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Sample records for c3 opsonisation increases

  1. CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes phagocytose antibody-opsonised Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes more efficiently than other monocyte subsets, and require CD16 and complement to do so.

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    Zhou, Jingling; Feng, Gaoqian; Beeson, James; Hogarth, P Mark; Rogerson, Stephen J; Yan, Yan; Jaworowski, Anthony

    2015-07-07

    With more than 600,000 deaths from malaria, mainly of children under five years old and caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, comes an urgent need for an effective anti-malaria vaccine. Limited details on the mechanisms of protective immunity are a barrier to vaccine development. Antibodies play an important role in immunity to malaria and monocytes are key effectors in antibody-mediated protection by phagocytosing antibody-opsonised infected erythrocytes (IE). Eliciting antibodies that enhance phagocytosis of IE is therefore an important potential component of an effective vaccine, requiring robust assays to determine the ability of elicited antibodies to stimulate this in vivo. The mechanisms by which monocytes ingest IE and the nature of the monocytes which do so are unknown. Purified trophozoite-stage P. falciparum IE were stained with ethidium bromide, opsonised with anti-erythrocyte antibodies and incubated with fresh whole blood. Phagocytosis of IE and TNF production by individual monocyte subsets was measured by flow cytometry. Ingestion of IE was confirmed by imaging flow cytometry. CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes phagocytosed antibody-opsonised IE and produced TNF more efficiently than CD14(hi)CD16- and CD14(lo)CD16+ monocytes. Blocking experiments showed that Fcγ receptor IIIa (CD16) but not Fcγ receptor IIa (CD32a) or Fcγ receptor I (CD64) was necessary for phagocytosis. CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes ingested antibody-opsonised IE when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were reconstituted with autologous serum but not heat-inactivated autologous serum. Antibody-opsonised IE were rapidly opsonised with complement component C3 in serum (t1/2 = 2-3 minutes) and phagocytosis of antibody-opsonised IE was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by an inhibitor of C3 activation, compstatin. Compared to other monocyte subsets, CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes expressed the highest levels of complement receptor 4 (CD11c) and activated complement receptor 3 (CD11b) subunits

  2. Recombinant acylation stimulating protein administration to C3-/- mice increases insulin resistance via adipocyte inflammatory mechanisms.

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    Mercedes Nancy Munkonda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement 3 (C3, a key component of the innate immune system, is involved in early inflammatory responses. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP; aka C3adesArg, a C3 cleavage product, is produced in adipose tissue and stimulates lipid storage. We hypothesized that, depending on the diet, chronic ASP administration in C3(-/- mice would affect lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity via an adaptive adipose tissue inflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C3(-/- mice on normal low fat diet (ND or high fat diet (HFD were chronically administered recombinant ASP (rASP for 25 days via an osmotic mini-pump. While there was no effect on food intake, there was a decrease in activity, with a relative increase in adipose tissue weight on ND, and a shift in adipocyte size distribution. While rASP administration to C3(-/- mice on a ND increased insulin sensitivity, on a HFD, rASP administration had the opposite effect. Specifically, rASP administration in C3(-/- HFD mice resulted in decreased gene expression of IRS1, GLUT4, SREBF1 and NFκB in muscle, and decreased C5L2 but increased JNK, CD36, CD11c, CCR2 and NFκB gene expression in adipose tissue as well as increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (Rantes, KC, MCP-1, IL-6 and G-CSF. In adipose tissue, although IRS1 and GLUT4 mRNA were unchanged, insulin response was reduced. CONCLUSION: The effects of chronic rASP administration are tissue and diet specific, rASP administration enhances the HFD induced inflammatory response leading to an insulin-resistant state. These results suggest that, in humans, the increased plasma ASP associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease could be an additional factor directly contributing to development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes.

  3. Increase in hypotonic stress-induced endocytic activity in macrophages via ClC-3.

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    Yan, Yutao; Ding, Yu; Ming, Bingxia; Du, Wenjiao; Kong, Xiaoling; Tian, Li; Zheng, Fang; Fang, Min; Tan, Zheng; Gong, Feili

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular hypotonic stress can affect cellular function. Whether and how hypotonicity affects immune cell function remains to be elucidated. Macrophages are immune cells that play key roles in adaptive and innate in immune reactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of hypotonic stress in the function of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Hypotonic stress increased endocytic activity in BMDMs, but there was no significant change in the expression of CD80, CD86, and MHC class II molecules, nor in the secretion of TNF-α or IL-10 by BMDMs. Furthermore, the enhanced endocytic activity of BMDMs triggered by hypotonic stress was significantly inhibited by chloride channel-3 (ClC-3) siRNA. Our findings suggest that hypotonic stress can induce endocytosis in BMDMs and that ClC-3 plays a central role in the endocytic process.

  4. A salinity-induced C3-CAM transition increases energy conservation in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

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    Niewiadomska, Ewa; Karpinska, Barbara; Romanowska, Elzbieta; Slesak, Ireneusz; Karpinski, Stanislaw

    2004-06-01

    A strongly increased ATP/ADP ratio was found during the nocturnal phase I in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-induced Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants. Conversely, during the daytime phase III in CAM-performing plants the ATP/ADP ratio dropped to a similar level to that of C3 plants, cytochrome c oxidase activity was stimulated and mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase activity was strongly increased. The findings suggest that a salinity-induced C3-CAM transition might be an efficient energy-conserving strategy for M. crystallinum plants, in which the strong nocturnal ATP production seems to be, at least partially, independent from the coupled mitochondrial electron transport.

  5. Photosynthesis of C3 and C4 Species in Response to Increased CO2 Concentration and Drought Stress

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    HAMIM

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic gas exchange in response to increased carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2] and drought stress of two C3 (wheat and kale and two C4 species (Echinochloa crusgallii and Amaranthus caudatus were analysed. Plants were grown in controlled growth chambers with ambient (350 μmol mol−1 and doubled ambient [CO2]. Drought was given by withholding water until the plants severely wilted, whereas the control plants were watered daily. Even though stomatal conductance (Gs of C4 species either under ambient or double [CO2] was lower than those in C3, doubled [CO2] decreased Gs of all species under well watered conditions. As a result, the plants grown under doubled [CO2] transpired less water than those grown under ambient [CO2]. Photosynthesis (Pn of the C4 species was sustained during moderate drought when those of the C3 species decreased significantly. Doubled [CO2] increased photosynthesis of C3 but not of C4 species. Increased [CO2] was only able to delay Pn reduction of all species due to the drought, but not remove it completely. The positive effects of increased [CO2] during moderate drought and the disappearance of it under severe drought suggesting that metabolic effect may limit photosynthesis under severe drought.

  6. Photosynthesis of C3 and C4 Species in Response to Increased CO2 Concentration and Drought Stress

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    HAMIM

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic gas exchange in response to increased carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2] and drought stress of two C3 (wheat and kale and two C4 species (Echinochloa crusgallii and Amaranthus caudatus were analysed. Plants were grown in controlled growth chambers with ambient (350 mol mol-1 and doubled ambient [CO2]. Drought was given by withholding water until the plants severely wilted, whereas the control plants were watered daily. Even though stomatal conductance (Gs of C4 species either under ambient or double [CO2] was lower than those in C3, doubled [CO2] decreased Gs of all species under well watered conditions. As a result, the plants grown under doubled [CO2] transpired less water than those grown under ambient [CO2]. Photosynthesis (Pn of the C4 species was sustained during moderate drought when those of the C3 species decreased significantly. Doubled [CO2] increased photosynthesis of C3 but not of C4 species. Increased [CO2] was only able to delay Pn reduction of all species due to the drought, but not remove it completely. The positive effects of increased [CO2] during moderate drought and the disappearance of it under severe drought suggesting that metabolic effect may limit photosynthesis under severe drought.

  7. Surface complement C3 fragments and cellular binding of microparticles in patients with SLE.

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    Winberg, Line Kjær; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Jacobsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    To examine microparticles (MPs) from patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) by determining the cellular origin of the MPs, quantifying attached fragments of complement component 3 (C3) and assessing the ability of MPs to bind to circulating phagocytes and erythrocytes. These features may be relevant for clearance of MPs in SLE pathogenesis. Attached C3 fragments (C3b, iC3b, C3d), membrane integrity and cell surface markers of MPs from 18 patients with SLE and 11 HCs were measured by adding specific antibodies, 7-aminoactinomycin D (7AAD) and annexin V. MPs from all subjects were labelled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester and allowed to bind to autologous phagocytes and erythrocytes in the presence of autologous serum, and the binding to individual cell populations was assessed by flow cytometry. The proportion of MPs bearing C3 fragments was higher in patients with SLE than in HCs (p=0.026), but the amount of opsonising C3b/iC3b molecules was lower (p=0.004). The C3b/iC3b level correlated with the concentration of circulating C3 (rs=0.53, p=0.036). Phagocytes and erythrocytes from patients and HCs bound autologous MPs, and granulocytes from patients bound 13% more MPs than those from HCs (p=0.043). The presence of erythrocytes inhibited the MP binding to granulocytes by approximately 50%. Our demonstration of altered composition of C3 fragments on MPs from patients with SLE, including decreased numbers of opsonising C3 fragments, and competitive binding of MPs to circulating phagocytes and erythrocytes corroborates the hypothesis of defective clearance of apoptotic material in SLE, and indicates that differences in both MP opsonisation and binding of MPs to cells are important in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  8. Carbon storage potential increases with increasing ratio of C4 to C3 grass cover and soil productivity in restored tallgrass prairies.

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    Spiesman, Brian J; Kummel, Herika; Jackson, Randall D

    2017-12-07

    Long-term soil carbon (C) storage is essential for reducing CO2 in the atmosphere. Converting unproductive and environmentally sensitive agricultural lands to grasslands for bioenergy production may enhance C storage. However, a better understanding of the interacting effects of grass functional composition (i.e., relative abundance of C4 and C3 grass cover) and soil productivity on C storage will help guide sustainable grassland management. Our objective was to examine the relationship between grass functional composition and potential C storage and how it varies with potential soil productivity. We estimated C inputs from above- and belowground net primary productivity (ANPP and BNPP), and heterotrophic respiration (R H) to calculate net ecosystem production (NEP), a measure of potential soil C storage, in grassland plots of relatively high- and low-productivity soils spanning a gradient in the ratio of C4 to C3 grass cover (C4:C3). NEP increased with increasing C4:C3, but only in potentially productive soils. The positive relationship likely stemmed from increased ANPP, rather than BNPP, which was possibly related to efficient resource-use and physiological/anatomical advantages of C4 plants. R H was negatively correlated with C4:C3, possibly because of changes in microclimate or plant-microbe interactions. It is possible that in potentially productive soils, C storage can be enhanced by favoring C4 over C3 grasses through increased ANPP and BNPP and reduced R H. Results also suggest that potential C storage gains from C4 productivity would not be undermined by a corresponding increase in R H.

  9. Overexpression of {alpha}-catenin increases osteoblastic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells

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    Kim, Dohee [Department of Internal Medicine, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jae-Yeon [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-Ro, Chongno-Gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chan Soo, E-mail: csshin@snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-Ro, Chongno-Gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    {alpha}- and {beta}-Catenin link cadherins to the actin-based cytoskeleton at adherens junctions and regulate cell-cell adhesion. Although roles of cadherins and canonical Wnt-/{beta}-catenin-signaling in osteoblastic differentiation have been extensively studied, the role of {alpha}-catenin is not known. Murine embryonic mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells, were transduced with retrovirus encoding {alpha}-catenin (MSCV-{alpha}-catenin-HA-GFP). In the presence of Wnt-3A conditioned medium or osteogenic medium ({beta}-glycerol phosphate and ascorbic acid), cells overexpressing {alpha}-catenin showed enhanced osteoblastic differentiation as measured by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and ALP activity assay compared to cells transduced with empty virus (MSCV-GFP). In addition, mRNA expression of osteocalcin and Runx2 was significantly increased compared to control. Cell aggregation assay revealed that {alpha}-catenin overexpression has significantly increased cell-cell aggregation. However, cellular {beta}-catenin levels (total, cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio) and {beta}-catenin-TCF/LEF transcriptional activity did not change by overexpression of {alpha}-catenin. Knock-down of {alpha}-catenin using siRNA decreased osteoblastic differentiation as measured by ALP assay. These results suggest that {alpha}-catenin overexpression increases osteoblastic differentiation by increasing cell-cell adhesion rather than Wnt-/{beta}-catenin-signaling.

  10. Motor imagery in REM sleep is increased by transcranial direct current stimulation of the left motor cortex (C3).

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    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of areas above the motor cortex (C3) influences the quantity and quality of spontaneous motor imagery experienced in REM sleep. A randomized triple-blinded design was used, combining neurophysiological techniques with a tool of quantitative mentation report analysis developed from cognitive linguistics and generative grammar. The results indicate that more motor imagery, and more athletic motor imagery, is induced by anodal tDCS in comparison to cathodal and sham tDCS. This insight may have implications beyond basic consciousness research. Motor imagery in REM sleep has been hypothesized to serve the rehearsal of motor movements, which benefits later motor performance. Electrophysiological manipulations of motor imagery in REM sleep could in the long run be used for rehabilitative tDCS protocols benefitting temporarily immobile clinical patients, especially those who cannot perform specific motor imagery tasks - such as dementia patients, infants with developmental and motor disorders, and coma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. C3 and C4 plant responses to increased temperatures and altered monsoonal precipitation in a cool desert on the Colorado Plateau, USA

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    Wertin, Timothy M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Dryland ecosystems represent >40 % of the terrestrial landscape and support over two billion people; consequently, it is vital to understand how drylands will respond to climatic change. However, while arid and semiarid ecosystems commonly experience extremely hot and dry conditions, our understanding of how further temperature increases or altered precipitation will affect dryland plant communities remains poor. To address this question, we assessed plant physiology and growth at a long-term (7-year) climate experiment on the Colorado Plateau, USA, where the community is a mix of shallow-rooted C3 and C4 grasses and deep-rooted C4 shrubs. The experiment maintained elevated-temperature treatments (+2 or +4 °C) in combination with altered summer monsoonal precipitation (+small frequent precipitation events or +large infrequent events). Increased temperature negatively affected photosynthesis and growth of the C3 and C4 grasses, but effects varied in their timing: +4 °C treatments negatively affected the C3 grass early in the growing season of both years, while the negative effects of temperature on the C4 grass were seen in the +2 and +4 °C treatments, but only during the late growing season of the drier year. Increased summer precipitation did not affect photosynthesis or biomass for any species, either in the year the precipitation was applied or the following year. Although previous research suggests dryland plants, and C4 grasses in particular, may respond positively to elevated temperature, our findings from a cool desert show marked declines in C3 and C4 photosynthesis and growth, with temperature effects dependent on the degree of warming and growing-season precipitation.

  12. PRO-C3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janne Fuglsang; Juul Nielsen, Mette; Nyström, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Detecting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis remains important in treatment and follow-up of patients with chronic hepatitis C Infection (CHC). The aim of this study was to assess the ability of PRO-C3 to identify significant fibrosis (Ishak score ≥3) and cirrhosis (Ishak score ≥5) bot...

  13. Increased deposition of C3b on red cells with low CR1 and CD55 in a malaria-endemic region of western Kenya: Implications for the development of severe anemia

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    Odera Michael M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe anemia due to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of mortality among young children in western Kenya. The factors that lead to the age-specific incidence of this anemia are unknown. Previous studies have shown an age-related expression of red cell complement regulatory proteins, which protect erythrocytes from autologous complement attack and destruction. Our primary objective was to determine whether in a malaria-endemic area red cells with low levels of complement regulatory proteins are at increased risk for complement (C3b deposition in vivo. Secondarily, we studied the relationship between red cell complement regulatory protein levels and hemoglobin levels. Methods Three hundred and forty-two life-long residents of a malaria-holoendemic region of western Kenya were enrolled in a cross-sectional study and stratified by age. We measured red cell C3b, CR1, CD55, and immune complex binding capacity by flow cytometry. Individuals who were positive for malaria were treated and blood was collected when they were free of parasitemia. Analysis of variance was used to identify independent variables associated with the %C3b-positive red cells and the hemoglobin level. Results Individuals between the ages of 6 and 36 months had the lowest red cell CR1, highest %C3b-positive red cells, and highest parasite density. Malaria prevalence also reached its peak within this age group. Among children ≤ 24 months of age the %C3b-positive red cells was usually higher in individuals who were treated for malaria than in uninfected individuals with similarly low red cell CR1 and CD55. The variables that most strongly influenced the %C3b-positive red cells were age, malaria status, and red cell CD55 level. Although it did not reach statistical significance, red cell CR1 was more important than red cell CD55 among individuals treated for malaria. The variables that most strongly influenced the hemoglobin level were age, the %C3b

  14. Opsonisation of nanoparticles prepared from poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(trimethylene carbonate)-b-poly(malic acid) amphiphilic diblock copolymers: Impact on the in vitro cell uptake by primary human macrophages and HepaRG hepatoma cells.

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    Vene, Elise; Barouti, Ghislaine; Jarnouen, Kathleen; Gicquel, Thomas; Rauch, Claudine; Ribault, Catherine; Guillaume, Sophie M; Cammas-Marion, Sandrine; Loyer, Pascal

    2016-11-20

    The present work reports the investigation of the biocompatibility, opsonisation and cell uptake by human primary macrophages and HepaRG cells of nanoparticles (NPs) formulated from poly(β-malic acid)-b-poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PMLA-b-PHB) and poly(β-malic acid)-b-poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PMLA-b-PTMC) diblock copolymers, namely PMLA800-b-PHB7300, PMLA4500-b-PHB4400, PMLA2500-b-PTMC2800 and PMLA4300-b-PTMC1400. NPs derived from PMLA-b-PHB and PMLA-b-PTMC do not trigger lactate dehydrogenase release and do not activate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines demonstrating the excellent biocompatibility of these copolymers derived nano-objects. Using a protein adsorption assay, we demonstrate that the binding of plasma proteins is very low for PMLA-b-PHB-based nano-objects, and higher for those prepared from PMLA-b-PTMC copolymers. Moreover, a more efficient uptake by macrophages and HepaRG cells is observed for NPs formulated from PMLA-b-PHB copolymers compared to that of PMLA-b-PTMC-based NPs. Interestingly, the uptake in HepaRG cells of NPs formulated from PMLA800-b-PHB7300 is much higher than that of NPs based on PMLA4500-b-PHB4400. In addition, the cell internalization of PMLA800-b-PHB7300 based-NPs, probably through endocytosis, is strongly increased by serum pre-coating in HepaRG cells but not in macrophages. Together, these data strongly suggest that the binding of a specific subset of plasmatic proteins onto the PMLA800-b-PHB7300-based NPs favors the HepaRG cell uptake while reducing that of macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human complement component C3

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    Behrendt, N

    1985-01-01

    The two common genetic variants of human C3, C3 S and C3 F, were purified and characterized by SDS-PAGE, agarose gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and amino acid analysis. The difference in electrophoretic mobility between the two variants was conserved after purification...

  16. Human complement component C3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N

    1985-01-01

    , and by isoelectric focusing of the hemolytically active proteins, pI values of 5.86 and 5.81 were determined for C3 S and C3 F, respectively. Any difference in amino acid composition was too small to be detected by amino acid analysis, and the two proteins had the same molecular weight as determined by SDS-PAGE....

  17. Photosynthesis of C3, C3-C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2.

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    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-07-01

    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3-C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l(-1)) and glacial (180 μl l(-1)) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3-C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3-C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3-C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3-C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3-C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments. © The Author 2014

  18. Downregulation of complement C3 and C3aR expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese women.

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    Abhishek Gupta

    Full Text Available The central component of the complement system, C3, is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease however the underlying reasons are unknown. In the present study we evaluated gene expression of C3, the cleavage product C3a/C3adesArg and its cognate receptor C3aR in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in women.Women (n = 140, 21-69 years, BMI 19.5-79 kg/m2 were evaluated for anthropometric and blood parameters, and adipose tissue gene expression.Subjects were separated into groups (n = 34-36 according to obesity: normal/overweight (≤30 kg/m2, obese I (≤45 kg/m2, obese II (≤51 kg/m2, and obese III (≤80 kg/m2. Overall, while omental expression remained unchanged, subcutaneous C3 and C3aR gene expression decreased with increasing adiposity (2-way ANOVA, p<0.01, with a concomitant decrease in SC/OM ratio (p<0.001. In subcutaneous adipose, both C3 and C3aR expression correlated with apoB, and apoA1 and inversely with waist circumference and blood pressure, while C3aR also correlated with glucose (p<0.05-0.0001. While omental C3aR expression did not correlate with any factor, omental C3 correlated with waist circumference, glucose and apoB (all p<0.05. Further, while plasma C3a/C3adesArg increased and adiponectin decreased with increasing BMI, both correlated (C3a negatively and adiponectin positively with subcutaneous C3 and C3aR expression (p<0.05-0.001 or less.The obesity-induced down-regulation of complement C3 and C3aR which is specific to subcutaneous adipose tissue, coupled to the strong correlations with multiple anthropometric, plasma and adipokine variables support a potential role for complement in immunometabolism.

  19. Complement C3c as a Biomarker in Heart Failure

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    A. Frey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Experimental data indicates an important role of the innate immune system in cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF. Complement is a central effector pathway of the innate immune system. Animals lacking parts of the complement system are protected from adverse remodeling. Based on these data, we hypothesized that peripheral complement levels could be a good marker for adverse remodeling and prognosis in patients with HF. Methods and Results. Since complement activation converges on the complement factor C3, we measured serum C3c, a stable C3-conversion product, in 197 patients with stable systolic HF. Subgroups with normal and elevated C3c levels were compared. C3c levels were elevated in 17% of the cohort. Patients with elevated C3c levels exhibited a trend to better survival, slightly higher LVEF, and lower NTpro-BNP values in comparison to patients with normal C3c values. No differences were found regarding NYHA functional class. Significantly more patients with elevated C3c had preexisting diabetes. The prevalence of CAD, arterial hypertension, and atrial fibrillation was not increased in patients with elevated C3c. Conclusion. Elevated C3c levels are associated with less adverse remodeling and improved survival in patients with stable systolic heart failure.

  20. The Importance of the C3 Framework

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    Social Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "The C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards will soon be released under the title "The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: State Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and Lead Writer was NCSS member Kathy…

  1. Delft-C3 : The student nanosatellite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubarak, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    When being asked about the Delfi-C3 nanosatellite, most of our students respond with a mysterious look in their eyes. This gave us, members of the Delfi-C3 team, the reason to provide the Maxwell readers with an article informing about what the Delfi-C3 is, and how it is to work within our team. The

  2. Action of the C3b-inactivator on the cell-bound C3b.

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    Law, S K; Fearon, D T; Levine, R P

    1979-03-01

    The action of C3bINA and beta 1H on cell-bound C3b is described in this paper. The alpha-polypeptide of C3b that binds covalently to cell surfaces is cleaved by the C3bINA and beta 1H into two fragments: one of 60,000 (C3b alpha-60) and another of 40,000 (C3b alpha-40) daltons. The beta-chain of C3b is unaffected by the C3bINA and beta 1H. The three polypeptides, C3b alpha-60, C3b alpha-40, and C3 beta, are held together as a single unit by disulfide bonds. This unit, referred to as C3b' is covalently bound to cell surfaces via the C3b alpha-60 polypeptide. The conversion of C3b to C3b' by C3bINA and beta 1H abolishes the ability of the C3b-bearing cells to adhere to human erythrocytes as well as the ability to form, on the cell surface, the B, D, and properdin-dependent amplification C3-convertase. However, the agglutinability of the cells with either anti-C3c or anti-C3d is not affected. Treatment of the C3b'-bearing cells with trypsin releases fragments of C3b' into solution, leaving a polypeptide of 32,000 daltons covalently linked to the membrane. Since the trypsinized cells are agglutinable by anti-C3d but not by anti-C3c, the 32,000 dalton polypeptide appears to correspond antigenically to C3d.

  3. Vimentin mediates uptake of C3 exoenzyme.

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    Astrid Rohrbeck

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme (C3 selectively inactivates RhoA/B/C GTPases by ADP-ribosylation. Based on this substrate specificity C3 is a well-established tool in cell biology. C3 is taken up by eukaryotic cells although lacking an uptake and translocation domain. Based on different approaches vimentin was identified as membranous C3-interaction partner by mass spectrometry. Vimentin in fact was partly localized at the outer surface of hippocampal HT22 cells and J744A.1 macrophages. Domain analysis identified the rod domain as binding partner of C3. Vimentin was also involved in uptake of C3 as shown by knock down of vimentin in HT22 and J774A.1 cells. The involvement of vimentin in uptake of C3 was further supported by the findings that the vimentin disruptor acrylamide blocked uptake of C3. Vimentin is not only a major organizing element of the intermediate filament network but is also involved in both binding and uptake of C3 exoenzyme.

  4. Dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulopathy.

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    Barbour, Thomas D; Pickering, Matthew C; Terence Cook, H

    2013-11-01

    C3 glomerulopathy refers to those renal lesions characterized histologically by predominant C3 accumulation within the glomerulus, and pathogenetically by aberrant regulation of the alternative pathway of complement. Dense deposit disease is distinguished from other forms of C3 glomerulopathy by its characteristic appearance on electron microscopy. The extent to which dense deposit disease also differs from other forms of C3 glomerulopathy in terms of clinical features, natural history, and outcomes of treatment including renal transplantation is less clear. We discuss the pathophysiology of C3 glomerulopathy, with evidence for alternative pathway dysregulation obtained from affected individuals and complement factor H (Cfh)-deficient animal models. Recent linkage studies in familial C3 glomerulopathy have shown genomic rearrangements in the Cfh-related genes, for which the novel pathophysiologic concept of Cfh deregulation has been proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Glycine decarboxylase in C3, C4 and C3-C4 intermediate species.

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    Schulze, Stefanie; Westhoff, Peter; Gowik, Udo

    2016-06-01

    The glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) plays a central role in photorespiration. GDC is localized in the mitochondria and together with serine hydroxymethyltransferase it converts two molecules of glycine to one molecule of serine, CO2 and NH3. Overexpression of GDC subunits in the C3 species Arabidopsis thaliana can increase the metabolic flux through the photorespiratory pathway leading to enhanced photosynthetic efficiency and consequently to an enhanced biomass production of the transgenic plants. Changing the spatial expression patterns of GDC subunits was an important step during the evolution of C3-C4 intermediate and likely also C4 plants. Restriction of the GDC activity to the bundle sheath cells led to the establishment of a photorespiratory CO2 pump. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Kallikrein Cleaves C3 and Activates Complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmscher, Sarah; Döring, Nadia; Halder, Luke D; Jo, Emeraldo A H; Kopka, Isabell; Dunker, Christine; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Luo, Shanshan; Slevogt, Hortense; Lorkowski, Stefan; Beyersdorf, Niklas; Zipfel, Peter F; Skerka, Christine

    2017-12-14

    The human plasma contact system is an immune surveillance system activated by the negatively charged surfaces of bacteria and fungi and includes the kallikrein-kinin, the coagulation, and the fibrinolytic systems. Previous work shows that the contact system also activates complement, and that plasma enzymes like kallikrein, plasmin, thrombin, and FXII are involved in the activation process. Here, we show for the first time that kallikrein cleaves the central complement component C3 directly to yield active components C3b and C3a. The cleavage site within C3 is identical to that recognized by the C3 convertase. Also, kallikrein-generated C3b forms C3 convertases, which trigger the C3 amplification loop. Since kallikrein also cleaves factor B to yield Bb and Ba, kallikrein alone can trigger complement activation. Kallikrein-generated C3 convertases are inhibited by factor H; thus, the kallikrein activation pathway merges with the amplification loop of the alternative pathway. Taken together, these data suggest that activation of the contact system locally enhances complement activation on cell surfaces. The human pathogenic microbe Candida albicans activates the contact system in normal human serum. However, C. albicans immediately recruits factor H to the surface, thereby evading the alternative and likely kallikrein-mediated complement pathways. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The interstellar chemistry of C3H and C3H2 isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Wakelam, Valentine; Roueff, Evelyne; Gratier, Pierre; Marcelino, Núria; Reyes, Dianailys Nuñez; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne

    2017-10-01

    We report the detection of linear and cyclic isomers of C3H and C3H2 towards various starless cores and review the corresponding chemical pathways involving neutral (C3Hx with x = 1,2) and ionic (C3Hx+ with x = 1,2,3) isomers. We highlight the role of the branching ratio of electronic dissociative recombination (DR) reactions of C3H2+ and C3H3+ isomers, showing that the statistical treatment of the relaxation of C3H* and C3H2* produced in these DR reactions may explain the relative c,l-C3H and c,l-C3H2 abundances. We have also introduced in the model the third isomer of C3H2 (HCCCH). The observed cyclic-to-linear C3H2 ratio varies from 110 ± 30 for molecular clouds with a total density of about 1 × 104 molecules cm-3 to 30 ± 10 for molecular clouds with a total density of about 4 × 105 molecules cm-3, a trend well reproduced with our updated model. The higher ratio for molecular clouds with low densities is determined mainly by the importance of the H + l-C3H2 → H + c-C3H2 and H + t-C3H2 → H + c-C3H2 isomerization reactions.

  8. Photosynthesis of C3, C3–C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E.; Tissue, David T.; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-01-01

    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3–C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l–1) and glacial (180 μl l–1) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3–C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3–C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3–C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3–C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3–C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments. PMID:24723409

  9. C3a Enhances the Formation of Intestinal Organoids through C3aR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Matsumoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available C3a is important in the regulation of the immune response as well as in the development of organ inflammation and injury. Furthermore, C3a contributes to liver regeneration but its role in intestinal stem cell function has not been studied. We hypothesized that C3a is important for intestinal repair and regeneration. Intestinal organoid formation, a measure of stem cell capacity, was significantly limited in C3-deficient and C3a receptor (C3aR 1-deficient mice while C3a promoted the growth of organoids from normal mice by supporting Wnt-signaling but not from C3aR1-deficient mice. Similarly, the presence of C3a in media enhanced the expression of the intestinal stem cell marker leucine-rich repeat G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 and of the cell proliferation marker Ki67 in organoids formed from C3-deficient but not from C3aR1-deficient mice. Using Lgr5.egfp mice we showed significant expression of C3 in Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells whereas C3aR1 was expressed on the surface of various intestinal cells. C3 and C3aR1 expression was induced in intestinal crypts in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Finally, C3aR1-deficient mice displayed ischemia/reperfusion injury comparable to control mice. These data suggest that C3a through interaction with C3aR1 enhances stem cell expansion and organoid formation and as such may have a role in intestinal regeneration.

  10. Towards engineering carboxysomes into C3 plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Maureen R.; Lin, Myat T.; Carmo-Silva, A. Elizabete; Parry, Martin A.J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Photosynthesis in C3 plants is limited by features of the carbon-fixing enzyme Rubisco, which exhibits a low turnover rate and can react with O2 instead of CO2, leading to photorespiration. In cyanobacteria, bacterial microcompartments known as carboxysomes improve the efficiency of photosynthesis by concentrating CO2 near the enzyme Rubisco. Cyanobacterial Rubisco enzymes are faster than those of C3 plants, though have lower specificity toward CO2 than the land plant enzyme. Replacement of land plant Rubisco by faster bacterial variants with lower CO2 specificity will improve photosynthesis only if a microcompartment capable of concentrating CO2 can also be installed into the chloroplast. We review current information about cyanobacterial microcompartments and carbon-concentrating mechanisms, plant transformation strategies, replacement of Rubisco in a model C3 plant with cyanobacterial Rubisco, and progress toward synthesizing a carboxysome in chloroplasts. PMID:26867858

  11. The Development of the C3 Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Susan Griffin, executive director of NCSS, was chair of the Task Force of Professional Organizations that initiated and guided the development of "The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards", which will soon be released. In this interview with "Social Education", Susan explains how the…

  12. Association of AKR1C3 Polymorphisms with Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryakioglu, N Ozan; Tunali, Nagehan Ersoy

    2016-04-16

    Polymorphisms in the genes coding for the carcinogen metabolizing enzymes may affect enzyme activities and alter the activation and detoxification rates of the carcinogens. AKR1C3 is one of the very polymorphic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes involved in the bioactivation process. Here we aimed to investigate the association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in AKR1C3, rs12529 (c.15C > G) and rs1937920 (12259 bp 3' of STP A > G) with urinary bladder cancer (UBC). Two-hundred fifty UBC cases and 250 control subjects were genotyped using the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length method. Associations of the genotypes with UBC risk and tumor characteristics were assessed using logistic regression and Fisher's exact test. The results are corrected for multiple testing. We identified strong associations between the studied AKR1C3 variants and UBC risk. The homozygous variant genotype of rs12529 was found to be inversely associated with UBC, and rs1937920 was shown to be associated with increased risk of UBC. None of the genotypes were found to be significantly associated with tumor characteristics. We provided evidence that rs12529 and rs1937920 are significant in the molecular pathogenesis of UBC. However, the results presented here should be regarded as preliminary and might represent a first step of future larger studies aiming to better elucidate the role of AKR1C3 polymorphisms in the susceptibility to bladder cancer.

  13. Antileishmanial activities of macrophages from C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice treated with Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, M G; Nacy, C A

    1983-09-01

    C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice were infected ip with viable BCG, a macrophage-activating agent, and their peritoneal exudate macrophages exposed to Leishmania tropica amastigotes. Macrophages from BCG-infected C3H/HeN mice had both leishmanicidal activities described for lymphokine activation of C3H/HeN macrophages in vitro: increased resistance to L. tropica infection, followed by intracellular killing of the parasite. Macrophages from BCG-infected C3H/HeN mice were also activated to kill tumor cells in vitro. In contrast, macrophages from BCG-treated C3H/HeJ mice were not resistant to L. tropica infection, did not kill intracellular amastigotes over 72 hr in culture, and were not cytotoxic to tumor cells.

  14. Systematic Comparison of C3 and C4 Plants Based on Metabolic Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Chuanli; Guo Longyun; Li Yixue; Wang Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The C4 photosynthetic cycle supercharges photosynthesis by concentrating CO2 around ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and significantly reduces the oxygenation reaction. Therefore engineering C4 feature into C3 plants has been suggested as a feasible way to increase photosynthesis and yield of C3 plants, such as rice, wheat, and potato. To identify the possible transition from C3 to C4 plants, the systematic comparison of C3 and C4 metabolism is necessary. Results We c...

  15. Protective Role of Complement C3 Against Cytokine-Mediated beta-Cell Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Santos, Reinaldo S.; Marroqui, Laura; Grieco, Fabio A.

    2017-01-01

    silencing exacerbates apoptosis under both basal condition and following exposure to cytokines, and it increases chemokine expression upon cytokine treatment. C3 exerts its prosurvival effects via AKT activation and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition. Exogenously added C3 also protects against cytokine...

  16. Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, B.; Martensson, U.; Weintraub, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lectin pathway activation of C3 is known to involve target recognition by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins and generation of classical pathway C3 convertase via cleavage of C4 and C2 by MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2). We investigated C3 activation in C2-deficient human sera...

  17. Defining the complement biomarker profile of C3 glomerulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuzhou; Nester, Carla M; Martin, Bertha

    2014-01-01

    and C3GN) as well as higher levels of complement breakdown products including C3d (PC5 levels were significantly suppressed (P... breakdown product C5a was significantly higher only in patients with C3GN (PC5b-9 was elevated in both diseases but only the difference between...

  18. Hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated immunologic control of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hair Pamela S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients are at increased risk for bacterial infections; these studies provide new insight into the role of the host defense complement system in controlling bacterial pathogens in hyperglycemic environments. Methods The interactions of complement C3 with bacteria in elevated glucose were assayed for complement activation to opsonic forms, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. C3 was analyzed in euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions by mass spectrometry to measure glycation and structural differences. Results Elevated glucose inhibited S. aureus activation of C3 and deposition of C3b and iC3b on the bacterial surface. S. aureus-generated C5a and serum-mediated phagocytosis by neutrophils were both decreased in elevated glucose conditions. Interestingly, elevated glucose increased the binding of unactivated C3 to S. aureus, which was reversible on return to normal glucose concentrations. In a model of polymicrobial infection, S. aureus in elevated glucose conditions depleted C3 from serum resulting in decreased complement-mediated killing of E. coli. To investigate the effect of differing glucose concentration on C3 structure and glycation, purified C3 incubated with varying glucose concentrations was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Glycation was limited to the same three lysine residues in both euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions over one hour, thus glycation could not account for observed changes between glucose conditions. However, surface labeling of C3 with sulfo-NHS-biotin showed significant changes in the surface availability of seven lysine residues in response to increasing glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the tertiary structure of C3 changes in response to hyperglycemic conditions leading to an altered interaction of C3 with bacterial pathogens. Conclusions These results demonstrate that hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated complement effectors important in the immunological

  19. Complement peptide C3a stimulates neural plasticity after experimental brain ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowska, Anna; Atkins, Alison L; Morán, Javier; Pekny, Tulen; Bulmer, Linda; Pascoe, Michaela C; Barnum, Scott R; Wetsel, Rick A; Nilsson, Jonas A; Dragunow, Mike; Pekna, Marcela

    2017-02-01

    Ischaemic stroke induces endogenous repair processes that include proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and extensive rewiring of the remaining neural connections, yet about 50% of stroke survivors live with severe long-term disability. There is an unmet need for drug therapies to improve recovery by promoting brain plasticity in the subacute to chronic phase after ischaemic stroke. We previously showed that complement-derived peptide C3a regulates neural progenitor cell migration and differentiation in vitro and that C3a receptor signalling stimulates neurogenesis in unchallenged adult mice. To determine the role of C3a-C3a receptor signalling in ischaemia-induced neural plasticity, we subjected C3a receptor-deficient mice, GFAP-C3a transgenic mice expressing biologically active C3a in the central nervous system, and their respective wild-type controls to photothrombotic stroke. We found that C3a overexpression increased, whereas C3a receptor deficiency decreased post-stroke expression of GAP43 (P plasticity, in the peri-infarct cortex. To verify the translational potential of these findings, we used a pharmacological approach. Daily intranasal treatment of wild-type mice with C3a beginning 7 days after stroke induction robustly increased synaptic density (P neural plasticity and intranasal treatment with C3a receptor agonists is an attractive approach to improve functional recovery after ischaemic brain injury. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. CO2 enrichment inhibits shoot nitrate assimilation in C3 but not C4 plants and slows growth under nitrate in C3 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Arnold J; Asensio, Jose Salvador Rubaio; Randall, Lesley; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cousins, Asaph B; Carlisle, Eli A

    2012-02-01

    The CO2 concentration in Earth's atmosphere may double during this century. Plant responses to such an increase depend strongly on their nitrogen status, but the reasons have been uncertain. Here, we assessed shoot nitrate assimilation into amino acids via the shift in shoot CO2 and O2 fluxes when plants received nitrate instead of ammonium as a nitrogen source (deltaAQ). Shoot nitrate assimilation became negligible with increasing CO2 in a taxonomically diverse group of eight C3 plant species, was relatively insensitive to CO2 in three C4 species, and showed an intermediate sensitivity in two C3-C4 intermediate species. We then examined the influence of CO2 level and ammonium vs. nitrate nutrition on growth, assessed in terms of changes in fresh mass, of several C3 species and a Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. Elevated CO2 (720 micromol CO2/mol of all gases present) stimulated growth or had no effect in the five C3 species tested when they received ammonium as a nitrogen source but inhibited growth or had no effect if they received nitrate. Under nitrate, two C3 species grew faster at sub-ambient (approximately 310 micromol/mol) than elevated CO2. A CAM species grew faster at ambient than elevated or sub-ambient CO2 under either ammonium or nitrate nutrition. This study establishes that CO2 enrichment inhibits shoot nitrate assimilation in a wide variety of C3 plants and that this phenomenon can have a profound effect on their growth. This indicates that shoot nitrate assimilation provides an important contribution to the nitrate assimilation of an entire C3 plant. Thus, rising CO2 and its effects on shoot nitrate assimilation may influence the distribution of C3 plant species.

  1. Complement C3a Mobilizes Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Specifically Guides Pulp Fibroblast Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufas, Pierre; Jeanneau, Charlotte; Rombouts, Charlotte; Laurent, Patrick; About, Imad

    2016-09-01

    Complement activation is considered a major mechanism in innate immunity. Although it is mainly involved in initiating inflammation, recent data reported its involvement in other processes such as tissue regeneration. In the dental pulp, complement C5a fragment has been shown to be involved in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). This study sought to investigate the possible role of C3a, another complement fragment, in the early steps of dentin-pulp regeneration. Expression of C3a receptor (C3aR) was investigated by immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on cultured pulp fibroblasts, STRO-1-sorted DPSCs, as well as on human tooth sections in vivo. The effect of C3a on proliferation of both DPSCs and pulp fibroblasts was investigated by MTT assay. Cell migration under a C3a gradient was investigated by using microfluidic chemotaxis chambers. C3aR was expressed in vivo as well as in cultured pulp fibroblasts co-expressing fibroblast surface protein and in DPSCs co-expressing STRO-1. Addition of recombinant C3a induced a significant proliferation of both cell types. When subjected to a C3a gradient, DPSCs were mobilized but not specifically recruited, whereas pulp fibroblasts were specifically recruited following a C3a gradient. These results provide the first demonstration of C3aR expression in the dental pulp and demonstrate that C3a is involved in increasing DPSCs and fibroblast proliferation, in mobilizing DPSCs, and in specifically guiding fibroblast recruitment. This provides an additional link to the tight correlation between inflammation and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Eculizumab treatment: stochastic occurrence of C3 binding to individual PNH erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Sica

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C5 blockade by eculizumab prevents complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. However, C3-bound PNH red blood cells (RBCs, arising in almost all treated patients, may undergo extravascular hemolysis reducing clinical benefits. Despite the uniform deficiency of CD55 and of CD59, there are always two distinct populations of PNH RBCs, with (C3+ and without (C3C3 binding. Methods To investigate this paradox, the phenomenon has been modeled in vitro by incubating RBCs from eculizumab untreated PNH patients with compatible sera containing eculizumab, and by assessing the C3 binding after activation of complement alternative pathway. Results When RBCs from untreated patients were exposed in vitro to activated complement in the context of C5-blockade, there was the prompt appearance of a distinct C3+ PNH RBC population whose size increased with time and also with the rate of complement activation. Eventually, all PNH RBCs become C3+ to the same extent, without differences between old and young (reticulocytes PNH RBCs. Conclusions This study indicates that the distinct (C3+ and C3− PNH RBC populations are not intrinsically different; rather, they result from a stochastic all-or-nothing phenomenon linked to the time-dependent cumulative probability of each individual PNH red cell to be exposed to levels of complement activation able to trigger C3 binding. These findings may envision novel approaches to reduce C3 opsonization and the subsequent extravascular hemolysis in PNH patients on eculizumab.

  3. Enhancement of photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activity of Ag modified Mpg-C3N4 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiuchen; Zhou, Feng; Zhan, Su; Yang, Yifan; Liu, Yujun; Tian, Yu; Huang, Naibao

    2017-01-01

    In this study, mpg-C3N4/Ag composites of surface plasmon resonance structures were fabricated to improve the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities of g-C3N4 via photo-assisted reduction method, which were characterized by XRD, EDS, XPS, FT-IR, FE-SEM, TEM, DRS and BET. The photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and the oxygen reduction experiment under visible light. The results showed the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities were dependent on the weight ratio of Ag and the optimum photocatalytic activity of mpg-C3N4/Ag at a weight ratio of 3% is almost 3 times as high as that of mpg-C3N4. Additionally, mpg-C3N4/Ag exhibited a significantly enhanced oxygen reduction performance under visible light. The limit current density was increased about 2 times by the modification of Ag nanoparticles, compared with that of pristine mpg-C3N4. Finally, based on the first principle, the enhancement mechanism of the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities was discussed by the calculation on the band structure and density of states in the mpg-C3N4/Ag composites. The appropriate amount of Ag modification would cause the surface plasmon resonance effect, which improved the photocatalytic, photoelectrocatalytic, and oxygen reduction activities of mpg-C3N4.

  4. Why Are C3-C4 Intermediate Species Rare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. E.; Field, C. B.; Berry, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    While C3-C4 intermediate photosynthesis is thought to represent the evolutionary bridge between C3 and C4 photosynthesis, C3-C4 intermediate species are ecologically rare in comparison to both C3 and C4 species. Here, we report results from a laboratory experiment, field observations, and model simulations that suggest a new explanation for the ecological rarity of C3-C4 intermediate species. In the laboratory experiment, we combined gas exchange and fluorescence to characterize the temperature response of photosynthesis in three closely-related species in the genus Flaveria that are representatives of the C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 photosynthetic pathways. The leaf temperature that maximized the quantum yield for CO2 assimilation (Topt(ΦCO2)) was 24.9 ± 0.7°C in Flaveria robusta (C3), 29.8 ± 1.0°C in F. chloraefolia (C3-C4), and 35.7 ± 0.8°C in F. bidentis (C4), and was linearly related to the temperature sensitivity of the coupling between CO2 assimilation and electron transport (d(ΦCO2/ ΦPSII)/dT)). While F. chloraefolia does not simultaneously occur with F. robusta and F. bidentis in naturally-assembled communities, this C3-C4 intermediate species does occur with other C3 and C4 species. During the growing season in two of these mixed-photosynthetic-type communities, leaf temperatures for F. chloraefolia were similar to the Topt(ΦCO2) determined in the laboratory. A model of maximum potential carbon gain suggests that competitive coexistence of C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 species could be dependent on a temperature regime that highlights the distinct relative advantages of the C3-C4 intermediate pathway. In combination, these results suggest that the relative temperature sensitivity of the C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 photosynthetic pathways combined with environmental variation in temperature may help to explain why C3-C4 intermediate species are generally rare.

  5. Experiment of vitreous liquefaction induced by C3F8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Qiuming

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect and safety of vitreous liquefaction induced by C3F8 (an inert gas) injected into vitreous cavit of rabbit eyes. 24 rabbits (48 eyes) were randomly divided into four groups, named group A, group B, group C and group D, with 6 rabbits in each group. The right eye in each rabbit was taken as the experimental eye while the left as the control eye. The experimental eyes in group A were injected with 0.1mL disinfectant air; the experimental eyes in group B, group C and group D were all injected with C3F8 0.1mL, 0.2mL and 0.3mL respectively after receiving anterior chamber penetration; and the controlled eyes in all group were injected with 0.1mL balanced salt solution (BSS). During the first 7 d after injection, all the rabitts' eyes were examined by slit lamp, ophthalmoscope, intraocular pressure (IOP) and dark-adapted retina Electroretinography (ERG) each day. After that, the examination of IOG and ERP were reviewed weekly. Besides, B ultrasound should be examined to observe the situation of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in the 4th and 8th weeks. The rabbits were killed in the end of the 8th week, with their specimens examined by the light microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Except group A, all the experimental eyes were produced with vitreous liquefaction. In group C and group D, in addition to the produced vitreous liquefaction, posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), even complete PVD, were induced in different extent. But in group B, the vitreous body was returned to the gel state at 2 weeks after gas absorption. In group C and group D, the vitreous body was not found to recover its original state at 8 weeks. In group D, there was a little increase of intraocular pressure, a mild delay of wave a and wave b after ERG in the 4th day after the gas injection. While there was no such situation in other groups. After the examination of B ultrasound in the 8th week, the complete PVD

  6. 12 CFR 563c.3 - Qualification of public accountant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification of public accountant. 563c.3... REQUIREMENTS Form and Content of Financial Statements § 563c.3 Qualification of public accountant. (See also 17 CFR 210.2-01.) The term “qualified public accountant” means a certified public accountant or licensed...

  7. Role of ascitic fluid C3 in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amany Talaat Kamal

    2012-02-29

    Feb 29, 2012 ... Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis;. Complement 3;. Opsonic activity;. Cirrhosis. Abstract Background: The C3 component of complement tends to be reduced in cirrhosis and patients with reduced ascitic fluid C3 concentration and reduced opsonic activities have been shown to be predisposed to SBP [1].

  8. The pathogenic mechanism of C3 glomerulopathy and its countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-quan WANG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C3 glomerulopathy is a series of diseases of glomeruli mediated by abnormal activation of alternative complement pathway. A series of researches have revealed in recent years that there are diversity and multiplicity of pathogenic mechanism in the pathogenesis of C3 glomerulopathy. The pathogenic mechanism of C3 glomerulopathy may be different in different individuals and types of disease. Congenital genetic defects and/or acquired autoantibodies may be found in the same individual. Individualized therapy should be given to individual patient in order to target different pathogenic mechanisms. Chinese herbal medicine, Tripterygium wilfordii, shows promise as a potential therapeutic agent for C3 glomerulopathy. The pathogenic mechanism and countermeasures for C3 glomerulopathy have been reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.15

  9. C4 photosynthesis in C3 rice: a theoretical analysis of biochemical and anatomical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyue; Tholen, Danny; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Engineering C4 photosynthesis into rice has been considered a promising strategy to increase photosynthesis and yield. A question that remains to be answered is whether expressing a C4 metabolic cycle into a C3 leaf structure and without removing the C3 background metabolism improves photosynthetic efficiency. To explore this question, we developed a 3D reaction diffusion model of bundle-sheath and connected mesophyll cells in a C3 rice leaf. Our results show that integrating a C4 metabolic pathway into rice leaves with a C3 metabolism and mesophyll structure may lead to an improved photosynthesis under current ambient CO2 concentration. We analysed a number of physiological factors that influence the CO2 uptake rate, which include the chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular air space, bundle-sheath cell wall thickness, bundle-sheath chloroplast envelope permeability, Rubisco concentration and the energy partitioning between C3 and C4 cycles. Among these, partitioning of energy between C3 and C4 photosynthesis and the partitioning of Rubisco between mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells are decisive factors controlling photosynthetic efficiency in an engineered C3 -C4 leaf. The implications of the results for the sequence of C4 evolution are also discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Electronic and thermoelectric properties of atomically thin C3Si3/C and C3Ge3/C superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad; Pi, Xiaodong; Liu, Yong; Yang, Deren

    2018-01-01

    The nanostructuring of graphene into superlattices offers the possibility of tuning both the electronic and thermal properties of graphene. Using classical and quantum mechanical calculations, we have investigated the electronic and thermoelectric properties of the atomically thin superlattice of C3Si3/C (C3Ge3/C) formed by the incorporation of Si (Ge) atoms into graphene. The bandgap and phonon thermal conductivity of C3Si3/C (C3Ge3/C) are 0.54 (0.51) eV and 15.48 (12.64) W m‑1 K‑1, respectively, while the carrier mobility of C3Si3/C (C3Ge3/C) is 1.285 × 105 (1.311 × 105) cm2 V‑1 s‑1 at 300 K. The thermoelectric figure of merit for C3Si3/C (C3Ge3/C) can be optimized via the tuning of carrier concentration to obtain the prominent ZT value of 1.95 (2.72).

  11. Systematic comparison of C3 and C4 plants based on metabolic network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanli; Guo, Longyun; Li, Yixue; Wang, Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    The C4 photosynthetic cycle supercharges photosynthesis by concentrating CO2 around ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and significantly reduces the oxygenation reaction. Therefore engineering C4 feature into C3 plants has been suggested as a feasible way to increase photosynthesis and yield of C3 plants, such as rice, wheat, and potato. To identify the possible transition from C3 to C4 plants, the systematic comparison of C3 and C4 metabolism is necessary. We compared C3 and C4 metabolic networks using the improved constraint-based models for Arabidopsis and maize. By graph theory, we found the C3 network exhibit more dense topology structure than C4. The simulation of enzyme knockouts demonstrated that both C3 and C4 networks are very robust, especially when optimizing CO2 fixation. Moreover, C4 plant has better robustness no matter the objective function is biomass synthesis or CO2 fixation. In addition, all the essential reactions in C3 network are also essential for C4, while there are some other reactions specifically essential for C4, which validated that the basic metabolism of C4 plant is similar to C3, but C4 is more complex. We also identified more correlated reaction sets in C4, and demonstrated C4 plants have better modularity with complex mechanism coordinates the reactions and pathways than that of C3 plants. We also found the increase of both biomass production and CO2 fixation with light intensity and CO2 concentration in C4 is faster than that in C3, which reflected more efficient use of light and CO2 in C4 plant. Finally, we explored the contribution of different C4 subtypes to biomass production by setting specific constraints. All results are consistent with the actual situation, which indicate that Flux Balance Analysis is a powerful method to study plant metabolism at systems level. We demonstrated that in contrast to C3, C4 plants have less dense topology, higher robustness, better modularity, and higher CO2 and radiation use efficiency

  12. Europium-Labeled Synthetic C3a Protein as a Novel Fluorescent Probe for Human Complement C3a Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas de Araujo, Aline; Wu, Chongyang; Wu, Kai-Chen; Reid, Robert C; Durek, Thomas; Lim, Junxian; Fairlie, David P

    2017-06-21

    Measuring ligand affinity for a G protein-coupled receptor is often a crucial step in drug discovery. It has been traditionally determined by binding putative new ligands in competition with native ligand labeled with a radioisotope of finite lifetime. Competing instead with a lanthanide-based fluorescent ligand is more attractive due to greater longevity, stability, and safety. Here, we have chemically synthesized the 77 residue human C3a protein and conjugated its N-terminus to europium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate to produce a novel fluorescent protein (Eu-DTPA-hC3a). Time-resolved fluorescence analysis has demonstrated that Eu-DTPA-hC3a binds selectively to its cognate G protein-coupled receptor C3aR with full agonist activity and similar potency and selectivity as native C3a in inducing calcium mobilization and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in HEK293 cells that stably expressed C3aR. Time-resolved fluorescence analysis for saturation and competitive binding gave a dissociation constant (Kd) of 8.7 ± 1.4 nM for Eu-DTPA-hC3a and binding affinities for hC3a (pKi of 8.6 ± 0.2 and Ki of 2.5 nM) and C3aR ligands TR16 (pKi of 6.8 ± 0.1 and Ki of 138 nM), BR103 (pKi of 6.7 ± 0.1 and Ki of 185 nM), BR111 (pKi of 6.3 ± 0.2 and Ki of 544 nM) and SB290157 (pKi of 6.3 ± 0.1 and Ki of 517 nM) via displacement of Eu-DTPA-hC3a from hC3aR. The macromolecular conjugate Eu-DTPA-hC3a is a novel nonradioactive probe suitable for studying ligand-C3aR interactions with potential value in accelerating drug development for human C3aR in physiology and disease.

  13. Rituximab fails where eculizumab restores renal function in C3nef-related DDD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset-Rouvière, Caroline; Cailliez, Mathilde; Garaix, Florentine; Bruno, Daniele; Laurent, Daniel; Tsimaratos, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Dense deposit disease (DDD), a C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), is a rare disease with unfavorable progression towards end-stage kidney disease. The pathogenesis of DDD is due to cytotoxic effects related to acquired or genetic dysregulation of the complement alternative pathway, which is at times accompanied by the production of C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF), an auto-antibody directed against the alternative C3 convertase. Available treatments include plasma exchange, CD20-targeted antibodies, and a terminal complement blockade via the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab. We report here the case of an 8-year-old child with C3NeF and refractory DDD who presented with a nephritic syndrome. She tested positive for C3NeF activity; C3 was undetectable. Genetic analyses of the alternative complement pathway were normal. Methylprednisolone pulses and mycophenolate mofetil treatment resulted in complete recovery of renal function and a reduction in proteinuria. Corticosteroids were tapered and then withdrawn. Four months after corticosteroid discontinuation, hematuria and proteinuria recurred, and a renal biopsy confirmed an active DDD with a majority of extracapillary crescents. Despite an increase in immunosuppressive drugs, including methylprednisolone pulses and rituximab therapy, the patient suffered acute renal failure within 3 weeks, requiring dialysis. Eculizumab treatment resulted in a quick and impressive response. Hematuria very quickly resolved, kidney function improved, and no further dialysis was required. The patient received bimonthly eculizumab injections of 600 mg, allowing for normalization of renal function and reduction of proteinuria to DDD prior to the development of glomerulosclerosis. Our data provide evidence supporting the pivotal role of complement alternative pathway abnormalities in C3G with DDD.

  14. C3 glomerulopathy [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Terence Cook

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available C3 glomerulopathy is a recently defined entity that encompasses a group of kidney diseases caused by abnormal control of complement activation with deposition of complement component C3 in glomeruli leading to variable glomerular inflammation. Before the recognition of the unique pathogenesis of these cases, they were variably classified according to their morphological features. C3 glomerulopathy accounts for roughly 1% of all renal biopsies. Clear definition of this entity has allowed a better understanding of its pathogenesis and clinical course and is likely to lead to the design of rational therapies over the next few years.

  15. C2 and C3 pain dermatomes in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, C E

    1991-07-01

    This report defines the C2 and C3 pain dermatomes by the distribution of: the hypalgesia clearing after surgical root decompression; the dysaesthesias produced by electrical root stimulation; and the hypalgesia produced by anaesthetic root block. The C2 pain dermatome, so defined, consists of an occipital parietal area 6-8 cm wide, ascending paramedially from the subocciput to the vertex. The C3 pain dermatome is a craniofacial area including the scalp around the ear, the pinna, the lateral cheek over the angle of the jaw, the submental region and the lateral and anterior aspects of the upper neck. These C2 and C3 pain dermatomes do not overlap and are smaller than the C2 and C3 tactile dermatomes described in the literature.

  16. Erratum to: C3 glomerulopathy and current dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Naoko; Ohashi, Ryuji; Nagata, Michio

    2017-10-20

    The article, "C3 glomerulopathy and current dilemmas", written by Naoko Ito, Ryuji Ohashi and Michio Nagata was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on November 23, 2016 without open access.

  17. The interstellar chemistry of H2C3O isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Marcelino, Núria; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne; Roueff, Evelyne; Guélin, Michel

    2016-03-11

    We present the detection of two H2C3O isomers, propynal and cyclopropenone, toward various starless cores and molecular clouds, together with upper limits for the third isomer propadienone. We review the processes controlling the abundances of H2C3O isomers in interstellar media showing that the reactions involved are gas-phase ones. We show that the abundances of these species are controlled by kinetic rather than thermodynamic effects.

  18. The Influence of C3A Content in Cement on the Chloride Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the influence of C3A in cement on chloride transport in reinforced concrete. Three modified cement was manufactured in the variation of the C3A content, ranging from 6.0 and 10.5 up to 16.9%. The setting time of fresh concrete was measured immediately after mixing, together with the temperature at the time of initial set. For properties of hardened concrete in the variation in the C3A, a development of the compressive strength and chloride permeation were measured using mortar specimens. Simultaneously, chloride binding capacity was measured by the water extraction method. To ensure the influence of pore structure on chloride transport, the pore structure was examined by the mercury intrusion porosimetry. As a result, it was found that an increase in the C3A content resulted in an increase in chloride binding capacity. However, it seemed that increased binding of chlorides is related to the higher ingress of chlorides, despite denser pore structure. It may be attributed to the higher surface chloride, which could increase the gradient of chloride concentration from the surface, thereby leading to the higher level of chloride profiles. Substantially, the benefit of high C3A in resisting corrosion, arising from removal of free chlorides in the pore solution, would be offset by increased chloride ingress at a given duration, when it comes to the corrosion-free service life.

  19. Enhancing C3 photosynthesis: an outlook on feasible interventions for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitender; Pandey, Prachi; James, Donald; Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Achary, V Mohan Murali; Kaul, Tanushri; Tripathy, Baishnab C; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2014-12-01

    Despite the declarations and collective measures taken to eradicate hunger at World Food Summits, food security remains one of the biggest issues that we are faced with. The current scenario could worsen due to the alarming increase in world population, further compounded by adverse climatic conditions, such as increase in atmospheric temperature, unforeseen droughts and decreasing soil moisture, which will decrease crop yield even further. Furthermore, the projected increase in yields of C3 crops as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is much less than anticipated. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase crop productivity beyond existing yield potentials to address the challenge of food security. One of the domains of plant biology that promises hope in overcoming this problem is study of C3 photosynthesis. In this review, we have examined the potential bottlenecks of C3 photosynthesis and the strategies undertaken to overcome them. The targets considered for possible intervention include RuBisCO, RuBisCO activase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle enzymes, CO2 and carbohydrate transport, and light reactions among many others. In addition, other areas which promise scope for improvement of C3 photosynthesis, such as mining natural genetic variations, mathematical modelling for identifying new targets, installing efficient carbon fixation and carbon concentrating mechanisms have been touched upon. Briefly, this review intends to shed light on the recent advances in enhancing C3 photosynthesis for crop improvement. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Density functional study of Pu2C3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Tang, Bin; Gao, Tao; Ao, Bing Yun

    2017-08-01

    The structural, magnetic, electronic, vibrational, thermodynamic and elastic properties of plutonium sesquicarbide (Pu2C3) are investigated based on density functional theory. The use of the Hubbard term to describe the 5 f electrons of plutonium is discussed according the lattice parameters and magnetism. The calculated lattice constants, magnetism and density of states agree well with the experimental data or other theoretical calculations. The Pu-C bonds of Pu2C3 have a mixture of covalent character and ionic character, while covalent character is stronger than ionic character. The phonon frequencies and the assignment of infrared-active, Raman-active and silent modes at Γ point are obtained. Furthermore, the enthalpy difference H-H298, entropy S, heat capacity and linear thermal expansion coefficient α of Pu2C3 have been calculated and compared with the available data. Lastly, the calculated elastic properties predict that Pu2C3 is ductile metal. In addition, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of Pu2C3 has been discussed. We hope that our results can provide a useful reference for further theoretical and experimental research on Pu2C3.

