIV-1 infection. These innate cells play distinct roles in initiation of HIV-1 infection and induction of anti-viral immunity. DCs are potent migratory cells that capture HIV-1 and transfer virus to CD4+ T cells in the lymph nodes, whereas LCs have a protective anti-viral function, and macrophages function as viral reservoirs since they produce viruses over prolonged times. These differences are due to the different immune functions of these cells partly dependent on the expression of specific pattern recognition receptors. Expression of Toll-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and cell-specific machinery for antigen uptake and processing strongly influence the outcome of virus interactions.

  8. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor of blood platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletscher, A.; Affolter, H. (Hopital Cantonal Geneve (Switzerland))

    1983-01-01

    Blood platelets show specific, high affinity binding of /sup 3/H-5-hydroxytryptamine, /sup 3/H-ketanserin and /sup 3/H-D-Lysergic acid diethylamide. 5-HT-antagonists are considerably more potent than agonists regarding both the displacement of specifically bound /sup 3/H-ketanserin and the shape change reaction mediated by the 5-HT-receptor. The latter depends on a rise of free intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. The binding site for /sup 3/H-ketanserin and the site at which the 5-HT-induced shape change is triggered show the characteristics of a 5-HT/sub 2/-receptor whose intracellular mediator seems to be Ca/sup 2 +/. The 5-HT-/sub 2/-receptor of platelets may be used as a partial model for that in neurons; however, it remains to be elucidated whether Ca/sup 2 +/ is a mediator of the latter.

  9. NMDA receptor activity in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen E Lakhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors play a variety of physiologic roles and their proper signaling is essential for cellular homeostasis. Any disruption in this pathway, leading to either enhanced or decreased activity, may result in the manifestation of neuropsychiatric pathologies such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, substance induced psychosis, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we explore the notion that the overlap in activity of at least one biochemical pathway, the NMDA receptor pathway, may be the link to understanding the overlap in psychotic symptoms between diseases. This review intends to present a broad overview of those neuropsychiatric disorders for which alternations in NMDA receptor activity is prominent thus suggesting that continued direction of pharmaceutical intervention to this pathway may present a viable option for managing symptoms.

  10. Molecular piracy of chemokine receptors by herpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P M

    1994-01-01

    To succeed as a biological entity, viruses must exploit normal cellular functions and elude the host immune system; they often do so by molecular mimicry. One way that mimicry may occur is when viruses copy and modify host genes. The best studied examples of this are the oncogenes of RNA retroviruses, but a growing number of examples are also known for DNA viruses. So far they all come from just two groups of DNA viruses, the herpesviruses and poxviruses, and the majority of examples are for genes whose products regulate immune responses, such as cytokines, cytokine receptors, and complement control proteins. This review will focus on human and herpesvirus receptors for chemokines, a family of leukocyte chemoattractant and activating factors that are thought to be important mediators of inflammation. Although the biological roles of the viral chemokine receptor homologues are currently unknown, their connection to specific sets of chemokines has suggested a number of possible functions.

  11. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Jens Ulrik Lütken

    2016-01-01

    In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also......, such as excitability, metabolism and inflammation. Recent publications predict effects of the lactate receptor on neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative diseases in retina, where the retinal ganglion cells die, notably glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, may be linked to disturbed lactate homeostasis. Pilot studies...... reveal high GPR81 mRNA in retina and indicate GPR81 localization in Müller cells and retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, monocarboxylate transporters are expressed in retinal cells. We envision that lactate receptors and transporters could be useful future targets of novel therapeutic strategies to protect...

  12. Metabotropic Regulation of Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Martin Connelly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A large body of work now shows the importance of GABAA receptor-mediated tonic inhibition in regulating CNS function. However, outside of pathological conditions, there is relatively little evidence that the magnitude of tonic inhibition is itself under regulation. Here we review the mechanisms by which tonic inhibition is known to be modulated, and outline the potential behavioural consequences of this modulation. Specifically, we address the ability of protein kinase A and C to phosphorylate the extrasynaptic receptors responsible for the tonic GABAA current, and how G-protein coupled receptors can regulate tonic inhibition through these effectors. We then speculate about the possible functional consequences of regulating the magnitude of the tonic GABAA current.

  13. Gastrin Receptor-Avid Peptide Conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Timothy J. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Li, Ning (Baltimore, MD); Sieckman, Gary (Ashland, MO); Higginbotham, Chrys-Ann (Columbia, MO)

    2005-07-26

    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  14. Gastrin receptor-avid peptide conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Timothy J.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Sieckman, Gary; Smith, Charles J.; Gali, Hariprasad

    2006-06-13

    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a-moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  15. Gastrin receptor-avid peptide conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Timothy J.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Li, Ning; Sieckman, Gary; Higginbotham, Chrys-Ann

    2006-12-12

    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  16. GPR39 Zn2+-sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Singewald, Nicolas; Holst, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    exhibits an antidepressant-like profile, as demonstrated in both preclinical and clinical studies. Recent reports indicate that the GPR39 Zn2+-sensing receptor is an important target for zinc “transmission” (its activation modulates/induces diverse biochemical pathways involved in neuroprotection......). Preclinical studies provide evidence that zinc deficiency leads to depressive-like behavior related to down-regulation of the GPR39 Zn2+-sensing receptor. Zinc binds to the GPR39 and triggers signals, leading to CRE-dependent gene transcription, resulting in increases in proteins such as brain......-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), that plays a pivotal role in antidepressant action. Chronic administration of many antidepressants induces GPR39 up-regulation, which suggests that the Zn2+-sensing receptor may be considered as a new target for drug development in the field of depression....

  17. Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease with classical traits of demyelination, axonal damage, and neurodegeneration. The migration of autoimmune T cells and macrophages from blood to central nervous system as well as the destruction of blood brain barrier are thought to be the major processes in the development of this disease. Chemokines, which are small peptide mediators, can attract pathogenic cells to the sites of inflammation. Each helper T cell subset expresses different chemokine receptors so as to exert their different functions in the pathogenesis of MS. Recently published results have shown that the levels of some chemokines and chemokine receptors are increased in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. This review describes the advanced researches on the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in the development of MS and discusses the potential therapy of this disease targeting the chemokine network.

  18. Histamine, histamine receptors and antihistamines: new concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Fachini Jardim; Maruta, Celina W; Machado Filho, Carlos d'Apparecida

    2010-01-01

    Drugs with antihistamine action are the most commonly prescribed medication in daily dermatologic practice, both to adults and children. This article addresses new concepts of the role of histamine receptors (H1 receptors) and discusses the anti-inflammatory effects of these drugs. Second generation antihistamines differs from first generation because of their high specificity and affinity for peripheral H1-receptors. Second generation antihistamines are also less likely to produce sedation because they have less effect on the central nervous system. Although the efficacy of the various H1-antihistamines in the treatment of allergic patients is similar, even when comparing first- and second-generation drugs, these drugs are still very different in terms of their chemical structure, pharmacology and toxic properties. Consequently, knowledge of their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics is essential for a better medical care, especially that offered to pregnant women, children, the elderly, and patients with comorbidities.

  19. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore...... to examine whether human bladder tumor cells express VDR. Tumor biopsies were obtained from 26 patients with TCC. Expression of VDR was examined by immunohistochemical experiments. All tumors expressed VDR. Biopsies from advanced disease contained more VDR positive cells than low stage disease (p ....05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...

  20. Targeted anticancer therapy: overexpressed receptors and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alrokayan, Salman A; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-09-25

    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to cancer cells and tissues is a promising field due to its potential to spare unaffected cells and tissues, but it has been a major challenge to achieve success in these therapeutic approaches. Several innovative approaches to targeted drug delivery have been devised based on available knowledge in cancer biology and on technological advancements. To achieve the desired selectivity of drug delivery, nanotechnology has enabled researchers to design nanoparticles (NPs) to incorporate anticancer drugs and act as nanocarriers. Recently, many receptor molecules known to be overexpressed in cancer have been explored as docking sites for the targeting of anticancer drugs. In principle, anticancer drugs can be concentrated specifically in cancer cells and tissues by conjugating drug-containing nanocarriers with ligands against these receptors. Several mechanisms can be employed to induce triggered drug release in response to either endogenous trigger or exogenous trigger so that the anticancer drug is only released upon reaching and preferentially accumulating in the tumor tissue. This review focuses on overexpressed receptors exploited in targeting drugs to cancerous tissues and the tumor microenvironment. We briefly evaluate the structure and function of these receptor molecules, emphasizing the elegant mechanisms by which certain characteristics of cancer can be exploited in cancer treatment. After this discussion of receptors, we review their respective ligands and then the anticancer drugs delivered by nanotechnology in preclinical models of cancer. Ligand-functionalized nanocarriers have delivered significantly higher amounts of anticancer drugs in many in vitro and in vivo models of cancer compared to cancer models lacking such receptors or drug carrying nanocarriers devoid of ligand. This increased concentration of anticancer drug in the tumor site enabled by nanotechnology could have a major impact on the efficiency of cancer

  1. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  2. Computer Modeling of Human Delta Opioid Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Dzimbova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of selective agonists of δ-opioid receptor as well as the model of interaction of ligands with this receptor is the subjects of increased interest. In the absence of crystal structures of opioid receptors, 3D homology models with different templates have been reported in the literature. The problem is that these models are not available for widespread use. The aims of our study are: (1 to choose within recently published crystallographic structures templates for homology modeling of the human δ-opioid receptor (DOR; (2 to evaluate the models with different computational tools; and (3 to precise the most reliable model basing on correlation between docking data and in vitro bioassay results. The enkephalin analogues, as ligands used in this study, were previously synthesized by our group and their biological activity was evaluated. Several models of DOR were generated using different templates. All these models were evaluated by PROCHECK and MolProbity and relationship between docking data and in vitro results was determined. The best correlations received for the tested models of DOR were found between efficacy (erel of the compounds, calculated from in vitro experiments and Fitness scoring function from docking studies. New model of DOR was generated and evaluated by different approaches. This model has good GA341 value (0.99 from MODELLER, good values from PROCHECK (92.6% of most favored regions and MolProbity (99.5% of favored regions. Scoring function correlates (Pearson r = -0.7368, p-value = 0.0097 with erel of a series of enkephalin analogues, calculated from in vitro experiments. So, this investigation allows suggesting a reliable model of DOR. Newly generated model of DOR receptor could be used further for in silico experiments and it will give possibility for faster and more correct design of selective and effective ligands for δ-opioid receptor.