  1. Climate Change Communicators: The C3E3 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) have partnered with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences through the Climate Change Communication: Engineer, Environmental science, and Education (C3E3) project. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students participated in the second summer internship funded by the project. More than 60 students participated in guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. The students went through training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of webcasts on investigating the aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Several departments are involved in the educational program.

  2. Lentil (Lens culinaris) lipid transfer protein Len c 3: a novel legume allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerdaas, J; Finkina, E I; Balandin, S V; Santos Magadán, S; Knulst, A; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Asero, R; van Ree, R; Ovchinnikova, T V

    2012-01-01

    Lentils are increasingly consumed in many parts of the world.Two allergens, Len c 1 and 2, have been reported previously. Recently, peanut and green bean lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) have been identified as the first two members of an important group of allergens that might be associated with severe food allergies. To investigate lentil LTP as a potential new allergen. Efficacy of LTP extraction was monitored at different acidic pH values, using immunoblotting with cross-reactive anti-peach LTP antiserum. Natural LTP was purified from lentil extract and expressed as recombinant allergen in Escherichia coli. Sera from 10 lentil-allergic and/or -sensitized patients (Spain: 6, Italy: 1 and the Netherlands: 3) were used to further characterize lentil LTP. Natural lentil LTP, purified from the homogenized germinated seeds and optimally extracted at pH 3, was identified and designated as allergen Len c 3. By CAP, 9/10 sera showed specific IgE to Len c 3. Recombinant (r) Len c 3 was successfully purified. The natural (n) Len c 3 CAP was completely inhibited by rLen c 3/rPru p 3. IgE binding to lentil pH 3 extract blot was completely inhibited by rLen c 3. The availability of immunochemically active nLen/rLen c 3 as a novel legume allergen facilitates further development and implementation of a third (next to peanut and green bean) legume LTP in component-resolved diagnosis strategies and contributes to evaluate the clinical importance of legume LTPs. Preferential extraction of Len c 3 (pH 3) will affect the production of sensitive extract-based diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Eculizumab for dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Smith, Richard J; Barile, Gaetano R; Zhang, Yuzhou; Heher, Eliot C; Herlitz, Leal; Stokes, M Barry; Markowitz, Glen S; D'Agati, Vivette D; Canetta, Pietro A; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Appel, Gerald B

    2012-05-01

    The principle defect in dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis is hyperactivity of the alternative complement pathway. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to C5 to prevent formation of the membrane attack complex, may prove beneficial. In this open-label, proof of concept efficacy and safety study, six subjects with dense deposit disease or C3 glomerulonephritis were treated with eculizumab every other week for 1 year. All had proteinuria >1 g/d and/or AKI at enrollment. Subjects underwent biopsy before enrollment and repeat biopsy at the 1-year mark. The subjects included three patients with dense deposit disease (including one patient with recurrent dense deposit disease in allograft) and three patients with C3 glomerulonephritis (including two patients with recurrent C3 glomerulonephritis in allograft). Genetic and complement function testing revealed a mutation in CFH and MCP in one subject each, C3 nephritic factor in three subjects, and elevated levels of serum membrane attack complex in three subjects. After 12 months, two subjects showed significantly reduced serum creatinine, one subject achieved marked reduction in proteinuria, and one subject had stable laboratory parameters but histopathologic improvements. Elevated serum membrane attack complex levels normalized on therapy and paralleled improvements in creatinine and proteinuria. Clinical and histopathologic data suggest a response to eculizumab in some but not all subjects with dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis. Elevation of serum membrane attack complex before treatment may predict response. Additional research is needed to define the subgroup of dense deposit disease/C3 glomerulonephritis patients in whom eculizumab therapy can be considered.

  4. Complement C3 deficiency attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M Bauer

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests a role of both innate and adaptive immunity in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The complement system is a key sentry of the innate immune system and bridges innate and adaptive immunity. To date there are no studies addressing a role for the complement system in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Immunofluorescent staining revealed significant C3d deposition in lung sections from IPAH patients and C57Bl6/J wild-type mice exposed to three weeks of chronic hypoxia to induce pulmonary hypertension. Right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy were increased in hypoxic vs. normoxic wild-type mice, which were attenuated in C3-/- hypoxic mice. Likewise, pulmonary vascular remodeling was attenuated in the C3-/- mice compared to wild-type mice as determined by the number of muscularized peripheral arterioles and morphometric analysis of vessel wall thickness. The loss of C3 attenuated the increase in interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in response to chronic hypoxia, but not endothelin-1 levels. In wild-type mice, but not C3-/- mice, chronic hypoxia led to platelet activation as assessed by bleeding time, and flow cytometry of platelets to determine cell surface P-selectin expression. In addition, tissue factor expression and fibrin deposition were increased in the lungs of WT mice in response to chronic hypoxia. These pro-thrombotic effects of hypoxia were abrogated in C3-/- mice.Herein, we provide compelling genetic evidence that the complement system plays a pathophysiologic role in the development of PAH in mice, promoting pulmonary vascular remodeling and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. In addition we demonstrate C3d deposition in IPAH patients suggesting that complement activation plays a role in the development of PAH in humans.

  5. Communications processor for C3 analysis and wargaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L. N.; Pless, L. D.; Rapp, R. L.

    1982-03-01

    This thesis developed the software capability to allow the investigation of c3 problems, procedures and methodologies. The resultant communications model, that while independent of a specific wargame, is currently implemented in conjunction with the McClintic Theater Model. It provides a computerized message handling system (C3 Model) which allows simulation of communication links (circuits) with user-definable delays; garble and loss rates; and multiple circuit types, addresses, and levels of command. It is designed to be used for test and evaluation of command and control problems in the areas of organizational relationships, communication networks and procedures, and combat doctrine or tactics.

  6. Immuno-Detection of C3a, a C3 Complement Activated Product in Mastitis Milk, a Potential Diagnostic Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanislass Jacob

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The sub-clinical form of mastitis is difficult to detect and causes huge economic loss to the dairy industry. It has become a threat to public health at large, thus there is a need for definite diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, this study was undertaken to identify the novel diagnostic marker for the detection of the sub-clinical form of mastitis. Two-dimensional gel analysis of the whey protein fraction of normal and mastitis milk samples revealed the presence of proteose peptone component 3 precursor, Trypsin precursor, complement component-C3, Ig heavy chain precursors and a C-type lectin domain as differentially expressed protein during the early stage of mastitis. Of these proteins identified, complement component-C3 was tested for its diagnostic potential. Western blot analysis of the milk whey of sub-clinical mastitis cases (M+, M++ & M+++ identified the accumulation of C3a, an activated product of complement component-C3. Further, the hemolytic activity of the above milk whey samples positively correlated with the somatic cell count. As C3a is already reported as an anaphylotoxic agent, it chemo tactically attracts lymphocytes at the site of inflammation, the detection of which in the milk whey can be of diagnostic importance for sub-clinical mastitis.

  7. De novo Transcriptome Assembly and Comparison of C3, C3-C4, and C4 Species of Tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Lauterbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available C4 photosynthesis is a carbon-concentrating mechanism that evolved independently more than 60 times in a wide range of angiosperm lineages. Among other alterations, the evolution of C4 from ancestral C3 photosynthesis requires changes in the expression of a vast number of genes. Differential gene expression analyses between closely related C3 and C4 species have significantly increased our understanding of C4 functioning and evolution. In Chenopodiaceae, a family that is rich in C4 origins and photosynthetic types, the anatomy, physiology and phylogeny of C4, C2, and C3 species of Salsoleae has been studied in great detail, which facilitated the choice of six samples of five representative species with different photosynthetic types for transcriptome comparisons. mRNA from assimilating organs of each species was sequenced in triplicates, and sequence reads were de novo assembled. These novel genetic resources were then analyzed to provide a better understanding of differential gene expression between C3, C2 and C4 species. All three analyzed C4 species belong to the NADP-ME type as most genes encoding core enzymes of this C4 cycle are highly expressed. The abundance of photorespiratory transcripts is decreased compared to the C3 and C2 species. Like in other C4 lineages of Caryophyllales, our results suggest that PEPC1 is the C4-specific isoform in Salsoleae. Two recently identified transporters from the PHT4 protein family may not only be related to the C4 syndrome, but also active in C2 photosynthesis in Salsoleae. In the two populations of the C2 species S. divaricata transcript abundance of several C4 genes are slightly increased, however, a C4 cycle is not detectable in the carbon isotope values. Most of the core enzymes of photorespiration are highly increased in the C2 species compared to both C3 and C4 species, confirming a successful establishment of the C2 photosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, a function of PEP-CK in C2 photosynthesis

  8. The versatile functions of complement C3-derived ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Anna; Sándor, Noémi; Mácsik-Valent, Bernadett; Lukácsi, Szilvia; Kremlitzka, Mariann; Bajtay, Zsuzsa

    2016-11-01

    The complement system is a major component of immune defense. Activation of the complement cascade by foreign substances and altered self-structures may lead to the elimination of the activating agent, and during the enzymatic cascade, several biologically active fragments are generated. Most immune regulatory effects of complement are mediated by the activation products of C3, the central component. The indispensable role of C3 in opsonic phagocytosis as well as in the regulation of humoral immune response is known for long, while the involvement of complement in T-cell biology have been revealed in the past few years. In this review, we discuss the immune modulatory functions of C3-derived fragments focusing on their role in processes which have not been summarized so far. The importance of locally synthesized complement will receive special emphasis, as several immunological processes take place in tissues, where hepatocyte-derived complement components might not be available at high concentrations. We also aim to call the attention to important differences between human and mouse systems regarding C3-mediated processes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. C3 Epimerization of Glucose, via Regioselective Oxidation and Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jumde, Varsha R.; Eisink, Niek N. H. M.; Witte, Martin D.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2016-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed oxidation can single out the secondary hydroxyl group at C3 in glucose, circumventing the more readily accessible hydroxyl at C6 and the more reactive anomeric hydroxyl. Oxidation followed by reduction results in either allose or allitol, each a rare sugar that is important in

  10. Immunoglobulins and C3 in the P. brasiliensis granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. V. Biagioni

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis induced in mice by the intravenous injection of yeast-forms of P. brasiliensis (Bt2 strain; 1 x 10(6 viable fungi/animal was used to evaluate sequentially 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks after inoculation: 1. The presence of immunoglobulins and C3 in the pulmonary granuloma-ta, by direct immunofluorescence; 2. The humoral (immunodiffusion test and the cellular (footpad sweeling test immune response; 3. The histopathology of lesions. The cell-immune response was positive since week 2, showing a transitory depression at week 16. Specific antibodies were first detected at week 4 and peaked at week 16. At histology, epithelioid granulomas with numerous fungi and polymorphonuclear agreggates were seen. The lungs showed progressive involvement up to week 16, with little decrease at week 20. From week 2 on, there were deposits of IgG and C3 around fungal walls within the granulomas and IgG stained cells among the mononuclear cell peripheral halo. Interstitital immunoglobulins and C3 deposits in the granulomas were not letected. IgG and C3 seen to play an early an important role in. the host defenses against P. brasiliensis by possibly cooperating in the killing of parasites and blocking the antigenic diffusion.

  11. Rituximab for Treatment of Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis and C3 Glomerulopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a histological pattern of injury resulting from predominantly subendothelial and mesangial deposition of immunoglobulins or complement factors with subsequent inflammation and proliferation particularly of the glomerular basement membrane. Recent classification of MPGN is based on pathogenesis dividing MPGN into immunoglobulin-associated MPGN and complement-mediated C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) and dense deposit disease (DDD). Current guidelines suggest treatment with steroids, cytotoxic agents with or without plasmapheresis only for subjects with progressive disease, that is, nephrotic range proteinuria and decline of renal function. Rituximab, a chimeric B-cell depleting anti-CD20 antibody, has emerged in the last decade as a treatment option for patients with primary glomerular diseases such as minimal change disease, focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis, or idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, data on the use of rituximab in MPGN, C3GN, and DDD are limited to case reports and retrospective case series. Patients with immunoglobulin-associated and idiopathic MPGN who were treated with rituximab showed partial and complete responses in the majorities of cases. However, rituximab was not effective in few cases of C3GN and DDD. Despite promising results in immunoglobulin-associated and idiopathic MPGN, current evidence on this treatment remains weak, and controlled and prospective data are urgently needed. PMID:28573137

  12. C3 or Garbage Can - Alternative Models of Organizational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Buzacott

    1981-01-01

    Two alternative approaches for modeling the performance of organizations are discussed -- C^3 (command-control-communication) systems and the garbage can approach. Existing formal models using each approach are reviewed and some extensions and alternative models are proposed. The implications of the models are discussed, with particular emphasis on the impact of information technology developments on organizations.

  13. Comparison of serum C3 complement levels between young women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maimun Syukri

    2014-05-29

    May 29, 2014 ... f Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Received 13 February ... with infectious diseases. However, the association of C3 with recurrent urinary tract infec- ... Young women, even with normal function or anatomy of the urinary tract ...

  14. Modified Low Density Lipoprotein Stimulates Complement C3 Expression and Secretion via Liver X Receptor and Toll-like Receptor 4 Activation in Human Macrophages*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilenko, Denis A.; Kudriavtsev, Igor V.; Trulioff, Andrey S.; Shavva, Vladimir S.; Dizhe, Ella B.; Missyul, Boris V.; Zhakhov, Alexander V.; Ischenko, Alexander M.; Perevozchikov, Andrej P.; Orlov, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    Complement C3 is a pivotal component of three cascades of complement activation. C3 is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions and is involved in atherogenesis. However, the mechanism of C3 accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions is not well elucidated. We show that acetylated low density lipoprotein and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) increase C3 gene expression and protein secretion by human macrophages. Modified LDL (mLDL)-mediated activation of C3 expression mainly depends on liver X receptor (LXR) and partly on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), whereas C3 secretion is increased due to TLR4 activation by mLDL. LXR agonist TO901317 stimulates C3 gene expression in human monocyte-macrophage cells but not in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. We find LXR-responsive element inside of the promoter region of the human C3 gene, which binds to LXRβ in macrophages but not in HepG2 cells. We show that C3 expression and secretion is decreased in IL-4-treated (M2) and increased in IFNγ/LPS-stimulated (M1) human macrophages as compared with resting macrophages. LXR agonist TO901317 potentiates LPS-induced C3 gene expression and protein secretion in macrophages, whereas oxLDL differently modulates LPS-mediated regulation of C3 in M1 or M2 macrophages. Treatment of human macrophages with anaphylatoxin C3a results in stimulation of C3 transcription and secretion as well as increased oxLDL accumulation and augmented oxLDL-mediated up-regulation of the C3 gene. These data provide a novel mechanism of C3 gene regulation in macrophages and suggest new aspects of cross-talk between mLDL, C3, C3a, and TLR4 during development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:22194611

  15. Theoretical characterization of the SiC3H- anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza, N; Senent, M L

    2010-11-14

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are used to predict the equilibrium structures and spectroscopic parameters of the SiC(3)H(-) anion. The total energies and physical properties are reported using CASSCF/MRCI, RCCSD(T), and RCCSD(T)-F12 approaches and extended basis sets. The search of stable geometries leads to a total of 12 isomers (4 linear and 8 cyclic), for which electronic ground states have close-shell configurations. The stability of the linear form, l-SiC(3)H(-), is prominent. For the most stable linear isomer, the B(e) equilibrium rotational constant has been calculated with RCCSD(T) and a complete basis set. Core-correlation and vibrational effects have been taken into account to predict a B(0) of 2621.68 MHz for l-SiC(3)H(-) and 2460.48 MHz for l-SiC(3)D(-). The dipole moment of l-SiC(3)H(-) was found to be 2.9707 D with CASSCF/aug-cc-pV5Z and the electron affinity to be 2.7 eV with RCCSD(T)-F12A/aug-cc-pVTZ. Anharmonic spectroscopic parameters are derived from a quadratic, cubic, and quartic RCCSD(T)-F12A force field and second order perturbation theory. CASSCF/MRCI vertical excitations supply three metastable electronic states, (1)Σ(+) (3)Σ(+) and (3)Δ. Electron affinities calculated for a series of chains type SiC(n)H and SiC(n) (n=1-5) allow us to discuss the anion formation probabilities.

  16. Complement therapeutics in inflammatory diseases: promising drug candidates for C3-targeted intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellos, D C; Ricklin, D; Hajishengallis, E; Hajishengallis, G; Lambris, J D

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing appreciation that complement dysregulation lies at the heart of numerous immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders. Complement inhibitors are therefore being evaluated as new therapeutic options in various clinical translation programs and the first clinically approved complement-targeted drugs have profoundly impacted the management of certain complement-mediated diseases. Among the many members of the intricate protein network of complement, the central component C3 represents a 'hot-spot' for complement-targeted therapeutic intervention. C3 modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses and is linked to diverse immunomodulatory systems and biological processes that affect human pathophysiology. Compelling evidence from preclinical disease models has shown that C3 interception may offer multiple benefits over existing therapies or even reveal novel therapeutic avenues in disorders that are not commonly regarded as complement-driven, such as periodontal disease. Using the clinically developed compstatin family of C3 inhibitors and periodontitis as illustrative examples, this review highlights emerging therapeutic concepts and developments in the design of C3-targeted drug candidates as novel immunotherapeutics for oral and systemic inflammatory diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Preparation of Cu-g-C3N4/AC Catalyst for Acetylene Hydrochlorination

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli Zhao; Mingyuan Zhu; Bin Dai

    2016-01-01

    A novel catalyst based on g-C3N4/activated carbon was prepared by adding CuCl2. The catalytic performance of the as-prepared catalyst was investigated in the acetylene hydrochlorination reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), and thermal gravity analysis showed that Cu-g-C3N4/AC significantly enhanced the catalytic performance of the original catalyst by increasing the relative pyrrolic N...

  18. The Preparation of Cu-g-C3N4/AC Catalyst for Acetylene Hydrochlorination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel catalyst based on g-C3N4/activated carbon was prepared by adding CuCl2. The catalytic performance of the as-prepared catalyst was investigated in the acetylene hydrochlorination reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and thermal gravity analysis showed that Cu-g-C3N4/AC significantly enhanced the catalytic performance of the original catalyst by increasing the relative pyrrolic N content. Cu-g-C3N4/AC also affected the adsorption of hydrogen chloride and acetylene, as well as inhibited the coke deposition during acetylene hydrochlorination.

  19. The bifurcation and peakons for the special C(3,2,2) equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. C(3, 2, 2) equation; peakons; bell-shaped solitary waves; periodic cusp waves. PACS Nos 05.45.Yv; 02.30.Jr; 02.30.Oz. 1. Introduction. Solitons and integrable systems play important roles in nonlinear waves, dynamical sys- tems and analytical mechanics. During the past decades, increasing attention has been.

  20. Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night, simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature, maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.

  1. Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxiang; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Yingxin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yu; Song, Yantao; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei

    2014-01-01

    Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination) of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night) and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night), simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature), maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.

  2. Visual Display Principles for C3I System Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Comprehensive guidelines are available for display design applications after the general system parameters have been specified. Some recommendations... display design (’cognitive’ functions being the most salient and critical of those remaining for the operator in advanced C3I systems). The principles...are derived from a review of the literatures on human cognition, HCI, and display design some original research, and liberal interpretation by the

  3. Spectroscopic confirmation of DES12C3a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidman, C.; Hopkins, A.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Blake, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Mould, J.; Uddin, S. A.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Campbell, H.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gilhool, S.; Gladney, L.; Gupta, R.; Mosher, J.; Sako, M.; Colless, M.; Schmidt, B. P.; Sharp, R.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Davis, T. M.; O'Neill, C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Kessler, R.; March, M.; Poole, G.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Sullivan, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report optical spectroscopy by the OzDES collaboration of a supernova candidate discovered by the Dark Energy Supernova Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (350-900 nm) of DES12C3a was obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with AAOmega-2dF observed by A. Hopkins. SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows this event to be a Type Ia SN at z=0.24 near maximum light.

  4. Deuterium hyperfine structure in interstellar C3HD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. B.; Watson, J. K.; Feldman, P. A.; Matthews, H. E.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The deuterium nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure of the transition 1(10)-1(01) of the ring molecule cyclopropenylidene-d1 (C3HD) has been observed in emission from interstellar molecular clouds. The narrowest linewidths (approximately 7 kHz) so far observed are in the cloud L1498. The derived D coupling constants Xzz = 186.9(1.4) kHz, eta=0.063(18) agree well with correlations based on other molecules.

  5. Contribution to the U$_2$C$_3$ formation by the synthetic reaction and by the decomposition of UC$_2$; Beitrag zur U$_2$C$_3$-bildung nach der synthetischen reaktion und durch zerfall von UC$_2$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschinelli, A.J.A.

    1974-06-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of the mechanism and of the kinetics of the U$_2$C$_3$ formation by the synthetic reaction. The influences of a mechanical and a thermical pre-treatment of the samples on the reaction kinetics were investigated and discussed taking into account other information from the literature. The relative increasing of the U$_2$C$_3$ nucleation rate due to the pulverization corresponds approximately to the surface enlargement of the pulverized material. The activation energy for the synthetic reaction in powder was found to be 94 +- 7 kcal/mol. The negative influence of nitrogen, oxygen and tungsten on the U$_2$C$_3$ formation was reported. In the decomposition of UC$_2$ to U$_2$C$_3$ and graphite, the influences of the morphology of the graphite precipitate and the fast neutron irradiation on the beginning of the U$_2$C$_3$ formation were also investigated.

  6. Overexpression of Aldo-Keto Reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in LNCaP Cells Diverts Androgen Metabolism towards Testosterone Resulting in Resistance to the 5α-Reductase Inhibitor Finasteride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrns, Michael C.; Mindnich, Rebekka; Duan, Ling; Penning, Trevor M.

    2012-01-01

    Type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3) is the major enzyme in the prostate that reduces 4-androstene-3,17-dione (Δ4-Adione) to the androgen receptor (AR) ligand testosterone. AKR1C3 is upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) that develops after androgen deprivation therapy. PCa and CRPC often depend on intratumoral androgen biosynthesis and upregulation of AKR1C3 could contribute to intracellular synthesis of AR ligands and stimulation of proliferation through AR signalling. To test this hypothesis, we developed an LNCaP prostate cancer cell line overexpressing AKR1C3 (LNCaP-AKR1C3) and compared its metabolic and proliferative responses to Δ4-Adione treatment with that of the parental, AKR1C3 negative LNCaP cells. In LNCaP and LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells, metabolism proceeded via 5α-reduction to form 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and then (epi)androsterone-3-glucuronide. LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells made significantly higher amounts of testosterone-17β-glucuronide. When 5α-reductase was inhibited by finasteride, the production of testosterone-17β-glucuronide was further elevated in LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells. When AKR1C3 activity was inhibited with indomethacin the production of testosterone-17β-glucuronide was significantly decreased. Δ4-Adione treatment stimulated cell proliferation in both cell lines. Finasteride inhibited LNCaP cell proliferation, consistent with 5α-androstane-3,17-dione acting as the major metabolite that stimulates growth by binding to the mutated AR. However, LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells were resistant to the growth inhibitory properties of finasteride, consistent with the diversion of Δ4-Adione metabolism from 5α-reduced androgens to increased formation of testosterone. Indomethacin did not result in differences in Δ4-Adione induced proliferation since this treatment led to the same metabolic profile in LNCaP and LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells. We conclude that AKR1C3 overexpression diverts androgen metabolism to testosterone

  7. Overexpression of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in LNCaP cells diverts androgen metabolism towards testosterone resulting in resistance to the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrns, Michael C; Mindnich, Rebekka; Duan, Ling; Penning, Trevor M

    2012-05-01

    Type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3) is the major enzyme in the prostate that reduces 4-androstene-3,17-dione (Δ(4)-Adione) to the androgen receptor (AR) ligand testosterone. AKR1C3 is upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) that develops after androgen deprivation therapy. PCa and CRPC often depend on intratumoral androgen biosynthesis and upregulation of AKR1C3 could contribute to intracellular synthesis of AR ligands and stimulation of proliferation through AR signaling. To test this hypothesis, we developed an LNCaP prostate cancer cell line overexpressing AKR1C3 (LNCaP-AKR1C3) and compared its metabolic and proliferative responses to Δ(4)-Adione treatment with that of the parental, AKR1C3 negative LNCaP cells. In LNCaP and LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells, metabolism proceeded via 5α-reduction to form 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and then (epi)androsterone-3-glucuronide. LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells made significantly higher amounts of testosterone-17β-glucuronide. When 5α-reductase was inhibited by finasteride, the production of testosterone-17β-glucuronide was further elevated in LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells. When AKR1C3 activity was inhibited with indomethacin the production of testosterone-17β-glucuronide was significantly decreased. Δ(4)-Adione treatment stimulated cell proliferation in both cell lines. Finasteride inhibited LNCaP cell proliferation, consistent with 5α-androstane-3,17-dione acting as the major metabolite that stimulates growth by binding to the mutated AR. However, LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells were resistant to the growth inhibitory properties of finasteride, consistent with the diversion of Δ(4)-Adione metabolism from 5α-reduced androgens to increased formation of testosterone. Indomethacin did not result in differences in Δ(4)-Adione induced proliferation since this treatment led to the same metabolic profile in LNCaP and LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells. We conclude that AKR1C3 overexpression diverts androgen metabolism to

  8. The Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, K. R.; Reis, J.; Hall, I. R.

    2011-12-01

    In response to the complexity and multidisciplinary nature of climate change research, the Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W) was formed in 2009 by the Welsh universities of Aberystwyth, Bangor, Cardiff and Swansea. Initially funded by Welsh Government, through the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales, the Countryside Council for Wales and the universities, C3W aims to bring together climate change researchers from a wide range of disciplines to explore scientific and sociological drivers, impacts and implications at local, national and international scale. The specific aims are to i) improve our fundamental understanding of the causes, nature, timing and consequences of climate change on Planet Earth's environment and on humanity, and ii) to reconfigure climate research in Wales as a recognisable centre of excellence on the world stage. In addition to improving the infrastructure for climate change research, we aim to improve communication, networking, collaborative research, and multidisciplinary data assimilation within and between the Welsh universities, and other UK and international institutions. Furthermore, C3W aims to apply its research by actively contributing towards national policy development, business development and formal and informal education activities within and beyond Wales.

  9. Abundance Profiles for C3 Hydrocarbons in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Nicholas; Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard; Jolly, Antoine; Sung, Keeyoon; Irwin, Patrick; Flasar, F. Michael

    2017-10-01

    The atmosphere of Titan is of astrobiological importance. Its highly reducing composition and prebiotic chemistry make it analogous to that of the early Earth. Since the Voyager era, several complex hydrocarbons and nitriles have been detected, in some cases making Titan the only known planetary body where these gasses occur naturally. In this work, we report abundance profiles of four major C3 gasses expected to occur in Titan’s atmosphere, derived from Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data.Using the NEMESIS iterative radiative transfer module, we retrieved vertical abundance profiles for propane (C3H8) and propyne (CHCCH3), both initially detected by the Voyager IRIS instrument. Using newly available line data, we were also able to determine the first vertical abundance profiles for propene (C3H6), initially detected in 2013. We present profiles for several latitudes and times and compare to photochemical model predictions and previous observations. We also discuss our efforts to further the search for allene (CH2CCH2), an isomer of propyne. The abundances we retrieved will help to further our understanding of the chemical pathways that occur in Titan's atmosphere.

  10. The evolution and appearance of C3 duplications in fish originate an exclusive teleost c3 gene form with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Forn-Cuní

    Full Text Available The complement system acts as a first line of defense and promotes organism homeostasis by modulating the fates of diverse physiological processes. Multiple copies of component genes have been previously identified in fish, suggesting a key role for this system in aquatic organisms. Herein, we confirm the presence of three different previously reported complement c3 genes (c3.1, c3.2, c3.3 and identify five additional c3 genes (c3.4, c3.5, c3.6, c3.7, c3.8 in the zebrafish genome. Additionally, we evaluate the mRNA expression levels of the different c3 genes during ontogeny and in different tissues under steady-state and inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, while reconciling the phylogenetic tree with the fish species tree, we uncovered an event of c3 duplication common to all teleost fishes that gave rise to an exclusive c3 paralog (c3.7 and c3.8. These paralogs showed a distinct ability to regulate neutrophil migration in response to injury compared with the other c3 genes and may play a role in maintaining the balance between inflammatory and homeostatic processes in zebrafish.

  11. Mesophyll Chloroplast Investment in C3, C4 and C2 Species of the Genus Flaveria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stata, Matt; Sage, Tammy L; Hoffmann, Natalie; Covshoff, Sarah; Ka-Shu Wong, Gane; Sage, Rowan F

    2016-05-01

    The mesophyll (M) cells of C4 plants contain fewer chloroplasts than observed in related C3 plants; however, it is uncertain where along the evolutionary transition from C3 to C4 that the reduction in M chloroplast number occurs. Using 18 species in the genus Flaveria, which contains C3, C4 and a range of C3-C4 intermediate species, we examined changes in chloroplast number and size per M cell, and positioning of chloroplasts relative to the M cell periphery. Chloroplast number and coverage of the M cell periphery declined in proportion to increasing strength of C4 metabolism in Flaveria, while chloroplast size increased with increasing C4 cycle strength. These changes increase cytosolic exposure to the cell periphery which could enhance diffusion of inorganic carbon to phosphenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a cytosolic enzyme. Analysis of the transcriptome from juvenile leaves of nine Flaveria species showed that the transcript abundance of four genes involved in plastid biogenesis-FtsZ1, FtsZ2, DRP5B and PARC6-was negatively correlated with variation in C4 cycle strength and positively correlated with M chloroplast number per planar cell area. Chloroplast size was negatively correlated with abundance of FtsZ1, FtsZ2 and PARC6 transcripts. These results indicate that natural selection targeted the proteins of the contractile ring assembly to effect the reduction in chloroplast numbers in the M cells of C4 Flaveria species. If so, efforts to engineer the C4 pathway into C3 plants might evaluate whether inducing transcriptome changes similar to those observed in Flaveria could reduce M chloroplast numbers, and thus introduce a trait that appears essential for efficient C4 function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Intracellular position of mitochondria in mesophyll cells differs between C3and C4grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Yuto; Ueno, Osamu

    2017-09-01

    In C 3 plants, part of the CO 2 fixed during photosynthesis in chloroplasts is released from mitochondria during photorespiration by decarboxylation of glycine via glycine decarboxylase (GDC), thereby reducing photosynthetic efficiency. The apparent positioning of most mitochondria in the interior (vacuole side of chloroplasts) of mesophyll cells in C 3 grasses would increase the efficiency of refixation of CO 2 released from mitochondria by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/​oxygenase (Rubisco) in chloroplasts. Therefore, in mesophyll cells of C 4 grasses, which lack both GDC and Rubisco, the mitochondria ought not to be positioned the same way as in C 3 mesophyll cells. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the intracellular position of mitochondria in mesophyll cells of 14 C 4 grasses of different C 4 subtypes and subfamilies (Chloridoideae, Micrairoideae, and Panicoideae) and a C 3 -C 4 intermediate grass, Steinchisma hians, under an electron microscope. In C 4 mesophyll cells, most mitochondria were positioned adjacent to the cell wall, which clearly differs from the positioning in C 3 mesophyll cells. In S. hians mesophyll cells, the positioning was similar to that in C 3 cells. These results suggest that the mitochondrial positioning in C 4 mesophyll cells reflects the absence of both GDC and Rubisco in the mesophyll cells and the high activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. In contrast, the relationship between the mitochondrial positioning and enzyme distribution in S. hians is complex, but the positioning may be related to the capture of respiratory CO 2 by Rubisco. Our study provides new possible insight into the physiological role of mitochondrial positioning in photosynthetic cells.

  13. Graphene and g-C3N4 based photocatalysts for NOx removal: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikokavoura, Aspasia; Trapalis, Christos

    2018-02-01

    NOx liberated into atmosphere from automobile exhausts and fossil fuel combustion, comprise the major air pollutants. They are responsible for serious environmental problems such as acid rain, ozone accumulation, haze and photochemical smog. Besides they contribute to the deterioration of human health by causing decrease of the lung function and respiratory problems. The application of photocatalytic methods in order to mitigate the presence of NOx in the atmosphere is preferable as they are environmentally friendly, mild and low cost. Therefore, in this review, the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 and graphene based composites towards NOx removal was discussed. NOx oxidation to non volatile nitrates on the surface of graphene and g-C3N4 based photocatalysts has attracted much interest during the last years due to their structures with unique features such as large specific surface area, thermal and chemical stability and enhanced visible light utilization. The formation of 2D-2D intimate heterojunctions between graphene or g-C3N4 and other components ensures the enhanced charge transfer, lifetime of electron/hole pairs and thus photocatalytic activity. The increased visible light harvesting also contributes to their usefulness as effective photocatalytic materials. In the present work, the advantages of these novel photocatalysts and the differences/similarities between them were exhaustively highlighted. The role of graphene as catalyst promoter, electron reservoir, support and photosensitizer in its photocatalytic composites was emphasized. The effect of g-C3N4 doping and copolymerization with metals/semiconductors on its photocatalytic activity towards NOx oxidation was thoroughly discussed. Besides, the preparation methods, photocatalytic efficiencies, type of irradiation, utilization of appropriate cocatalysts, and reaction mechanisms during the photocatalytic NOx removal by graphene and g-C3N4 composies, were summarized. It was demonstrated that in the vast

  14. ELISA for evaluating the incorporation of plasma derived complement split-products C3b/iC3b into solid-phase immune complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Nielsen, E; Svehag, S E; Thorlacius-Ussing, O

    2001-01-01

    An ELISA that measures plasma derived complement (C) split-products C3b/iC3b deposited on solid-phase immune complexes during C activation is described. Plates are coated with BSA, anti-BSA and plasma is added. Deposited C3b/iC3b is then detected by biotinylated anti-C3c-antibodies, avidin...

  15. Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance of N-Doped ZnO/g-C3N4 Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Xi-Rui; Li, Min; Li, Hui; Li, Ai-Dong; Wu, Di

    2017-09-06

    N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 composites have been successfully prepared via a facile and cost-effective sol-gel method. The nanocomposites were systematically characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, FT-IR, XPS, and UV-vis DRS. The results indicated that compared with the pure N-doped ZnO, the absorption edge of binary N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 shifted to a lower energy with increasing the visible-light absorption and improving the charge separation efficiency, which would enhance its photocatalytic activity. Compared with the pure g-C3N4, ZnO, N-doped ZnO and the composite ZnO/g-C3N4, the as-prepared N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 exhibits a greatly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible-light irradiation. Meanwhile, N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 possesses a high stability. Finally, a proposed mechanism for N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 is also discussed. The improved photocatalysis can be attributed to the synergistic effect between N-doped ZnO and g-C3N4, including the energy band structure and enhanced charge separation efficiency.

  16. Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance of N-Doped ZnO/g-C3N4 Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Xi-Rui; Li, Min; Li, Hui; Li, Ai-Dong; Wu, Di

    2017-09-01

    N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 composites have been successfully prepared via a facile and cost-effective sol-gel method. The nanocomposites were systematically characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, FT-IR, XPS, and UV-vis DRS. The results indicated that compared with the pure N-doped ZnO, the absorption edge of binary N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 shifted to a lower energy with increasing the visible-light absorption and improving the charge separation efficiency, which would enhance its photocatalytic activity. Compared with the pure g-C3N4, ZnO, N-doped ZnO and the composite ZnO/g-C3N4, the as-prepared N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 exhibits a greatly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible-light irradiation. Meanwhile, N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 possesses a high stability. Finally, a proposed mechanism for N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 is also discussed. The improved photocatalysis can be attributed to the synergistic effect between N-doped ZnO and g-C3N4, including the energy band structure and enhanced charge separation efficiency.

  17. Novel β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes: facile synthesis and unique photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lan-Rong; Huang, Gui-Fang; Li, Dong-Feng; Tian, Qing-Nan; Yang, Ke; Si, Yuan; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, novel β-C3N4/CuO composites with superior photocatalytic activity are successfully fabricated via a facile reflux method followed by a thermal process. The morphologies, particle size and microstructure of the synthesized β-C3N4/CuO composites largely depended upon copper chloride and the volume ratio of V water:V ethanol in the mixed precursors. The fabricated β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes exhibited obviously enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) with an  ∼3.4 and 1.9 fold increase in efficiency over that of pure g-C3N4 and commercial P25, respectively. The β-C3N4/CuO composite photocatalyst also showed photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). Moreover, the β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes showed almost no loss of photocatalytic activity after three recycles of the degradation of the MB. A multiple synergetic mechanism in β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes, which is featured by the highly reactive {0 0 2} facets, exposed many active sites of nanoflakes and the efficient charge separation are proposed to account for the distinguished photocatalytic activity. This work provides a facile and cost-effective strategy for designing novel β-C3N4/CuO photocatalysts for application in environmental purification.

  18. Photosynthesis of C3, C3–C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E.; Tissue, David T.; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-01-01

    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared ...

  19. MCCx C3I Control Center Interface Emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, James R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the project to develop and demonstrate alternate Information Technologies and systems for new Mission Control Centers that will reduce the cost of facility development, maintenance and operational costs and will enable more efficient cost and effective operations concepts for ground support operations. The development of a emulator for the Control Center capability will enable the facilities to conduct the simulation requiring interactivity with the Control Center when it is off line or unavailable, and it will support testing of C3I interfaces for both command and telemetry data exchange messages (DEMs).

  20. Communications Processor for C(3) Analysis and Wargaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Model. Participants in this wargame included professors from the Cperations Research, Electrical Engineering and C3 curricula; systems specialists...o ) -- e 0aj4 = 0 :.-4 - C -4 .-C .-Fa v𔃺 0 Qj t..4 SA4-4. > 6) V 4..44-4--4c o )b ;- ~ 4 a tkOJ -cg Q) 0 ~~ 2JZ -aU = 05.- a)MV I. t 0 V) 0 = z 4...Group Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93V40 8. Professor J.V. Wozencraft, Code 74 Department cf Electrical Engineering Naval

  1. Initial events during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in C3 species of Flaveria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Tammy L; Busch, Florian A; Johnson, Daniel C; Friesen, Patrick C; Stinson, Corey R; Stata, Matt; Sultmanis, Stefanie; Rahman, Beshar A; Rawsthorne, Stephen; Sage, Rowan F

    2013-11-01

    The evolution of C4 photosynthesis in many taxa involves the establishment of a two-celled photorespiratory CO2 pump, termed C2 photosynthesis. How C3 species evolved C2 metabolism is critical to understanding the initial phases of C4 plant evolution. To evaluate early events in C4 evolution, we compared leaf anatomy, ultrastructure, and gas-exchange responses of closely related C3 and C2 species of Flaveria, a model genus for C4 evolution. We hypothesized that Flaveria pringlei and Flaveria robusta, two C3 species that are most closely related to the C2 Flaveria species, would show rudimentary characteristics of C2 physiology. Compared with less-related C3 species, bundle sheath (BS) cells of F. pringlei and F. robusta had more mitochondria and chloroplasts, larger mitochondria, and proportionally more of these organelles located along the inner cell periphery. These patterns were similar, although generally less in magnitude, than those observed in the C2 species Flaveria angustifolia and Flaveria sonorensis. In F. pringlei and F. robusta, the CO2 compensation point of photosynthesis was slightly lower than in the less-related C3 species, indicating an increase in photosynthetic efficiency. This could occur because of enhanced refixation of photorespired CO2 by the centripetally positioned organelles in the BS cells. If the phylogenetic positions of F. pringlei and F. robusta reflect ancestral states, these results support a hypothesis that increased numbers of centripetally located organelles initiated a metabolic scavenging of photorespired CO2 within the BS. This could have facilitated the formation of a glycine shuttle between mesophyll and BS cells that characterizes C2 photosynthesis.

  2. Submicroscopic analysis of the genetic distrophy of visual cells in C3H mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASANSKY, A; DE ROBERTIS, E

    1960-07-01

    The morphogenesis of the visual cells in the retina of DBA normal mice and in C3H mice having a genetic distrophy has been studied with the electron microscope. The stages of development previously described (3) have been confirmed. Two basal centrioles have been observed and an asymmetrical process of invagination of the surface membrane is recognized as the main source of the rod sacs in the outer segment. In the C3H mice the differentiation of the photoreceptors starts and reaches a certain stage but very early some alterations in the morphogenesis are observed. In the outer segment there appears a disorganized growth of membranous material that may invade the inner segment with disappearance of the normal connecting cilium. In the inner segment there is an increase of vesicular material and in the number of dense particles. In later stages the entire inner segment is filled with dense particles and the mitochondria degenerate. The synaptic junction with the bipolar cell, which reaches a certain degree of development, also shows early signs of degeneration. The observations reported have confirmed and extended the concept that the hereditary visual alterations of C3H mice are not the result of a primary arrested development but of a secondary alteration of the differentiating photoreceptor. In C3H mice the entire process of morphogenesis is disordered and leads to final involution and death. These findings are correlated with recent biochemical findings and are discussed with relation to the genetic mechanisms that may control normal morphogenesis.

  3. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  4. Nitrogen starvation induced oxidative stress in an oil-producing green alga Chlorella sorokiniana C3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available Microalgal lipid is one of the most promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Chlorella appears to be a particularly good option, and nitrogen (N starvation is an efficient environmental pressure used to increase lipid accumulation in Chlorella cells. The effects of N starvation of an oil-producing wild microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana C3, on lipid accumulation were investigated using thin layer chromatography (TLC, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and flow cytometry (FCM. The results showed that N starvation resulted in lipid accumulation in C. sorokiniana C3 cells, oil droplet (OD formation and significant lipid accumulation in cells were detected after 2 d and 8 d of N starvation, respectively. During OD formation, reduced photosynthetic rate, respiration rate and photochemistry efficiency accompanied by increased damage to PSII were observed, demonstrated by chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence, 77K fluorescence and oxygen evolution tests. In the mean time the rate of cyclic electron transportation increased correspondingly to produce more ATP for triacylglycerols (TAGs synthesis. And 0.5 d was found to be the turning point for the early stress response and acclimation of cells to N starvation. Increased level of membrane peroxidation was also observed during OD formation, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxide dismutase (POD and catalase (CAT enzyme activity assays suggested impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging ability. Significant neutral lipid accumulation was also observed by artificial oxidative stress induced by H2O2 treatment. These results suggested coupled neutral lipid accumulation and oxidative stress during N starvation in C. sorokiniana C3.

  5. Uso de C3F8 no descolamento da membrana de Descemet pós-facectomia C3F8 use in Descemet detachment after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão da Rocha Lucena

    2006-06-01

    8 gas. PURPOSE: To describe the use of non-expanding (16% intracameral C3F8 to reattach Descemet's membrane, in six patients, following cataract surgery. METHODS: The patient's mean age was 71.3 ± 9.3. Four of the patients were females and two masculine. Immediately afters the gas injection the patient was submitted to slit-lamp evaluation to verify the position of Descemet's membrane. The patients who had eyes with central or superior detachments were told to sit upright for two days. The patients whose eyes had inferior detachments were asked to lie on their back. RESULTS: All patients had successful reattachment of Descemet's membrane after the gas injection. We observed increase in intraocular pressure in one case. The corneal edema regressed after the second day with total resolution by the fourth day. Visual acuity improved in all cases after regression of the edema and remained stable after forty-five days. CONCLUSION: The use of non-expanding C3F8 alone for reattaching Descemet's membrane is reported for the first time in the Brazilian literature. Improvement in visual acuity is fast, the method is safe, effective and easily performed under topical anesthesia.

  6. C3F gene mutation is involved in the susceptibility to pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Mohamed Salah; Meddeb, Sawsen; Kaabia, Ons; Jalloul, Mohamed; Sakouhi, Mohamed; Jrzad, Besma Bel Hadj; Felah, Raja

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the functional polymorphism of exon 3 of the gene of complement component C3 (rs 2230199) to identify the potential involvement of the mutated gene C3F in the genesis of pre-eclampsia. It is a comparative case-control study conducted in the university center of maternity and neonatology of Monastir with collaboration of high institute of biotechnology (Tunisia) on a period of 2 years. Two hundred and fifty patients and 96 newborns divided into pre-eclampsia group (150 parturients with pre-eclampsia and 48 newborns) and control group (100 parturients with normal pregnancy and their 48 infants) are taken. Each patient and control were sampled for the phenotypic study and the molecular analysis. The ARMS-PCR (amplification refractory mutation system) was the standard procedure in our study. A simple observation let to distinguish three cases of genotypes: SS, FF and SF. In the control group, 56% of parturients had the genotype SS, 38%, the genotype SF and 6%, FF genotype. In the pre-eclamptic population, SS, SF, and FF genotypes were determined, respectively, 40, 45.30 and 14.60% of the patients. There is a sharp increase in the frequency of the FF genotype in pre-eclamptic patients compared to controls (14.60 vs. 6%). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.01). The frequencies of C3S and alleles C3F determined in controls (respectively, 74 and 26%) were different from those identified in pre-eclamptic patients (respectively, 62.60 and 37.30%). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.005). The C3S and C3F allele frequencies determined in control newborns (respectively, 83.33 and 16.66%) were slightly different from those identified in newborn issued from pre-eclamptic patients (respectively, 80.2 and 19.79%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.67). The gene polymorphism of complement component C3 was significantly associated with the onset of pre-eclampsia. These results should be

  7. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 promotes neurogenesis and improves cognitive function after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loris, Zachary B; Pieper, Andrew A; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2017-04-01

    Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established. Here, a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats was followed by twice daily injection of P7C3-A20 or vehicle for 7days. P7C3-A20-treated rats performed significantly better than vehicle-treated controls in sensorimotor cylinder and grid-walk tasks, and in a chronic test of spatial learning and memory. These behavioral improvements with P7C3-A20 treatment were correlated with significantly decreased cortical and hippocampal atrophy, and associated with increased neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampal dentate gyrus subgranular zone. Furthermore, cerebral ischemia significantly reduced NAD in the cortex but P7C3-A20 treatment restored NAD to sham levels. Thus, P7C3-A20 treatment mitigates neurodegeneration and augments repair in the brain after focal ischemia, which translates into chronic behavioral improvement. This suggests a new therapeutic approach of using P7C3 compounds to safely augment NAD and thereby promote two independent processes critical to protecting the brain from ischemic stroke: mature neuron survival and postnatal neurogenesis throughout the post-ischemic brain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Infrared Predissociation Spectroscopy of the Hydrocarbon Cations C_3H^+, C_2H^+, and C_3H_2^+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünken, Sandra; Lipparini, Filippo; Gauss, Jürgen; Stoffels, Alexander; Redlich, Britta; van der Meer, Lex; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Reactive hydrocarbon cations play an important role in the astrochemistry of the interstellar medium, but spectroscopic data, needed for their identification in astronomical observations, is sparse. Here we report the first gas-phase vibrational spectra of the linear C_3H^+ (^1 Σ), the radical cation C_2H^+ (^3 Π), and the linear-/cyclic-C_3H_2^+ (^2 Π /^2A_1, resp.). Broadband spectra were recorded by Ne- and He-messenger infrared-predissociation (IR-PD) action spectroscopy in a cryogenic (4-11 K) ion trap instrument (FELion) in the 250-3500 {wn} range using a free electron laser and a MIR-OPO at the FELIX (Free-Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments) laboratory. The band positions (determined with a precision of 1-2 wn) covering the C-H and C-C stretching as well as several bending modes are compared to high-level (CCSD(T) with large basis sets) quantum-chemical calculations with an emphasis on anharmonic effects and on the influence of the rare-gas messenger atom. The experimental and theoretical data provide a solid basis for subsequent IR high-resolution studies, with the ultimate goal to predict and measure accurate rotational spectra for a radio-astronomical search of these molecular ions in space.

  9. Synthesis of C3/C1-Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mihoubi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A broad biological screening of the natural alkaloid N-methylisosalsoline (2 extracted from Hammada scoparia leaves against a panel of human and parasitic proteases revealed an interesting activity profile of 2 towards human 20S proteasome. This outcome suggests that the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline skeleton may be exploited as a template for the development of novel anticancer agents. In this article, we report the synthesis and chemical characterization of a new series of isosalsoline-type alkaloids (10–11 with variations at N2 and C3 positions with respect to the natural Compound 2, obtained by a synthetic strategy that involves the Bischler-Napieralski cyclization. The substrate for the condensation to the tetrahydroisoquinoline system, i.e., a functionalized β-arylethyl amine, was obtained through an original double reduction of nitroalkene. The synthetic strategy can be directed to the construction of highly substituted and functionalized 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines.

  10. The Gore Excluder AAA endoprosthesis with C3 delivery system: results in high-volume centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcer, Z

    2014-02-01

    The use of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) has increased dramatically, chiefly because of its low perioperative morbidity compared with open surgery. Challenges to the success of EVAR remain, however, with the most important being features of the patient's infrarenal aortic neck anatomy that make optimal placement of the endoprosthesis difficult. These features include a short, wide, severely angulated, or reverse-tapered neck and the presence of calcifications or thrombus. Suboptimal endograft positioning may necessitate use of aortic cuffs, thereby increasing the time and cost of an EVAR procedure, or increase the likelihood of graft migration, which can lead to endoleaks and additional interventions. Efforts to improve outcomes of EVAR and expand its application in patients with challenging aortic neck anatomy have focused on the development of endografts and delivery systems with innovative designs. The low-permeability Gore Excluder AAA endoprosthesis with C3 delivery system, which became available in Europe and the United States in 2010, represents one such design. The C3 system allows the proximal end of the endoprosthesis to be reconstrained after insertion so that the device can, if necessary, be rotated or moved cranially or caudally. Repositioning may facilitate contralateral gate cannulation and placement of the endograft closer to the lowest renal artery (without covering its orifice), thereby possibly decreasing the risk of inadequate sealing and consequent graft migration and endoleaks. Early clinical studies of the Gore Excluder AAA endoprosthesis with C3 delivery system have yielded promising results.

  11. Lignification in transgenics deficient in 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)or the associated hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Ralph; Takuya Akiyama; Hoon Kim; Fachuang Lu; Sally A. Ralph; Clint Chapple; Ramesh B. Nair; Armin Wagner; Fang Chen; M.S. Srinivasa Reddy; Richard A Dixon; Heather D. Coleman; Shawn D. Mansfield

    2006-01-01

    Down-regulation of the gene encoding 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) in angiosperms massively but predictably increased the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl (P) units relative to the normally dominant syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units. Alfalfa stem levels of up to ~65% P (from wild-type (WT) levels of ~1%) resulting from down-regulation of C3H were measured by...

  12. Complement component C3a plays a critical role in endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment into the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengjiao; Zou, Qiang; Ding, Xiaodan; Shi, Dongyan; Zhu, Xingxing; Hu, Weiguo; Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-28

    The complement system is becoming increasingly recognized as a key participant in many neurodegenerative diseases of the brain. Complement-deficient animals exhibit reduced neuroinflammation. In the present study, we administered intracerebroventricularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic local infection of the brain and investigated the role of key complement component C3 in brain vasculature endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment. The degree of neutrophil infiltration was determined by esterase staining. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were measured using intravital microscopy. Cerebral endothelial activation was evaluated using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Neutrophil infiltration into the brain cortex and hippocampus was significantly reduced in C3(-/-) mice and C3aR(-/-) mice but not in C6(-/-) mice. We detected markedly attenuated leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the brain microvasculature of C3(-/-) mice. Accordingly, in response to LPS administration, the brain microvasculature in these mice had decreased expression of P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Depletion of C3 from the circulation also caused reduction in VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression and leukocyte recruitment, suggesting that C3 in the circulation contributed to brain endothelial activation. Furthermore, C3(-/-) mice exhibited decreased leukocyte recruitment into the brain upon tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulation. C3a activated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and induced the upregulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in murine primary cerebral endothelial cells in vitro. Our study provides the first evidence that C3a plays a critical role in cerebral endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment during inflammation in the brain.

  13. Effects of climate and water balance across grasslands of varying C3 and C4 grass cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwicki, Dana L.; Munson, Seth M.; Thoma, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change in grassland ecosystems may lead to divergent shifts in the abundance and distribution of C3 and C4 grasses. Many studies relate mean climate conditions over relatively long time periods to plant cover, but there is still much uncertainty about how the balance of C3and C4 species will be affected by climate at a finer temporal scale than season (individual events to months). We monitored cover at five grassland sites with co-dominant C3 and C4 grass species or only dominant C3 grass species for 6 yr in national parks across the Colorado Plateau region to assess the influence of specific months of climate and water balance on changes in grass cover. C4 grass cover increased and decreased to a larger degree than C3 grass cover with extremely dry and wet consecutive years, but this response varied by ecological site. Climate and water balance explained 10–49% of the inter-annual variability of cover of C3 and C4 grasses at all sites. High precipitation in the spring and in previous year monsoon storms influenced changes in cover of C4 grasses, with measures of water balance in the same months explaining additional variability. C3 grasses in grasslands where they were dominant were influenced primarily by longer periods of climate, while C3 grasses in grasslands where they were co-dominant with C4 grasses were influenced little by climate anomalies at either short or long periods of time. Our results suggest that future changes in spring and summer climate and water balance are likely to affect cover of both C3 and C4 grasses, but cover of C4 grasses may be affected more strongly, and the degree of change will depend on soils and topography where they are growing and the timing of the growing season.

  14. Inefficient binding of IgM immune complexes to erythrocyte C3b-C4b receptors (CR1) and weak incorporation of C3b-iC3b into the complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kávai, M; Rasmussen, J M; Baatrup, G

    1988-01-01

    The binding of soluble complement-reacted IgM immune complexes (IC) to erythrocyte (E) C3b-C4b receptors (CR1) and the incorporation of C3b-iC3b into solid phase IgM-IC was investigated. The optimal binding of liquid phase IgM-IC to E-CR1 was obtained with IC formed at moderate antibody excess...

  15. The secreted Candida albicans protein Pra1 disrupts host defense by broadly targeting and blocking complement C3 and C3 activation fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shanshan; Dasari, Prasad; Reiher, Nadine; Hartmann, Andrea; Jacksch, Susanne; Wende, Elisabeth; Barz, Dagmar; Niemiec, Maria Joanna; Jacobsen, Ilse; Beyersdorf, Niklas; Hünig, Thomas; Klos, Andreas; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F

    2018-01-01

    Candida albicans the most frequently isolated clinical fungal pathogen can cause local as well as systemic and life-threatening infections particularly in immune-compromised individuals. A better and more detailed understanding how C. albicans evades human immune attack is therefore needed for identifying fungal immune-evasive proteins and develop new therapies. Here, we identified Pra1, the pH-regulated C. albicans antigen as a hierarchical complement inhibitor that targets C3, the central human complement component. Pra1 cleaved C3 at a unique site and further inhibited effector function of the activation fragments. The newly formed C3a-like peptide lacked the C-terminal arginine residue needed for C3a-receptor binding and activation. Moreover, Pra1 also blocked C3a-like antifungal activity as shown in survival assays, and the C3b-like molecule formed by Pra1 was degraded by the host protease Factor I. Pra1 also bound to C3a and C3b generated by human convertases and blocked their effector functions, like C3a antifungal activity shown by fungal survival, blocked C3a binding to human C3a receptor-expressing HEK cells, activation of Fura2-AM loaded cells, intracellular Ca2+ signaling, IL-8 release, C3b deposition, as well as opsonophagocytosis and killing by human neutrophils. Thus, upon infection C. albicans uses Pra1 to destroy C3 and to disrupt host complement attack. In conclusion, candida Pra1 represents the first fungal C3-cleaving protease identified and functions as a fungal master regulator of innate immunity and as a central fungal immune-escape protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. C3: A Collaborative Web Framework for NASA Earth Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foughty, E.; Fattarsi, C.; Hardoyo, C.; Kluck, D.; Wang, L.; Matthews, B.; Das, K.; Srivastava, A.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a new collaboration platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing. NEX combines NASA advanced supercomputing resources, Earth system modeling, workflow management, NASA remote sensing data archives, and a collaborative communication platform to deliver a complete work environment in which users can explore and analyze large datasets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and quickly share results among the Earth science communities. NEX is designed primarily for use by the NASA Earth science community to address scientific grand challenges. The NEX web portal component provides an on-line collaborative environment for sharing of Eearth science models, data, analysis tools and scientific results by researchers. In addition, the NEX portal also serves as a knowledge network that allows researchers to connect and collaborate based on the research they are involved in, specific geographic area of interest, field of study, etc. Features of the NEX web portal include: Member profiles, resource sharing (data sets, algorithms, models, publications), communication tools (commenting, messaging, social tagging), project tools (wikis, blogs) and more. The NEX web portal is built on the proven technologies and policies of DASHlink.arc.nasa.gov, (one of NASA's first science social media websites). The core component of the web portal is a C3 framework, which was built using Django and which is being deployed as a common framework for a number of collaborative sites throughout NASA.

  17. Demographic aspects in cervical vertebral bodies' size and shape (C3-C7): a skeletal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, David; Masharawi, Youssef; Salame, Khalil; Slon, Viviane; Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2017-01-01

    elongated with age, although the changes in the latter dimension are much more pronounced than in the former. Notably, the body shape of the cervical vertebrae changes gradually from a more round shape (C3 length/width index=0.84) to a more oval one (C7 length/width index =0.65). This is due to the fact that the width dimensions increase by almost 40% from C3 to C7, whereas the length dimensions increase only by approximately 10%. Furthermore, there is a significant reduction in body height with age in C3-C6. In contrast, no significant changes in vertebral foramen size with age were found. The cervical vertebral bodies' shape and size are sex-dependent phenomena, that is, in all parameters studied, the dimensions were greater in males than in females. For the midcervical level, there is a difference in body shape between individuals of different ethnic origins. The cervical vertebral bodies also exhibit considerable size and shape changes with age, that is, they become more elongated (oval shaped), wider, and shorter. In contrast, vertebral foramen size is age independent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Microstructure and Sliding Wear Performance of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) Coating Deposited from Cr7C3 In Situ Formed Atomized Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Bin; Shen, Jie; Gao, Feng; Yu, Yueguang; Li, Changhai

    2017-01-01

    This work is aimed at developing a new type of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coating for parts used in heavy-duty diesel engines. The feedstock, in which the stripe-shaped Cr7C3 was in situ formed, was firstly prepared by vacuum melting and gas atomization and then subjected by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying to form the coatings. The carbon content, microstructure and phase constitution of the powders, as well as the sprayed coatings, were analyzed by chemical analysis, SEM and XRD. The hardness and sliding wear performance of the sprayed coatings were also tested and compared to a commercial Cr3C2-NiCr coating used on piston rings. The results showed that the content of carbon in feedstock was almost the same as designed, and that the volume content of in situ formed Cr7C3 was increased with carbon and chromium added. The major phases of the powders and sprayed coatings are Cr7C3 and Cr-alloyed Ni3Al. Only a small amount of carbon lost during the spraying process. As Cr7C3 content increased in the coatings, the microhardness at room temperature was firstly increased to about 1000Hv0.3. The microhardness of the coatings stayed almost constant, while the testing temperature was raised up to 700 °C for 0.5 h, which illustrates the potential application of the investigated coatings under high temperature conditions. The coatings containing 70 and 77 vol.% Cr7C3 showed the most promising wear resistance, lower friction coefficient and better tribological compatibility to gray cast iron counterpart than other tested Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coatings and the reference Cr3C2-NiCr coating.

  19. C3 Hydrocarbon Abundance in Titan's Atmosphere with Cassini Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Nicholas; Nixon, Conor; Achterberg, Richard; Jolly, Antoine; Sung, Keeyoon; Irwin, Patrick; Flasar, F. M.

    2018-01-01

    Titan, the largest moon of the Saturn system, has an astrobiologically important atmosphere. The anoxic nature and high N2 abundance make it a strong analog to the early Earth. The secondary species, CH4, is easily photodissociated, and reactions between its dissociated products give rise to highly complex hydrocarbons and nitriles. The Voyager flyby and 14 year Cassini campaign allowed for the intense study of several of these molecules, enabling scientists to increase our understanding of the chemical pathways present above Titan. In this work, we report abundance profiles of four major C3 gasses expected to occur in Titan’s atmosphere, derived from Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data, allowing us to fill the gaps in the photochemical zoo that is Titan’s atmosphere.Using the NEMESIS iterative radiative transfer module, we retrieved vertical abundance profiles for propane (C3H8) and propyne (CHCCH3) both initially detected by the Voyager IRIS instrument. Using newly available line data, we were also able to determine the first vertical abundance profiles for propene (C3H6), initially detected in 2013. We present profiles for several latitudes and times and compare to photochemical model predictions and previous observations. We also discuss our ongoing search for allene (CH2CCH2), an isomer of propyne, which has yet to be definitively detected. The abundances we determined will help to further our understanding of the chemical pathways that occur in Titan's atmosphere.

  20. Combination of neurofilament heavy chain and complement c3 as CSF biomarkers for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesalingam, Jeban; An, Jiyan; Shaw, Christopher E; Shaw, Gerry; Lacomis, David; Bowser, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease with an average survival of 3 years from symptom onset. Rapid and conclusive early diagnosis is essential if interventions with disease-modifying therapies are to be successful. Cytoskeletal modification and inflammation are known to occur during the pathogenesis of ALS. We measured levels of cytoskeletal proteins and inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ALS, disease controls and healthy subjects. We determined threshold values for each protein that provided the optimal sensitivity and specificity for ALS within a training set, as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Interestingly, the optimal assay was a ratio of the levels for phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain and complement C3 (pNFH/C3). We next applied this assay to a separate test set of CSF samples to verify our results. Overall, the predictive pNFH/C3 ratio identified ALS with 87.3% sensitivity and 94.6% specificity in a total of 71 ALS subjects, 52 disease control subjects and 40 healthy subjects. In addition, the level of CSF pNFH correlated with survival of ALS patients. We also detected increased pNFH in the plasma of ALS patients and observed a correlation between CSF and plasma pNFH levels within the same subjects. These findings support large-scale prospective biomarker studies to determine the clinical utility of diagnostic and prognostic signatures in ALS. PMID:21418221

  1. Competing carboxylases: circadian and metabolic regulation of Rubisco in C3 and CAM Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, B N; Griffiths, H

    2012-07-01

    The temporal co-ordination of ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activities by Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. in C(3) and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) modes was investigated under conventional light-dark (LD) and continuous light (LL) conditions. When C(3) , net CO(2) assimilation rate increased during each subjective night under LL with maximum carboxylation unrelated to Rubisco activation state. The CAM circadian rhythm of CO(2) uptake was more pronounced, with CO(2) assimilation rate maximal towards the end of each subjective night. In vivo and in vitro techniques were integrated to map carboxylase enzyme regulation to the framework provided by CAM LL gas exchange activity. Rubisco was activated in vitro throughout each subjective dark period and consistently deactivated at each subjective dawn, similar to that observed at true dawn in constitutive CAM species. Instantaneous carbon isotope discrimination showed in vivo carboxylase co-dominance during the CAM subjective night, initially by Rubisco and latterly C(4) (PEPc), despite both enzymes seemingly activated in vitro. The circadian rhythm in titratable acidity accumulation was progressively damped over successive subjective nights, but maintenance of PEPc carboxylation capacity ensures that CAM plants do not become progressively more 'C(3) -like' with time under LL. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Effects of Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae infection on the antioxidant profile of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum C3/CAM intermediate plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Surówka, Ewa; Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Nosek, Michał; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2011-07-01

    Mesembryathemum crystallinum plants performing C(3) or CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) appear to be highly resistant to Botrytis cinerea as well as to Pseudomonas syringae. Fungal hyphae growth was restricted to 48h post-inoculation (hpi) in both metabolic types and morphology of hyphae differed between those growing in C(3) and CAM plants. Growth of bacteria was inhibited significantly 24 hpi in both C(3) and CAM plants. B. cinerea and P. syringae infection led to an increase in the concentration of H(2)O(2) in C(3) plants 3 hpi, while a decrease in H(2)O(2) content was observed in CAM performing plants. The concentration of H(2)O(2) returned to the control level 24 and 48 hpi. Changes in H(2)O(2) content corresponded with the activity of guaiacol peroxidase (POD), mostly 3 hpi. We noted that its activity decreased significantly in C(3) plants and increased in CAM plants in response to inoculation with both pathogens. On the contrary, changes in the activity of CAT did not correlate with H(2)O(2) level. It increased significantly after interaction of C(3) plants with B. cinerea or P. syringae, but in CAM performing plants, the activity of this enzyme was unchanged. Inoculation with B. cinerea or P. syringae led to an increase in the total SOD activity in C(3) plants while CAM plants did not exhibit changes in the total SOD activity after interaction with both pathogens. In conclusion, the pathogen-induced changes in H(2)O(2) content and in SOD, POD and CAT activities in M. crystallinum leaves, were related to the photosynthetic metabolism type of the stressed plants rather than to the lifestyle of the invading pathogen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Complement component C3 and butyrylcholinesterase activity are associated with neurodegeneration and clinical disability in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Aeinehband

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the complement system is evident in many CNS diseases but mechanisms regulating complement activation in the CNS remain unclear. In a recent large rat genome-wide expression profiling and linkage analysis we found co-regulation of complement C3 immediately downstream of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, an enzyme hydrolyzing acetylcholine (ACh, a classical neurotransmitter with immunoregulatory effects. We here determined levels of neurofilament-light (NFL, a marker for ongoing nerve injury, C3 and activity of the two main ACh hydrolyzing enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE and BuChE, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with MS (n = 48 and non-inflammatory controls (n = 18. C3 levels were elevated in MS patients compared to controls and correlated both to disability and NFL. C3 levels were not induced by relapses, but were increased in patients with ≥9 cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging and in patients with progressive disease. BuChE activity did not differ at the group level, but was correlated to both C3 and NFL levels in individual samples. In conclusion, we show that CSF C3 correlates both to a marker for ongoing nerve injury and degree of disease disability. Moreover, our results also suggest a potential link between intrathecal cholinergic activity and complement activation. These results motivate further efforts directed at elucidating the regulation and effector functions of the complement system in MS, and its relation to cholinergic tone.

  4. Clinical implications of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 and its relationship with lipocalin 2 in cancer of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Hsien; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Chen, Shiuan-Chih; Lin, Yu-Wen; Han, Chih-Ping; Yang, Ti-Yuan; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Wang, Po-Hui

    2014-02-01

    Over-expression of the aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) has been demonstrated in many human cancers. Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is reported to inhibit cervical cancer metastasis but little is known regarding its relationship with AKR1C3 in the development and progression of uterine cervical cancer. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of AKR1C3 and its relationship with LCN2 in cervical cancer. The roles of AKR1C3 and LCN2 were investigated using the lentivirus shRNA system in SiHa and Caski cervical cancer cells. LCN2 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) promoters were constructed to demonstrate transcriptional regulation by shAKR1C3 and shLCN2, respectively. The influences of metastatic phenotypes were analyzed by wound healing, Boyden chamber, and immunofluorescence assays. The activity of MMP-2 was determined by zymography assay. The impacts of AKR1C3 and LCN2 on patient prognosis were evaluated using tissue microarrays by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier models. Silencing of the AKR1C3 gene increased the expression of LCN2 and decreased the migratory and invasive abilities and changed the cytoskeleton of cervical cancer cells. When AKR1C3 was over-expressed, it decreased LCN2 promoter activity and LCN2 expression and increased cell migration. The mRNA level and enzyme activity of MMP-2 increased in silenced LCN2 cells. Positive AKR1C3 and negative LCN2 were correlated with higher recurrence and poorer survival of cervical cancer patients. Silencing of AKR1C3 increases LCN2 expression and inhibits metastasis in cervical cancer. Both AKR1C3 and LCN2 serve as molecular targets for cancer therapy to improve the clinical outcome of cervical cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Glyphosate Resistance of C3 and C4 Weeds under Rising Atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nimesha; Manalil, Sudheesh; Florentine, Singarayer K; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Seneweera, Saman

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reviews current knowledge on how changes of plant metabolism under elevated CO2 concentrations (e[CO2]) can affect the development of the glyphosate resistance of C3 and C4 weeds. Among the chemical herbicides, glyphosate, which is a non-selective and post-emergence herbicide, is currently the most widely used herbicide in global agriculture. As a consequence, glyphosate resistant weeds, particularly in major field crops, are a widespread problem and are becoming a significant challenge to future global food production. Of particular interest here it is known that the biochemical processes involved in photosynthetic pathways of C3 and C4 plants are different, which may have relevance to their competitive development under changing environmental conditions. It has already been shown that plant anatomical, morphological, and physiological changes under e[CO2] can be different, based on (i) the plant's functional group, (ii) the available soil nutrients, and (iii) the governing water status. In this respect, C3 species are likely to have a major developmental advantage under a CO2 rich atmosphere, by being able to capitalize on the overall stimulatory effect of e[CO2]. For example, many tropical weed grass species fix CO2 from the atmosphere via the C4 photosynthetic pathway, which is a complex anatomical and biochemical variant of the C3 pathway. Thus, based on our current knowledge of CO2 fixing, it would appear obvious that the development of a glyphosate-resistant mechanism would be easier under an e[CO2] in C3 weeds which have a simpler photosynthetic pathway, than for C4 weeds. However, notwithstanding this logical argument, a better understanding of the biochemical, genetic, and molecular measures by which plants develop glyphosate resistance and how e[CO2] affects these measures will be important before attempting to innovate sustainable technology to manage the glyphosate-resistant evolution of weeds under e[CO2]. Such information will be of

  6. ClC-3 deficiency protects preadipocytes against apoptosis induced by palmitate in vitro and in type 2 diabetes mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Ying; Huang, Xiong-Qin; Zhao, Li-Yan; Sun, Fang-Yun; Chen, Wen-Liang; Du, Jie-Yi; Yuan, Feng; Li, Jie; Huang, Xue-Lian; Liu, Jie; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Guan, Yong-Yuan; Chen, Jian-Wen; Wang, Guan-Lei

    2014-11-01

    Palmitate, a common saturated free fatty acid (FFA), has been demonstrated to induce preadipocyte apoptosis in the absence of adipogenic stimuli, suggesting that preadipocytes may be prone to apoptosis under adipogenic insufficient conditions, like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ClC-3, encoding Cl(-) channel or Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, is critical for cell fate choices of proliferation versus apoptosis under diseased conditions. However, it is unknown whether ClC-3 is related with preadipocyte apoptosis induced by palmitate or T2DM. Palmitate, but not oleate, induced apoptosis and increase in ClC-3 protein expression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. ClC-3 specific siRNA attenuated palmitate-induced apoptosis and increased protein levels of Grp78, ATF4, CHOP and phosphorylation of JNK1/2, whereas had no effects on increased phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α protein expression. Moreover, the enhanced apoptosis was shown in preadipocytes from high-sucrose/fat, low-dose STZ induced T2DM mouse model with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia (elevated serum TG and FFA levels) and insulin resistance. ClC-3 knockout significantly attenuated preadipocyte apoptosis and the above metabolic disorders in T2DM mice. These data demonstrated that ClC-3 deficiency prevent preadipocytes against palmitate-induced apoptosis via suppressing ER stress, and also suggested that ClC-3 may play a role in regulating cellular apoptosis and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism during T2DM.

  7. Interaction between C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under elevated CO 2: Impact of mycorrhizae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Liming; Chen, Xin; Hu, Shuijin

    2009-03-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment may impact arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) development and function, which could have subsequent effects on host plant species interactions by differentially affecting plant nutrient acquisition. However, direct evidence illustrating this scenario is limited. We examined how elevated CO 2 affects plant growth and whether mycorrhizae mediate interactions between C 4 barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.) and C 3 upland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) in a low nutrient soil. The monocultures and combinations with or without mycorrhizal inoculation were grown at ambient (400 ± 20 μmol mol -1) and elevated CO 2 (700 ± 20 μmol mol -1) levels. The 15N isotope tracer was introduced to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated N acquisition of plants. Elevated CO 2 stimulated the growth of C 3 upland rice but not that of C 4 barnyard grass under monoculture. Elevated CO 2 also increased mycorrhizal colonization of C 4 barnyard grass but did not affect mycorrhizal colonization of C 3 upland rice. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the shoot biomass ratio of C 4 barnyard grass to C 3 upland rice under both CO 2 concentrations but had a greater impact under the elevated than ambient CO 2 level. Mycorrhizae decreased relative interaction index (RII) of C 3 plants under both ambient and elevated CO 2, but mycorrhizae increased RII of C 4 plants only under elevated CO 2. Elevated CO 2 and mycorrhizal inoculation enhanced 15N and total N and P uptake of C 4 barnyard grass in mixture but had no effects on N and P acquisition of C 3 upland rice, thus altering the distribution of N and P between the species in mixture. These results implied that CO 2 stimulation of mycorrhizae and their nutrient acquisition may impact competitive interaction of C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under future CO 2 scenarios.

  8. C3I for Crisis, Emergency and Consequence Management (C3I pour la gestion des crises, des urgences et de leurs consequences)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    des connaissances , la fusion des informations et des outils de gestion de la connaissance ...May 2009 C3I for Crisis, Emergency and Consequence Management (C3I pour la gestion des crises, des urgences et de leurs conséquences) Research and...consequence management. ES - 2 RTO-MP-IST-086 C3I pour la gestion des crises, des urgences et de leurs conséquences

  9. ClC-3 Expression and Its Association with Hyperglycemia Induced HT22 Hippocampal Neuronal Cell Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although apoptosis plays an important role in the development of Diabetic Encephalopathy (DE, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. With respect to this, the present work aims to study the variation in chloride/proton exchanger ClC-3 expression and its association with HT22 hippocampal neuronal apoptosis under hyperglycemic condition in vitro. The cells were stimulated with added 0, 5, or 25 mM glucose or mannitol for up to 72 hours before assessing the rate of ClC-3 expression, cell viability, and apoptosis. In a consecutive experiment, cells received chloride channel blocker in addition to glucose. The rate of cellular death/apoptosis and viability was measured using Flow Cytometry and MTT assay, respectively. Changes in ClC-3 expression were assessed using immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. The results revealed a significant increase in cellular apoptosis and reduction in viability, associated with increased ClC-3 expression in high glucose group. Osmolarity had no role to play. Addition of chloride channel blocker completely abolished this effect. Thus we conclude that, with its increased expression, ClC-3 plays a major role in hyperglycemia induced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. To strengthen our understanding of this aforesaid association, we conducted an extensive literature search which is presented in this paper.

  10. Major alterations in transcript profiles between C3-C4 and C4 photosynthesis of an amphibious species Eleocharis baldwinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Taiyu; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Lin, Yongjun

    2014-09-01

    Engineering C4 photosynthetic metabolism into C3 crops is regarded as a major strategy to increase crop productivity, and clarification of the evolutionary processes of C4 photosynthesis can help the better use of this strategy. Here, Eleocharis baldwinii, a species in which C4 photosynthesis can be induced from a C3-C4 state under either environmental or ABA treatments, was used to identify the major transcriptional modifications during the process from C3-C4 to C4. The transcriptomic comparison suggested that in addition to the major differences in C4 core pathway, the pathways of glycolysis, citrate acid metabolism and protein synthesis were dramatically modified during the inducement of C4 photosynthetic states. Transcripts of many transporters, including not only metabolite transporters but also ion transporters, were dramatically increased in C4 photosynthetic state. Many candidate regulatory genes with unidentified functions were differentially expressed in C3-C4 and C4 photosynthetic states. Finally, it was indicated that ABA, auxin signaling and DNA methylation play critical roles in the regulation of C4 photosynthesis. In summary, by studying the different photosynthetic states of the same species, this work provides the major transcriptional differences between C3-C4 and C4 photosynthesis, and many of the transcriptional differences are potentially related to C4 development and therefore are the potential targets for reverse genetics studies.

  11. Complement C3d conjugation to anthrax protective antigen promotes a rapid, sustained, and protective antibody response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi V Kolla

    Full Text Available B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Pathogenesis is primarily mediated through the exotoxins lethal factor and edema factor, which bind protective antigen (PA to gain entry into the host cell. The current anthrax vaccine (AVA, Biothrax consists of aluminum-adsorbed cell-free filtrates of unencapsulated B. anthracis, wherein PA is thought to be the principle target of neutralization. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the natural adjuvant, C3d, versus alum in eliciting an anti-PA humoral response and found that C3d conjugation to PA and emulsion in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA imparted superior protection from anthrax challenge relative to PA in IFA or PA adsorbed to alum. Relative to alum-PA, immunization of mice with C3d-PA/IFA augmented both the onset and sustained production of PA-specific antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies to the receptor-binding portion (domain 4 of PA. C3d-PA/IFA was efficacious when administered either i.p. or s.c., and in adolescent mice lacking a fully mature B cell compartment. Induction of PA-specific antibodies by C3d-PA/IFA correlated with increased efficiency of germinal center formation and plasma cell generation. Importantly, C3d-PA immunization effectively protected mice from intranasal challenge with B. anthracis spores, and was approximately 10-fold more effective than alum-PA immunization or PA/IFA based on dose challenge. These data suggest that incorporation of C3d as an adjuvant may overcome shortcomings of the currently licensed aluminum-based vaccine, and may confer protection in the early days following acute anthrax exposure.

  12. C5 nephritic factors drive the biological phenotype of C3 glomerulopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinozzi, Maria-Chiara; Chauvet, Sophie; Le Quintrec, Moglie; Mignotet, Morgane; Petitprez, Florent; Legendre, Christophe; Cailliez, Mathilde; Deschenes, Georges; Fischbach, Michel; Karras, Alexandre; Nobili, Francois; Pietrement, Christine; Dragon-Durey, Marie-Agnes; Fakhouri, Fadi; Roumenina, Lubka T; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique

    2017-11-01

    C3 Glomerulopathies, which include Dense Deposit Disease and C3 Glomerulonephritis, are associated with genetic and acquired dysregulation of the C3 convertase alternative pathway of complement. The potential role of the activation of the C5 convertase has not been studied extensively. Here we analyzed IgG samples from patients with C3 Glomerulopathies to identify circulating autoantibodies that stabilize the C3 alternative pathway (C3 Nephritic Factors) as well as C5 convertases (C5 Nephritic Factors), thus preventing decay of these enzyme complexes. Rare variants in alternative pathway genes were found in 28 of 120 tested patients. C3 and C5 Nephritic Factors were found in 76 of 101 (75%) and 29 of 59 (49%) of the patients, respectively. Therefore, we compared the results of the assays for the C3 and C5 nephritic factors functional activity: 29% were positive for C3 Nephritic Factors alone, 39% were positive for both C3 and C5 Nephritic Factors, and 10% were positive for C5 Nephritic Factors alone. We found that the addition of properdin-enhanced stabilization of C3 convertase in the presence of IgG doubly positive for both Nephritic Factors, while it did not modify the stabilization mediated by IgG solely positive for C3 Nephritic Factors. Both C3 and C5 Nephritic Factors correlated with C3 consumption, while only C5 Nephritic Factors correlated with sC5b9 levels. C5 Nephritic Factors-positive patients were more likely to have C3 Glomerulonephritis than Dense Deposit Disease. Thus, dysregulation of the C5 convertase contributes to C3 Glomerulopathies inter-disease differences and may have direct therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) in neuroendocrine tumors & adenocarcinomas of pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Theodore S; Lin, Hsueh-Kung; Rogers, Kyle A; Brame, Lacy S; Yeh, Matthew M; Yang, Qing; Fung, Kar-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Human aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) was initially identified as an enzyme in reducing 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) to 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol (3α-diol) and oxidizing 3α-diol to androsterone. It was subsequently demonstrated to possess ketosteroid reductase activity in metabolizing other steroids including estrogen and progesterone, 11-ketoprostaglandin reductase activity in metabolizing prostaglandins, and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase x (DDx) activity in metabolizing xenobiotics. AKR1C3 was demonstrated in sex hormone-dependent tissues including testis, breast, endometrium, and prostate; in sex hormone-independent tissues including kidney and urothelium. Our previous study described the expression of AKR1C3 in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma but not in small cell carcinoma. In this report, we studied the expression of AKR1C3 in normal tissue, adenocarcinomas (43 cases) and neuroendocrine (NE) tumors (40 cases) arising from the aerodigestive tract and pancreas. We demonstrated wide expression of AKR1C3 in superficially located mucosal cells, but not in NE cells. AKR1C3-positive immunoreactivity was detected in 38 cases (88.4%) of adenocarcinoma, but only in 7 cases (17.5%) of NE tumors in all cases. All NE tumors arising from the pancreas and appendix and most tumors from the colon and lung were negative. The highest ratio of positive AKR1C3 in NE tumors was found in tumors arising from the small intestine (50%). These results raise the question of AKR1C3's role in the biology of normal mucosal epithelia and tumors. In addition, AKR1C3 may be a useful adjunct marker for the exclusion of the NE phenotype in diagnostic pathology.

  14. Hydrogen storage in C3Ti complex using quantum chemical methods and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamse, Vijayanand; Wadnerkar, Nitin; Chaudhari, Ajay

    2012-06-01

    The hydrogen storage capacity of C(3)Ti and C(3)Ti(+) complex was studied using second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT) methods with different exchange and correlation functionals. Four and five H(2) molecules can be adsorbed on C(3)Ti and C(3)Ti(+) complex respectively at all the levels of theory used. This corresponds to the gravimetric H(2) uptake capacity of 8.77 and 10.73 wt % for the former and the latter respectively. The nature of interactions between different molecules in H(2) adsorbed complexes is also studied using many-body analysis approach. In the case of C(3)Ti(4H(2)) complex, total five-body interactions is negligible whereas for C(3)Ti(+)(5H(2)) relaxation energy is negligible. All the many-body energies have significant contribution to the binding energy of a respective complex. Atom-centered density matrix propagation molecular dynamics simulations were carried out using different methods to confirm whether H(2) molecules remain adsorbed on C(3)Ti and C(3)Ti(+) complex at room temperature. Adsorption Gibbs free energies show that four and five H(2) molecule adsorption on C(3)Ti and C(3)Ti(+) at room temperature is energetically favorable and unfavorable respectively using MP2 as well as DFT methods used here. H(2) adsorption is thermodynamically favorable over a wide range of temperature on the C(3)Ti than C(3)Ti(+)complex.

  15. Role of ascitic fluid C3 in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis | Kamal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The C3 component of complement tends to be reduced in cirrhosis and patients with reduced ascitic fluid C3 concentration and reduced opsonic activities have been shown to be predisposed to SBP. Aim of the work: To compare the level of ascitic fluid C3 concentration in cirrhotic patients with and without ...

  16. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(3)-1 - Capital loss carryovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capital loss carryovers. 1.381(c)(3)-1 Section 1.381(c)(3)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(3)-1 Capital loss carryovers. (a...

  17. 17 CFR 270.6c-3 - Exemptions for certain registered variable life insurance separate accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemptions for certain registered variable life insurance separate accounts. 270.6c-3 Section 270.6c-3 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 270.6c-3 Exemptions for certain registered variable life insurance separate accounts. A separate...

  18. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, C3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, C3. C3 board number 8215 (not coated) appears as board_id=32, task_id=23. C3 board number 771 (coated) appears...

  19. The C3 Framework: One Year Later - an Interview with Kathy Swan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    On September 17, 2013 (Constitution Day), the C3 Framework was released under the title "The College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and lead writer was NCSS member Kathy Swan, who is…

  20. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of Power... OF CONDUCT § 3c.3 Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official..., abuse, and corruption in Commission programs, including on the part of Commission employees, contractors...

  1. The Sand Fly Salivary Protein Lufaxin Inhibits the Early Steps of the Alternative Pathway of Complement by Direct Binding to the Proconvertase C3b-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Mendes-Sousa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saliva of the blood feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was previously shown to inhibit the alternative pathway (AP of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin inhibited the deposition of C3b, Bb, Properdin, C5b, and C9b on agarose-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the activation of factor B in normal serum, but had no effect on the components of the membrane attack complex. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR experiments demonstrated that Lufaxin stabilizes the C3b-B proconvertase complex when passed over a C3b surface in combination with factor B. Lufaxin was also shown to inhibit the activation of factor B by factor D in a reconstituted C3b-B, but did not inhibit the activation of C3 by reconstituted C3b-Bb. Proconvertase stabilization does not require the presence of divalent cations, but addition of Ni2+ increases the stability of complexes formed on SPR surfaces. Stabilization of the C3b-B complex to prevent C3 convertase formation (C3b-Bb formation is a novel mechanism that differs from previously described strategies used by other organisms to inhibit the AP of the host complement system.

  2. Ultrathin g-C3 N4 Nanosheets Coupled with AgIO3 as Highly Efficient Heterostructured Photocatalysts for Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfeng; Li, Kai; Yang, Yang; Li, Leijiao; Xing, Yan; Song, Shuyan; Jin, Rongchao; Li, Mei

    2015-12-01

    The photocatalytic activity of graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) could be enhanced by heterojunction strategies through increasing the charge-separation efficiency. As a surface-based process, the heterogeneous photocatalytic process would become more efficient if a larger contact region existed in the heterojunction interface. In this work, ultrathin g-C3 N4 nanosheets (g-C3 N4 -NS) with much larger specific surface areas are employed instead of bulk g-C3 N4 (g-C3 N4 -B) to prepare AgIO3 /g-C3 N4 -NS nanocomposite photocatalysts. By taking advantage of this feature, the as-prepared composites exhibit remarkable performances for photocatalytic wastewater treatment under visible-light irradiation. Notably, the optimum photocatalytic activity of AgIO3 /g-C3 N4 -NS composites is almost 80.59 and 55.09 times higher than that of pure g-C3 N4 -B towards the degradation of rhodamine B and methyl orange pollutants, respectively. Finally, the stability and possible photocatalytic mechanism of the AgIO3 /g-C3 N4 -NS system are also investigated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Sand Fly Salivary Protein Lufaxin Inhibits the Early Steps of the Alternative Pathway of Complement by Direct Binding to the Proconvertase C3b-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F.; do Vale, Vladimir Fazito; Silva, Naylene C. S.; Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson B.; Pereira, Marcos H.; Sant’Anna, Mauricio R. V.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Araujo, Ricardo N.

    2017-01-01

    Saliva of the blood feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was previously shown to inhibit the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin inhibited the deposition of C3b, Bb, Properdin, C5b, and C9b on agarose-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the activation of factor B in normal serum, but had no effect on the components of the membrane attack complex. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments demonstrated that Lufaxin stabilizes the C3b-B proconvertase complex when passed over a C3b surface in combination with factor B. Lufaxin was also shown to inhibit the activation of factor B by factor D in a reconstituted C3b-B, but did not inhibit the activation of C3 by reconstituted C3b-Bb. Proconvertase stabilization does not require the presence of divalent cations, but addition of Ni2+ increases the stability of complexes formed on SPR surfaces. Stabilization of the C3b-B complex to prevent C3 convertase formation (C3b-Bb formation) is a novel mechanism that differs from previously described strategies used by other organisms to inhibit the AP of the host complement system. PMID:28912782

  4. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic H2-production of g-C3N4/WS2 composite heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akple, Maxwell Selase; Low, Jingxiang; Wageh, S.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed. A.; Yu, Jiaguo; Zhang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    As a clean and renewable solar H2-production system to address the increasing global environmental crisis and energy demand, photocatalytic hydrogen production from water splitting using earth abundant materials has received a lot of attention. In this study, WS2-graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were prepared using WO3 and thiourea as precursors through a gas-solid reaction. Different amount of WS2 were loaded on g-C3N4 to form the heterostructures and the composite samples exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for H2 production under visible light. The composite sample with 0.01 wt% WS2 exhibited the highest H2-production rate of 101 μmol g-1 h-1, which was even better than that of the Pt-C3N4 sample with the same loading content. The high photocatalytic activity was attributed to the formation of heterojunction between g-C3N4 and WS2 cocatalyst which allowed for effective separation of photogenerated charge carriers. This work showed the possibility for the utilization of low cost WS2 as an efficient cocatalyst to promote the photocatalytic H2 production of g-C3N4.

  5. You're so vein: bundle sheath physiology, phylogeny and evolution in C3 and C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Howard; Weller, George; Toy, Lydia F M; Dennis, Ross J

    2013-02-01

    Bundle sheath (BS) anatomy is found in most C4 lineages, associated with low inter-veinal distances (IVD) and high BS:mesophyll ratio (BS:MC). The origins, function and selective advantages of the BS in C3 lineages are relevant for understanding the environmental, molecular and phylogenetic determinants of C4 evolution. Suggested functions for BS have included structural support, hydraulic isolation, storage for water, ions, and carbohydrates, and photorespiratory carbon metabolism; we propose a central role for cavitation repair, consistent with the BS as a control centre on regulating stem and leaf hydraulic continuity. An analysis of BS traits in the phylogenetic lineages giving rise to C4 grasses (the 'PACMAD' clade) shows an initial enhancement in BS:MC ratio in C3 lineages, although IVD is similar to the Pooideae sister group. Using a global database, a well-developed BS in the C3 PACMAD lineages was associated with higher precipitation and temperatures in the habitat of origin on an annual basis, with the C3 to C4 progression defined by the aridity index (AI). Maintaining leaf hydraulic conductance and cavitation repair are consistent with increased evaporative demand and more seasonal precipitation as drivers, first for the C3 BS, and then C4 diversification, under declining CO(2) concentrations in the Palaeogene and Neogene. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Dehydrogenation and C-H Bond Insertion of Propene: La(η^2-C_3H_4) and HLa(η^3-C_3H_5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sudesh; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2011-06-01

    Dehydrogenation and C-H bond insertion are observed in the reaction of laser-ablated La atoms with propene (C_3H_6) in a pulsed molecular beam source. Several dehydrogenated and inserted products are identified by the time-of-flight mass spectrometry. La(C_3H_4) formed from H_2 elimination and HLa(C_3H_5) formed by C-H bond insertion are characterized by pulsed-field-ionization electron and ion spectroscopy, in combination with density functional theory. Two isomers of La(C_3H_4) are identified from 1,2- and 1,3-dehydrogenation. The adiabatic ionization energies of 1,2- and 1,3-dehydrogenated isomers are measured to be 40506(5) and 40941(5) Cm-1, respectively. For the inserted product HLa(C_3H_5), La atom is bound to the allyl radical in a three-fold binding mode (η^3). It is observed that the ionization energy of the HLa(η^3-C_3H_5) insertion complex (41130(5) Cm-1) is close to that of the 1,3-dehydrogented La(η^2-C_3H_4) species.

  7. Hydroxytriazole derivatives as potent and selective aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) inhibitors discovered by bioisosteric scaffold hopping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippione, Agnese C; Giraudo, Alessandro; Bonanni, Davide; Carnovale, Irene M; Marini, Elisabetta; Cena, Clara; Costale, Annalisa; Zonari, Daniele; Pors, Klaus; Sadiq, Maria; Boschi, Donatella; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Lolli, Marco L

    2017-10-20

    The aldo-keto reductase 1C3 isoform (AKR1C3) plays a vital role in the biosynthesis of androgens, making this enzyme an attractive target for castration-resistant prostate cancer therapy. Although AKR1C3 is a promising drug target, no AKR1C3-targeted agent has to date been approved for clinical use. Flufenamic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is known to potently inhibit AKR1C3 in a non-selective manner as COX off-target effects are also observed. To diminish off-target effects, we have applied a scaffold hopping strategy replacing the benzoic acid moiety of flufenamic acid with an acidic hydroxyazolecarbonylic scaffold. In particular, differently N-substituted hydroxylated triazoles were designed to simultaneously interact with both subpockets 1 and 2 in the active site of AKR1C3, larger for AKR1C3 than other AKR1Cs isoforms. Through computational design and iterative rounds of synthesis and biological evaluation, novel compounds are reported, sharing high selectivity (up to 230-fold) for AKR1C3 over 1C2 isoform and minimal COX1 and COX2 off-target inhibition. A docking study of compound 8, the most interesting compound of the series, suggested that its methoxybenzyl substitution has the ability to fit inside subpocket 2, being involved in π-π staking interaction with Trp227 (partial overlapping) and in a T-shape π-π staking with Trp86. This compound was also shown to diminish testosterone production in the AKR1C3-expressing 22RV1 prostate cancer cell line while synergistic effect was observed when 8 was administered in combination with abiraterone or enzalutamide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of a C3a receptor in rainbow trout and Xenopus: the first identification of C3a receptors in nonmammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Wang, Tiehui; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Hansen, John D.; Li, Jun; Matlapudi, Anjun; Secombes, Christopher J.; Tort, Lluis; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2005-01-01

    Virtually nothing is known about the structure, function, and evolutionary origins of the C3aR in nonmammalian species. Because C3aR and C5aR are thought to have arisen from the same common ancestor, the recent characterization of a C5aR in teleost fish implied the presence of a C3aR in this animal group. In this study we report the cloning of a trout cDNA encoding a 364-aa molecule (TC3aR) that shows a high degree of sequence homology and a strong phylogenetic relationship with mammalian C3aRs. Northern blotting demonstrated that TC3aR was expressed primarily in blood leukocytes. Flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy showed that Abs raised against TC3aR stained to a high degree all blood B lymphocytes and, to a lesser extent, all granulocytes. More importantly, these Abs inhibited trout C3a-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization in trout leukocytes. A fascinating structural feature of TC3aR is the lack of a significant portion of the second extracellular loop (ECL2). In all C3aR molecules characterized to date, the ECL2 is exceptionally large when compared with the same region of C5aR. However, the exact function of the extra portion of ECL2 is unknown. The lack of this segment in TC3aR suggests that the extra piece of ECL2 was not necessary for the interaction of the ancestral C3aR with its ligand. Our findings represent the first C3aR characterized in nonmammalian species and support the hypothesis that if C3aR and C5aR diverged from a common ancestor, this event occurred before the emergence of teleost fish.

  9. Enhanced recognition of plasma proteins in a non-native state by complement C3b. A possible clearance mechanism for damaged proteins in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Kew, Richard R

    2015-03-01

    Complement C3 is a key fluid-phase protein of the immune system that covalently tags pathogenic cells and molecules for subsequent clearance. Previously, we reported that complement activation results in the formation of multiple C3b:plasma protein complexes in serum. However, it is not known if C3b attaches to any plasma protein in close proximity or preferentially binds damaged proteins. The objective of this study was to determine if C3b couples to plasma proteins in a non-native state and if this could be a potential mechanism to detect and clear damaged proteins from the blood. Using a purified in vitro system with alternative pathway proteins C3, factors B and D it was observed that guanidinium-HCl denaturation of three purified plasma proteins (albumin, alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor, vitamin D binding protein) greatly increased their capacity to form covalent complexes with C3b. However, native vitamin D binding protein, covalently attached to C3b, still retained the ability to bind its natural ligand G-actin, indicating that C3b links to plasma proteins in their native configuration but denaturation substantially increases this interaction. Serum complement activation generated a large number of C3b:plasma protein complexes that bound red blood cell membranes, suggesting a CR1-mediated clearance mechanism. Thermally denatured (60°C) serum activated the alternative pathway when added to fresh serum as evidenced by factor B cleavage and iC3b generation, but this heat-treated serum could not generate the pro-inflammatory peptide C5a. These results show that C3 recognizes and tags damaged plasma proteins for subsequent removal from the blood without triggering proinflammatory functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. JPSS CGS C3S McMurdo Multimission Communications System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C.; Urbano, J.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation civilian environmental satellite system, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) developed by NASA, will supply the afternoon orbit & ground system of the restructured NPOESS program. JPSS will replace NOAA's current POES system and ground processing part of both POES & DoD's Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS). JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological & solar-geophysical data. The command & data distribution part of the JPSS Common Ground System (CGS) is the Command, Control & Communications Segment (C3S), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems. C3S manages the overall JPSS & DWSS missions from control & status of the space & ground assets to ensuring timely delivery of high-quality data to the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Key to C3S' data delivery system are 15 globally-distributed ground receptors developed by Raytheon Company which will collect up to 5 times the environmental data about 4 times faster than current polar-orbiting weather satellites. Then these data will be rapidly forwarded to weather centrals via the global fiber optic network for processing/production of data records for use in environmental prediction models. McMurdo Station, Antarctica is a major receptor site due to its high latitude. With the NSF, C3S completed the upgrade & expansion of their existing off-continent satellite communications (SATCOM) link with 60 Mbps of bandwidth outbound and 20 Mbps inbound to missions using McMurdo. C3S completed the 1st big milestone in 2008 increasjng bandwidth of 3 Mbps to/from Antarctica to 10 Mbps both ways. Raytheon's C3S also upgraded network infrastructure at McMurdo Station & Belrose Earth Station, Australia SATCOM sites. This provides routing support for several missions, plus expansion capabilities to support future missions at McMurdo. The upgrade completed in Dec 2010 to prepare for use of McMurdo Station to support new downlink capabilities, called the

  11. C3a receptor antagonist ameliorates inflammatory and fibrotic signals in type 2 diabetic nephropathy by suppressing the activation of TGF-β/smad3 and IKBα pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a serious complication for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. Emerging evidence suggests that complement C3a is involved in the progression of DN. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of C3a Receptor Agonist (C3aRA on DN and its potential mechanism of action in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. METHODS: T2DM was induced in SD rats by a high fat diet (HFD plus repeated low dose streptozocin (STZ injections. T2DM rats were treated with vehicle or C3aRA for 8 weeks. Biochemical analysis, HE and PAS stains were performed to evaluate the renal function and pathological changes. Human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs were cultured and treated with normal glucose (NG, high glucose (HG, HG+C3a, HG+C3a+C3aRA and HG+C3a+BAY-11-7082 (p-IKBα Inhibitor or SIS3 (Smad3 Inhibitor, respectively. Real-time PCR, immunofluorescent staining and western blot were performed to detect the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. RESULTS: T2DM rats showed worse renal morphology and impaired renal function compared with control rats, including elevated levels of serum creatinine (CREA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and urine albumin excretion (UACR, as well as increased levels of C3a, C3aR, IL-6, p-IKBα, collagen I, TGF-β and p-Smad3 in the kidney of T2DM rats and C3a-treated HRGECs. In contrast, C3aRA treatment improved renal function and morphology, reduced CREA, UACR and the intensity of PAS and collagen I staining in the kidney of T2DM rats, and decreased C3a, p-IKBα, IL-6, TGF-β, p-Smad3 and collagen I expressions in HRGECs and T2DM rats. CONCLUSION: C3a mediated pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses and aggravated renal injury in T2DM rats. C3aRA ameliorated T2DN by inhibiting IKBα phosphorylation and cytokine release, and also TGF-β/Smad3 signaling and ECM deposition. Therefore, complement C3a receptor is a potential therapeutic target for DN.

  12. Drought constraints on C4 photosynthesis: stomatal and metabolic limitations in C3 and C4 subspecies of Alloteropsis semialata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Brad S; Gilbert, Matthew E; Ibrahim, Douglas G; Osborne, Colin P

    2007-01-01

    The C4 photosynthetic pathway uses water more efficiently than the C3 type, yet biogeographical analyses show a decline in C4 species relative to C3 species with decreasing rainfall. To investigate this paradox, the hypothesis that the C4 advantage over C3 photosynthesis is diminished by drought was tested, and the underlying stomatal and metabolic mechanisms of this response determined. The effects of drought and high evaporative demand on leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic electron sinks in C3 and C4 subspecies of the grass Alloteropsis semialata were examined. Plant responses to climatic variation and soil drought were investigated using a common garden experiment with well-watered and natural rainfall treatments, and underlying mechanisms analysed using controlled drying pot experiments. Photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the C4 than the C3 subspecies in the garden experiment under well-watered conditions, but this advantage was completely lost during a rainless period when unwatered plants experienced severe drought. Controlled drying experiments showed that this loss was caused by a greater increase in metabolic, rather than stomatal, limitations in C4 than in the C3 leaves. Decreases in CO2 assimilation resulted in lower electron transport rates and decreased photochemical efficiency under drought conditions, rather than increased electron transport to alternative sinks. These findings suggest that the high metabolic sensitivity of photosynthesis to severe drought seen previously in several C4 grass species may be an inherent characteristic of the C4 pathway. The mechanism may explain the paradox of why C4 species decline in arid environments despite high water-use efficiency.

  13. A critical review on the improvement of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in C3 plants using genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Cheng-Jiang; Shao, Hong-Bo; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2012-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious challenges facing us today. It may be linked to the increase in atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs), leading to a rise in sea level, notable shifts in ecosystems, and in the frequency and intensity of wild fires. There is a strong interest in stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CO2 and other GHGs by decreasing carbon emission and/or increasing carbon sequestration. Biotic sequestration is an important and effective strategy to mitigate the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations by increasing carbon sequestration and storage capacity of ecosystems using plant photosynthesis and by decreasing carbon emission using biofuel rather than fossil fuel. Improvement of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, using transgenic engineering, potentially provides a set of available and effective tools for enhancing plant carbon sequestration. In this review, firstly different biological methods of CO2 assimilation in C3, C4 and CAM plants are introduced and three types of C4 pathways which have high photosynthetic performance and have evolved as CO2 pumps are briefly summarized. Then (i) the improvement of photosynthetic carbon assimilation of C3 plants by transgenic engineering using non-C4 genes, and (ii) the overexpression of individual or multiple C4 cycle photosynthetic genes (PEPC, PPDK, PCK, NADP-ME and NADP-MDH) in transgenic C3 plants (e.g. tobacco, potato, rice and Arabidopsis) are highlighted. Some transgenic C3 plants (e.g. tobacco, rice and Arabidopsis) overexpressing the FBP/SBPase, ictB and cytochrome c6 genes showed positive effects on photosynthetic efficiency and growth characteristics. However, over the last 28 years, efforts to overexpress individual, double or multiple C4 enzymes in C3 plants like tobacco, potato, rice, and Arabidopsis have produced mixed results that do not confirm or eliminate the possibility of improving photosynthesis of C3 plants by this approach. Finally, a prospect

  14. Common evolutionary origin of alpha 2-macroglobulin and complement components C3 and C4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sottrup-Jensen, Lars; Stepanik, T M; Kristensen, Torsten

    1985-01-01

    placed residues and account for 75% and 67%, respectively, of the polypeptide chains of alpha 2M and pro-C3. Published sequence data for complement component C4 show that segments of this protein match well with corresponding stretches in alpha 2M and pro-C3. It is proposed that alpha 2M, C3 and C4...... common gross structure. The quartets of basic residues in pro-C3 and pro-C4, at which cleavage takes place to produce the mature subunits of these proteins, and most of the residues forming the anaphylatoxin peptides of C3 and C4 (C3a and C4a) are absent in alpha 2M. In addition, C3 and C4 contain large...

  15. Editorial: phys. stat. sol. (c) 3/1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzmann, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Dear Colleagues and Friends,on behalf of the Publishers, the Editorial Office, and the Editors of physica status solidi we wish you all the best for the coming year 2006! It is our sincere hope that your personal and professional experience with our journal has been a positive one and that you will continue to choose physica status solidi for the publication of your scientific findings in solid state physics also in the future.In doing so, you will be in increasingly good company! As a matter of fact, 2005 has been a year of exceptional growth in the number of manuscripts submitted to physica status solidi . Thus, the number of Original Papers which have reached our Editorial Office in Berlin has increased by as much as 30% compared to the long term average over the last ten years. For the Rapid Research Letter section, the corresponding increase has been even more impressive: more than +100% just in the last two years. We view this development as a confirmation of our longstanding efforts to ensure a timely publication service of high scientific quality. One relevant indicator for the high scientific standards expected from articles which are submitted for publication in physica status solidi is the average acceptance rate, which currently is less than 40%. This rate has continuously decreased from a value of about 60% ten years ago and bears witness to our efforts to strive for quality rather than quantity.Also, physica status solidi has been able to continue its long tradition as a truly international journal, despite of the strong competition in an established field such as solid state physics. In 2005, submitted papers have originated almost equally from the Americas, Europe, and Asia, with a clearly growing contribution from China, India, and Japan. We are actively working together with our international Editorial Boards and the Regional Editors to maintain a reasonable balance among papers from different parts of the world. The increasing international

  16. The C3PO project: a laser communication system concept for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Humières, Benoît; Esmiller, Bruno; Gouy, Yann; Steck, Emilie; Quintana, Crisanto; Faulkner, Graham; O'Brien, Dominic; Sproll, Fabian; Wagner, Paul; Hampf, Daniel; Riede, Wolfgang; Salter, Michael; Wang, Qin; Platt, Duncan; Jakonis, Darius; Piao, Xiaoyu; Karlsson, Mikael; Oberg, Olof; Petermann, Ingemar; Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Krezel, Jerzy; Debowska, Anna; Thueux, Yoann

    2017-02-01

    The satellite market is shifting towards smaller (micro and nanosatellites), lowered mass and increased performance platforms. Nanosatellites and picosatellites have been used for a number of new, innovative and unique payloads and missions. This trend requires new concepts for a reduced size, a better performance/weight ratio and a reduction of onboard power consumption. In this context, disruptive technologies, such as laser-optical communication systems, are opening new possibilities. This paper presents the C3PO1 system, "advanced Concept for laser uplink/ downlink CommuniCation with sPace Objects", and the first results of the development of its key technologies. This project targets the design of a communications system that uses a ground-based laser to illuminate a satellite, and a Modulating Retro-Reflector (MRR) to return a beam of light modulated by data to the ground. This enables a downlink, without a laser source on the satellite. This architecture suits well to small satellite applications so as high data rates are potentially provided with very low board mass. C3PO project aims to achieve data rates of 1Gbit/s between LEO satellites and Earth with a communication payload mass of less than 1kilogram. In this paper, results of the initial experiments and demonstration of the key technologies will be shown.

  17. Limitation of C3-CAM shift in the common ice plant under high irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronska, K; Romanowska, E; Miszalski, Z; Niewiadomska, E

    2013-01-15

    In the halophytic plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum salinity or drought can change the mode of photosynthesis from C(3) to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). These two stress factors are linked to oxidative stress, however, the induction of CAM by oxidative stress per se is not straightforward. Treatment with high light (HL) did not lead to the induction of CAM, as documented by a low night/day difference in malate level and a low expression of the CAM-related form of phosphoenolcarboxylase (Ppc1), despite causing some oxidative damage (elevated MDA level, malondialdehyde). In contrast to the action of high salinity (0.4M NaCl), HL treatment did not activate neither the cytosolic NADP-malic enzyme nor the chloroplastic form of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH). In plastids of HL-treated plants a huge amount of starch was accumulated. This was associated with a weak stimulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic starch-degrading enzymes, in contrast to their strong up-regulation under high salinity. It is concluded that HL alone is not able to activate starch degradation necessary for CAM performance. Moreover, in the absence of salinity in C(3)M. crystallinum plants an age-dependent increase in energy dissipation from PSII was documented under high irradiance, as illustrated by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Obtained data suggest that in this halophytic species several photoprotective strategies are strictly salinity-dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Complement C3f serum levels may predict breast cancer risk in women with gross cystic disease of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profumo, Aldo; Mangerini, Rosa; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Romano, Paolo; Damonte, Gianluca; Guglielmini, Pamela; Facchiano, Angelo; Ferri, Fabio; Ricci, Francesco; Rocco, Mattia; Boccardo, Francesco

    2013-06-24

    Gross cystic disease (GCDB) is a breast benign condition predisposing to breast cancer. Cryopreserved sera from GCDB patients, some of whom later developed a cancer (cases), were studied to identify potential risk markers. A MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis found several complement C3f fragments having a significant increased abundance in cases compared to controls. After multivariate analysis, the full-length form of C3f maintained a predictive value of breast cancer risk. Higher levels of C3f in the serum of women affected by a benign condition like GCDB thus appears to be correlated to the development of breast cancer even 20 years later. Increased complement system activation has been found in the sera of women affected by GCDB who developed a breast cancer, even twenty or more years later. C3f may predict an increased breast cancer risk in the healthy population and in women affected by predisposing conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. C3 deficiency ameliorates the negative effects of irradiation of the young brain on hippocampal development and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalm, Marie; Andreasson, Ulf; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Zetterberg, Henrik; Pekny, Milos; Blennow, Kaj; Pekna, Marcela; Blomgren, Klas

    2016-04-12

    Radiotherapy in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors is often associated with debilitating late-appearing adverse effects, such as intellectual impairment. Areas in the brain harboring stem cells are particularly sensitive to irradiation (IR) and loss of these cells may contribute to cognitive deficits. It has been demonstrated that IR-induced inflammation negatively affects neural progenitor differentiation. In this study, we used mice lacking the third complement component (C3-/-) to investigate the role of complement in a mouse model of IR-induced injury to the granule cell layer (GCL) of the hippocampus. C3-/- and wild type (WT) mice received a single, moderate dose of 8 Gy to the brain on postnatal day 10. The C3-/- mice displayed 55 % more microglia (Iba-1+) and a trend towards increase in proliferating cells in the GCL compared to WT mice 7 days after IR. Importantly, months after IR C3-/- mice made fewer errors than WT mice in a reversal learning test indicating better learning capacity in C3-/- mice after IR. Notably, months after IR C3-/- and WT mice had similar GCL volumes, survival of newborn cells (BrdU), microglia (Iba-1) and astrocyte (S100β) numbers in the GCL. In summary, our data show that the complement system contributes to IR-induced loss of proliferating cells and maladaptive inflammatory responses in the acute phase after IR, leading to impaired learning capacity in adulthood. Targeting the complement system is hence promising for future strategies to reduce the long-term adverse consequences of IR in the young brain.

  20. Cephalosporin-3'-Diazeniumdiolate NO Donor Prodrug PYRRO-C3D Enhances Azithromycin Susceptibility of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel A; Kelso, Michael J; Rineh, Ardeshir; Yepuri, Nageshwar R; Coles, Janice; Jackson, Claire L; Halladay, Georgia D; Walker, Woolf T; Webb, Jeremy S; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Connett, Gary J; Feelisch, Martin; Faust, Saul N; Lucas, Jane S A; Allan, Raymond N

    2017-02-01

    PYRRO-C3D is a cephalosporin-3-diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide (NO) donor prodrug designed to selectively deliver NO to bacterial infection sites. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of PYRRO-C3D against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) biofilms and examine the role of NO in reducing biofilm-associated antibiotic tolerance. The activity of PYRRO-C3D on in vitro NTHi biofilms was assessed through CFU enumeration and confocal microscopy. NO release measurements were performed using an ISO-NO probe. NTHi biofilms grown on primary ciliated respiratory epithelia at an air-liquid interface were used to investigate the effects of PYRRO-C3D in the presence of host tissue. Label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) proteomic analyses were performed to identify differentially expressed proteins following NO treatment. PYRRO-C3D specifically released NO in the presence of NTHi, while no evidence of spontaneous NO release was observed when the compound was exposed to primary epithelial cells. NTHi lacking β-lactamase activity failed to trigger NO release. Treatment significantly increased the susceptibility of in vitro NTHi biofilms to azithromycin, causing a log fold reduction (10-fold reduction or 1-log-unit reduction) in viability (P biofilms grown on primary respiratory epithelia, where a 2-log-unit reduction was observed (P biofilms, putatively via modulation of NTHi metabolic activity. Adjunctive therapy with NO mediated through PYRRO-C3D represents a promising approach for reducing biofilm-associated antibiotic tolerance. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Novel g-C3N4/CoO Nanocomposites with Significantly Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity for H2 Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhiyong; Chen, Jingjing; Yang, Yanfang; Wang, Dajian; Bie, Lijian; Fahlman, Bradley D

    2017-04-12

    Novel g-C3N4/CoO nanocomposite application for photocatalytic H2 evolution were designed and fabricated for the first time in this work. The structure and morphology of g-C3N4/CoO were investigated by a wide range of characterization methods. The obtained g-C3N4/CoO composites exhibited more-efficient utilization of solar energy than pure g-C3N4 did, resulting in higher photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution. The optimum photoactivity in H2 evolution under visible-light irradiation for g-C3N4/CoO composites with a CoO mass content of 0.5 wt % (651.3 μmol h(-1) g(-1)) was up to 3 times as high as that of pure g-C3N4 (220.16 μmol h(-1) g(-1)). The remarkably increased photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4/CoO composites was mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of the junction or interface formed between g-C3N4 and CoO.

  2. Structural and biochemical characterization of the C3–C4 intermediate Brassica gravinae and relatives, with particular reference to cellular distribution of Rubisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of its CO2 compensation concentration, Brassica gravinae Ten. has been reported to be a C3–C4 intermediate. This study investigated the structural and biochemical features of photosynthetic metabolism in B. gravinae. The cellular distribution of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was also examined in B. gravinae, B. napus L. (C3), Raphanus sativus L. (C3), and Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. (C3–C4) by immunogold electron microscopy to elucidate Rubisco expression during the evolution from C3 to C3–C4 intermediate plants. The bundle sheath (BS) cells of B. gravinae contained centrifugally located chloroplasts as well as centripetally located chloroplasts and mitochondria. Glycine decarboxylase P-protein was localized in the BS mitochondria. Brassica gravinae had low C4 enzyme activities and high activities of Rubisco and photorespiratory enzymes, suggesting that it reduces photorespiratory CO2 loss by the glycine shuttle. In B. gravinae, the labelling density of Rubisco was higher in the mesophyll chloroplasts than in the BS chloroplasts. A similar cellular pattern was found in other Brassicaceae species. These data demonstrate that, during the evolution from C3 to C3–C4 intermediate plants, the intercellular pattern of Rubisco expression did not change greatly, although the amount of chloroplasts in the BS cells increased. It also appears that intracellular variation in Rubisco distribution may occur within the BS cells of B. gravinae. PMID:21825284

  3. The LspC3-41I restriction-modification system is the major determinant for genetic manipulations of Lysinibacillus sphaericus C3-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pan; Ge, Yong; Wu, Yiming; Zhao, Ni; Yuan, Zhiming; Hu, Xiaomin

    2017-05-19

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been widely used in integrated mosquito control program and it is one of the minority bacterial species unable to metabolize carbohydrates. In consideration of the high genetic conservation at genomic level and difficulty of genetic horizontal transfer, it is hypothesized that effective restriction-modification (R-M) systems existed in mosquitocidal L. sphaericus. In this study, six type II R-M systems including LspC3-41I were predicted in L. sphaericus C3-41 genome. It was found that the cell free extracts (CFE) from this strain shown similar restriction and methylation activity on exogenous Bacillus/Escherichia coli shuttle vector pBU4 as the HaeIII, which is an isoschizomer of BspRI. The Bsph_0498 (encoding the predicted LspC3-41IR) knockout mutant Δ0498 and the complement strain RC0498 were constructed. It was found that the unmethylated pBU4 can be digested by the CFE of C3-41 and RC0498, but not by that of Δ0498. Furthermore, the exogenous plasmid pBU4 can be transformed at very high efficacy into Δ0498, low efficacy into RC0498, but no transformation into C3-41, indicating that LspC3-41I might be a major determinant for the genetic restriction barrier of strain C3-41. Besides, lspC3-41IR and lspC3-41IM genes are detected in other two strains besides C3-41 of the tested 16 L. sphaericus strains, which all belonging to serotype H5 and MLST sequence type (ST) 1. Furthermore, the three strains are not horizontal transferred, and this restriction could be overcome by in vitro methylation either by the host CFE or by commercial methytransferase M. HaeIII. The results provide an insight to further study the genetic restriction, modification and evolution of mosquitocidal L. sphaericus, also a theoretical basis and a method for the genetic manipulations of L. sphaericus. LspC3-41I is identified as the major determinant for the restriction barrier of L. sphaericus C3-41. Only three strains of the tested 16 L. sphaericus strains

  4. Deuterated C3H2 as a clue to deuterium chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerin, M.; Combes, F.; Wootten, H. A.; Boulanger, F.; Peters, W. L., III; Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1987-01-01

    The deuterated cyclopropenylidene ring molecule, C3HD, has been detected toward several sources in four rotational lines, at 19, 79, 104, and 107 GHz. The relative integrated intensities of the 2-sub-12 - 1-sub-01 lines of C3HD and C3H2 are found in the ratio 1:5, indicating a high deuterium fractionation ratio for cyclopropenylidene. The detection of the C-13 isotope of C3H2 at the same position allows a determination of the optical thickness (about 3) of the line. The detection of such a large enhancement in the deuterated form of C3H2 very strongly suggests that a molecular ion is the chemical precursor of the molecules. Consideration of the amount of the enhancement relative to that in other molecules suggests that the precursor ion is C3H3+.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C3N4/ZnO: the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The C3N4/ZnO composite photocatalysts were synthesized by mechanical milling combined with a calcination process. Various ratios of melamine and ZnO powders were milled by a planetary ball mill for 10 h. After heating at 540◦C for 3 h in air, melamine was converted to C3N4 but the formation of C3N4 ...

  6. The Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Hypoxic Fraction of C3H Mouse Fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yi, Chun Ja; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    Purpose : To investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on hypoxic cell fraction and metabolic status in fibrosarcoma (FSa II) of C3H mouse. Materials and Methods : Fibrosarcoma (Fsa II), 6mm in diameter, growing in the right hind leg muscle of C3H mouse was used for estimation of hypoxic cell fraction using comparison of TCD{sub 50}. Radiation was given one hour after administration of GBE (100 mg/Kg, i.p.) with or without priming dose of GBE (100 mg/Kg, i.p.) given 24 hours earlier. Radiation was also given under air breathing condition or clamp hypoxia without GBE as controls. {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy was performed before and one hour after administration of GBE with or without priming dose of GBE. Results : TCD{sub 50/120's} were 81.7(77.7-86.0) Gy when irradiated under clamped hypoxia, 69.6 (66.8-72.5) Gy under air breathing condition,67.5(64.1-71.1) Gy with a single dose of GBE (100 mg/kg) given one hour before irradiation, and 62.2(59.1-65.5) Gy with two doses of GBE given at 25 hours and one hour before irradiation. The hypoxic cell fractions, estimated from TCD50/120's were 1.6% under air breathing condition, 7.2% after single dose of GBE, and 2.7% after two doses of GBE. Metabolic status of tumor, probably by increasing the blood flow and delivery of oxygen and nutrients, resulting in increased radiosensitivity of tumor.

  7. Significant accumulation of C(4)-specific pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase in a C(3) plant, rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukayama, H; Tsuchida, H; Agarie, S; Nomura, M; Onodera, H; Ono, K; Lee, B H; Hirose, S; Toki, S; Ku, M S; Makino, A; Matsuoka, M; Miyao, M

    2001-11-01

    The C(4)-Pdk gene encoding the C(4) enzyme pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) of maize (Zea mays cv Golden Cross Bantam) was introduced into the C(3) plant, rice (Oryza sativa cv Kitaake). When the intact maize C(4)-Pdk gene, containing its own promoter and terminator sequences and exon/intron structure, was introduced, the PPDK activity in the leaves of some transgenic lines was greatly increased, in one line reaching 40-fold over that of wild-type plants. In a homozygous line, the PPDK protein accounted for 35% of total leaf-soluble protein or 16% of total leaf nitrogen. In contrast, introduction of a chimeric gene containing the full-length cDNA of the maize PPDK fused to the maize C(4)-Pdk promoter or the rice Cab promoter only increased PPDK activity and protein level slightly. These observations suggest that the intron(s) or the terminator sequence of the maize gene, or a combination of both, is necessary for high-level expression. In maize and transgenic rice plants carrying the intact maize gene, the level of transcript in the leaves per copy of the maize C(4)-Pdk gene was comparable, and the maize gene was expressed in a similar organ-specific manner. These results suggest that the maize C(4)-Pdk gene behaves in a quantitatively and qualitatively similar way in maize and transgenic rice plants. The activity of the maize PPDK protein expressed in rice leaves was light/dark regulated as it is in maize. This is the first reported evidence for the presence of an endogenous PPDK regulatory protein in a C(3) plant.

  8. Constellation C3I Crew-Ground-Experimenter-Developer Collaboration Services Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) environment will be significantly different for Constellation than for Shuttle and International Space...

  9. Clostridial C3 toxins target monocytes/macrophages and modulate their functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger eBarth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The C3 enzymes from Clostridium (C. botulinum (C3bot and C. limosum (C3lim are single chain protein toxins of about 25 kDa that mono-ADP-ribosylate Rho A, -B, -C in the cytosol of mammalian cells. We discovered that both C3 proteins are selectively internalized into the cytosol of monocytes and macrophages by an endocytotic mechanism, comparable to bacterial AB-type toxins, while they are not efficiently taken up into the cytosol of other cell types including epithelial cells and fibroblasts. C3-treatment results in disturbed macrophage functions such as migration and phagocytosis, suggesting a novel function of clostridial C3 toxins as virulence factors, which selectively interfere with these immune cells. Moreover, enzymatic inactive C3 protein serves as a transport system to selectively deliver pharmacologically active molecules into the cytosol of monocytes/macrophages without damaging these cells. This review addresses also the generation of C3-based molecular tools for experimental macrophage pharmacology and cell biology as well the exploitation of C3 for development of novel therapeutic strategies against monocyte/macrophage-associated diseases.

  10. Pyrolysis Synthesized g-C3N4 for Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4 was synthesized at 520°C by the pyrolysis of cyanamide, dicyandiamide, and melamine. The samples were characterized by X–ray diffraction (XRD, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and elemental analyzer. The photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 was evaluated by the photodegrading experiments of methylene blue (MB. The results indicated that g-C3N4. A photocatalytic mechanism presumed the MB photodegradation over the C3N4 photocatalyst is attributed to photogenerated electron impelled multistep reduction of O2.