  3. NMDA receptors mediate synaptic competition in culture.

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    Kevin She

    Full Text Available Activity through NMDA type glutamate receptors sculpts connectivity in the developing nervous system. This topic is typically studied in the visual system in vivo, where activity of inputs can be differentially regulated, but in which individual synapses are difficult to visualize and mechanisms governing synaptic competition can be difficult to ascertain. Here, we develop a model of NMDA-receptor dependent synaptic competition in dissociated cultured hippocampal neurons.GluN1 -/- (KO mouse hippocampal neurons lacking the essential NMDA receptor subunit were cultured alone or cultured in defined ratios with wild type (WT neurons. The absence of functional NMDA receptors did not alter neuron survival. Synapse development was assessed by immunofluorescence for postsynaptic PSD-95 family scaffold and apposed presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter VGlut1. Synapse density was specifically enhanced onto minority wild type neurons co-cultured with a majority of GluN1 -/- neighbour neurons, both relative to the GluN1 -/- neighbours and relative to sister pure wild type cultures. This form of synaptic competition was dependent on NMDA receptor activity and not conferred by the mere physical presence of GluN1. In contrast to these results in 10% WT and 90% KO co-cultures, synapse density did not differ by genotype in 50% WT and 50% KO co-cultures or in 90% WT and 10% KO co-cultures.The enhanced synaptic density onto NMDA receptor-competent neurons in minority coculture with GluN1 -/- neurons represents a cell culture paradigm for studying synaptic competition. Mechanisms involved may include a retrograde 'reward' signal generated by WT neurons, although in this paradigm there was no 'punishment' signal against GluN1 -/- neurons. Cell culture assays involving such defined circuits may help uncover the rules and mechanisms of activity-dependent synaptic competition in the developing nervous system.

  4. Prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology

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    David eStanley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (PGs and their known receptors in insect biology. PGs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a growing body of literature indicates the biological significance of these compounds extends throughout the animal kingdom, and possibly beyond. PGs act in several crucial areas of insect biology. In reproduction, a specific PG, PGE2, releases oviposition behavior in most crickets and a few other insect species; PGs also mediate events in egg development in some species, which may represent all insects. PGs play major roles in modulating fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, rectum and salivary glands, although, again, this has been studied in only a few insect species that may represent the Class. Insect immunity is a very complex defense system. PGs and other eicosanoids mediate a large number of immune reactions to infection and invasion. The actions of most PGs are mediated by specific receptors. Biomedical research has discovered a great deal of knowledge about PG receptors in mammals, including their structures, pharmacology, molecular biology and cellular locations. Studies of PG receptors in insects lag behind the biomedical background, however, recent results hold the promise of accelerated research in this area. A PG receptor has been identified in a class of lepidopteran hemocytes and experimentally linked to the release of prophenoloxidase. We conclude that research into PGs and their receptors in insects will lead to important advances in our understanding of insect biology.

  5. ESTROGEN RECEPTORS OF HAIRS BLACKS AND WHITES

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    H. Laswati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is termed as same as degenerative process, in which all part of tissue organs retarted the microstructure either macrostructure, forming and function even the colour, including black hair change to white hair. Several researchers have been recommended that estrogen hormone be able ease black to white hair, but hormone without any presenting of receptor won’t be work properly. The main aim of this study were to determine amount of estrogen receptor contents in famales and males black and white hairs included the microscopically structure. Method: Twelve females and males there were 50 -56 years old each pairs black and white head hairs were plucked along with follicles. This estrogen receptors analyzed using radioreceptor binding assay there were 5mm eah hair follices including the root cutted and each pair put its in 2 ml glass tube already filled in with 500 µl 125I-estradiol and incubated in 37oC for 3 hrs. Following times were over the tube flushed twice carefully the hair won’t be flushed. Then count by putting in the gamma counter chamber for 1 minute each. The values that shown in the monitor as CPM (count per minute, recorded as receptor of estradiol. Results: Mean (±SD sum estrogen receptor in females black and white hairs were 479.3 ± 37.5 and 387.7 ± 33.0, but significantly decreased in male black hair was 316.9±17.8 and 274.0 ± 19.8. All those pairs significantly different either female black and white hairs or male black and white hair and also significantly different among groups. Conclusion: The lowest estrogen receptors recorded in male white hairs and microstructure decreasing of melanin contents.

  6. Structural basis for ligand recognition of incretin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Parthier, Christoph; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor are homologous G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Incretin receptor agonists stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells and are therefore promising agents...... analysis of the ECDs of incretin receptors and related GPCRs has shed new light on the process of ligand recognition and binding and provided a basis to disclose some of the mechanisms underlying receptor activation at high resolution....

  7. G-protein-coupled receptors for free fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond; Murdoch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    that communicate cellular signals initiated by hormones and neurotransmitters. Recently, based on tissue expression patterns of these receptors and the concept that they may elicit the production of a range of appetite- and hunger-regulating peptides, such nutrient sensing GPCRs are attracting considerable...... of these receptors. However, ongoing clinical trials of agonists of free fatty acid receptor 1 suggest that this receptor and other receptors for free fatty acids may provide a successful strategy for controlling hyperglycaemia and providing novel approaches to treat diabetes. Receptors responsive to free fatty acid...

  8. Transmembrane Helical Domain of the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Joong-Youn

    2009-01-01

    Brain cannabinoid (CB1) receptors are G-protein coupled receptors and belong to the rhodopsin-like subfamily. A homology model of the inactive state of the CB1 receptor was constructed using the x-ray structure of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) as the template. We used 105 ns duration molecular-dynamics simulations of the CB1 receptor embedded in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer to gain some insight into the structure and function of the CB1 receptor. As judged...

  9. The macrophage scavenger receptor CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Madsen, Mette; Møller, Holger J

    2006-01-01

    CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants are subs......CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants...

  10. Muscimol as an ionotropic GABA receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Graham A R

    2014-10-01

    Muscimol, a psychoactive isoxazole from Amanita muscaria and related mushrooms, has proved to be a remarkably selective agonist at ionotropic receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. This historic overview highlights the discovery and development of muscimol and related compounds as a GABA agonist by Danish and Australian neurochemists. Muscimol is widely used as a ligand to probe GABA receptors and was the lead compound in the development of a range of GABAergic agents including nipecotic acid, tiagabine, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol, (Gaboxadol(®)) and 4-PIOL.

  11. Cerebrovascular endothelin receptor upregulation in cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    either by an embolus or by local thrombosis. Several studies have shown an involvement of the endothelin system in ischemic stroke. This review aims to examine the alterations of vascular endothelin receptor expression in ischemic stroke. Furthermore, studies of the intracellular signalling pathways...... leading to the enhanced expression of vascular endothelin receptors show that both protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen activating protein kinase (MAPK) play important roles. The results from this work provide new perspectives on the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, and give a possible explanation...

  12. Receptores nicotínicos neuronales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. Castellanos

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The strong behavioural and cognitive effects of nicotine have been known for centuries. Actually, the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily, specially which nicotinic  acetylcholine receptor, are extensively studied. The understanding of their harrnacology and physiology rnay help to understand sorne relevant brain processes(neurotransmítter regulation and nociceptionand rnany diseaseswhere these channels have been involved (rnyasthenia gravís, Parkinson, Alzheirner, schizophrenia. This review summarize some broad inforrnation on structure, classification and function of nicotinic receptors to understand their participation in sorne nervous systern process and the therapeutic possibilities ofthese rnolecules.

  13. CERAPP: Collaborative estrogen receptor activity prediction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER......). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. oBjectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project...

  14. Docking to flexible nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Tommy; Bruun, Anne T; Balle, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Computational docking to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and other members of the Cys-loop receptor family is complicated by the flexibility of the so-called C-loop. As observed in the large number of published crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a structural...... surrogate and homology modeling template for the nAChRs, the conformation of this loop is controlled by the ligand present in the binding pocket. As part of the development of a protocol for unbiased docking to the nAChRs, we here present the results of docking of ligands with known binding modes to an ACh...

  15. Furosemide interactions with brain GABAA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpi, Esa R; Lüddens, Hartmut

    1997-01-01

    The loop diuretic furosemide is known to antagonize the function of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct interaction of furosemide with the GABAA receptors by autoradiography and ligand binding studies with native rat and human receptors and with recombinant receptors composed of rat subunits.Autoradiography with [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]-TBPS) as a ligand indicated that furosemide (0.1–1 mM) reversed the 5 μM GABA-induced inhibition of binding only in the cerebellar granule cell layer of rat brain sections. In all other regions studied, notably also in the hippocampal and thalamic areas, furosemide failed to antagonize GABA. Furosemide 1 mM decreased [35S]-TBPS binding only in a limited number of brain regions, but facilitation of the GABA-inhibition of the binding was much more widespread.In well-washed rat cerebellar, but not cerebrocortical, membranes, furosemide enhanced the [35S]-TBPS binding over basal level in the absence of added GABA. The GABAA antagonist, SR 95531, and the convulsant, Ro 5-4864, blocked this furosemide-induced increase. Both interactions with the furosemide enhancement are likely to be allosteric, since furosemide affected the binding of [3H]-SR 95531 and [3H]-Ro 5-4864 identically in the cerebellar and cerebrocortical membranes. Maximal GABA-antagonism induced by furosemide in cerebellar membranes was further increased by SR 95531 but not by Ro 5-4864, indicating additive antagonism only for SR 95531. In human cerebellar receptors, only GABA antagonism by furosemide, but not the enhancement without added GABA, was observed.In recombinant GABAA receptors, furosemide antagonism of GABA-inhibition of [35S]-TBPS binding depended only on the presence of α6 and β2/3 subunits, irrespective of the presence or absence of γ2 or δ subunits.In α6β3γ2 receptors, clozapine reversed the enhancement of [35S]-TBPS binding by furosemide in the absence

  16. Human receptors for sweet and umami taste

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaodong; Staszewski, Lena; Xu, Hong; Durick, Kyle; Zoller, Mark; Adler, Elliot

    2002-01-01

    The three members of the T1R class of taste-specific G protein-coupled receptors have been hypothesized to function in combination as heterodimeric sweet taste receptors. Here we show that human T1R2/T1R3 recognizes diverse natural and synthetic sweeteners. In contrast, human T1R1/T1R3 responds to the umami taste stimulus l-glutamate, and this response is enhanced by 5′-ribonucleotides, a hallmark of umami taste. The ligand specificities of rat T1R2/T1R3 and T1R1/T1R3 correspond to those of t...

  17. Monoclonal Antibodies to the Human Insulin Receptor that Activate Glucose Transport but not Insulin Receptor Kinase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsayeth, John R.; Caro, Jose F.; Sinha, Madhur K.; Maddux, Betty A.; Goldfine, Ira D.

    1987-05-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced that reacted with the α subunit of the human insulin receptor. All three both immunoprecipitated 125I-labeled insulin receptors from IM-9 lymphocytes and competitively inhibited 125I-labeled insulin binding to its receptor. Unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor autophosphorylation in both intact IM-9 lymphocytes and purified human placental insulin receptors. Moreover, unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor-mediated phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. However, like insulin, two of the three antibodies stimulated glucose transport in isolated human adipocytes. One antibody, on a molar basis, was as potent as insulin. These studies indicate, therefore, that monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor can mimic a major function of insulin without activating receptor kinase activity. They also raise the possibility that certain actions of insulin such as stimulation of glucose transport may not require the activation of receptor kinase activity.

  18. The astrocytic GABA(A)/benzodiazepine-like receptor: the Joker receptor for benzodiazepine-mimetic drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Leif; Zhao, Zhong; Chen, Ye

    2006-01-01

    Long-term use of benzodiazepines as hypnotics, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants and muscle relaxing drugs is jeopardized by adverse effects on memory, addictive properties, and development of tolerance. Major efforts have gone into developing 'benzodiazepine-like' drugs that are more selective in their therapeutic effect, have additional uses and/or lack the adverse effects of benzodiazepines. The reviewed prototype patent exemplifies such efforts. Newer drugs are thought to act selectively on one of the two neuronal benzodiazepine receptors, on the astrocytic mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor and/or on GABA(A)/benzodiazepine receptor complexes displaying specific subunits. It is overlooked that astrocytes also express benzodiazepine receptors that enhance depolarization-mediated entry of Ca(2+) by interacting with membrane-associated GABA(A)-like receptors, mediating depolarization because of a high Cl(-) concentration within astrocytes. The resulting increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+), which stimulates glycogenolysis, is inhibited not only by the 'peripheral-type" benzodiazepine antagonist PK11195 but also by the 'neuronal' antagonist flumazenil. Increasing awareness of the role(s) of astrocytic Ca(2+) homeostasis and energy metabolism for CNS function suggests that activation of this receptor might contribute to both therapeutic and adverse effects of benzodiazepine-like drugs. This receptor should be kept in mind when developing and testing new drugs; in turn these drugs may help elucidating its functional role.

  19. Crystal structure of NL63 respiratory coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its human receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kailang; Li, Weikai; Peng, Guiqing; Li, Fang; (Harvard-Med); (UMM-MED)

    2010-03-04

    NL63 coronavirus (NL63-CoV), a prevalent human respiratory virus, is the only group I coronavirus known to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor. Incidentally, ACE2 is also used by group II SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We investigated how different groups of coronaviruses recognize the same receptor, whereas homologous group I coronaviruses recognize different receptors. We determined the crystal structure of NL63-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) complexed with human ACE2. NL63-CoV RBD has a novel {beta}-sandwich core structure consisting of 2 layers of {beta}-sheets, presenting 3 discontinuous receptor-binding motifs (RBMs) to bind ACE2. NL63-CoV and SARS-CoV have no structural homology in RBD cores or RBMs; yet the 2 viruses recognize common ACE2 regions, largely because of a 'virus-binding hotspot' on ACE2. Among group I coronaviruses, RBD cores are conserved but RBMs are variable, explaining how these viruses recognize different receptors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding viral evolution and virus-receptor interactions.

  20. Functional characterization of two melanocortin (MC receptors in lamprey showing orthology to the MC1 and MC4 receptor subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawauchi Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The melanocortin (MC receptors have a key role in regulating body weight and pigmentation. They belong to the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. The purpose of this study was to identify ancestral MC receptors in agnathan, river lamprey. Results We report cloning of two MC receptors from river lamprey. The lamprey receptors, designated MCa and MCb, showed orthology to the MC1 and MC4 receptor subtypes, respectively. The molecular clock analysis suggested that lamprey MC receptor genes were not duplicated recently and diverged from each other more than 400 MYR ago. Expression and pharmacological characterization showed that the lamprey MCa receptor was able to bind and be activated by both lamprey and human MSH peptides. The lamprey MCa receptor had relatively high affinity for ACTH derived peptides similarly to the fish MC receptors. We found that both of the lamprey MC receptors were expressed in skin, while the MCb receptor was also found in liver, heart and skeletal muscle. Conclusion This study shows presence of MC receptors in agnathans indicating early signs of specific functions of melanocortin receptor subtypes.

  1. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Julia; Villela, Daniel C; Teichmann, Anke; Münter, Lisa-Marie; Mayer, Magnus C; Mardahl, Maibritt; Kirsch, Sebastian; Namsolleck, Pawel; Lucht, Kristin; Benz, Verena; Alenina, Natalia; Daniell, Nicholas; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Iwai, Masaru; Multhaup, Gerhard; Schülein, Ralf; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Unger, Thomas; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha

    2017-06-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may indicate heterodimerization of these receptors. Therefore, this study investigated the molecular and functional interplay between MAS and the AT2R. Molecular interactions were assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and by cross correlation spectroscopy in human embryonic kidney-293 cells transfected with vectors encoding fluorophore-tagged MAS or AT2R. Functional interaction of AT2R and MAS was studied in astrocytes with CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression as readout. Coexpression of fluorophore-tagged AT2R and MAS resulted in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency of 10.8 ± 0.8%, indicating that AT2R and MAS are capable to form heterodimers. Heterodimerization was verified by competition experiments using untagged AT2R and MAS. Specificity of dimerization of AT2R and MAS was supported by lack of dimerization with the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C-member 6. Dimerization of the AT2R was abolished when it was mutated at cysteine residue 35. AT2R and MAS stimulation with the respective agonists, Compound 21 or angiotensin-(1-7), significantly induced CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression. Effects of each agonist were blocked by an AT2R antagonist (PD123319) and also by a MAS antagonist (A-779). Knockout of a single of these receptors made astrocytes unresponsive for both agonists. Our results suggest that MAS and the AT2R form heterodimers and that-at least in astrocytes-both receptors functionally depend on each other. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  3. A bioluminescence resonance energy transfer 2 (BRET2) assay for monitoring seven transmembrane receptor and insulin receptor crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanni, Samra Joke; Kulahin, Nikolaj; Jorgensen, Rasmus; Lyngsø, Christina; Gammeltoft, Steen; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

    2017-12-01

    The angiotensin AT1 receptor is a seven transmembrane (7TM) receptor, which mediates the regulation of blood pressure. Activation of angiotensin AT1 receptor may lead to impaired insulin signaling indicating crosstalk between angiotensin AT1 receptor and insulin receptor signaling pathways. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind this crosstalk, we applied the BRET2 technique to monitor the effect of angiotensin II on the interaction between Rluc8 tagged insulin receptor and GFP2 tagged insulin receptor substrates 1, 4, 5 (IRS1, IRS4, IRS5) and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein (Shc). We demonstrate that angiotensin II reduces the interaction between insulin receptor and IRS1 and IRS4, respectively, while the interaction with Shc is unaffected, and this effect is dependent on Gαq activation. Activation of other Gαq-coupled 7TM receptors led to a similar reduction in insulin receptor and IRS4 interactions whereas Gαs- and Gαi-coupled 7TM receptors had no effect. Furthermore, we used a panel of kinase inhibitors to show that angiotensin II engages different pathways when regulating insulin receptor interactions with IRS1 and IRS4. Angiotensin II inhibited the interaction between insulin receptor and IRS1 through activation of ERK1/2, while the interaction between insulin receptor and IRS4 was partially inhibited through protein kinase C dependent mechanisms. We conclude that the crosstalk between angiotensin AT1 receptor and insulin receptor signaling shows a high degree of specificity, and involves Gαq protein, and activation of distinct kinases. Thus, the BRET2 technique can be used as a platform for studying molecular mechanisms of crosstalk between insulin receptor and 7TM receptors.

  4. Preclinical pharmacology of bilastine, a new selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist: receptor selectivity and in vitro antihistaminic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcóstegui, Reyes; Labeaga, Luis; Innerárity, Ana; Berisa, Agustin; Orjales, Aurelio

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the receptor selectivity and antihistaminic activity of bilastine, a new selective antihistamine receptor antagonist. In vitro experiments were conducted using a receptor binding screening panel and guinea-pig and rat tissues. Antihistaminic activity was determined using H1 receptor binding studies and in vitro H1 antagonism studies conducted in guinea-pig tissues and human cell lines. Receptor selectivity was established using a receptor binding screening panel and a receptor antagonism screening conducted in guinea-pig, rat and rabbit tissues. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators was determined through the Schultz-Dale reaction in sensitised guinea-pig ileum. Bilastine binds to histamine H1-receptors as indicated by its displacement of [3H]-pyrilamine from H1-receptors expressed in guinea-pig cerebellum and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. The studies conducted on guinea-pig smooth muscle demonstrated the capability of bilastine to antagonise H1-receptors. Bilastine is selective for histamine H1-receptors as shown in receptor-binding screening conducted to determine the binding capacity of bilastine to 30 different receptors. The specificity of its H1-receptor antagonistic activity was also demonstrated in a series of in vitro experiments conducted on guinea-pig and rat tissues. The results of these studies confirmed the lack of significant antagonism against serotonin, bradykinin, leukotriene D4, calcium, muscarinic M3-receptors, alpha1-adrenoceptors, beta2-adrenoceptors, and H2- and H3-receptors. The results of the in vitro Schultz-Dale reaction demonstrated that bilastine also has anti-inflammatory activity. These preclinical studies provide evidence that bilastine has H1- antihistamine activity, with high specificity for H1-receptors, and poor or no affinity for other receptors. Bilastine has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties.

  5. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptor in locally advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.A. [Laboratório de Metabolismo de Lípides, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ginecologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hegg, R. [Departamento de Ginecologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Freitas, F.R.; Tavares, E.R.; Almeida, C.P. [Laboratório de Metabolismo de Lípides, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baracat, E.C. [Departamento de Ginecologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Maranhão, R.C. [Laboratório de Metabolismo de Lípides, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-04

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors are overexpressed in most neoplastic cell lines and provide a mechanism for the internalization and concentration of drug-laden nanoemulsions that bind to these receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of standard chemotherapeutic schemes can alter the expression of LDL and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptors in breast carcinoma. Fragments of tumoral and normal breast tissue from 16 consecutive volunteer women with breast cancer in stage II or III were obtained from biopsies before the beginning of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after chemotherapy, from fragments excised during mastectomy. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for both receptors. Because complete response to treatment was achieved in 4 patients, only the tumors from 12 were analyzed. Before chemotherapy, there was overexpression of LDL receptor in the tumoral tissue compared to normal breast tissue in 8 of these patients. LRP-1 receptor overexpression was observed in tumors of 4 patients. After chemotherapy, expression of both receptors decreased in the tumors of 6 patients, increased in 4 and was unchanged in 2. Nonetheless, even when chemotherapy reduced receptors expression, the expression was still above normal. The fact that chemotherapy does not impair LDL receptors expression supports the use of drug carrier systems that target neoplastic cells by the LDL receptor endocytic pathway in patients on conventional chemotherapy.