  11. Two Novel C3N4 Phases: Structural, Mechanical and Electronic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We systematically studied the physical properties of a novel superhard (t-C3N4 and a novel hard (m-C3N4 C3N4 allotrope. Detailed theoretical studies of the structural properties, elastic properties, density of states, and mechanical properties of these two C3N4 phases were carried out using first-principles calculations. The calculated elastic constants and the hardness revealed that t-C3N4 is ultra-incompressible and superhard, with a high bulk modulus of 375 GPa and a high hardness of 80 GPa. m-C3N4 and t-C3N4 both exhibit large anisotropy with respect to Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, and Young’s modulus. Moreover, m-C3N4 is a quasi-direct-bandgap semiconductor, with a band gap of 4.522 eV, and t-C3N4 is also a quasi-direct-band-gap semiconductor, with a band gap of 4.210 eV, with the HSE06 functional.

  12. C3larvin toxin, an ADP-ribosyltransferase from Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krska, Daniel; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Fieldhouse, Robert J; Lugo, Miguel R; Merrill, A Rod

    2015-01-16

    C3larvin toxin was identified by a bioinformatic strategy as a putative mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase and a possible virulence factor from Paenibacillus larvae, which is the causative agent of American Foulbrood in honey bees. C3larvin targets RhoA as a substrate for its transferase reaction, and kinetics for both the NAD(+) (Km = 34 ± 12 μm) and RhoA (Km = 17 ± 3 μm) substrates were characterized for this enzyme from the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 toxin subgroup. C3larvin is toxic to yeast when expressed in the cytoplasm, and catalytic variants of the enzyme lost the ability to kill the yeast host, indicating that the toxin exerts its lethality through its enzyme activity. A small molecule inhibitor of C3larvin enzymatic activity was discovered called M3 (Ki = 11 ± 2 μm), and to our knowledge, is the first inhibitor of transferase activity of the C3 toxin family. C3larvin was crystallized, and its crystal structure (apoenzyme) was solved to 2.3 Å resolution. C3larvin was also shown to have a different mechanism of cell entry from other C3 toxins. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. C3larvin Toxin, an ADP-ribosyltransferase from Paenibacillus larvae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krska, Daniel; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Lugo, Miguel R.; Merrill, A. Rod

    2015-01-01

    C3larvin toxin was identified by a bioinformatic strategy as a putative mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase and a possible virulence factor from Paenibacillus larvae, which is the causative agent of American Foulbrood in honey bees. C3larvin targets RhoA as a substrate for its transferase reaction, and kinetics for both the NAD+ (Km = 34 ± 12 μm) and RhoA (Km = 17 ± 3 μm) substrates were characterized for this enzyme from the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 toxin subgroup. C3larvin is toxic to yeast when expressed in the cytoplasm, and catalytic variants of the enzyme lost the ability to kill the yeast host, indicating that the toxin exerts its lethality through its enzyme activity. A small molecule inhibitor of C3larvin enzymatic activity was discovered called M3 (Ki = 11 ± 2 μm), and to our knowledge, is the first inhibitor of transferase activity of the C3 toxin family. C3larvin was crystallized, and its crystal structure (apoenzyme) was solved to 2.3 Å resolution. C3larvin was also shown to have a different mechanism of cell entry from other C3 toxins. PMID:25477523

  14. Hydrogen isotopic differences between C3 and C4 land plant lipids: consequences of compartmentation in C4 photosynthetic chemistry and C3 photorespiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Youping; Grice, Kliti; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Hocart, Charles H; Gessler, Arthur; Farquhar, Graham D

    2016-12-01

    The 2 H/1 H ratio of carbon-bound H in biolipids holds potential for probing plant lipid biosynthesis and metabolism. The biochemical mechanism underlying the isotopic differences between lipids from C3 and C4 plants is still poorly understood. GC-pyrolysis-IRMS (gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry) measurement of the 2 H/1 H ratio of leaf lipids from controlled and field grown plants indicates that the biochemical isotopic fractionation (ε2 Hlipid_biochem ) differed between C3 and C4 plants in a pathway-dependent manner: ε2 HC4  > ε2 HC3 for the acetogenic pathway, ε2 HC4  C4 mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS) cells and suppression of photorespiration in C4 M and BS cells both result in C4 M chloroplastic pyruvate - the precursor for acetogenic pathway - being more depleted in 2 H relative to pyruvate in C3 cells. In addition, compartmentation in C4 plants also results in (i) the transferable H of NADPH being enriched in 2 H in C4 M chloroplasts compared with that in C3 chloroplasts for the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway pathway and (ii) pyruvate relatively 2 H-enriched being used for the mevalonic acid pathway in the cytosol of BS cells in comparison with that in C3 cells. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Initial Events during the Evolution of C4 Photosynthesis in C3 Species of Flaveria1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Tammy L.; Busch, Florian A.; Johnson, Daniel C.; Friesen, Patrick C.; Stinson, Corey R.; Stata, Matt; Sultmanis, Stefanie; Rahman, Beshar A.; Rawsthorne, Stephen; Sage, Rowan F.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of C4 photosynthesis in many taxa involves the establishment of a two-celled photorespiratory CO2 pump, termed C2 photosynthesis. How C3 species evolved C2 metabolism is critical to understanding the initial phases of C4 plant evolution. To evaluate early events in C4 evolution, we compared leaf anatomy, ultrastructure, and gas-exchange responses of closely related C3 and C2 species of Flaveria, a model genus for C4 evolution. We hypothesized that Flaveria pringlei and Flaveria robusta, two C3 species that are most closely related to the C2 Flaveria species, would show rudimentary characteristics of C2 physiology. Compared with less-related C3 species, bundle sheath (BS) cells of F. pringlei and F. robusta had more mitochondria and chloroplasts, larger mitochondria, and proportionally more of these organelles located along the inner cell periphery. These patterns were similar, although generally less in magnitude, than those observed in the C2 species Flaveria angustifolia and Flaveria sonorensis. In F. pringlei and F. robusta, the CO2 compensation point of photosynthesis was slightly lower than in the less-related C3 species, indicating an increase in photosynthetic efficiency. This could occur because of enhanced refixation of photorespired CO2 by the centripetally positioned organelles in the BS cells. If the phylogenetic positions of F. pringlei and F. robusta reflect ancestral states, these results support a hypothesis that increased numbers of centripetally located organelles initiated a metabolic scavenging of photorespired CO2 within the BS. This could have facilitated the formation of a glycine shuttle between mesophyll and BS cells that characterizes C2 photosynthesis. PMID:24064930

  16. Enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic bacteria disinfection by g-C3N4-AgBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jun; Liang, Jialiang; Li, Mian; Tong, Meiping

    2017-04-01

    g-C3N4-AgBr was synthesized by depositing AgBr nanoparticles onto g-C3N4. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were employed to characterize the as-synthesized photocatalysts. The disinfection activities towards representative Gram-negative strain E. coli and Gram-positive strain S. aureus were examined under visible light irradiation. Complete inactivation of 3×10(6)CFU/mL viable cell density was reached in 60min for E. coli and 150min for S. aureus, respectively. Ag(+) released from the photocatalysts did not contribute to the photocatalytic disinfection process. Direct contact of g-C3N4-AgBr composites and bacterial cells, as well as the presence of O2 was indispensable for the cell inactivation. Photo-generated holes, surface bounded OH, and indirect generation of intracellular active species played important roles in disinfection process of g-C3N4-AgBr under visible light irradiation. The disruption of outside structure of cells as well as inner cell injury led to the inactivation. High pH condition led to increasing the cell disinfection due to the generation of surface bounded OH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Porous Mn doped g-C3N4 photocatalysts for enhanced synergetic degradation under visible-light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Chao; Cui, Cheng-Xing; Li, Ying; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Shi, Weina

    2017-10-05

    Photocatalytic degradation by semiconductors is an ideal way to solve the environmental problem. Here, the porous Mn doped g-C3N4 photocatalyst was synthesized by the calcination-refluxing method. The as-prepared g-C3N4 exhibits the high activity of photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation ( > 400nm) in the mixed system of Cr(VI) and organic pollutants. Especially, the photocatalytic activity of Cr(VI) reduction was increased from 9.5% to 76.5%, while that of Rhodamine B(RhB) degradation was enhanced from 15.3% to 88.9% after 60min irradiation. The porous Mn doped g-C3N4 still keeps the high degradation efficiency of mixed pollutants in the 7th running. Based on the computational modeling, the Mn doping and carboxyl modification affect the atomic arrangement and molecular orbital distribution of the g-C3N4 semiconductor, leading to the enhancement of photo-induced carrier separation. Additionally, the active oxygen species and intermediates in the photoreaction process were discovered by ESR measurement and UV-vis test. The RhB degradation in synergistic photocatalysis not only inhibits the reverse reaction of Cr(VI) reduction, but also validly supply the photogenerated electrons by the photosensitization effect. This work may be useful for rationally designing photocatalysts and providing illuminating insights into the photocatalytic mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic performance of ZnO-g-C3N4 coupled with graphene oxide as a novel ternary nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Clament Sagaya Selvam, N

    2015-12-15

    This article reports a novel ternary nanocomposite consisting of ZnO, g-C3N4, and graphene oxide (GO) that provides enhanced photocatalytic performance and stability. The ZnO nanospheres disperse evenly and embed themselves in the porous g-C3N4. Composites with various g-C3N4 and GO to ZnO weight ratios were synthesized and characterized systematically. The results indicated that the absorption of binary g-C3N4/ZnO nanocomposites shifted to a lower energy compared to pure ZnO in a fashion consistent with the loading content of g-C3N4. Notably, the loading content of GO in the ZnO-g-C3N4 composite resulted in increased absorption in the visible range and improved charge separation efficiency, thereby drastically improving photocatalytic activity. Successful hybridization of ternary nanocomposite was confirmed by drastic quenching of fluorescence and broader visible light absorption. The optimal content of g-C3N4 in the ZnO-g-C3N4 composite was 50%, which exhibited the effective hybridization between ZnO and g-C3N4, and high photocatalytic efficiency. However, the photocatalytic degradation of the ternary nanocomposite showed performance that was two times greater than ZnO-g-C3N4, exhibiting 99.5% degradation efficiency after just 15 min of light irradiation. The combined heterojunction and synergistic effects of this composite account for the improved photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In situ one-step hydrothermal synthesis of oxygen-containing groups-modified g-C3N4 for the improved photocatalytic H2-evolution performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinhe; Chen, Fengyun; Wang, Xuefei; Yu, Huogen

    2018-01-01

    Surface modification of g-C3N4 is one of the most effective strategies to boost its photocatalytic H2-evolution performance via promoting the interfacial catalytic reactions. In this study, an in situ one-step hydrothermal method was developed to prepare the oxygen-containing groups-modified g-C3N4 (OG/g-C3N4) by a facile and green hydrothermal treatment of bulk g-C3N4 in pure water without any additives. It was found that the hydrothermal treatment (180 °C) not only could greatly increase the specific surface area (from 2.3 to 69.8 m2 g-1), but also caused the formation of oxygen-containing groups (sbnd OH and Cdbnd O) on the OG/g-C3N4 surface, via the interlayer delamination and intralayer depolymerization of bulk g-C3N4. Photocatalytic experimental results indicated that after hydrothermal treatment, the resultant OG/g-C3N4 samples showed an obviously improved H2-evolution performance. Especially, when the hydrothermal time was 6 h, the resultant OG/g-C3N4(6 h) exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity, which was clearly higher than that of the bulk g-C3N4 by a factor of ca. 7. In addition to the higher specific surface area, the enhanced H2-evolution rate of OG/g-C3N4 photocatalysts can be mainly attributed to the formation of oxygen-containing groups, which possibly works as the effective H2-evolution active sites. Considering the facie and green synthesis method, the present work may provide a new insight for the development of highly efficient photocatalytic materials.

  20. C3 rho-inhibitor for targeted pharmacological manipulation of osteoclast-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tautzenberger

    Full Text Available The C3 toxins from Clostridium botulinum (C3bot and Clostridium limosum (C3lim as well as C3-derived fusion proteins are selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytes/macrophages where the C3-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of Rho results in inhibition of Rho-signalling and characteristic morphological changes. Since the fusion toxin C2IN-C3lim was efficiently taken up into and inhibited proliferation of murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells, its effects on RAW 264.7-derived osteoclasts were investigated. C2IN-C3lim was taken up into differentiated osteoclasts and decreased their resorption activity. In undifferentiated RAW 264.7 cells, C2IN-C3lim-treatment significantly decreased their differentiation into osteoclasts as determined by counting the multi-nucleated, TRAP-positive cells. This inhibitory effect was concentration- and time-dependent and most efficient when C2IN-C3lim was applied in the early stage of osteoclast-formation. A single-dose application of C2IN-C3lim at day 0 and its subsequent removal at day 1 reduced the number of osteoclasts in a comparable manner while C2IN-C3lim-application at later time points did not reduce the number of osteoclasts to a comparable degree. Control experiments with an enzymatically inactive C3 protein revealed that the ADP-ribosylation of Rho was essential for the observed effects. In conclusion, the results indicate that Rho-activity is crucial during the early phase of osteoclast-differentiation. Other bone cell types such as pre-osteoblastic cells were not affected by C2IN-C3lim. Due to their cell-type selective and specific mode of action, C3 proteins and C3-fusions might be valuable tools for targeted pharmacological manipulation of osteoclast formation and activity, which could lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies against osteoclast-associated diseases.

  1. Structural and functional characterisation of the cyanobacterial PetC3 Rieske protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Sebastian; Takeda, Kazuki; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Baymann, Frauke; Nevo, Reinat; Reich, Ziv; Rögner, Matthias; Miki, Kunio; Rexroth, Sascha

    2016-12-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 possesses three Rieske isoforms: PetC1, PetC2 and PetC3. While PetC1 and PetC2 have been identified as alternative subunits of the cytochrome b6f complex (b6f), PetC3 was localized exclusively within the plasma membrane. The spatial separation of PetC3 from the photosynthetic and respiratory protein complexes raises doubt in its involvement in bioenergetic electron transfer. Here we report a detailed structural and functional characterization of the cyanobacterial PetC3 protein family indicating that PetC3 is not a component of the b6f and the photosynthetic electron transport as implied by gene annotation. Instead PetC3 has a distinct function in cell envelope homeostasis. Especially proteomic analysis shows that deletion of petC3 in Synechocystis PCC 6803 primarily affects cell envelope proteins including many nutrient transport systems. Therefore, the observed downregulation in the photosynthetic electron transport - mainly caused by photosystem 2 inactivation - might constitute a stress adaptation. Comprehensive in silico sequence analyses revealed that PetC3 proteins are periplasmic lipoproteins tethered to the plasma membrane with a subclass consisting of soluble periplasmic proteins, i.e. their N-terminal domain is inconsistent with their integration into the b6f. For the first time, the structure of PetC3 was determined by X-ray crystallography at an atomic resolution revealing significant high similarities to non-b6f Rieske subunits in contrast to PetC1. These results suggest that PetC3 affects processes in the periplasmic compartment that only indirectly influence photosynthetic electron transport. For this reason, we suggest to rename "Photosynthetic electron transport Chain 3" (PetC3) proteins as "periplasmic Rieske proteins" (Prp). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relative quantum yield of I-asterisk(2P1/2) in the tunable laser UV photodissociation of i-C3F7I and n-C3F7I - Effect of temperature and exciplex emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, J. E.; Leone, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Wavelength-specific relative quantum yields of metastable I from pulsed laser photodissociation of i-C3F7I and n-C3F7I in the range 265-336 nm are determined by measuring the time-resolved infrared emission from the atomic I(P-2(1/2) P-2(3/2) transition. It is shown that although this yield appears to be unity from 265 to 298 nm, it decreases dramatically at longer wavelengths. Values are also reported for the enhancement of emission from metastable I due to exciplex formation at several temperatures. The exciplex formation emission increases linearly with parent gas pressure, but decreases with increasing temperature. Absorption spectra of i- and n-C3F7I between 303 and 497 K are presented, and the effect of temperature on the quantum yields at selected wavelengths greater than 300 nm, where increasing the temperature enhances the absorption considerably, are given. The results are discussed in regard to the development of solar-pumped iodine lasers.

  3. Steroid carbon skeletons with unusually branched C-3 alkyl side chains in sulphur-rich sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Sephton, S.; Baas, M.

    1998-01-01

    A novel series of thiophenes with C-3 alkylated steroid carbon skeletons has been identified in sediments of the Miocene Monterey Formation (California, USA) and in the Turonian Tarfaya basin (Morocco). Their carbon skeletons are unusual in the sense that the alkyl side-chains at C-3 are almost

  4. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

    2007-09-10

    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  5. Electronic and Rovibrational Quantum Chemical Analysis of C$_3$P$^-$: The Next Interstellar Anion?

    CERN Document Server

    Fortenberry, Ryan C

    2015-01-01

    C$_3$P$^-$ is analogous to the known interstellar anion C$_3$N$^-$ with phosphorus replacing the nitrogen in a simple step down the periodic table. In this work, it is shown that C$_3$P$^-$ is likely to possess a dipole-bound excited state. It has been hypothesized and observationally supported that dipole-bound excited states are an avenue through which anions could be formed in the interstellar medium. Additionally, C$_3$P$^-$ has a valence excited state that may lead to further stabilization of this molecule, and C$_3$P$^-$ has a larger dipole moment than neutral C$_3$P ($\\sim 6$ D vs. $\\sim 4$ D). As such, C$_3$P$^-$ is probably a more detectable astromolecule than even its corresponding neutral radical. Highly-accurate quantum chemical quartic force fields are also applied to C$_3$P$^-$ and its singly $^{13}$C substituted isotopologues in order to provide structures, vibrational frequencies, and spectroscopic constants that may aid in its detection.

  6. 76 FR 44800 - Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... [TD 9539] RIN 1545-BI09 Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3) AGENCY: Internal... dates of applicability, see Sec. 1.280C- 4(c). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Selig, (202) 622... research credit under section 280C(c)(3). On July 16, 2009, a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-130200-08...

  7. C3-dependent mechanism of microglial priming relevant to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaglia, Valeria; Hughes, Timothy R; Donev, Rossen M; Ruseva, Marieta M; Wu, Xiaobo; Huitinga, Inge; Baas, Frank; Neal, James W; Morgan, B Paul

    2012-01-17

    Microglial priming predisposes the brain to neurodegeneration and affects disease progression. The signal to switch from the quiescent to the primed state is unknown. We show that deleting the C3 convertase regulator complement receptor 1-related protein y (Crry) induces microglial priming. Mice that were double-knockout for Crry and either C3 or factor B did not show priming, demonstrating dependence on alternative pathway activation. Colocalization of C3b/iC3b and CR3 implicated the CR3/iC3b interaction in priming. Systemic lipopolysaccharide challenge overactivated primed microglia with florid expression of proinflammatory molecules, which were blocked by complement inhibition. Relevance for neurodegenerative disease is exemplified by human multiple sclerosis (MS) and by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS. In human MS, microglial priming was evident in perilesional white matter, in close proximity to C3b/iC3b deposits. EAE was accelerated and exacerbated in Crry-deficient mice, and was dependent on C activation. In summary, C3-dependent microglial priming confers susceptibility to other challenges. Our observations are relevant to progression in MS and other neurological diseases exacerbated by acute insults.

  8. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 866.5260 Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system. 866.5260 Section 866.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  9. C3 and haptoglobin polymorphism in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Vink-Starreveld, M. L.; Jansen, W.; Pronk, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The C3 and haptoglobin phenotype distribution was studied in 60 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. In contrast with earlier reports we did not find any significant association between dementia of the Alzheimer type and certain C3 or haptoglobin phenotypes

  10. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    70

    separation efficiency of the photoexcited electron-hole pairs. A possible mechanism of the photocatalytic degradation of RhB on C3N4/CdS nanocomposites was also proposed. Keywords: C3N4; CdS; photocatalytic; nanocomposites. 1. Introduction. Artificial semiconductor photocatalysis offers a viable strategy for removal ...

  11. Variations of Leaf Cuticular Waxes Among C3 and C4 Gramineae Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua; Guo, Na; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-11-01

    Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. At the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis, and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata, and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants, except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n-alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C29 was the most abundant n-alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n-alkane was C31 or C33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n-alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n-alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups, except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Steroid Carbon Skeletons with Unusually Branched C-3 Alkyl Side Chains in Sulphur-Rich Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Stefan; Sephton, Sarah; Baas, Marianne; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    1998-04-01

    A novel series of thiophenes with C-3 alkylated steroid carbon skeletons has been identified in sediments of the Miocene Monterey Formation (California, USA) and in the Turonian Tarfaya basin (Morocco). Their carbon skeletons are unusual in the sense that the alkyl side-chains at C-3 are almost exclusively isopentyl, 3-methylpentyl, and 2,3-dimethylbutyl moieties whilst n-alkyl (pentyl or hexyl) moieties are almost absent. Although they occur as thiophenes, the number of carbon atoms in the C-3 alkyl side chain and their carbon isotopic compositions point towards an origin from carbohydrates for the C-3 alkyl side chain. However, the branched structures of the C-3 alkyl side chains points to a different biosynthetic pathway, possibly starting from the addition of isopentylpyrophosphate to sterols.

  13. C3 polymorphism in a Danish cystic fibrosis population and its possible association with antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, P O; Høiby, N; Morling, N

    1978-01-01

    The C3 types of human serum are reported for a material of 113 Danish cystic fibrosis patients, age 0-30 years. The frequency of the C3F gene was 0.2832 which was significantly higher (p less than 0.0005) than the frequency found in a control group of 224 healthy babies (C3F = 0.1585). It also...... differed significantly (p less than 0.01) from the C3F gene frequency of 0.1780 found in 177 blood donors, age 20-24 years. A significant association between any of the C3 phenotypes and the most serious infection in cystic fibrosis, chronic mucoid P. aeruginosa infection, or the antibody response against...

  14. S-25-hydroxyvitamin D and C3-epimers in pregnancy and infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier Mydtskov, Nanne; Lykkedegn, Sine; Fruekilde, Palle Back Nielsen

    2017-01-01

    of the C3-epimer fraction in paired mother-child samples. METHOD: S-25(OH)D and s-C3-epimer were estimated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in 290 mother-infant pairs from the population-based Odense Child Cohort. Longitudinal analyses were feasible in two subcohorts; B) early and late pregnancy......BACKGROUND: Analysis of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) may be complicated by the less active or in-active vitamin D metabolite C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (C3-epimer). We aimed to explore the relationship between s-C3-epimer and s-25(OH)D and other determinants and describe the longitudinal course...

  15. Linkage and association of haplotypes at the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster to familial combined hyperlipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenbaum-Voline, Sophie; Olivier, Michael; Jones, Emma L.; Naoumova, Rossitza P.; Jones, Bethan; Gau, Brian; Seed, Mary; Betteridge,D. John; Galton, David J.; Rubin, Edward M.; Scott, James; Shoulders,Carol C.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2002-09-15

    Combined hyperlipidemia (CHL) is a common disorder of lipidmetabolism that leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thelipid profile of CHL is characterised by high levels of atherogeniclipoproteins and low levels of high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol.Apolipoprotein (APO) A5 is a newly discovered gene involved in lipidmetabolism located within 30kbp of the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Previousstudies have indicated that sequence variants in this cluster areassociated with increased plasma lipid levels. To establish whethervariation at the APOA5 gene contributes to the transmission of CHL, weperformed linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests on a large cohortof families (n=128) with familial CHL (FCHL). The linkage data producedevidence for linkage of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genomic interval to FCHL (NPL= 1.7, P = 0.042). The LD studies substantiated these data. Twoindependent rare alleles, APOA5c.56G and APOC3c.386G of this gene clusterwere over-transmitted in FCHL (P = 0.004 and 0.007, respectively), andthis was associated with a reduced transmission of the most commonAPOA1/C3/A4/A5 haplotype (frequency 0.4425) to affected subjects (P =0.013). The APOA5c.56G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL probands, whereas the second, andindependent, APOC3c.386G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL pedigree founders. Thus, this allele (or anallele in LD) may mark a quantitative trait associated with FCHL, as wellas representing a disease susceptibility locus for the condition. Thisstudy establishes that sequence variation in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster contributes to the transmission of FCHL in a substantialproportion of affected families, and that these sequence variants mayalso contribute to the lipid abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome,which is present in up to 40 percent of persons with cardiovasculardisease.

  16. Raspberry ketone promotes the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Tomoyo; Morimoto, Chie

    2014-03-01

    The decrease in the bone mass associated with osteoporosis caused by ovariectomy, aging, and other conditions is accompanied by an increase in bone marrow adipose tissue. The balance between osteoblasts and adipocytes is influenced by a reciprocal relationship. The development of modalities to promote local/systemic bone formation by inhibiting bone marrow adipose tissue is important in the treatment of fractures or metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we examined whether raspberry ketone [4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one; RK], which is one of the major aromatic compounds of red raspberry and exhibits anti-obesity action, could promote osteoblast differentiation in C3H10T1/2 stem cells. Confluent C3H10T1/2 stem cells were treated for 6 days with 10-100 μg/mL of RK in culture medium containing 10 nM all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or 300 ng/mL recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 protein as an osteoblast-differentiating agent. RK in the presence of ATRA increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in a dose-dependent manner. RK in the presence of rhBMP-2 also increased ALP activity. RK in the presence of ATRA also increased the levels of mRNAs of osteocalcin, α1(I) collagen, and TGF-βs (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) compared with ATRA only. RK promoted the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts. However, RK did not affect the inhibition of early-stage adipocyte differentiation. Our results suggest that RK enhances the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts, and it may promote bone formation by an action unrelated to adipocyte differentiation.

  17. Identification of C3 acceptors responsible for complement activation in Crithidia fasciculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guether, M.L.T.; Travassos, L.R.; Schenkman, S.

    1988-11-01

    Crithidia fasciculata, an insect trypanosomatid is readily lysed by normal human serum at concentrations as low as 3%. Lysis occurs in the presence of Mg+2-EGTA and is antibody independent, indicating that the alternative pathway of complement activation is involved. Analysis of (131I)C3 deposition on C. fasciculata cells using C8-deficient serum, revealed that about 4 x 10(5) C3 molecules bound to each cell. Most of the C3 was bound to cells as C3b, part of it forming high molecular weight complexes, which could be dissociated by methylamine treatment at alkaline pH. To characterize the C3 acceptors on C. fasciculata, surface-iodinated cells were incubated with C8D or heat-inactivated serum, extracted and immunoprecipitated with anti-C3 or anti-arabinogalactan antisera. Analysis of the immunoprecipitated material on SDS gels showed high-molecular weight components, which disappeared after methylamine treatment, giving rise to a component of 200 kDa molecular size. This 200-kDa component corresponded to a purified arabinogalactan complex, which was immunoprecipitated from labeled cell extracts, without incubation with C8D, using anti-arabinogalactan antibodies. These results suggest that the arabinogalactan glycoconjugate is a C3 acceptor in C. fasciculata during complement activation. Purified arabinogalactan complexes were able to inactivate C3 in vitro. Solubilization in KOH to cleave the peptide moiety rendered it unable to inactivate C3. Apparently, the aggregated state of the purified arabinogalactan component at the cell surface is important for C3 deposition and activation.

  18. Boron-Catalyzed C3-Polymerization of ω-2-Methyl Allylarsonium Ylide and Its C3/C1 Copolymers with Dimethylsulfoxonium Methylide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De

    2016-03-01

    A novel arsonium ylide, ω-2-methylallylarsonium ylide, was synthesized and used as monomer for polyhomologation with triethyborane as initiator. It was found that the terminal methyl group leads to C3 polymerization. Furthermore, the copolyhomologation of arsonium ylide with dimethylsulfoxonium methylide is reported for the first time. (Chemical Equation Presented). © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  19. Comparative gas exchange and growth responses of C3 and C4 beach species grown at different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, T M

    1978-01-01

    Comparative laboratory gas exchange and relative growth rate experiments were conducted on three native California coastal strand species at four salinity treatment levels. Relative mesophyll conductance sensitivities to salinity of Atriplex leucophylla (Moq.) D. Dietr. (C4) and Atriplex californica Moq. in D.C. (C3) were nearly identical. Mesophyll conductances of both species were stimulated by moderate levels of salinity. Mesophyll conductances of Abronia maritima Nutt. ex Wats. (C3) were highest in the absence of salinity and depressed by increasing levels of salinity. Increasing levels of salinity generally decreased net photosynthesis and leaf conductances but increased water use efficiencies. The C4 species, Atriplex leucophylla, had higher mesophyll conductances and water use efficiencies at all salinity levels than the C3 species. The effects of salinity on relative growth and net assimilation rates of greenhouse grown plants were not directly correlated with the effects on net photosynthesis measured in the laboratory. Growth of Abronia maritima was greatly stimulated by low levels of salinity whereas photosynthesis was substantially inhibited. The possible significance of C4 photosynthesis in relation to salinity is discussed.

  20. Spectroscopic Constants and Vibrational Frequencies for l-C3H+ and Isotopologues from Highly-Accurate Quartic Force Fields: The Detection of l-C3H+ in the Horsehead Nebula PDR Questioned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Fortenberry, Ryan Clifton; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Very recently, molecular rotational transitions observed in the photon-dominated region of the Horsehead nebula have been attributed to l-C3H+. In an effort to corroborate this finding, we employed state-of-the art and proven high-accuracy quantum chemical techniques to compute spectroscopic constants for this cation and its isotopologues. Even though the B rotational constant from the fit of the observed spectrum and our computations agree to within 20 MHz, a typical level of accuracy, the D rotational constant differs by more than 40%, while the H rotational constant differs by three orders of magnitude. With the likely errors in the rotational transition energies resulting from this difference in D on the order of 1 MHz for the lowest observed transition (J = 4 yields 3) and growing as J increases, the assignment of the observed rotational lines from the Horsehead nebula to l-C3H+ is questionable.

  1. Extreme weather conditions reduce the CO2 fertilization effect in temperate C3 grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Wolfgang; Lehnert, Lukas; Kammann, Claudia; Müller, Christoph; Grünhage, Ludger; Luterbacher, Jürg; Erbs, Martin; Yuan, Naiming; Bendix, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from anthropogenic activities is the major driver of global climate change. The rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may stimulate plant photosynthesis and, thus, cause a net sink effect in the global carbon cycle. As a consequence of an enhanced photosynthesis, an increase in the net primary productivity (NPP) of C3 plants (termed CO2 fertilization) is widely assumed. This process is associated with a reduced stomatal conductance of leaves as the carbon demand of photosynthesis is met earlier. This causes a higher water-use efficiency and, hence, may reduce water stress in plants exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations ([eCO2]). However, the magnitude and persistence of the CO2 fertilization effect under a future climate including more frequent weather extremes are controversial. To test the CO2 fertilization effect for Central European grasslands, a data set comprising 16 years of biomass samples and environmental variables such as local weather and soil conditions was analysed by means of a novel approach. The data set was recorded on a "Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment" (FACE) experimental site which allows to quantify the CO2 fertilization effect under naturally occurring climate variations. The results indicate that the CO2 fertilization effect on the aboveground biomass is strongest under local average environmental conditions. Such intermediate regimes were defined by the mean +/- 1 standard deviation of the long-term average in the respective variable three months before harvest. The observed CO2 fertilization effect was reduced or vanished under drier, wetter and hotter conditions when the respective variable exceeded the bounds of the intermediate regimes. Comparable conditions, characterized by a higher frequency of more extreme weather conditions, are predicted for the future by climate projections. Consequently, biogeochemical models may overestimate the future NPP sink

  2. C5 inhibition prevents renal failure in a mouse model of lethal C3 glomerulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison Lesher; Gullipalli, Damodar; Ueda, Yoshiyasu; Sato, Sayaka; Zhou, Lin; Miwa, Takashi; Tung, Kenneth S; Song, Wen-Chao

    2017-06-01

    C3 glomerulopathy is a potentially life-threatening disease of the kidney caused by dysregulated alternative pathway complement activation. The specific complement mediator(s) responsible for kidney injury in C3 glomerulopathy are yet to be defined and no specific therapy is currently available. We previously developed a mouse model of lethal C3 glomerulopathy with factor H and properdin gene double mutations. Therefore, we used this model to examine the role of C5 and C5a receptor (C5aR) in the pathogenesis of the disease. Disease severity in these factor H/properdin double-mutant mice was found to be correlated with plasma C5 levels, and prophylactic anti-C5 mAb therapy was effective in preventing lethal C3 glomerulopathy. When given to these double-mutant mice that had already developed active disease with severe proteinuria, anti-C5 mAb treatment also prevented death in half of the mice. Deficiency of C5aR significantly reduced disease severity, suggesting that C5aR-mediated inflammation contributed to C3 glomerulopathy. Thus, C5 and C5aR have a critical role in C3 glomerulopathy. Hence, early intervention targeting these pathways may be an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with C3 glomerulopathy. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CR2+ marginal zone B cell production of pathogenic natural antibodies is C3 independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Keith M; Pope, Michael R; Hoffman, Sara M; Fleming, Sherry D

    2011-02-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced damage requires complement receptor 2 (CR2) for generation of the appropriate natural Ab repertoire. Pathogenic Abs recognize neoantigens on the ischemic tissue, activate complement, and induce intestinal damage. Because C3 cleavage products act as ligands for CR2, we hypothesized that CR2(hi) marginal zone B cells (MZBs) require C3 for generation of the pathogenic Abs. To explore the ability of splenic CR2(+) B cells to generate the damaging Ab repertoire, we adoptively transferred either MZBs or follicular B cells (FOBs) from C57BL/6 or Cr2(-/-) mice into Rag-1(-/-) mice. Adoptive transfer of wild type CR2(hi) MZBs but not CR2(lo) FOBs induced significant damage, C3 deposition, and inflammation in response to IR. In contrast, similarly treated Rag-1(-/-) mice reconstituted with either Cr2(-/-) MZB/B1 B cells (B1Bs) or FOBs lacked significant intestinal damage and displayed limited complement activation. To determine whether C3 cleavage products are critical in CR2-dependent Ab production, we evaluated the ability of the natural Ab repertoire of C3(-/-) mice to induce damage in response to IR. Infusion of C3(-/-) serum into Cr2(-/-) mice restored IR-induced tissue damage. Furthermore, Rag-1(-/-) mice sustained significant damage after infusion of Abs from C3(-/-) but not Cr2(-/-) mice. Finally, adoptive transfer of MZBs from C3(-/-) mice into Rag-1(-/-) mice resulted in significant tissue damage and inflammation. These data indicate that CR2 expression on MZBs is sufficient to induce the appropriate Abs required for IR-induced tissue damage and that C3 is not critical for generation of the pathogenic Abs.

  4. Novel purification scheme and functions for a C3-binding protein from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q; Finkel, D; Hostetter, M K

    2000-05-09

    To isolate microbial proteins capable of binding the third component of complement (C3), we coupled the free sulfhydryl group of methylamine-inactivated C3 to a thiolSepharose matrix. This simple technique facilitated the purification of the first C3-binding protein isolated from a bacterium (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Both metastable (native) and thioester-disrupted C3 were recognized by this protein; binding of C3 was noncovalent, independent of thioester conformation, and preferential for the C3 alpha-chain. Sequencing of amino-terminal and internal peptides from the C3-binding protein disclosed a proline-rich region spanning approximately 20 amino acids and a signal peptide that had not been previously reported. The gene was isolated from a library of genomic DNA from laboratory strain CP1200 by screening with a 1200 bp PCR product amplified from degenerate oligonucleotides encoding the amino terminal sequence and the internal proline-rich sequence. The open reading frame spanned 1692 bp; all peptide sequences were identified in the translated gene product, which also contained at least three choline-binding repeats at the carboxy-terminus. The gene was conserved, and the translated protein was functionally active in pneumococcal clinical isolates of serotypes 1, 3, 4, 14, and 19F. Serum from a patient recovering from acute pneumococcal infection contained IgG antibodies specific for this protein by immunoblot. Wide conservation among clinical isolates, saturable binding of C3, and the ability to stimulate the human immune response have not previously been reported for this choline-binding protein. A similar biochemical approach should enable the identification of other C3-binding proteins in microorganisms able to elude complement-mediated host defense.

  5. Human skin mast cells express complement factors C3 and C5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshihiro; Hite, Michelle R; Dellinger, Anthony L; Schwartz, Lawrence B

    2013-08-15

    We examine whether complement factor C3 or C5 is synthesized by human skin-derived mast cells and whether their synthesis is regulated by cytokines. C3 and C5 mRNAs were assessed by RT-PCR, and proteins by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, Western blotting, and ELISA. C3 and C5 mRNAs were each expressed, and baseline protein levels/10(6) cultured mast cells were 0.9 and 0.8 ng, respectively, and located in the cytoplasm outside of secretory granules. C3 accumulated in mast cell culture medium over time and by 3 d reached a concentration of 9.4 ± 8.0 ng/ml, whereas C5 levels were not detectable (C5 remained undetectable. Importantly, treatment with TNF-α together with either IL-4 or IL-13 synergistically enhanced C3 (but not C5) production in culture medium by 9.8- or 7.1-fold, respectively. This synergy was blocked by attenuating the TNF-α pathway with neutralizing anti-TNF-α Ab, soluble TNFR, or an inhibitor of NF-κB, or by attenuating the IL-4/13 pathway with Jak family or Erk antagonists. Inhibitors of PI3K, Jnk, and p38 MAPK did not affect this synergy. Thus, human mast cells can produce and secrete C3, whereas β-tryptase can act on C3 to generate C3a and C3b, raising the likelihood that mast cells engage complement to modulate immunity and inflammation in vivo.

  6. Complement component C3aR constitutes a novel regulator for chick eye morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Luz-Madrigal, Agustin; Bierly, Jeffrey; Haynes, Tracy; Reis, Edimara S; Han, Zeyu; Gutierrez, Christian; McKinney, Zachary; Tzekou, Apostolia; Lambris, John D; Tsonis, Panagiotis A; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2017-08-01

    Complement components have been implicated in a wide variety of functions including neurogenesis, proliferation, cell migration, differentiation, cancer, and more recently early development and regeneration. Following our initial observations indicating that C3a/C3aR signaling induces chick retina regeneration, we analyzed its role in chick eye morphogenesis. During eye development, the optic vesicle (OV) invaginates to generate a bilayer optic cup (OC) that gives rise to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and neural retina. We show by immunofluorescence staining that C3 and the receptor for C3a (the cleaved and active form of C3), C3aR, are present in chick embryos during eye morphogenesis in the OV and OC. Interestingly, C3aR is mainly localized in the nuclear compartment at the OC stage. Loss of function studies at the OV stage using morpholinos or a blocking antibody targeting the C3aR (anti-C3aR Ab), causes eye defects such as microphthalmia and defects in the ventral portion of the eye that result in coloboma. Such defects were not observed when C3aR was disrupted at the OC stage. Histological analysis demonstrated that microphthalmic eyes were unable to generate a normal optic stalk or a closed OC. The dorsal/ventral patterning defects were accompanied by an expansion of the ventral markers Pax2, cVax and retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme raldh-3 (aldh1a3) domains, an absence of the dorsal expression of Tbx5 and raldh-1 (aldh1a1) and a re-specification of the ventral RPE to neuroepithelium. In addition, the eyes showed overall decreased expression of Gli1 and a change in distribution of nuclear β-catenin, suggesting that Shh and Wnt pathways have been affected. Finally, we observed prominent cell death along with a decrease in proliferating cells, indicating that both processes contribute to the microphthalmic phenotype. Together our results show that C3aR is necessary for the proper morphogenesis of the OC. This is the first report implicating C3aR in

  7. Improving our understanding of environmental controls on the distribution of C3 and C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Stephanie; Edwards, Erika J; Still, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the ecological sorting of C3 and C4 grasses along temperature and moisture gradients. However, previous studies of C3 and C4 grass biogeography have often inadvertently compared species in different and relatively unrelated lineages, which are associated with different environmental settings and distinct adaptive traits. Such confounded comparisons of C3 and C4 grasses may bias our understanding of ecological sorting imposed strictly by photosynthetic pathway. Here, we used MaxEnt species distribution modeling in combination with satellite data to understand the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses by comparing both large clades and closely related sister taxa. Similar to previous work, we found that C4 grasses showed a preference for regions with higher temperatures and lower precipitation compared with grasses using the C3 pathway. However, air temperature differences were smaller (2 °C vs. 4 °C) and precipitation and % tree cover differences were larger (1783 mm vs. 755 mm, 21.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively) when comparing C3 and C4 grasses within the same clade vs. comparing all C4 and all C3 grasses (i.e., ignoring phylogenetic structure). These results were due to important differences in the environmental preferences of C3 BEP and PACMAD clades (the two main grass clades). Winter precipitation was found to be more important for understanding the distribution and environmental niche of C3 PACMADs in comparison with both C3 BEPs and C4 taxa, for which temperature was much more important. Results comparing closely related C3 -C4 sister taxa supported the patterns derived from our modeling of the larger clade groupings. Our findings, which are novel in comparing the distribution and niches of clades, demonstrate that the evolutionary history of taxa is important for understanding the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses, and should have implications for how grasslands will respond to global change. © 2012

  8. High-temperature stability of alpha-Ta(4)AlC(3)

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Nina J.; Eklund, Per; Lu, Jun; Spencer, Charles B.; Hultman, Lars; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2011-01-01

    Cold-pressed alpha-Ta(4)AlC(3) powders were annealed up to 1750 degrees C to test first-principles predictions of alpha-beta phase-stability reversal at 1600 degrees C. Up to 1600 degrees C, the alpha-Ta(4)AlC(3) samples were stable with no indications of any alpha-beta transformation, as shown by the strong characteristic X-ray diffraction peaks of alpha-Ta(4)AlC(3) and the zigzag stacking observed by transmission electron microscopy. These results show that, in this experimental situation, ...

  9. The Influence of C3A Content in Cement on the Chloride Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Min Jae Kim; Ki Beom Kim; Ki Yong Ann

    2016-01-01

    The present study concerns the influence of C3A in cement on chloride transport in reinforced concrete. Three modified cement was manufactured in the variation of the C3A content, ranging from 6.0 and 10.5 up to 16.9%. The setting time of fresh concrete was measured immediately after mixing, together with the temperature at the time of initial set. For properties of hardened concrete in the variation in the C3A, a development of the compressive strength and chloride permeation were measured u...

  10. Catalase activity during C3-CAM transition in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska, E; Miszalski, Z; Slesak, I; Ratajczak, R

    1999-12-01

    Treatment with 0.4 mol dm(-3) NaCl caused a C3-CAM shift in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. leaves. In parallel to the CAM induction the activity of CAT was significantly decreased. In C3 and in CAM plants CAT activity showed daily fluctuations, with the maximum at the end of the light period. The oscillations of CAT were more pronounced in CAM than in C3 plants. In M. crystallinum CAT activity seems to respond more to CAM induction than to salinity.

  11. Effects of gaseous ammonia on intracellular pH values in leaves of C 3- and C 4-plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zu-Hua; Kaiser, Werner; Heber, Ulrich; Raven, John A.

    Responses of cytosolic and vacuolar pH to different concentrations (1.3-5.4 μmol NH 3 mol -1 gas or 0.940-3.825 mg NH 3 m -3 gas) of gaseous NH 3 were studied in experiments of 3 h duration by recording changes in fluorescence of pyranine and esculin in leaves of C 3 and C 4 plants. After a lag phase of 0.5-4 min, the uptake of NH 3 at 50-200 nmol m -2 leaf area s -1 increased pyranine fluorescence, indicating cytosolic alkalinization in leaves of Pelargonium zonale L. (C 3) and Amaranthus caudatus L. (C 4). A smaller increase in esculin fluorescence induced by NH 3 indicated some vacuolar alkalization in a Spinacia oleracea L. leaf. Photosynthesis and transpiration remained unchanged during exposure of illuminated leaves to NH 3 for up to 30 min (the maximum tested). CO 2 concentrations influenced the extent of cytosolic alkalinization. 500 μmol CO 2 mol -1 gas suppressed the NH 3-induced cytosolic alkalinization relative to that found in 16 μmol CO 2 mol -1 gas. The suppressing effect of CO 2 on NH 3-induced alkalization was larger in illuminated leaves of the C 4Amaranthus than the C 3Pelargonium. These results indicate that the alkaline pH shift caused by solution and protonation of NH 3 in aqueous leaf compartments is affected by assimilation of NH 3.

  12. Identification of the kinesin KifC3 as a new player for positioning of peroxisomes and other organelles in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Denise; Seiler, Florian; Essmann, Frank; Dodt, Gabriele

    2013-12-01

    The attachment of organelles to the cytoskeleton and directed organelle transport is essential for cellular morphology and function. In contrast to other cell organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes are evenly distributed in the cytoplasm, which is achieved by binding of peroxisomes to microtubules and their bidirectional transport by the microtubule motor proteins kinesin-1 (Kif5) and cytoplasmic dynein. KifC3, belonging to the group of C-terminal kinesins, has been identified to interact with the human peroxin PEX1 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. We investigated the potential involvement of KifC3 in peroxisomal transport. Interaction of KifC3 and the AAA-protein (ATPase associated with various cellular activities) PEX1 was confirmed by in vivo colocalization and by coimmunoprecipitation from cell lysates. Furthermore, knockdown of KifC3 using RNAi resulted in an increase of cells with perinuclear-clustered peroxisomes, indicating enhanced minus-end directed motility of peroxisomes. The occurrence of this peroxisomal phenotype was cell cycle phase independent, while microtubules were essential for phenotype formation. We conclude that KifC3 may play a regulatory role in minus-end directed peroxisomal transport for example by blocking the motor function of dynein at peroxisomes. Knockdown of KifC3 would then lead to increased minus-end directed peroxisomal transport and cause the observed peroxisomal clustering at the microtubule-organizing center. © 2013.

  13. The acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration to temperature in the C3 -C4 intermediate Salsola divaricata: induction of high respiratory CO2 release under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandin, Anthony; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E; Cousins, Asaph B

    2014-11-01

    Photosynthesis in C(3) -C(4) intermediates reduces carbon loss by photorespiration through refixing photorespired CO(2) within bundle sheath cells. This is beneficial under warm temperatures where rates of photorespiration are high; however, it is unknown how photosynthesis in C(3) -C(4) plants acclimates to growth under cold conditions. Therefore, the cold tolerance of the C(3) -C(4) Salsola divaricata was tested to determine whether it reverts to C(3) photosynthesis when grown under low temperatures. Plants were grown under cold (15/10 °C), moderate (25/18 °C) or hot (35/25 °C) day/night temperatures and analysed to determine how photosynthesis, respiration and C(3) -C(4) features acclimate to these growth conditions. The CO(2) compensation point and net rates of CO(2) assimilation in cold-grown plants changed dramatically when measured in response to temperature. However, this was not due to the loss of C(3) -C(4) intermediacy, but rather to a large increase in mitochondrial respiration supported primarily by the non-phosphorylating alternative oxidative pathway (AOP) and, to a lesser degree, the cytochrome oxidative pathway (COP). The increase in respiration and AOP capacity in cold-grown plants likely protects against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria and photodamage in chloroplasts by consuming excess reductant via the alternative mitochondrial respiratory electron transport chain. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Microstructure and Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Fe-Based (Cr, Fe)7C3 Composite Coating Fabricated by PTA Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y. L.; Li, Z. G.

    2013-11-01

    Using Cr3C2 and Fe-CrNiBSi powder blends as raw materials, an α-Fe matrix composite coating reinforced by in situ (Cr, Fe)7C3 rods, with a thickness of about 3.6 mm, was fabricated on the surface of AISI A36 low carbon steel by means of plasma-transferred arc welding. The results of microstructural analysis show that in the coating, a large number of carbides, (Cr, Fe)7C3, in rod shape grow, and radiate around some half-dissolved Cr3C2 particles. The results of dry sliding wear tests at loads 100, 200, and 300 N show that the wear resistances of (Cr, Fe)7C3-reinforced coating, respectively, are about 6.9, 14.9, and 17 times higher than that of nonreinforced pure Fe-CrNiBSi alloy coating; the average value and fluctuation range of friction coefficient (FC) of (Cr, Fe)7C3-reinforced coating are less than those of pure Fe-CrNiBSi alloy coating; the main wear mechanisms of pure Fe-CrNiBSi alloy coating are ploughing, deformation, and adhesive wear, whereas those of (Cr, Fe)7C3-reinforced coating are microcutting, abrasive, and oxidation wear; the cracks on surfaces of (Cr, Fe)7C3 rods increased with the increasing loads; and the matrix α-Fe can prevent them from extending further in the composite coating.

  15. 17 CFR 240.15c3-3a - Exhibit A-formula for determination reserve requirement of brokers and dealers under § 240.15c3-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determination reserve requirement of brokers and dealers under § 240.15c3-3. 240.15c3-3a Section 240.15c3-3a... Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-3a Exhibit A—formula for determination reserve requirement of brokers and dealers under § 240.15c3-3. Credits Debits 1. Free credit balances and other credit...

  16. Heterogeneity of the clinical manifestations and pathology features in C3 glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-quan WANG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C3 glomerulopathy is a kind of glomerular diseases mediated by abnormal activation of alternative complement pathway. As diversity and multiplicity of pathogenic mechanism, heterogeneity exists in the clinical manifestation and pathological features of C3 glomerulopathy. The clinical manifestation of the disease may be shown as abnormality in urine, hypertension, hematuria, nephrotic syndrome, nephritic syndrome, renal insufficiency, etc. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, mesangial proliferation, crescent formation, focal segmental necrosis, diffuse hyperplasia and exudative lesions, etc may be found in renal biopsies. Also, the prognosis of C3 glomerulopathy is not uniform. The clinical manifestations and pathological features of C3 glomerulopathy were reviewed in the present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.12.15

  17. Characterization of TauC3 antibody and demonstration of its potential to block tau propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha B Nicholls

    Full Text Available The spread of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT pathology through the human brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD, which is thought to be caused by the propagation of "seeding" competent soluble misfolded tau. "TauC3", a C-terminally truncated form of tau that is generated by caspase-3 cleavage at D421, has previously been observed in NFTs and has been implicated in tau toxicity. Here we show that TauC3 is found in the seeding competent high molecular weight (HMW protein fraction of human AD brain. Using a specific TauC3 antibody, we were able to substantially block the HMW tau seeding activity of human AD brain extracts in an in vitro tau seeding FRET assay. We propose that TauC3 could contribute to the templated tau misfolding that leads to NFT spread in AD brains.

  18. Inhibition of complement components C3 and C4 by cadralazine and its active metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M; Hanson, A; Englund, G; Dahlbäck, B

    1991-01-01

    The effect of cadralazine and its active metabolite CGP 22639 on the covalent binding reaction of C4 and C3 has been studied. Trypsin-Sepharose was used to activate radio-labelled C3 and C4 and binding of the radio-labelled protein to the trypsin-Sepharose was measured. Cadralazine inhibited 50% of the binding of C3 and C4 at concentrations of 19 mmol/l and 15 mmol/l, respectively. Its active metabolite was more potent and inhibited 50% of the C3 and C4 binding at concentrations of 8 and 3.5 mmol/l, respectively. These concentrations are much higher than those found in plasma during therapy. This is consistent with the clinical observation that in patients with normal kidney function cadralazine is not an inducer of SLE.

  19. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS C3VP V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits C3VP dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  20. Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Photoactive VO@g‑C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A photoactive VO@g-C3N4 catalyst has been developed for the selective oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. The visible light mediated...

  1. Photocatalytic C−H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g‑C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A highly selective and sustainable method has been developed for the oxidation of methyl arenes and their analogues. The VO@g-C3N4 catalyst is very efficient in the...

  2. Studies towards C-3 functionalization of β-lactams using substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies towards C-3 functionalization of β-lactams using substituted allylsilanes ... Thin layer chromatography ... Column chromatography was performed with silica gel (Acme. Synthetic ..... assigned based on X-ray crystallographic data, hinted.

  3. In vivo evaluation of [{sup 11}C]-3-[2-[(3-methoxyphenylamino)carbonyl]ethenyl]-4,6-dichloroindole- 2-carboxylic acid ([{sup 11}C]3MPICA) as a PET radiotracer for the glycine site of the NMDA ion channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, Rikki N. E-mail: rnw7@columbia.edu; Sultana, Abida; Laruelle, M

    2002-11-01

    Alterations in normal NMDA receptor composition, densities and function have been implicated in the pathophysiology of certain neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Chorea, schizophrenia, alcoholism and stroke. In our first effort to provide PET ligands for the NMDA/glycine site, we reported the synthesis of a novel high affinity glycine site ligand, 3-[2-[(3-methoxyphenylamino)carbonyl]ethenyl]-4,6-dichloroindole-2 -carboxylic acid ((3MPICA), Ki=4.8{+-}0.9 nM) and the corresponding carbon-11 labeled PET ligand, [{sup 11}C]3MPICA. We report here the in vivo evaluation of [{sup 11}C]3MPICA in rats. Biodistribution analysis revealed that [{sup 11}C]3MPICA exhibited low degree of brain penetration and high blood concentration. The average uptake at two minutes was highest in the cerebellum (0.19{+-}0.04 %ID/g) and thalamus (0.18{+-}0.05 %ID/g) and lower in the hippocampus (0.13{+-}0.03) and frontal cortex (0.11{+-}0.04 %ID/g). The radioactivity cleared quickly from all brain regions examined. Administration of unlabeled 3MPICA (1 mg/kg, i.v.) revealed at 60 minutes a small general reduction in regional brain radioactivity concentrations in treated animals versus controls, however, the blood radioactivity concentration was also lowered, confounding the assessment of the degree of saturable binding. Warfarin co-administration (100 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly lowered blood activity at 5 minutes post-injection (-27%, P<0.01) but failed to significantly increase the brain uptake of the radiotracer. In view of these results, and especially considering the low brain penetration of this tracer, [{sup 11}C]3MPICA does not appear to be a promising PET radiotracer for in vivo use.

  4. Identification of gp350 as the viral glycoprotein mediating attachment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to the EBV/C3d receptor of B cells: sequence homology of gp350 and C3 complement fragment C3d.

    OpenAIRE

    Nemerow, G.R.; Mold, C; Schwend, V K; Tollefson, V; Cooper, N. R.

    1987-01-01

    The major Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) envelope glycoprotein, gp350, was purified from the B95-8 cell line and analyzed for its ability to mediate virus attachment to the isolated EBV/C3d receptor (CR2) of human B lymphocytes. Purified gp350 and EBV, but not cytomegalovirus, exhibited dose-dependent binding to purified CR2 in dot blot immunoassays. Binding was inhibited by certain monoclonal antibodies to CR2 and to gp350. Liposomes bearing incorporated gp350 bound to CR2-positive B-cell lines bu...

  5. Polypeptide Composition of Envelope Membranes Isolated from Chloroplasts of C_3, C_4, and CAM Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce G., Foster; Gerald E, Edwards; Department of Botany, Washington State University:(Present)United States Department of Agriculture, Appalachian Soil and Water Conservation Research Laboratory; Department of Botany, Washington State University

    1983-01-01

    Chloroplast envelopes were isolated from chloroplasts purified from Spinacea oleracea L. (C_3), Panicum miliaceum L. (NAD-malic enzyme-type C_4), Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. (NADP-malic enzyme-type C_4). Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier (constitutive CAM), and from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (inducible CAM) performing either C_3 photosynthesis or Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). For each species, methods were developed to isolate chloroplast envelopes free of thylakoid ...

  6. Introduction to Command, Control and Communications (C3) through comparative case analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Scott A.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public rerlease; distribution is unlimited This thesis contains material for the course, Introduction to Command, Control and Communications (C3). The first part of the thesis describes selected principles and concepts of C3 related to communication management, interoperability, command structure and standardization. The Crisis Action System is described emphasizing the roles and functions of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. A discussion of...

  7. Ni-Mo-S nanoparticles modified graphitic C3N4 for efficient hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Jin, Zhiliang; Hu, Hongyan; Bi, Yingpu; Lu, Gongxuan

    2018-01-01

    Noble metal-free Ni-Mo-S nanoparticles modified graphitic C3N4 for efficient hydrogen evolution was successfully synthesized by means of a simple hydrothermal ion exchange process. This composite photocatalyst exhibits about 14 times higher photocatalytic activity of hydrogen production than that of the pure g-C3N4. Fluorescence analysis and electrochemical characterization confirmed that molybdenum sulfide and nickel sulfide as catalyst significantly enhanced the transfer of electrons on g-C3N4 and resulted in the excellent synergistic effect in photocatalytic properties. The promoted charge separation was measured by means of the EIS, photocurrent and transient fluorescence. A series of studies shown that the NixMo1-xS2 nanoparticles modified on the surface of graphitic C3N4 provided the more active sites and improved the efficiency of photo-generated charge separation with several characterizations such as SEM, XRD, XPS, element mapping, UV-vis DRS, Transient photocurrent and BET etc. and the results of which were in good agreement with each other. The composite photocatalyst g-C3N4/NixMo1-xS2 has a greater specific surface area and pore volume compared to pure g-C3N4, which is more favorable for the adsorption of dye molecules, leading to enhance the composite photocatalytic activity consequently. The excited-electron recombination process were greatly modulated with the introduce Ni-Mo-S nanoparticles on the surface of g-C3N4 and the photostability was enhanced as well. In addition, a possible reaction mechanism over eosin Y-sensitized g-C3N4/NixMo1-xS2 photocatalyst under visible light irradiation was proposed.

  8. Thermomagnetic analysis of meteorites, 3. C3 and C4 chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J.M.; Rowe, M.W.; Larson, E.E.; Watson, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    Thermomagnetic analysis was made on samples of all known C3 and C4 chondrites in a controlled oxygen atmosphere. Considerable variation was noted in the occurrence of magnetic minerals, comparable to the variation observed earlier in the C2 chondrites. Magnetite was found as the only major magnetic phase in samples of only three C3 chondrites (2-4 wt.%) and the Karoonda C4 chondrite (7.7 wt.%). The magnetite content of these three C3 chondrites is only about one-third that observed in the C1 and C2 chondrites which were found to contain magnetite as the only magnetic phase. Five C3 chondrites were observed to undergo chemical change during heating, producing magnetite: this behavior is characteristic of troilite oxidation. Upper limits on initial magnetite content of about 1-9% were established for these meteorites. Samples of the remaining five C3 chondrites and the Coolidge C4 chondrite were found to contain both magnetite and metallic iron. In two samples, iron containing ???2% Ni was observed, while in the other four, the iron contained 6-8 wt.% Ni. In addition to containing both magnetite and iron metal, three of these samples reacted during heating to form additional magnetite. Variations in the magnetic mineralogy and, hence by inference bulk mineralogy, of C3 and C4 chondrites indicate a more complex genesis than is evident from whole-rock elemental abundance patterns. ?? 1976.

  9. Aldo-Keto Reductase (AKR) 1C3 inhibitors: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Trevor M

    2017-12-01

    AKR1C3 is a drug target in hormonal and hormonal independent malignancies and acts as a major peripheral 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to yield the potent androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, and as a prostaglandin (PG) F synthase to produce proliferative ligands for the PG FP receptor. AKR1C3 inhibitors may have distinct advantages over existing therapeutics for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. Area covered: This article reviews the patent literature on AKR1C3 inhibitors using SciFinder which identified inhibitors in the following chemical classes: N-phenylsulfonyl-indoles, N-(benzimidazoylylcarbonyl)- N-(indoylylcarbonyl)- and N-(pyridinepyrrolyl)- piperidines, N-benzimidazoles and N-benzindoles, repurposed nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (indole acetic acids, N-phenylanthranilates and aryl propionic acids), isoquinolines, and nitrogen and sulfur substituted estrenes. The article evaluates inhibitor AKR potency, specificity, efficacy in cell-based and xenograft models and clinical utility. The advantage of bifunctional compounds that either competitively inhibit AKR1C3 and block its androgen receptor (AR) coactivator function or act as AKR1C3 inhibitors and direct acting AR antagonists are discussed. Expert opinion: A large number of potent and selective inhibitors of AKR1C3 have been described however, preclinical optimization, is required before their benefit in human disease can be assessed.

  10. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darouich, Sihem; Goucha, Rym; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Zekri, Semy; Kheder, Adel; Ben Maiz, Hédi

    2011-02-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits (MPGNC3) is an uncommon condition characterized by overt glomerular C3 deposits in the absence of immunoglobulins and intramembranous dense deposits. Here the authors describe the clinical and morphological features of primary MPGNC3 in a 13-year-old boy and critically review the previously published cases. The patient presented with nephrotic syndrome and microscopic hematuria. Blood tests revealed very low circulating C3 levels. The renal biopsy exhibited subendothelial, subepithelial, and mesangial deposits, with C3 but not immunoglobulins seen on immunofluorescence. This case and the review of the literature indicate that the serum complement profile with decreased levels of C3 and normal levels of classical pathway components together with glomerular deposits containing exclusively complement C3 is highly suggestive of alternative pathway activation. The diagnosis of acquired and/or genetic complement abnormalities in some cases supports that complement dysregulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of MPGNC3. Such data show great promise to provide new therapy strategies based on modulation of the complement system activity.