  6. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1 receptor in locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Pires

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptors are overexpressed in most neoplastic cell lines and provide a mechanism for the internalization and concentration of drug-laden nanoemulsions that bind to these receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of standard chemotherapeutic schemes can alter the expression of LDL and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1 receptors in breast carcinoma. Fragments of tumoral and normal breast tissue from 16 consecutive volunteer women with breast cancer in stage II or III were obtained from biopsies before the beginning of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after chemotherapy, from fragments excised during mastectomy. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for both receptors. Because complete response to treatment was achieved in 4 patients, only the tumors from 12 were analyzed. Before chemotherapy, there was overexpression of LDL receptor in the tumoral tissue compared to normal breast tissue in 8 of these patients. LRP-1 receptor overexpression was observed in tumors of 4 patients. After chemotherapy, expression of both receptors decreased in the tumors of 6 patients, increased in 4 and was unchanged in 2. Nonetheless, even when chemotherapy reduced receptors expression, the expression was still above normal. The fact that chemotherapy does not impair LDL receptors expression supports the use of drug carrier systems that target neoplastic cells by the LDL receptor endocytic pathway in patients on conventional chemotherapy.

  7. Direct Interaction of GABAB Receptors with M2 Muscarinic Receptors Enhances Muscarinic Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Stephanie B.; Clancy, Sinead M.; Terunuma, Miho; Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel; Thomas, Steven M.; Moss, Stephen J.; Slesinger, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Down-regulation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) provides an important mechanism for reducing neurotransmitter signaling during sustained stimulation. Chronic stimulation of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2R) causes internalization of M2R and G protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels in neuronal PC12 cells, resulting in loss of function. Here, we show that co-expression of GABAB R2 receptors (GBR2) rescues both surface expression and function of M2R, including M2R-indu...

  8. Toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors in rheumatic diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCormack, William J

    2012-02-01

    The past 10 years have seen the description of families of receptors that drive proinflammatory cytokine production in infection and tissue injury. Two major classes have been examined in the context of inflammatory joint disease--the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs). TLRs such as TLR2 and TLR4 are being implicated in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, lyme arthritis and osteoarthritis. Nalp3 has been identified as a key NLR for IL-1beta production and has been shown to have a particular role in gout. These findings present new therapeutic opportunities, possibly allowing for the replacement of biologics with small molecule inhibitors.

  9. Nuclear receptor corepressor-dependent repression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor delta-mediated transactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsdam, Anne-M; Nielsen, Curt A F; Neve, Søren

    2002-01-01

    delta-RXR alpha heterodimer bound to an acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO)-type peroxisome-proliferator response element recruited a glutathione S-transferase-NCoR fusion protein in a ligand-independent manner. Contrasting with most other nuclear receptors, PPAR delta was found to interact equally well......The nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) was isolated as a peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta interacting protein using the yeast two-hybrid system. NCoR interacted strongly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR delta, whereas interactions with the ligand-binding domains...

  10. Dioxin increases the interaction between aryl hydrocarbon receptor and estrogen receptor alpha at human promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Shaaima; Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin Gustav

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) induced the recruitment of estrogen receptor- (ER ) to AHR-regulated genes and that AHR is recruited to ER -regulated genes. However, these findings were limited to a small number of well-characterized AHR- or ER -responsive...... regions bound by both AHR and ER . Conventional and sequential ChIPs confirmed the recruitment of AHR and ER to many of the identified regions. Transcription factor binding site analysis revealed an overrepresentation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor response elements in regions bound by both AHR and ER...

  11. Retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors: interactions with endogenous retinoic acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Allenby, G; Bocquel, M T; Saunders, M.; Kazmer, S; Speck, J; Rosenberger, M.; Lovey, A; Kastner, P; Grippo, J F; Chambon, P

    1993-01-01

    The binding of endogenous retinoids and stereoisomers of retinoic acid (RA) to the retinoid nuclear receptors, RA receptor (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), was characterized using nucleosol preparations from transiently transfected COS-1 cells. Among several stereoisomers of RA tested, including 7-cis-, 9-cis-, 11-cis-, 13-cis-, and all-trans-RA, only 9-cis-RA effectively competes with 9-cis-[3H]RA binding to the RXRs. Additionally, the endogenous retinoid trans-didehydro-RA (t-ddRA) d...

  12. Light microscope autoradiography of peripheral dopamine receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, F

    1997-01-01

    Radioligand binding assay techniques associated with light microscope autoradiography were used for investigating the pharmacological profile and the micro anatomical localization of peripheral dopamine receptor subtypes. In systemic arteries, the predominant dopamine D1-like receptor belongs to the D5 (or D1B) subtype. It is located within smooth muscle of the tunica media. In pulmonary arteries, dopamine D1-like receptors have primarily an endothelial localization and belong to the dopamine D1 (or D1A) receptor subtype. Both systemic and pulmonary arteries express a dopamine D2-like receptor belonging to the D2 receptor subtype. It has a prejunctional localization in the majority of vascular beds investigated. In cerebral, coronary and mesenteric arteries, it has also an endothelial localization. In the heart, a dopamine D4 receptor was identified. It is expressed by atrial tissue and has a widespread distribution overall atrial musculature. The kidney expresses both dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptors. Renal dopamine D1-like receptors have a vascular and tubular localization. The majority of these sites belongs to the D5 receptor subtype. A smaller D1 receptor population has primarily a tubular localization. Renal dopamine D2-like receptors belong to the dopamine D3 subtype and in lesser amounts to the D2 and D4 receptor subtypes. Renal dopamine D3 receptor has to a greater extent a tubular localization, whereas the D4 receptor is located within glomerular arterioles. The above results suggest that radioligand binding assay and autoradiographic techniques, if performed in the presence of compounds displaying specific receptor subtype selectivity, may contribute to characterize, mainly from a quantitative point of view, peripheral dopamine receptors.

  13. Direct interactions between calcitonin-like receptor (CLR) and CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP) regulate CGRP receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Sophie C; Dickerson, Ian M

    2012-04-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide with multiple neuroendocrine roles, including vasodilation, migraine, and pain. The receptor for CGRP is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that requires three proteins for function. CGRP binds to a heterodimer composed of the GPCR calcitonin-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP1), a single transmembrane protein required for pharmacological specificity and trafficking of the CLR/RAMP1 complex to the cell surface. In addition, the CLR/RAMP1 complex requires a third protein named CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP) for signaling. Previous studies have demonstrated that depletion of RCP from cells inhibits CLR signaling, and in vivo studies have demonstrated that expression of RCP correlates with CLR signaling and CGRP efficacy. It is not known whether RCP interacts directly with CLR to exert its effect. The current studies identified a direct interaction between RCP and an intracellular domain of CLR using yeast two-hybrid analysis and coimmunoprecipitation. When this interacting domain of CLR was expressed as a soluble fusion protein, it coimmunoprecipitated with RCP and inhibited signaling from endogenous CLR. Expression of this dominant-negative domain of CLR did not significantly inhibit trafficking of CLR to the cell surface, and thus RCP may not have a chaperone function for CLR. Instead, RCP may regulate CLR signaling in the cell membrane, and direct interaction between RCP and CLR is required for CLR activation. To date, RCP has been found to interact only with CLR and represents a novel neuroendocrine regulatory step in GPCR signaling.

  14. Characterization of G-protein coupled receptor kinase interaction with the neurokinin-1 receptor using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Rasmus; Holliday, Nicholas D; Hansen, Jakob L

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the interaction between the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), we performed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase-inactive muta......To analyze the interaction between the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), we performed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase...

  15. Soluble interleukin 2 receptor in atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, G. B.; Symons, J. A.; Duff, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentrations are related to disease activity in atopic eczema. DESIGN--Single cohort longitudinal study with controls. SETTING--Outpatient and general medicine departments in secondary referral centre. PATIENTS--Of 15 patients aged 17-57 with severe atopic eczema, all with acute exacerbations of disease, 13 were admitted to hospital and two treated as outpatients until the skin lesions had resolved or greatly improved. Nineteen controls gave single blood samples. INTERVENTIONS--Daily skin dressing with betamethasone valerate (0.025%) and ichthammol paste and tubular dressings. END POINT--Resolution of or considerable improvement in skin lesions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentrations in blood samples taken on admission, at intervals subsequently, and on discharge. Clinical scores of disease activity were also made. Median concentrations on admission were significantly higher (770 U/ml) in the patients than the controls (300 U/ml). Concentrations fell significantly during treatment. In 25 assessments made at different times in 13 patients serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentration correlated significantly (R = 0.73) with clinical disease activity. CONCLUSIONS--Cellular immunopathogenic mechanisms contribute to atopic eczema. Immune activation can be measured in atopic eczema by measurements of soluble interleukin 2 receptor, and this should facilitate assessment of response to treatment. PMID:2568868

  16. Cannabinoid receptor CB2 modulates axon guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duff, Gabriel; Argaw, Anteneh; Cecyre, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Navigation of retinal projections towards their targets is regulated by guidance molecules and growth cone transduction mechanisms. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidences that the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) is expressed along the retino-thalamic pathway and exerts a modulatory action ...

  17. Quantification of receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettey, Frank R; Jackson, Antony P

    2006-01-01

    This method allows measuring of the receptor-mediated internalization of 125I-labeled conalbumin, the chicken egg white isoform of transferrin. Kinetic data, i.e. the rate constant k(i) for the initial internalization process, can be extracted from the data by linear curve fitting using an In/Sur plot (intracellular label/cell surface label over time).

  18. Ontogenesis of peripheral electromagnetic receptors in hornets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Pertsis, [No Value; Skutelsky, E; Kalicharan, D; van der Want, H

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the ontogenesis of peripheral electromagnetic receptors (PER) in the cuticle of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis). in the abdominal cuticle of adult hornets, the PERs are densely distributed throughout, but there are even more than 30 at the margins of the segments. These

  19. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    of such compounds in vivo is highly dependent on α7 nAChR-interacting proteins, such as RIC-3 and lynx1, which modulate expression and function of the receptor. These regulatory proteins are often not expressed in in vitro models used to study α7 nAChR function, and it is not known to what extent they are involved...

  20. Genetic features of thyroid hormone receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    region of chromosome 3 and variable deletion in small cell lung cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 9258–9262. Duan Q. L., Du R., Lasky-Su J., Klanderman B. J., Partch A. B.,. Peters S. P. et al. 2012 A polymorphism in the thyroid hor- mone receptor gene is associated with bronchodilator response in asthmatics Duan.

  1. The receptor RAGE: Bridging inflammation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Jochen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE is a single transmembrane receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is mainly expressed on immune cells, neurons, activated endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, bone forming cells, and a variety of cancer cells. RAGE is a multifunctional receptor that binds a broad repertoire of ligands and mediates responses to cell damage and stress conditions. It activates programs responsible for acute and chronic inflammation, and is implicated in a number of pathological diseases, including diabetic complications, stroke, atheriosclerosis, arthritis, and neurodegenerative disorders. The availability of Rage knockout mice has not only advanced our knowledge on signalling pathways within these pathophysiological conditions, but also on the functional importance of the receptor in processes of cancer. Here, we will summarize molecular mechanisms through which RAGE signalling contributes to the establishment of a pro-tumourigenic microenvironment. Moreover, we will review recent findings that provide genetic evidence for an important role of RAGE in bridging inflammation and cancer.

  2. Structure and function of the androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, A O; Klaasen, P; Kuiper, G G; van der Korput, J A; Bolt, J; de Boer, W; Smit, A; Faber, P W; van Rooij, H C; Geurts van Kessel, A

    1989-01-01

    The androgen receptor in several species (human, rat, calf) is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 100-110 kDa. The steroid binding domain is confined to a region of 30 kDa, while the DNA-binding domain has the size of approx. 10 kDa. A 40 kDa fragment containing both the DNA and steroid binding domain displayed a higher DNA binding activity than did the intact 100 kDa molecule. cDNA encoding the major part of the human androgen receptor was isolated. The cDNA contains an open reading frame of 2,277 bp but still lacks part of the 5'-coding sequence. Homology with the progesterone and glucocorticoid receptor was about 80% in the DNA binding domain and 50% in the steroid binding domain. The present data provide evidence that the androgen receptor belongs to the superfamily of ligand responsive transcriptional regulators and consists of three distinct domains each with a specialized function.

  3. Melanocortin Receptors, Melanotropic Peptides and Penile Erection

    OpenAIRE

    King, Stephen H.; Mayorov, Alexander V.; Balse-Srinivasan, Preeti; Hruby, Victor J.; Vanderah, Todd W.; Wessells, Hunter

    2007-01-01

    Penile erection is a complex physiologic event resulting from the interactions of the nervous system on a highly specialized vascular organ. Activation of central nervous system melanocortinergic (MC) receptors with either endogenous or synthetic melanotropic ligands may initiate and/or facilitate spontaneous penile erection.

  4. Glucocorticoid receptor knockdown and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijdonk, Leonarda Wilhelmina Antonia van

    2010-01-01

    The research in this thesis is aimed at the elucidation of the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in hippocampal neuroplasticity and functioning. To achieve this, we have developed a novel method to specifically knockdown GR in a discrete cell population of the mouse brain. In this thesis I

  5. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiuying Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder. The cause of this disease is often unknown, and previous studies revealed that it might be caused by a virus, vaccine or tumor. It occurs more often in females than in males. Several cases were reported to be related to vaccination such as the H1N1 vaccine and tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines. In this study, we reported an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis case that may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. To investigate the association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and vaccination, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the microRNAs, which significantly regulate these vaccine viruses or bacteria, and the phylogenetic relationship of these viruses and bacteria. This reveals that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination, as well as H1N1 vaccination or tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccinations, from the phylogenetic viewpoint.

  6. Kidney Protection During Receptor Radionuclide Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Rolleman

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe discovery of somatostatin and the cloning and characterisation of its five receptor subtypes have led to many intriguing developments in clinical nuclear medicine. It was found that somatostatin administration resulted in inhibition of hormonal overproduction syndromes [5], which

  7. Pushing estrogen receptor around in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Elgene; Tarulli, Gerard; Portman, Neil; Hickey, Theresa E; Tilley, Wayne D; Palmieri, Carlo

    2016-12-01

    The estrogen receptor-α (herein called ER) is a nuclear sex steroid receptor (SSR) that is expressed in approximately 75% of breast cancers. Therapies that modulate ER action have substantially improved the survival of patients with ER-positive breast cancer, but resistance to treatment still remains a major clinical problem. Treating resistant breast cancer requires co-targeting of ER and alternate signalling pathways that contribute to resistance to improve the efficacy and benefit of currently available treatments. Emerging data have shown that other SSRs may regulate the sites at which ER binds to DNA in ways that can powerfully suppress the oncogenic activity of ER in breast cancer. This includes the progesterone receptor (PR) that was recently shown to reprogram the ER DNA binding landscape towards genes associated with a favourable outcome. Another attractive candidate is the androgen receptor (AR), which is expressed in the majority of breast cancers and inhibits growth of the normal breast and ER-positive tumours when activated by ligand. These findings have led to the initiation of breast cancer clinical trials evaluating therapies that selectively harness the ability of SSRs to 'push' ER towards anti-tumorigenic activity. Our review will focus on the established and emerging clinical evidence for activating PR or AR in ER-positive breast cancer to inhibit the tumour growth-promoting functions of ER. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. From receptor balance to rational glucocorticoid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, E Ron

    2014-08-01

    Corticosteroids secreted as end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis act like a double-edged sword in the brain. The hormones coordinate appraisal processes and decision making during the initial phase of a stressful experience and promote subsequently cognitive performance underlying the management of stress adaptation. This action exerted by the steroids on the initiation and termination of the stress response is mediated by 2 related receptor systems: mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). The receptor types are unevenly distributed but colocalized in abundance in neurons of the limbic brain to enable these complementary hormone actions. This contribution starts from a historical perspective with the observation that phasic occupancy of GR during ultradian rhythmicity is needed to maintain responsiveness to corticosteroids. Then, during stress, initially MR activation enhances excitability of limbic networks that are engaged in appraisal and emotion regulation. Next, the rising hormone concentration occupies GR, resulting in reallocation of energy to limbic-cortical circuits with a role in behavioral adaptation and memory storage. Upon MR:GR imbalance, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis occurs, which can enhance an individual's vulnerability. Imbalance is characteristic for chronic stress experience and depression but also occurs during exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids. Hence, glucocorticoid psychopathology may develop in susceptible individuals because of suppression of ultradian/circadian rhythmicity and depletion of endogenous corticosterone from brain MR. This knowledge generated from testing the balance hypothesis can be translated to a rational glucocorticoid therapy.

  9. Chemokine and Chemokine Receptor Gene Polymorphism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the possibility of a significant relationship between chemokines and chemokine receptor genes polymorphisms and the spontaneous clearance or the persistence of HCV infection. Methods: A total of 96 hemodialysis (HD) patients infected with HCV were classified into two groups: G1 ...

  10. Gene transfer of MHC-restricted receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Helmut W. H. G.; Wolkers, Monika C.; Schumacher, Ton N. M.

    2005-01-01

    Adoptive therapy with allogeneic or tumor-specific T-cells has shown substantial clinical effects for several human tumors, but the widespread application of this strategy remains a daunting task. The antigen specificity of T-lymphocytes is solely determined by the T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha and

  11. Death receptors: Targets for cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Zafar [Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Shukla, Yogeshwer, E-mail: yogeshwer_shukla@hotmail.com [Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2010-04-01

    Apoptosis is the cell's intrinsic program to death, which plays an important role in physiologic growth control and homeostasis. Apoptosis can be triggered by death receptors (DRs), without any adverse effects. DRs are the members of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, known to be involved in apoptosis signaling, independent of p53 tumor-supressor gene. Selective triggering of DR-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells is a novel approach in cancer therapy. So far, the best characterized DRs are CD95 (Fas/Apo1), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAILR) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR). Among these, TRAILR is emerging as most promising agent for cancer therapy, because it induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor and transformed cells without any toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL treatment in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy enhances TRAIL sensitivity or reverses TRAIL resistance by regulating downstream effectors. This review covers the current knowledge about the DRs, summarizes main signaling in DRs and also summarizes the preclinical approaches of these DRs in cancer therapy.

  12. Small-molecule AT2 receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallberg, Mathias; Sumners, Colin; Steckelings, U Muscha

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the first selective, small-molecule ATR receptor (AT2R) agonist compound 21 (C21) (8) that is now extensively studied in a large variety of in vitro and in vivo models is described. The sulfonylcarbamate derivative 8, encompassing a phenylthiofen scaffold is the drug-like agonist...

  13. Transcriptional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1ɑ, a well-known member of PGC-1 transcriptional coactivator's family, plays a key role in various metabolic pathways. Here, we investigated the role of PGC-1ɑ in the transformation of muscle fiber type in Schizothorax prenanti. The expression of PGC-1ɑ was ...

  14. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Reinhoudt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing are emphasised, along with their potential applications in optical sensors or optodes.

  15. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  16. Conformational regulation of urokinase receptor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Kriegbaum, Mette C

    2011-01-01

    PA per se into the hydrophobic ligand binding cavity of uPAR that modulates the function of this receptor. Based on these data, we now propose a model in which the inherent interdomain mobility in uPAR plays a major role in modulating its function. Particularly one uPAR conformation, which is stabilized...

  17. Recurrent LDL-receptor mutation causes familial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-05-05

    May 5, 1995 ... Three IOW-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene mutations were previously shown to cause familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in up to 90% of affected. Afrikaners. Association of each mutation with a single chromosomal background provided molecular genetic evidence that the proposed 'founder ...

  18. Synaptic AMPA receptor plasticity and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Helmut W.; Malinow, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The ability to change behavior likely depends on the selective strengthening and weakening of brain synapses. The cellular models of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) of synaptic strength, can be expressed by the synaptic insertion or removal of AMPA receptors

  19. LPA receptor signaling: pharmacology, physiology, and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yun C; Stoddard, Nicole C; Chun, Jerold

    2014-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a small ubiquitous lipid found in vertebrate and nonvertebrate organisms that mediates diverse biological actions and demonstrates medicinal relevance. LPA's functional roles are driven by extracellular signaling through at least six 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are named LPA1-6 and signal through numerous effector pathways activated by heterotrimeric G proteins, including Gi/o, G12/13, Gq, and Gs LPA receptor-mediated effects have been described in numerous cell types and model systems, both in vitro and in vivo, through gain- and loss-of-function studies. These studies have revealed physiological and pathophysiological influences on virtually every organ system and developmental stage of an organism. These include the nervous, cardiovascular, reproductive, and pulmonary systems. Disturbances in normal LPA signaling may contribute to a range of diseases, including neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, pain, cardiovascular disease, bone disorders, fibrosis, cancer, infertility, and obesity. These studies underscore the potential of LPA receptor subtypes and related signaling mechanisms to provide novel therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Endocrine therapy use among elderly hormone receptor-pos...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Clinical guidelines recommend that women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer receive endocrine therapy (selective estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase...

  1. Class I Cytokine Receptors: Structure and function in the Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Katrine Østergaard

    Class I cytokine receptors are involved in important biological functions of both physiological and pathological nature in mammals. However, the molecular details of the cross-membrane signal transduction through these receptors remain obscure. One of the major reasons for this is the lack...... ample material of high quality for structural studies with NMR spectroscopy of several class I cytokine receptor TMDs. Furthermore, the structure of a class I cytokine receptor TMD in DHPC micelles was solved with solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, since structural studies of intact proteins...... receptor. This integrative structure opens up for interpreting these receptors in their intact form and offers unique insights on the topology of single-pass transmembrane receptors with intrinsically disordered domains. Dimerization of the TMDs of class I cytokine receptors has been shown to be important...