  11. Phenology and productivity of C3 and C4 grasslands in Hawaii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Pau

    Full Text Available Grasslands account for a large proportion of global terrestrial productivity and play a critical role in carbon and water cycling. Within grasslands, photosynthetic pathway is an important functional trait yielding different rates of productivity along environmental gradients. Recently, C3-C4 sorting along spatial environmental gradients has been reassessed by controlling for confounding traits in phylogenetically structured comparisons. C3 and C4 grasses should sort along temporal environmental gradients as well, resulting in differing phenologies and growing season lengths. Here we use 10 years of satellite data (NDVI to examine the phenology and greenness (as a proxy for productivity of C3 and C4 grass habitats, which reflect differences in both environment and plant physiology. We perform phylogenetically structured comparisons based on 3,595 digitized herbarium collections of 152 grass species across the Hawaiian Islands. Our results show that the clade identity of grasses captures differences in their habitats better than photosynthetic pathway. Growing season length (GSL and associated productivity (GSP were not significantly different when considering photosynthetic type alone, but were indeed different when considering photosynthetic type nested within clade. The relationship between GSL and GSP differed most strongly between C3 clade habitats, and not between C3-C4 habitats. Our results suggest that accounting for the interaction between phylogeny and photosynthetic pathway can help improve predictions of productivity, as commonly used C3-C4 classifications are very broad and appear to mask important diversity in grassland ecosystem functions.

  12. Serum properdin consumption as a biomarker of C5 convertase dysregulation in C3 glomerulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvillo, F; Bravo García-Morato, M; Nozal, P; Garrido, S; Tortajada, A; Rodríguez de Córdoba, S; López-Trascasa, M

    2016-04-01

    Properdin (P) stabilizes the alternative pathway (AP) convertases, being the only known positive regulator of the complement system. In addition, P is a pattern recognition molecule able to initiate directly the AP on non-self surfaces. Although P deficiencies have long been known to be associated with Neisseria infections and P is often found deposited at sites of AP activation and tissue injury, the potential role of P in the pathogenesis of complement dysregulation-associated disorders has not been studied extensively. Serum P levels were measured in 49 patients with histological and clinical evidence of C3 glomerulopathy (C3G). Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF), an autoantibody that stabilizes the AP C3 convertase. The presence of this autoantibody results in a significant reduction in circulating C3 (P C5 levels (P C5 (P C5 (r = 0·806, P C5 convertase dysregulation. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  13. C3: A Command-line Catalogue Cross-matching tool for modern astrophysical survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Giuseppe; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Mercurio, Amata; di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Molinari, Sergio

    2017-06-01

    In the current data-driven science era, it is needed that data analysis techniques has to quickly evolve to face with data whose dimensions has increased up to the Petabyte scale. In particular, being modern astrophysics based on multi-wavelength data organized into large catalogues, it is crucial that the astronomical catalog cross-matching methods, strongly dependant from the catalogues size, must ensure efficiency, reliability and scalability. Furthermore, multi-band data are archived and reduced in different ways, so that the resulting catalogues may differ each other in formats, resolution, data structure, etc, thus requiring the highest generality of cross-matching features. We present C 3 (Command-line Catalogue Cross-match), a multi-platform application designed to efficiently cross-match massive catalogues from modern surveys. Conceived as a stand-alone command-line process or a module within generic data reduction/analysis pipeline, it provides the maximum flexibility, in terms of portability, configuration, coordinates and cross-matching types, ensuring high performance capabilities by using a multi-core parallel processing paradigm and a sky partitioning algorithm.

  14. Combining genetic and evolutionary engineering to establish C4 metabolism in C3 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Heckmann, David; Lercher, Martin J; Maurino, Veronica G

    2017-01-01

    To feed a world population projected to reach 9 billion people by 2050, the productivity of major crops must be increased by at least 50%. One potential route to boost the productivity of cereals is to equip them genetically with the 'supercharged' C4 type of photosynthesis; however, the necessary genetic modifications are not sufficiently understood for the corresponding genetic engineering programme. In this opinion paper, we discuss a strategy to solve this problem by developing a new paradigm for plant breeding. We propose combining the bioengineering of well-understood traits with subsequent evolutionary engineering, i.e. mutagenesis and artificial selection. An existing mathematical model of C3-C4 evolution is used to choose the most promising path towards this goal. Based on biomathematical simulations, we engineer Arabidopsis thaliana plants that express the central carbon-fixing enzyme Rubisco only in bundle sheath cells (Ru-BSC plants), the localization characteristic for C4 plants. This modification will initially be deleterious, forcing the Ru-BSC plants into a fitness valley from where previously inaccessible adaptive steps towards C4 photosynthesis become accessible through fitness-enhancing mutations. Mutagenized Ru-BSC plants are then screened for improved photosynthesis, and are expected to respond to imposed artificial selection pressures by evolving towards C4 anatomy and biochemistry. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Graphitic-C3N4nanosheets: synergistic effects of hydrogenation and n/n junctions for enhanced photocatalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minjie; Hou, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaobo

    2017-08-15

    The increasing concern about environmental pollution and fossil fuel energies have urged researchers to seek renewable energy sources and methods for pollutant decomposition. Photocatalysis seems to be one of the most promising approaches, which uses natural sunlight to produce hydrogen from water and removes organic pollutants from the environment. Among the various photocatalysts, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) has recently attracted much attention as a metal-free photocatalyst; however, it did not give a satisfactory performance. In this report, hydrogenation and n/n junctions are combined to improve the photocatalytic activities of g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets for both photocatalytic hydrogen generation and the degradation of organic pollutants. The hydrogen evolution activity is enhanced 3.72 times, and the photocatalytic activity in pollution removal is improved 12.38 times from the synergistic effects of hydrogenation and n/n junctions in g-C 3 N 4 . Thus, this study may trigger more exciting discoveries in catalyst designs for various photocatalytic renewable energy applications.

  16. Detection of inhibitors of Candida albicans Cdr transporters using a diS-C3(3) fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Joanna; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Krasowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major cause of opportunistic and life-threatening, systemic fungal infections. Hence new antifungal agents, as well as new methods to treat fungal infections, are still needed. The application of inhibitors of drug-efflux pumps may increase the susceptibility of C. albicans to drugs. We developed a new fluorescence method that allows the in vivo activity evaluation of compounds inhibiting of C. albicans transporters. We show that the potentiometric dye 3,3'-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide diS-C3(3) is pumped out by both Cdr1 and Cdr2 transporters. The fluorescence labeling with diS-C3(3) enables a real-time observation of the activity of C. albicans Cdr1 and Cdr2 transporters. We demonstrate that enniatin A and beauvericin show different specificities toward these transporters. Enniatin A inhibits diS-C3(3) efflux by Cdr1 while beauvericin inhibits both Cdr1p and Cdr2p.

  17. Carbon isotopic evidence from paleosols for mixed C 3/C 4 vegetation in the Bogota Basin, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Germán; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2002-04-01

    Pollen reconstructions in the Bogota basin (Colombia) indicate the expansion of tropical high-altitude grassland (paramo) at the expense of Andean forests during glacial intervals. The carbon isotopic composition (δ 13C) of soil organic matter (SOM) can be a useful indicator of changes in vegetation affecting grasslands because it distinguishes between two groups of grasses (C 3 and C 4) adapted to different ecological environments. Values of SOM δ 13C were determined in four weathering profiles containing both modern (Holocene) soils and paleosols formed during the Last Glacial Stage. These profiles are located along an altitudinal transect in the Bogota basin, extending from 2550 to 3100 m. Values of SOM δ 13C in the topsoil horizons reflect those of the native C 3 vegetation that currently dominates the ecosystems in the Colombian Andes. Although C 4 grasses are currently negligible in the basin, elevated SOM δ 13C values indicative of C 4 plants were found in two Holocene soils. Environmental changes or ancient agricultural activities could explain the increased abundance of these plants in the basin during the late Holocene. Isotopic values in the studied paleosols revealed the presence of a mixed C 3/C 4 vegetation in the basin during the Last Glacial Stage, thus indicating the expansion of C 4 grasses. We hypothesized that lowered pCO 2 and possibly reduced rainfall resulted in the colonization of the tropical Andes by lowland C 4 grasses despite of prevailing cooler temperatures.

  18. Detection of inhibitors of Candida albicans Cdr transporters using a diS-C3(3 fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eSzczepaniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major cause of opportunistic and life-threatening, systemic fungal infections. Hence new antifungal agents, as well as new methods to treat fungal infections, are still needed. The application of inhibitors of drug-efflux pumps may increase the susceptibility of C. albicans to drugs. We developed a new fluorescence method that allows the in vivo activity evaluation of compounds inhibiting of C. albicans transporters. We show that the potentiometric dye 3,3′-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide diS-C3(3 is pumped out by both Cdr1 and Cdr2 transporters. The fluorescence labeling with diS-C3(3 enables a real-time observation of the activity of C. albicans Cdr1 and Cdr2 transporters. We demonstrate that enniatin A and beauvericin show different specificities toward these transporters. Enniatin A inhibits diS-C3(3 efflux by Cdr1 while beauvericin inhibits both Cdr1p and Cdr2p.

  19. Neutrophils Induce Astroglial Differentiation and Migration of Human Neural Stem Cells via C1q and C3a Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Francisca; Flanagan, Lisa; Uchida, Nobuko; Anderson, Aileen J.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory processes play a key role in pathophysiology of many neurologic diseases/trauma, but the effect of immune cells and factors on neurotransplantation strategies remains unclear. We hypothesized that cellular and humoral components of innate immunity alter fate and migration of human neural stem cells (hNSC). In these experiments, conditioned media collected from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) selectively increased hNSC astrogliogenesis and promoted cell migration in vitro. PMN were shown to generate C1q and C3a; exposure of hNSC to PMN-synthesized concentrations of these complement proteins promoted astrogliogenesis and cell migration. Furthermore, in vitro, Abs directed against C1q and C3a reversed the fate and migration effects observed. In a proof-of-concept in vivo experiment, blockade of C1q and C3a transiently altered hNSC migration and reversed astroglial fate after spinal cord injury. Collectively, these data suggest that modulation of the innate/humoral inflammatory microenvironment may impact the potential of cell-based therapies for recovery and repair following CNS pathology. PMID:28687659

  20. C2 translaminar screw as the optimal choice for atlantoaxial dislocation with C2-C3 congenital fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fengjin; Ni, Bin; Li, Songkai; Yang, Jian; Guo, Xiang; Zhu, Zhuangchen

    2010-12-01

    The entry point and trajectory are very important for transarticular screw (TAS) and C2 pedicle screw (PDS) plantation. When the physical size is not large enough for the screw passing through, an accurate entry point is the most important point for successful screw insertion without vertebral artery (VA) injury and spinal cord injury. Once the laminas of C2 and C3 are fused, the normal anatomic mark might disappear and the insertion point would be hard to find. As a result, the complication of TAS or PDS implantation increases rapidly. We used C2 translaminar screws (TLSs) with C1 lateral mass screws as the optimal fixation for atlantoaxial dislocation in order to reduce the risk of VA injury and spinal cord injury. A 37-year-old woman with atlantoaxial dislocation due to obsolete odontoid fracture complained of neck pain and myelopathy. Preoperative CT reconstruction showed C2-C3 fusion and small size of C2 isthmus. The patient underwent posterior atlantoaxial fusion using C1 lateral mass screws and C2 TLSs. The posterior arch of atlas was removed for decompression and fusion was done at C1-C2 joints by grafting bone fragments from the posterior iliac crest. TLSs combined with C1 lateral mass screws might be a useful technique for patients with atlantoaxial dislocation and C2-C3 fusion, especially with small size of C2 isthmus. Also, the fusion of posterior elements between C2 and C3 might be a relative contraindication for TAS fixation.

  1. Elevated expression of C3G protein in the peri-infarct myocardium of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Li, Gang; Wang, Zhihua; Liu, Xiaolan; Zhao, Wenju

    2013-01-01

    The integrin β1 subunit and its downstream molecules such as integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are indispensable to the inhibition of postinfarction cardiac remodeling, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. As a component of the integrin pathway, C3G (Crk SH3-domain-binding guanine nucleotide exchange factor) protein may also participate in postinfarction cardiac remodeling, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Experimental myocardial infarction (MI) and sham-operation (sham) models were set up in Sprague-Dawley rats. C3G protein expression in the myocardium in the sham group and in the non-infarcted myocardium of the peri-infarct zones in the MI group was examined by Western blot. The C3G protein expression in the myocardium was 0.22±0.06, n=8 in the post-sham 24-hour group; 0.29±0.10, n=8 in the post-MI 24-hour group; 0.22±0.07, n=8 in the post-sham 12-week group; and 0.56±0.14, n=8 in the post-MI 12-week group. The C3G protein expression in the myocardium in the post-MI 12-week group was significantly elevated compared to that in the post-sham 12-week group (p=0.0002), in the post-sham 24-hour group (p=0.0002), and in the post-MI 24-hour group (p=0.0006). C3G protein expression exhibits in the myocardium of rats. Furthermore, C3G protein expression is significantly elevated in the non-infarcted myocardium of the peri-infarct zones. The elevated C3G protein expression could participate in postinfarction cardiac remodeling, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and heart failure.

  2. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Shyamal K.; Saha, Malay C.

    2017-01-01

    Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS) are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder. PMID:28798766

  3. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K. Talukder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder.

  4. Effects of substitution on counterflow ignition and extinction of C3 and C4 alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-06-17

    Dwindling reserves and inherent uncertainty in the price of conventional fuels necessitates a search for alternative fuels. Alcohols represent a potential source of energy for the future. The structural features of an alcohol fuel have a direct impact on combustion properties. In particular, substitution in alcohols can alter the global combustion reactivity. In this study, experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the critical conditions of extinction and autoignition of n-propanol, 1-butanol, iso-propanol and iso-butanol in non-premixed diffusion flames. Experiments were carried out in the counterflow configuration, while simulations were conducted using a skeletal chemical kinetic model for the C3 and C4 alcohols. The fuel stream consists of the pre-vaporized fuel diluted with nitrogen, while the oxidizer stream is air. The experimental results show that autoignition temperatures of the tested alcohols increase in the following order: iso-propanol > iso-butanol > 1-butanol ≈ n-propanol. The simulated results for the branched alcohols agree with the experiments, while the autoignition temperature of 1-butanol is slightly higher than that of n-propanol. For extinction, the experiments show that the extinction limits of the tested fuels increase in the following order: n-propanol ≈ 1-butanol > iso-butanol > iso-propanol. The model suggests that the extinction limits of 1-butanol is slightly higher than n-propanol with extinction strain rate of iso-butanol and iso-propanol maintaining the experimentally observed trend. The transport weighted enthalpy (TWE) and radical index (Ri) concepts were utilized to rationalize the observed reactivity trends for these fuels.

  5. Differential freezing resistance and photoprotection in C3 and C4 eudicots and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P

    2013-05-01

    Globally, C4 plants dominate hot, open environments, but this general pattern is underpinned by important differences in the biogeography of C4 lineages. In particular, the species richness of C4 Poaceae (grasses) increases strongly with increasing temperature, whereas that of the major C4 eudicot group Chenopodiaceae correlates positively with aridity. Freezing tolerance is a crucial determinant of biogeographical relationships with temperature and is mediated by photodamage and cellular disruption by desiccation, but little is known about differences between C4 families. This study hypothesized that there is a greater risk of freezing damage via these mechanisms in C4 Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae, that freezing protection differs between the taxonomic groups, and that freezing tolerance of species is linked to arid habitat preference. Chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and freezing injury were compared in four C3 and six C4 species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae from the same Mongolian flora. Contrary to expectations, freezing-induced leaf mortality and photodamage were lower in Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae species, and unrelated to photosynthetic pathway. The freezing resistance of Poaceae species resulted from constitutive protection and cold acclimation and an ability to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Freezing protection was associated with low osmotic potential and low tissue elasticity, and freezing damage was accompanied by electrolyte leakage, consistent with cell-membrane disruption by ice. Both Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae had the potential to develop cold acclimation and withstand freezing during the growing season, which conflicted with the hypothesis. Instead, freezing tolerance was more closely associated with life history and ecological preference in these Mongolian species.

  6. Differential freezing resistance and photoprotection in C3 and C4 eudicots and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, C4 plants dominate hot, open environments, but this general pattern is underpinned by important differences in the biogeography of C4 lineages. In particular, the species richness of C4 Poaceae (grasses) increases strongly with increasing temperature, whereas that of the major C4 eudicot group Chenopodiaceae correlates positively with aridity. Freezing tolerance is a crucial determinant of biogeographical relationships with temperature and is mediated by photodamage and cellular disruption by desiccation, but little is known about differences between C4 families. This study hypothesized that there is a greater risk of freezing damage via these mechanisms in C4 Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae, that freezing protection differs between the taxonomic groups, and that freezing tolerance of species is linked to arid habitat preference. Chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and freezing injury were compared in four C3 and six C4 species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae from the same Mongolian flora. Contrary to expectations, freezing-induced leaf mortality and photodamage were lower in Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae species, and unrelated to photosynthetic pathway. The freezing resistance of Poaceae species resulted from constitutive protection and cold acclimation and an ability to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Freezing protection was associated with low osmotic potential and low tissue elasticity, and freezing damage was accompanied by electrolyte leakage, consistent with cell-membrane disruption by ice. Both Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae had the potential to develop cold acclimation and withstand freezing during the growing season, which conflicted with the hypothesis. Instead, freezing tolerance was more closely associated with life history and ecological preference in these Mongolian species. PMID:23599273

  7. "Invar"-like behavior in compressed Fe7C3 with implication for deep carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, J.; Ikuta, D.

    2014-12-01

    Iron carbide Fe7C3 has recently emerged as a leading candidate component of the inner core because it is likely the first phase to solidify from a liquid containing iron and a small amount of carbon, and previous studies suggest that it provides a good match for the density of the inner core under relevant conditions. Pressure-induced magnetic transitions have been observed in Fe7C3 (Chen et al., 2012). The pressure of the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition remains controversial and its effect on equation of state (EoS) is unclear, thus introducing uncertainties in estimating the density of Fe7C3 under inner core pressures. Here we report the lattice parameters and unit cell volume of hexagonal Fe7C3 at 300 K and up to 70 GPa, obtained through synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements using a diamond anvil cell. The experiments used fine powder of Fe7C3 that was synthesized in the multi-anvil apparatus at the University of Michigan. The sample was embedded in neon pressure medium together with Au powder and ruby spheres as additional pressure markers. We observed significant softening at 5~8 GPa, similar to the reported "invar"-like behavior in Fe-Ni alloy (Dubrovinsky et al., 2001). For comparison, the compression curve of iron in the same loading turned out to be smooth as expected, which confirms that the abnormal behavior in Fe7C3 compression curve is due to its own property change and not an artifact. The new data allow us to establish the equation-of-state (EoS) of Fe7C3 and then estimate the density of Fe7C3 at inner core conditions. References: Chen, B., Gao, L.L., Lavina, B., Dera, P., Alp, E.E., Zhao, J.Y., Li, J., 2012. Magneto-elastic coupling in compressed Fe7C3 supports carbon in Earth's inner core. Geophys Res Lett 39. Dubrovinsky, L., Dubrovinskaia, N., Abrikosov, I.A., Vennstrom, M., Westman, F., Carlson, S., van Schilfgaarde, M., Johansson, B., 2001. Pressure-induced invar effect in Fe-Ni alloys. Phys Rev Lett 86, 4851-4854.

  8. A review on g-C3N4-based photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiuqing; Xie, Jun; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most appealing and attractive technologies, heterogeneous photocatalysis has been utilized to directly harvest, convert and store renewable solar energy for producing sustainable and green solar fuels and a broad range of environmental applications. Due to their unique physicochemical, optical and electrical properties, a wide variety of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts have been designed to drive various reduction and oxidation reactions under light irradiation with suitable wavelengths. In this review, we have systematically summarized the photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts, including fundamental mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis, advantages, challenges and the design considerations of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts. The versatile properties of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts are highlighted, including their crystal structural, surface phisicochemical, stability, optical, adsorption, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical and electronic properties. Various design strategies are also thoroughly reviewed, including band-gap engineering, defect control, dimensionality tuning, pore texture tailoring, surface sensitization, heterojunction construction, co-catalyst and nanocarbon loading. Many important applications are also addressed, such as photocatalytic water splitting (H2 evolution and overall water splitting), degradation of pollutants, carbon dioxide reduction, selective organic transformations and disinfection. Through reviewing the important state-of-the-art advances on this topic, it may provide new opportunities for designing and constructing highly effective g-C3N4-based photocatalysts for various applications in photocatalysis and other related fields, such as solar cell, photoelectrocatalysis, electrocatalysis, lithium battery, supercapacitor, fuel cell and separation and purification.

  9. Concomitant Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis and C3 Glomerulonephritis Causing Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Aadel A; Davis, Jason T

    2016-02-05

    A 75-year-old male with no prior history of vasculitis or renal deficiency presented with a history of 36 hours of anterior epistaxis, one month of worsening shortness of breath, severe anemia requiring transfusion, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy with INR 4.9, and renal failure requiring hemodialysis. A peripheral blood smear revealed no evidence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. We performed an autoimmune workup, which revealed high levels of serum serine protease 3 antibody (C-ANCA), elevated rheumatoid factor, low serum C3, and normal levels of serum C4. We performed a renal biopsy and then performed light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on the resulting samples. This revealed that approximately half of the sampled glomeruli were globally sclerotic, consistent with severe renal disease. Among the non-sclerotic glomeruli, several demonstrated diffuse granular mesangial staining for C3, while other glomeruli had small crescents, consistent with a mixed picture of C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) and crescentic glomerulonephritis. The patient responded well to treatment with cyclophosphamide and prednisone, with a resolution of his acute issues, significant improvement in kidney function, and was eventually weaned from routine hemodialysis. In summary, this is a unique case of a patient presenting with features of both granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and C3GN.

  10. Imidazole modified g-C3N4 photocatalyst: Structural characterization and versatile energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Liu, Qianqian; Chai, Yuanyuan; Ren, Jia; Dai, Wei-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Novel imidazole modified g-C3N4 were firstly synthesized via a facile one-pot thermo-induced co-condensation method. Characterization results showed that imidazole modification can improve the visible light harvesting, interfacial charge transfer and separation of g-C3N4, without destroying its pristine framework structure. The as-obtained imidazole modified g-C3N4 showed remarkably enhanced and rather stable photocatalytic performance in H2 evolution, photo-degradation of water contaminants and selective photo-oxidation of benzyl alcohol, demonstrating its all-round applications as a versatile photocatalyst. The weight ratio between imidazole and urea was well tuned and the optimal photocatalytic activity was obtained, which shows CNU-I50 sample (50 mg imidazole in 15 g urea) possesses the highest hydrogen evolution rate of 2150 μmol g-1 h-1, superior to most of the previous reported g-C3N4 materials. These results suggest that those imidazole modified g-C3N4 materials are potential photocatalyst when applied to solar energy conversion, water purification and selective photosynthesis reactions.

  11. Plasma levels of Th17-related cytokines and complement C3 correlated with aggressive behavior in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haozhe; Zhang, Qinting; Li, Ningning; Wang, Fan; Xiang, Hui; Zhang, Zongfeng; Su, Yousong; Huang, Yueqi; Zhang, Shengyu; Zhao, Guoqing; Zhou, Rubai; Mao, Ling; Lin, Zhiguang; Cai, Weixiong; Fang, Yiru; Xie, Bin; Zhao, Min; Hong, Wu

    2016-12-30

    Increasing evidence indicates that immune inflammatory processes, especially autoimmune reaction, should be considered in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and aggressive behavior. The present study aimed to explore the correlation between immune factors (C3 and Th17-related cytokines) and aggressive behavior in schizophrenia patients. Forty schizophrenia patients and forty age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Blood samples were assessed by ELISA upon enrollment. Positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and modified overt aggression scale (MOAS) were used to estimate the severity and aggressive symptoms of schizophrenia patients. Plasma levels of IL-17, IL-23, and TGF-β1 in schizophrenia patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls [(37.63±17.82) vs. (29.34±10.38)pg/ml, p=0.02; (101.40±135.26) vs. (13.09±5.94) pg/ml, p=0.01; (2864.57±2163.61) vs. (1839.69±1797.73)pg/ml, p=0.04], whereas C3 levels were significantly lower in schizophrenia patients [( 120,479.67± 65,612.50) vs. ( 208,060.21± 217,008.21)ng/ml, p=0.02]. IL-17, IL-23, and TGF-β1 levels were positively related to total scores of MOAS (p=0.02, p=0.02 and p=0.03, respectively) and PANSS (p=0.04, p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively), whereas C3 levels were negatively related to total PANSS scores (p=0.03). IL-17 and IL-23 levels were positively correlated with PANSS excited component scores (p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively). Our findings suggested that the Th17-related cytokine levels were positively related to the severity of schizophrenia and aggressive behavior, whereas C3 levels were negatively related to the severity of schizophrenia. This study demonstrated that elevated levels of Th17-related cytokines and decreased levels of C3 could be potential biomarkers for schizophrenia and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 activity, apolipoprotein C3 loss-of-function variants and cardiovascular disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Yashashwi; Sun, Wensheng; Polfus, Linda M; Folsom, Aaron R; Heiss, Gerardo; Sharrett, A Richey; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ballantyne, Christie M; Hoogeveen, Ron C

    2015-08-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) activity was associated with higher CHD risk in a meta-analysis, which was partly dependent on circulating lipid levels. Apolipoprotein C3 loss-of-function (ApoC3 LOF) mutations were related with reduced postprandial lipemia and CHD risk. However, the association of LpPLA2 activity with ApoC3 LOF is not known. We examined the association of LpPLA2 activity and ApoC3 LOF mutations and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) (defined as coronary heart disease [CHD] plus ischemic stroke) and all-cause mortality in the biracial longitudinal Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study. The mean LpPLA2 activity was 229.3 nmol/min/mL and was higher in men and whites. LpPLA2 activity correlated positively with atherogenic dyslipidemia. ApoC3 LOF carriers had lower LpPLA2 activity levels compared to non-carriers, and there was inverse association between LpPLA2 activity and ApoC3 LOF mutations in whites. In a fully adjusted model, greater LpPLA2 activity was independently associated with incident CVD (HR 1.35, 1.09-1.68 for highest vs. lowest quintile), which was mainly explained by its association with CHD, and was also associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.65, 1.38-1.98). Greater LpPLA2 activity was associated with increased CHD and all-cause mortality in both whites and African-Americans in the ARIC study. The inverse relation between LpPLA2 activity and ApoC3 LOF mutations suggests that delayed lipoprotein clearance may at least in part explain the observed association of LpPLA2 activity with increased CVD risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of cubic and orthorhombic C3A hydration in presence of gypsum and lime

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.

    2009-02-26

    Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to study the microstructural changes and phase development that take place during the hydration of cubic (pure) and orthorhombic (Na-doped) tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and gypsum in the absence and presence of lime. The results demonstrate that important differences occur in the hydration of each C3A polymorph and gypsum when no lime is added; orthorhombic C3A reacts faster with gypsum than the cubic phase, forming longer ettringite needles; however, the presence of lime slows down the formation of ettringite in the orthorhombic sample. Additional rheometric tests showed the possible effects on the setting time in these cementitious mixes.

  14. Oxygen evolution from tomato (C3) plants with and without mycorrhiza: Open photoacoustic cell measurement and statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Rocha, S.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Huerta Franco, R.; Madueño, L.; Olalde-Portugal, V.

    2005-06-01

    Mycorrhiza, a common association between root plants and mycorrhizic fungus provides some benefits to the plant, improving its nutrient uptake and increasing the drought resistance as well as the photosynthetic rate. Open photoacoustic (OPC) cell technique was used here to study oxygen evolution from C3 plants (tomato) with and with mycorrhizic fungus (Glomus Fasciculatum) under the lighting conditions similar to those characteristic for the mid-day sunlight. The OPC was found capable of discriminating between the two contributions to photoacoustic signal. The experimental evidence was collected for statistically significant differences between photobaric signals from plants with and without mycorrhiza.

  15. Evidence for Transaldolase Activity in the Isolated Heart Supplied with [U-13C3]Glycerol*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eunsook S.; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of glycerol metabolism in the heart have largely emphasized its role in triglyceride synthesis. However, glycerol may also be oxidized in the citric acid cycle, and glycogen synthesis from glycerol has been reported in the nonmammalian myocardium. The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that glycerol may be metabolized to glycogen in mammalian heart. Isolated rat hearts were supplied with a mixture of substrates including glucose, lactate, pyruvate, octanoate, [U-13C3]glycerol, and 2H2O to probe various metabolic pathways including glycerol oxidation, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and carbon sources of stored glycogen. NMR analysis confirmed that glycogen production from the level of the citric acid cycle did not occur and that the glycerol contribution to oxidation in the citric acid cycle was negligible in the presence of alternative substrates. Quite unexpectedly, 13C from [U-13C3]glycerol appeared in glycogen in carbon positions 4–6 of glucosyl units but none in positions 1–3. The extent of [4,5,6-13C3]glucosyl unit enrichment in glycogen was enhanced by insulin but decreased by H2O2. Given that triose phosphate isomerase is generally assumed to fully equilibrate carbon tracers in the triose pool, the marked 13C asymmetry in glycogen can only be attributed to conversion of [U-13C3]glycerol to [U-13C3]dihydroxyacetone phosphate and [U-13C3]glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate followed by rearrangements in the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway involving transaldolase that places this 13C-enriched 3-carbon unit only in the bottom half of hexose phosphate molecules contributing to glycogen. PMID:23235149

  16. Evidence for transaldolase activity in the isolated heart supplied with [U-13C3]glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eunsook S; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2013-02-01

    Studies of glycerol metabolism in the heart have largely emphasized its role in triglyceride synthesis. However, glycerol may also be oxidized in the citric acid cycle, and glycogen synthesis from glycerol has been reported in the nonmammalian myocardium. The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that glycerol may be metabolized to glycogen in mammalian heart. Isolated rat hearts were supplied with a mixture of substrates including glucose, lactate, pyruvate, octanoate, [U-(13)C(3)]glycerol, and (2)H(2)O to probe various metabolic pathways including glycerol oxidation, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and carbon sources of stored glycogen. NMR analysis confirmed that glycogen production from the level of the citric acid cycle did not occur and that the glycerol contribution to oxidation in the citric acid cycle was negligible in the presence of alternative substrates. Quite unexpectedly, (13)C from [U-(13)C(3)]glycerol appeared in glycogen in carbon positions 4-6 of glucosyl units but none in positions 1-3. The extent of [4,5,6-(13)C(3)]glucosyl unit enrichment in glycogen was enhanced by insulin but decreased by H(2)O(2). Given that triose phosphate isomerase is generally assumed to fully equilibrate carbon tracers in the triose pool, the marked (13)C asymmetry in glycogen can only be attributed to conversion of [U-(13)C(3)]glycerol to [U-(13)C(3)]dihydroxyacetone phosphate and [U-(13)C(3)]glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate followed by rearrangements in the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway involving transaldolase that places this (13)C-enriched 3-carbon unit only in the bottom half of hexose phosphate molecules contributing to glycogen.

  17. Identification of C3b-Binding Small-Molecule Complement Inhibitors Using Cheminformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Brandon L; Skaff, D Andrew; Chatterjee, Arindam; Hanning, Anders; Walker, John K; Wyckoff, Gerald J; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2017-05-01

    The complement system is an elegantly regulated biochemical cascade formed by the collective molecular recognition properties and proteolytic activities of more than two dozen membrane-bound or serum proteins. Complement plays diverse roles in human physiology, such as acting as a sentry against invading microorganisms, priming of the adaptive immune response, and removal of immune complexes. However, dysregulation of complement can serve as a trigger for a wide range of human diseases, which include autoimmune, inflammatory, and degenerative conditions. Despite several potential advantages of modulating complement with small-molecule inhibitors, small-molecule drugs are highly underrepresented in the current complement-directed therapeutics pipeline. In this study, we have employed a cheminformatics drug discovery approach based on the extensive structural and functional knowledge available for the central proteolytic fragment of the cascade, C3b. Using parallel in silico screening methodologies, we identified 45 small molecules that putatively bind C3b near ligand-guided functional hot spots. Surface plasmon resonance experiments resulted in the validation of seven dose-dependent C3b-binding compounds. Competition-based biochemical assays demonstrated the ability of several C3b-binding compounds to interfere with binding of the original C3b ligand that guided their discovery. In vitro assays of complement function identified a single complement inhibitory compound, termed cmp-5, and mechanistic studies of the cmp-5 inhibitory mode revealed it acts at the level of C5 activation. This study has led to the identification of a promising new class of C3b-binding small-molecule complement inhibitors and, to our knowledge, provides the first demonstration of cheminformatics-based, complement-directed drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Management of C2 fractures using Iso-C(3D) guidance: a single institution's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Keric, Naureen; Giese, Alf

    2012-10-01

    About 20 % of cervical fractures involve the C2 vertebra. Many surgical techniques have been proposed according to the type of fracture. However, morbidity and mortality of these procedures is often high, which can be attributed to the old age and significant co-morbidities of the affected population and the complex anatomy of C2. To target the latter, several authors have applied iso-C(3D) guidance for most of the common techniques. We here present our experience using a fixed protocol and iso-C(3D) guidance in all cases of traumatic C2 fractures. Sixteen patients were operated upon between April 2011 and April 2012 using Iso-C(3D) guidance, following a fixed routine protocol. The screw position was verified by CT-scanning. Intraoperative and clinical parameters were evaluated. Six patients received anterior lag-screw fixation of odontoid fractures. Two underwent isolated posterior lag-screw fixation of hangman's fracture. C1 and/or C3 lateral mass, and/or C2 isthmic screws were placed in eight patients. No screw had to be revised, 3 minor breachings of the cortical bone of 3D) guided drilling could be applied for anterior and posterior procedures, leaving only two variables. This led to rapid acceptance of the technique among OR-staff and surgeons, who felt comfortable with iso-C(3D) guidance after only five cases. Iso-C(3D) guidance is a safe and straightforward technique for anterior and posterior screw placement in the upper cervical spine.

  19. A quantum model for bending vibrations and thermodynamic properties of C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. F.; Pearson, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    The investigation reported was conducted to clarify the thermodynamic properties of C3 by further developing the limit to the partition function suggested by Strauss and Thiele (1967). A quantum solution for the energy levels of a quadratically perturbed square well potential is presented and the consistency of this limit with observed energy levels is established. In the process a more complete physical picture of the bending C3 molecules emerges. The values of entropy deduced from various measurements of graphite pressure are compared with this limit, and the thermodynamic properties predicted for the limiting case are evaluated.

  20. C3 and C4 photosynthesis models: an overview from the perspective of crop modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, X; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly three decades ago Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry published a biochemical model for C3 photosynthetic rates (the FvCB model). The model predicts net photosynthesis (A) as the minimum of the Rubisco-limited rate of CO2 assimilation (Ac) and the electron transport-limited rate of CO2 assimilation (Aj). Given its simplicity and the growing availability of the required enzyme kinetic constants, the FvCB model has been used for a wide range of studies, from analysing underlying C3 leaf bi...

  1. A study of immunoglobulins and complements (C3 &C4 in alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of serum Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA and complements (C3 and C4 was carried out in 100 cases of alopecia areata as per method described by Mancini (1965.[1] Clinically patients were divided in two groups, alopecia areata circumscribed (group I and severe alopecia areata (group II. Significant decrease in levels of one or more Immunoglobulins were observed in most of the patients. However, Serum complements (C3 and C4 were within range of normal control values

  2. Surface complement C3 fragments and cellular binding of microparticles in patients with SLE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winberg, Line Kjær; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Jacobsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine microparticles (MPs) from patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) by determining the cellular origin of the MPs, quantifying attached fragments of complement component 3 (C3) and assessing the ability of MPs to bind to circulating phagocytes and erythrocytes. These fea......Objectives: To examine microparticles (MPs) from patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) by determining the cellular origin of the MPs, quantifying attached fragments of complement component 3 (C3) and assessing the ability of MPs to bind to circulating phagocytes and erythrocytes...

  3. Photocatalytic C??H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g??C3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    A highly selective and sustainable method has been developed for the oxidation of methyl arenes and their analogues. The VO@g-C3N4 catalyst is very efficient in the C??H activation and oxygen insertion reaction resulting in formation of the corresponding carbonyl compounds and phenols.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Verma, S., R.B. Nasir Baig, M. Nadagouda , and R. Varma. Photocatalytic C−H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g‑C3N4. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 4(4): 2333-2336, (2016).

  4. Protective role of complement C3 against cytokine-mediated beta cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Santos, R. S.; Marroqui, L.; Grieco, F. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic islet inflammation and β-cell destruction by pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators. The complement system, a major component of the immune system, has been recently shown to also act...... in metabolic organs, such as liver, adipose tissue, and pancreas. In the present study we identified complement C3 as an important hub of a cytokine-modified complement network in human islets and characterized the role of C3 in β-cell survival....

  5. Acute myeloid leukemia is a disease associated with HLA-C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeongsook

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to observe human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations with human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a large population, in order to investigate the roles of HLA in leukemogenesis. Furthermore, we examined the HLA association according to morphological, cytogenetic, immunological, and clinical classifications. We performed HLA genotyping, bone marrow studies, cytogenetic analyses, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses. A clinical outcome database was constructed, and the HLA frequency, gene frequency, relative risk (RR), linkage disequilibrium, and the 2-locus and 3-locus haplotype frequency using the Mattiuz formula were calculated. For the healthy controls, Korean HLA data published by Park and co-workers were used. AML was found to be associated with HLA-C3 (RR = 1.46; p classification, acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) was associated with HLA-C3 (47.2 vs. 74.1%; RR = 3.13; p = 0.005), in cytogenetic classification, del(9), which is frequently observed in AML-M4, was also associated with HLA-C3 (47.2 vs. 100%; RR = 13.43; p = 0.024), and in clinical classification, incomplete remission was associated with HLA-C3 as well (47.2 vs. 63.2%; RR = 1.92; p = 0.002). No correlations between AML and immunological classifications were observed. Moreover, and in terms of 2-locus haplotypes, AML was found to be associated with HLA-C3/B62 (HLA-C3 gene frequency 0.3415; HLA-B62 gene frequency 0.1361; linkage disequilibrium 0.0136; haplotype frequency 4.15 vs. 6.0%; p classification, incomplete remission (linkage disequilibrium 0.0136; haplotype frequency 4.15 vs. 13.6%; p = 0.013) and relapse (linkage disequilibrium 0.0136; haplotype frequency 4.15 vs. 71.0%; p = 0.044) were associated with HLA-C3/B62, whereas no association was observed for FAB, cytogenetic and immunological classifications. No association was observed for the 3-locus haplotype. The HLA-C3 antigen and the 2-locus haplotype are associated with AML. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Will C3 crops enhanced with the C4 CO2-concentrating mechanism live up to their full potential (yield)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driever, Steven M; Kromdijk, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    Sustainably feeding the world's growing population in future is a great challenge and can be achieved only by increasing yield per unit land surface. Efficiency of light interception and biomass partitioning into harvestable parts (harvest index) has been improved substantially via plant breeding in modern crops. The conversion efficiency of intercepted light into biomass still holds promise for yield increase. This conversion efficiency is to a great extent constrained by the metabolic capacity of photosynthesis, defined by the characteristics of its components. Genetic manipulations are increasingly applied to lift these constraints, by improving CO2 or substrate availability for the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. Although these manipulations can lead to improved potential growth rates, this increase might be offset by a decrease in performance under stress conditions. In this review, we assess possible positive or negative effects of the introduction of a CO2-concentrating mechanism in C3 crop species on crop potential productivity and yield robustness.

  7. The effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration on carbon isotope fractionation in C3 land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Jahren, A. Hope

    2012-11-01

    Because atmospheric carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of all land-plant carbon, workers have suggested that pCO2 level may exert control over the amount of 13C incorporated into plant tissues. However, experiments growing plants under elevated pCO2 in both chamber and field settings, as well as meta-analyses of ecological and agricultural data, have yielded a wide range of estimates for the effect of pCO2 on the net isotopic discrimination (Δδ13Cp) between plant tissue (δ13Cp) and atmospheric CO2 (δ13CCO2). Because plant stomata respond sensitively to plant water status and simultaneously alter the concentration of pCO2 inside the plant (ci) relative to outside the plant (ca), any experiment that lacks environmental control over water availability across treatments could result in additional isotopic variation sufficient to mask or cancel the direct influence of pCO2 on Δδ13Cp. We present new data from plant growth chambers featuring enhanced dynamic stabilization of moisture availability and relative humidity, in addition to providing constant light, nutrient, δ13CCO2, and pCO2 level for up to four weeks of plant growth. Within these chambers, we grew a total of 191 C3 plants (128 Raphanus sativus plants and 63 Arabidopsis thaliana) across fifteen levels of pCO2 ranging from 370 to 4200 ppm. Three types of plant tissue were harvested and analyzed for carbon isotope value: above-ground tissues, below-ground tissues, and leaf-extracted nC31-alkanes. We observed strong hyperbolic correlations (R ⩾ 0.94) between the pCO2 level and Δδ13Cp for each type of plant tissue analyzed; furthermore the linear relationships previously suggested by experiments across small (10-350 ppm) changes in pCO2 (e.g., 300-310 ppm or 350-700 ppm) closely agree with the amount of fractionation per ppm increase in pCO2 calculated from our hyperbolic relationship. In this way, our work is consistent with, and provides a unifying relationship for, previous work on carbon isotopes

  8. Differences in drought sensitivities and photosynthetic limitations between co-occurring C3 and C4 (NADP-ME) Panicoid grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Brad; Frole, Kristen; Gilbert, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    The success of C4 plants lies in their ability to attain greater efficiencies of light, water and nitrogen use under high temperature, providing an advantage in arid, hot environments. However, C4 grasses are not necessarily less sensitive to drought than C3 grasses and are proposed to respond with greater metabolic limitations, while the C3 response is predominantly stomatal. The aims of this study were to compare the drought and recovery responses of co-occurring C3 and C4 NADP-ME grasses from the subfamily Panicoideae and to determine stomatal and metabolic contributions to the observed response. Six species of locally co-occurring grasses, C3) species Alloteropsis semialata subsp. eckloniana, Panicum aequinerve and Panicum ecklonii, and C4 (NADP-ME) species Heteropogon contortus, Themeda triandra and Tristachya leucothrix, were established in pots then subjected to a controlled drought followed by re-watering. Water potentials, leaf gas exchange and the response of photosynthetic rate to internal CO2 concentrations were determined on selected occasions during the drought and re-watering treatments and compared between species and photosynthetic types. Leaves of C4 species of grasses maintained their photosynthetic advantage until water deficits became severe, but lost their water-use advantage even under conditions of mild drought. Declining C4 photosynthesis with water deficit was mainly a consequence of metabolic limitations to CO2 assimilation, whereas, in the C3 species, stomatal limitations had a prevailing role in the drought-induced decrease in photosynthesis. The drought-sensitive metabolism of the C4 plants could explain the observed slower recovery of photosynthesis on re-watering, in comparison with C3 plants which recovered a greater proportion of photosynthesis through increased stomatal conductance. Within the Panicoid grasses, C4 (NADP-ME) species are metabolically more sensitive to drought than C3 species and recover more slowly from drought.

  9. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Weight Loss on the Complement Component C3 After Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Abril, Segundo Á; Morillas-Ariño, Carlos; Ponce-Marco, Jose L; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa; Delgado-Gomis, Fernando; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Rocha, Milagros

    2016-11-01

    The C3 complement component (C3c) is increasingly recognized as a cardiometabolic risk factor, but how it is affected after weight loss through gastric bypass is a question yet to be answered. A total of 66 obese patients underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass. Anthropometric parameters, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, liver enzymes, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and C3c levels were evaluated at baseline and at 1 and 5 years post-surgery. All anthropometric and biochemical parameters improved significantly after surgery, although a deterioration was detected with respect to the percentage of excess of weight loss, insulin, TC, LDLc, and lactate dehydrogenase 5 years post-surgery. Despite this, a remission rate of 84 % was observed in the presence of metabolic syndrome after 5 years follow-up. hsCRP and C3c were reduced significantly after surgery and maintained throughout the experimental period. In addition, C3c was correlated with BMI and insulin at all time points. The multivariate regression model, in which C3c was a dependent variable, revealed that aspartate aminotransferase and BMI were independent variables at baseline, alkaline phosphatase and insulin were independent at 1 year post-surgery, and insulin, BMI, and TC were independent at 5 years post-surgery. C3c may be a marker of the chronic inflammatory process underlying insulin resistance. Its association with BMI and liver enzymes supports a major role in metabolic activity, although future research is needed to clarify the nature of the molecular mechanisms involved and the physiological significance of these findings.

  10. Formation of Mg2C3 phase in N220 nanocarbon containing low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports a non-conventional microstructurewith sequicarbide (Mg 2 C 3 ) formation in N220 nanocarboncontaining low carbon magnesia carbon composition having magnesium metal powder as antioxidant. 5 wt% graphitecontaining MgO-C refractory with and without 1 wt% N220 nanocarbon is studied and 2 ...

  11. Contribution of root respiration to soil respiration in a C3/C4 mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spatial and temporal variations of soil respiration were studied from May 2004 to June 2005 in a C3/C4 mixed grassland of Japan. The linear regression relationship between soil respiration and root biomass was used to determine the contribution of root respiration to soil respiration. The highest soil respiration rate of ...

  12. Contribution of root respiration to soil respiration in a C3/C4 mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The spatial and temporal variations of soil respiration were studied from May 2004 to June 2005 in a C3/C4 mixed grassland of Japan. The linear regression relationship between soil respiration and root biomass was used to determine the contribution of root respiration to soil respiration. The highest soil respiration rate of.

  13. Extension of a biochemical model for the generalized stoichiometry of electron transport limited C3 photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Oijen, van M.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The widely used steady-state model of Farquhar et al. (Planta 149: 78-90, 1980) for C-3 photosynthesis was developed on the basis of linear whole-chain (non-cyclic) electron transport. In this model, calculation of the RuBP-regeneration limited CO2-assimilation rate depends on whether it is

  14. Polymorphism of serum proteins (C3, BF, HP and TF) of six populations in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J E; Sarmiento, P; Briceno, I; Papiha, S S

    1989-01-01

    Five hundred and eighty-five serum samples from six populations in Colombia (Baranoa, Choco, Uitoto Indians, Subachoque, Pasto and Urban Bogotan) were investigated for four genetic markers. For the HP, C3 and BF systems but not for TF there is a wide range of gene frequency variation and these differences are compared with those in the few previous studies.

  15. Classification of DES16C3dmp as a SLSN-I by VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M.; Smith, M.; Prajs, S.; D'Andrea, C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Lidman, C.; Carollo, D.; Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Lewis, G. F.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES16C3dmp as a type I super-luminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectra (380-950nm) were obtained using the X-SHOOTER instrument on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO).

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C3AB-1IXXA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -SDCIV > --EEEEE> ATOM 1855 CA A...> A 1IXXA NWIEAESKTCLG ...> GGG EEE> ATOM 739 CA ASN A 93 37.060 20.565 6.952 1.00 ...entryIDChain>1C3AB SKTTD--NQWLS ...>E -- EEEE> ATOM 1923 CA SER B 301 12.630 48.414 -0.498

  17. Synthesis of C3-symmetric tri(alkylamino) guests and their interaction with cyclodextrins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednaříková, T.; Tošner, Z.; Horský, Jiří; Jindřich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 81, 1-2 (2015), s. 141-152 ISSN 0923-0750 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclodextrin * supramolecular interactions * C3-symmetric guests Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.253, year: 2015

  18. Synthesis of 2-substituted tryptophans via a C3- to C2-alkyl migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 3-substituted indoles with dehydroalanine (Dha derivatives under Lewis acid-mediated conditions has been investigated. The formation of 2-substituted tryptophans is proposed to occur through a selective alkylative dearomatization–cyclization followed by C3- to C2-alkyl migration and rearomatization.

  19. C3 and C4 photosynthesis models: an overview from the perspective of crop modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly three decades ago Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry published a biochemical model for C3 photosynthetic rates (the FvCB model). The model predicts net photosynthesis (A) as the minimum of the Rubisco-limited rate of CO2 assimilation (Ac) and the electron transport-limited rate of CO2

  20. Selective oxidation of alcohols using photoactive VO@g-C3N4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A photoactive VO@g-C3N4 catalyst has been developed for the selective oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. The visible light mediated activity of the catalyst could be attributed to photoactive graphitic carbon nitrides surface.

  1. Formation of Mg2C3 phase in N220 nanocarbon containing low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-18

    Aug 18, 2017 ... In this report, nail-type sequicarbide (Mg2C3) appeared in magnesia carbon refractory. Besides that, with reference to the literature, crystalized graphite can be obtained from mag- nesium carbide at relatively low temprature, which reflects in our hot strength and corrosion resistance study. 2. Materials and ...

  2. Photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic amines using MnO2@g-C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An efficient and direct oxidation of aromatic amines to aromatic azo-compounds has been achieved using a MnO2@g-C3N4 catalyst under visible light as a source of...

  3. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3-CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-03-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3-CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3–CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-01-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3–CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. PMID:26717954

  5. C3Conflict a Simulation Environment for Studying Teamwork in Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Platon leader goes to E5. Structured Log Files SQL Database Figure 13. The log process in C3Conflict. At the conclusion of a session, the log...Diary 10:56 Platon leader goes to E5. Structured Log Files SQL Database Santa Anna IT Research Institute www.C2LearningLabs.com Behavioral indicators

  6. Serum Complement C3 and C4 Levels in Relation to Diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to measure serum complement C3 and C4 concentrations in patients of lupus nephritis to see if these simple measurements would give useful information to the clinician managing such patients.Method: A total of 52 samples were obtained from SLE patients, 17 suffering from ...

  7. Photocatalytic C−H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g‑C3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    A highly selective and sustainable method has beendeveloped for the oxidation of methyl arenes and their analogues.The VO@g-C3N4 catalyst is very efficient in the C−H activation andoxygen insertion reaction resulting in formation of the correspondingcarbonyl compounds and phenols...

  8. C3-dependent mechanism of microglial priming relevant to multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaglia, Valeria; Hughes, Timothy R.; Donev, Rossen M.; Ruseva, Marieta M.; Wu, Xiaobo; Huitinga, Inge; Baas, Frank; Neal, James W.; Morgan, B. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Microglial priming predisposes the brain to neurodegeneration and affects disease progression. The signal to switch from the quiescent to the primed state is unknown. We show that deleting the C3 convertase regulator complement receptor 1-related protein y (Crry) induces microglial priming. Mice

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SUPERPLASTICIZER C-3 BASED ON THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE MIXES AND CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available On the example of fine-grained concrete with addition of superplasticizer C-3 and constituents of its factions of different molecular weight the influence of molecular weight and dosage of additions on the mobility of concrete mixture and the hardening of concrete is studied.

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AD0C-3GJFK [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AD0C-3GJFK 1AD0 3GJF C K QTVLTQSPSSLSVSVGDRVTITCRASSS----VTYIHWY...tryChain> 3GJF K 3GJFK TGTSRDVGGY...56 SER CA 347 3GJF K 3GJFK...>3GJF K 3GJFK PVKAG--VETTK 3GJF K 3GJFK QVTHE--GNTVE

  11. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of gC 3N4 hybridized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The highly effective g-C 3 N 4 hybridized CdS photocatalysts were synthesized via a successive calcination andhydrothermal process. The as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electronmicroscopy and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic ...

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C3N4/ZnO: the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photocatalytic activities of prepared samples were investigated under the illumination of blacklight and fluorescent lamps as the low wattage light source. The C 3 N 4 /ZnO showed a better photocatalytic activity than ZnO to degrade a methylene blue (MB) dye solution using blacklight lamps, but there is no significant ...

  13. 3C3R modified PBL pediatric teaching of Chinese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haihong; Qian, Jihong; Wang, Lianwen; Yuan, Xiaojun; Chen, Yi; Wu, Weilan; Chen, Yan; Sun, Kun

    2013-01-01

    A Content, Context, Connection and Researching, Reasoning, Reflecting (3C3R) model is a conceptual framework for problem-based learning (PBL) problem design. We introduced the 3C3R-PBL method into a pediatric teaching plan, and evaluated its effectiveness and feasibility. The 3C3R model was applied in a pediatric problem design teaching plan "why the lips turn purple when a baby is crying". All students were assigned either into a traditional PBL course or into a 9-step 3C3R model PBL course (3C3R-PBL). The performance outcomes of both groups were compared. For the PBL group, the proportion of students scoring ≥4 for content, context, and problem design connection, was 90.8%, 80.3%, and 64.5% respectively, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 71.4%, and 28.6%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ≥4 was 81.6%, 55.3%, and 40.8%, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 100%, and 57.1%. The learning difficulty was not considered high with only 31.6% of students and 42.9% of tutors rating the task as difficult. For the 3C3R-PBL group, the proportion of students scoring content, context, and connection, ≥4 was 100%, 98.4%, and 90.5%, while for tutors it was 100%, 100%, 83.3%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ≥4 was 95.2%, 88.9%, and 76.2%, while for tutors it was 100% for all 3 R components. Students and tutors were convinced by the content, case context, research process and reasoning process of both teaching plans, while scores for connection and reflecting were significantly improved when the PBL plan was amended by a 3C3R model (pPBL teaching plan for Chinese students.

  14. TNF/S C3/D CONDUCT: A simulation model of the Army's command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, T. V.; Marx, E.

    1981-11-01

    A computer model (CONDUCT) has been developed that simulates corps and subordinate command, control, communications, and intelligence C3I functions with particular emphasis on the integration of the new generation of intelligence, surveillance, and target-acquisition systems within the developing 1982 and 1986 force structure. CONDUCT is an event-by-event simulation model written in GPSS-V (General Purpose Simulation System), representing the combat and combat support command/staff elements and communications nodes/nets for the operations and intelligence functions within a type corps. Maneuver and engineer units are represented to platoon level, artillery units to battery level, and target-acquisition and Combat Electronics Warfare Intelligence (CEWI) units to sensor team level. Major command posts and operations centers are subdivided into their primary functional areas. Also given are results from the initial 16 hr combat simulation.

  15. The role of the humoral immune response in the molecular evolution of the envelope C2, V3 and C3 regions in chronically HIV-2 infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novo Carlos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to investigate, for the first time, the short-term molecular evolution of the HIV-2 C2, V3 and C3 envelope regions and its association with the immune response. Clonal sequences of the env C2V3C3 region were obtained from a cohort of eighteen HIV-2 chronically infected patients followed prospectively during 2–4 years. Genetic diversity, divergence, positive selection and glycosylation in the C2V3C3 region were analysed as a function of the number of CD4+ T cells and the anti-C2V3C3 IgG and IgA antibody reactivity Results The mean intra-host nucleotide diversity was 2.1% (SD, 1.1%, increasing along the course of infection in most patients. Diversity at the amino acid level was significantly lower for the V3 region and higher for the C2 region. The average divergence rate was 0.014 substitutions/site/year, which is similar to that reported in chronic HIV-1 infection. The number and position of positively selected sites was highly variable, except for codons 267 and 270 in C2 that were under strong and persistent positive selection in most patients. N-glycosylation sites located in C2 and V3 were conserved in all patients along the course of infection. Intra-host variation of C2V3C3-specific IgG response over time was inversely associated with the variation in nucleotide and amino acid diversity of the C2V3C3 region. Variation of the C2V3C3-specific IgA response was inversely associated with variation in the number of N-glycosylation sites. Conclusion The evolutionary dynamics of HIV-2 envelope during chronic aviremic infection is similar to HIV-1 implying that the virus should be actively replicating in cellular compartments. Convergent evolution of N-glycosylation in C2 and V3, and the limited diversification of V3, indicates that there are important functional constraints to the potential diversity of the HIV-2 envelope. C2V3C3-specific IgG antibodies are effective at reducing viral population size

  16. Cytotoxicity and transformation of C3H10T1/2 cells induced by areca nut components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Yang; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Chang, Mei-Chi; Kok, Seng-Heng; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chang, Bei-En; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Chan, Chiu-Po; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2016-02-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is popular in Taiwan and many other countries. There are about 200-600 million BQ chewers in the world. BQ chewing is one major risk factor of oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). While areca nut (AN), a main component of BQ, exhibits genotoxicity, its transformation capacity and its role in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis are not fully clear. Mouse C3H10T1/2 cells were exposed to AN extract (ANE) for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by colony forming efficiency. For the transformation assay, C3H10T1/2 cells were exposed to ANE for 24 hours and then incubated in medium with/without 12-O-tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA; a tumor promoter) for 42 days. Cells were stained with Giemsa and type II and type III transformed foci were counted for analysis of the transformation capacity of ANE. ANE exhibited cytotoxicity to C3H10T/12 cells at concentrations higher than 320 μg/mL as shown by a decrease in colony numbers. ANE (80-640 μg/mL) alone mildly stimulated the transformed foci formation (p > 0.05). In the presence of TPA, ANE (80-640 μg/mL) markedly stimulated the transformed foci formation. The percentage of dishes with foci increased from 0% in controls to 20% in ANE (80 μg/mL and 320 μg/mL)-treated groups and further increased to 65-94% in ANE plus TPA groups. These results indicate that ANE is a weak complete carcinogen. ANE is an effective tumor initiator and can induce malignant transformation of C3H10T1/2 cells in the presence of a tumor promoter. ANE may be involved in multistep chemical carcinogenesis by its malignant transformation capacity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. 26 CFR 40.6302(c)-3 - Special rules for use of Government depositaries under chapter 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special rules for use of Government depositaries under chapter 33. 40.6302(c)-3 Section 40.6302(c)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6302(c)-3 Special rules for use of Government...

  18. 17 CFR 240.19c-3 - Governing off-board trading by members of national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-3 Section 240.19c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Members § 240.19c-3 Governing off-board trading by members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide as follows: (a) No rule, stated policy or practice of...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c3-3 - Customer protection-reserves and custody of securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and custody of securities. 240.15c3-3 Section 240.15c3-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Markets § 240.15c3-3 Customer protection—reserves and custody of securities. (a) Definitions. For the...) Notwithstanding paragraph (k)(2)(i) of this section, a broker or dealer that retains custody of securities that...

  20. C 3-symmetric opioid scaffolds are pH-responsive DNA condensation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Natasha; Molphy, Zara; Coughlan, Alan; Cafolla, Attilio; McKee, Vickie; Gathergood, Nicholas; Kellett, Andrew

    2017-01-25

    Herein we report the synthesis of tripodal C 3 -symmetric opioid scaffolds as high-affinity condensation agents of duplex DNA. Condensation was achieved on both supercoiled and canonical B-DNA structures and identified by agarose electrophoresis, viscosity, turbidity and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Structurally, the requirement of a tris-opioid scaffold for condensation is demonstrated as both di- (C 2 -symmetric) and mono-substituted (C 1 -symmetric) mesitylene-linked opioid derivatives poorly coordinate dsDNA. Condensation, observed by toroidal and globule AFM aggregation, arises from surface-binding ionic interactions between protonated, cationic, tertiary amine groups on the opioid skeleton and the phosphate nucleic acid backbone. Indeed, by converting the 6-hydroxyl group of C 3 -morphine ( MC3: ) to methoxy substituents in C 3 -heterocodeine ( HC3: ) and C 3 -oripavine ( OC3: ) molecules, dsDNA compaction is retained thus negating the possibility of phosphate-hydroxyl surface-binding. Tripodal opioid condensation was identified as pH dependent and strongly influenced by ionic strength with further evidence of cationic amine-phosphate backbone coordination arising from thermal melting analysis and circular dichroism spectroscopy, with compaction also witnessed on synthetic dsDNA co-polymers poly[d(A-T) 2 ] and poly[d(G-C) 2 ]. On-chip microfluidic analysis of DNA condensed by C 3 -agents provided concentration-dependent protection (inhibition) to site-selective excision by type II restriction enzymes: BamHI, HindIII, SalI and EcoRI, but not to the endonuclease DNase I. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Complement C3 Is the Strongest Predictor of Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity in Psoriatic Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ursini

    Full Text Available To evaluate the correlation between inflammatory measures and whole-body insulin sensitivity in psoriatic arthritis (PsA patients.For the present study, 40 nondiabetic PsA patients were recruited. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI, insulinogenic index (IGI and oral disposition index (ODI were calculated from dynamic values of glucose and insulin obtained during OGTT.In our study population, mean ISI was 3.5 ± 2.5, median IGI was 1.2 (0.7-1.8, mean ODI 4.5 ± 4.5. In univariate correlation analysis, ISI correlated inversely with systolic blood pressure (sBP (R = -0.52, p = 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (dBP (R = -0.45, p = 0.004 and complement C3 (R = -0.43, p = 0.006 and ODI correlated inversely with sBP (R = -0.38, p = 0.02, dBP (R = -0.35, p = 0.03 and complement C3 (R = -0.37, p = 0.02. No significant correlations were found between analyzed variables and IGI. In a stepwise multiple regression, only complement C3 entered in the regression equation and accounted for approximately 50% of the variance of ISI. Using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve we identified the best cut-off for complement C3 of 1.32 g/L that yielded a sensitivity of 56% and a specificity of 96% for classification of insulin resistant patients.In conclusion, our data suggest that serum complement C3 could represent a useful marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity in PsA patients.