  2. Membrane Trafficking of Death Receptors: Implications on Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Schneider-Brachert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Death receptors were initially recognised as potent inducers of apoptotic cell death and soon ambitious attempts were made to exploit selective ignition of controlled cellular suicide as therapeutic strategy in malignant diseases. However, the complexity of death receptor signalling has increased substantially during recent years. Beyond activation of the apoptotic cascade, involvement in a variety of cellular processes including inflammation, proliferation and immune response was recognised. Mechanistically, these findings raised the question how multipurpose receptors can ensure selective activation of a particular pathway. A growing body of evidence points to an elegant spatiotemporal regulation of composition and assembly of the receptor-associated signalling complex. Upon ligand binding, receptor recruitment in specialized membrane compartments, formation of receptor-ligand clusters and internalisation processes constitute key regulatory elements. In this review, we will summarise the current concepts of death receptor trafficking and its implications on receptor-associated signalling events.

  3. CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor As Potential Target against Alzheimer's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aso, Ester; Ferrer, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    The CB2 receptor is one of the components of the endogenous cannabinoid system, a complex network of signaling molecules and receptors involved in the homeostatic control of several physiological functions...

  4. Bombesin and Neurotensin Receptor Targeting Using Radiolabeled Peptide Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Visser (Monique)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSomatostatin receptor-targeting peptides are widely used for imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in neuroendocrine tumor patients with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs has resulted in symptomatic improvement, prolonged survival and

  5. Hormone-receptor expression and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieh, Weiva; Köbel, Martin; Longacre, Teri A

    2013-01-01

    Few biomarkers of ovarian cancer prognosis have been established, partly because subtype-specific associations might be obscured in studies combining all histopathological subtypes. We examined whether tumour expression of the progesterone receptor (PR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) was associated...

  6. Synaptic Bistability Due to Nucleation and Evaporation of Receptor Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2012-01-10

    We introduce a bistability mechanism for long-term synaptic plasticity based on switching between two metastable states that contain significantly different numbers of synaptic receptors. One state is characterized by a two-dimensional gas of mobile interacting receptors and is stabilized against clustering by a high nucleation barrier. The other state contains a receptor gas in equilibrium with a large cluster of immobile receptors, which is stabilized by the turnover rate of receptors into and out of the synapse. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by either an increase (potentiation) or a decrease (depotentiation) of the net receptor flux into the synapse. This changes the saturation level of the receptor gas and triggers nucleation or evaporation of receptor clusters. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  7. cAMP-Induced Desensitization of Surface cAMP Receptors in Dictyostelium : Different Second Messengers Mediate Receptor Phosphorylation, Loss of Ligand Binding, Degradation of Receptor, and Reduction of Receptor mRNA Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wang, Mei; Bominaar, Anthony A.; Devreotes, Peter N.; Schaap, Pauline

    Surface cAMP receptors on Dictyostelium cells are linked to several second messenger systems and mediate multiple physiological responses, including chemotaxis and differentiation. Activation of the receptor also triggers events which desensitize signal transduction. These events include the

  8. Carboxyl-terminal receptor domains control the differential dephosphorylation of somatostatin receptors by protein phosphatase 1 isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lehmann

    Full Text Available We have recently identified protein phosphatase 1β (PP1β as G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR phosphatase for the sst2 somatostatin receptor using siRNA knockdown screening. By contrast, for the sst5 somatostatin receptor we identified protein phosphatase 1γ (PP1γ as GPCR phosphatase using the same approach. We have also shown that sst2 and sst5 receptors differ substantially in the temporal dynamics of their dephosphorylation and trafficking patterns. Whereas dephosphorylation and recycling of the sst2 receptor requires extended time periods of ∼30 min, dephosphorylation and recycling of the sst5 receptor is completed in less than 10 min. Here, we examined which receptor domains determine the selection of phosphatases for receptor dephosphorylation. We found that generation of tail-swap mutants between sst2 and sst5 was required and sufficient to reverse the patterns of dephosphorylation and trafficking of these two receptors. In fact, siRNA knockdown confirmed that the sst5 receptor carrying the sst2 tail is predominantly dephosphorylated by PP1β, whereas the sst2 receptor carrying the sst5 tail is predominantly dephosphorylated by PP1γ. Thus, the GPCR phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of individual somatostatin receptor subtypes is primarily determined by their different carboxyl-terminal receptor domains. This phosphatase specificity has in turn profound consequences for the dephosphorylation dynamics and trafficking patterns of GPCRs.

  9. Muscarinic receptor expression and receptor-mediated detrusor contraction: comparison of juvenile and adult porcine tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuest, Melinda; Eichhorn, Birgit; Braeter, Manfred; Strugala, Gerhard; Michel, Martin C.; Ravens, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    Urinary bladder function is known to mature during fetal and postnatal development, including changes in neurotransmitter regulation of detrusor contraction. However, only few experimental data are available about muscarinic receptor antagonist function in the urinary bladder from young animals. In

  10. Development of prolactin receptor antagonists with reduced pH-dependence of receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mathilde Johanne Kaas; Olsen, Johan Gotthardt; Bernichtein, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The cytokine hormone prolactin has a vast number of diverse functions. Unfortunately, it also exhibits tumor growth promoting properties, which makes the development of prolactin receptor antagonists a priority. Prolactin binds to its cognate receptor with much lower affinity at low p....... From evaluation of known molecular structures of human prolactin, of the prolactin receptor and of different complexes of the two, three histidine residues in the hormone-receptor binding site 1 were selected for mutational studies. We analyzed 10 variants by circular dichroism spectroscopy, affinity...... antagonists were developed earlier and the histidine mutations were introduced within such background. The antagonistic properties were maintained and the high affinity at low pH conserved. The implications of these findings may open new areas of research in the field of prolactin cancer biology. Copyright...

  11. Expression of Novel Steroid/Receptors in Mammary Development: Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    ...) are expressed in the mammary gland and regulated during physiologic and pathologic events. The PPARs are nuclear hormone receptors which bind to fatty acids as ligands and control transcription of lipid metabolic genes...

  12. Insights into cellular signalling by G protein coupled receptor transactivation of cell surface protein kinase receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Rebecca; Thach, Lyna; Hollenberg, Morley D; Cao, Yingnan; Little, Peter J; Kamato, Danielle

    2017-06-01

    G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling is mediated by transactivation independent and transactivation dependent pathways. GPCRs transactivate protein tyrosine kinase receptors (PTKRs) and protein serine/threonine kinase receptors (PS/TKR). Since the initial observations of transactivation dependent signalling, there has been an effort to understand the mechanisms behind this phenomena. GPCR signalling has evolved to include biased signalling. Biased signalling, whereby selected ligands can activate the same GPCR that can generate multiple signals, but drive only a unique response. To date, there has been no focus on the ability of biased agonists to activate the PTKR and PS/TKR transactivation pathways differentially. As such, this represents a novel direction for future research. This review will discuss the main mechanisms of GPCR mediated receptor transactivation and the pathways involved in intracellular responses.

  13. Upregulation of Leukotriene Receptors in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venerito, Marino [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Kuester, Doerthe [Institute of Pathology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Harms, Caroline [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Schubert, Daniel [Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Wex, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wex@med.ovgu.de; Malfertheiner, Peter [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany)

    2011-08-08

    Leukotrienes (LT) mediate allergic and inflammatory processes. Previously, we identified significant changes in the expression pattern of LT receptors in the gastric mucosa after eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and LT receptors in gastric cancer (GC). The expression of 5-LOX and receptors for LTB4 (BLT-1, BLT-2) and cysteinyl-LT (CysLT-1, CysLT-2) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GC samples of 35 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy and in 29 tumor-free tissue specimens from gastric mucosa. Male-to-female ratio was 24:11. The median age was 70 years (range 34–91). Twenty-two patients had GC of intestinal, six of diffuse, six of mixed and one of undifferentiated type. The IHC analysis showed a nearly ubiquitous expression of studied proteins in GC (88–97%) and in tumor-free specimens as well (89–100%). An increase in the immunoreactive score of both BLT receptors and CysLT-1 was observed in GC compared to tumor-free gastric mucosa (p < 0.001 for BLT-1; p < 0.01 for BLT-2 and CysLT-1, Mann-Whitney U-test). No differences in the IHC expression of 5-LOX and CsyLT-2 were observed between GC and tumor-free mucosa. The expression of BLT-2, CysLT-1 and CysLT-2 was increased in GC of intestinal type when compared to the diffuse type (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). LTB4 receptors and CysLT-1 are up-regulated in GC tissue implying a role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  14. Cyclothiazide binding to the GABAA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szárics, Eva; Simon, Agnes; Visy, Júlia; Simon-Trompler, Edit; Banka, Zoltán; Héja, László; Hársing, László Gábor; Blaskó, Gábor; Kardos, Julianna

    2008-07-04

    In order to explore the molecular interaction between cyclothiazide (CTZ) and gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors, possibly underlying inhibition of GABAA receptor currents, [3H]-CTZ was synthesized. Binding of [3H]-CTZ to rat brain synaptic membranes could be observed only in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist (-)[1S,9R]-bicuculline methiodide (BMI) (EC(50,BMI)=500+/-80microM). GABA decreased [(3)H]-CTZ binding induced by the presence 300microM and 3mM BMI with IC(50,GABA) values of 300+/-50microM and 5.0+/-0.7mM, respectively. Binding of CTZ to [3H]-CTZ labeled sites was characterized by IC(50,CTZ) values of 0.16+/-0.03muM ([BMI]=300microM) and 7.0+/-0.5microM ([BMI]=3mM). Binding of the diastereomeric fraction [3H]-(3R,1'S,4'S,5'R+3S,1'R,4'R,5'S)-CTZ induced by 3mM BMI was quantitatively the more significant in cerebrocortical and hippocampal membranes. It was characterized by IC(50,CTZ)=80+/-15nM and IC(50,GABA)=13+/-3mcapital EM, Cyrillic. In the absence of BMI, CTZ (1mM) significantly decreased GABA-induced enhancement of [3H]-flunitrazepam binding. Our findings suggest that functional inhibition may occur through binding of CTZ to an allosteric site of GABAA receptors. This allosteric site is possibly emerged in the receptor conformation, stabilized by BMI binding.

  15. Personal receptor repertoires: olfaction as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olender Tsviya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on nucleotide diversity along completely sequenced human genomes has increased tremendously over the last few years. This makes it possible to reassess the diversity status of distinct receptor proteins in different human individuals. To this end, we focused on the complete inventory of human olfactory receptor coding regions as a model for personal receptor repertoires. Results By performing data-mining from public and private sources we scored genetic variations in 413 intact OR loci, for which one or more individuals had an intact open reading frame. Using 1000 Genomes Project haplotypes, we identified a total of 4069 full-length polypeptide variants encoded by these OR loci, average of ~10 per locus, constituting a lower limit for the effective human OR repertoire. Each individual is found to harbor as many as 600 OR allelic variants, ~50% higher than the locus count. Because OR neuronal expression is allelically excluded, this has direct effect on smell perception diversity of the species. We further identified 244 OR segregating pseudogenes (SPGs, loci showing both intact and pseudogene forms in the population, twenty-six of which are annotatively “resurrected” from a pseudogene status in the reference genome. Using a custom SNP microarray we validated 150 SPGs in a cohort of 468 individuals, with every individual genome averaging 36 disrupted sequence variations, 15 in homozygote form. Finally, we generated a multi-source compendium of 63 OR loci harboring deletion Copy Number Variations (CNVs. Our combined data suggest that 271 of the 413 intact OR loci (66% are affected by nonfunctional SNPs/indels and/or CNVs. Conclusions These results portray a case of unusually high genetic diversity, and suggest that individual humans have a highly personalized inventory of functional olfactory receptors, a conclusion that might apply to other receptor multigene families.

  16. Imaging opiate receptors with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wong, D.F.; Links, J.M.; Burns, H.D.; Kuhar, M.J.; Snyder, S.H.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Opiate receptors exist in the mammalian brain and are thought to meditate the diverse pharmacological actions of the opiates, such as analgesia, euphoria, and sedation. The 4-carbomethoxyl derivatives of fentanyl, such as lofentanil and R31833 (4-carbomethoxyfentanyl) bind to the opiate receptor with high affinity. C-11 R31833 was synthesized by reacting C-11 methyl iodide with the appropriate carboxylate. Male ICR mice were injected intravenously with C-11 R31833 (5..mu..g/kg), killed 30 minutes later, and the brains rapidly dissected. The thalami, striata, and cerebral cortex are rich in opiate receptors, but the cerebellum contains a very low concentration of opiate receptors. The thalamus/cerebellum and striatum/cerebellum activity ratios, calculated per mg of wet tissue, were 4.1 and 5.2 respectively. Coinjection of 5mg/kg naloxone reduced the ratios to 1.1, which indicates that the preferential localization of C-11 R31833 in the thalami and striata is due to binding to opiate is due to binding to opiate receptors. A 22 kg anesthetized male baboon was imaged using the NeuroECAT after injection of 18.9 mCi of C-11 R13833 (0.50 ..mu..g/kg, specific activity 616 Ci/mmole at time of injection). From 15-70 minutes after injection preferential accumulation of activity could be seen in the thalami, caudate nuclei, and cerebral cortex and, conversely, low activity was demonstrated in the cerebellum. At one hour postinjection the maximum measured caudate/cerebellum activity ratio per pixel was 2.9. For the NeuroECAT the recovery coefficient for the baboon caudate is ca. 0.2-0.3, and therefore the actual caudate/cerebellum ratio is ca. 10-15.

  17. The expression of the ACTH receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L.K. Elias

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal glucocorticoid secretion is regulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH acting through a specific cell membrane receptor (ACTH-R. The ACTH-R is a member of the G protein superfamily-coupled receptors and belongs to the subfamily of melanocortin receptors. The ACTH-R is mainly expressed in the adrenocortical cells showing a restricted tissue specificity, although ACTH is recognized by the other four melanocortin receptors. The cloning of the ACTH-R was followed by the study of this gene in human diseases such as familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD and adrenocortical tumors. FGD is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by glucocorticoid deficiency, elevated plasma ACTH levels and preserved renin/aldosterone secretion. This disorder has been ascribed to an impaired adrenal responsiveness to ACTH due to a defective ACTH-R, a defect in intracellular signal transduction or an abnormality in adrenal cortical development. Mutations of the ACTH-R have been described in patients with FGD in segregation with the disease. The functional characterization of these mutations has been prevented by difficulties in expressing human ACTH-R in cells that lack endogenous melanocortin receptor activity. To overcome these difficulties we used Y6 cells, a mutant variant of the Y1 cell line, which possesses a non-expressed ACTH-R gene allowing the functional study without any background activity. Our results demonstrated that the several mutations of the ACTH-R found in FGD result in an impaired cAMP response or loss of sensitivity to ACTH stimulation. An ACTH-binding study showed an impairment of ligand binding with loss of the high affinity site in most of the mutations studied.

  18. Polyaza cryptand receptor selective for dihydrogen phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Pedro; Delgado, Rita; Brandão, Paula; Félix, Vítor

    2009-11-20

    A hexaamine cage with pyridyl spacers was synthesized in good yield by a [2+3] Schiff-base condensation followed by sodium borohydride reduction. The protonation constants of the receptor as well as its association constants with Cl(-), NO(3)(-), AcO(-), ClO(4)(-), SO(4)(2-), H(2)PO(4)(-), and H(2)AsO(4)(-) were determined by potentiometry at 298.2 +/- 0.1 K in H(2)O/MeOH (50:50 v/v) and at ionic strength 0.10 +/- 0.01 M in KTsO. These studies revealed that although dihydrogen phosphate is less charged than sulfate, it is still appreciably bound by the receptor at low pH, suggesting that the pyridyl nitrogen is accepting hydrogen bonds from dihydrogen phosphate. It is also shown that dihydrogen phosphate is capable of effectively competing with sulfate for the receptor at higher pH, being selective for hydrogen phosphate at pH about 7.0. (31)P NMR experiments supported these findings. The fact that the receptor shows such a marked preference for hydrogen phosphate based mainly in its hydrogen bond accepting/donating ability in a highly competitive medium such as water/methanol mixed solvent is quite remarkable. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction determinations of anion associations between H(6)pyr(6+) receptor and nitrate, sulfate, and phosphate are consistent with the existence of [(H(6)pyr)(NO(3))(3)(H(2)O)(3)](3+), [(H(6)pyr)(SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4)](2+), and [(H(6)pyr)(HPO(4))(2)(H(2)PO(4))(H(2)O)(2)](+) cations. One nitrate anion is embedded into the H(6)pyr(6+) cage of the first supermolecule whereas in the second and third ones the anions are located in the periphery of the macrobicycle.

  19. The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure and evolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Gouignard, Nadège; Ahier, Arnaud; Morel, Marion; Vicogne, Jérôme; Dissous, Colette

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) form a family of transmembrane proteins widely conserved in Metazoa, with key functions in cell-to-cell communication and control of multiple cellular processes. A new family of RTK named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) has been described in invertebrates. The VKR receptor possesses a Venus Fly Trap (VFT) extracellular module, a bilobate structure that binds small ligands to induce receptor kinase activity. VKR was shown to be hi...

  20. Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor targeted radiopharmaceuticals: A concise update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Hoffman, T.J. E-mail: HoffmanT@health.missouri.edu

    2003-11-01

    The gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor is becoming an increasingly attractive target for development of new radiolabeled peptides with diagnostic and therapeutic potential. The attractiveness of the GRP receptor as a target is based upon the functional expression of GRP receptors in several tumors of neuroendocrine origin including prostate, breast, and small cell lung cancer. This concise review outlines some of the efforts currently underway to develop new GRP receptor specific radiopharmaceuticals by employing a variety of radiometal chelation systems.

  1. Narcolepsy: cholinergic receptor changes in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, R E; Baker, T L; Mefford, I N; Barchas, J D; Dement, W C; Ciaranello, R D

    1984-05-07

    An inbred colony of narcoleptic doberman pinschers has been analyzed for muscarinic receptor levels in 19 discrete brain regions. In comparison to age-matched controls, receptors were generally elevated in the brainstem and reduced in forebrain areas. No changes in receptor binding affinity were detected. The increased receptor levels found in the brainstem suggest that cholinoceptive neurons in this region are hypersensitive and may be involved in the initiation of cataplexy and other aspects of the narcolepsy syndrome.

  2. Insulin causes insulin-receptor internalization in human erythrocyte ghosts.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, R S; Murray, E F; Peterson, S W

    1987-01-01

    The effect of incubation with insulin on insulin-receptor internalization by erythrocyte ghosts was investigated. The number of surface insulin receptors decreased by 30-40% after incubation of ghosts with insulin. Total insulin-receptor binding to solubilized ghosts was the same in insulin-incubated and control ghosts, whereas insulin binding to an internal vesicular fraction was substantially increased in insulin-incubated ghosts. Our findings suggest that erythrocyte-ghost insulin receptor...

  3. Pharmacological Profiles of Oligomerized μ-Opioid Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Ing-Kang Ho; Cynthia Wei-Sheng Lee

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are widely prescribed pain relievers with multiple side effects and potential complications. They produce analgesia via G-protein-protein coupled receptors: μ-, δ-, κ-opioid and opioid receptor-like 1 receptors. Bivalent ligands targeted to the oligomerized opioid receptors might be the key to developing analgesics without undesired side effects and obtaining effective treatment for opioid addicts. In this review we will update the biological effects of μ-opioids on homo- or hetero-ol...

  4. Targeting multiple opioid receptors - improved analgesics with reduced side effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Thomas; Dasgupta, Pooja; Mann, Anika; Miess, Elke; Kliewer, Andrea; Fritzwanker, Sebastian; Steinborn, Ralph; Schulz, Stefan

    2017-04-05

    Classical opioid analgesics, including morphine, mediate all of their desired and undesired effects by specific activation of the μ-opioid receptorreceptor). The use of morphine for treating chronic pain, however, is limited by the development of constipation, respiratory depression, tolerance and dependence. Analgesic effects can also be mediated through other members of the opioid receptor family such as the κ-opioid receptorreceptor), δ-opioid receptorreceptor) and the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor (NOP receptor). Currently, a new generation of opioid analgesics is being developed that can simultaneously bind with high affinity to multiple opioid receptors. With this new action profile, it is hoped that additional analgesic effects and fewer side effects can be achieved. Recent research is mainly focused on the development of bifunctional μ/NOP receptor agonists, which has already led to novel lead structures such as the spiroindole-based cebranopadol and a compound class with a piperidin-4-yl-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one backbone (SR16835/AT-202 and SR14150/AT-200). In addition, the ornivol BU08028 is an analogue of the clinically well-established buprenorphine. Moreover, the morphinan-based nalfurafine exerts its effect with a dominant κ receptor-component and is therefore utilized in the treatment of pruritus. The very potent dihydroetorphine is a true multi-receptor opioid ligand in that it binds to μ, κ and δ receptors. The main focus of this review is to assess the paradigm of opioid ligands targeting multiple receptors with a single chemical entity. We reflect on this rationale by discussing the biological actions of particular multi-opioid receptor ligands, but not on their medicinal chemistry and design. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Complement receptors in myeloid cell adhesion and phagocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dustin, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid cells make extensive use of the complement system in the context of recruitment, phagocytosis and other effector functions. There are several types of complement receptors on myeloid cells including G-proteins coupled receptors for localizing the source of complement activation, and three sets of type I transmembrane proteins that link complement to phagocytosis-complement receptor 1, a single chain type I membrane protein with tandem complement regulatory repeats, complement receptor...

  6. Co-administration of delta- and mu-opioid receptor agonists promotes peripheral opioid receptor function

    OpenAIRE

    Schramm, Cicely L.; Honda, Christopher N.

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement of peripheral opioid analgesia following tissue injury or inflammation in animal models is well-documented, but clinical results of peripheral opioid therapy remain inconsistent. Previous studies in the central nervous system have shown that co-administration of μ- and δ-opioid receptor agonists can enhance analgesic outcomes; however, less is known about the functional consequences of opioid receptor interactions in the periphery. The present study examines the effects of intrapl...

  7. Variability in beta-adrenergic receptor response in the vasculature: Role of receptor polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alastair J j

    2002-12-01

    beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are important in determining vascular tone. Stimulation of beta(2)ARs in the vasculature produces vasodilatation, which acts to counteract the vasoconstriction produced by endogenous sympathetic agonists. Impaired vasodilatation occurs in human hypertension and in Blacks. It is now clear that receptor polymorphism may contribute to some of the variability seen in vascular response. beta(2)AR haplotypes determine the desensitization response to chronic agonist exposure in vivo and result in altered vasodilatory responses.

  8. Photoperiod affects estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β and aggressive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Trainor, Brian C.; Rowland, Michael R.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    Estrogens have important effects on male and female social behavior. Despite growing knowledge of the anatomy and behavioral effects of the two predominant estrogen receptor subtypes in mammals (ERα and ERβ), relatively little is known about how these receptors respond to salient environmental stimuli. Many seasonally breeding species respond to changing photoperiods that predict seasonal changes in resource availability. We characterized the effects of photoperiod on aggressive behavior in t...

  9. The Quantum Nature of Drug-Receptor Interactions: Deuteration Changes Binding Affinities for Histamine Receptor Ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Kržan

    Full Text Available In this article we report a combined experimental and computational study concerning the effects of deuteration on the binding of histamine and two other histaminergic agonists to 3H-tiotidine-labeled histamine H2 receptor in neonatal rat astrocytes. Binding affinities were measured by displacing radiolabeled tiotidine from H2 receptor binding sites present on cultured neonatal rat astrocytes. Quantum-chemical calculations were performed by employing the empirical quantization of nuclear motion within a cluster model of the receptor binding site extracted from the homology model of the entire H2 receptor. Structure of H2 receptor built by homology modelling is attached in the supporting information (S1 Table Experiments clearly demonstrate that deuteration affects the binding by increasing the affinity for histamine and reducing it for 2-methylhistamine, while basically leaving it unchanged for 4-methylhistamine. Ab initio quantum-chemical calculations on the cluster system extracted from the homology H2 model along with the implicit quantization of the acidic N-H and O-H bonds demonstrate that these changes in the binding can be rationalized by the altered strength of the hydrogen bonding upon deuteration known as the Ubbelohde effect. Our computational analysis also reveals a new mechanism of histamine binding, which underlines an important role of Tyr250 residue. The present work is, to our best knowledge, the first study of nuclear quantum effects on ligand receptor binding. The ligand H/D substitution is relevant for therapy in the context of perdeuterated and thus more stable drugs that are expected to enter therapeutic practice in the near future. Moreover, presented approach may contribute towards understanding receptor activation, while a distant goal remains in silico discrimination between agonists and antagonists based on the receptor structure.

  10. Role of formic receptors in soluble urokinase receptor-induced human vascular smooth muscle migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Enrico A; Fu, Yuyang; Davies, Mark G

    2015-05-15

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in response to urokinase is dependent on binding of the urokinase molecule to the urokinase plasminogen receptor (uPAR) and cleavage of the receptor. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the soluble uPAR (suPAR) in VSMC migration. Human VSMCs were cultured in vitro. Linear wound and Boyden microchemotaxis assays of migration were performed in the presence of suPAR. Inhibitors to G-protein signaling and kinase activation were used to study these pathways. Assays were performed for mitogen-activated protein kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor activation. suPAR induced concentration-dependent migration of VSMC, which was G protein-dependent and was blocked by Gαi and Gβγ inhibitors. Removal of the full uPAR molecule by incubation of the cells with a phospholipase did not interfere with this response. suPAR induced ERK1/2, p38(MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] activation in a Gαi/Gβγ-dependent manner, and interruption of these signaling pathways prevented suPAR-mediated migration. suPAR activity was independent of plasmin activity. suPAR did not activate epidermal growth factor receptor. Interruption of the low affinity N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FPRL1) but not high affinity N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FPR) prevented cell migration and activation in response to suPAR. suPAR increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and activity, and this was dependent on the low affinity N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FPRL1) and ERK1/2. suPAR induces human smooth muscle cell activation and migration independent of the full uPAR through activation of the G protein-coupled receptor FPRL1, which is not linked to the plasminogen activation cascade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent Progress in Understanding Subtype Specific Regulation of NMDA Receptors by G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs are the largest family of receptors whose ligands constitute nearly a third of prescription drugs in the market. They are widely involved in diverse physiological functions including learning and memory. NMDA receptors (NMDARs, which belong to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, are likewise ubiquitously expressed in the central nervous system (CNS and play a pivotal role in learning and memory. Despite its critical contribution to physiological and pathophysiological processes, few pharmacological interventions aimed directly at regulating NMDAR function have been developed to date. However, it is well established that NMDAR function is precisely regulated by cellular signalling cascades recruited downstream of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR stimulation. Accordingly, the downstream regulation of NMDARs likely represents an important determinant of outcome following treatment with neuropsychiatric agents that target selected GPCRs. Importantly, the functional consequence of such regulation on NMDAR function varies, based not only on the identity of the GPCR, but also on the cell type in which relevant receptors are expressed. Indeed, the mechanisms responsible for regulating NMDARs by GPCRs involve numerous intracellular signalling molecules and regulatory proteins that vary from one cell type to another. In the present article, we highlight recent findings from studies that have uncovered novel mechanisms by which selected GPCRs regulate NMDAR function and consequently NMDAR-dependent plasticity.

  12. Probing an artificial polypeptide receptor library using a series of novel histamine H3 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Andrzej; Daszykowski, Michal; Kaminski, Zbigniew; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Kuder, Kamil; Fraczyk, Justyna; Kolesinska, Beata; Ciosek, Patrycja; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2014-02-01

    An artificial polypeptide receptor (APR) library was created by using the self-organization of N-lipidated peptides attached to cellulose via m-aminophenylamino-1,3,5-triazine. The response of the library was probed using a series of novel H3 receptor ligands. Since no guidelines on how to design an APRs selective vs certain receptor types exist, a diverse set of amino acids (Ala, Trp, Pro, Glu, His, Lys and Ser) were used and coupled with one of three gating fatty acids (palmitic, ricinoleic or capric). A competitive adsorption-desorption of an appropriate reporter dye was used for the indirect visualization of the interactions of guests with particular receptors. The resulted library response to individual inhibitors was then arranged in a matrix, preprocessed and analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) method. The most important conclusion obtained from the PCA analysis is that the library differentiates the probed compounds according to the lipophilicity of the gating unit. The PC3 with a dominant absolute contribution of the receptors containing Glu allowed for the best separation of the ligands with respect to their activity. This conclusion is in agreement with the fact that Glu 206 is a genuine ligand counterpart in the natural histamine receptor.

  13. Linking Functional Domains of the Human Insulin Receptor with the Bacterial Aspartate Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Leland; Morgan, David O.; Koshland, Daniel E.; Clauser, Eric; Moe, Gregory R.; Bollag, Gideon; Roth, Richard A.; Rutter, William J.

    1986-11-01

    A hybrid receptor has been constructed that is composed of the extracellular domain of the human insulin receptor fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the bacterial aspartate chemoreceptor. This hybrid protein can be expressed in rodent (CHO) cells and displays several functional features comparable to wild-type insulin receptor. It is localized to the cell surface, binds insulin with high affinity, forms oligomers, and is recognized by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies. Although most of the expressed protein accumulates as a 180-kDa proreceptor, some processed 135-kDa receptor can be detected on the cell surface by covalent cross-linking. Expression of the hybrid receptor inhibits the insulin-activated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by CHO cells. Thus, this hybrid is partially functional and can be processed; however, it is incapable of native transmembrane signaling. The results indicate that the intact domains of different types of receptors can retain some of the native features in a hybrid molecule but specific requirements will need to be satisfied for transmembrane signaling.

  14. Autoinmunidad y receptores tipo Toll = Autoimmunity and toll-like receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa Giraldo, Ana Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta inmune innata está conformada por un conjunto de mecanismos que permiten reconocer los componentes propios del organismo y diferenciarlos de los microorganismos invasores para generar una primera línea de defensa. Este reconocimiento está mediado por diferentes receptores presentes en la superficie y en el interior de células inmunes y no inmunes; entre ellos se encuentran los siguientes: receptores tipo Toll (RTT, receptores de lectinas tipo C, receptores tipo GIR (genes inducibles por ácido retinoico y receptores tipo Nod y NALP, que reconocen patrones moleculares asociados a microorganismos (PMAM. Gracias a esta capacidad de discriminación, adquirida evolutivamente por la inmunidad innata, se ha aceptado tradicionalmente que los procesos autoinmunes no están relacionados con esta sino con la inmunidad adquirida. Sin embargo, varios estudios han demostrado que esa teoría no es totalmente cierta y que algunos mecanismos efectores de la inmunidad innata participan en la generación de las enfermedades autoinmunes o en la potenciación de su fisiopatología. En esta revisión se estudia la contribución de la inmunidad innata a la autoinmunidad con énfasis en el papel de los receptores tipo Toll.

  15. The cellular receptors for infectious bursal disease virus | Zhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virus receptors are simplistically defined as cell surface molecules that mediate binding (attachment, adsorption) and/or trigger membrane fusion or entry through other processes. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) entry into host cells occurs by recognition of specific cellular receptor(s) with viral envelope glycoprotein, ...

  16. Molecular and biochemical pharmacology of the histamine H4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurs, Rob; Chazot, Paul L; Shenton, Fiona C; Lim, Herman D; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2009-05-01

    The elucidation of the human genome has had a major impact on histamine receptor research. The identification of the human H4 receptor by several groups has been instrumental for a new appreciation of the role of histamine in the modulation of immune function. In this review, we summarize the historical developments and the molecular and biochemical pharmacology of the H4 receptor.

  17. The cholinergic system, sigma-1 receptors and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Ramakrishnan, Nisha K.; Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Nijholt, Ingrid M.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of present knowledge regarding the relationship between the cholinergic system and sigma-1 receptors, and discusses potential applications of sigma-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of memory deficits and cognitive disorders. Sigma-1 receptors, initially

  18. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, S.F.; Mansvelder, H.D.; de Vries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are

  19. Anticonvulsant activity of some vanilloid receptor agonists | Awad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vanilloid receptors 1 (VR 1), a group of transient receptor potential channels family was cloned in 1997. They were found to be a potential target for treatment of different acute and chronic pain disorder. Recently these receptors were reported to be involved in several pathological conditions. Objectives: The ...

  20. Wnt signaling through the Ror receptor in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrova, Iveta M; Malessy, Martijn J; Verhaagen, J.; Fradkin, Lee G; Noordermeer, Jasprina N

    The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) proteins are conserved tyrosine kinase receptors that play roles in a variety of cellular processes that pattern tissues and organs during vertebrate and invertebrate development. Ror signaling is required for skeleton and neuronal development