  2. Conformational states of a bacterial α2-macroglobulin resemble those of human complement C3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Neves

    Full Text Available α(2 macroglobulins (α(2Ms are broad-spectrum protease inhibitors that play essential roles in the innate immune system of eukaryotic species. These large, multi-domain proteins are characterized by a broad-spectrum bait region and an internal thioester, which, upon cleavage, becomes covalently associated to the target protease, allowing its entrapment by a large conformational modification. Notably, α(2Ms are part of a larger protein superfamily that includes proteins of the complement system, such as C3, a multi-domain macromolecule which is also characterized by an internal thioester-carrying domain and whose activation represents the pivotal step in the complement cascade. Recently, α(2M/C3-like genes were identified in a large number of bacterial genomes, and the Escherichia coli α(2M homolog (ECAM was shown to be activated by proteases. In this work, we have structurally characterized ECAM by electron microscopy and small angle scattering (SAXS techniques. ECAM is an elongated, flexible molecule with overall similarities to C3 in its inactive form; activation by methylamine, chymotrypsin, or elastase induces a conformational modification reminiscent of the one undergone by the transformation of C3 into its active form, C3b. In addition, the proposed C-terminus of ECAM displays high flexibility and different conformations, and could be the recognition site for partner macromolecules. This work sheds light on a potential bacterial defense mechanism that mimics structural rearrangements essential for activation of the complement cascade in eukaryotes, and represents a possible novel target for the development of antibacterials.

  3. [Expression and clinical significance of AHSG and complement C3 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiong; Wu, Wen; Chen, Longjiang; Ma, Xiaolei; Zhao, Yue; Zhou, Hangcheng; Yang, Renbao; Hu, Liwei

    2014-07-22

    To analyze serum proteins from pancreatic carcinoma patients, pancreatic benign tumor patients, chronic pancreatitis patients and normal controls to discover potential and specific biomarkers. Serum samples were collected from 40 pancreatic carcinoma patients, 10 pancreatic benign tumor patients, 10 chronic pancreatitis patients and 40 cancer-free controls from May 2009 to April 2011. The samples were compared with two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and differentially expressed proteins were further identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Then, two up-regulated proteins were further validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) from transcriptional and proteinic aspects. We identified 12 differently expressed proteins in pancreatic carcinoma group compared with normal control group, including complement component C3, hemopexin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, apolipoprotein H, serotransferrin, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein E, transthyretin, serum amyloid P-component, vitronectin, prothrombin and isoform 2 of Ig mu chain C region. High level of C3 and AHSG were detected in cancerous tissues by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemisty. Western blot revealed that gray ratios of C3 and AHSG were 0.11 ± 0.01 and 0.26 ± 0.02 respectively. The Immunohistochemical results showed that positive rate of C3 and AHSG were 72.5% and 82.5% in cancerous group versus 32.5% and 25% respectively in normal control. C3 and AHSG may become pancreatic carcinoma-related biomarkers.

  4. Substitution at the C-3 Position of Catechins Has an Influence on the Binding Affinities against Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masaki; Ueda-Wakagi, Manabu; Hayashibara, Kaori; Kitano, Rei; Kawase, Masaya; Kaihatsu, Kunihiro; Kato, Nobuo; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Osakabe, Naomi; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2017-02-18

    It is known that catechins interact with the tryptophan (Trp) residue at the drug-binding site of serum albumin. In this study, we used catechin derivatives to investigate which position of the catechin structure strongly influences the binding affinity against bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA). A docking simulation showed that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) interacted with both Trp residues of BSA (one at drug-binding site I and the other on the molecular surface), mainly by π-π stacking. Fluorescence analysis showed that EGCg and substituted EGCg caused a red shift of the peak wavelength of Trp similarly to warfarin (a drug-binding site I-specific compound), while 3-O-acyl-catechins caused a blue shift. To evaluate the binding affinities, the quenching constants were determined by the Stern-Volmer equation. A gallate ester at the C-3 position increased the quenching constants of the catechins. Against BSA, acyl substitution increased the quenching constant proportionally to the carbon chain lengths of the acyl group, whereas methyl substitution decreased the quenching constant. Against HSA, neither acyl nor methyl substitution affected the quenching constant. In conclusion, substitution at the C-3 position of catechins has an important influence on the binding affinity against serum albumin.

  5. Substitution at the C-3 Position of Catechins Has an Influence on the Binding Affinities against Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ikeda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is known that catechins interact with the tryptophan (Trp residue at the drug-binding site of serum albumin. In this study, we used catechin derivatives to investigate which position of the catechin structure strongly influences the binding affinity against bovine serum albumin (BSA and human serum albumin (HSA. A docking simulation showed that (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg interacted with both Trp residues of BSA (one at drug-binding site I and the other on the molecular surface, mainly by π–π stacking. Fluorescence analysis showed that EGCg and substituted EGCg caused a red shift of the peak wavelength of Trp similarly to warfarin (a drug-binding site I-specific compound, while 3-O-acyl-catechins caused a blue shift. To evaluate the binding affinities, the quenching constants were determined by the Stern–Volmer equation. A gallate ester at the C-3 position increased the quenching constants of the catechins. Against BSA, acyl substitution increased the quenching constant proportionally to the carbon chain lengths of the acyl group, whereas methyl substitution decreased the quenching constant. Against HSA, neither acyl nor methyl substitution affected the quenching constant. In conclusion, substitution at the C-3 position of catechins has an important influence on the binding affinity against serum albumin.

  6. Pt-Decorated g-C3N4/TiO2 Nanotube Arrays with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity for H2 Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-Da; Qu, Yong-Fang; Zhou, Xuemei; Wang, Lei; Song, Yan-Yan; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-06-01

    Aligned TiO2 nanotube layers (TiNTs) grown by self-organizing anodization of a Ti-substrate in a fluoride-based electrolyte were decorated with graphitic-phase C3N4 (g-C3N4) via a facile chemical vapor deposition approach. In comparison with classical TiO2 nanotubes (anatase), the g-C3N4/TiNTs show an onset of the photocurrent at 2.4 eV (vs. 3.2 eV for anatase) with a considerably high photocurrent magnitude in the visible range. After further decoration with Pt nanoparticles, we obtained a visible-light responsive platform that showed, compared with g-C3N4-free TiNTs, a strong enhancement for photoelectrochemical and bias-free H2 evolution (15.62 μLh(-1) cm(-2)), which was almost a 98-fold increase in the H2 production rate of TiNTs (0.16 μLh(-1) cm(-2)). In a wider context, the g-C3N4-combined 3 D nanoporous/nanotubular structure thus provides a platform with significant visible-light response in photocatalytic applications.

  7. Fabrication of WO3@g-C3N4 with core@shell nanostructure for enhanced photocatalytic degradation activity under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Lu, Na; Su, Yan; Liu, Ning; Yu, Hongtao; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2017-11-01

    WO3@g-C3N4 composite photocatalysts with core@shell nanostructure were fabricated via a self-assembly method. A large heterojunction interfacial area of WO3@g-C3N4 can be provided in the nanoscale heterostructure. Furthermore, the electron mobility of the composite photocatalysts was improved with the introduction of WO3. These are favorable for increasing the separation efficiency of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and improving the photocatalytic efficiency of WO3@g-C3N4, which was confirmed by the measurements of photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results of the photocatalytic degradation of Rh B showed dramatic photocatalytic performance of this composite photocatalyst. The kinetic constant of Rh B degradation on the WO3@g-C3N4 was 0.95 h-1, which was 7.7-fold and 3.5-fold higher than those on pure WO3 and g-C3N4 nanosheets, respectively. In addition, the stability of the composite photocatalyst was also satisfactory according to the result of the three-cycle experiment.

  8. Defective spontaneous but normal antibody-dependent cytotoxicity for an extracellular protozoan parasite, Giardia lamblia, by C3H/HeJ mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P D; Keister, D B; Wahl, S M; Meltzer, M S

    1984-04-15

    To understand murine host responses to extracellular protozoa, the capacity of peritoneal macrophages to exhibit cytotoxicity for [3H]thymidine-labeled Giardia lamblia trophozoites was investigated. Resident peritoneal macrophages from C3H/HeN mice expressed spontaneous cytotoxicity for G. lamblia in a manner that was dependent on both time and effector cell number; this cytotoxic activity was increased with cells elicited by an intraperitoneal injection of thio-glycollate. In contrast, spontaneous cytotoxicity for G. lamblia by resident and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C3H/HeJ mice was markedly reduced. In the presence of anti-G. lamblia serum (ADCC), however, peritoneal macrophages from both C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice exhibited striking augmentation of their cytotoxic activity for G. lamblia to equivalent levels. We conclude that macrophages from C3H/HeJ mice express defective spontaneous cytotoxicity but normal ADCC for the extracellular protozoan parasite, G. lamblia. The dissociation between the expression of these two effector cell functions suggests that macrophage spontaneous cytotoxicity and ADCC for extracellular protozoa are mediated by separate macrophage functions.

  9. Monitoring of real changes of plasma membrane potential by diS-C(3)(3) fluorescence in yeast cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plášek, Jaromír; Gášková, Dana; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella; Ludwig, Jost; Höfer, Milan

    2012-10-01

    The fluorescent dye 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine, diS-C(3)(3), is a suitable probe to monitor real changes of plasma membrane potential in yeast cells which are too small for direct membrane potential measurements with microelectrodes. A method presented in this paper makes it possible to convert changes of equilibrium diS-C(3)(3) fluorescence spectra, measured in yeast cell suspensions under certain defined conditions, into underlying membrane potential differences, scaled in the units of millivolts. Spectral analysis of synchronously scanned diS-C(3)(3) fluorescence allows to assess the amount of dye accumulated in cells without otherwise necessary sample taking and following separation of cells from the medium. Moreover, membrane potential changes can be quantified without demanding calibration protocols. The applicability of this approach was demonstrated on the depolarization of Rhodotorula glutinis yeast cells upon acidification of cell suspensions and/or by increasing extracellular K(+) concentration.

  10. Analysis of Complement C3 Gene Reveals Susceptibility to Severe Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Inkeri Lokki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a common vascular disease of pregnancy with genetic predisposition. Dysregulation of the complement system has been implicated, but molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, we determined the potential linkage of severe PE to the most central complement gene, C3. Three cohorts of Finnish patients and controls were recruited for a genetic case-control study. Participants were genotyped using Sequenom genotyping and Sanger sequencing. Initially, we studied 259 Finnish patients with severe PE and 426 controls from the Southern Finland PE and the Finnish population-based PE cohorts. We used a custom-made single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping assay consisting of 98 SNPs in 18 genes that encode components of the complement system. Following the primary screening, C3 was selected as the candidate gene and consequently Sanger sequenced. Fourteen SNPs from C3 were also genotyped by a Sequenom panel in 960 patients with severe PE and 705 controls, including already sequenced individuals. Three of the 43 SNPs observed within C3 were associated with severe PE: rs2287845 (p = 0.038, OR = 1.158, rs366510 (p = 0.039, OR = 1.158, and rs2287848 (p = 0.041, OR = 1.155. We also discovered 16 SNP haplotypes with extreme linkage disequilibrium in the middle of the gene with a protective (p = 0.044, OR = 0.628 or a predisposing (p = 0.011, OR = 2.110 effect to severe PE depending on the allele combination. Genetic variants associated with PE are located in key domains of C3 and could thereby influence the function of C3. This is, as far as we are aware, the first candidate gene in the complement system with an association to a clinically relevant PE subphenotype, severe PE. The result highlights a potential role for the complement system in the pathogenesis of PE and may help in defining prognostic and therapeutic subgroups of preeclamptic women.

  11. Molecular beam studies of the photolysis of allene and the secondary photodissociation of the C3Hx fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. M.; Anex, Deon S.; Continetti, R. E.; Balko, B. A.; Lee, Y. T.

    1991-11-01

    Angle resolved time of flight (TOF) measurements of the fragments produced when allene is photolyzed at 193 nm are described. The two primary processes that have been identified from these measurements are the H+C3H3 and the H2+C3H2 channels. The quantum yields for these first steps are 0.89 and 0.11, respectively. Subsequent photolysis of the C3H3 radical produces H2+C3H, C3H2+H, and C2H2+CH, while the C3H2 produces C3+H2, C2H+CH, and C2H2+C. The translational energy distributions for each one of these steps have been derived using the forward convolution technique. These energy distributions reveal the exit barriers and other constraints on the potential energy surfaces that lead to the above stated products.

  12. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  13. C3-Luc Cells Are an Excellent Model for Evaluation of Cellular Immunity following HPV16L1 Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Li

    Full Text Available C3 and TC-1 are the two model cell lines most commonly used in studies of vaccines and drugs against human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Because C3 cells contain both the HPV16 E and L genes, but TC-1 cells contain only the HPV16 E genes, C3 cells are usually used as the model cell line in studies targeting the HPV16 L protein. However, expression of the L1 protein is difficult to detect in C3 cells using common methods. In our study, Short tandem repeat analysis (STR was used to demonstrate that C3 cells are indeed derived from mice, PCR results show that HPV16 L1, E6 and E7 genes were detected in C3 genomic DNA, and RT-PCR results demonstrated that L1 transcription had occurred in C3 cells. However, the expression of C3 protein was not found in the results of western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Growth and proliferation of C3 were inhibited by mice spleen lymphocytes that had been immunized with a vaccine against HPV16L1. The luciferase gene was integrated into C3 cells, and it was confirmed that addition of the exogenous gene had no effect on C3 cells by comparing cell growth and tumor formation with untransformed cells. Cells stably expressing luciferase (C3-luc were screened and subcutaneously injected into the mice. Tumors became established and were observed using a Spectrum Pre-clinical in Vivo Imaging System. Tumor size of mice in the different groups at various time points was calculated by counting photons. The sensitivity of the animals to the vaccine was quantified by statistical comparison. Ten or 30 days following injection of the C3-luc cells, tumor size differed significantly between the PBS and vaccine groups, indicating that C3 cells were susceptible to vaccination even after tumors were formed in vivo.

  14. Anthracycline resistance mediated by reductive metabolism in cancer cells: The role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Jakub; Malcekova, Beata; Skarka, Adam; Novotna, Eva; Wsol, Vladimir, E-mail: wsol@faf.cuni.cz

    2014-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic drug resistance is a serious obstacle that emerges during cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the possible role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in the resistance of cancer cells to anthracyclines. First, the reducing activity of AKR1C3 toward anthracyclines was tested using incubations with a purified recombinant enzyme. Furthermore, the intracellular reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin was examined by employing the transfection of A549, HeLa, MCF7 and HCT 116 cancer cells with an AKR1C3 encoding vector. To investigate the participation of AKR1C3 in anthracycline resistance, we conducted MTT cytotoxicity assays with these cells, and observed that AKR1C3 significantly contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to daunorubicin and idarubicin, whereas this resistance was reversible by the simultaneous administration of 2′-hydroxyflavanone, a specific AKR1C3 inhibitor. In the final part of our work, we tracked the changes in AKR1C3 expression after anthracycline exposure. Interestingly, a reciprocal correlation between the extent of induction and endogenous levels of AKR1C3 was recorded in particular cell lines. Therefore, we suggest that the induction of AKR1C3 following exposure to daunorubicin and idarubicin, which seems to be dependent on endogenous AKR1C3 expression, eventually might potentiate an intrinsic resistance given by the normal expression of AKR1C3. In conclusion, our data suggest a substantial impact of AKR1C3 on the metabolism of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which affects their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior. In addition, we demonstrate that the reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which is catalyzed by AKR1C3, contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to anthracycline treatment. - Highlights: • Metabolism of anthracyclines by AKR1C3 was studied at enzyme and cellular levels. • Anthracycline resistance mediated by AKR1C3 was demonstrated in cancer cells. • Induction of AKR1C3

  15. MoB/g-C3 N4 Interface Materials as a Schottky Catalyst to Boost Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zechao; Li, Yong; Li, Zilan; Lv, Fan; Lang, Zhiquan; Zhao, Kangning; Zhou, Liang; Moskaleva, Lyudmila; Guo, Shaojun; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-01-08

    Proton adsorption on metallic catalysts is a prerequisite for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, tuning proton adsorption without perturbing metallicity remains a challenge. A Schottky catalyst based on metal-semiconductor junction principles is presented. With metallic MoB, the introduction of n-type semiconductive g-C3 N4 induces a vigorous charge transfer across the MoB/g-C3 N4 Schottky junction, and increases the local electron density in MoB surface, confirmed by multiple spectroscopic techniques. This Schottky catalyst exhibits a superior HER activity with a low Tafel slope of 46 mV dec-1 and a high exchange current density of 17 μA cm-2 , which is far better than that of pristine MoB. First-principle calculations reveal that the Schottky contact dramatically lowers the kinetic barriers of both proton adsorption and reduction coordinates, therefore benefiting surface hydrogen generation. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 C$_3$F$_8$ Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C.; et al.

    2017-02-24

    New results are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C$_3$F$_8$ located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. As in previous PICO bubble chambers, PICO-60 C$_3$F$_8$ exhibits excellent electron recoil and alpha decay rejection, and the observed multiple-scattering neutron rate indicates a single-scatter neutron background of less than 1 event per month. A blind analysis of an efficiency-corrected 1167-kg-day exposure at a 3.3-keV thermodynamic threshold reveals no single-scattering nuclear recoil candidates, consistent with the predicted background. These results set the most stringent direct-detection constraint to date on the WIMP-proton spin-dependent cross section at 3.4 $\\times$ 10$^{-41}$ cm$^2$ for a 30-GeV$\\thinspace$c$^{-2}$ WIMP, more than one order of magnitude improvement from previous PICO results.

  17. Recommended protocol for the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Bohnenberger, Susanne; Hayashi, Kumiko; Kunkelmann, Thorsten; Muramatsu, Dai; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Poth, Albrecht; Sakai, Ayako; Salovaara, Susan; Tanaka, Noriho; Thomas, B Claire; Umeda, Makoto

    2012-04-11

    The present protocol has been developed for the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay (CTA), following the prevalidation study coordinated by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and reported in this issue (Tanaka et al. [16]). Based upon the experience gained from this effort and as suggested by the Validation Management Team (VMT), some acceptance and assessment criteria have been refined compared to those used during the prevalidation study. The present protocol thus describes cell culture maintenance, the dose-range finding (DRF) experiment and the transformation assay, including cytotoxicity and morphological transformation evaluation. Use of this protocol and of the associated photo catalogue included in this issue (Sasaki et al. [17]) is recommended for the future conduct of the BALB/c 3T3 CTA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-2L C3F8 Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, David M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P. S.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Clark, K.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Daley, S.; Das, Madhusmita; Debris, F.; Dhungana, N.; Farine, J.; Felis, I.; Filgas, R.; Fines-Neuschild, M.; Girard, Francoise; Giroux, G.; Hai, M.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, O.; Jackson, C. M.; Jin, M.; Krauss, C. B.; Lafreniere, M.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Mann, E.; Martin, J. P.; Maurya, D.; Mitra, Pitam; Neilson, R.; Noble, A. J.; Plante, A.; Podviianiuk, R. B.; Priya, S.; Robinson, A. E.; Ruschman, M.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Starinski, N.; Stekl, I.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Wells, J.; Wichoski, U.; Zacek, V.; Zhang, J.

    2015-06-12

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2-liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the 2100 meter deep SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg-days at four different recoil energy thresholds ranging from 3.2 keV to 8.1 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds, including the rst observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. These data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with signicant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  19. NPOESS C3S Expandability: SafetyNetTM and McMurdo Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Paciaroni, J.; Pela, F.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather & environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and Dod's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The command & telemetry portion of NPOESS is the Command, Control and Communications Segment (C3S), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPOESS mission from control and status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment (SS) to the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally distributed ground assets necessary to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and the processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day commanding & state-of-health monitoring of the NPP & NPOESS satellites, and delivery of Stored Mission Data (SMD) to each US Weather Central Interface Data Processor (IDP) for data products development and transfer to System subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health and status & data communications with external systems and between NPOESS segments. Two crucial elements of NPOESS C3S expandability are SafetyNetTM and communications improvements to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. SafetyNetTM is a key feature of NPOESS and a vital element of the C3S and Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems patented data collection architecture. The centerpiece of SafetyNetTM is the system of

  20. NPOESS C3S Expandability: SafetyNet(TM) and McMurdo Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciaroni, J.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The command and telemetry portion of NPOESS is the Command, Control and Communications Segment (C3S), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPOESS mission from control and status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment (SS) to the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally distributed ground assets necessary to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and the processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day commanding and state-of-health monitoring of the NPP and NPOESS satellites, and delivery of Stored Mission Data (SMD) to each U.S. Weather Central Interface Data Processor (IDP) for data products development and transfer to System subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health and status and data communications with external systems and between the NPOESS segments. Two crucial elements of NPOESS C3S expandability are SafetyNet(TM) and communications improvements to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. ‘SafetyNet(TM)’ is a key feature of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), vital element of the C3S

  1. C3H2 : A wide-band-gap semiconductor with strong optical absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-Yan; Cuamba, Armindo S.; Geng, Lei; Hao, Lei; Qi, Yu-Min; Ting, C. S.

    2017-10-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we predict a new type of partially hydrogenated graphene system, C3H2 , which turns out to be a semiconductor with a band gap of 3.56 eV. The bands are rather flat at the band edges and thus lead to a large density of states, which further results in strong optical absorption between the valence band and the conduction band. Particularly, it shows strong optical absorption at about 4.5 eV for the light polarized along the lines connecting the nearest unhydrogenated carbon atoms. Thus, the predicted C3H2 system may have potential applications for a polarizer as well as other high-efficiency optical devices in the near ultraviolet region.

  2. Hierarchical Cu2O foam/g-C3N4 photocathode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinzhou; Zhang, Jingtao; Wang, Biao; Li, Qiuguo; Chu, Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Solar photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production is a promising way for solving energy and environment problems. Earth-abundant Cu2O is a potential light absorber for PEC hydrogen production. In this article, hierarchical porous Cu2O foams are prepared by thermal oxidation of the electrochemically deposited Cu foams. PEC performances of the Cu2O foams are systematically studied and discussed. Benefiting from their higher light harvesting and more efficient charge separation, the Cu2O foams demonstrate significantly enhanced photocurrents and photostability compared to their film counterparts. Moreover, by integrating g-C3N4, hierarchical Cu2O foam/g-C3N4 composites are prepared with further improved photocurrent and photostability, appearing to be potential photocathodes for solar PEC hydrogen production. This study may provide a new and useful insight for the development of Cu2O-based photocathodes for PEC hydrogen production.

  3. beta-Scission of C-3 (beta-carbon) alkoxyl radicals on peptides and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, H A; Mortimer, A; Easton, C J

    2000-01-01

    radicals, confirming that this is a major process. Methanal causes cell toxicity and DNA damage and is an animal carcinogen and a genotoxic agent in human cells. Thus, the formation and subsequent reaction of alkoxyl radicals formed at the C-3 position on aliphatic amino acid side chains on peptides...... and proteins can give rise to both backbone fragmentation and the release of further reactive species which can cause cell toxicity and mutagenicity....

  4. Optimal timing for type C3 thoracic fractures with posterior surgical approach: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiping; Zhao, Qinpeng; He, Baorong; Liu, Jijun; Hao, Dingjun; Guo, Hua

    2015-07-01

    Type C3 thoracic fracture is a severe spinal injury, but one that is clinically rare, and there are few reports pertaining to the treatment of this type of fracture. No consensus has been achieved on the proper timing of spine fracture fixation; therefore, we focused on evaluating the surgical effects using a posterior approach and determining the influence of surgical timing on surgical outcomes. This was a retrospective cohort study of 36 cases of type C3 thoracic fracture in patients admitted to the hospital from April 2005 to October 2012, and who were divided into two groups according to the timing of surgery: early fixation (72 h). Surgical outcomes were analyzed based on surgery duration, intraoperative blood loss, intensive care unit and hospital stay, mortality rate, and complications. There were 13 patients in the early fixation group and 23 patients in the late fixation group. Patients were treated with posterior decompression, intervertebral titanium mesh support, pedicle screw fixation, and fusion. All fractures involved a single segment: T7/T8 (8 patients), T9/T10 (11 patients), and T11/T12 (17 patients). All injuries were classified as American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade A. Patients underwent periodic follow-up over a period of 12-30 months (average, 22.5 months). One patient developed ascending myelitis and died of respiratory failure 1 month after early fixation, and two patients died of pulmonary infection after late fixation procedures. Other patients achieved bone fusion without improvement in ASIA grade. No statistically significant difference in parameters was observed between groups. Though type C3 thoracic fracture is one of the most severe spinal injuries, complete reduction and recovery of spinal stability can be achieved using a posterior approach. As clinical outcomes in this study were similar between early and late fixation procedures, early surgical intervention may not be helpful for improving neurologic recovery in type

  5. High temperature properties of dispersion strengthened Al-Al4C3 materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besterci, M.; Slesar, M.; Miskovicova, M.; Pelikan, K.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most important properties of dispersion strengthened materials is their strength stability at high temperatures. The strength and plasticity of the material Al + 5 vol. pct Al4C3, tested in the temperature range from 100 to 400 C, are analyzed. On the basis of the experiments the functions for the temperature dependence of the strength and plasticity are described, the deformation process is evaluated, and the fracture mechanisms are quantified. 17 references.

  6. Modeling the Impact of Value of Information on Situational Awareness using C3TRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for...RESPONSIBLE PERSON John T Richardson a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code...simulation and human performance model known as Command, Control, and Communications – Techniques for Reliable Assessment of Concept Execution (C3TRACE

  7. C-3 Substituted Lawsonemonoximates of Holmium(III): Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    S. B. Jagtap; S G Joshi; Litake, G. M.; Ghole, V. S.; Kulkarni, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    A series of five new metal complexes of Ho(III) with C-3 substituted derivatives of lawsonemonexime (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenediene-1-oxime) were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by melting point, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. The antimicrobial activity of the compounds were determined by disk diffusion method and broth micro-dilution techniques using Mueller Hinton medium against the following organisms: S. aureus ATCC 6538P, Klebsiella pneumon...

  8. Structural insight into the recognition of complement C3 activation products by integrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajic, Goran

    2015-01-01

    The complement system is the major effector of innate immunity. It is the body’s first defense against pathogens recognizing and tagging them for subsequent elimination. Complement is a germline-encoded system of more than 50 circulating and membrane-bound proteins that recognize molecular patterns...... associated with microbes and apoptotic or necrotic cells. Complement not only protects against pathogens but also maintains body homeostasis. Activation of complement leads to cleavage of the complement proteins C4, C3 and C5, and their fragments have effector functions through binding to pathogen surfaces...... and their clearance by dendritic cells is mediated by αMβ2. The central molecule in my project, αMβ2 integrin, recognizes many diverse ligands including iC3b, but the molecular basis for such recognition was lacking. During my PhD I have obtained a major breakthrough in the dissection of iC3b interaction with αMβ2. I...

  9. Dark Matter Limits From a 2L C3F8 Filled Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alan Edward [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber search forWeakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter was operated in the SNOLAB underground laboratory at the same location as the previous CF3I lled COUPP-4kg detector. Neutron calibrations using photoneutron sources in C3F8 and CF3I lled calibration bubble chambers were performed to verify the sensitivity of these target uids to dark matter scattering. This data was combined with similar measurements using a low-energy neutron beam at the University of Montreal and in situ calibrations of the PICO-2L and COUPP-4kg detectors. C3F8 provides much greater sensitivity to WIMP-proton scattering than CF3I in bubble chamber detectors. PICO-2L searched for dark matter recoils with energy thresholds below 10 keV. Radiopurity assays of detector materials were performed and the expected neutron recoil background was evaluated to be 1.6+0:3

  10. Expert systems for C3I. Volume 1. A user's introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, J. A.; Hockett, S. M.; Prelle, M. J.; Tallant, A. M.; Triant, D. D.

    1985-10-01

    There has been a tremendous burgeoning of interest in artificial intelligence (AI) over the last few years. Investments of commercial and government sponsors reflect a widespread belief that AI is now ready for practical applications. The area of AI currently receiving the greatest attention and investment is expert system technology. Most major high tech corporations have begun to develop expert systems, and many software houses specializing in expert system tools and applications have recently appeared. The defense community is one of the heaviest investors in expert system technology, and within this community one of the application areas receiving greatest attention is C3I. Many ESD programs are now beginning to ask whether expert system applications for C3I are ready for incorporation into ESD-developed systems, and, if so, what are the potential benefits and risks of doing so. This report was prepared to help ESD and MITRE personnel working on acquisition programs to address these issues and to gain a better understanding of what expert systems are all about. The primary intention of this report is to investigate what expert systems are and the advances that are being made in expert system technology for C3I applications. The report begins with a brief tutorial on expert systems, emphasizing how they differ from conventional software systems and what they are best at doing.

  11. STM-electroluminescence from clustered C3N4 nanodomains synthesized via green chemistry process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E P; Costa, B B A; Chaves, C R; de Paula, A M; Cury, L A; Malachias, A; Safar, G A M

    2018-01-01

    A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy (STM/STS) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction study on clustered C3N4 nanoparticles (nanoflakes) is conducted on green-chemistry synthesized samples obtained from chitosan through high power sonication. Morphological aspects and the electronic characteristics are investigated. The observed bandgap of the nanoflakes reveals the presence of different phases in the material. Combining STM morphology, STS spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results one finds that the most abundant phase is graphitic C3N4. A high density of defects is inferred from the XRD measurements. Additionally, STM-electroluminescence (STMEL) is detected in C3N4 nanoflakes deposited on a gold substrate. The tunneling current creates photons that are three times more energetic than the tunneling electrons of the STM sample. We ponder about the two most probable models to explain the observed photon emission energy: either a nonlinear optical phenomenon or a localized state emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 2nd international workshop on graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2018-02-01

    Since 2009 graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysts have attracted a lot of attention in scientific and engineering communities because of their applications in photocatalysis. Graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysis was the main theme of the 2nd International Workshop on Graphene and C3N4-based Photocatalysts (IWGCP2) held at the Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China on March 24-27, 2017. The IWGCP2 workshop was jointly organized by Wuhan University of Technology, Jianghan University, Changsha University and Kent State University, and was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Wuhan University of Technology, Jianghan University, Changsha University, Beijing Perfectlight, ThermoFisher, LumaSense Technologies, Anhui Kemi, Zhenjiang Silver Jewelry, Instytut Fotonowy (Poland) and others. More than 240 colleagues from four continents (Asia, America, Australia and Europe) participated in this workshop, and presented 6 plenary lectures, 12 keynote lectures, 14 invited lectures, 5 oral lectures and 113 posters. A tradition of this meeting is the poster competition, which resulted in selecting 10 best posters.

  13. Atmospheric chemistry, sources and sinks of carbon suboxide, C3O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keßel, Stephan; Cabrera-Perez, David; Horowitz, Abraham; Veres, Patrick R.; Sander, Rolf; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Tucceri, Maria; Crowley, John N.; Pozzer, Andrea; Stönner, Christof; Vereecken, Luc; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Carbon suboxide, O = C = C = C = O, has been detected in ambient air samples and has the potential to be a noxious pollutant and oxidant precursor; however, its lifetime and fate in the atmosphere are largely unknown. In this work, we collect an extensive set of studies on the atmospheric chemistry of C3O2. Rate coefficients for the reactions of C3O2 with OH radicals and ozone were determined as kOH = (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 295 K (independent of pressure between ˜ 25 and 1000 mbar) and kO3 Henry's law solubility and hydrolysis rate constant) were also investigated, enabling its photodissociation lifetime and hydrolysis rates, respectively, to be assessed. The role of C3O2 in the atmosphere was examined using in situ measurements, an analysis of the atmospheric sources and sinks and simulation with the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model. The results indicate sub-pptv levels at the Earth's surface, up to about 10 pptv in regions with relatively strong sources, e.g. influenced by biomass burning, and a mean lifetime of ˜ 3.2 days. These predictions carry considerable uncertainty, as more measurement data are needed to determine ambient concentrations and constrain the source strengths.

  14. Laboratory detection of the C3N an C4H free radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Thaddeus, P.; Kawamura, H.

    1983-01-01

    The millimeter-wave spectra of the linear carbon chain free radicals C3N and C4H, first identified in IRC + 10216 and hitherto observed only in a few astronomical sources, have been detected with a Zeeman-modulated spectrometer in laboratory glow discharges through low pressure flowing mixtures of N2 + HC3N and He + HCCH, respectively. Four successive rotational transitions between 168 and 198 GHz have been measured for C3N, and five rotational transitions between 143 and 200 GHz for C4H; each is a well-resolved spin doublet owing to the unpaired electron present in both species. Precise values for the rotational, centrifugal distortion, and spin doubling constants have been obtained, which, with hyperfine constants derived from observations of the lower rotational transitions in the astronomical source TMC 1, allow all the rotational transitions of C3N and C4H at frequencies less than 300 GHz to be calculated to an absolute accuracy exceeding 1 ppm.

  15. Scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 laser, and perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 for retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To review the characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C3F8 gas for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients who underwent primary repair of RRD by PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 was conducted. Patients with less than 3 months follow-up, previous retinal surgery, and higher than grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy were excluded. Results : Ninety-one eyes were included in the study. The mean age was 60.1 years. The mean follow-up was 13.7 months. The macula was detached in 63% (58/91 of the eyes. The reattachment rate after one surgical procedure was 95% (86/91 while overall reattachment rate was 100%. There was no statistically significant difference between reattachment rates of superior, nasal/temporal, or inferior RRDs. The mean final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/40. Of all the patients, 66% of patients with macula-off RRDs had a final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusions: PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C 3 F 8 leads to successful anatomical reattachment with visual improvement in patients with primary RRD.

  16. Andrographis paniculata extract induced apoptosis of adenocarcinoma mammae in C3H mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugrahaningsih

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Apoptosis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Induction of apoptosis is a strategy for developing cancer therapy. In vitro study found that andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata has anticancer activity by an apoptotic mechanism in cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to prove the effect of Andrographis paniculata extract administered orally on apoptosis of mammary adenocarcinoma in C3H mice. METHODS This study was of post test randomized control group design. Twenty four C3H mice with transplanted mammary adenocarcinomas were divided into four groups. To three groups Andrographis paniculata extract was administered orally for 14 days, at doses of 5, 10 and 15 mg/day, respectively, whereas to the control group no Andrographis paniculata extract was administered. On day 15 the mice were terminated. The mammary adenocarcinomas were examined by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method. The values of the apoptotic index were expressed as mean±SD and analyzed using Anova and Pearson’s correlation test. RESULTS The mean apoptotic index values differed significantly among the experimental groups (p=0.001. The highest value was found in the group receiving Andrographis paniculata extract 15 mg/day, while the lowest was in the control group, the values being significantly correlated (r=0.974. CONCLUSIONS Oral administration of Andrographis paniculata extract induced apoptosis in C3H mice with mammary adenocarcinoma

  17. IgE Reactivity of Recombinant Pac c 3 from the Asian Needle Ant (Pachycondyla chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Yi, Myung-hee; Son, Mina; Lyu, Dongpyo; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Yong, Tai-Soon; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Stings from the Asian needle ant are an important cause of anaphylaxis in East Asia. A 23-kDa protein homologous to antigen 5 is the major allergen produced by these ants. In this study, we aimed to produce a recombinant antigen 5 allergen, Pac c 3. Recombinant Pac c 3 allergen from the Asian needle ant was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Ni affinity chromatography. IgE reactivity was demonstrated by ELISA and immunoblotting. The recombinant protein was recognized in 5 of 6 (83.3%) serum samples from patients with demonstrated anaphylaxis to ants. IgE reactivity to an antigen 5 allergen from Asian needle ant venom sac extract was specifically inhibited by the recombinant protein. It was also able to inhibit IgE binding to the vespid allergen Ves v 5 by ImmunoCAP analysis, indicating the presence of cross-reactivity. A recombinant Pac c 3, cross-reactive with Ves v 5, from the Asian needle ant was successfully produced in the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris. This protein could be useful for the development of component-resolved diagnostics. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Interaction of rigid C3N- with He: Potential energy surface, bound states, and rotational spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Moreno, Miguel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Halvick, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    A two-dimensional rigid rotor model of the potential energy surface is developed for the collision of C3N- with He. Ab initio calculations are performed at the coupled cluster level with single and double excitations and using a perturbative treatment of triple excitations. An augmented correlation consistent polarized valence quadruple zeta basis set complemented with a set of mid-bond functions is chosen for these calculations. The global T-shaped minimum (De = 62.114 cm-1) is found at the intermolecular distance R = 6.42 a0. A secondary minimum (De = 41.384 cm-1) is obtained for the linear configuration C3N--He and for R = 9.83 a0. Calculations of the rovibrational bound states are carried out by using a discrete variable representation method based on Sturmian functions. The first theoretical prediction of the absorption spectra for the He-C3N- complex in the microwave region is also provided.

  19. Fourier Transform Absorption Spectroscopy of C_3 in the ν_3 Antisymmetric Stretch Mode Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloet, Michel; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Tokaryk, Dennis W.; Pirali, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    The C_3 molecule has been detected in a variety of astrophysical objects thanks to the well-known 4050 Å (A^1Π_u-X^1Σ ^+ _g) electronic transition as well as the two IR active modes of the electronic ground state: ν_2 (˜ 63.42 cm^{-1}) and ν_3 (˜ 2040.02 cm^{-1}). Previous laboratory data in the ν_3 region, obtained using diode laser spectroscopy and the photolysis of allene to produce C_3, permitted measurement of the fundamental (0,0,1)Σ-(0,0,0)Σ as well as the hot bands: (0,1,1)Π-(0,1,0)Π; (0,2,1)Σ-(0,2,0)Σ; (0,2,1)Δ-(0,2,0)Δ and provided insights on the anharmonicity of the (0,nν_2,1) vibrational pattern. We have recorded the absorption spectrum of C_3 in the 1800-2100 cm^{-1} region (at a resolution of 0.003 cm^{-1}) using the Bruker IFS 125 Fourier Transform spectrometer at the AILES beamline of Synchrotron SOLEIL. C_3 was produced in a DC discharge of methane heavily diluted in helium. The rovibrational temperature of C_3 produced in our discharge is noticeably higher than in Ref. [4], which allowed us to extend measurements to higher J values. More interestingly, we assigned new hot bands involving higher quanta of the ν_2 bending states: (0,nν_2,1) with n ranging from 0 to 5. Despite the absence of Q branches for these bands, which results in a possible ambiguous J-assignment of P and R lines, the large variety of data considered in this work, in addition to our experimental data and including observations of comet spectra, allows confident assignments. L. Gausset, G. Herzberg, A. Lagerqvist, B. Rosen, Astrophysical Journal, 45-81 (1965); T. F. Giesen et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 551, L181-L184 (2001) K. W. Hinkle, J. J. Keady, P. F. Bernath, Science, 241, 1319-1322 (1988) K. Kawaguchi et al., J. Chem. Phys., 91, 1953-1957 (1989)

  20. Visible-light driven Photoelectrochemical Immunosensor Based on SnS2@mpg-C3N4 for Detection of Prostate Specific Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Liu, Yixin; Li, Rongxia; Saddam Khan, Malik; Gao, Picheng; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Qin

    2017-07-05

    Herein, a novel label-free photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor based on SnS2@mpg-C3N4 nanocomposite is fabricated for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in human serum. Firstly, mesoporous graphite-like carbon nitride (mpg-C3N4) with carboxyl groups is synthesized successfully which possesses high specific surface area and large pore volume. Then, SnS2 as a typical n-type semiconductor with weak photoelectric conversion capability is successfully loaded on carboxylated mpg-C3N4 to form a well-matched overlapping band-structure. The as-synthesized SnS2@mpg-C3N4 nanocomposite performs outstanding photocurrent response under visible-light irradiation due to low recombination rate of photoexcited electron-hole pairs, which is transcend than pure SnS2 or pure mpg-C3N4. It is worth noting that SnS2@mpg-C3N4 nanocomposite is firstly employed as the photoactive material in PEC immunosensor area. The concentration of PSA can be analyzed by the decrease in photocurrent resulted from increased steric hindrance of the immunocomplex. Under the optimal conditions, the developed PEC immunosensor displays a liner photocurrent response in the range of 50 fg·mL-1 ~ 10 ng·mL-1 with a low detection limit of 21 fg·mL-1. Furthermore, the fabricated immunosensor with satisfactory stability, reproducibility and selectivity provides a novel method for PSA determination in real sample analysis.

  1. The attachment of serum- and plasma-derived C3 to solid-phase immune aggregates and its relation to complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Svehag, S E; Jensenius, J C

    1986-01-01

    plasma at 37 degrees C. The binding of C3 components was investigated with biotinylated F(ab')2 antibodies to C3c and C3d and avidin-coupled alkaline phosphatase. The form of the incorporated C3, whether C3b-iC3b or C3dg, can be deduced from the response with these two antibodies. The maximal binding...

  2. C4 plants use fluctuating light less efficiently than do C3 plants: a study of growth, photosynthesis and carbon isotope discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubásek, Jiří; Urban, Otmar; Šantrůček, Jiří

    2013-12-01

    Plants in the field are commonly exposed to fluctuating light intensity, caused by variable cloud cover, self-shading of leaves in the canopy and/or leaf movement due to turbulence. In contrast to C3 plant species, only little is known about the effects of dynamic light (DL) on photosynthesis and growth in C4 plants. Two C4 and two C3 monocot and eudicot species were grown under steady light or DL conditions with equal sum of daily incident photon flux. We measured leaf gas exchange, plant growth and dry matter carbon isotope discrimination to infer CO2 bundle sheath leakiness in C4 plants. The growth of all species was reduced by DL, despite only small changes in steady-state gas exchange characteristics, and this effect was more pronounced in C4 than C3 species due to lower assimilation at light transitions. This was partially attributed to increased bundle sheath leakiness in C4 plants under the simulated lightfleck conditions. We hypothesize that DL leads to imbalances in the coordination of C4 and C3 cycles and increasing leakiness, thereby decreasing the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis. In addition to their other constraints, the inability of C4 plants to efficiently utilize fluctuating light likely contributes to their absence in such environments as forest understoreys. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Fractionation of Sulfur Isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris Mutants Lacking Periplasmic Hydrogenases or the Type I Tetraheme Cytochrome c3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, M.; Ono, S.; Bosak, T.

    2012-12-01

    A large fraction of anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds relies on microbial sulfate reduction. Sulfur isotope fractionation by these microbes has been widely used to trace the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and carbon, but intracellular mechanisms behind the wide range of fractionations observed in nature and cultures are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the influence of electron transport chain components on the fractionation of sulfur isotopes by culturing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c3 (Tp1-c3). The mutants were grown both in batch and continuous cultures. All tested mutants grew on lactate or pyruvate as the sole carbon and energy sources, generating sulfide. Mutants lacking cytoplasmic and periplasmic hydrogenases exhibited similar growth physiologies and sulfur isotope fractionations to their parent strains. On the other hand, a mutant lacking Tp1-c3 (ΔcycA) fractionated the 34S/32S ratio more than the wild type, evolving H2 in the headspace and exhibiting a lower specific respiration rate. In the presence of high concentrations of pyruvate, the growth of ΔcycA relied largely on fermentation rather than sulfate reduction, even when sulfate was abundant, producing the largest sulfur isotope effect observed in this study. Differences between sulfur isotope fractionation by ΔcycA and the wild type highlight the effect of electron transfer chains on the magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation. Because Tp1-c3 is known to exclusively shuttle electrons from periplasmic hydrogenases to transmembrane complexes, electron transfers in the absence of Tp1-c3 should bypass the periplasmic hydrogen cycling, and the loss of reducing equivalents in the form of H2 can impair the flow of electrons from organic acids to sulfur, increasing isotope fractionation. Larger fractionation by ΔcycA can inform interpretations of sulfur isotope data at an environmental scale as well

  4. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Cu2O supported on C3N4: An efficient visible light responsive semiconductor photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganesh Babu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, Cu2O spheres were prepared and encapsulated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 composite covered the whole solar spectrum with significant absorption intensity. rGO wrapped Cu2O loading caused a red shift in the absorption with respect to considering the absorption of bare C3N4. The photoluminescence study confirms that rGO exploited as an electron transport layer at the interface of Cu2O and C3N4 heterojunction. Utmost, ∼2 fold synergistic effect was achieved with Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in comparison with Cu2O–rGO and C3N4. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 photocatalyst was reused for four times without loss in its activity.

  5. CEO expectation: the Star Wars materiel manager of the 1990s, or C-3PO as role model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenty, T F; Olson, M R

    1993-05-01

    Materiel-intensive expenditures account for a significant portion of all hospital costs, second only to salaries and wages, yet materiel managers may often be overlooked as key members of the management team. This is alarming since the potential exists for materiel managers to impact annual savings of hundreds of thousands of dollars by operating efficient departments. Materiel managers have a tremendous opportunity to enhance their image and improve hospital productivity in the coming decade. The challenges of the 1990s will stretch materiel managers' skills toward enhancing their professionalism and achieving the expectations of themselves and top management. If materiel managers will effectively utilize (C3)PO they will increase their educational levels, continue to learn new skills, maintain a customer-oriented management style, exercise creativity, develop and adhere to standards, and be proactive in their responsibilities. The benefits of their success will be felt by patients, hospitals, the industry, and materiel managers everywhere.

  6. Enhanced photocatalytic performances of ultrafine g-C3N4 nanosheets obtained by gaseous stripping with wet nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chengkong; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Guangqing; Lv, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Jiaqin; Qin, Yongqiang; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a promising heterogeneous photocatalyst for organics pollutants degradation and water splitting. Herein, we highlight an available pathway to prepare the ultrafine g-C3N4 nanosheets by gaseous stripping of bulk g-C3N4 in wet nitrogen. As comparison, g-C3N4 treated in air and nitrogen atmospheres are also prepared. The obtained products are characterized with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. Well dispersed g-C3N4 nanosheets can be obtained by this gaseous stripping process in wet nitrogen, which possess much higher specific surface area (211.2 m2 g-1) than that of bulk g-C3N4 (15.3 m2 g-1). Both RhB degradation and water splitting are applied to characterize the photocatalytic performances of the ultrafine g-C3N4 nanosheets. The g-C3N4 (w-N2) nanosheets can degrade 20 mg/L RhB completely within 12 min under visible light illumination, which is 5.32 times faster than that of bulk g-C3N4. Also, the g-C3N4 (w-N2) nanosheets possess the highest photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of 1113.48 μmol h-1 g-1 under visible light illumination, which is 6 times that of bulk g-C3N4. The mechanisms of enhancing the photocatalytic performance are discussed to be the higher oxidation ability of VB and higher specific surface area (211.2 m2/g) of the ultrafine g-C3N4 nanosheets.

  7. Effects of root applications of gibberellic acid on photosynthesis and growth in C3 and C 4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, D S; Arteca, R N

    1985-01-01

    The effects of root applications of gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth and photosynthesis of 12 species of plants including C3 monocots (Triticum aestivum L., wheat, Hordeum vulgare L., barley and Avena sativa L., oat), C3 dicots (Vigna radiata L., mung bean, Cucurbita moschata L., squash and Capsicum annuum L., pepper), C4 monocots (Zea mays L., corn, Sorghum vulgare L., sorghum and Panicum ramosum L., millet) and C4 dicots (Amaranthus retroflexus L., pigweed, Kochia scoparis L., kochia and Gomphrena celosoides L., gomphrena) were evaluated. Relative growth rates (RGR) of barley, oat, squash, pepper, corn, sorghum, millet, pigweed and kochia were increased above the control by 12.7%, 9.9%, 11.3%, 10.7%, 19.2% 10.1%, 11.5%, 16.4% and 32.7% respectively, four days following optimum GA3 treatments. There was no effect of GA3 on RGR in wheat, mung bean, and gomphrena. Gibberellic acid decreased the chlorophyll content expressed on an area basis by 20.0%, 13.9%, 20.9%, 17.1%, 11.9% and 28.0% in barley, squash, pepper, sorghum, pigweed and kochia, respectively, while that of oat, wheat, mung bean, corn, millet and gomphrena remained unchanged. When photosynthetic rates were expressed per mg of chlorophyll, it showed that GA3 could stimulate photosynthesis in barley, squash, pepper, sorghum, millet, pigweed and kochia by 20.4%, 20.6%, 16.5%, 17.4%, 10.4%, 24.2%, and 29.4%; while there was no effect in oat, wheat, mung bean, corn and gomphrena. An increase in leaf blade area and/or length of sheath were observed in GA3 treated plants of oat, barley, mung bean, squash, pepper, corn, sorghum, millet and kochia. The transpiration rate remained unchanged following GA3 treatment in all 12 species.

  8. Photosynthetic limitation and mechanisms of photoprotection under drought and recovery of Calotropis procera, an evergreen C3 from arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Rebeca; Frosi, Gabriella; Ramos, Diego G; Pereira, Silvia; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M; Santos, Mauro G

    2017-09-01

    Calotropis procera is a C3 plant native from arid environmental zones. It is an evergreen, shrubby, non-woody plant with intense photosynthetic metabolism during the dry season. We measured photosynthetic parameters and leaf biochemical traits, such as gas exchange, photochemical parameters, A/Ci analysis, organic solutes, and antioxidant enzymes under controlled conditions in potted plants during drought stress, and following recovery conditions to obtain a better insight in the drought stress responses of C. procera. Indeed, different processes contribute to the drought stress resilience of C. procera and to the fast recovery after rehydration. The parameters analyzed showed that C. procera has a high efficiency for energy dissipation. The photosynthetic machinery is protected by a robust antioxidant system and photoprotective mechanisms such as alternative pathways for electrons (photorespiration and day respiration). Under severe drought stress, increased stomatal limitation and decreased biochemical limitation permitted C. procera to maintain maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vc,max) and photosynthetic rate (Amax). On the other hand, limitation of stomatal or mesophyll CO2 diffusion did not impair fast recovery, maintaining Vc,max, chloroplast CO2 concentration (Cc) and mesophyll conductance (gm) unchanged while electron flow used for RuBP carboxylation (Jc) and Amax increased. The ability to tolerate drought stress and the fast recovery of this evergreen C3 species was also due to leaf anti-oxidative stress enzyme activity, and photosynthetic pigments. Thus, these different drought tolerance mechanisms allowed high performance of photosynthetic metabolism by drought stressed plants during the re-watering period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. C 3, A Command-line Catalog Cross-match Tool for Large Astrophysical Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Giuseppe; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Mercurio, Amata; di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Molinari, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Modern Astrophysics is based on multi-wavelength data organized into large and heterogeneous catalogs. Hence, the need for efficient, reliable and scalable catalog cross-matching methods plays a crucial role in the era of the petabyte scale. Furthermore, multi-band data have often very different angular resolution, requiring the highest generality of cross-matching features, mainly in terms of region shape and resolution. In this work we present C 3 (Command-line Catalog Cross-match), a multi-platform application designed to efficiently cross-match massive catalogs. It is based on a multi-core parallel processing paradigm and conceived to be executed as a stand-alone command-line process or integrated within any generic data reduction/analysis pipeline, providing the maximum flexibility to the end-user, in terms of portability, parameter configuration, catalog formats, angular resolution, region shapes, coordinate units and cross-matching types. Using real data, extracted from public surveys, we discuss the cross-matching capabilities and computing time efficiency also through a direct comparison with some publicly available tools, chosen among the most used within the community, and representative of different interface paradigms. We verified that the C 3 tool has excellent capabilities to perform an efficient and reliable cross-matching between large data sets. Although the elliptical cross-match and the parametric handling of angular orientation and offset are known concepts in the astrophysical context, their availability in the presented command-line tool makes C 3 competitive in the context of public astronomical tools.

  10. Acylation stimulating protein, complement C3 and lipid metabolism in ketosis-prone diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPDM is new-onset diabetic ketoacidosis without precipitating factors in non-type 1 diabetic patients; after management, some are withdrawn from exogenous insulin, although determining factors remain unclear.Twenty KPDM patients and twelve type 1 diabetic patients (T1DM, evaluated at baseline, 12 and 24 months with/without insulin maintenance underwent a standardized mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT for 2 h.At baseline, triglyceride and C3 were higher during MMTT in KPDM vs. T1DM (p<0.0001 with no differences in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA while Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP tended to be higher. Within 12 months, 11 KPDM were withdrawn from insulin treatment (KPDM-ins, while 9 were maintained (KPDM+ins. NEFA was lower in KPDM-ins vs. KPDM+ins at baseline (p = 0.0006, 12 months (p<0.0001 and 24 months (p<0.0001 during MMTT. NEFA in KPDM-ins decreased over 30-120 minutes (p<0.05, but not in KPDM+ins. Overall, C3 was higher in KPDM-ins vs KPDM+ins at 12 months (p = 0.0081 and 24 months (p = 0.0019, while ASP was lower at baseline (p = 0.0024 and 12 months (p = 0.0281, with a decrease in ASP/C3 ratio.Notwithstanding greater adiposity in KPDM-ins, greater NEFA decreases and lower ASP levels during MMTT suggest better insulin and ASP sensitivity in these patients.

  11. [Treatment of type C3 distal femoral fractures with double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liu, Jian; Huang, Chun-Xia; Zhao, Zhan-Fu; Wang, Gang; Qin, Cong-Cong

    2012-12-01

    To investigate clinical efficacy and feasibility of double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach in treating type C3 distal femoral fractures. From August 2008 to August 2011, 12 cases with type C3 distal femoral fractures were treated, including 5 open fractures and 7 closed fractures. Among them, there were 8 males, 4 females with an average of 40 years (ranged, 25 to 55 years). There were 7 in left side, 5 in right side. Nine cases were caused by car accident, 3 cases by falling down. The duration from injury to hospital was form 20 minutes to 5 days (mean 135 min). After tibia bone traction for 5 to 8 days, the operation were performed by double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach, and autograft of iliac bone or allograft bone grafting were given to bone defect. Knee joint function was evaluated according to Merchanetal criteria. The operation time was from 110 to 160 min, with an average of 135 min, the blood loss was from 300 ml to 500 ml,with an average of 400 ml. Post-operative wound were stage I healing. All patients were followed up from 16 to 36 months (mean 24 months). No infection, reduction loss, nonunion, deep vein thrombosis occurred. Bone healing time was for 18 to 24 weeks with an average of 21 weeks. According to the Merchanetal criteria, 4 cases got excellent results, 6 good, 1 fair and 1 poor. Double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach for type C3 distal femoral fractures is an effective way, which has advantages of obvious exposure, simple manipulation, anatomical reduction, stable fixation. However,operation indications and operating instructions should be strictly followed.

  12. The Crystal Structure of Cobra Venom Factor, a Cofactor for C3- and C5-Convertase CVFBb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Vengadesan; Ponnuraj, Karthe; Xu, Yuanyuan; Macon, Kevin; Volanakis, John E.; Narayana, Sthanam V.L.; (Madras); (UAB)

    2009-05-26

    Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a functional analog of human complement component C3b, the active fragment of C3. Similar to C3b, in human and mammalian serum, CVF binds factor B, which is then cleaved by factor D, giving rise to the CVFBb complex that targets the same scissile bond in C3 as the authentic complement convertases C4bC2a and C3bBb. Unlike the latter, CVFBb is a stable complex and an efficient C5 convertase. We solved the crystal structure of CVF, isolated from Naja naja kouthia venom, at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The CVF crystal structure, an intermediate between C3b and C3c, lacks the TED domain and has the CUB domain in an identical position to that seen in C3b. The similarly positioned CUB and slightly displaced C345c domains of CVF could play a vital role in the formation of C3 convertases by providing important primary binding sites for factor B.

  13. Unconventionally prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts for photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppová, Ivana; Šihor, Marcel; Reli, Martin; Ritz, Michal; Praus, Petr; Kočí, Kamila

    2018-02-01

    The TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites with the various TiO2:g-C3N4 weight ratios from 1:1 to 1:3 were prepared unconventionally by pressurized hot water processing in a flow regime. The parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and thermal annealing, respectively. The nanocomposites as well as parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 were characterized using several complementary characterization methods and investigated in the photocatalytic decomposition of N2O under UVA (λ = 365 nm) irradiation. All the prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites showed higher photocatalytic activity in comparison with the pure g-C3N4 and chiefly pure TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was decreasing in the following sequence: TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:2) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:1). In comparison with the parent TiO2 or g-C3N4, the TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites' photocatalytic capability was significantly enhanced by coupling TiO2 with g-C3N4. The generation of TiO2/g-C3N4 Z-scheme photocatalyst mainly benefited from the effective separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and the extended optical absorption range. The TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) nanocomposite showed the best photocatalytic behavior in a consequence of the optimal weight ratio of TiO2:g-C3N4 and the lowest band gap energy from all nanocomposites. The N2O conversion in its presence was 70.6% after 20 h of UVA irradiation.

  14. Complement factors C4 and C3 are down regulated in response to short term overfeeding in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghmar, Caroline; Brøns, Charlotte; Pilely, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    -days HFO by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp. Circulating C4, C3, ficolins, mannose-binding-lectin, complement activation products C3bc, terminal complement complex (TCC) and complement activation capacity were determined using turbidimetry and ELISA. HFO induced peripheral insulin resistance in LBW...... individuals only, while both groups had the same degree of hepatic insulin resistance after HFO. Viewing all individuals circulating levels of C4, C3, C3bc, TCC and complement activation capacity decreased paradoxically along the development of insulin resistance after HFO (P = 0.0015, P

  15. One-Pot Synthesis and Transmembrane Chloride Transport Properties of C3-Symmetric Benzoxazine Urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arundhati; Saha, Debasis; Mukherjee, Arnab; Talukdar, Pinaki

    2016-11-18

    One-pot synthesis of a C 3 -symmetric benzoxazine-based tris-urea compound is discussed. 1 H NMR titrations indicate a stronger Cl - binding compared that of Br - and I - by the receptor. Effective Cl - transport across liposomal membranes via a Cl - /X - antiport mechanism is confirmed. Theoretical calculation suggests that a few water molecules with N-H, C═O, and the aromatic ring of the receptor create a H-bonded polar cavity where a Cl - is recognized by O-H···Cl - interactions from five bridged water molecules.

  16. General form of intramolecular nuclear spin isomers mixing in C3v -symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ichov, L. V.

    2017-10-01

    Molecules with identical nuclei exist in nature in the form of nuclear spin isomers. In general, spin isomers are not the eigenstates of total molecular Hamiltonian. It also contains parts able to transform spin isomers one into another. Recently, nuclear spin isomers relaxation induced by such a quantum mixing was successfully demonstrated in experiment. That motivates the search for general intramolecular interactions able to mix spin isomers. In the work, the general forms of the possible mixing interactions are found for C3v-type of molecules using generalized Jordan-Schwinger approach to the theory of quantum angular momentum.

  17. BeC3: a Crowd-Centric Composition Testbed for the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Movahedi, Zahra; Cherrier, Sylvain; Ghamri-Doudane, Yacine

    2016-01-01

    International audience; —With the emergence of IoT devices, such as smart-phones, temperature and light devices, etc., the ways of creating IoT applications has changed. IoT applications are often created and managed by a set of central points (orchestration) for different users. However, users may desire to create and manage their own applications based on their own logic in a decentralized way (choreography). Hence, in this paper, we demonstrate BeC3, a tool for creating and deploying Crowd...

  18. Modelling Workload on the Bison C3I Command Post: Phase 1 - Task Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    MODELLING WORKLOAD ON THE BISON C3I COMMAND POST: PHASE I - TASK ANALYSIS     Project  Manager :  Kris Huber  Array Systems Computing...rencontrer l’équipage d’un Bison de type MCP qui venait de revenir d’un déploiement en Afghanistan. L’équipage a fourni des renseignements de valeur ...12 4.1.2.1 “Workspace Design Handbook for Standardized Command Posts” – US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

  19. Total En Bloc Spondylectomy of C3: A New Surgical Technique and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štulík, J; Barna, M; Vyskočil, T; Nesnídal, P; Kryl, J; Klézl, Z

    2015-01-01

    Radical resection of a vertebra is reserved only for specific tumors that invade the surrounding tissues and recur when not removed completely. The vertebra may be removed using a piecemeal technique or en bloc, using only two (in thoracolumbar spine) or more osteotomies (in cervical spine). We present our technique of en bloc resection of subaxial cervical vertebra for Ewing's sarcoma of C3, with preservation of all nerve roots and both vertebral arteries. To our knowledge, this surgical technique has not been reported in the English literature. The aim of this study is to describe the new technique of radical resection of subaxial cervical vertebra. A transoral biopsy of tumor tissue anterior to C2-C3 was performed in 8-year old boy, revealing a diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma. The patient was started on neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After 6 chemotherapy cycles with the VIDE regimen, the soft-tissue component completely regressed, with the only a residual deposit in C3 vertebral body. Based on further multidisciplinary meeting, an en bloc spondylectomy of C3 was recommended, preferably with preservation of nerve roots and vertebral arteries. In August 2014, prior to the planned surgery, we performed another thorough examination of the patient using plain films, CT and MRI. Neither angiography nor embolization was performed. DESCRIPTION OF SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The first stage of the operation consisted of resection of the posterior structures. We exposed the posterior elements of C2 to C4 by the mid-line incision. The C3 arch was without pathological changes. After partial resection of the C2 inferior and C4 superior articular processes we performed bilateral osteotomy in the region of the pedicle adjacent to the arch with a chisel and removed the whole of the C3 posterior arch. Subsequently we perforated the transverse foramina close to the pedicle, using fine Kerrison rongeurs. The lateral parts around vertebral arteries were left in situ. In the next step we used

  20. Assay of low deuterium enrichment of water by isotopic exchange with [U-13C3]acetone and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Diraison, F; Beylot, M; Brunengraber, D Z; Samols, M A; Anderson, V E; Brunengraber, H

    1998-05-01

    A sensitive assay of the 2H-enrichment of water based on the isotopic exchange between the hydrogens of water and of acetone in alkaline medium is described and validated. For low 2H-enrichments (0.008 to 0.5%), the sample is spiked with [U-13C3]acetone and NaOH. After exchange, 2H-enriched [U-13C3]acetone is extracted with chloroform and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. With some instruments, ion-molecule reactions, resulting in increased baseline enrichment, are minimized by lowering the electron ionization energy from the usual 70 to 10 eV. The 2H-enrichment of water is amplified nearly sixfold in the M4/M3 ratio of [U-13C3]acetone. For high 2H-enrichments (0.25 to 100%), the use of unlabeled acetone suffices. After exchange, the mass isotopomer distribution of acetone is analyzed, yielding the 2H-enrichment of water. The assay with [U-13C3]acetone allows measuring the 2H-enrichment of water even in biological samples containing acetone. This technique is more rapid and economical than the classical isotope ratio mass spectrometric assay of the enrichment of hydrogen gas derived from the reduction of water.

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of C3N4/BiFeO3heterojunctions: the synergistic effects of band alignment and ferroelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xian-Zhu; Song, Chuang; Tong, Yin-Lin; Yuan, Guoliang; Gao, Feng; Liu, Dan-Qing; Zhang, Shan-Tao

    2018-01-31

    As one of the most promising photocatalysts, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) shows a visible light response and great chemical stability. However, its relatively low photocatalytic efficiency is a major obstacle to actual applications. Here an effective and feasible method to dramatically increase the visible light photocatalytic efficiency by forming C 3 N 4 /BiFeO 3 ferroelectric heterojunctions is reported, wherein the band alignment and piezo-/ferroelectricity have synergistic positive effects in accelerating the separation of the photogenerated carriers. At the optimum composition of 10 wt% BiFeO 3 , the heterojunction shows 1.4 times improved photocatalytic efficiency than that of the pure C 3 N 4 . Most importantly, mechanical pressing and electrical poling can also improve the photocatalytic efficiencies by 1.3 times and 1.8 times, respectively. The optimized photocatalytic efficiency is even comparable with that of some noble metal based compounds. These results not only prove the improved photocatalytic activity of the C 3 N 4 -ferroelectric heterojunctions, but also provide a new approach for designing high-performance photocatalysts by taking advantage of ferroelectricity.

  2. Complete genome sequence of the mosquitocidal bacterium Bacillus sphaericus C3-41 and comparison with those of closely related Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaomin; Fan, Wei; Han, Bei; Liu, Haizhou; Zheng, Dasheng; Li, Qibin; Dong, Wei; Yan, Jianping; Gao, Meiying; Berry, Colin; Yuan, Zhiming

    2008-04-01

    Bacillus sphaericus strain C3-41 is an aerobic, mesophilic, spore-forming bacterium that has been used with great success in mosquito control programs worldwide. Genome sequencing revealed that the complete genome of this entomopathogenic bacterium is composed of a chromosomal replicon of 4,639,821 bp and a plasmid replicon of 177,642 bp, containing 4,786 and 186 potential protein-coding sequences, respectively. Comparison of the genome with other published sequences indicated that the B. sphaericus C3-41 chromosome is most similar to that of Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14905, a marine species that, like B. sphaericus, is unable to metabolize polysaccharides. The lack of key enzymes and sugar transport systems in the two bacteria appears to be the main reason for this inability, and the abundance of proteolytic enzymes and transport systems may endow these bacteria with exclusive metabolic pathways for a wide variety of organic compounds and amino acids. The genes shared between B. sphaericus C3-41 and Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14905, including mobile genetic elements, membrane-associated proteins, and transport systems, demonstrated that these two species are a biologically and phylogenetically divergent group. Knowledge of the genome sequence of B. sphaericus C3-41 thus increases our understanding of the bacilli and may also offer prospects for future genetic improvement of this important biological control agent.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Mosquitocidal Bacterium Bacillus sphaericus C3-41 and Comparison with Those of Closely Related Bacillus Species▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaomin; Fan, Wei; Han, Bei; Liu, Haizhou; Zheng, Dasheng; Li, Qibin; Dong, Wei; Yan, Jianping; Gao, Meiying; Berry, Colin; Yuan, Zhiming

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus strain C3-41 is an aerobic, mesophilic, spore-forming bacterium that has been used with great success in mosquito control programs worldwide. Genome sequencing revealed that the complete genome of this entomopathogenic bacterium is composed of a chromosomal replicon of 4,639,821 bp and a plasmid replicon of 177,642 bp, containing 4,786 and 186 potential protein-coding sequences, respectively. Comparison of the genome with other published sequences indicated that the B. sphaericus C3-41 chromosome is most similar to that of Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14905, a marine species that, like B. sphaericus, is unable to metabolize polysaccharides. The lack of key enzymes and sugar transport systems in the two bacteria appears to be the main reason for this inability, and the abundance of proteolytic enzymes and transport systems may endow these bacteria with exclusive metabolic pathways for a wide variety of organic compounds and amino acids. The genes shared between B. sphaericus C3-41 and Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14905, including mobile genetic elements, membrane-associated proteins, and transport systems, demonstrated that these two species are a biologically and phylogenetically divergent group. Knowledge of the genome sequence of B. sphaericus C3-41 thus increases our understanding of the bacilli and may also offer prospects for future genetic improvement of this important biological control agent. PMID:18296527

  4. Photocatalytic Properties of g-C3N4–TiO2 Heterojunctions under UV and Visible Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Fagan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 were chosen as a model system to investigate photocatalytic abilities of heterojunction system under UV and visible light conditions. The use of g-C3N4 has been shown to be effective in the reduction in recombination through the interaction between the two interfaces of TiO2 and g-C3N4. A simple method of preparing g-C3N4 through the pyrolysis of melamine was employed, which was then added to undoped TiO2 material to form the g-C3N4–TiO2 system. These materials were then fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET, and various spectroscopic techniques including Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, diffuse absorbance, and photoluminescence analysis. Photocatalysis studies were conducted using the model dye, rhodamine 6G utilizing visible and UV light irradiation. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that a composite of the materials was formed as opposed to a mixture of the two. Using XPS analysis, a shift in the nitrogen peak to that indicative of substitutional nitrogen was detected for all doped samples. This is then mirrored in the diffuse absorbance results, which show a clear decrease in band gap values for these samples, showing the effective band gap alteration achieved through this preparation process. When g-C3N4–TiO2 samples were analyzed under visible light irradiation, no significant improvement was observed compared that of pure TiO2. However, under UV light irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic ability of the doped samples exhibited an increased reactivity when compared to the undoped TiO2 (0.130 min−1, with 4% g-C3N4–TiO2 (0.187 min−1, showing a 43.9% increase in reactivity. Further doping to 8% g-C3N4–TiO2 lead to a decrease in reactivity against rhodamine 6G. BET analysis determined that the surface area of the 4% and 8% g-C3N4–TiO2 samples were very similar, with values

  5. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Tai L., E-mail: tlguo1@uga.edu [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Wang, Yunbiao [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102 (China); Xiong, Tao [College of Animal Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou City, Hubei Province 434025 (China); Ling, Xiao [Institute for Food and Drug Control of Shandong Province, Jinan City, Shandong 250012 (China); Zheng, Jianfeng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0613 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  6. Zn(C 3H 3N 2) 2: a novel diamagnetic insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świaţek-Tran, B.; Kołodziej, H. A.; Tran, V. H.

    2004-03-01

    We have prepared polycrystalline samples of Zn(C 3H 3N 2) 2 by a liquid-mix technique. Characterization of the obtained samples has been performed with the aid of elemental, thermogravimetric, infrared spectra and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. We have measured electric permittivity ( ɛ', ɛ″), ac-conductivity ( σac), magnetic susceptibility ( χ) and specific heat ( Cp). The obtained data indicate that this material is a new diamagnetic insulator. A maximum around 4.5 K is found in CpT-3, and it is suggested that in addition to the Debye lattice contribution, there exists a low-frequency mode assigned as an Einstein mode contribution to the total specific heat. As a main result of the study, we found ɛ' to be constant in a wide temperature range and to have a small value of 2.3 at room temperature. This feature in combination with other properties like crystallization, good thermal stability (up to 400°C), weak moisture sensitivity and simple synthesis makes Zn(C 3H 3N 2) 2 to be a promising candidate for good insulating material in various applications.

  7. Non-carcinogenicity of capsaicinoids in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, A; Sano, N; Uehara, H; Minami, T; Otsuka, H; Izumi, K

    1998-12-01

    The carcinogenicity of a mixture of capsaicinoids (64.5% capsaicin and 32.6% dihydrocapsaicin) was examined in B6C3F1 mice. In a 13-week toxicity study, renal toxicity was observed in 1% capsaicinoid-treated males. Next, groups of 50 mice of each sex were given 0, 0.025, 0.083 or 0.25% capsaicinoids in powdered diet for 79 weeks and killed in week 83. Food intake was reduced in mice of all capsaicinoid-treated groups, especially females, because of the pungency of capsaicinoids, and inhibition of body weight gain was apparent in females. The numbers of tumour-bearing females in the high-dose groups were significantly lower than that in the controls, and the incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms in both sexes were negatively correlated with the dose of capsaicinoids (Cochran-Armitage trend test). Renal cell adenomas developed in one mouse each of 0.025 and 0.25% capsaicinoid-treated males. The incidences of other tumours were similar in the treated and control groups. Thus, the present study indicated that a mixture of capsaicinoids is not carcinogenic in B6C3F1 mice.

  8. Postoperative Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Associated with Complement C3 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Matsukuma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS can be distinguished from typical or Shiga-like toxin-induced HUS. The clinical outcome is unfavorable; up to 50% of affected patients progress to end-stage renal failure and 25% die during the acute phase. Multiple conditions have been associated with aHUS, including infections, drugs, autoimmune conditions, transplantation, pregnancy, and metabolic conditions. aHUS in the nontransplant postsurgical period, however, is rare. An 8-month-old boy underwent surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia developed 25 days later, and aHUS was diagnosed. Further evaluation revealed that his complement factor H (CFH level was normal and that anti-FH antibodies were not detected in his plasma. Sequencing of his CFH, complement factor I, membrane cofactor protein, complement factor B, and thrombomodulin genes was normal. His ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin-1 repeats 13 activity was also normal. However, he had a potentially causative mutation (R425C in complement component C3. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that his father and aunt also had this mutation; however, they had no symptoms of aHUS. We herein report a case of aHUS that developed after cardiovascular surgery and was caused by a complement C3 mutation.

  9. Osseous associated cervical spondylomyelopathy at the C2-C3 articular facet joint in 11 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C; Gutierrez-Quintana, R; Penderis, J; Gonçalves, R

    2015-11-21

    In dogs, vertebral canal stenosis at C2-C3 due to articular facet joint degeneration is only sporadically identified. The authors' aims were to review the clinical presentation, MRI characteristics, treatment and outcome of dogs presenting with this condition. Eleven cases were eligible for inclusion. Neurological examination revealed tetraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia in all 4 limbs in 3/11, proprioceptive tetra-ataxia only in 4/11, pelvic limb proprioceptive ataxia in 2/11 and no gait abnormalities in 2/11 dogs. Cervical hyperaesthesia was present in 7/11 dogs. MRI revealed bilateral articular facet joint degeneration in 10/11 cases and unilateral degeneration in one. Surgery was performed in six cases and medical management elected in five. Long-term follow-up information was available for 11 animals. Four of the surgical cases are alive and have no neurological deficits, one was euthanased for an unrelated condition and one lost to follow-up. Of the cases managed medically, three are alive showing no neurological deficits, one is alive still displaying neurological deficits and one euthanased for an unrelated condition whilst still ataxic. This study shows that both medical and surgical management can result in good outcomes in dogs with vertebral canal stenosis resulting from articular facet joint degeneration at the level of C2-C3. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Engineering C4 photosynthesis into C3 chassis in the synthetic biology age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Mara L; Mantegazza, Otho; Weber, Andreas P M

    2016-07-01

    C4 photosynthetic plants outperform C3 plants in hot and arid climates. By concentrating carbon dioxide around Rubisco C4 plants drastically reduce photorespiration. The frequency with which plants evolved C4 photosynthesis independently challenges researchers to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying this convergent evolutionary switch. The conversion of C3 crops, such as rice, towards C4 photosynthesis is a long-standing goal. Nevertheless, at the present time, in the age of synthetic biology, this still remains a monumental task, partially because the C4 carbon-concentrating biochemical cycle spans two cell types and thus requires specialized anatomy. Here we review the advances in understanding the molecular basis and the evolution of the C4 trait, advances in the last decades that were driven by systems biology methods. In this review we emphasise essential genetic engineering tools needed to translate our theoretical knowledge into engineering approaches. With our current molecular understanding of the biochemical C4 pathway, we propose a simplified rational engineering model exclusively built with known C4 metabolic components. Moreover, we discuss an alternative approach to the progressing international engineering attempts that would combine targeted mutagenesis and directed evolution. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The superfamily of C3b/C4b-binding proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; D'Eustachio, P; Ogata, R T

    1987-01-01

    The determination of primary structures by amino acid and nucleotide sequencing for the C3b-and/or C4b-binding proteins H, C4BP, CR1, B, and C2 has revealed the presence of a common structural element. This element is approximately 60 amino acids long and is repeated in a tandem fashion, commencing...... at the amino-terminal end of each molecule. Two other complement components, C1r and C1s, have two of these repeating units in the carboxy-terminal region of their noncatalytic A chains. Three noncomplement proteins, beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2I), the interleukin 2 receptor (IL 2 receptor), and the b chain...... of factor XIII, have 4, 2 and 10 of these repeating units, respectively. These proteins obviously belong to the above family, although there is no evidence that they interact with C3b and/or C4b. Human haptoglobin and rat leukocyte common antigen also contain two and three repeating units, respectively...

  12. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO -60 C 3F8 Bubble Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Arnquist, I. J.; Asner, D. M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Campion, P.; Cao, G.; Chen, C. J.; Chowdhury, U.; Clark, K.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Crowder, G.; Dahl, C. E.; Das, M.; Fallows, S.; Farine, J.; Felis, I.; Filgas, R.; Girard, F.; Giroux, G.; Hall, J.; Harris, O.; Hoppe, E. W.; Jin, M.; Krauss, C. B.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Leblanc, A.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Mamedov, F.; Maurya, D.; Mitra, P.; Nania, T.; Neilson, R.; Noble, A. J.; Olson, S.; Ortega, A.; Plante, A.; Podviyanuk, R.; Priya, S.; Robinson, A. E.; Roeder, A.; Rucinski, R.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Sonnenschein, A.; Starinski, N.; Štekl, I.; Tardif, F.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.; Wells, J.; Wichoski, U.; Yan, Y.; Zacek, V.; Zhang, J.; PICO Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    New results are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C3 F8 located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. As in previous PICO bubble chambers, PICO -60 C 3F8 exhibits excellent electron recoil and alpha decay rejection, and the observed multiple-scattering neutron rate indicates a single-scatter neutron background of less than one event per month. A blind analysis of an efficiency-corrected 1167-kg day exposure at a 3.3-keV thermodynamic threshold reveals no single-scattering nuclear recoil candidates, consistent with the predicted background. These results set the most stringent direct-detection constraint to date on the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-proton spin-dependent cross section at 3.4 ×10-41 cm2 for a 30 -GeV c-2 WIMP, more than 1 order of magnitude improvement from previous PICO results.

  13. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 C_{3}F_{8} Bubble Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C; Ardid, M; Arnquist, I J; Asner, D M; Baxter, D; Behnke, E; Bhattacharjee, P; Borsodi, H; Bou-Cabo, M; Campion, P; Cao, G; Chen, C J; Chowdhury, U; Clark, K; Collar, J I; Cooper, P S; Crisler, M; Crowder, G; Dahl, C E; Das, M; Fallows, S; Farine, J; Felis, I; Filgas, R; Girard, F; Giroux, G; Hall, J; Harris, O; Hoppe, E W; Jin, M; Krauss, C B; Laurin, M; Lawson, I; Leblanc, A; Levine, I; Lippincott, W H; Mamedov, F; Maurya, D; Mitra, P; Nania, T; Neilson, R; Noble, A J; Olson, S; Ortega, A; Plante, A; Podviyanuk, R; Priya, S; Robinson, A E; Roeder, A; Rucinski, R; Scallon, O; Seth, S; Sonnenschein, A; Starinski, N; Štekl, I; Tardif, F; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E; Wells, J; Wichoski, U; Yan, Y; Zacek, V; Zhang, J

    2017-06-23

    New results are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C_{3}F_{8} located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. As in previous PICO bubble chambers, PICO-60 C_{3}F_{8} exhibits excellent electron recoil and alpha decay rejection, and the observed multiple-scattering neutron rate indicates a single-scatter neutron background of less than one event per month. A blind analysis of an efficiency-corrected 1167-kg day exposure at a 3.3-keV thermodynamic threshold reveals no single-scattering nuclear recoil candidates, consistent with the predicted background. These results set the most stringent direct-detection constraint to date on the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-proton spin-dependent cross section at 3.4×10^{-41}  cm^{2} for a 30-GeV c^{-2} WIMP, more than 1 order of magnitude improvement from previous PICO results.

  14. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-2L C3F8 Bubble Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C; Ardid, M; Asner, D M; Baxter, D; Behnke, E; Bhattacharjee, P; Borsodi, H; Bou-Cabo, M; Brice, S J; Broemmelsiek, D; Clark, K; Collar, J I; Cooper, P S; Crisler, M; Dahl, C E; Daley, S; Das, M; Debris, F; Dhungana, N; Farine, J; Felis, I; Filgas, R; Fines-Neuschild, M; Girard, F; Giroux, G; Hai, M; Hall, J; Harris, O; Jackson, C M; Jin, M; Krauss, C B; Lafrenière, M; Laurin, M; Lawson, I; Levine, I; Lippincott, W H; Mann, E; Martin, J P; Maurya, D; Mitra, P; Neilson, R; Noble, A J; Plante, A; Podviianiuk, R B; Priya, S; Robinson, A E; Ruschman, M; Scallon, O; Seth, S; Sonnenschein, A; Starinski, N; Štekl, I; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E; Wells, J; Wichoski, U; Zacek, V; Zhang, J

    2015-06-12

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2 liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg days at four different energy thresholds below 10 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron-recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds. The chamber exhibits an electron-recoil sensitivity of 98.2%. These data also include the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. These data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  15. Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is a potent inducer of embryonic chick retina regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Tracy; Luz-Madrigal, Agustin; Reis, Edimara S.; Echeverri Ruiz, Nancy P.; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Tzekou, Apostolia; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.; Lambris, John D.; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the initiation signals for tissue regeneration in vertebrates is one of the major challenges in regenerative biology. Much of the research thus far has indicated that certain growth factors have key roles. Here we show that complement fragment C3a is sufficient to induce complete regeneration of the embryonic chick retina from stem/progenitor cells present in the eye, independent of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling. Instead, C3a induces retina regeneration via STAT3 activation, which in turn activates the injury- and inflammation-responsive factors, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. This activation sets forth regulation of Wnt2b, Six3 and Sox2, genes associated with retina stem and progenitor cells. Thus, our results establish a mechanism for retina regeneration based on injury and inflammation signals. Furthermore, our results indicate a unique function for complement anaphylatoxins that implicate these molecules in the induction and complete regeneration of the retina, opening new avenues of experimentation in the field. PMID:23942241

  16. [Cloning, expression and elementary characterization of phosphofructokinase from Bacillus sphaericus C3-41].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bei; Cai, Yajun; Hu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Zhiming

    2008-05-01

    Bacillus sphaericus is unable to use hexose and pentoses as the sole carbon source, due to the lack of key enzymes in Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP), Hexose Monophophate Pathway (HMP) and Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, such as phosphofructokinase (PFK). Based on the genome sequence annotation results of B. sphaericus C3-41, the phosphofructokinase gene pfk was verified with a single copy on chromosome, the aim of this research is to analysis the EMP pathway in B. sphaericus further, and confirm the function of phosphofructokinase. The methods of southern-blot of pfk gene among different B. sphaericus strains, pfk ORF cloning from C3-41 and expressing in Escherichia coli, the corresponding sequence analysis and anlignment were used. The pfk ORF of B. sphaericus was composed of 960 bp nucleitides encoding a protein about 42 kDa, and the PFK sequence analysis showed it had the conservative amino acids-binding sites and an ATP-binding domain. The expression of pfk in recombinant E. coli strain could complement the PFK activity of a pfk mutated E. coli strain DF1020. The expressed PFK had the conventional phosphofructokinase activity, and settled the foundation for the further research of catabolism of B. sphaericus.

  17. Functional Analyses of Complement Convertases Using C3 and C5-Depleted Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okroj, Marcin; Holmquist, Emelie; King, Ben C.; Blom, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    C3 and C5 convertases are central stages of the complement cascade since they converge the different initiation pathways, augment complement activation by an amplification loop and lead to a common terminal pathway resulting in the formation of the membrane attack complex. Several complement inhibitors attenuate convertase formation and/or accelerate dissociation of convertase complexes. Functional assays used to study these processes are often performed using purified complement components, from which enzymatic complexes are reconstituted on the surface of erythrocytes or artificial matrices. This strategy enables identification of individual interactions between convertase components and putative regulators but carries an inherent risk of detecting non-physiological interactions that would not occur in a milieu of whole serum. Here we describe a novel, alternative method based on C3 or C5-depleted sera, which support activation of the complement cascade up to the desired stages of convertases. This approach allows fast and simple assessment of the influence of putative regulators on convertase formation and stability. As an example of practical utility of the assay, we performed studies on thioredoxin-1 in order to clarify the mechanism of its influence on complement convertases. PMID:23071769

  18. Functional analyses of complement convertases using C3 and C5-depleted sera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Okroj

    Full Text Available C3 and C5 convertases are central stages of the complement cascade since they converge the different initiation pathways, augment complement activation by an amplification loop and lead to a common terminal pathway resulting in the formation of the membrane attack complex. Several complement inhibitors attenuate convertase formation and/or accelerate dissociation of convertase complexes. Functional assays used to study these processes are often performed using purified complement components, from which enzymatic complexes are reconstituted on the surface of erythrocytes or artificial matrices. This strategy enables identification of individual interactions between convertase components and putative regulators but carries an inherent risk of detecting non-physiological interactions that would not occur in a milieu of whole serum. Here we describe a novel, alternative method based on C3 or C5-depleted sera, which support activation of the complement cascade up to the desired stages of convertases. This approach allows fast and simple assessment of the influence of putative regulators on convertase formation and stability. As an example of practical utility of the assay, we performed studies on thioredoxin-1 in order to clarify the mechanism of its influence on complement convertases.

  19. Effect of Carbide Ceramic Zone on Wear Resistance of the (Fe,Cr)7C3/Fe Surface Gradient Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fangxia; Xu, Yunhua; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Lai, Yujun; Wang, Chong; Wang, Xin

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we report on the influence of microstructure and mechanical properties of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 ceramic zone on wear resistance of the (Fe,Cr)7C3/Fe surface gradient composite fabricated by in situ synthesis method followed by a post-heat treatment at 1100 °C for 20 h in argon atmosphere. The phase composition, microstructure, nanoindentation hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and relative wear resistance of the (Fe,Cr)7C3/Fe surface gradient composite were investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation tester, and wear resistance testing instrument, respectively. The XRD results showed that (Fe,Cr)7C3 is the predominant crystalline phases in the fabricated composite. The volume fraction of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 particulates formed has a gradient distribution from the surface to the iron matrix, and the microstructure also changes significantly. The (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk ceramic zone with the volume fraction of about 100% and the (Fe,Cr)7C3 dense ceramic zone with the volume fraction of about 90% were synthesized on the upper surface of the (Fe,Cr)7C3/Fe surface gradient composite, respectively. The average nanoindentation hardness and elastic modulus of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk ceramic zone of the composite were determined to be 12.711 and 256.054 GPa, respectively. The fracture toughness of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk ceramic zone is in the range of 2.06-4.19 MPa m1/2, and its relative wear resistance is about 56 times higher than that of the iron matrix. The (Fe,Cr)7C3 dense ceramic zone with rod-like, secondary (Fe,Cr)7C3 particulates was formed at the bottom of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk ceramic zone. Rod-like, secondary (Fe,Cr)7C3 particulates are dense and grew in the direction of the iron substrate, providing higher wear resistance to the composite. The wear mechanisms of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk and dense ceramic zones are considered to be microcutting, microcracking, and spalling pit.

  20. Hybrid proteins of Cobra Venom Factor and cobra C3: tools to identify functionally important regions in Cobra Venom Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Brian E; Wehrhahn, Daniel; Fritzinger, David C; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm

    2012-09-15

    Cobra Venom Factor (CVF) is the complement-activating protein in cobra venom. CVF is structurally and functionally highly homologous to complement component C3. CVF, like C3b, the activated form of C3, forms a bimolecular complex with Factor B in serum, called C3/C5 convertase, an enzyme which activates complement components C3 and C5. Despite the high degree of homology, the two C3/C5 convertases exhibit significant functional differences. The most important difference is that the convertase formed with CVF (CVF,Bb) is physico-chemically far more stable than the convertase formed with C3b (C3b,Bb). In addition, the CVF,Bb convertase and CVF are completely resistant to inactivation by the complement regulatory proteins Factor H and Factor I. Furthermore, the CVF,Bb enzyme shows efficient C5-cleaving activity in fluid phase. In contrast, the C3b,Bb enzyme is essentially devoid of fluid-phase C5-cleaving activity. By taking advantage of the high degree of sequence identity at both the amino acid (85%) and DNA levels (93%) between CVF and cobra C3, we created hybrid proteins of CVF and cobra C3 where sections, or only a few amino acids, of the CVF sequence were replaced with the homologous amino acid sequence of cobra C3. In a first set of experiments, we created five hybrid proteins, termed H1 through H5, where the cobra C3 substitutions collectively spanned the entire length of the CVF protein. We also created three additional hybrid proteins where only four or five amino acid residues in CVF were exchanged with the corresponding amino acid residues from cobra C3. Collectively, these hybrid proteins, representing loss-of-function mutants of CVF, allowed the identification of regions and individual amino acid residues important for the CVF-specific functions. The results include the observation that the CVF β-chain is crucially important for forming a stable convertase, whereas the CVF α-chain appears to harbor no CVF-specific functions. Furthermore, the CVF

  1. Preparation of WO3/g-C3N4 composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rongxiang; Li, Xiuping; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    WO3/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO3 and g-C3N4 at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO3 was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C3N4 was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO3/g-C3N4 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). The WO3/g-C3N4 composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO3 and g-C3N4 than the WO3 and pure g-C3N4. In addition, two WO3 peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% -WO3/g-C3N4 composite. This finding indicated that WO3 was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C3N4 nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO3. The WO3/g-C3N4 composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO3 or pure g-C3N4, which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  2. The AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP): Methods and Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sonali P.; Ruane, Alexander Clark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter a multitude of factors important to agricultural systems, including pests, diseases, weeds, extreme climate events, water resources, soil degradation, and socio-economic pressures. Changes to carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), temperature, and water (CTW) will be the primary drivers of change in crop growth and agricultural systems. Therefore, establishing the CTW-change sensitivity of crop yields is an urgent research need and warrants diverse methods of investigation. Crop models provide a biophysical, process-based tool to investigate crop responses across varying environmental conditions and farm management techniques, and have been applied in climate impact assessment by using a variety of methods (White et al., 2011, and references therein). However, there is a significant amount of divergence between various crop models' responses to CTW changes (Rotter et al., 2011). While the application of a site-based crop model is relatively simple, the coordination of such agricultural impact assessments on larger scales requires consistent and timely contributions from a large number of crop modelers, each time a new global climate model (GCM) scenario or downscaling technique is created. A coordinated, global effort to rapidly examine CTW sensitivity across multiple crops, crop models, and sites is needed to aid model development and enhance the assessment of climate impacts (Deser et al., 2012). To fulfill this need, the Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP) (Ruane et al., 2014) was initiated within the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP; Rosenzweig et al., 2013). The submitted results from C3MP Phase 1 (February 15, 2013-December 31, 2013) are currently being analyzed. This chapter serves to present and update the C3MP protocols, discuss the initial participation and general findings, comment on needed adjustments, and describe continued and future development. AgMIP aims to improve

  3. Stable carbon isotope analysis of fluvial sediment fluxes over two contrasting C(4) -C(3) semi-arid vegetation transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttock, Alan; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Bol, Roland; Dixon, Elizabeth R; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2012-10-30

    Globally, many drylands are experiencing the encroachment of woody vegetation into grasslands. These changes in ecosystem structure and processes can result in increased sediment and nutrient fluxes due to fluvial erosion. As these changes are often accompanied by a shift from C(4) to C(3) vegetation with characteristic δ(13) C values, stable isotope analysis provides a promising mechanism for tracing these fluxes. Input vegetation, surface sediment and fluvially eroded sediment samples were collected across two contrasting C(4) -C(3) dryland vegetation transitions in New Mexico, USA. Isotope ratio mass spectrometric analyses were performed using a Carlo Erba NA2000 analyser interfaced to a SerCon 20-22 isotope ratio mass spectrometer to determine bulk δ(13) C values. Stable isotope analyses of contemporary input vegetation and surface sediments over the monitored transitions showed significant differences (p Pinus edulis/Juniperus monosperma (piñon-juniper) woodland sites. Significantly, this distinctive δ(13) C value was maintained in the bulk δ(13) C values of fluvially eroded sediment from each of the sites, with no significant variation between surface sediment and eroded sediment values. The significant differences in bulk δ(13) C values between sites were dependent on vegetation input. Importantly, these values were robustly expressed in fluvially eroded sediments, suggesting that stable isotope analysis is suitable for tracing sediment fluxes. Due to the prevalent nature of these dryland vegetation transitions in the USA and globally, further development of stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry has provided a valuable tool for enhanced understanding of functional changes in these ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Min Sub; Wang, David T.; Zane, Grant M.; Wall, Judy D.; Bosak, Tanja; Ono, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    The sulfur isotope effect produced by sulfate reducing microbes is commonly used to trace biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon in aquatic and sedimentary environments. To test the contribution of intracellular coupling between carbon and sulfur metabolisms to the overall magnitude of the sulfur isotope effect, this study compared sulfur isotope fractionations by mutants of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. We tested mutant strains lacking one or two periplasmic (Hyd, Hyn-1, Hyn-2, and Hys) or cytoplasmic hydrogenases (Ech and CooL), and a mutant lacking type I tetraheme cytochrome (TpI-c3). In batch culture, wild-type D. vulgaris and its hydrogenase mutants had comparable growth kinetics and produced the same sulfur isotope effects. This is consistent with the reported redundancy of hydrogenases in D. vulgaris. However, the TpI-c3 mutant (ΔcycA) exhibited slower growth and sulfate reduction rates in batch culture, and produced more H2 and an approximately 50% larger sulfur isotope effect, compared to the wild type. The magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation in the CycA deletion strain, thus, increased due to the disrupted coupling of the carbon oxidation and sulfate reduction pathways. In continuous culture, wild-type D. vulgaris and the CycA mutant produced similar sulfur isotope effects, underscoring the influence of environmental conditions on the relative contribution of hydrogen cycling to the electron transport. The large sulfur isotope effects associated with the non-ideal stoichiometry of sulfate reduction in this study imply that simultaneous fermentation and sulfate reduction may be responsible for some of the large naturally-occurring sulfur isotope effects. Overall, mutant strains provide a powerful tool to test the effect of specific redox proteins and pathways on sulfur isotope fractionation. PMID:23805134

  5. Human T cell derived, cell-bound complement iC3b is integrally involved in T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Katalin; Kremlitzka, Mariann; Sándor, Noémi; Tóth, Eszter Angéla; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna

    2012-03-30

    Although the complement system is thought to be mainly involved in innate immunity and in the humoral arm of adaptive responses, evidence implicating that complement impacts T cell responses are accumulating recently. The role of the various activation products of the major complement component C3 were mainly studied so far in animal systems, and investigations regarding the effect of different C3-fragments on human T cells are sparse. Here we show that anti-CD3 activated human T lymphocytes derived from the blood and tonsil of healthy individuals produce C3, and the major cleavage fragment that appears on the T cell surface is iC3b. Based on studies carried out in allogenic system we demonstrate that the T cell membrane bound iC3b binds to the CR3 and probably to CR4 receptors expressed on monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and this interaction leads to significantly enhanced T-cell proliferation. Since neither C3aR and nor C3a binding could be detected on the membrane of anti-CD3 activated T cells, our findings indicate that in humans – in contrast to mice – the C3a peptide is most probably not involved directly in the T cell activation process.

  6. Q and A about the College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczog, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The "College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: State Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History" will soon be released. The C3 Framework was developed to serve two audiences: for states to upgrade their state social studies standards, and for…

  7. Analysis of C3 suggests three periods of positive selection events and different evolutionary patterns between fish and mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxing Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The third complement component (C3 is a central protein of the complement system conserved from fish to mammals. It also showed distinct characteristics in different animal groups. Striking features of the fish complement system were unveiled, including prominent levels of extrahepatic expression and isotypic diversity of the complement components. The evidences of the involvement of complement system in the enhancement of B and T cell responses found in mammals indicated that the complement system also serves as a bridge between the innate and adaptive responses. For the reasons mentioned above, it is interesting to explore the evolutionary process of C3 genes and to investigate whether the huge differences between aquatic and terrestrial environments affected the C3 evolution between fish and mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis revealed that these two groups of animals had experienced different evolution patterns. The mammalian C3 genes were under purifying selection pressure while the positive selection pressure was detected in fish C3 genes. Three periods of positive selection events of C3 genes were also detected. Two happened on the ancestral lineages to all vertebrates and mammals, respectively, one happened on early period of fish evolutionary history. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Three periods of positive selection events had happened on C3 genes during history and the fish and mammals C3 genes experience different evolutionary patterns for their distinct living environments.

  8. Magnetic Fe@g-C3N4: A Photoactive Catalyst for the Hydrogenation of Alkenes and Alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A photoactive catalyst, Fe@g-C3N4, has been developed for the hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes using hydrazine hydrate as a source of hydrogen. The magnetically separable Fe@g-C3N4 eliminates the use of high pressure hydrogenation and the reaction can be accomplished using vi...

  9. Cooperation between MASP-1 and MASP-2 in the generation of C3 convertase through the MBL pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Kristensen, Mette; Thiel, Steffen; Sjöholm, A

    2007-01-01

    -phase C3 activation product) on a mannan-coated surface at high concentration of human serum (17%). At these conditions, mannan-binding lectin (MBL) promoted the activation of C3 through the combined action of MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 and MASP-2 without appreciable involvement...

  10. 75 FR 43099 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CT7-9C and -9C3 Turboprop Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CT7-9C and -9C3 Turboprop Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... (AD) for GE CT7-9C and -9C3 turboprop engines with certain serial number (S/ N) gas generator turbine...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7409-1 - Action to enjoin flagrant political expenditures of section 501(c)(3) organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distribution of statements), any political campaign by a section 501(c)(3) organization on behalf of (or in... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action to enjoin flagrant political... political expenditures of section 501(c)(3) organizations. (a) Letter to organization. When the Assistant...

  12. Tuning of the photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4by polyoxometalates under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gang; Feng, Xiaojia; Xiao, Liguang; Xi, Wenguang; Tan, Huaqiao; Shi, Hongfei; Wang, Yonghui; Li, Yangguang

    2017-11-28

    Carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ), as a rising star of metal-free photocatalysts, has received considerable attention. However, for practical application, the photocatalytic efficiency of g-C 3 N 4 remains to be further improved. Herein, a series of Keggin-type polyoxoanion (polyoxoanions = SiW 12 O 40 4- , PW 12 O 40 3- , PMo 12 O 40 3- ) modified g-C 3 N 4 (POM/C 3 N 4 ) composites have been successfully prepared. The results of XRD, TEM, XPS and EDAX reveal that a small amount of polyoxoanions was modified on the surface of g-C 3 N 4 with electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. Photocatalytic experiments indicate that these composites exhibit enhanced methyl orange (MO) degradation photocatalytic activity and water splitting H 2 production under visible light irradiation. The loading amount and the type of polyoxoanion can tune the photocatalytic performance of the composites. Among these catalysts, 5% SiW 12 O 40 4- (SiW 12 )-modified g-C 3 N 4 has the best photocatalytic performance, which is 4.4 times higher than that of pure g-C 3 N 4 for the degradation of MO. The photocatalytic mechanism reveals that polyoxoanions can act as electron traps, which can efficiently promote the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes of C 3 N 4 , thus resulting in the enhanced photocatalytic performance of the composites.

  13. Hemolytic plate assay for quantification of active human complement component C3 using methylamine-treated plasma as complement source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Jessen, T E; Welinder, K. G.

    1985-01-01

    A hemolytic plate assay specific for active human complement component C3 is described. The method is well suited for tracing active C3 during preparative purification or for screening of plasma samples. The assay is based on activation of the alternative pathway of complement by unmodified rabbi...

  14. Augmentation of Antitumor T-Cell Responses by Increasing APC T-Cell C5a/C3a-C5aR/C3aR Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    three receptors. Mass Spec (MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS analyses are in progress to confirm this complex, identify potential...Carraro F, Allavena P, Giavazzi R. Identification of thrombin-like activity in ovarian cancer associated ascites and modulation of multiple cytokine

  15. Effect of ammonia-N on histology and expression of immunoglobulin M and component C3 in the spleen and head kidney of Pelteobagrus vachellii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-jie Qin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia-N is toxic to many aquatic animals and serves as a key stress factor in aquatic environments. The effects of ammonia-N stress on the immune response of darkbarbel catfish Pelteobagrus vachellii were investigated in this study. Changes in overall histology, and in the expression of complement C3 and immunoglobulin M (IgM in spleen and head kidney, and lysozyme and C3 in serum, were measured in 1 and 5 mg/L ammonia-N. Hyperemia, melano-macrophage assembly and loose splenosis were evident in spleen tissue. Both lysozyme and component C3 were significantly reduced in serum (P  0.05. IgM expression also increased significantly at 6–12 h in spleen and 6–24 h in head kidney after the 1 mg/L treatment (P < 0.05. A similar overall pattern were observed with 5 mg/L ammonia (P < 0.05; IgM mRNA expression was elevated at 6 h in spleen and 6–12 h in head kidney (P < 0.05 then decreased to levels below controls (P < 0.05. These results suggest exposure to 5 mg/L ammonia-N could damage the histological structure of spleen, diminish lysozyme and component C3 serum content, and suppress C3 and IgM expression in spleen and head kidney.

  16. The Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S): Open Access to a Climate Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick

    2016-04-01

    In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its Climate Data Store will provide • global and regional climate data reanalyses; • multi-model seasonal forecasts; • customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; • access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. At the heart of the Service is the provision of open access to a one stop shop (the Climate Data Store) of climate data and modelling, analysing more than 20 Essential Climate Variables to build a global picture of our past, present and future climate and developing

  17. Lie superbialgebra structures on the Lie superalgebra (C3+A) and deformation of related integrable Hamiltonian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, A.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.

    2017-06-01

    Admissible structure constants related to the dual Lie superalgebras of particular Lie superalgebra (C3+A ) are found by straightforward calculations from the matrix form of super Jacobi and mixed super Jacobi identities which are obtained from adjoint representation. Then, by making use of the automorphism supergroup of the Lie superalgebra (C3+A ) , the Lie superbialgebra structures on the Lie superalgebra (C3+A ) are obtained and classified into inequivalent 31 families. We also determine all corresponding coboundary and bi-r-matrix Lie superbialgebras. The quantum deformations associated with some Lie superbialgebras (C3+A ) are obtained, together with the corresponding deformed Casimir elements. As an application of these quantum deformations, we construct a deformed integrable Hamiltonian system from the representation of the Hopf superalgebra Uλ (Cp=1 2 ,𝜖⊕A1 ,1 )(C3+A).

  18. Roles for NHERF1 and NHERF2 on the regulation of C3a receptor signaling in human mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan Subramanian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anaphylatoxin C3a binds to the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR, C3aR and activates divergent signaling pathways to induce degranulation and cytokine production in human mast cells. Adapter proteins such as the Na(+/H(+ exchange regulatory factor (NHERF1 and NHERF2 have been implicated in regulating functions of certain GPCRs by binding to the class I PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/Zo1 motifs present on their cytoplasmic tails. Although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, the possibility that it interacts with NHERF proteins to modulate signaling in human mast cells has not been determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, we found that NHERF1 and NHERF2 are expressed in human mast cell lines (HMC-1, LAD2 and CD34(+-derived primary human mast cells. Surprisingly, however, C3aR did not associate with these adapter proteins. To assess the roles of NHERFs on signaling downstream of C3aR, we used lentiviral shRNA to stably knockdown the expression of these proteins in human mast cells. Silencing the expression of NHERF1 and NHERF2 had no effect on C3aR desensitization, agonist-induced receptor internalization, ERK/Akt phosphorylation or chemotaxis. However, loss of NHERF1 and NHERF2 resulted in significant inhibition of C3a-induced mast cell degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine production. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, it does not associate with NHERF1 and NHERF2. Surprisingly, these proteins provide stimulatory signals for C3a-induced degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine generation in human mast cells. These findings reveal a new level of complexity for the functional regulation of C3aR by NHERFs in human mast cells.

  19. Distinct recognition of complement iC3b by integrins αXβ2 and αMβ2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shutong; Wang, Jianchuan; Wang, Jia-Huai; Springer, Timothy A

    2017-03-28

    Recognition by the leukocyte integrins αXβ2 and αMβ2 of complement iC3b-opsonized targets is essential for effector functions including phagocytosis. The integrin-binding sites on iC3b remain incompletely characterized. Here, we describe negative-stain electron microscopy and biochemical studies of αXβ2 and αMβ2 in complex with iC3b. Despite high homology, the two integrins bind iC3b at multiple distinct sites. αXβ2 uses the αX αI domain to bind iC3b on its C3c moiety at one of two sites: a major site at the interface between macroglobulin (MG) 3 and MG4 domains, and a less frequently used site near the C345C domain. In contrast, αMβ2 uses its αI domain to bind iC3b at the thioester domain and simultaneously interacts through a region near the αM β-propeller and β2 βI domain with a region of the C3c moiety near the C345C domain. Remarkably, there is no overlap between the primary binding site of αXβ2 and the binding site of αMβ2 on iC3b. Distinctive binding sites on iC3b by integrins αXβ2 and αMβ2 may be biologically beneficial for leukocytes to more efficiently capture opsonized pathogens and to avoid subversion by pathogen factors.

  20. Mechanistic Characteristics of Surface Modified Organic Semiconductor g-C3N4 Nanotubes Alloyed with Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ching Sim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA was investigated using the binary composite of alkaline treated g-C3N4 (HT-g-C3N4 deposited over commercial TiO2 (Evonik Degussa GmbH, Essen, Germany. The existence and contribution of both TiO2 and g-C3N4/HT-g-C3N4 in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis-DRS, and photoluminescence (PL analysis. The results showed that the titania in the binary composite exhibited both pure rutile and anatase phases. The morphological analysis indicated that the spongy “morel-like” structure of g-C3N4 turned to nanotube form after alkaline hydrothermal treatment and thereby decreased the specific surface area of HT-g-C3N4. The low surface area of HT-g-C3N4 dominates its promising optical property and effective charge transfer, resulting in a deprived degradation efficiency of BPA two times lower than pure g-C3N4. The binary composite of HT-g-C3N4/TiO2 exhibited excellent degradation efficiency of BPA with 2.16 times higher than the pure HT-g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly due to the promising optical band gap structure with heterojunction interface, favorable specific surface area, and good charge separation.

  1. PLEURAL EFFECTS OF INDIUM PHOSPHIDE IN B6C3F1 MICE: NONFIBROUS PARTICULATE INDUCED PLEURAL FIBROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Patrick J.; Shines, Cassandra J.; Taylor, Genie J.; Bousquet, Ronald W.; Price, Herman C.; Everitt, Jeffrey I.; Morgan, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which chronic inhalation of indium phosphide (InP) particles causes pleural fibrosis is not known. Few studies of InP pleural toxicity have been conducted because of the challenges in conducting particulate inhalation exposures, and because the pleural lesions developed slowly over the 2-year inhalation study. The authors investigated whether InP (1 mg/kg) administered by a single oropharyngeal aspiration would cause pleural fibrosis in male B6C3F1 mice. By 28 days after treatment, protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), but were unchanged in pleural lavage fluid (PLF). A pronounced pleural effusion characterized by significant increases in cytokines and a 3.7-fold increase in cell number was detected 28 days after InP treatment. Aspiration of soluble InCl3 caused a similar delayed pleural effusion; however, other soluble metals, insoluble particles, and fibers did not. The effusion caused by InP was accompanied by areas of pleural thickening and inflammation at day 28, and by pleural fibrosis at day 98. Aspiration of InP produced pleural fibrosis that was histologically similar to lesions caused by chronic inhalation exposure, and in a shorter time period. This oropharyngeal aspiration model was used to provide an initial characterization of the progression of pleural lesions caused by InP. PMID:19995279

  2. Elevated atmospheric CO2 triggers compensatory feeding by root herbivores on a C3 but not a C4 grass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N Johnson

    Full Text Available Predicted increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations often reduce nutritional quality for herbivores by increasing the C:N ratio of plant tissue. This frequently triggers compensatory feeding by aboveground herbivores, whereby they consume more shoot material in an attempt to meet their nutritional needs. Little, however, is known about how root herbivores respond to such changes. Grasslands are particularly vulnerable to root herbivores, which can collectively exceed the mass of mammals grazing aboveground. Here we provide novel evidence for compensatory feeding by a grass root herbivore, Sericesthis nigrolineata, under elevated atmospheric CO2 (600 µmol mol(-1 on a C3 (Microlaena stipoides but not a C4 (Cymbopogon refractus grass species. At ambient CO2 (400 µmol mol(-1 M. stipoides roots were 44% higher in nitrogen (N and 7% lower in carbon (C concentrations than C. refractus, with insects performing better on M. stipoides. Elevated CO2 decreased N and increased C:N in M. stipoides roots, but had no impact on C. refractus roots. Root-feeders displayed compensatory feeding on M. stipoides at elevated CO2, consuming 118% more tissue than at ambient atmospheric CO2. Despite this, root feeder biomass remained depressed by 24%. These results suggest that compensatory feeding under elevated atmospheric CO2 may make some grass species particularly vulnerable to attack, potentially leading to future shifts in the community composition of grasslands.

  3. Carbon and oxygen isotope working standards from C3 and C4 photosynthates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2006-09-01

    A preparation of organic working standards for the online measurement of 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in biological material is presented. The organic working standards are simple and inexpensive C3 and C4 carbohydrates (sugars or cellulose) from distinct geographic origin, including white sugar, toilet and XEROX papers from Switzerland, maize from Ivory Coast, cane sugar from Brazil, papyrus from Egypt, and the core of the stem of a Cyperus papyrus plant from Kenya. These photosynthetic products were compared with International Atomic Energy standards CH-3 and CH-6 and other calibration materials. The presented working standards cover a 15% range of 13C/12C ratios and 9% for 18O/16O, with a precision10.

  4. Toward the Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide O: An Enantioselective Synthesis of C3-C8 Fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Minho; Lee, Duckhyung [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    The methyl ester 4, a C3-C8 fragment of am-phidinolide O (1), was prepared enantioselectively via 11 steps in 14% overall yields. The diastereoselective Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of 5 via the corresponding (E)-enolate intermediate was used as a key step in order to implement the C4 and C5 chiral centers. Retrosynthetic analysis was described in Figure 1. Amphi-dinolide O (1) might be assembled from two intermediates 2 and 3 via esterification and ring closing metathesis as key steps. Intermediate 4, a precursor to 3 as well as the target molecule in this paper, involves the γ,δ-unsaturated ester moiety along with α,β-chiral substituents with anti-stereochemical relationship.

  5. The hydrocarbon ring C3H2 is ubiquitous in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H. E.; Irvine, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery of a strong microwave (1.6 cm-wavelength) spectral line, the carrier of which is common and widespread throughout the Galaxy is reported. A survey of a large number of sources shows that the line appears in emission in cold dust clouds, in absorption in the direction of the Galactic center, and exhibits complex profiles toward H II regions. Toward Cas A and distant H II regions, intervening 'spiral arm' clouds produce absorption. For almost all cases, the absorption features show a striking 1:1 radial velocity correspondence with those seen, e.g., in H2CO spectra of the same objects. The data indicate that the line arises between low-lying energy states of a rather polar molecule. Recent work by Thaddeus, Vrtilek, and Gottlieb (1985) incorporating the present data, shows that the line in question is the 1(10)-1(01) transition of the small hydrocarbon ring C3H2.

  6. Physical and mechanical properties of highly textured polycrystalline Nb4AlC3 ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Hu, Yoshio Sakka, Toshiyuki Nishimura, Shuqi Guo, Salvatore Grasso and Hidehiko Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly textured polycrystalline Nb4AlC3 ceramic was fabricated by slip casting in a strong magnetic field followed by spark plasma sintering. Its Lotgering orientation factor was determined on the textured top and side surfaces as f(00l ~1.0 and f(hk0=0.36, respectively. This ceramic showed layered microstructure at the scales ranging from nanometers to millimeters. The as-prepared ceramic had excellent anisotropic physical properties. Along the c-axis direction, it showed higher hardness, bending strength, and fracture toughness of 7.0 GPa, 881 MPa and 14.1 MPa m1/2, respectively, whereas higher values of electrical conductivity (0.81×106 Ω−1 m−1, thermal conductivity (21.20 W m−1 K−1 and Young's modulus (365 GPa were obtained along the a- or b-axis direction.

  7. Physical and mechanical properties of highly textured polycrystalline Nb4AlC3 ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunfeng; Sakka, Yoshio; Nishimura, Toshiyuki; Guo, Shuqi; Grasso, Salvatore; Tanaka, Hidehiko

    2011-08-01

    Highly textured polycrystalline Nb4AlC3 ceramic was fabricated by slip casting in a strong magnetic field followed by spark plasma sintering. Its Lotgering orientation factor was determined on the textured top and side surfaces as f(00l) ∼1.0 and f(hk0)=0.36, respectively. This ceramic showed layered microstructure at the scales ranging from nanometers to millimeters. The as-prepared ceramic had excellent anisotropic physical properties. Along the c-axis direction, it showed higher hardness, bending strength, and fracture toughness of 7.0 GPa, 881 MPa and 14.1 MPa m(1/2), respectively, whereas higher values of electrical conductivity (0.81×10(6) Ω(-1) m(-1)), thermal conductivity (21.20 W m(-1) K(-1)) and Young's modulus (365 GPa) were obtained along the a- or b-axis direction.

  8. Apolipoprotein C3 polymorphisms, cognitive function and diabetes in Caribbean origin Hispanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren E Smith

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3 modulates triglyceride metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase, but is itself regulated by insulin, so that APOC3 represents a potential mechanism by which glucose metabolism may affect lipid metabolism. Unfavorable lipoprotein profiles and impaired glucose metabolism are linked to cognitive decline, and all three conditions may decrease lifespan. Associations between apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3 gene polymorphisms and impaired lipid and glucose metabolism are well-established, but potential connections between APOC3 polymorphisms, cognitive decline and diabetes deserve further attention.We examined whether APOC3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs m482 (rs2854117 and 3u386 (rs5128 were related to cognitive measures, whether the associations between cognitive differences and genotype were related to metabolic differences, and how diabetes status affected these associations. Study subjects were Hispanics of Caribbean origin (n = 991, aged 45-74 living in the Boston metropolitan area.Cognitive and metabolic measures differed substantially by type II diabetes status. In multivariate regression models, APOC3 m482 AA subjects with diabetes exhibited lower executive function (P = 0.009, Stroop color naming score (P = 0.014 and Stroop color-word score (P = 0.022 compared to AG/GG subjects. APOC3 m482 AA subjects with diabetes exhibited significantly higher glucose (P = 0.032 and total cholesterol (P = 0.028 compared to AG/GG subjects. APOC3 3u386 GC/GG subjects with diabetes exhibited significantly higher triglyceride (P = 0.004, total cholesterol (P = 0.003 and glucose (P = 0.016 compared to CC subjects.In summary, we identified significant associations between APOC3 polymorphisms, impaired cognition and metabolic dysregulation in Caribbean Hispanics with diabetes. Further research investigating these relationships in other populations is warranted.

  9. Larsen syndrome with C3-C4 spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopesh Kumar, V R; Madhguiri, Venkatesh S; Sasidharan, Gopalakrishnan M; Gundamaneni, Sudheer Kumar; Yadav, Awdhesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This is a clinical case report with a review of relevant literature. To describe a case of Larsen syndrome with C3-C4 spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation in a middle-aged female patient and to discuss management strategies. Spondyloptosis of the cervical spine is relatively rare and is caused by trauma, destruction of the vertebral bodies by tumors, or tuberculosis. Such gross vertebral displacement is usually associated with significant neurological deficits. Larsen syndrome is characterized by multiple joint displacements and can, very rarely, be associated with nontraumatic spondyloptosis of the cervical vertebra. A single case report of C1-C2 joint laxity causing atlantoaxial dislocation in a patient with Larsen syndrome is available in literature. No reports of any patient (with Larsen syndrome or nonsyndromic) who had both cervical spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation are available in literature. A 36-year-old female presented with chronic neck pain, bilateral hand deformity, and mild spasticity involving all 4 limbs. Cervical radiograph, computed tomographic scan, and magnetic resonance image revealed C3-C4 spondyloptosis and atlantoaxial dislocation. A combined ventral decompression of subaxial spine and instrumentation from C2 to C5, followed by posterior C1-C2 distraction arthroplasty and lateral mass stabilization of the subaxial spine up to C6, was done. The cervical deformity was corrected, and the patient remains symptom free. Patients with spondyloptosis of the cervical spine can rarely present with chronic neck pain and minimal neurological deficits. An additional pathology, such as atlantoaxial dislocation, can add to the complexity. Circumferential stabilization and fusion would be required in such cases to achieve a good outcome. Larsen syndrome is a rare cause of nontraumatic cervical displacements.

  10. The binding mode of side chain- and C3-modified epothilones to tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi, Máté; Navarro-Vázquez, Armando; Pfeiffer, Bernhard; Kuzniewski, Christian N; Felser, Andrea; Widmer, Toni; Gertsch, Jürg; Pera, Benet; Díaz, José Fernando; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Carlomagno, Teresa

    2010-06-07

    The tubulin-binding mode of C3- and C15-modified analogues of epothilone A (Epo A) was determined by NMR spectroscopy and computational methods and compared with the existing structural models of tubulin-bound natural Epo A. Only minor differences were observed in the conformation of the macrocycle between Epo A and the C3-modified analogues investigated. In particular, 3-deoxy- (compound 2) and 3-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-Epo A (3) were found to adopt similar conformations in the tubulin-binding cleft as Epo A, thus indicating that the 3-OH group is not essential for epothilones to assume their bioactive conformation. None of the available models of the tubulin-epothilone complex is able to fully recapitulate the differences in tubulin-polymerizing activity and microtubule-binding affinity between C20-modified epothilones 6 (C20-propyl), 7 (C20-butyl), and 8 (C20-hydroxypropyl). Based on the results of transferred NOE experiments in the presence of tubulin, the isomeric C15 quinoline-based Epo B analogues 4 and 5 show very similar orientations of the side chain, irrespective of the position of the nitrogen atom in the quinoline ring. The quinoline side chain stacks on the imidazole moiety of beta-His227 with equal efficiency in both cases, thus suggesting that the aromatic side chain moiety in epothilones contributes to tubulin binding through strong van der Waals interactions with the protein rather than hydrogen bonding involving the heteroaromatic nitrogen atom. These conclusions are in line with existing tubulin polymerization and microtubule-binding data for 4, 5, and Epo B.

  11. Microstructure and wear resistance of Al2O3-M7C3/Fe composite coatings produced by laser controlled reactive synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Luo, Zhen; Li, Yang; Yan, Fuyu; Duan, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Based on the principle of thermite reaction of Al and Fe2O3 powders, the Al2O3 ceramic reinforced Fe-based composite coatings were fabricated on a steel substrate by laser controlled reactive synthesis and cladding. The effects of different additions of thermite reactants on the phase transition, microstructure evolution, microhardness and wear resistance of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Vickers microhardness and block-on-ring wear test, respectively. The results show that Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbide are in situ synthesized via the laser controlled reactive synthesis. The Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbides prefer to distribute along the γ-Fe phase boundary continuously, which separates the γ-Fe matrix and is beneficial to the grain refinement. With the increase of thermite reactants, the amount of Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbide in the composite coatings increases gradually. Moreover the cladding layer changes from dendritic structure to columnar structure and martensite structure in the heat affected zone becomes coarse. The increased thermite reactants improve the microhardness and wear resistance of the in situ composite coatings obviously and enhance the hardness of the heat affected zone, which should be ascribed to the grain refinement, ceramic and carbide precipitation and solid solution strengthening.

  12. Thylakoid-Inspired Multishell g-C3N4Nanocapsules with Enhanced Visible-Light Harvesting and Electron Transfer Properties for High-Efficiency Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhenwei; Yang, Dong; Li, Zhen; Nan, Yanhu; Ding, Fei; Shen, Yichun; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2017-01-24

    Inspired by the orderly stacked nanostructure and highly integrated function of thylakoids in a natural photosynthesis system, multishell g-C 3 N 4 (MSCN) nanocapsule photocatalysts have been prepared by SiO 2 hard template with different shell layers. The resultant triple-shell g-C 3 N 4 (TSCN) nanocapsules display superior photocatalysis performance to single-shell and double-shell counterparts owing to excellent visible-light harvesting and electron transfer properties. Specially, with the increase of the shell layer number, light harvesting is greatly enhanced. There is an increase of the entire visible range absorption arising from the multiple scattering and reflection of the incident light within multishell nanoarchitectures as well as the light transmission within the porous thin shells, and an increase of absorption edge arising from the decreased quantum size effect. The electron transfer is greatly accelerated by the mesopores in the thin shells as nanoconduits and the high specific surface area of TSCN (310.7 m 2 g -1 ). With the tailored hierarchical nanostructure features, TSCN exhibits a superior visible-light H 2 -generation activity of 630 μmol h -1 g -1 (λ > 420 nm), which is among one of the most efficient metal-free g-C 3 N 4 photocatalysts. This study demonstrates a bioinspired approach to the rational design of high-performance nanostructured visible-light photocatalysts.

  13. Effect of volume fraction of (Cr, Fe7C3 carbides on corrosion resistance of the Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys at Cr/C=6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Sabet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, three different chemical compositions of Fe-Cr-C alloys were fabricated on AISI 1010 steel substrates by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW. The optical emission spectroscopy (OES, optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, techniques and corrosion test were used for determining chemical composition studying the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the Fe-Cr-C alloys. The OM and SEM results show that the microstructure of these alloys consisted of (Cr,Fe7C3 carbides with austenite, and by increasing of the carbon and chromium content in hardfacing alloys, the volume fraction of (Cr,Fe7C3 carbides in microstructure was increased. The polarization curves of the corrosion tests show that the increase of the volume fraction of (Cr,Fe7C3 carbides in the microstructure promotes the corrosion resistance of the Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys. The corrosion mechanism of the Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys was intergranular and galvanic corrosion.

  14. LegC3, an Effector Protein from Legionella pneumophila, Inhibits Homotypic Yeast Vacuole Fusion In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Terry L.; Kraft, Shannon M.; Reaves, Barbara J.; Mima, Joji; O’Brien, Kevin M.; Starai, Vincent J.

    2013-01-01

    During infection, the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila causes an extensive remodeling of host membrane trafficking pathways, both in the construction of a replication-competent vacuole comprised of ER-derived vesicles and plasma membrane components, and in the inhibition of normal phagosome:endosome/lysosome fusion pathways. Here, we identify the LegC3 secreted effector protein from L. pneumophila as able to inhibit a SNARE- and Rab GTPase-dependent membrane fusion pathway in vitro, the homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles (lysosomes). This vacuole fusion inhibition appeared to be specific, as similar secreted coiled-coiled domain containing proteins from L. pneumophila, LegC7/YlfA and LegC2/YlfB, did not inhibit vacuole fusion. The LegC3-mediated fusion inhibition was reversible by a yeast cytosolic extract, as well as by a purified soluble SNARE, Vam7p. LegC3 blocked the formation of trans-SNARE complexes during vacuole fusion, although we did not detect a direct interaction of LegC3 with the vacuolar SNARE protein complexes required for fusion. Additionally, LegC3 was incapable of inhibiting a defined synthetic model of vacuolar SNARE-driven membrane fusion, further suggesting that LegC3 does not directly inhibit the activity of vacuolar SNAREs, HOPS complex, or Sec17p/18p during membrane fusion. LegC3 is likely utilized by Legionella to modulate eukaryotic membrane fusion events during pathogenesis. PMID:23437241

  15. One-step synthesis of graphitic-C 3 N 4 /ZnS composites for enhanced supercapacitor performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin

    2017-11-24

    A series of graphitic-C3N4/ZnS (g-C3N4/ZnS) supercapacitor electrode materials have been prepared via a one-step calcination process of zinc acetate/thiourea with different mass ratios under nitrogen atmosphere. The optimized g-C3N4/ZnS composite shows a highest specific capacitance of 497.7 F/g at 1 A/g and good cycling stability with capacitance retention of 80.4% at 5 A/g after 1000 cycles. Moreover, g-C3N4/ZnS composites display an improved supercapacitor performance in terms of specific capacitance compared to the pure g-C3N4 and ZnS. In addition, our designed symmetric supercapacitor device based on g-C3N4/ZnS composite electrodes can exhibit an energy density of 10.4 Wh/kg at a power density of 187.3 W/kg. As a result, g-C3N4/ZnS composites are expected to be a prospective material for supercapacitors and other energy storage applications.

  16. One step synthesis of P-doped g-C3N4 with the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Zhu, Honglei; Yao, Wenqing; Chen, Kai; Chen, Daimei

    2018-02-01

    In our work, P doped Graphitic nitride (g-C3N4) was prepared by the simple copolymerization of melamine and melamine phosphate. The melamine phosphate ester polymer is a complex of an s-triazine and phosphoric acid polymer, thus it will be favourable for P atom to incorporate into the Csbnd N network of g-C3N4. The doped P atoms may produce the delocalized lone electron and form the Lewis acid sites. The obtained P-doped g-C3N4 showed the higher photocatalytic activity in photodegradation of MB and 2,4-Dichlorophenol than g-C3N4. The optimum photocatatlytic activity of P-C3N4 with the weight ration of melamine phosphate and melamine at 0.06 is 2 times as higher as the pure g-C3N4 in MB photodegradation, and 1.5 times higher in 2,4-Dichlorophenol photodegradation. The enhancement of photodegradation efficiency is due to the delocalization effect of lone electron, promoting the separation of photogenerated charges, and the larger band gap of P doped g-C3N4.

  17. Facile synthesis of graphitic C3N4 nanoporous-tube with high enhancement of visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiru; Gao, Jianping; Mei, Shunkang; Wu, Yongli; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhai, Xiangang; Yang, Jiangbing; Hao, Chaoyue; Yan, Jing

    2017-12-01

    A simple and convenient method was used to synthesize a graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanoporous-tube by using SiO2 nanoparticles as pore formers. The structure of the g-C3N4 nanoporous-tube was characterized by the SEM and TEM images. Taking photodegradation of RhB as an example, the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared g-C3N4 nanoporous-tube was investigated. It can photodegrade 90% RhB in 40 min under visible-light irradiation and obtain a k value of 0.04491 min‑1, which is 8.16 times that of bulk g-C3N4, 3.09 times that of tubular g-C3N4 and 1.48 times that of tubular g-C3N4-SiO2. The significant enhancement in photocatalytic efficiency is due to the edge effect of the pores and the special structure of the tubes. In addition, the possible mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of RhB was also proposed based on the trapping experiment of active species, which indicated that the superoxide radicals ({{{{O}}}2}\\bullet -) and the holes (h +) were the main reactive species in this photocatalyst. This work may open up a new idea of innovation in g-C3N4 structure and inspire its follow-up study.

  18. Textural and mechanical characterization of C-S-H gels from hydration of synthetic T1-C3S, β-C2S and their blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolado, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The textural and mechanical characterization of C-S-H gels formed from the hydration of pure T1-C3S, β-C2S and their blends are studied by Nitrogen sorption and nanoindentation experiments. The surface area and nanoporosity of C-S-H gels formed from the hydration of β-C2S and the 30-70 (T1-C3S and β-C2S mixture are higher than those from hydration of T1-C3S, and 70-30, with the difference decreasing with hydration age. Such changes are well supported by findings of nanoindentation study, which shows the greater relative volume of C-S-H phases with lower densities in the β-C2S and the 30-70 pastes. With the increase in hydration age, the relative volume of C-S-H phases with higher densities increased at the expenses of those with lower density. Important quantitative correlations were found among these textural characteristics and the mean chain length, determined from 29Si magic-angle-spinning (MAS NMR, of the C-S-H gels.La caracterización textural y mecánica de geles C-S-H formados a partir de la hidratación de muestras puras de T1-C3S, ß-C2S y sus mezclas ha sido estudiada por medio de adsorción de nitrógeno y nanoindentación. El área superficial y la nano-porosidad de los geles formados durante la hidratación del ß-C2S y la mezcla 30-70 (T1-C3S- ß-C2S son mayores que los correspondientes a los geles del T1-C3S, y la mezcla 70-30; esta diferencia disminuye con el tiempo de hidratación. Estos cambios coinciden con los resultados de nanoindentación que indican un aumento de volumen relativo de las fases C-S-H con una densidad menor en el caso del ß-C2S y la mezcla 30-70. Al aumentar el tiempo de hidratación, el volumen relativo de fases C-S-H de mayor densidad aumenta a expensas de aquellas de menor densidad. Importantes correlaciones cuantitativas se establecen entre las características texturales y la longitud de cadena media del gel C-S-H, determinada mediante RMN-MAS de 29Si.

  19. Classification of C3 and C4 Vegetation Types Using MODIS and ETM+ Blended High Spatio-Temporal Resolution Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate change. Knowledge of the distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation at a high spatial resolution over local or regional scales helps us to understand their ecological functions and climate dependencies. In this study, we classified C3 and C4 vegetation at a high resolution for spatially heterogeneous landscapes. First, we generated a high spatial and temporal land surface reflectance dataset by blending MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data. The blended data exhibited a high correlation (R2 = 0.88 with the satellite derived ETM+ data. The time-series NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data were then generated using the blended high spatio-temporal resolution data to capture the phenological differences between the C3 and C4 vegetation. The time-series NDVI revealed that the C3 vegetation turns green earlier in spring than the C4 vegetation, and senesces later in autumn than the C4 vegetation. C4 vegetation has a higher NDVI value than the C3 vegetation during summer time. Based on the distinguished characteristics, the time-series NDVI was used to extract the C3 and C4 classification features. Five features were selected from the 18 classification features according to the ground investigation data, and subsequently used for the C3 and C4 classification. The overall accuracy of the C3 and C4 vegetation classification was 85.75% with a kappa of 0.725 in our study area.

  20. Oxidized g-C3N4/polyaniline nanofiber composite for the selective removal of hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Barakat, M A; Alseroury, F A

    2017-10-09

    Nanomaterials with selective adsorption properties are in demand for environmental applications. Herein, acid etching and oxidative decomposition of melon units of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was performed to obtain the oxidized graphitic carbon nitride (Ox-g-C3N4) nanosheets. Ox- g-C3N4 nanosheets were further decorated on the polyaniline nanofiber (Ox-g-C3N4/Pani-NF). Ox-g-C3N4/Pani-NF was well characterized and further applied for a selective removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) form aqueous solution. The zeta potential analysis indicate that the surface of Ox-g-C3N4/Pani-NF was positively charged which could be beneficial to bind anionic Cr(VI) ions electrostatically. In addition, nitrogen and oxygen containing functional groups exist on the Ox-g-C3N4/Pani-NF were mainly responsible for adsorption of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution. Moreover, the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions was also dependent on solution pH, reaction temperature and initial concentration of Cr(VI) ions. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of Ox-g-C3N4/Pani-NF for Cr(VI), calculated from Langmuir isotherm was 178.57 mg/g at pH = 2 and 30 °C. The activation energy (Ea = -20.66 kJ/mol) and the enthalpy change (ΔH° = -22.055 kJ/mol) validate the role of physical forces in adsorption of Cr(VI). These results demonstrate that Ox-g-C3N4/Pani-NF can be used as a potential adsorbent for environmental remediation applications.

  1. Intracellular replication and lymphokine-induced destruction of Leishmania tropica in C3H/HeN mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacy, C A; Meltzer, M S; Leonard, E J; Wyler, D J

    1981-12-01

    C3H/HeN resident peritoneal macrophages in suspension culture supported continuous replication of L. tropica amastigotes; the total number of intracellular parasites increased 8- to 10-fold over 96 hr in culture. Lymphokine treatment of macrophages markedly affected intracellular replication of the Leishmania. Cultures treated with lymphokines before exposure to L. tropica were more resistant to infection, and 35% fewer cells contained intracellular amastigotes compared to medium-treated controls. Lymphokine-pretreated cells that became infected also inhibited the replication of intracellular amastigotes. Macrophage cultures treated with lymphokines after infection exhibited potent microbicidal activity; 75 to 80% of macrophages were free of intracellular parasites by 72 hr. Fractionation of lymphokine supernatants by Sephadex G-100 demonstrated 3 areas of activity for the induction of macrophage intracellular killing (130,000, 45,000, less than or equal to 10,000 daltons); one of these activity peaks (45,000-m.w. lymphokine(s)) also induced increased resistance to infection with L. tropica.

  2. Does total disc arthroplasty in C3/C4-segments change the kinematic features of axial rotation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowski, Martin Michael; Wagner, Markus; Weiland, Jan; Dörner, Jochen; Raab, Björn Werner; Dathe, Henning; Gezzi, Riccardo; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Nägerl, Hans

    2013-06-21

    We analyze how kinematic properties of C3/C4-segments are modified after total disc arthroplasty (TDA) with PRESTIGE(®) and BRYAN(®) Cervical Discs. The measurements were focused on small ranges of axial rotation (TDA. External parameters: constant axially directed pre-load, constant flexional/extensional and lateral-flexional pre-torque. The applied axial torque and IHA-direction did not run parallel. The IHA-direction was found to be rotated backwards and largely independent of the rotational angle, amount of axial pre-load, size of pre-torque, and TDA. In the intact segments pre-flexion/extension hardly influenced IHA-positions. After TDA, IHA-position was shifted backwards significantly (BRYAN-TDA: ≈8mm; PRESTIGE-TDA: ≈6mm) and in some segments laterally as well. Furthermore it was significantly shifted ventrally by pre-flexion and dorsally by pre-extension. The rate of lateral IHA-migration increased significantly after BRYAN-TDA during rightward or leftward rotations. In conclusion after the TDA the IHA-positions shifted backwards with significant increase in variability of the IHA-positions after the BRYAN-TDA more than in PRESTIGE-TDA. The TDA-procedure altered the segment kinematics considerably. TDA causes additional translations of the vertebrae, which superimpose the kinematics of the adjacent levels. The occurrence of adjacent level disease (ALD) is not excluded after the TDA for kinematical reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Classification of C3 and C4 Vegetation Types Using MODIS and ETM+ Blended High Spatio-Temporal Resolution Data

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolong Liu; Yanchen Bo; Jian Zhang; Yaqian He

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate change. Knowledge of the distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation at a high spatial resolution over local or regional scales helps us to understand their ecological functions and climate dependencies. In this study, we classified C3 and C4 vegetation at a high resolution for spatially heterogeneous landscapes. First, we generated a high spatial and temporal land surface reflectance dataset by b...

  4. Graphitic C3N4 Sensitized TiO2 Nanotube Layers: A Visible Light Activated Efficient Antimicrobial Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jingwen; Zhou, Xuemei; Li, Yuzhen; Gao, Zhi-Da; Song, Yan-Yan; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a facile procedure to graft a thin graphitic C3N4 (g-C3N4) layer on aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiNT) by one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. This provides a platform to enhance the visible-light response of TiO2 nanotubes for antimicrobial applications. The formed g- C3N4/TiNT binary nanocomposite exhibits excellent bactericidal efficiency against E. coli as a visiblelight activated antibacterial coating.

  5. Denaturation and unfolding of human anaphylatoxin C3a: an unusually low covalent stability of its native disulfide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jui-Yoa; Lin, Curtis C-J; Salamanca, Silvia; Pangburn, Michael K; Wetsel, Rick A

    2008-12-15

    The complement C3a anaphylatoxin is a major molecular mediator of innate immunity. It is a potent activator of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils and causes smooth muscle contraction. Structurally, C3a is a relatively small protein (77 amino acids) comprising a N-terminal domain connected by 3 native disulfide bonds and a helical C-terminal segment. The structural stability of C3a has been investigated here using three different methods: Disulfide scrambling; Differential CD spectroscopy; and Reductive unfolding. Two uncommon features regarding the stability of C3a and the structure of denatured C3a have been observed in this study. (a) There is an unusual disconnection between the conformational stability of C3a and the covalent stability of its three native disulfide bonds that is not seen with other disulfide proteins. As measured by both methods of disulfide scrambling and differential CD spectroscopy, the native C3a exhibits a global conformational stability that is comparable to numerous proteins with similar size and disulfide content, all with mid-point denaturation of [GdmCl](1/2) at 3.4-5M. These proteins include hirudin, tick anticoagulant protein and leech carboxypeptidase inhibitor. However, the native disulfide bonds of C3a is 150-1000 fold less stable than those proteins as evaluated by the method of reductive unfolding. The 3 native disulfide bonds of C3a can be collectively and quantitatively reduced with as low as 1mM of dithiothreitol within 5 min. The fragility of the native disulfide bonds of C3a has not yet been observed with other native disulfide proteins. (b) Using the method of disulfide scrambling, denatured C3a was shown to consist of diverse isomers adopting varied extent of unfolding. Among them, the most extensively unfolded isomer of denatured C3a is found to assume beads-form disulfide pattern, comprising Cys(36)-Cys(49) and two disulfide bonds formed by two pair of consecutive cysteines, Cys(22)-Cys(23) and Cys(56)-Cys(57), a

  6. Tunable far-IR laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled carbon clusters - The nu-2 bending vibration of C3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuttenmaer, C. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Pugliano, N.; Heath, J. R.; Cooksy, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    Seven rovibrational transitions of the (01/1/0)-(00/0/0) fundamental bending band of C3 have been measured with high precision with the use of a tunable far-infrared laser spectrometer. The C3 molecules were produced by laser vaporization of a graphite rod and cooled in a supersonic expansion. The astrophysically important nu-2 fundamental frequency is determined to be 63.416529(40)/cm. These measurements provide the basis for studies of C3 in the interstellar medium with far-infrared astronomy.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: H2, D2, and HD c3Πu;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Shemansky, D. E.; Yoshii, J.; Liu, M. J.; Johnson, P. V.; Malone, C. P.; Khakoo, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    The c3{Pi}u state of the hydrogen molecule has the triplet-state excitation cross-section, and plays an important role in the heating of the upper thermospheres of outer planets by electron excitation. Precise energies of the H2, D2, and HD c3{Pi}u-(v,N) levels are calculated from highly accurate ab initio potential energy curves that include relativistic, radiative, and empirical non-adiabatic corrections. The emission yields are determined from predissociation rates and refined radiative transition probabilities. The excitation function and excitation cross-section of the c3{Pi}u state are extracted from previous theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. The emission cross-section is determined from the calculated emission yield and the extracted excitation cross-section. The kinetic energy (Ek) distributions of H atoms produced via the predissociation of the c3{Pi}u state, the c3{Pi}u--b3{Sigma}u+ dissociative emission by the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole, and the c3{Pi}u-a3{Sigma}g+-b3{Sigma}u+ cascade dissociative emission by the electric dipole are obtained. The predissociation of the c3{Pi}u+ and c3{Pi}u- states both produce H(1s) atoms with an average Ek of ~4.1eV/atom, while the c3{Pi}u--b3{Sigma}u+ dissociative emissions by the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole give an average Ek of ~1.0 and ~0.8eV/atom, respectively. The c3{Pi}u-a3{Sigma}g+-b3{Sigma}u+ cascade and dissociative emission gives an average Ek of ~1.3 eV/atom. On average, each H2 excited to the c3{Pi}u state in an H2-dominated atmosphere deposits ~7.1eV into the atmosphere while each H2 directly excited to the a3{Sigma}g+ and d3{Pi}u states contribute ~2.3 and ~3.3eV, respectively, to the atmosphere. The spectral distribution of the calculated continuum emission arising from the X1{Sigma}g+-c3{Pi}u excitation is significantly different from that of direct a3{Sigma}g+ or d3{Pi}u excitations. (5 data files).

  8. Evaluation of Enzymatic Deinking of Non-impact Ink Laser-Printed Paper Using Crude Enzyme from Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kok Chang; Tong, Woei Yenn; Ibrahim, Darah; Arai, Takamitsu; Murata, Yoshinori; Mori, Yutaka; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2017-01-01

    Application of microbial enzymes for paper deinking is getting tremendous attention due to the rapidly increasing of waste paper every year. This study reports the deinking efficiency of laser-printed paper by the lignocellulolytic enzyme from Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL strain compared to other enzyme sources as well as commercial available enzymes. High enzymatic deinking efficiency of approximately 82 % on laser-printed paper was obtained by pulp treatment with crude enzyme from P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL. However, this crude enzyme was found to reduce the paper strength properties of the pulp based on the results of tensile, tear and burst indices, most probably due to the cellulose degradation. This was further proven by the low viscosity of paper pulp obtained after enzymatic treatment and increasing of sugar production during the treatment. Balancing to this detrimental effect on paper pulp, high deinking efficiency was achieved within a short period of time, in which the enzymatic treatment was conducted for 30 min that enabled contribution to higher brightness index obtained, thus promoting savings of time and energy consumption, therefore environmental sustainability. Extensive research should be conducted to understand the nature and mechanism of enzymatic deinking process by the crude enzyme from P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL in order to improve paper strength properties.

  9. Differential C3NET reveals disease networks of direct physical interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowetz Florian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes might have different gene interactions in different cell conditions, which might be mapped into different networks. Differential analysis of gene networks allows spotting condition-specific interactions that, for instance, form disease networks if the conditions are a disease, such as cancer, and normal. This could potentially allow developing better and subtly targeted drugs to cure cancer. Differential network analysis with direct physical gene interactions needs to be explored in this endeavour. Results C3NET is a recently introduced information theory based gene network inference algorithm that infers direct physical gene interactions from expression data, which was shown to give consistently higher inference performances over various networks than its competitors. In this paper, we present, DC3net, an approach to employ C3NET in inferring disease networks. We apply DC3net on a synthetic and real prostate cancer datasets, which show promising results. With loose cutoffs, we predicted 18583 interactions from tumor and normal samples in total. Although there are no reference interactions databases for the specific conditions of our samples in the literature, we found verifications for 54 of our predicted direct physical interactions from only four of the biological interaction databases. As an example, we predicted that RAD50 with TRF2 have prostate cancer specific interaction that turned out to be having validation from the literature. It is known that RAD50 complex associates with TRF2 in the S phase of cell cycle, which suggests that this predicted interaction may promote telomere maintenance in tumor cells in order to allow tumor cells to divide indefinitely. Our enrichment analysis suggests that the identified tumor specific gene interactions may be potentially important in driving the growth in prostate cancer. Additionally, we found that the highest connected subnetwork of our predicted tumor specific network

  10. 9,10-phenanthrenequinone induces monocytic differentiation of U937 cells through regulating expression of aldo-keto reductase 1C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Hosogai, Mika; Arakaki, Marina; Endo, Satoshi; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Persistent inhalation of diesel exhaust particles results in damaged lung cells through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the details of the toxicity mechanism against monocytes are poorly understood. In this study, we used human promyelomonocytic U937 cells as surrogates of monocytes and investigated the toxicity mechanism initiated by exposure to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone component in diesel exhaust particles. A 24-h incubation with 9,10-PQ provoked apoptotic cell death, which was due to signaling through the enhanced ROS generation and concomitant caspase activation. Flow cytometric analyses of U937 cells after long-term exposure to 9,10-PQ revealed induction of differentiation that was evidenced by increasing expression of CD11b/CD18, a cell-surface marker for monocytic differentiation into macrophages. The 9,10-PQ-induced differentiation was significantly abolished by ROS inhibitors, suggesting that ROS generation contributes to cell differentiation. The 9,10-PQ treatment increased the expression of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3, which reached a peak at 1 to 2 d post-treatment and then declined. The bell-shaped curve of the AKR1C3 expression by 9,10-PQ resembled that caused by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a differentiation inducer. Additionally, the concomitant treatment with tolfenamic acid, a selective AKR1C3 inhibitor, sensitized the differentiation induced by 9,10-PQ. These results suggest that ROS formation during 9,10-PQ treatment acutely leads to apoptosis of U937 cells and the initiation of monocytic differentiation, which proceeds after the provisional overexpression of AKR1C3.

  11. The effects of salinity, crassulacean acid metabolism and plant age on the carbon isotope composition of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., a halophytic C(3)-CAM species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2005-09-01

    The carbon isotope composition of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (Aizoaceae) changes when plants are exposed to environmental stress and when they shift from C(3) to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). We examined the coupling between carbon isotope composition and photosynthetic pathway by subjecting plants of different ages to salinity and humidity treatments. Whole shoot delta(13)C values became less negative in plants that were exposed to 400 mM NaCl in the hydroponic solution. The isotopic change had two components: a direct NaCl effect that was greatest in plants still operating in the C(3) mode and decreased proportionally with increasing levels of dark fixation, and a second component related to the degree of CAM expression. Ignoring the presumably diffusion-related NaCl effect on carbon isotope ratios results in an overestimation of nocturnal CO(2) gain in comparison to an isotope versus nocturnal CO(2) gain calibration established previously for C(3) and CAM species grown under well-watered conditions. It is widely taken for granted that the shift to CAM in M. crystallinum is partially under developmental control and that CAM is inevitably expressed in mature plants. Plants, cultivated under non-saline conditions and high relative humidity (RH) for up to 63 days, maintained diel CO(2) gas-exchange patterns and delta(13)C values typical of C(3) plants. However, a weak CAM gas-exchange pattern and an increase in delta(13)C value were observed in non-salt-treated plants grown at reduced RH. These observations are consistent with environmental control rather than developmental control of the induction of CAM in mature M. crystallinum under non-saline conditions.

  12. Enhancement of photocatalytic activity of combustion-synthesized CeO2/C3N4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Feng; Yang, Ke; Wang, Xiao-qin; Ma, Ya-Li; Huang, Gui-Fang; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Nanocrystalline CeO2/C3N4 was synthesized via a one-step solution combustion method using urea as fuel for the first time. The effects of the molar ratio of urea to cerium chloride on the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized samples were investigated. The synthesized nanocrystalline CeO2/C3N4 shows small size and large surface exposure area. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue demonstrates that the synthesized nanocrystalline CeO2/C3N4 possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity. It is proposed that the enhanced photocatalytic activity might be related to the favorable morphology and structure, and the effective charge separation between C3N4 and CeO2 in the photocatalytic process.

  13. Magnetic Fe@g‑C3N4: A Photoactive Catalyst for the Hydrogenation of Alkenes and Alkynes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A photoactive catalyst, Fe@g-C3N4, has been developed for the hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes using hydrazine hydrate as a source of hydrogen. The magnetically...

  14. Antiviral Activity of Hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against Enterovirus 71 Subgenotypes C3 and C4a

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Jaehyoung; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Jeonghoon; Jeong, Hyeongun; Kwon, Yongsoo; Kim, Hyunpyo; Lee, Sangwon; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the predominant cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The antiviral activity of hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against EV71 subgenotypes C3 and C4a was evaluated in vero cells...

  15. Potential of Transition Metal Atoms Embedded in Buckled Monolayer g-C3N4 as Single-Atom Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Shu-Long

    2017-10-27

    We use first-principles calculations to systematically explore the potential of transition metal atoms (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, and Au) embedded in buckled monolayer g-C3N4 as single-atom catalysts. We show that clustering of Sc and Ti on g-C3N4 is thermodynamically impeded and that V, Cr, Mn, and Cu are much less susceptible to clustering than the other TM atoms under investigation. Strong bonding of the transition metal atoms in the cavities of g-C3N4 and high diffusion barriers together are responsible for single-atom fixation. Analysis of the CO oxidation process indicates that embedding of Cr and Mn in g-C3N4 gives rise to promising single-atom catalysts at low temperature.

  16. The chloroplast genome of a symbiodinium sp. clade C3 isolate

    KAUST Repository

    Barbrook, Adrian C.

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium form important symbioses within corals and other benthic marine animals. Dinoflagellates possess an extremely reduced plastid genome relative to those examined in plants and other algae. In dinoflagellates the plastid genes are located on small plasmids, commonly referred to as \\'minicircles\\'. However, the chloroplast genomes of dinoflagellates have only been extensively characterised from a handful of species. There is also evidence of considerable variation in the chloroplast genome organisation across those species that have been examined. We therefore characterised the chloroplast genome from an environmental coral isolate, in this case containing a symbiont belonging to the Symbiodinium sp. clade C3. The gene content of the genome is well conserved with respect to previously characterised genomes. However, unlike previously characterised dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes we did not identify any \\'empty\\' minicircles. The sequences of this chloroplast genome show a high rate of evolution relative to other algal species. Particularly notable was a surprisingly high level of sequence divergence within the core polypeptides of photosystem I, the reasons for which are currently unknown. This chloroplast genome also possesses distinctive codon usage and GC content. These features suggest that chloroplast genomes in Symbiodinium are highly plastic. © 2013 Adrian C. Barbrook.

  17. Is the Coupling of C3V Internal Rotation and Normal Vibrations a Tractable Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John; Groner, Peter; Daly, Adam M.

    2016-06-01

    The solution of a C3V internal rotation problem for the torsional manifold of an isolated vibrational state such as the ground state is well established. However, once an interacting small amplitude vibrational state is involved the path to a solution becomes far less clear and there is little guidance in the literature on how to proceed. The fundamental challenge is that the torsional problem and the internal axis system are unique to each torsional manifold of a specific vibrational state. In an asymmetric top molecule vibrational angular momentum can be rotated away, but this sort of rotation changes the angle between the internal rotation axis and the principle axis when there is an internal rotor. This means that there is an angle between the internal axis systems of each torsional manifold of a vibrational state. The net result is that the coupling between the two states must account for the difference in internal axis angle and will have some significant consequences to the selection rules and interactions. Two cases will be discussed, methanol and ethyl cyanide.

  18. PENELITIAN PENULARAN VIRUS TUMOR MAMMA (MTV PADA MENCIT C3H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodo Djuanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has been caused by several factors, such as : Virus             :  biological factorRadiation      : physical factorCarcinogenic chemical compound : chemical factor. The study of the transmission of MTV on experimental animals and its descendants has been tried since 1963. Several strains of mice have been bred successfully, one of which is the C3H strain. This strain is known to'have a high mammary tumor incidence due to the high content of the MTV (Bittner virus in mother's milk. The transmission of MTV can be observed by foster nursing or reciprocal crossing between strains with high and low mammary tumor incidence. All females used in this experiment were force bred and observed for the appearance of a tumor until the age of one year. Some conclusions from this experiment are that: MTV was transmitted through mother's milk.Other strains (Balb/c and AJ could develop mammary tumor when infected by MTV.There is a different susceptibility between Balb/c and AJ to MTV. The transmission of MTV from parent to off spring is -called the vertical transmission. This virus has been known as Bittner virus and it can be identifed by the electrone microscope, immunodiffusion test (Ouchterlony or immunofluorescence test. The result of this experiment may be useful for studying the problem of Cancer tumor in human beings.

  19. Mycorrhizal Symbiotic Efficiency on C3 and C4 Plants under Salinity Stress - A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Walitang, Denver; Sundaram, Subbiah; Joe, Manoharan M; Selvakumar, Gopal; Hu, Shuijin; Oh, Sang-Hyon; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of C3 and C4 plant species could acclimatize and grow under the impact of salinity stress. Symbiotic relationship between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread and are well known to ameliorate the influence of salinity stress on agro-ecosystem. In the present study, we sought to understand the phenomenon of variability on AMF symbiotic relationship on saline stress amelioration in C3 and C4 plants. Thus, the objective was to compare varied mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship between C3 and C4 plants in saline conditions. To accomplish the above mentioned objective, we conducted a random effects models meta-analysis across 60 published studies. An effect size was calculated as the difference in mycorrhizal responses between the AMF inoculated plants and its corresponding control under saline conditions. Responses were compared between (i) identity of AMF species and AMF inoculation, (ii) identity of host plants (C3 vs. C4) and plant functional groups, (iii) soil texture and level of salinity and (iv) experimental condition (greenhouse vs. field). Results indicate that both C3 and C4 plants under saline condition responded positively to AMF inoculation, thereby overcoming the predicted effects of symbiotic efficiency. Although C3 and C4 plants showed positive effects under low (EC 8 ds/m) saline conditions, C3 plants showed significant effects for mycorrhizal inoculation over C4 plants. Among the plant types, C4 annual and perennial plants, C4 herbs and C4 dicot had a significant effect over other counterparts. Between single and mixed AMF inoculants, single inoculants Rhizophagus irregularis had a positive effect on C3 plants whereas Funneliformis mosseae had a positive effect on C4 plants than other species. In all of the observed studies, mycorrhizal inoculation showed positive effects on shoot, root and total biomass, and in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (K) uptake. However, it showed negative effects in sodium (Na

  20. Mycorrhizal Symbiotic Efficiency on C3 and C4 Plants under Salinity Stress – A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Walitang, Denver; Sundaram, Subbiah; Joe, Manoharan M.; Selvakumar, Gopal; Hu, Shuijin; Oh, Sang-Hyon; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of C3 and C4 plant species could acclimatize and grow under the impact of salinity stress. Symbiotic relationship between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread and are well known to ameliorate the influence of salinity stress on agro-ecosystem. In the present study, we sought to understand the phenomenon of variability on AMF symbiotic relationship on saline stress amelioration in C3 and C4 plants. Thus, the objective was to compare varied mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship between C3 and C4 plants in saline conditions. To accomplish the above mentioned objective, we conducted a random effects models meta-analysis across 60 published studies. An effect size was calculated as the difference in mycorrhizal responses between the AMF inoculated plants and its corresponding control under saline conditions. Responses were compared between (i) identity of AMF species and AMF inoculation, (ii) identity of host plants (C3 vs. C4) and plant functional groups, (iii) soil texture and level of salinity and (iv) experimental condition (greenhouse vs. field). Results indicate that both C3 and C4 plants under saline condition responded positively to AMF inoculation, thereby overcoming the predicted effects of symbiotic efficiency. Although C3 and C4 plants showed positive effects under low (EC 8 ds/m) saline conditions, C3 plants showed significant effects for mycorrhizal inoculation over C4 plants. Among the plant types, C4 annual and perennial plants, C4 herbs and C4 dicot had a significant effect over other counterparts. Between single and mixed AMF inoculants, single inoculants Rhizophagus irregularis had a positive effect on C3 plants whereas Funneliformis mosseae had a positive effect on C4 plants than other species. In all of the observed studies, mycorrhizal inoculation showed positive effects on shoot, root and total biomass, and in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (K) uptake. However, it showed negative effects in sodium (Na

  1. A generalized stoichiometric model of C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 photosynthetic metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellasio, C.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of suppressing photorespiration in crops to maximize assimilation and yield is stimulating considerable interest among researchers looking to bioengineer carbon-concentrating mechanisms into C3 plants. However, detailed quantification of the biochemical activities in the bundle sheath is lacking. This work presents a general stoichiometric model for C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 assimilation (SMA) in which energetics, metabolite traffic, and the different decarboxylating enzymes (NAD-depende...

  2. Comparison of oxidation behaviors of Cr7C3 at 1173 K and 1273 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Huang, Zhifu; Chang, Li; Zheng, Qiaoling

    2017-10-01

    Cr7C3 has properties of high strength, low density, good chemical stability, and resistance against corrosion and oxidation at high temperature. With these excellent properties, Cr7C3 is considered especially suitable as a high temperature material. However, little attention has been paid to the oxidation behavior of Cr7C3. In this work, the oxidation behavior of Cr7C3 at 1173 K and 1273 K, with seven durations from 10 h to 70 h, was investigated. After testing, oxide morphology and phase composition were observed, and identified by SEM and XRD respectively. The results indicate that the anti-oxidation levels of Cr7C3 at the oxidation times of 1173 K and 1273 K both belong to the total anti-oxidation grade; the oxidation rate constant and oxidation rate of Cr7C3 at 1273 K show improvement over those at 1173 K by about one order of magnitude and more than two-fold respectively. The result also indicates that Cr2O3 does not peel off from the surface of Cr7C3 at 1173 K however, at 1273 K it does peel off. Furthermore, the calculation result indicates that the critical compressive stress value for Cr2O3 peeling from the surface of Cr7C3 lies between 1.14 GPa and 1.27 GPa.

  3. Reibergrama para la evaluación de la síntesis intratecal de C3c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorta-Contreras Alberto Juan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: El diagrama de las razones de Reiber o reibergrama cobra cada día mayores usos para la caracterización de la síntesis intratecal de proteínas. El reibergrama fue definido para las clases mayores de inmunoglobulinas pero luego ha sido utilizado para evaluar otras proteínas basado en la teoría de la difusión molecular/velocidad de flujo del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR. MÉTODO: El C3c, producto de la degradación del factor del complemento C3 y con una masa molecular de 145 KDa, se acerca a las características moleculares de la IgG para las leyes de la difusión de Fick. Se asume las constantes de la IgG en la fórmula de Reiber para evaluar la síntesis intratecal de C3c así como su correspondiente reibergrama. Se estudiaron 27 pacientes y 27 controles a los que se les dosificó albúmina y C3c en suero y LCR por inmunodifusión radial. RESULTADOS: Con el reibergrama propuesto para el C3c se evaluaron estos pacientes. Se comprueba la validez de este reibergrama para distintas condiciones de barrera con o sin síntesis intratecal de C3c. CONCLUSION: El reibergrama y su fórmula correspondiente propuesto para la C3c puede ser usado para la evaluación de la síntesis intratecal de C3c.

  4. Starch Accumulation in the Bundle Sheaths of C3 Plants: A Possible Pre-Condition for C4 Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    C4 plants have evolved >60 times from their C3 ancestors. C4 photosynthesis requires a set of closely co-ordinated anatomical and biochemical characteristics. However, it is now recognized that the evolution of C4 plants requires fewer changes than had ever been considered, because of the genetic, biochemical and anatomical pre-conditions of C3 ancestors that were recruited into C4 photosynthesis. Therefore, the pre-conditions in C3 plants are now being actively investigated to clarify the evolutionary trajectory from C3 to C4 plants and to engineer C4 traits efficiently into C3 crops. In the present mini review, the anatomical characteristics of C3 and C4 plants are briefly reviewed and the importance of the bundle sheath for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis is described. For example, while the bundle sheath of C3 rice plants accumulates large amounts of starch in the developing leaf blade and at the lamina joint of the mature leaf, the starch sheath function is also observed during leaf development in starch accumulator grasses regardless of photosynthetic type. The starch sheath function of C3 plants is therefore also implicated as a possible pre-condition for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. The phylogenetic relationships between the types of storage carbohydrates and of photosynthesis need to be clarified in the future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A Modified Thermal Time Model Quantifying Germination Response to Temperature for C3 and C4 Species in Temperate Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-based germination models are widely used to predict germination rate and germination timing of plants. However, comparison of model parameters between large numbers of species is rare. In this study, seeds of 27 species including 12 C4 and 15 C3 species were germinated at a range of constant temperatures from 5 °C to 40 °C. We used a modified thermal time model to calculate germination parameters at suboptimal temperatures. Generally, the optimal germination temperature was higher for C4 species than for C3 species. The thermal time constant for the 50% germination percentile was significantly higher for C3 than C4 species. The thermal time constant of perennials was significantly higher than that of annuals. However, differences in base temperatures were not significant between C3 and C4, or annuals and perennial species. The relationship between germination rate and seed mass depended on plant functional type and temperature, while the base temperature and thermal time constant of C3 and C4 species exhibited no significant relationship with seed mass. The results illustrate differences in germination characteristics between C3 and C4 species. Seed mass does not affect germination parameters, plant life cycle matters, however.

  6. Effect of template-induced surface species on electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Xiaojuan; Bo, Xiangkun; Wang, Yongzheng; Guo, Xiangke; Xie, Mingjiang; Guo, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    In view of the fact that the photocatalytic activity of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is greatly influenced by its electronic structure, herein, effect of templates induced surface species variation on the electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of the templated g-C3N4 was investigated. By mixing the precursor of cyanamide with different templates (SiO2, Al2O3 and template-free) in the preparation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), carbon nitrides with different surface species were obtained. The obtained carbon nitride (g-C3N4-Si) templated by SiO2 nanoparticles exhibits enlarged band gap (3.26 eV) and enhanced photo-degradation ability towards Methyl Orange (MO) compared to that of bulk g-C3N4 (2.67 eV) synthesized from direct condensation/carbonization of melamine and Al2O3-templated g-C3N4-Al (2.76 eV). Detailed characterizations confirm that the introduction of templates in the synthesis process resulted in more non-graphitic species (sp3sbnd Csbnd Csbnd and sbnd NHx) on the surface of the derived carbon nitrides, exerting remarkable effect on the electronic structure and photocatalytic performance.

  7. Facile Electrospinning Synthesis of Carbonized Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/g-C3 N4 Hybrid Films for Photoelectrochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xu; Tian, Yang; Wang, Yanbin; Jan, Abdul Khaliq; Chen, Yutong

    2017-01-05

    The film-forming ability and conductivity of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) are still unsatisfying, despite much progress having been made in g-C3 N4 -related photocatalysts. New methods for synthesizing g-C3 N4 films coupled with excellent conductive materials are of significance. Herein, a facile method for synthesizing novel carbonized polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/g-C3 N4 (CPVP /g-C3 N4 ) films have been developed through an electrospinning technique. Nanocarbons are generated by in situ carbonization of PVP in the films, which could enhance the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of the films due to its good conductivity. The coverage of the CPVP /g-C3 N4 film is good and the films exhibit excellent PEC performance. Furthermore, the thickness of the films can be adjusted by varying the electrospinning time and substantially controlling the PEC performance, of which the photocurrent densities under visible-light irradiation are 3.55, 4.92, and 6.64 μA cm(-2) with spinning times of 40, 70, and 120 min, respectively. The photocurrent does not decrease until testing at 4000 s and the coverage is still good after the tests, which indicates the good stability of the films. The excellent PEC performance of the films and facile preparation method enables promising applications in energy and environmental remediation areas. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Atomically Thin B doped g-C3N4 Nanosheets: High-Temperature Ferromagnetism and calculated Half-Metallicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daqiang; Liu, Yonggang; Liu, Peitao; Si, Mingsu; Xue, Desheng

    2016-10-20

    Since the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C4N3), which can be seen as C-doped graphitic-C3N4 (g-C3N4), was reported to display ferromagnetic ground state and intrinsic half-metallicity (Du et al., PRL,108,197207,2012), it has attracted numerous research interest to tune the electronic structure and magnetic properties of g-C3N4 due to their potential applications in spintronic devices. In this paper, we reported the experimentally achieving of high temperature ferromagnetism in metal-free ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets by introducing of B atoms. Further, first-principles calculation results revealed that the current flow in such a system was fully spin-polarized and the magnetic moment was mainly attributed to the p orbital of N atoms in B doped g-C3N4 monolayer, giving the theoretic evidence of the ferromagnetism and half-metallicity. Our finding provided a new perspective for B doped g-C3N4 spintronic devices in future.

  9. Effect of mesoporous g-C3N4 substrate on catalytic oxidation of CO over Co3O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heng; Lv, Kangle; Zhu, Junjiang; Li, Qin; Tang, Dingguo; Ho, Wingkei; Li, Mei; Carabineiro, Sónia A. C.

    2017-04-01

    Mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (mpg-CN) was synthesized using Triton X-100, a surfactant containing a hydrophilic polyethylene oxide group and a tert-octyl-phenyl hydrophobic moiety, as a soft template. The obtained mpg-CN was used as a support for Co3O4, and this supported catalyst was used for CO oxidation. The effects of the amount of Triton X-100, weight ratio of Co3O4 to mpg-CN and calcination temperature on the catalytic performances for CO oxidation of Co3O4/mpg-CN composites were systematically studied. It was found that the presence of Triton X-100 not only retarded the polymerization of dicyandiamide, but also affected the microstructure of Co3O4. Bubbles formed because of the hydrophobic group of the surfactant Triton X-100 can be act as a soft template for the synthesis of mesoporous g-C3N4. The enhanced catalytic activity of Co3O4/mpg-CN was attributed to a synergistic effect, enlarged BET surface areas, increased Co3+ and lattice oxygen contents, and the porous structure of mpg-CN support. The high stability of 12.5% Co3O4/mpg-CN(1.0) makes it a promising catalyst for practical applications.

  10. Methionine restriction inhibits chemically-induced malignant transformation in the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicken, Petra; Empl, Michael T; Gerhard, Daniel; Hausmann, Julia; Steinberg, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    High consumption of red meat entails a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer. Methionine, which is more frequently a component of animal proteins, and folic acid are members of the one carbon cycle and as such important players in DNA methylation and cancer development. Therefore, dietary modifications involving altered methionine and folic acid content might inhibit colon cancer development. In the present study, the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay was used to investigate whether methionine and folic acid are able to influence the malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts after treatment with the known tumour initiator 3-methylcholanthrene. Three different methionine concentrations (representing a -40%, a "normal" and a +40% cell culture medium concentration, respectively) and two different folic acid concentrations (6 and 20 μM) were thereby investigated. Methionine restriction led to a decrease of type III foci, while enhancement of both methionine and folic acid did not significantly increase the cell transformation rate. Interestingly, the focus-lowering effect of methionine was only significant in conjunction with an elevated folic acid concentration. In summary, we conclude that the malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts is influenced by methionine levels and that methionine restriction could be a possible approach to reduce cancer development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) exposure on B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guangying; Zuo, Xiaoxu; Zhou, Lihua; Aoki, Eriko; Okamula, Aya; Watanebe, Mika; Wang, Haipeng; Wu, Qiuhui; Lu, Huiling; Tuncel, Handan; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Zeng, Sien; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2015-07-01

    Long-term exposure study was conducted to investigate the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on the tumor promotion process and fertility. Ten pregnant C57BL/6NCrj mice were exposed to 50 Hz field 500 mG for 1 week (12 h per day), and 24 male and 42 female B6C3F1mice born from them were further exposed up to 15.5 months. As a control group, 10 pregnant mice were bred without exposure, and 30 produced male and 32 female mice were observed without exposure for the same period. Mean body weights of exposed groups of male and female mice were decreased significantly than those of the control groups. In exposed mice, there was no increased incidence of liver and lung tumor. In female mice, the incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia [3/42 (7%)] in the exposed group was significantly greater than in the control group. The size of seminiferous tubules in the EMF exposed groups were significantly less than the control group. These data support the hypothesis that long-term exposure of 50 Hz magnetic fields is a significant risk factor for neoplastic development and fertility in mice.

  12. DEHP induces obesity and hypothyroidism through both central and peripheral pathways in C3H/He mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ziquan; Cheng, Jinquan; Huang, Suli; Zhang, Yanwei; Wu, Shuang; Qiu, Yangshen; Geng, Yijie; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Guanqin; Ma, Quan; Xie, Xing; Zhou, Shiquan; Wu, Tangchun; Ke, Yuebin

    2016-02-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is reported to cause obesity and hypothyroidism in both humans and rodents, but the underlying mechanisms were largely unknown. This study was designed to clarify the effects and the mechanisms of DEHP on the pathogenesis of obesity and hypothyroidism and to discover the relationship between them. Male C3H/He mice were treated with DEHP for 5 weeks, and the body weight, food intake, and body temperature were recorded during the exposure. After exposure, key organs and serum were analyzed by Q-PCR, Western blot, and ELISA. DEHP induced significant body weight gain and adipogenesis in all exposure groups except for 0.05 mg/kg. Marked hyperphagia and daytime hypothermia were also observed, which were accompanied by disturbed hypothalamic neuropeptide expression and reduced BAT UCP1 expression. In addition, WAT lipid metabolism was significantly deceased at low dose (0.5 mg/kg) and increased at high dose (50 and 200 mg/kg). DEHP also induced hypothyroidism, which was probably attributed to the combined effects of hepatic CAR activation and hypothalamic TRH inhibition induced by hypothalamic leptin resistance. Chronic DEHP exposure could induce obesity by interrupting energy homeostasis, which is probably due to the synergistic effects of hypothyroidism and hypothalamic leptin resistance. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  13. Twin defects engineered Pd cocatalyst on C3N4nanosheets for enhanced photocatalytic performance in CO2reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qingqing; Hu, Wenli; Zhou, Penghui; Huang, Tianlong; Zhong, Shuxian; Yang, Lining; Chen, Jianrong; Bai, Song

    2017-12-01

    Photocatalytic conversion of CO 2 to value-added chemicals, a potential route to addressing the depletion of fossil fuels and anthropogenic climate change, is greatly limited by the low-efficient semiconductor photocatalyst. The integration of cocatalyst with light-harvesting semiconductor is a promising approach to enhancing the photocatalytic performance in CO 2 reduction reaction. The enhancement is greatly determined by the catalytic active sites on the surface of cocatalyst. Herein, we demonstrate that the photocatalytic performance in the CO 2 reduction reaction is greatly promoted by twin defects engineered Pd cocatalyst. In this work, Pd nanoicosahedrons with twin defects were in situ grown on C 3 N 4 nanosheets, which effectively improve the photocatalytic performance in reduction of CO 2 to CO and CH 4 in comparison with Pd nanotetrahedrons without twin defects. It is proposed that the twin boundary (TB) terminations on the surface of Pd cocatalysts are highly catalytic active sites for CO 2 reduction reaction. Based on the proposed mechanism, the photocatalytic activity and selectivity in CO 2 reduction were further advanced through reducing the size of Pd icosahedral cocatalyst resulted from the increased surface density of TB terminations. The defect engineering on the surface of cocatalyst represents a novel route in realizing high-performance photocatalytic applications.

  14. Electronic nonadiabatic effects in low temperature radical-radical reactions. I. C(3P) + OH(2Π).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maergoiz, A I; Nikitin, E E; Troe, J

    2014-07-28

    The formation of collision complexes, as a first step towards reaction, in collisions between two open-electronic shell radicals is treated within an adiabatic channel approach. Adiabatic channel potentials are constructed on the basis of asymptotic electrostatic, induction, dispersion, and exchange interactions, accounting for spin-orbit coupling within the multitude of electronic states arising from the separated reactants. Suitable coupling schemes (such as rotational + electronic) are designed to secure maximum adiabaticity of the channels. The reaction between C((3)P) and OH((2)Π) is treated as a representative example. The results show that the low temperature association rate coefficients in general cannot be represented by results obtained with a single (generally the lowest) potential energy surface of the adduct, asymptotically reaching the lowest fine-structure states of the reactants, and a factor accounting for the thermal population of the latter states. Instead, the influence of non-Born-Oppenheimer couplings within the multitude of electronic states arising during the encounter markedly increases the capture rates. This effect extends up to temperatures of several hundred K.

  15. Twin defects engineered Pd cocatalyst on C3N4 nanosheets for enhanced photocatalytic performance in CO2 reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qingqing; Hu, Wenli; Zhou, Penghui; Huang, Tianlong; Zhong, Shuxian; Yang, Lining; Chen, Jianrong; Bai, Song

    2017-12-01

    Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to value-added chemicals, a potential route to addressing the depletion of fossil fuels and anthropogenic climate change, is greatly limited by the low-efficient semiconductor photocatalyst. The integration of cocatalyst with light-harvesting semiconductor is a promising approach to enhancing the photocatalytic performance in CO2 reduction reaction. The enhancement is greatly determined by the catalytic active sites on the surface of cocatalyst. Herein, we demonstrate that the photocatalytic performance in the CO2 reduction reaction is greatly promoted by twin defects engineered Pd cocatalyst. In this work, Pd nanoicosahedrons with twin defects were in situ grown on C3N4 nanosheets, which effectively improve the photocatalytic performance in reduction of CO2 to CO and CH4 in comparison with Pd nanotetrahedrons without twin defects. It is proposed that the twin boundary (TB) terminations on the surface of Pd cocatalysts are highly catalytic active sites for CO2 reduction reaction. Based on the proposed mechanism, the photocatalytic activity and selectivity in CO2 reduction were further advanced through reducing the size of Pd icosahedral cocatalyst resulted from the increased surface density of TB terminations. The defect engineering on the surface of cocatalyst represents a novel route in realizing high-performance photocatalytic applications.

  16. Platinum nanocatalysts prepared with different surfactants for C1-C3 alcohol oxidations and their surface morphologies by AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertan, Salih; Sen, Fatih, E-mail: fsen@mit.edu; Sen, Selda; Goekagac, Guelsuen, E-mail: ggulsun@metu.edu.tr [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemistry (Turkey)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, platinum nanoparticle catalysts have been prepared using PtCl{sub 4} as a starting material and 1-octanethiol, 1-decanethiol, 1-dodecanethiol, and 1-hexadecanethiol as surfactants for methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol oxidation reactions. The structure, particle sizes, and surface morphologies of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD and TEM results indicate that all prepared catalysts have a face-centered cubic structure and are homogeneously dispersed on the carbon support with a narrow size distribution (2.0-1.3 nm). X-ray photoelectron spectra of the catalysts were examined and it is found that platinum has two different oxidation states, Pt (0) and Pt(IV), oxygen and sulfur compounds are H{sub 2}O{sub ads} and OH{sub ads}, bound and unbound thiols. The electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of these catalysts were investigated with respect to C1-C3 alcohol oxidations by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The highest electrocatalytic activity was obtained from catalyst I which was prepared with 1-octanethiol. This may be attributed to a decrease in the ratio of bound to unbound thiol species increase in Pt (0)/Pt(IV), H{sub 2}O{sub ads}/OH{sub ads} ratios, electrochemical surface area, CO tolerance and percent platinum utility.

  17. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO over copper decorated g-C3N4 nanosheets with enhanced yield and selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guodong; Yang, Lin; Liu, Zhuowen; Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Jianqing; Yu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to fuel has attracted considerable attention due to the consumption of fossil fuels and serious environmental problems. Although there are many photocatalysts reported for CO2 reduction, the improvement of activity and selectivity is still in great need of. In this work, a series of Cu nanoparticle decorated g-C3N4 nanosheets with different Cu loadings were fabricated by a facile secondary calcination and subsequent microwave hydrothermal method. The designed catalysts shown good photocatalytic activity and selectivity for CO2 reduction to CO. The optimal sample exhibited a 3-fold augmentation of the CO yield in comparison with pristine g-C3N4 under visible light. It is revealed that with the loading of Cu nanoparticles, the resulting photocatalyst possessed an improved charge carrier transfer and separation efficiency as well as increased surface reactive sites, resulting in a significant enhancement of CO yield. It is anticipated that the designed Cu/C3N4 photocatalyst may provide new insights for two dimensional layer materials and non-noble particles applied to CO2 reduction.

  18. Differences in the metabolism and disposition of inhaled (3H)benzene by F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, P.J.; Bechtold, W.E.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Lucier, G.; Henderson, R.F.

    1988-06-15

    Benzene is a potent hematotoxin and has been shown to cause leukemia in man. Chronic toxicity studies indicate that B6C3F1 mice are more susceptible than F334/N rats to benzene toxicity. The purpose of the studies presented in this paper was to determine if there were metabolic differences between F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice which might be responsible for this increased susceptibility. Metabolites of benzene in blood, liver, lung, and bone marrow were measured during and following a 6-hr 50 ppm exposure to benzene vapor. Hydroquinone glucuronide, hydroquinone, and muconic acid, which reflect pathways leading to potential toxic metabolites of benzene, were present in much greater concentrations in the mouse than in rat tissues. Phenylsulfate, a detoxified metabolite, and an unknown water-soluble metabolite were present in approximately equal concentrations in these two species. These results indicate that the proportion of benzene metabolized via pathways leading to the formation of potentially toxic metabolites as opposed to detoxification pathways was much higher in B6C3F1 mice than in F344 rats, which may explain the higher susceptibility of mice to benzene-induced hematotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

  19. Complement C3 and decay-accelerating factor expression levels are modulated by human chorionic gonadotropin in endometrial compartments during the implantation window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Wilder Alberto; Argandoña, Felipe; Azúa, Rodrigo; Kohen, Paulina; Devoto, Luigi

    2013-09-01

    The control of complement activation in the embryo-maternal environment has been demonstrated to be critical for embryo survival. Complement proteins are expressed in the human endometrium; however, the modulation of this expression by embryo signals has not been explored. To assess the expression of complement proteins in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), we designed an experimental study using in vivo and in vitro models. Twelve fertile women were treated with hCG or left untreated during the mid-luteal phase, and an endometrial biopsy was performed 24 hours later. The localizations of C3, membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), and protectin (CD59) were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of these proteins were quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in cells harvested from endometrial compartments using laser capture microdissection. Endometrial explants were cultured with or without hCG for 24 hours, and the C3 and DAF protein levels were measured by Western blotting. Elevated C3 mRNA levels in stromal cells and elevated DAF levels in epithelial luminal cells were detected after hCG treatment. In the endometrial explant model, the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 inhibited the increases in the levels of C3 and DAF in response to hCG. The findings of this study indicate that hCG plays a role in embryo-endometrium communication and affects the expression of complement proteins in endometrial compartments during the implantation window.

  20. STX140, but not paclitaxel, inhibits mammary tumour initiation and progression in C3(1/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Meyer-Losic

    Full Text Available Despite paclitxael's clinical success, treating hormone-refractory breast cancer remains challenging. Paclitaxel has a poor pharmacological profile, characterized by a low therapeutic index (TIX caused by severe dose limiting toxicities, such as neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy. Consequently, new drugs are urgently required. STX140, a compound previously shown to have excellent efficacy against many tumors, is here compared to paclitaxel in three translational in vivo breast cancer models, a rat model of peripheral neuropathy, and through pharmacological testing. Three different in vivo mouse models of breast cancer were used; the metastatic 4T1 orthotopic model, the C3(1/SV40 T-Ag model, and the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. To determine TIX and pharmacological profile of STX140, a comprehensive dosing regime was performed in mice bearing MDA-MD-231 xenografts. Finally, peripheral neuropathy was examined using a rat plantar thermal hyperalgesia model. In the 4T1 metastatic model, STX140 and paclitaxel significantly inhibited primary tumor growth and lung metastases. All C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice in the control and paclitaxel treated groups developed palpable mammary cancer. STX140 blocked 47% of tumors developing and significantly inhibited growth of tumors that did develop. STX140 treatment caused a significant (P<0.001 survival advantage for animals in early and late intervention groups. Conversely, in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice, paclitaxel failed to inhibit tumor growth and did not increase survival time. Furthermore, paclitaxel, but not STX140, induced significant peripheral neuropathy and neutropenia. These results show that STX140 has a greater anti-cancer efficacy, TIX, and reduced neurotoxicity compared to paclitaxel in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice and therefore may be of significant benefit to patients with breast cancer.

  1. Apolipoprotein C3 SstI polymorphism and triglyceride levels in Asian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava LM

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A close association between Sst I polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the apolipoproteinC3 (APOC3 gene and levels of plasma triglycerides (TG had been reported by different investigators. Hypertriglyceridemia(HTG is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD in the context of Asian Indians. We conducted a study on the relationship between APOC3 SstI polymorphism (S1S1, S1S2 and S2S2 genotypes and plasma TG levels in a group of 139 male healthy volunteers from Northern India. Methods DNA samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by SstI digestion. Digested PCR products were run on 3% agarose gel and visualized by ethidium bromide staining. Results Rare S2 allele was highly prevalent in our study population (0.313 as compared to the Caucasians (0.00–0.11. The genotypic distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. S2 allele was almost two times more prevalent in the HTG group (N = 34 as compared to NTG group (N = 105 (p = 0.001. Multiple logistic regression revealed S1S2 individuals had age-adjusted odds ratio of 2.43 (95%CI = 0.99–6.01, p = 0.054 and S2S2 had 9.9 (95%CI = 2.66–37.29, p = 0.0006 for developing HTG in comparison to S1S1 genotype. Conclusions Our study shows a significant association between rare S2 allele and HTG in Asian Indians.

  2. Interpain A, a cysteine proteinase from Prevotella intermedia, inhibits complement by degrading complement factor C3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Potempa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the teeth caused by, among other pathogens, Prevotella intermedia. Many strains of P. intermedia are resistant to killing by the human complement system, which is present at up to 70% of serum concentration in gingival crevicular fluid. Incubation of human serum with recombinant cysteine protease of P. intermedia (interpain A resulted in a drastic decrease in bactericidal activity of the serum. Furthermore, a clinical strain 59 expressing interpain A was more serum-resistant than another clinical strain 57, which did not express interpain A, as determined by Western blotting. Moreover, in the presence of the cysteine protease inhibitor E64, the killing of strain 59 by human serum was enhanced. Importantly, we found that the majority of P. intermedia strains isolated from chronic and aggressive periodontitis carry and express the interpain A gene. The protective effect of interpain A against serum bactericidal activity was found to be attributable to its ability to inhibit all three complement pathways through the efficient degradation of the alpha-chain of C3 -- the major complement factor common to all three pathways. P. intermedia has been known to co-aggregate with P. gingivalis, which produce gingipains to efficiently degrade complement factors. Here, interpain A was found to have a synergistic effect with gingipains on complement degradation. In addition, interpain A was able to activate the C1 complex in serum, causing deposition of C1q on inert and bacterial surfaces, which may be important at initial stages of infection when local inflammatory reaction may be beneficial for a pathogen. Taken together, the newly characterized interpain A proteinase appears to be an important virulence factor of P. intermedia.

  3. The Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis Links C and N Fluxes in C3 Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Vincent; Martre, Pierre; Kattge, Jens; Gastal, François; Esser, Gerd; Fontaine, Sébastien; Soussana, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters in vegetation models and its relationship to leaf nitrogen content links the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Process understanding for reliably predicting photosynthetic capacity is still missing. To advance this understanding we have tested across C3 plant species the coordination hypothesis, which assumes nitrogen allocation to photosynthetic processes such that photosynthesis tends to be co-limited by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation and regeneration. The coordination hypothesis yields an analytical solution to predict photosynthetic capacity and calculate area-based leaf nitrogen content (Na). The resulting model linking leaf photosynthesis, stomata conductance and nitrogen investment provides testable hypotheses about the physiological regulation of these processes. Based on a dataset of 293 observations for 31 species grown under a range of environmental conditions, we confirm the coordination hypothesis: under mean environmental conditions experienced by leaves during the preceding month, RuBP carboxylation equals RuBP regeneration. We identify three key parameters for photosynthetic coordination: specific leaf area and two photosynthetic traits (k3, which modulates N investment and is the ratio of RuBP carboxylation/oxygenation capacity () to leaf photosynthetic N content (Npa); and Jfac, which modulates photosynthesis for a given k3 and is the ratio of RuBP regeneration capacity (Jmax) to). With species-specific parameter values of SLA, k3 and Jfac, our leaf photosynthesis coordination model accounts for 93% of the total variance in Na across species and environmental conditions. A calibration by plant functional type of k3 and Jfac still leads to accurate model prediction of Na, while SLA calibration is essentially required at species level. Observed variations in k3 and Jfac are partly explained by environmental and phylogenetic constraints, while SLA variation is partly explained

  4. High-accuracy Quartic Force Field Calculations for the Spectroscopic Constants and Vibrational Frequencies of 11 A' l-C3H-: A Possible Link to Lines Observed in the Horsehead Nebula Photodissociation Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Huang, Xinchuan; Crawford, T. Daniel; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that rotational lines observed in the Horsehead nebula photodissociation region (PDR) are probably not caused by l-C3H+, as was originally suggested. In the search for viable alternative candidate carriers, quartic force fields are employed here to provide highly accurate rotational constants, as well as fundamental vibrational frequencies, for another candidate carrier: 1 1 A' C3H-. The ab initio computed spectroscopic constants provided in this work are, compared to those necessary to define the observed lines, as accurate as the computed spectroscopic constants for many of the known interstellar anions. Additionally, the computed D eff for C3H- is three times closer to the D deduced from the observed Horsehead nebula lines relative to l-C3H+. As a result, 1 1 A' C3H- is a more viable candidate for these observed rotational transitions. It has been previously proposed that at least C6H- may be present in the Horsehead nebular PDR formed by way of radiative attachment through its dipole-bound excited state. C3H- could form in a similar way through its dipole-bound state, but its valence excited state increases the number of relaxation pathways possible to reach the ground electronic state. In turn, the rate of formation for C3H- could be greater than the rate of its destruction. C3H- would be the seventh confirmed interstellar anion detected within the past decade and the first C n H- molecular anion with an odd n.

  5. B lymphocytes and macrophages release cell membrane deposited C3-fragments on exosomes with T cell response-enhancing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Krisztián; Végh, Péter; Prechl, József; Kerekes, Krisztina; Kovács, János; Csikós, György; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna