Sample records for c3 opsonisation increases

  1. C3a Increases VEGF and Decreases PEDF mRNA Levels in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells (United States)

    Long, Qin; Cao, Xiaoguang; Bian, Ailing


    Complement activation, specifically complement 3 (C3) activation and C3a generation, contributes to an imbalance between angiogenic stimulation by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenic inhibition by pigment epithelial derived factor (PEDF), leading to pathological angiogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of C3a and small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting C3 on the levels of VEGF and PEDF mRNAs in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. ARPE-19 cells were cultured in the presence of exogenous C3a at 0.1 μM and 0.3 μM C3a for 24, 48, and 72 hours. 0.1 pmol/μL duplexes of siRNA targeting C3 were applied for C3a inhibition by transfecting ARPE-19 cells for 48 hours. RT-PCR was performed to examine the level of VEGF and PEDF mRNA. A random siRNA duplex was set for control siRNA. Results demonstrated that exogenous C3a significantly upregulated VEGF and downregulated PEDF mRNA levels in cultured ARPE-19 cells, and siRNA targeting C3 transfection reversed the above changes, significantly reducing VEGF and enhancing PEDF mRNAs level in ARPE-19 cells compared to the control. The present data provided evidence that reducing C3 activation can decreases VEGF and increase PEDF mRNA level in RPE and may serve as a potential therapy in pathological angiogenesis.

  2. Complement Receptor 2 is increased in cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients and regulates C3 function. (United States)

    Lindblom, Rickard P F; Aeinehband, Shahin; Ström, Mikael; Al Nimer, Faiez; Sandholm, Kerstin; Khademi, Mohsen; Nilsson, Bo; Piehl, Fredrik; Ekdahl, Kristina N


    Besides its vital role in immunity, the complement system also contributes to the shaping of the synaptic circuitry of the brain. We recently described that soluble Complement Receptor 2 (sCR2) is part of the nerve injury response in rodents. We here study CR2 in context of multiple sclerosis (MS) and explore the molecular effects of CR2 on C3 activation. Significant increases in sCR2 levels were evident in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from both patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n=33; 6.2ng/mL) and secondary-progressive MS (n=9; 7.0ng/mL) as compared to controls (n=18; 4.1ng/mL). Furthermore, CSF sCR2 levels correlated significantly both with CSF C3 and C1q as well as to a disease severity measure. In vitro, sCR2 inhibited the cleavage and down regulation of C3b to iC3b, suggesting that it exerts a modulatory role in complement activation downstream of C3. These results propose a novel function for CR2/sCR2 in human neuroinflammatory conditions.

  3. Polyphenolic drug composition based on benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BP-C3) increases life span and inhibits spontaneous tumorigenesis in female SHR mice (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Yurova, Maria N.; Tyndyk, Margarita L.; Anikin, Ivan V.; Egormin, Peter A.; Baldueva, Irina A.; Fedoros, Elena I.; Pigarev, Sergey E.; Panchenko, Andrey V.


    Effects of long-term application of novel polyphenolic composition BP-C3, containing polyphenolic benzenepolycarboxylic acids, vitamins and minerals on some biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous tumorigenesis has been studied in female SHR mice. Administration of BP-C3 with drinking water (0.005%) did not exert any toxic effect (did not have effect on general condition of animals, weight dynamics and consumption of food), postponed age-related switch-off of estrous function, caused slight reduction of body temperature. An increased survival was observed in mice treated with BP-C3 (p=0.00164, log rank test). BP-C3 increased mean lifespan – by 8.4%, lifespan of the last 10% of animals – by 12.4%, and life span of tumor-free mice – by 11.6%. A tendency in ability of BP-C3 to inhibit development of spontaneous tumors in mice was detected, though it did not reach the level of statistical significance (p=0.166, log rank test). The number of malignant mammary tumors was 1.5 times less and total number of tumors of various localizations was 1.6 times less in BP-C3 treated animals. Multiple tumors were registered in 8% of mice in the control group and no cases – in BP-C3 treated group. Thus, BP-C3 demonstrated some anti-carcinogenic and a pronounced geroprotective activity. PMID:27574962

  4. Targeted complement inhibition by C3d recognition ameliorates tissue injury without apparent increase in susceptibility to infection. (United States)

    Atkinson, Carl; Song, Hongbin; Lu, Bo; Qiao, Fei; Burns, Tara A; Holers, V Michael; Tsokos, George C; Tomlinson, Stephen


    Previous studies indicate a pivotal role for complement in mediating both local and remote injury following ischemia and reperfusion of the intestine. Here, we report on the use of a mouse model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury to investigate the strategy of targeting complement inhibition to sites of complement activation by linking an iC3b/C3dg-binding fragment of mouse complement receptor 2 (CR2) to a mouse complement-inhibitory protein, Crry. We show that the novel CR2-Crry fusion protein targets sites of local and remote (lung) complement activation following intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury and that CR2-Crry requires a 10-fold lower dose than its systemic counterpart, Crry-Ig, to provide equivalent protection from both local and remote injury. CR2-Crry has a significantly shorter serum half-life than Crry-Ig and, unlike Crry-Ig, had no significant effect on serum complement activity at minimum effective therapeutic doses. Furthermore, the minimum effective dose of Crry-Ig significantly enhanced susceptibility to infection in a mouse model of acute septic peritonitis, whereas the effect of CR2-Crry on susceptibility to infection was indistinguishable from that of PBS control. Thus, compared with systemic inhibition, CR2-mediated targeting of a complement inhibitor of activation improved bioavailability, significantly enhanced efficacy, and maintained host resistance to infection.

  5. Gene array analysis of a rat model of liver transplant tolerance identifies increased complement C3 and the STAT-1/IRF-1 pathway during tolerance induction. (United States)

    Cordoba, Shaun P; Wang, Chuanmin; Williams, Rohan; Li, Jian; Smit, Lynn; Sharland, Alexandra; Allen, Richard; McCaughan, Geoffrey; Bishop, Alex


    This study aimed to define the molecular mechanism during induction of spontaneous liver transplant tolerance using microarrays and to focus on molecular pathways associated with tolerance by meta-analysis with published studies. The differences in the early immune response between PVG to DA liver transplant recipients that are spontaneously tolerant (TOL) and PVG to Lewis liver transplants that reject (REJ) were examined. Spleens from TOL and REJ on days 1 and 3 were compared by 2 color microarray. Forty-six of 199 genes differentially expressed between TOL and REJ had an immunological function. More immune genes were increased in TOL vs. REJ on day 1, including STAT-1, IRF-1 and complement C3. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results were compared to two published high-throughput studies of rat liver transplant tolerance and showed that C3 was increased in all three models, while STAT-1 and IRF-1 were increased in two models. The early increases in immune genes in TOL confirmed previous reports of an active early immune response in TOL. In conclusion, the increase in STAT-1, IRF-1 and complement component C3 in several models of liver transplant tolerance suggests that the STAT-1/IRF-1 apoptotic pathway and C3 may be involved in the tolerogenic mechanism.

  6. C3 and C4 plant responses to increased temperatures and altered monsoonal precipitation in a cool desert on the Colorado Plateau, USA (United States)

    Wertin, Timothy M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne


    Dryland ecosystems represent >40 % of the terrestrial landscape and support over two billion people; consequently, it is vital to understand how drylands will respond to climatic change. However, while arid and semiarid ecosystems commonly experience extremely hot and dry conditions, our understanding of how further temperature increases or altered precipitation will affect dryland plant communities remains poor. To address this question, we assessed plant physiology and growth at a long-term (7-year) climate experiment on the Colorado Plateau, USA, where the community is a mix of shallow-rooted C3 and C4 grasses and deep-rooted C4 shrubs. The experiment maintained elevated-temperature treatments (+2 or +4 °C) in combination with altered summer monsoonal precipitation (+small frequent precipitation events or +large infrequent events). Increased temperature negatively affected photosynthesis and growth of the C3 and C4 grasses, but effects varied in their timing: +4 °C treatments negatively affected the C3 grass early in the growing season of both years, while the negative effects of temperature on the C4 grass were seen in the +2 and +4 °C treatments, but only during the late growing season of the drier year. Increased summer precipitation did not affect photosynthesis or biomass for any species, either in the year the precipitation was applied or the following year. Although previous research suggests dryland plants, and C4 grasses in particular, may respond positively to elevated temperature, our findings from a cool desert show marked declines in C3 and C4 photosynthesis and growth, with temperature effects dependent on the degree of warming and growing-season precipitation.

  7. Augmentation of Antitumor T-Cell Responses by Increasing APC T-Cell C5a/C3a-C5aR/C3aR Interactions (United States)


    signaling which drives Th1/ Th17 effector cell responses (14). While we described the connection of C3aR/C5aR signaling with the PI-3Kγ- AKT-mTOR...involved in controlling the anti-tumor immune response, i.e. biasing between Th1/ Th17 effector cell vs Treg commitment, but also directly involved in

  8. Increased deposition of C3b on red cells with low CR1 and CD55 in a malaria-endemic region of western Kenya: Implications for the development of severe anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odera Michael M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe anemia due to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of mortality among young children in western Kenya. The factors that lead to the age-specific incidence of this anemia are unknown. Previous studies have shown an age-related expression of red cell complement regulatory proteins, which protect erythrocytes from autologous complement attack and destruction. Our primary objective was to determine whether in a malaria-endemic area red cells with low levels of complement regulatory proteins are at increased risk for complement (C3b deposition in vivo. Secondarily, we studied the relationship between red cell complement regulatory protein levels and hemoglobin levels. Methods Three hundred and forty-two life-long residents of a malaria-holoendemic region of western Kenya were enrolled in a cross-sectional study and stratified by age. We measured red cell C3b, CR1, CD55, and immune complex binding capacity by flow cytometry. Individuals who were positive for malaria were treated and blood was collected when they were free of parasitemia. Analysis of variance was used to identify independent variables associated with the %C3b-positive red cells and the hemoglobin level. Results Individuals between the ages of 6 and 36 months had the lowest red cell CR1, highest %C3b-positive red cells, and highest parasite density. Malaria prevalence also reached its peak within this age group. Among children ≤ 24 months of age the %C3b-positive red cells was usually higher in individuals who were treated for malaria than in uninfected individuals with similarly low red cell CR1 and CD55. The variables that most strongly influenced the %C3b-positive red cells were age, malaria status, and red cell CD55 level. Although it did not reach statistical significance, red cell CR1 was more important than red cell CD55 among individuals treated for malaria. The variables that most strongly influenced the hemoglobin level were age, the %C3b

  9. Human complement component C3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N


    The two common genetic variants of human C3, C3 S and C3 F, were purified and characterized by SDS-PAGE, agarose gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and amino acid analysis. The difference in electrophoretic mobility between the two variants was conserved after purification, and by isoelect...

  10. C3 glomerulopathy: consensus report (United States)

    Pickering, Matthew C; D'Agati, Vivette D; Nester, Carla M; Smith, Richard J; Haas, Mark; Appel, Gerald B; Alpers, Charles E; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bedrosian, Camille; Braun, Michael; Doyle, Mittie; Fakhouri, Fadi; Fervenza, Fernando C; Fogo, Agnes B; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Gale, Daniel P; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Griffin, Gene; Harris, Claire L; Holers, V Michael; Johnson, Sally; Lavin, Peter J; Medjeral-Thomas, Nicholas; Paul Morgan, B; Nast, Cynthia C; Noel, Laure-Hélène; Peters, D Keith; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Servais, Aude; Sethi, Sanjeev; Song, Wen-Chao; Tamburini, Paul; Thurman, Joshua M; Zavros, Michael; Cook, H Terence


    C3 glomerulopathy is a recently introduced pathological entity whose original definition was glomerular pathology characterized by C3 accumulation with absent or scanty immunoglobulin deposition. In August 2012, an invited group of experts (comprising the authors of this document) in renal pathology, nephrology, complement biology, and complement therapeutics met to discuss C3 glomerulopathy in the first C3 Glomerulopathy Meeting. The objectives were to reach a consensus on: the definition of C3 glomerulopathy, appropriate complement investigations that should be performed in these patients, and how complement therapeutics should be explored in the condition. This meeting report represents the current consensus view of the group. PMID:24172683

  11. Photosynthesis of C3, C3-C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2. (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula


    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3-C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l(-1)) and glacial (180 μl l(-1)) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3-C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3-C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3-C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3-C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3-C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments.

  12. Binding of Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme to intact cells. (United States)

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; von Elsner, Leonie; Hagemann, Sandra; Just, Ingo


    C3 from Clostridium botulinum (C3) specifically modifies Rho GTPases RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC by mono-ADP-ribosylation. The confined substrate profile of C3 is the basis for its use as pharmacological tool in cell biology to study cellular functions of Rho GTPases. Although C3 exoenzyme does not possess a cell-binding/-translocation domain, C3 is taken up by intact cells via an unknown mechanism. In the present work, binding of C3 to the hippocampus-derived HT22 cells and J774A.1 macrophages was characterized. C3 bound concentration-dependent to HT22 and J774A.1 cells. Pronase treatment of intact cells significantly reduced both C3 binding and C3 cell entry. Removal of sugar residues by glycosidase F treatment resulted in an increased binding of C3, but a reduced cell entry. To explore the involvement of phosphorylation in the binding process of C3, intact HT22 and J774A.1 cells were pre-treated with vanadate prior to incubation with C3. Inhibition of de-phosphorylation by vanadate resulted in an increased binding of C3. To differentiate between intracellular and extracellular phosphorylation, intact cells were treated with CIP (calf intestine phosphatase) to remove extracellular phosphate residues. The removal of phosphate residues resulted in a strong reduction in binding of C3 to cells. In sum, the C3 membranous binding partner is proteinaceous, and the glycosylation as well as the phosphorylation state is critical for efficient binding of C3.

  13. Downregulation of complement C3 and C3aR expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese women.

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    Abhishek Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central component of the complement system, C3, is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease however the underlying reasons are unknown. In the present study we evaluated gene expression of C3, the cleavage product C3a/C3adesArg and its cognate receptor C3aR in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in women. METHODS: Women (n = 140, 21-69 years, BMI 19.5-79 kg/m2 were evaluated for anthropometric and blood parameters, and adipose tissue gene expression. RESULTS: Subjects were separated into groups (n = 34-36 according to obesity: normal/overweight (≤30 kg/m2, obese I (≤45 kg/m2, obese II (≤51 kg/m2, and obese III (≤80 kg/m2. Overall, while omental expression remained unchanged, subcutaneous C3 and C3aR gene expression decreased with increasing adiposity (2-way ANOVA, p<0.01, with a concomitant decrease in SC/OM ratio (p<0.001. In subcutaneous adipose, both C3 and C3aR expression correlated with apoB, and apoA1 and inversely with waist circumference and blood pressure, while C3aR also correlated with glucose (p<0.05-0.0001. While omental C3aR expression did not correlate with any factor, omental C3 correlated with waist circumference, glucose and apoB (all p<0.05. Further, while plasma C3a/C3adesArg increased and adiponectin decreased with increasing BMI, both correlated (C3a negatively and adiponectin positively with subcutaneous C3 and C3aR expression (p<0.05-0.001 or less. CONCLUSIONS: The obesity-induced down-regulation of complement C3 and C3aR which is specific to subcutaneous adipose tissue, coupled to the strong correlations with multiple anthropometric, plasma and adipokine variables support a potential role for complement in immunometabolism.

  14. Complement C3c as a Biomarker in Heart Failure

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    A. Frey


    Full Text Available Introduction. Experimental data indicates an important role of the innate immune system in cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF. Complement is a central effector pathway of the innate immune system. Animals lacking parts of the complement system are protected from adverse remodeling. Based on these data, we hypothesized that peripheral complement levels could be a good marker for adverse remodeling and prognosis in patients with HF. Methods and Results. Since complement activation converges on the complement factor C3, we measured serum C3c, a stable C3-conversion product, in 197 patients with stable systolic HF. Subgroups with normal and elevated C3c levels were compared. C3c levels were elevated in 17% of the cohort. Patients with elevated C3c levels exhibited a trend to better survival, slightly higher LVEF, and lower NTpro-BNP values in comparison to patients with normal C3c values. No differences were found regarding NYHA functional class. Significantly more patients with elevated C3c had preexisting diabetes. The prevalence of CAD, arterial hypertension, and atrial fibrillation was not increased in patients with elevated C3c. Conclusion. Elevated C3c levels are associated with less adverse remodeling and improved survival in patients with stable systolic heart failure.

  15. The Importance of the C3 Framework (United States)

    Social Education, 2013


    "The C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards will soon be released under the title "The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: State Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and Lead Writer was NCSS member Kathy…

  16. Photosynthesis of C3, C3–C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2 (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E.; Tissue, David T.; Ghannoum, Oula


    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3–C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l–1) and glacial (180 μl l–1) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3–C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3–C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3–C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3–C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3–C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments. PMID:24723409

  17. Complement C3 and High Risk of Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Ina; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne


    BACKGROUND: Complement activation may contribute to venous thromboembolism, including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. We tested the hypothesis that high complement C3 concentrations are associated with high risk of venous thromboembolism in the general population. METHODS: We...... similar for deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism separately. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for venous thromboembolism for a 1-g/L increase in complement C3 was 2.43 (1.74-3.40). CONCLUSIONS: High concentrations of complement C3 were associated with high risk of venous thromboembolism...... included 80 517 individuals without venous thromboembolism from the Copenhagen General Population Study recruited in 2003-2012. Plasma complement C3 concentrations were measured at baseline, and venous thromboembolism (n = 1176) was ascertained through April 2013 in nationwide registries. No individuals...

  18. Photorespiration connects C3 and C4 photosynthesis. (United States)

    Bräutigam, Andrea; Gowik, Udo


    C4 plants evolved independently more than 60 times from C3 ancestors. C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait and its evolution from the ancestral C3 photosynthetic pathway involved the modification of the leaf anatomy and the leaf physiology accompanied by changes in the expression of thousands of genes. Under high temperature, high light, and the current CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, the C4 pathway is more efficient than C3 photosynthesis because it increases the CO2 concentration around the major CO2 fixating enzyme Rubisco. The oxygenase reaction and, accordingly, photorespiration are largely suppressed. In the present review we describe a scenario for C4 evolution that not only includes the avoidance of photorespiration as the major driving force for C4 evolution but also highlights the relevance of changes in the expression of photorespiratory genes in inducing and establishing important phases on the path from C3 to C4.

  19. Anomalous absorption in c-C_3H and c-C_3D radicals (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Shinde, S. V.; Kegel, W. H.; Sedlmayr, E.

    Yamamoto et al. (1987) reported the first detection of the c-C_3H radical in TMC-1 through its transition 2_1 2 rightarrow 1_1 1 at 91.5 GHz. The column density of c-C_3H in TMC-1 was estimated to be 6 times 10^12 cm^-2, which is about one order of magnitude lower than that of the c-C_3H_2 which is ubiquitous in galactic objects. Mangum & Wootten (1990) detected c-C_3H through the transition 1_1 0 rightarrow 1_1 1 at 14.8 GHz in 12 additional galactic objects. The most probable production mechanism of both the c-C_3H and c-C_3H_2 in dark clouds is a common dissociation reaction of the C_3H_3^+ ion (Adams & Smith 1987). Although the c-C_3H is 0.8 eV less stable than its isomer l-C_3H, finding of comparable column densities of both the isomers in TMC-1 suggests that the formation rate for both, c-C_3H and l-C_3H, are of about the same order in the cosmic objects. The existence of a metastable isomer under interstellar conditions is a well known phenomenon in astronomy. The aim of this investigation is a quantitative estimate of relative line intensities under NLTE conditions. For wide ranges of physical parameters, where these molecules may be found, we have solved a set of statistical equilibrium equations coupled with the equations of radiative transfer in an on-the-spot approximation. For c-C_3H, we accounted for 51 energy levels connected by 207 radiative transitions and for c-C_3D, we accounted for 51 energy levels connected by 205 radiative transitions. Our results show that the 3_3 1 rightarrow 3_3 0 transition of c-C_3H and c-C_3D may be found in absorption against the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Furthermore, we found population inversion for the 1_1 0 rightarrow 1_1 1 transition. These findings may be useful in identifying these molecules in other cosmic objects, as well as for the determination of physical parameters in these objects.

  20. The anaphylatoxin C3a downregulates the Th2 response to epicutaneously introduced antigen. (United States)

    Kawamoto, Seiji; Yalcindag, Ali; Laouini, Dhafer; Brodeur, Scott; Bryce, Paul; Lu, Bao; Humbles, Alison A; Oettgen, Hans; Gerard, Craig; Geha, Raif S


    Mechanical injury to the skin results in activation of the complement component C3 and release of the anaphylatoxin C3a. C3a binds to a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, C3aR. We used C3aR(-/-) mice to examine the role of C3a in a mouse model of allergic inflammation induced by epicutaneous sensitization with OVA. C3aR(-/-) mice exhibited an exaggerated Th2 response to epicutaneous but not to intraperitoneal sensitization with OVA, as evidenced by significantly elevated levels of serum OVA-specific IgG1 and significantly increased secretion of the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 by antigen-stimulated splenocytes. Presentation of OVA peptide by C3aR(-/-) APCs caused significantly more IL-4 and IL-5 secretion by T cells from OVA-T cell receptor (OVA-TCR) transgenic mice compared with presentation by WT APCs. C3a inhibited the ability of splenocytes, but not of highly purified T cells, to secrete Th2 cytokines in response to TCR ligation. This inhibition was mediated by IL-12 secreted by APCs in response to C3a. These results suggest that C3a-C3aR interactions inhibit the ability of APCs to drive Th2 cell differentiation in response to epicutaneously introduced antigen and may have important implications for allergic skin diseases.

  1. $C^3$-index: Revisiting Authors' Performance Measure


    Pradhan, Dinesh; Paul, Partha Sarathi; Maheswari, Umesh; Nandi, Subrata; Chakraborty, Tanmoy


    Author performance indices (such as h-index and its variants) fail to resolve ties while ranking authors with low index values (majority in number) which includes the young researchers. In this work we leverage the citations as well as collaboration profile of an author in a novel way using a weighted multi-layered network and propose a variant of page-rank algorithm to obtain a new author performance measure, $C^3$-index. Experiments on a massive publication dataset reveal several interestin...

  2. Biological Control of Bipolaris sorokiniana on Tall Fescue by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain C3. (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Yuen, G Y


    ABSTRACT Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C3 was evaluated for control of leaf spot on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. In growth chamber experiments, C3 inhibited conidial germination on leaf surfaces and reduced lesion frequency and percent diseased leaf area compared with nontreated controls. The amount of leaf spot suppression was related to the C3 dose applied. The highest dose tested, 10(9) CFU/ml, prevented nearly all B. sorokiniana conidia from germinating on treated leaf surfaces and provided nearly complete suppression of lesion development. When colloidal chitin was added to C3 cell suspensions of 10(7) or 10(8) CFU/ml, biocontrol efficacy was significantly increased over C3 applied alone, whereas addition of chitin to a C3 cell suspension of 10(9) CFU/ml had no effect. In field experiments, application of C3 to tall fescue turf resulted in significant reductions in infection frequency and disease severity compared with nontreated controls. Strain C3 applied at 10(9) CFU/ml was more effective than C3 applied at 10(7) CFU/ml, and amendment of the lower dose with colloidal chitin enhanced its efficacy. Populations sizes of C3 established on foliage in a growth chamber and in the field were directly related to dose applied. Chitin amendments did not affect C3 population size.

  3. Improvement of g-C3N4 photocatalytic properties using the Hummers method. (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Chen, Tingting; Liu, Shenna; Zhou, Qihang; Ren, Yueming; Lv, Yanzhuo; Fan, Zhuangjun


    In this study, graphitic C3N4 (g-C3N4) with high photocatalytic properties to methylene blue (MB) was synthesized by treating the bulk g-C3N4 using the Hummers method. The bulk g-C3N4 was obtained by calcining dicyandiamide. The g-C3N4 treated by the Hummers method (E-g-C3N4) was characterized and utilized for the photocatalytic removal of MB. The results showed that the Hummers treatment exfoliated the nanosheets bulk g-C3N4 into nanorods and improved the dispersion of E-g-C3N4 in an aqueous solution. It also distinctly enhanced the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 to MB, i.e., the removal efficiency increased from 38.45% for the bulk g-C3N4 to 96.61% for the E-g-C3N4.

  4. Efficacy of Targeted Complement Inhibition in Experimental C3 Glomerulopathy (United States)

    Ruseva, Marieta M.; Peng, Tao; Lasaro, Melissa A.; Bouchard, Keith; Liu-Chen, Susan; Sun, Fang; Yu, Zhao-Xue; Marozsan, Andre; Wang, Yi


    C3 glomerulopathy refers to renal disorders characterized by abnormal accumulation of C3 within the kidney, commonly along the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). C3 glomerulopathy is associated with complement alternative pathway dysregulation, which includes functional defects in complement regulator factor H (FH). There is no effective treatment for C3 glomerulopathy. We investigated the efficacy of a recombinant mouse protein composed of domains from complement receptor 2 (CR2) and FH (CR2-FH) in two models of C3 glomerulopathy with either preexisting or triggered C3 deposition along the GBM. FH-deficient mice spontaneously develop renal pathology associated with abnormal C3 accumulation along the GBM and secondary plasma C3 deficiency. CR2-FH partially restored plasma C3 levels in FH-deficient mice 2 hours after intravenous injection. CR2-FH specifically targeted glomerular C3 deposits, reduced the linear C3 reactivity assessed with anti-C3 and anti-C3b/iC3b/C3c antibodies, and prevented further spontaneous accumulation of C3 fragments along the GBM. Reduction in glomerular C3d and C9/C5b-9 reactivity was observed after daily administration of CR2-FH for 1 week. In a second mouse model with combined deficiency of FH and complement factor I, CR2-FH prevented de novo C3 deposition along the GBM. These data show that CR2-FH protects the GBM from both spontaneous and triggered C3 deposition in vivo and indicate that this approach should be tested in C3 glomerulopathy. PMID:26047789

  5. C3: A comprehensive physician activity and billing tool (United States)

    Hirschl; Sikina; Keller; Kastle; McConnell; Greenfield; Plachta


    Purpose: The Clinical Charge Capture system (C3) was developed at the University of Michigan to increase the efficiency and accuracy with which information about physician activity and billing is tracked in academic medical centers. Description: This Oracle-based, Visual Basic system integrates the operating room scheduling system, transcription database, clinical data repository, referring physician database, and IDX to allow physicians and staff to perform paperless and on-line standard tasks such as preauthorizing procedures; creating a bill which describes the charges for procedures performed along with their supporting diagnoses; identifying inpatient daily care and consult charges; dictating, editing, signing, and providing attestations for procedural and inpatient notes (menu-driven boilerplate notes are used for common procedures); submitting of charges on-line to IDX; and downloading of payment data from IDX. A messaging system between physicians and billing specialists allows questions to be posed regarding coding issues and options. Summary information about charges is presented and the status of the bill as it progresses through the internal review and billing process is demonstrated. Any missing data are flagged such that delivery of a bill is accurate, timely, and complete. Outpatient clinic visit charges are acquired on line using bar code technology with direct download of clinic charges to IDX. Generation of charges and referral letters may be performed immediately following the performance of a procedure or patient encounter or subsequently in the office. Resident activity is also tracked. Finally, search functions are provided which allow the program to serve as a clinical information research database. Results: The time to bill submission for operative procedures in fiscal year 1996 (Pre-C3) when compared to 1999 (Post-C3) decreased in each individual surgical division (See figure)as well as for the overall Department (Total: mean Pre-C3=40 days

  6. Panicum milioides (C(3)-C(4)) does not have improved water or nitrogen economies relative to C(3) and C(4) congeners exposed to industrial-age climate change. (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula


    The physiological implications of C(3)-C(4) photosynthesis were investigated using closely related Panicum species exposed to industrial-age climate change. Panicum bisulcatum (C(3)), P. milioides (C(3)-C(4)), and P. coloratum (C(4)) were grown in a glasshouse at three CO(2) concentrations ([CO(2)]: 280, 400, and 650 μl l(-1)) and two air temperatures [ambient (27/19 °C day/night) and ambient + 4 °C] for 12 weeks. Under current ambient [CO(2)] and temperature, the C(3)-C(4) species had higher photosynthetic rates and lower stomatal limitation and electron cost of photosynthesis relative to the C(3) species. These photosynthetic advantages did not improve leaf- or plant-level water (WUE) or nitrogen (NUE) use efficiencies of the C(3)-C(4) relative to the C(3) Panicum species. In contrast, the C(4) species had higher photosynthetic rates and WUE but similar NUE to the C(3) species. Increasing [CO(2)] mainly stimulated photosynthesis of the C(3) and C(3)-C(4) species, while high temperature had no or negative effects on photosynthesis of the Panicum species. Under ambient temperature, increasing [CO(2)] enhanced the biomass of the C(3) species only. Under high temperature, increasing [CO(2)] enhanced the biomass of the C(3) and C(3)-C(4) species to the same extent, indicating increased CO(2) limitation in the C(3)-C(4) intermediate at high temperature. Growth [CO(2)] and temperature had complex interactive effects, but did not alter the ranking of key physiological parameters amongst the Panicum species. In conclusion, the ability of C(3)-C(4) intermediate species partially to recycle photorespired CO(2) did not improve WUE or NUE relative to congeneric C(3) or C(4) species grown under varying [CO(2)] and temperature conditions.

  7. Hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated immunologic control of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hair Pamela S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients are at increased risk for bacterial infections; these studies provide new insight into the role of the host defense complement system in controlling bacterial pathogens in hyperglycemic environments. Methods The interactions of complement C3 with bacteria in elevated glucose were assayed for complement activation to opsonic forms, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. C3 was analyzed in euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions by mass spectrometry to measure glycation and structural differences. Results Elevated glucose inhibited S. aureus activation of C3 and deposition of C3b and iC3b on the bacterial surface. S. aureus-generated C5a and serum-mediated phagocytosis by neutrophils were both decreased in elevated glucose conditions. Interestingly, elevated glucose increased the binding of unactivated C3 to S. aureus, which was reversible on return to normal glucose concentrations. In a model of polymicrobial infection, S. aureus in elevated glucose conditions depleted C3 from serum resulting in decreased complement-mediated killing of E. coli. To investigate the effect of differing glucose concentration on C3 structure and glycation, purified C3 incubated with varying glucose concentrations was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Glycation was limited to the same three lysine residues in both euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions over one hour, thus glycation could not account for observed changes between glucose conditions. However, surface labeling of C3 with sulfo-NHS-biotin showed significant changes in the surface availability of seven lysine residues in response to increasing glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the tertiary structure of C3 changes in response to hyperglycemic conditions leading to an altered interaction of C3 with bacterial pathogens. Conclusions These results demonstrate that hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated complement effectors important in the immunological

  8. Anomalous Absorption in Cyclic C$_3$H Radical

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, S; Chandra, Suresh


    Yamamoto et al. (1987) reported the first detection of $c$-C$_3$H radical in {TMC-1} through its transition $2_{1 2} \\to 1_{1 1}$ at 91.5 GHz. Mangum and Wootten (1990) detected $c$-C$_3$H through the transition $1_{1 0} \\to 1_{1 1}$ at 14.8 GHz in 12 additional galactic objects. The column density of $c$-C$_3$H in the objects was estimated to be about one order of magnitude lower than that of the C$_3$H$_2$ which is ubiquitous in the galactic objects. The most probable production mechanism of both the C$_3$H and C$_3$H$_2$ in dark clouds is a common dissociation reaction of C$_3$H$_3^+$ ion (Adams & Smith, 1987). Although the $c$-C$_3$H is 0.8 eV less stable than its isomer $l$-C$_3$H, finding of comparable column densities of both the isomers in {TMC-1} supports the idea of comparable formation of both the $c$-C$_3$H and $l$-C$_3$H in the cosmic objects. Existence of a metaisomer in interstellar condition is a well known phenomenon in astronomy. We propose that $c$-C$_3$H may be identified through the t...

  9. Defining the complement biomarker profile of c3 glomerulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuzhou; Nester, Carla M; Martin, Bertha;


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) applies to a group of renal diseases defined by a specific renal biopsy finding: a dominant pattern of C3 fragment deposition on immunofluorescence. The primary pathogenic mechanism involves abnormal control of the alternative complement pathway...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-3 - Employees. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employees. 1.1402(c)-3 Section 1.1402(c)-3...) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-3 Employees. (a) General rule. Generally, the performance of service by an individual as an employee, as defined in the Federal Insurance Contributions...

  11. Generation of a C3c specific monoclonal antibody and assessment of C3c as a putative inflammatory marker derived from complement factor C3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palarasah, Yaseelan; Skjodt, Karsten; Brandt, Jette;


    complex (C5b-C9) and quantification of complement split products by precipitation-in-gel techniques (e.g. C3d). We have developed a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) that is able to detect fluid phase C3c without interference from other products generated from the complement component C3. The C3c specific m......Ab was tested in different ELISA combinations with various types of in vitro activated sera and with plasma or serum samples from factor I deficient patients. The specificity of the mAb was evaluated in immunoprecipitation techniques and by analysis of eluted fragments of C3 after immunoaffinity chromatography...

  12. The C3-bending vibrational levels of the C3-Kr and C3-Xe van der Waals complexes studied by their Ã-X̃ electronic transitions and by ab initio calculations. (United States)

    Chao, Jun-Mei; Tham, Keng Seng; Zhang, Guiqiu; Merer, Anthony J; Hsu, Yen-Chu; Hu, Wei-Ping


    Fluorescence excitation spectra and wavelength-resolved emission spectra of the C(3)-Kr and C(3)-Xe van der Waals (vdW) complexes have been recorded near the 2(2-)(0), 2(2+)(0), 2(4-)(0), and 1(1)(0) bands of the Ã(1)Π(u)-X̃(1)Σ(g)(+) system of the C(3) molecule. In the excitation spectra, the spectral features of the two complexes are red-shifted relative to those of free C(3) by 21.9-38.2 and 34.3-36.1 cm(-1), respectively. The emission spectra from the à state of the Kr complex consist of progressions in the two C(3)-bending vibrations (ν(2), ν(4)), the vdW stretching (ν(3)), and bending vibrations (ν(6)), suggesting that the equilibrium geometry in the X̃ state is nonlinear. As in the Ar complex [Zhang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 120, 3189 (2004)], the C(3)-bending vibrational levels of the Kr complex shift progressively to lower energy with respect to those of free C(3) as the bending quantum number increases. Their vibrational structures could be modeled as perturbed harmonic oscillators, with the dipole-induced dipole terms of the Ar and Kr complexes scaled roughly by the polarizabilities of the Ar and Kr atoms. Emission spectra of the Xe complex, excited near the Ã, 2(2-) level of free C(3), consist only of progressions in even quanta of the C(3)-bending and vdW modes, implying that the geometry in the higher vibrational levels (υ(bend) ≥ 4, E(vib) ≥ 328 cm(-1)) of the X̃ state is (vibrationally averaged) linear. In this structure the Xe atom bonds to one of the terminal carbons nearly along the inertial a-axis of bent C(3). Our ab initio calculations of the Xe complex at the level of CCSD(T)∕aug-cc-pVTZ (C) and aug-cc-pVTZ-PP (Xe) predict that its equilibrium geometry is T-shaped (as in the Ar and Kr complexes), and also support the assignment of a stable linear isomer when the amplitude of the C(3) bending vibration is large (υ(4) ≥ 4).

  13. CO2 enrichment inhibits shoot nitrate assimilation in C3 but not C4 plants and slows growth under nitrate in C3 plants. (United States)

    Bloom, Arnold J; Asensio, Jose Salvador Rubaio; Randall, Lesley; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cousins, Asaph B; Carlisle, Eli A


    The CO2 concentration in Earth's atmosphere may double during this century. Plant responses to such an increase depend strongly on their nitrogen status, but the reasons have been uncertain. Here, we assessed shoot nitrate assimilation into amino acids via the shift in shoot CO2 and O2 fluxes when plants received nitrate instead of ammonium as a nitrogen source (deltaAQ). Shoot nitrate assimilation became negligible with increasing CO2 in a taxonomically diverse group of eight C3 plant species, was relatively insensitive to CO2 in three C4 species, and showed an intermediate sensitivity in two C3-C4 intermediate species. We then examined the influence of CO2 level and ammonium vs. nitrate nutrition on growth, assessed in terms of changes in fresh mass, of several C3 species and a Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. Elevated CO2 (720 micromol CO2/mol of all gases present) stimulated growth or had no effect in the five C3 species tested when they received ammonium as a nitrogen source but inhibited growth or had no effect if they received nitrate. Under nitrate, two C3 species grew faster at sub-ambient (approximately 310 micromol/mol) than elevated CO2. A CAM species grew faster at ambient than elevated or sub-ambient CO2 under either ammonium or nitrate nutrition. This study establishes that CO2 enrichment inhibits shoot nitrate assimilation in a wide variety of C3 plants and that this phenomenon can have a profound effect on their growth. This indicates that shoot nitrate assimilation provides an important contribution to the nitrate assimilation of an entire C3 plant. Thus, rising CO2 and its effects on shoot nitrate assimilation may influence the distribution of C3 plant species.

  14. Enhancement of photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activity of Ag modified Mpg-C3N4 composites (United States)

    He, Qiuchen; Zhou, Feng; Zhan, Su; Yang, Yifan; Liu, Yujun; Tian, Yu; Huang, Naibao


    In this study, mpg-C3N4/Ag composites of surface plasmon resonance structures were fabricated to improve the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities of g-C3N4 via photo-assisted reduction method, which were characterized by XRD, EDS, XPS, FT-IR, FE-SEM, TEM, DRS and BET. The photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and the oxygen reduction experiment under visible light. The results showed the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities were dependent on the weight ratio of Ag and the optimum photocatalytic activity of mpg-C3N4/Ag at a weight ratio of 3% is almost 3 times as high as that of mpg-C3N4. Additionally, mpg-C3N4/Ag exhibited a significantly enhanced oxygen reduction performance under visible light. The limit current density was increased about 2 times by the modification of Ag nanoparticles, compared with that of pristine mpg-C3N4. Finally, based on the first principle, the enhancement mechanism of the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities was discussed by the calculation on the band structure and density of states in the mpg-C3N4/Ag composites. The appropriate amount of Ag modification would cause the surface plasmon resonance effect, which improved the photocatalytic, photoelectrocatalytic, and oxygen reduction activities of mpg-C3N4.

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of AL-AL4C3 Nanocomposite by Mechanical Alloying (United States)

    Mohammad Sharifi, E.; Enayati, M. H.; Karimzadeh, F.

    Aluminum carbide (Al4C3) seems to be an ideal reinforcement for producing aluminum matrix composites. Al4C3 has high hardness and shear strength as well as a high melting point. The dispersion of Al4C3 particles in the matrix produces a pinning effect that reduces aluminum grain growth, which improves the mechanical properties. In this study, aluminum powders were mixed with 4.5 wt.% graphite and mechanically alloyed using a high-energy ball mill in order to produce Al-Al4C3 nanocomposite. The structural evaluation of powder particles after different milling times was studied by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. The aluminum crystallite size estimated with broadening of XRD peaks by Williamson-Hall formula. XRD results suggested that the grain size of aluminum decreased to nanometer range (30 nm) during ball milling. No Al4C3 formed during the mechanical alloying process. Milled powders were then annealed at 300-600 °C for 1 h under argon atmosphere. Annealing at temperatures higher than 300 °C led to formation of Al4C3 phase which increased as annealing temperature increased. Aluminum grain size remained in nanometer range after annealing process. The microhardness of powder particles increased after annealing. Both effects are due to the formation of nanosized Al4C3 particles.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus proteins Sbi and Efb recruit human plasmin to degrade complement C3 and C3b.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina K Koch

    Full Text Available Upon host infection, the human pathogenic microbe Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus immediately faces innate immune reactions such as the activated complement system. Here, a novel innate immune evasion strategy of S. aureus is described. The staphylococcal proteins surface immunoglobulin-binding protein (Sbi and extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb bind C3/C3b simultaneously with plasminogen. Bound plasminogen is converted by bacterial activator staphylokinase or by host-specific urokinase-type plasminogen activator to plasmin, which in turn leads to degradation of complement C3 and C3b. Efb and to a lesser extend Sbi enhance plasmin cleavage of C3/C3b, an effect which is explained by a conformational change in C3/C3b induced by Sbi and Efb. Furthermore, bound plasmin also degrades C3a, which exerts anaphylatoxic and antimicrobial activities. Thus, S. aureus Sbi and Efb comprise platforms to recruit plasmin(ogen together with C3 and its activation product C3b for efficient degradation of these complement components in the local microbial environment and to protect S. aureus from host innate immune reactions.

  17. Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, B.; Martensson, U.; Weintraub, A.;


    Lectin pathway activation of C3 is known to involve target recognition by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins and generation of classical pathway C3 convertase via cleavage of C4 and C2 by MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2). We investigated C3 activation in C2-deficient human sera...... and in sera with other defined defects of complement to assess other mechanisms through which MBL might recruit complement. The capacity of serum to support C3 deposition was examined by ELISA using microtiter plates coated with O antigen-specific oligosaccharides derived from Salmonella typhimurium, S...

  18. Synthesis and propagation of complement C3 by microglia/monocytes in the aging retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Rutar

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complement activation is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, which may be mediated in part by para-inflammatory processes. We aimed to investigate the expression and localization of C3, a crucial component of the complement system, in the retina during the course of aging. METHODS: SD rats were born and reared in low-light conditions, and euthanized at post-natal (P days 100, 450, or 750. Expression of C3, IBA1, and Ccl- and Cxcl- chemokines was assessed by qPCR, and in situ hybridization. Thickness of the ONL was assessed in retinal sections as a measure of photoreceptor loss, and counts were made of C3-expressing monocytes. RESULTS: C3 expression increased significantly at P750, and correlated with thinning of the ONL, at P750, and up-regulation of GFAP. In situ hybridization showed that C3 was expressed by microglia/monocytes, mainly from within the retinal vasculature, and occasionally the ONL. The number of C3-expressing microglia increased significantly by P750, and coincided spatiotemporally with thinning of the ONL, and up-regulation of Ccl- and Cxcl- chemokines. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that recruited microglia/monocytes contribute to activation of complement in the aging retina, through local expression of C3 mRNA. C3 expression coincides with age-related thinning of the ONL at P750, although it is unclear whether the C3-expressing monocytes are a cause or consequence. These findings provide evidence of activation of complement during natural aging, and may have relevance to cellular events underling the pathogenesis of age-related retinal diseases.

  19. In Situ Localization of C3 Synthesis in Experimental Acute Renal Allograft Rejection



    Recent evidence has implicated complement in renal transplant injury and identified the kidney as a source of complement components. We therefore investigated the local gene expression of complement component C3, pivotal to complement activation pathways and a mediator of inflammatory injury, in a rat renal transplant model. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, the expression of C3 mRNA increased in two phases. The first phase coincided with post-ischemic injury over 2 days pos...

  20. 12 CFR 563c.3 - Qualification of public accountant. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification of public accountant. 563c.3... REQUIREMENTS Form and Content of Financial Statements § 563c.3 Qualification of public accountant. (See also 17 CFR 210.2-01.) The term “qualified public accountant” means a certified public accountant or...

  1. A New Superhard Phase of C3N2 Polymorphs (United States)

    Wei, Qun; Zhang, Meiguang; Yan, Haiyan; Li, Renxian; Zhu, Xuanmin; Lin, Zhengzhe; Yao, Ronghui


    Carbon nitrides are excellent candidates for extreme hardness materials. In this work, a new I4̅3m phase of C3N2 has been uncovered by replacing part of the nitrogen atoms in the cagelike diamondoid nitrogen N10 with carbon atoms. This phase is mechanically and dynamically stable up to at least 50 GPa. The elastic anisotropy of I4̅3m-C3N2 is investigated by comparing with previously proposed α-C3N2. The tensile directional dependence of Young's modulus obeys the following trend: E[111]>E[110]>E[100]. Electronic structure calculations reveal that I4̅3m-C3N2 is hole conducting. Hardness calculation shows that the I4̅3m-C3N2 is superhard with a hardness of 72.9 GPa.

  2. The complement C3 protein family in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nonaka


    Full Text Available Complement C3 plays a pivotal role in the innate immune system of mammals as the central component of the complement system essential for its activation mechanism and effecter function. C3 has a unique intra-chain thioester bond that is shared by some complement and non-complement proteins forming a thioester protein (TEP family. Phylogenetic analysis of TEP family genes of vertebrates and invertebrates revealed that the TEP family is divided into two subfamilies, the C3 subfamily and the alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M subfamily. The establishment of the TEP genes and differentiation of them into the C3 and A2M subfamilies occurred prior to the divergence of Cnidaria and Bilateria, in a common ancestor of Eumetazoa more than 600 MYA. Since then the A2M subfamily has been retained by all metazoan lineages analyzed thus far. In contrast, the C3 subfamily has been retained only by deuterostomes and some protostomes, and has been lost in multiple protostome lineages. Although the direct functional analysis of the most invertebrate TEPs is still to be performed, conservation of the basic domain structure and functionally important residues for each molecule suggests that the basic function is also conserved. Functional analyses performed on a few invertebrate C3 support this conclusion. The gene duplication events that generated C4 and C5 from C3 occurred in a common ancestor of jawed vertebrates, indicating that invertebrate and cyclostome C3s represent the pre-duplication state. In addition to C3, complement Bf and MASP involved in the activation of C3 are also identified in Cnidaria and some invertebrates, indicating that the complement system is one of the most ancient innate immune systems of Eumetazoa.

  3. Stereochemistry analysis and comparison of two C(3)-alkyl substituted cyclohexonedicarboxylates with their C(3)-aryl substituted analogues (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Yue; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Bing-Long; Zhao, Wen-Jie; Hu, Jin-Song


    Two representative C(3)-alkyl substituted cyclohexonedicarboxylates (4a and 4b) were synthesized and their conformational features were investigated by single crystal X-ray crystallography for the first time. These stereochemistry results of 4a and 4b were compared with those obtained from the earlier research of C(3)-aryl substituted analogues (1-3).

  4. Calculation of the C3A Percentage in High Sulfur Clinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Horkoss


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the influence of the clinker SO3 on the amount of C3A. The calculation of the cement phases percentages is based on the research work, Calculation of the Compounds in Portland Cement, published by Bogue in 1929 .The usage of high sulphur fuels, industrial wastes, and tires changes completely the working condition of Bogue because the assumed phase compositions may change. The results prove that increasing the amount of SO3 in the low alkali clinker decreases the percentages of C3A due to the high incorporation of alumina in the clinker phases mainly C2S and C3S. The correlation is linear till the clinker SO3 reaches the 2%. Over that the influence of the clinker SO3 became undetectable. A new calculation method for the determination of the C3A in the high sulphur and low alkali clinker was proposed.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of C3N4 hard films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾有松; 张永平; 常香荣; 田中卓; 陈难先; 时东霞; 张秀芳; 袁磊


    C3N4 films have been synthesized on both Si and R substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. X-ray spectra were calculated for single phase α-C3N4 and p-C3N4 respectively. The experimental X-ray spectra of films deposited on both Si and R substrates showed all the strong peaks of α-C3N4 and β-C3N4 so the films are mixtures of α-C3N4 and β-C3N4. The N/C atomic ratio is in the range of 1.0-2.0. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the binding energy of C 1s and N 1s are 286.2 eV and 399.5 eV respectively, corresponding to polarized C-N bond. Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR) and Raman spectra support the existence of C-N covalent bond in the films. Nano-indentation hardness tests showed that the bulk modulus of a film deposited on R is up to 349 GPa.

  6. Planed defects in (Cr,Fe)7C3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The characteristics of planed defects in (Cr,Fe)7C3 in a chromium steel and two kinds of cast alloys have been delineated.Combining matrix analysis of electron diffraction pattern with calculated angle between planed detect traces and using compound reciprocal space composed of matrix cell and two rotative cells,the [011] and [013] planed defects in (Cr,Fe)-C3 have been determined in an all-round way.A crystallographic model for (Cr.Fe)2C3 has been proposed.

  7. The Influence of C3A Content in Cement on the Chloride Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kim


    Full Text Available The present study concerns the influence of C3A in cement on chloride transport in reinforced concrete. Three modified cement was manufactured in the variation of the C3A content, ranging from 6.0 and 10.5 up to 16.9%. The setting time of fresh concrete was measured immediately after mixing, together with the temperature at the time of initial set. For properties of hardened concrete in the variation in the C3A, a development of the compressive strength and chloride permeation were measured using mortar specimens. Simultaneously, chloride binding capacity was measured by the water extraction method. To ensure the influence of pore structure on chloride transport, the pore structure was examined by the mercury intrusion porosimetry. As a result, it was found that an increase in the C3A content resulted in an increase in chloride binding capacity. However, it seemed that increased binding of chlorides is related to the higher ingress of chlorides, despite denser pore structure. It may be attributed to the higher surface chloride, which could increase the gradient of chloride concentration from the surface, thereby leading to the higher level of chloride profiles. Substantially, the benefit of high C3A in resisting corrosion, arising from removal of free chlorides in the pore solution, would be offset by increased chloride ingress at a given duration, when it comes to the corrosion-free service life.

  8. Enhancing C3 photosynthesis: an outlook on feasible interventions for crop improvement. (United States)

    Singh, Jitender; Pandey, Prachi; James, Donald; Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Achary, V Mohan Murali; Kaul, Tanushri; Tripathy, Baishnab C; Reddy, Malireddy K


    Despite the declarations and collective measures taken to eradicate hunger at World Food Summits, food security remains one of the biggest issues that we are faced with. The current scenario could worsen due to the alarming increase in world population, further compounded by adverse climatic conditions, such as increase in atmospheric temperature, unforeseen droughts and decreasing soil moisture, which will decrease crop yield even further. Furthermore, the projected increase in yields of C3 crops as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is much less than anticipated. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase crop productivity beyond existing yield potentials to address the challenge of food security. One of the domains of plant biology that promises hope in overcoming this problem is study of C3 photosynthesis. In this review, we have examined the potential bottlenecks of C3 photosynthesis and the strategies undertaken to overcome them. The targets considered for possible intervention include RuBisCO, RuBisCO activase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle enzymes, CO2 and carbohydrate transport, and light reactions among many others. In addition, other areas which promise scope for improvement of C3 photosynthesis, such as mining natural genetic variations, mathematical modelling for identifying new targets, installing efficient carbon fixation and carbon concentrating mechanisms have been touched upon. Briefly, this review intends to shed light on the recent advances in enhancing C3 photosynthesis for crop improvement.

  9. Development of a C3 generic workstation: System overview (United States)

    Strome, David R.


    A command, control, and communications (C3) environment is described which will be applied to the evaluation of performance of aircrews, particularly in situations in which they are subjected to chemical defense protection drugs and antihistamines.

  10. The interstellar chemistry of H2C3O isomers (United States)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Marcelino, Núria; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M.; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne; Roueff, Evelyne; Guélin, Michel


    We present the detection of two H2C3O isomers, propynal and cyclopropenone, toward various starless cores and molecular clouds, together with upper limits for the third isomer propadienone. We review the processes controlling the abundances of H2C3O isomers in interstellar media showing that the reactions involved are gas-phase ones. We show that the abundances of these species are controlled by kinetic rather than thermodynamic effects. PMID:27013768

  11. De novo C3 glomerulonephritis in a renal allograft. (United States)

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Song, Seung Hwan; Kim, Yu Seun; Cheong, Hae-Il; Lim, Beom Jin; Kim, Beom Seok; Jeong, Hyeon Joo


    C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) is a recently described, rare glomerular disease characterized by predominant or sole glomerular C3 deposits. Morphologic features of C3GN are similar to those of dense deposit disease (DDD); however, ribbon-like intramembranous electron-dense deposits are absent in the former. We report a case of de novo C3GN in a renal allograft with morphologic transformation to DDD. A 6-year-old boy presented with congenital left renal agenesis and right ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The patient underwent pyeloplasty but experienced recurrent urinary tract infections. At the age of 22 years, he received a renal allograft from a living related donor. C3GN was diagnosed after 1 year of transplantation; initial histology showed minimal mesangiopathy and this progressed to mesangial proliferation and membranoproliferative features over the next 7 years. Serum creatinine levels were stabilized with anti-rejection treatments for combating repeated episodes of acute rejection; however, glomerular and tubular band-like electron-dense deposits became evident.

  12. Boron doped g-C3N4 with enhanced photocatalytic UO22+ reduction performance (United States)

    Lu, Changhai; Chen, Rongyue; Wu, Xi; Fan, Meifeng; Liu, Yunhai; Le, Zhanggao; Jiang, Shujuan; Song, Shaoqing


    Tuning the band gap and absorption intensity of visible-light by element doping is an attractive strategy to enhance the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor materials. Here we doped boron into g-C3N4 to construct highly efficient photocatalysts (B-g-C3N4) for the photocatalytic reduction of UO22+. Characterization and photocatalysis tests showed the band gap of B-g-C3N4 was narrowed, and the absorption intensity of visible-light was enhanced with increasing the formed N-B-C (BCN) of B-g-C3N4, which is consistent with the trend of the photocatalytic performance of B-g-C3N4. The optimized B-g-C3N4 photocatalyst with BCN content of 1.01 at.% exhibited excellent removal efficiency of UO22+ and good photocatalytic stability. Therefore, these results may lead to a new strategy for exploring the advanced photocatalysts based on the carbon nanomaterials with abundant BCN for the photocatalytic reduction of U(VI) pollutant.

  13. Complement C3 deficiency attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

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    Eileen M Bauer

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests a role of both innate and adaptive immunity in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The complement system is a key sentry of the innate immune system and bridges innate and adaptive immunity. To date there are no studies addressing a role for the complement system in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Immunofluorescent staining revealed significant C3d deposition in lung sections from IPAH patients and C57Bl6/J wild-type mice exposed to three weeks of chronic hypoxia to induce pulmonary hypertension. Right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy were increased in hypoxic vs. normoxic wild-type mice, which were attenuated in C3-/- hypoxic mice. Likewise, pulmonary vascular remodeling was attenuated in the C3-/- mice compared to wild-type mice as determined by the number of muscularized peripheral arterioles and morphometric analysis of vessel wall thickness. The loss of C3 attenuated the increase in interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in response to chronic hypoxia, but not endothelin-1 levels. In wild-type mice, but not C3-/- mice, chronic hypoxia led to platelet activation as assessed by bleeding time, and flow cytometry of platelets to determine cell surface P-selectin expression. In addition, tissue factor expression and fibrin deposition were increased in the lungs of WT mice in response to chronic hypoxia. These pro-thrombotic effects of hypoxia were abrogated in C3-/- mice.Herein, we provide compelling genetic evidence that the complement system plays a pathophysiologic role in the development of PAH in mice, promoting pulmonary vascular remodeling and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. In addition we demonstrate C3d deposition in IPAH patients suggesting that complement activation plays a role in the development of PAH in humans.

  14. Evaluation of Serum Complement C3 and C4 Levels as biomarkers for Systemic Lupus Erythromatosus

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    Fayez Muhammad Shaldoum*, Yousra Refaey Abdo Mohammed, Naglaa Mohamed El Wakeel and Abeer Saad Gawish


    .Conclusions: Patients showed different degrees of oral and systemic manifestations, which exacerbate and become acute with decreased level of complement C4 and instability of C3 level. Accordingly, the low level of C4 was associated with the development and exacerbation of SLE. Increased C3 levels is solely due to activity through the alternative pathway in SLE patients

  15. Al4C3 Hydration Thermochemical Analysis for Burned Carbon-containing Refractories with Al

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ding'ao; YU Zhiming; FAN Liuwu


    In this paper, X-ray diffractogram analysis and SEM observation of Al4 C3 formed at high temperature from carbon-containing refractories with Al have been carried out.Aluminum added to carbon-containing refractories reacts with C(s)to form Al4 C3(s) gradually during heating from 600 ℃ to 1200℃.It is considered that the interlocked structure of Al4 C3 plate crystals promotes the outstanding increase of hot modulus of rupture of carbon-containing refractories with Al. The HMOR of carbon-containing refractories added with Al additive from 0 to 5wt% increases by 2.8 times being from 6.5MPa to 18.2MPa.After a thermochemical calculation for hydration reaction processes of Al4 C3 and H2O(g), the equilibrium partial pressure chart of H2O(g)in H2O-Al4C3-Al(OH)3 system vs various temperatures has been attained . The H2O (g) partial pressure in the air needed for the Al4 C3 hydration reaction is no more than 10~18 atm at the temperature below 120℃.It is considered that the burned carbon-containing refractories with Al is extremely easy to hydrate and the cracking of burned carbon-containing refractories is generated because that the hydration expansion is 2.11 times during transforming from Al4 C3 to Al(OH)3.The fundamental measure against hydration of the refractories is to insulate the refractories from H2O(g)by various means such as pitch impregnation or other sealing materials.

  16. Human plasma complement C3 is independently associated with coronary heart disease, but only in heavy smokers (the CODAM study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Jacobs, M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Blaak, E.E.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.


    Background - Complement C3 is an emerging risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and is particularly increased in the metabolic syndrome. A direct effect of smoking on structure and function of complement C3 has been suggested. Hypothesis - Smoking behavior may affect the cardiovascular risk t

  17. Atypical Plasmacytic Proliferation in a Case of C3 Glomerulopathy (United States)

    Elfituri, Osama; Aardsma, Nathan; Setty, Suman; Behm, Frederick; Czech, Kimberly


    An 11-year-old Hispanic female underwent evaluation of asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. The patient denied fever, edema, and gross hematuria. Urinalysis showed mild proteinuria, and a urine microscopic examination revealed red blood cells. Screening tests for glomerulonephritis revealed a low C3 and negative ANA, ASO, DNAse-B, and ANCA. Histological examination of a renal biopsy specimen showed glomeruli with endocapillary proliferation, a predominant C3 deposition in the capillary loops by immunofluorescence, and electron dense deposits in the mesangium, paramesangium, and capillary walls by electron microscopy consistent with a diagnosis of C3 glomerulopathy. An interstitial plasmacytosis was also present with focal clustering of plasma cells, which were found to be kappa light chain restricted by in situ hybridization suggestive of a clonal proliferation. One can speculate that these plasma cells may be directly responsible for the renal pathology that was seen.

  18. Occurrence of complement protein C3 in dying pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampus after systemic administration of kainic acid. (United States)

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Yasuhara, Osamu


    To evaluate the roles of complement in kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal damages, the immunohistochemical localization of the complement protein C3 was examined in rat hippocampus after systemic KA injection. The immunoreactivity for C3 was found in glial cells in control rats, and such glial cells were increased in number after KA injection. Our confocal study showed that C3-positive glial cells were microglia. Three to seven days after KA, C3 immunoreactivity appeared in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Double staining for C3 combined with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling showed that occurrence of C3 immunoreactivity in neurons coincided well with that of DNA fragmentation. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiments suggested local synthesis of C3 by brain cells. Our results suggest that C3 contributes greatly to neuronal death after systemic KA administration, and that microglia and neurons are the local source of C3 in KA-induced brain injury.

  19. C3: Command-line Catalogue Crossmatch for modern astronomical surveys (United States)

    Riccio, Giuseppe; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano


    The Command-line Catalogue Cross-matching (C3) software efficiently performs the positional cross-match between massive catalogues from modern astronomical surveys, whose size have rapidly increased in the current data-driven science era. Based on a multi-core parallel processing paradigm, it is executed as a stand-alone command-line process or integrated within any generic data reduction/analysis pipeline. C3 provides its users with flexibility in portability, parameter configuration, catalogue formats, angular resolution, region shapes, coordinate units and cross-matching types.

  20. Complement therapeutics in inflammatory diseases: promising drug candidates for C3-targeted intervention. (United States)

    Mastellos, D C; Ricklin, D; Hajishengallis, E; Hajishengallis, G; Lambris, J D


    There is increasing appreciation that complement dysregulation lies at the heart of numerous immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders. Complement inhibitors are therefore being evaluated as new therapeutic options in various clinical translation programs and the first clinically approved complement-targeted drugs have profoundly impacted the management of certain complement-mediated diseases. Among the many members of the intricate protein network of complement, the central component C3 represents a 'hot-spot' for complement-targeted therapeutic intervention. C3 modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses and is linked to diverse immunomodulatory systems and biological processes that affect human pathophysiology. Compelling evidence from preclinical disease models has shown that C3 interception may offer multiple benefits over existing therapies or even reveal novel therapeutic avenues in disorders that are not commonly regarded as complement-driven, such as periodontal disease. Using the clinically developed compstatin family of C3 inhibitors and periodontitis as illustrative examples, this review highlights emerging therapeutic concepts and developments in the design of C3-targeted drug candidates as novel immunotherapeutics for oral and systemic inflammatory diseases.

  1. Low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance independently explain substantial parts of the association between body fat and serum C3: The CODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wlazlo, N.; Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Ferreira, I.; Jansen, E.J.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Bravenboer, B.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) in adiposity-related increases in serum complement factor 3 (C3). Although C3 has been linked to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and C3 levels are closely related to body fat, the underlying m

  2. Implementing the C3 Framework: Monitoring the Instructional Shifts (United States)

    Herczog, Michelle M.


    The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards calls upon social studies teachers to enhance the rigor of civics, economics, geography, history and the other social studies disciplines while building the critical thinking, problem solving, and participatory skills of students to help them become actively…

  3. C-3 Epimerization of glucose, via regioselective oxidation and reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jumde, Varsha R; Eisink, Niek N H M; Witte, Martin D; Minnaard, Adriaan J


    Palladium catalysed oxidation is able to single out the secondary hydroxyl group at C3 in glucose, circumventing the more readily accessible hydroxyl at C6 and the more reactive anomeric hydroxyl. Oxidation followed by reduction results in either allose or allitol, rare sugars that are important in

  4. Immunoglobulins and C3 in the P. brasiliensis granuloma

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    Lilian M. V. Biagioni


    Full Text Available The experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis induced in mice by the intravenous injection of yeast-forms of P. brasiliensis (Bt2 strain; 1 x 10(6 viable fungi/animal was used to evaluate sequentially 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks after inoculation: 1. The presence of immunoglobulins and C3 in the pulmonary granuloma-ta, by direct immunofluorescence; 2. The humoral (immunodiffusion test and the cellular (footpad sweeling test immune response; 3. The histopathology of lesions. The cell-immune response was positive since week 2, showing a transitory depression at week 16. Specific antibodies were first detected at week 4 and peaked at week 16. At histology, epithelioid granulomas with numerous fungi and polymorphonuclear agreggates were seen. The lungs showed progressive involvement up to week 16, with little decrease at week 20. From week 2 on, there were deposits of IgG and C3 around fungal walls within the granulomas and IgG stained cells among the mononuclear cell peripheral halo. Interstitital immunoglobulins and C3 deposits in the granulomas were not letected. IgG and C3 seen to play an early an important role in. the host defenses against P. brasiliensis by possibly cooperating in the killing of parasites and blocking the antigenic diffusion.

  5. Hydrology of C-3 watershed, Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan (United States)

    Sweat, Michael J.


    Proposed changes to watershed management practices near C-3 Pool at Seney National Wildlife Refuge will affect surface-water flow patterns, ground-water levels, and possibly local plant communities. Data were collected between fall 1998 and spring 2000 to document existing conditions and to assess potential changes in hydrology that might occur as a consequence of modifications to water management practices in C-3 watershed.Minimum and maximum measured inflows and outflows for the study period are presented in light of proposed management changes to C-3 watershed. Streamflows ranged from 0 to 8.61 cubic meters per second. Low or zero flow was generally measured in late summer and early fall, and highest flows were measured during spring runoff and winter rain events. Ground-water levels varied by about a half meter, with levels closest to or above the land surface during spring runoff into the early summer, and with levels generally below land surface during late fall into early winter.A series of optional management practices that could conserve and restore habitat of the C-3 watershed is described. Modifications to the existing system of a drainage ditch and control structures are examined, as are the possibilities of reconnecting streams to their historical channels and the construction of additional or larger control structures to further manage the distribution of water in the watershed. The options considered could reduce erosion, restore presettlement streamflow conditions, and modify the ground-water gradient.

  6. Regioselective synthesis of C3 alkylated and arylated benzothiophenes (United States)

    Shrives, Harry J.; Fernández-Salas, José A.; Hedtke, Christin; Pulis, Alexander P.; Procter, David J.


    Benzothiophenes are heterocyclic constituents of important molecules relevant to society, including those with the potential to meet modern medical challenges. The construction of molecules would be vastly more efficient if carbon-hydrogen bonds, found in all organic molecules, can be directly converted into carbon-carbon bonds. In the case of elaborating benzothiophenes, functionalization of carbon-hydrogen bonds at carbon-number 3 (C3) is markedly more demanding than at C2 due to issues of regioselectivity (C3 versus C2), and the requirement of high temperatures, precious metals and the installation of superfluous directing groups. Herein, we demonstrate that synthetically unexplored but readily accessible benzothiophene S-oxides serve as novel precursors for C3-functionalized benzothiophenes. Employing an interrupted Pummerer reaction to capture and then deliver phenol and silane coupling partners, we have discovered a directing group-free method that delivers C3-arylated and -alkylated benzothiophenes with complete regioselectivity, under metal-free and mild conditions.

  7. Interstellar detection of c-C3D2

    CERN Document Server

    Spezzano, S; Schilke, P; Caselli, P; Menten, K M; McCarthy, M C; Bizzocchi, L; Trevino-Morales, S P; Aikawa, Y; Schlemmer, S


    We report the first interstellar detection of c-C3D2. The doubly deuterated cyclopropenylidene, a carbene, has been detected toward the starless cores TMC- 1C and L1544 using the IRAM 30m telescope. The J(Ka,Kc) = 3(0,3)-2(1,2), 3(1,3)-2(0,2), and 2(2,1)-1(1,0) transitions of this species have been observed at 3 mm in both sources. The expected 1:2 intensity ratio has been found in the 3(0,3)-2(1,2) and 3(1,3)-2(0,2) lines, belonging to the para and ortho species respectively. We also observed lines of the main species, c-C3H2, the singly deuterated c-C3HD, and the species with one 13C off of the principal axis of the molecule, c-H13CC2H. The lines of c-C3D2 have been observed with high signal to noise ratio, better than 7.5 sigma in TMC-1C and 9 sigma in L1544. The abundance of doubly deuterated cyclopropenylidene with respect to the normal species is found to be (0.4 - 0.8)% in TMC-1C and (1.2 - 2.1)% in L1544. The deuteration of this small hydrocarbon ring is analysed with a comprehensive gas-grain model, ...

  8. Photocatalytic decomposition of N2O over TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts heterojunction (United States)

    Kočí, K.; Reli, M.; Troppová, I.; Šihor, M.; Kupková, J.; Kustrowski, P.; Praus, P.


    TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts with the various TiO2/g-C3N4 weight ratios from 1:2 to 1:6 were fabricated by mechanical mixing in water suspension followed by calcination. Pure TiO2 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and pure g-C3N4 was prepared from commercial melamine by thermal annealing at 620 °C. All the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoelectrochemical measurements and nitrogen physisorption. The prepared mixtures along with pure TiO2 and g-C3N4 were tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide under UVC (λ = 254 nm), UVA (λ = 365 nm) and Vis (λ > 400 nm) irradiation. The TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites showed moderate improvement compared to pure g-C3N4 but pure TiO2 proved to be a better photocatalyst under UVC irradiation. However, under UVA irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:2) nanocomposite exhibited an increase compared to pure TiO2. Nevertheless, further increase of g-C3N4 amount leads/led to a decrease in reactivity. These results are suggesting the nanocomposite with the optimal weight ratio of TiO2 and g-C3N4 have shifted absorption edge energy towards longer wavelengths and decreased the recombination rate of charge carriers compared to pure g-C3N4. This is probably due to the generation of heterojunction on the TiO2/g-C3N4 interface.

  9. The Preparation of Cu-g-C3N4/AC Catalyst for Acetylene Hydrochlorination

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    Wenli Zhao


    Full Text Available A novel catalyst based on g-C3N4/activated carbon was prepared by adding CuCl2. The catalytic performance of the as-prepared catalyst was investigated in the acetylene hydrochlorination reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and thermal gravity analysis showed that Cu-g-C3N4/AC significantly enhanced the catalytic performance of the original catalyst by increasing the relative pyrrolic N content. Cu-g-C3N4/AC also affected the adsorption of hydrogen chloride and acetylene, as well as inhibited the coke deposition during acetylene hydrochlorination.

  10. Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario.

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    Hongxiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night, simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature, maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.

  11. Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario. (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxiang; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Yingxin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yu; Song, Yantao; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei


    Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination) of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night) and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night), simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature), maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.

  12. Mesophyll Chloroplast Investment in C3, C4 and C2 Species of the Genus Flaveria. (United States)

    Stata, Matt; Sage, Tammy L; Hoffmann, Natalie; Covshoff, Sarah; Ka-Shu Wong, Gane; Sage, Rowan F


    The mesophyll (M) cells of C4 plants contain fewer chloroplasts than observed in related C3 plants; however, it is uncertain where along the evolutionary transition from C3 to C4 that the reduction in M chloroplast number occurs. Using 18 species in the genus Flaveria, which contains C3, C4 and a range of C3-C4 intermediate species, we examined changes in chloroplast number and size per M cell, and positioning of chloroplasts relative to the M cell periphery. Chloroplast number and coverage of the M cell periphery declined in proportion to increasing strength of C4 metabolism in Flaveria, while chloroplast size increased with increasing C4 cycle strength. These changes increase cytosolic exposure to the cell periphery which could enhance diffusion of inorganic carbon to phosphenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a cytosolic enzyme. Analysis of the transcriptome from juvenile leaves of nine Flaveria species showed that the transcript abundance of four genes involved in plastid biogenesis-FtsZ1, FtsZ2, DRP5B and PARC6-was negatively correlated with variation in C4 cycle strength and positively correlated with M chloroplast number per planar cell area. Chloroplast size was negatively correlated with abundance of FtsZ1, FtsZ2 and PARC6 transcripts. These results indicate that natural selection targeted the proteins of the contractile ring assembly to effect the reduction in chloroplast numbers in the M cells of C4 Flaveria species. If so, efforts to engineer the C4 pathway into C3 plants might evaluate whether inducing transcriptome changes similar to those observed in Flaveria could reduce M chloroplast numbers, and thus introduce a trait that appears essential for efficient C4 function.

  13. The evolution and appearance of C3 duplications in fish originate an exclusive teleost c3 gene form with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Forn-Cuní

    Full Text Available The complement system acts as a first line of defense and promotes organism homeostasis by modulating the fates of diverse physiological processes. Multiple copies of component genes have been previously identified in fish, suggesting a key role for this system in aquatic organisms. Herein, we confirm the presence of three different previously reported complement c3 genes (c3.1, c3.2, c3.3 and identify five additional c3 genes (c3.4, c3.5, c3.6, c3.7, c3.8 in the zebrafish genome. Additionally, we evaluate the mRNA expression levels of the different c3 genes during ontogeny and in different tissues under steady-state and inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, while reconciling the phylogenetic tree with the fish species tree, we uncovered an event of c3 duplication common to all teleost fishes that gave rise to an exclusive c3 paralog (c3.7 and c3.8. These paralogs showed a distinct ability to regulate neutrophil migration in response to injury compared with the other c3 genes and may play a role in maintaining the balance between inflammatory and homeostatic processes in zebrafish.

  14. Preface: Graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysts (United States)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek


    In recent years, 2D layered materials including graphene and g-C3N4 have attracted more and more attention in the field of photocatalysis and have become the research hotspots due to their broad applications in energy and environment-related areas. A critical appraisal of recent developments related to these important materials was the main theme of the 1st International Workshop on Graphene and C3N4-based Photocatalysts (IWGCP) held at the Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China on June 5-8, 2015. This workshop was jointly organized by Wuhan University of Technology, Jianghan University and Changsha University, China. More than 140 scientists from four continents (Asia, America, Australia and Europe) participated in this workshop, the agenda of which included 8 plenary lectures, 17 keynote lectures, 11 invited lectures, 6 oral presentations and 61 posters.

  15. C3 and infrared spectrophotometry of Y Canum Venaticorum (United States)

    Goebel, J. H.; Bregman, J. D.; Strecker, D. W.; Witteborn, F. C.; Erickson, E. F.


    The 1.2- to 5.6-micron spectrum of the carbon star Y CVn is presented and discussed. The observations were made from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory at an altitude of 12.5 km, thereby avoiding most of the absorption due to terrestrial water vapor. Comparison of Y CVn near 5 microns with laboratory spectra provides possible evidence for the presence of the linear triatomic molecule C3. For the first time in a carbon star the clearly formed band heads of the CN red system between 1.2 and 2.3 microns are observed. Corroborative evidence for the presence of the molecules HCN and C2H2 is presented, and the relative contributions of C3, HCN, and C2H2 to the 3.1-micron absorption band are discussed. Spectra of two other carbon stars, TX Psc and S Cep, are presented for comparison.

  16. Super-Whittaker vector at c = 3/2 (United States)

    Desrosiers, Patrick; Lapointe, Luc; Mathieu, Pierre


    The degenerate Whittaker vector of the superconformal algebra can be represented in terms of Jack superpolynomials. However, in this representation the norm of the Whittaker vector involves a scalar product with respect to which the Jack superpolynomials are not orthogonal. In this note, we point out that this defect can be cured at c = 3/2 by means of a trick specific to the supersymmetric case. At c = 3/2, we thus end up with a closed-form expression for the norm of the degenerate super-Whittaker vector. Granting the super-version of the AGT conjecture, this closed-form expression should be equal to the { {Z}}_2-symmetric SU(2) pure-gauge instanton partition function—the corresponding equality taking the form of a rather nontrivial combinatorial identity.

  17. Super-Whittaker vector at c=3/2

    CERN Document Server

    Desrosiers, P; Mathieu, P


    The degenerate Whittaker vector of the superconformal algebra can be represented in terms of Jack superpolynomials. However, in this representation the norm of the Whittaker vector involves a scalar product with respect to which the Jack superpolynomials are not orthogonal. In this note, we point out that this defect can be cured at c=3/2 by means of a trick specific to the supersymmetric case. At c=3/2, we thus end up with a closed-form expression for the norm of the degenerate super-Whittaker vector. Granting the super-version of the AGT conjecture, this closed-form expression should be equal to the Z_2-symmetric SU(2) pure-gauge instanton partition function -- the corresponding equality taking the form of a rather nontrivial combinatorial identity.

  18. Complement split products c3a and c4a in chronic lyme disease. (United States)

    Stricker, R B; Savely, V R; Motanya, N C; Giclas, P C


    Complement split products C3a and C4a are reportedly elevated in patients with acute Lyme disease. We have now examined these immunologic markers in patients with chronic Lyme disease compared to appropriate disease controls. The study population consisted of 29 healthy controls, 445 patients with chronic Lyme disease, 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and six patients with AIDS. The Lyme disease patients were divided according to predominant musculoskeletal symptoms (324 patients) or predominant neurologic symptoms (121 patients). C3a and C4a levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. All patients with chronic Lyme disease and AIDS had normal C3a levels compared to controls, whereas patients with SLE had significantly increased levels of this marker. Patients with predominant musculoskeletal symptoms of Lyme disease and AIDS patients had significantly increased levels of C4a compared to either controls, patients with predominant neurologic symptoms of Lyme disease or SLE patients. Response to antibiotic therapy in chronic Lyme disease was associated with a significant decrease in the C4a level, whereas lack of response was associated with a significant increase in this marker. In contrast, AIDS patients had persistently increased C4a levels despite antiretroviral therapy. Lyme patients with positive single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scans had significantly lower C4a levels compared to Lyme patients with normal SPECT scan results. Patients with predominant musculoskeletal symptoms of Lyme disease have normal C3a and increased C4a levels. This pattern differs from the increase in both markers seen in acute Lyme disease, and C4a changes correlate with the response to therapy in chronic Lyme disease. C4a appears to be a valuable immunologic marker in patients with persistent symptoms of Lyme disease.

  19. Initial events during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in C3 species of Flaveria. (United States)

    Sage, Tammy L; Busch, Florian A; Johnson, Daniel C; Friesen, Patrick C; Stinson, Corey R; Stata, Matt; Sultmanis, Stefanie; Rahman, Beshar A; Rawsthorne, Stephen; Sage, Rowan F


    The evolution of C4 photosynthesis in many taxa involves the establishment of a two-celled photorespiratory CO2 pump, termed C2 photosynthesis. How C3 species evolved C2 metabolism is critical to understanding the initial phases of C4 plant evolution. To evaluate early events in C4 evolution, we compared leaf anatomy, ultrastructure, and gas-exchange responses of closely related C3 and C2 species of Flaveria, a model genus for C4 evolution. We hypothesized that Flaveria pringlei and Flaveria robusta, two C3 species that are most closely related to the C2 Flaveria species, would show rudimentary characteristics of C2 physiology. Compared with less-related C3 species, bundle sheath (BS) cells of F. pringlei and F. robusta had more mitochondria and chloroplasts, larger mitochondria, and proportionally more of these organelles located along the inner cell periphery. These patterns were similar, although generally less in magnitude, than those observed in the C2 species Flaveria angustifolia and Flaveria sonorensis. In F. pringlei and F. robusta, the CO2 compensation point of photosynthesis was slightly lower than in the less-related C3 species, indicating an increase in photosynthetic efficiency. This could occur because of enhanced refixation of photorespired CO2 by the centripetally positioned organelles in the BS cells. If the phylogenetic positions of F. pringlei and F. robusta reflect ancestral states, these results support a hypothesis that increased numbers of centripetally located organelles initiated a metabolic scavenging of photorespired CO2 within the BS. This could have facilitated the formation of a glycine shuttle between mesophyll and BS cells that characterizes C2 photosynthesis.

  20. Complement C3-Deficiency Leads to Accelerated Aβ Plaque Deposition and Neurodegeneration, and Modulation of the Microglia/Macrophage Phenotype in APP Transgenic Mice


    Maier, Marcel; Peng, Ying; Jiang, Liying; Seabrook, Timothy J.; Carroll, Michael C.; Lemere, Cynthia A.


    Complement factor C3 is the central component of the complement system and a key inflammatory protein activated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies demonstrated that inhibition of C3 by overexpression of sCrry in an AD mouse model led to reduced microgliosis, increased Aβ plaque burden and neurodegeneration. To further address the role of C3 in AD pathology, we generated a complement C3-deficient APP transgenic AD mouse model (APP;C3−/−). Brains were analyzed at 8, 12 and 17 months ...

  1. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 promotes neurogenesis and improves cognitive function after ischemic stroke. (United States)

    Loris, Zachary B; Pieper, Andrew A; Dalton Dietrich, W


    Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established. Here, a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats was followed by twice daily injection of P7C3-A20 or vehicle for 7days. P7C3-A20-treated rats performed significantly better than vehicle-treated controls in sensorimotor cylinder and grid-walk tasks, and in a chronic test of spatial learning and memory. These behavioral improvements with P7C3-A20 treatment were correlated with significantly decreased cortical and hippocampal atrophy, and associated with increased neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampal dentate gyrus subgranular zone. Furthermore, cerebral ischemia significantly reduced NAD in the cortex but P7C3-A20 treatment restored NAD to sham levels. Thus, P7C3-A20 treatment mitigates neurodegeneration and augments repair in the brain after focal ischemia, which translates into chronic behavioral improvement. This suggests a new therapeutic approach of using P7C3 compounds to safely augment NAD and thereby promote two independent processes critical to protecting the brain from ischemic stroke: mature neuron survival and postnatal neurogenesis throughout the post-ischemic brain.

  2. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J. [and others


    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  3. A Newly Cloned ClC-3 Isoform, ClC-3d, as well as ClC-3a Mediates Cd2+-Sensitive Outwardly Rectifying Anion Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Okada


    Full Text Available Background: ClC-3, a member of the ClC family, is predicted to have six isoforms, ClC-3a to -3f, with distinct N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences. There have been conflicting reports on the properties of ClC-3a (also known as the N-terminal short form of ClC-3 and ClC-3b (the N-terminal long form of ClC-3 as plasmalemmal Cl- channels. Meanwhile, little is known about other isoforms. The amino acid sequence of ClC-3d (a C-terminal variant of the short form listed in the NCBI database was derived from the genomic sequence, but there has been no experimental evidence for the mRNA. Methods: PCR-cloning was made to obtain the full coding region of ClC-3d from mouse liver. Its molecular expression on the plasma membrane was microscopically examined in HEK293T cells transfected with GFP-tagged ClC-3d. Its functional plasmalemmal expression and the properties of currents were studies by whole-cell recordings in the cells transfected with ClC-3d. Results: The cloned ClC-3d was found to be the only isoform which has an N-terminal amino acid sequence identical to ClC-3a. When introduced into HEK293T cells, a minor fraction of exogenous ClC-3d proteins was detected at the plasma membrane, and activation of anion currents was observed at neutral pH under normotonic conditions. The properties of ClC-3d currents were found to be shared by ClC-3a-mediated currents. Also, both ClC-3d and -3a currents were found to be sensitive to Cd2+. ClC-3d overexpression never affected the endogenous activity of acid- or swelling-activated anion channels. Conclusion: We thus conclude that plasmalemmal ClC-3d, like ClC-3a, mediates Cd2+-sensitive outwardly rectifying anion currents and that ClC-3d is distinct from the molecular entities of acid- and volume-sensitive anion channels.

  4. Uso de C3F8 no descolamento da membrana de Descemet pós-facectomia C3F8 use in Descemet detachment after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão da Rocha Lucena


    8 gas. PURPOSE: To describe the use of non-expanding (16% intracameral C3F8 to reattach Descemet's membrane, in six patients, following cataract surgery. METHODS: The patient's mean age was 71.3 ± 9.3. Four of the patients were females and two masculine. Immediately afters the gas injection the patient was submitted to slit-lamp evaluation to verify the position of Descemet's membrane. The patients who had eyes with central or superior detachments were told to sit upright for two days. The patients whose eyes had inferior detachments were asked to lie on their back. RESULTS: All patients had successful reattachment of Descemet's membrane after the gas injection. We observed increase in intraocular pressure in one case. The corneal edema regressed after the second day with total resolution by the fourth day. Visual acuity improved in all cases after regression of the edema and remained stable after forty-five days. CONCLUSION: The use of non-expanding C3F8 alone for reattaching Descemet's membrane is reported for the first time in the Brazilian literature. Improvement in visual acuity is fast, the method is safe, effective and easily performed under topical anesthesia.

  5. Characterization and performance of Pt/SBA-15 for low-temperature SCR of NO by C3H6. (United States)

    Liu, Xinyong; Jiang, Zhi; Chen, Mingxia; Shi, Jianwei; Shangguan, Wenfeng; Teraoka, Yasutake


    Pt supported on mesoporous silica SBA-15 was investigated as a catalyst for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by C3H6 in the presence of excess oxygen. The prepared catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, BET surface area, TEM, NO-TPD, NO/C3H6-TPO, NH3-TPD, XPS and 27Al MAS NMR. The effects of Pt loading amount, O2/C3H6 concentration, and incorporation of Al into SBA-15 have been studied. It was found that the removal efficiency increased significantly after Pt loading, but an optimal loading amount was observed. In particular, under an atmosphere of 150 ppm NO, 150 ppm C3H6, and 18 vol.% O2, 0.5% Pt/SBA-15 showed remarkably high catalytic performance giving 80.1% NOx reduction and 87.04% C3H6 conversion simultaneously at 140 degrees C. The enhanced SCR activity of Pt/SBA-15 is associated with its outstanding oxidation activities of NO to NO2 and C3H6 to CO2 in low temperature range. The research results also suggested that higher concentration of O2 and higher concentration of C3H6 favored NO removal. The incorporation of Al into SBA-15 improved catalytic performance, which could be ascribed to the enhancement of catalyst surface acidity caused by tetrahedrally coordinated AlO4. Moreover, the catalysts could be easily reused and possessed good stability.

  6. GA binding protein augments autophagy via transcriptional activation of BECN1-PIK3C3 complex genes. (United States)

    Zhu, Wan; Swaminathan, Gayathri; Plowey, Edward D


    Macroautophagy is a vesicular catabolic trafficking pathway that is thought to protect cells from diverse stressors and to promote longevity. Recent studies have revealed that transcription factors play important roles in the regulation of autophagy. In this study, we have identified GA binding protein (GABP) as a transcriptional regulator of the combinatorial expression of BECN1-PIK3C3 complex genes involved in autophagosome initiation. We performed bioinformatics analyses that demonstrated highly conserved putative GABP sites in genes that encode BECN1/Beclin 1, several BECN1 interacting proteins, and downstream autophagy proteins including the ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 complex. We demonstrate that GABP binds to the promoter regions of BECN1-PIK3C3 complex genes and activates their transcriptional activities. Knockdown of GABP reduced BECN1-PIK3C3 complex transcripts, BECN1-PIK3C3 complex protein levels and autophagy in cultured cells. Conversely, overexpression of GABP increased autophagy. Nutrient starvation increased GABP-dependent transcriptional activity of BECN1-PIK3C3 complex gene promoters and increased the recruitment of GABP to the BECN1 promoter. Our data reveal a novel function of GABP in the regulation of autophagy via transcriptional activation of the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex.

  7. Effects of climate and water balance across grasslands of varying C3 and C4 grass cover (United States)

    Witwicki, Dana L.; Munson, Seth M.; Thoma, David P.


    Climate change in grassland ecosystems may lead to divergent shifts in the abundance and distribution of C3 and C4 grasses. Many studies relate mean climate conditions over relatively long time periods to plant cover, but there is still much uncertainty about how the balance of C3and C4 species will be affected by climate at a finer temporal scale than season (individual events to months). We monitored cover at five grassland sites with co-dominant C3 and C4 grass species or only dominant C3 grass species for 6 yr in national parks across the Colorado Plateau region to assess the influence of specific months of climate and water balance on changes in grass cover. C4 grass cover increased and decreased to a larger degree than C3 grass cover with extremely dry and wet consecutive years, but this response varied by ecological site. Climate and water balance explained 10–49% of the inter-annual variability of cover of C3 and C4 grasses at all sites. High precipitation in the spring and in previous year monsoon storms influenced changes in cover of C4 grasses, with measures of water balance in the same months explaining additional variability. C3 grasses in grasslands where they were dominant were influenced primarily by longer periods of climate, while C3 grasses in grasslands where they were co-dominant with C4 grasses were influenced little by climate anomalies at either short or long periods of time. Our results suggest that future changes in spring and summer climate and water balance are likely to affect cover of both C3 and C4 grasses, but cover of C4 grasses may be affected more strongly, and the degree of change will depend on soils and topography where they are growing and the timing of the growing season.

  8. Fabrication and photoelectrochemical properties of silicon nanowires/g-C3N4 core/shell arrays (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Ma, Ge; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang, Zhe; Gao, Jinwei; Meng, Qingguo; Yuan, Mingzhe; Wang, Xin; Liu, Jun-ming; Zhou, Guofu


    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell made of metal-free carbon nitride (g-C3N4) @siliconnanowire(Si NW) arrays (denoted as Si NWs/g-C3N4) is presented in this work. The as-prepared photoelectrodes with different mass contents of g-C3N4 have been synthesized via a metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE), liquid atomic layer deposition (LALD) and annealing methods. The amount of g-C3N4 on the Si NW arrays can be controlled by tuning the concentration of the cyanamide solution used in the LALD procedure. The dense and vertically aligned Si NWs/g-C3N4 core/shell nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In comparison with FTO/g-C3N4 and Si NW samples, the Si NWs/g-C3N4 samples showed significantly enhanced photocurrents over the entire potential sweep range. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was conducted to investigate the properties of the charge transfer process, and the results indicated that the enhanced PEC performance may be due to the increased photo-generated interfacial charge transfer between the Si NWs and g-C3N4. The photocurrent density reached 45 μA/cm2 under 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5 G) illumination at 0 V (vs. Pt) in neutral Na2SO4 solution (pH ∼ 7.62). Finally, a systematical PEC mechanism of the Si NWs/g-C3N4 was proposed.

  9. Novel C3-symmetric molecular scaffolds with potential facial differentiation. (United States)

    Hennrich, Gunther; Lynch, Vincent M; Anslyn, Eric V


    The conversion of 1,3,5-substituted benzene and mesitylene by electrophilic aromatic substitution and Sonogashira cross-coupling, respectively, furnished the C3-symmetric, hexasubstituted benzene derivatives 1 and 2 with an alternating substitution pattern. Based on the molecular scaffolds obtained, the two systems serve as model compounds for novel receptor molecules with distinct geometric features. X-ray structures have been obtained for 1 and 2, which are discussed in regard to their aptitude as receptor platforms or supramolecular building blocks. By looking at the rotational barriers for the functional groups placed around the molecular scaffolds by variable temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy, 1 and 2 turn out to exist in rapidly interconverting conformations. The alignment of these potential binding groups around the molecular scaffolds should be strongly biased by specific interactions with suitable guest molecules.

  10. Synthesis of C3/C1-Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mihoubi


    Full Text Available A broad biological screening of the natural alkaloid N-methylisosalsoline (2 extracted from Hammada scoparia leaves against a panel of human and parasitic proteases revealed an interesting activity profile of 2 towards human 20S proteasome. This outcome suggests that the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline skeleton may be exploited as a template for the development of novel anticancer agents. In this article, we report the synthesis and chemical characterization of a new series of isosalsoline-type alkaloids (10–11 with variations at N2 and C3 positions with respect to the natural Compound 2, obtained by a synthetic strategy that involves the Bischler-Napieralski cyclization. The substrate for the condensation to the tetrahydroisoquinoline system, i.e., a functionalized β-arylethyl amine, was obtained through an original double reduction of nitroalkene. The synthetic strategy can be directed to the construction of highly substituted and functionalized 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines.

  11. Structure and Stability of Interstellar Molecule C3S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU,Hai-Tao(于海涛); FU,Hong-Gang(傅宏刚); CHI,Yu-Juan(池玉娟); HUANG,Xu-Ri(黄旭日); LI,Ze-Sheng(李泽生); SUN,Jia-Zhong(孙家钟)


    The singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces of interstellar molecule C3S are predicted at the UB3LYP/6-311 (d) and UCCSD(T)/6-311 + G(2df) (single-point) levels. The linear singlet isomer CCCS with 1 ∑ + electronic state is found to be thermodynamically and kinetically the most stable species on the singlet surface followed by other four singiet isomers, which are unstable on the basis of calculated results. On the triplet sur face, the lowest-lying species, which lies 248.79 kJ/mol above linear singlet species CCCS, is chain CCCS connectivity with 3A' electronic state. Other four triplet isomers can be considered as unstable species by means of transition state and potential energy surface scan technologies. The structures, vibrational frequencies, dipole moments and rotational constants of all optimized species are also calculated.

  12. A rare Cervical Nerve Root, C2-C3 Schwannoma

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    Nilesh Chordia


    Full Text Available Schwannomas, neurilemmomas or neurinomas are benign nerve sheath tumors deriving from Schwann cells that occur in the head and neck region in 25-45% of cases 1 .About 10% of schwannoma that occur in the head and neck region generally originate from the vagus or sympathetic nervous system, those arising from C2 nerve root are extremely rare. 2 Preoperative imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT are used to distinguish its location and origin. The treatment of schwannoma is surgical resection, with several surgical modalities have been introduced to preserve the neurological function. We present a rare case of Cervical nerve (C2-C3 root schwannoma of 70 years old male who presented with lateral neck swelling with no neurological deficit ,swelling which also had intervertebral part was removed successfully through neck incision with no post-operative neurological symptoms

  13. Serum Gp96 is a chaperone of complement-C3 during graft-versus-host disease (United States)

    Seignez, Antoine; Joly, Anne-Laure; Chaumonnot, Killian; Hazoumé, Adonis; Sanka, Michel; Boudesco, Christophe; Hammann, Arlette; Seigneuric, Renaud; Jégo, Gaetan; Ducoroy, Patrick; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick; Castilla-Llorente, Cristina; Solary, Eric; Durey, Marie-Agnès; Rubio, Marie-Thérèse; Hermine, Olivier; Kohli, Evelyne


    Better identification of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) may improve the outcome of this life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. GvHD induces tissue damage and the release of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. Here, we analyzed GvHD patients (n = 39) to show that serum heat shock protein glycoprotein 96 (Gp96) could be such a DAMP molecule. We demonstrate that serum Gp96 increases in gastrointestinal GvHD patients and its level correlates with disease severity. An increase in Gp96 serum level was also observed in a mouse model of acute GvHD. This model was used to identify complement C3 as a main partner of Gp96 in the serum. Our biolayer interferometry, yeast two-hybrid and in silico modeling data allowed us to determine that Gp96 binds to a complement C3 fragment encompassing amino acids 749–954, a functional complement C3 hot spot important for binding of different regulators. Accordingly, in vitro experiments with purified proteins demonstrate that Gp96 downregulates several complement C3 functions. Finally, experimental induction of GvHD in complement C3–deficient mice confirms the link between Gp96 and complement C3 in the serum and with the severity of the disease. PMID:28352659

  14. ELISA for evaluating the incorporation of plasma derived complement split-products C3b/iC3b into solid-phase immune complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Nielsen, E; Svehag, S E; Thorlacius-Ussing, O;


    An ELISA that measures plasma derived complement (C) split-products C3b/iC3b deposited on solid-phase immune complexes during C activation is described. Plates are coated with BSA, anti-BSA and plasma is added. Deposited C3b/iC3b is then detected by biotinylated anti-C3c-antibodies, avidin......) or classical pathway (CP) with regard to age or gender was demonstrated. The total coefficient of variation was systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). There was a weak correlation between...

  15. Inefficient binding of IgM immune complexes to erythrocyte C3b-C4b receptors (CR1) and weak incorporation of C3b-iC3b into the complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kávai, M; Rasmussen, J M; Baatrup, G


    The binding of soluble complement-reacted IgM immune complexes (IC) to erythrocyte (E) C3b-C4b receptors (CR1) and the incorporation of C3b-iC3b into solid phase IgM-IC was investigated. The optimal binding of liquid phase IgM-IC to E-CR1 was obtained with IC formed at moderate antibody excess, b...

  16. Microstructure and Sliding Wear Performance of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) Coating Deposited from Cr7C3 In Situ Formed Atomized Powder (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Bin; Shen, Jie; Gao, Feng; Yu, Yueguang; Li, Changhai


    This work is aimed at developing a new type of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coating for parts used in heavy-duty diesel engines. The feedstock, in which the stripe-shaped Cr7C3 was in situ formed, was firstly prepared by vacuum melting and gas atomization and then subjected by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying to form the coatings. The carbon content, microstructure and phase constitution of the powders, as well as the sprayed coatings, were analyzed by chemical analysis, SEM and XRD. The hardness and sliding wear performance of the sprayed coatings were also tested and compared to a commercial Cr3C2-NiCr coating used on piston rings. The results showed that the content of carbon in feedstock was almost the same as designed, and that the volume content of in situ formed Cr7C3 was increased with carbon and chromium added. The major phases of the powders and sprayed coatings are Cr7C3 and Cr-alloyed Ni3Al. Only a small amount of carbon lost during the spraying process. As Cr7C3 content increased in the coatings, the microhardness at room temperature was firstly increased to about 1000Hv0.3. The microhardness of the coatings stayed almost constant, while the testing temperature was raised up to 700 °C for 0.5 h, which illustrates the potential application of the investigated coatings under high temperature conditions. The coatings containing 70 and 77 vol.% Cr7C3 showed the most promising wear resistance, lower friction coefficient and better tribological compatibility to gray cast iron counterpart than other tested Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coatings and the reference Cr3C2-NiCr coating.

  17. Microstructure and Sliding Wear Performance of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) Coating Deposited from Cr7C3 In Situ Formed Atomized Powder (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Bin; Shen, Jie; Gao, Feng; Yu, Yueguang; Li, Changhai


    This work is aimed at developing a new type of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coating for parts used in heavy-duty diesel engines. The feedstock, in which the stripe-shaped Cr7C3 was in situ formed, was firstly prepared by vacuum melting and gas atomization and then subjected by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying to form the coatings. The carbon content, microstructure and phase constitution of the powders, as well as the sprayed coatings, were analyzed by chemical analysis, SEM and XRD. The hardness and sliding wear performance of the sprayed coatings were also tested and compared to a commercial Cr3C2-NiCr coating used on piston rings. The results showed that the content of carbon in feedstock was almost the same as designed, and that the volume content of in situ formed Cr7C3 was increased with carbon and chromium added. The major phases of the powders and sprayed coatings are Cr7C3 and Cr-alloyed Ni3Al. Only a small amount of carbon lost during the spraying process. As Cr7C3 content increased in the coatings, the microhardness at room temperature was firstly increased to about 1000Hv0.3. The microhardness of the coatings stayed almost constant, while the testing temperature was raised up to 700 °C for 0.5 h, which illustrates the potential application of the investigated coatings under high temperature conditions. The coatings containing 70 and 77 vol.% Cr7C3 showed the most promising wear resistance, lower friction coefficient and better tribological compatibility to gray cast iron counterpart than other tested Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coatings and the reference Cr3C2-NiCr coating.

  18. Temperature responses of Rubisco from Paniceae grasses provide opportunities for improving C3 photosynthesis. (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E; Ghannoum, Oula; Kapralov, Maxim V; Gunn, Laura H; Whitney, Spencer M


    Enhancing the catalytic properties of the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco is a target for improving agricultural crop productivity. Here, we reveal extensive diversity in the kinetic response between 10 and 37 °C by Rubisco from C3 and C4 species within the grass tribe Paniceae. The CO2 fixation rate (kcatc) for Rubisco from the C4 grasses with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) phosphate malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) photosynthetic pathways was twofold greater than the kcatc of Rubisco from NAD-ME species across all temperatures. The declining response of CO2/O2 specificity with increasing temperature was less pronounced for PCK and NADP-ME Rubisco, which would be advantageous in warmer climates relative to the NAD-ME grasses. Modelled variation in the temperature kinetics of Paniceae C3 Rubisco and PCK Rubisco differentially stimulated C3 photosynthesis relative to tobacco above and below 25 °C under current and elevated CO2. Amino acid substitutions in the large subunit that could account for the catalytic variation among Paniceae Rubisco are identified; however, incompatibilities with Paniceae Rubisco biogenesis in tobacco hindered their mutagenic testing by chloroplast transformation. Circumventing these bioengineering limitations is critical to tailoring the properties of crop Rubisco to suit future climates.

  19. Complement component C3 and butyrylcholinesterase activity are associated with neurodegeneration and clinical disability in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Aeinehband

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the complement system is evident in many CNS diseases but mechanisms regulating complement activation in the CNS remain unclear. In a recent large rat genome-wide expression profiling and linkage analysis we found co-regulation of complement C3 immediately downstream of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, an enzyme hydrolyzing acetylcholine (ACh, a classical neurotransmitter with immunoregulatory effects. We here determined levels of neurofilament-light (NFL, a marker for ongoing nerve injury, C3 and activity of the two main ACh hydrolyzing enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE and BuChE, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with MS (n = 48 and non-inflammatory controls (n = 18. C3 levels were elevated in MS patients compared to controls and correlated both to disability and NFL. C3 levels were not induced by relapses, but were increased in patients with ≥9 cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging and in patients with progressive disease. BuChE activity did not differ at the group level, but was correlated to both C3 and NFL levels in individual samples. In conclusion, we show that CSF C3 correlates both to a marker for ongoing nerve injury and degree of disease disability. Moreover, our results also suggest a potential link between intrathecal cholinergic activity and complement activation. These results motivate further efforts directed at elucidating the regulation and effector functions of the complement system in MS, and its relation to cholinergic tone.

  20. Water-use efficiency and nitrogen-use efficiency of C(3) -C(4) intermediate species of Flaveria Juss. (Asteraceae). (United States)

    Vogan, Patrick J; Sage, Rowan F


    Plants using the C(4) pathway of carbon metabolism are marked by greater photosynthetic water and nitrogen-use efficiencies (PWUE and PNUE, respectively) than C(3) species, but it is unclear to what extent this is the case in C(3) -C(4) intermediate species. In this study, we examined the PWUE and PNUE of 14 species of Flaveria Juss. (Asteraceae), including two C(3) , three C(4) and nine C(3) -C(4) species, the latter containing a gradient of C(4) -cycle activities (as determined by initial fixation of (14) C into C-4 acids). We found that PWUE, PNUE, leaf ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) content and intercellular CO(2) concentration in air (C(i) ) do not change gradually with C(4) -cycle activity. These traits were not significantly different between C(3) species and C(3) -C(4) species with less than 50% C(4) -cycle activity. C(4) -like intermediates with greater than 65% C(4) -cycle activity were not significantly different from plants with fully expressed C(4) photosynthesis. These results indicate that a gradual increase in C(4) -cycle activity has not resulted in a gradual change in PWUE, PNUE, intercellular CO(2) concentration and leaf Rubisco content towards C(4) levels in the intermediate species. Rather, these traits arose in a stepwise manner during the evolutionary transition to the C(4) -like intermediates, which are contained in two different clades within Flaveria.

  1. ClC-3 deficiency protects preadipocytes against apoptosis induced by palmitate in vitro and in type 2 diabetes mice. (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Ying; Huang, Xiong-Qin; Zhao, Li-Yan; Sun, Fang-Yun; Chen, Wen-Liang; Du, Jie-Yi; Yuan, Feng; Li, Jie; Huang, Xue-Lian; Liu, Jie; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Guan, Yong-Yuan; Chen, Jian-Wen; Wang, Guan-Lei


    Palmitate, a common saturated free fatty acid (FFA), has been demonstrated to induce preadipocyte apoptosis in the absence of adipogenic stimuli, suggesting that preadipocytes may be prone to apoptosis under adipogenic insufficient conditions, like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ClC-3, encoding Cl(-) channel or Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, is critical for cell fate choices of proliferation versus apoptosis under diseased conditions. However, it is unknown whether ClC-3 is related with preadipocyte apoptosis induced by palmitate or T2DM. Palmitate, but not oleate, induced apoptosis and increase in ClC-3 protein expression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. ClC-3 specific siRNA attenuated palmitate-induced apoptosis and increased protein levels of Grp78, ATF4, CHOP and phosphorylation of JNK1/2, whereas had no effects on increased phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α protein expression. Moreover, the enhanced apoptosis was shown in preadipocytes from high-sucrose/fat, low-dose STZ induced T2DM mouse model with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia (elevated serum TG and FFA levels) and insulin resistance. ClC-3 knockout significantly attenuated preadipocyte apoptosis and the above metabolic disorders in T2DM mice. These data demonstrated that ClC-3 deficiency prevent preadipocytes against palmitate-induced apoptosis via suppressing ER stress, and also suggested that ClC-3 may play a role in regulating cellular apoptosis and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism during T2DM.

  2. Interaction between C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under elevated CO 2: Impact of mycorrhizae (United States)

    Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Liming; Chen, Xin; Hu, Shuijin


    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment may impact arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) development and function, which could have subsequent effects on host plant species interactions by differentially affecting plant nutrient acquisition. However, direct evidence illustrating this scenario is limited. We examined how elevated CO 2 affects plant growth and whether mycorrhizae mediate interactions between C 4 barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.) and C 3 upland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) in a low nutrient soil. The monocultures and combinations with or without mycorrhizal inoculation were grown at ambient (400 ± 20 μmol mol -1) and elevated CO 2 (700 ± 20 μmol mol -1) levels. The 15N isotope tracer was introduced to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated N acquisition of plants. Elevated CO 2 stimulated the growth of C 3 upland rice but not that of C 4 barnyard grass under monoculture. Elevated CO 2 also increased mycorrhizal colonization of C 4 barnyard grass but did not affect mycorrhizal colonization of C 3 upland rice. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the shoot biomass ratio of C 4 barnyard grass to C 3 upland rice under both CO 2 concentrations but had a greater impact under the elevated than ambient CO 2 level. Mycorrhizae decreased relative interaction index (RII) of C 3 plants under both ambient and elevated CO 2, but mycorrhizae increased RII of C 4 plants only under elevated CO 2. Elevated CO 2 and mycorrhizal inoculation enhanced 15N and total N and P uptake of C 4 barnyard grass in mixture but had no effects on N and P acquisition of C 3 upland rice, thus altering the distribution of N and P between the species in mixture. These results implied that CO 2 stimulation of mycorrhizae and their nutrient acquisition may impact competitive interaction of C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under future CO 2 scenarios.

  3. In situ loading of Ag2WO4 on ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets with highly enhanced photocatalytic performance. (United States)

    Li, Yunfeng; Jin, Renxi; Fang, Xu; Yang, Yang; Yang, Man; Liu, Xianchun; Xing, Yan; Song, Shuyan


    The g-C3N4 nanosheets (g-C3N4NS) exhibit more excellent property than common bulk g-C3N4 (g-C3N4-B) due to their large surface areas, improved electron transport ability and well dispersion in water. In this work, ultrathin g-C3N4NS with a thickness of about 2.7nm have been synthesized by a simple thermal exfoliation of bulk g-C3N4, and then Ag2WO4 nanoparticles are in situ loaded on their surface to construct the Ag2WO4/g-C3N4NS heterostructured photocatalysts. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, the as-prepared heterostructures possess a fast interfacial charge transfer and increased lifetime of photo-excited charge carriers, and exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity. Under visible light irradiation, the optimum photocatalytic activity of Ag2WO4/g-C3N4NS composites is almost 53.6 and 26.5 times higher than that of pure g-C3N4-B and Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-B heterostructures towards the degradation of rhodamine B, respectively, and is almost 30.6 and 9.8 times higher towards the degradation of methyl orange, respectively. In addition, the natural sunlight photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples are also investigated.

  4. Molecular Basis for Complement Recognition and Inhibition Determined by Crystallographic Studies of the Staphylococcal Complement Inhibitor (SCIN) Bound to C3c and C3b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Brandon L.; Ramyar, Kasra X.; Tzekou, Apostolia; Ricklin, Daniel; McWhorter, William J.; Lambris, John D.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (UPENN)


    The human complement system plays an essential role in innate and adaptive immunity by marking and eliminating microbial intruders. Activation of complement on foreign surfaces results in proteolytic cleavage of complement component 3 (C3) into the potent opsonin C3b, which triggers a variety of immune responses and participates in a self-amplification loop mediated by a multi-protein assembly known as the C3 convertase. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has evolved a sophisticated and potent complement evasion strategy, which is predicated upon an arsenal of potent inhibitory proteins. One of these, the staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN), acts at the level of the C3 convertase (C3bBb) and impairs downstream complement function by trapping the convertase in a stable but inactive state. Previously, we have shown that SCIN binds C3b directly and competitively inhibits binding of human factor H and, to a lesser degree, that of factor B to C3b. Here, we report the co-crystal structures of SCIN bound to C3b and C3c at 7.5 and 3.5 {angstrom} limiting resolution, respectively, and show that SCIN binds a critical functional area on C3b. Most significantly, the SCIN binding site sterically occludes the binding sites of both factor H and factor B. Our results give insight into SCIN binding to activated derivatives of C3, explain how SCIN can recognize C3b in the absence of other complement components, and provide a structural basis for the competitive C3b-binding properties of SCIN. In the future, this may suggest templates for the design of novel complement inhibitors based upon the SCIN structure.

  5. Glyphosate Resistance of C3 and C4 Weeds under Rising Atmospheric CO2. (United States)

    Fernando, Nimesha; Manalil, Sudheesh; Florentine, Singarayer K; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Seneweera, Saman


    The present paper reviews current knowledge on how changes of plant metabolism under elevated CO2 concentrations (e[CO2]) can affect the development of the glyphosate resistance of C3 and C4 weeds. Among the chemical herbicides, glyphosate, which is a non-selective and post-emergence herbicide, is currently the most widely used herbicide in global agriculture. As a consequence, glyphosate resistant weeds, particularly in major field crops, are a widespread problem and are becoming a significant challenge to future global food production. Of particular interest here it is known that the biochemical processes involved in photosynthetic pathways of C3 and C4 plants are different, which may have relevance to their competitive development under changing environmental conditions. It has already been shown that plant anatomical, morphological, and physiological changes under e[CO2] can be different, based on (i) the plant's functional group, (ii) the available soil nutrients, and (iii) the governing water status. In this respect, C3 species are likely to have a major developmental advantage under a CO2 rich atmosphere, by being able to capitalize on the overall stimulatory effect of e[CO2]. For example, many tropical weed grass species fix CO2 from the atmosphere via the C4 photosynthetic pathway, which is a complex anatomical and biochemical variant of the C3 pathway. Thus, based on our current knowledge of CO2 fixing, it would appear obvious that the development of a glyphosate-resistant mechanism would be easier under an e[CO2] in C3 weeds which have a simpler photosynthetic pathway, than for C4 weeds. However, notwithstanding this logical argument, a better understanding of the biochemical, genetic, and molecular measures by which plants develop glyphosate resistance and how e[CO2] affects these measures will be important before attempting to innovate sustainable technology to manage the glyphosate-resistant evolution of weeds under e[CO2]. Such information will be of

  6. Disaster Prevention Coastal Map Production by MMS & C3D (United States)

    Hatake, Shuhei; Kohori, Yuki; Watanabe, Yasushi


    In March 2011, Eastern Japan suffered serious damage of Tsunami caused by a massive earthquake. In 2012, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport published "Guideline of setting assumed areas of inundation by Tsunami" to establish the conditions of topography data used for simulation of Tsunami. In this guideline, the elevation data prepared by Geographical Survey Institute of Japan and 2m/5m/10m mesh data of NSDI are adopted for land area, while 500m mesh data of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan Coast Guard and sea charts are adopted for water area. These data, however, do not have continuity between land area and water area. Therefore, in order to study the possibility of providing information for coastal disaster prevention, we have developed an efficient method to acquire continuous topography over land and water including tidal zone. Land area data are collected by Mobile Mapping System (MMS) and water area depth data are collected by interferometry echo sounder (C3D), and both data are simultaneously acquired on a same boat. Elaborate point cloud data of 1m or smaller are expected to be used for realistic simulation of Tsunami waves going upstream around shoreline. Tests were made in Tokyo Bay (in 2014) and Osaka Bay (in 2015). The purpose the test in Osaka Bay is to make coastal map for disaster prevention as a countermeasure for predicted Nankai massive earthquake. In addition to Tsunami simulation, the continuous data covering land and marine areas are expected to be used effectively for maintenance and repair of aged port and river facilities, maintenance and investigation of dykes, and ecosystem preservation.

  7. Reduced CO2 fertilization effect in temperate C3 grasslands under more extreme weather conditions (United States)

    Obermeier, W. A.; Lehnert, L. W.; Kammann, C. I.; Müller, C.; Grünhage, L.; Luterbacher, J.; Erbs, M.; Moser, G.; Seibert, R.; Yuan, N.; Bendix, J.


    The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from anthropogenic activities is the major driver of recent global climate change. The stimulation of plant photosynthesis due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) is widely assumed to increase the net primary productivity (NPP) of C3 plants--the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE). However, the magnitude and persistence of the CFE under future climates, including more frequent weather extremes, are controversial. Here we use data from 16 years of temperate grassland grown under `free-air carbon dioxide enrichment’ conditions to show that the CFE on above-ground biomass is strongest under local average environmental conditions. The observed CFE was reduced or disappeared under wetter, drier and/or hotter conditions when the forcing variable exceeded its intermediate regime. This is in contrast to predictions of an increased CO2 fertilization effect under drier and warmer conditions. Such extreme weather conditions are projected to occur more intensely and frequently under future climate scenarios. Consequently, current biogeochemical models might overestimate the future NPP sink capacity of temperate C3 grasslands and hence underestimate future atmospheric [CO2] increase.

  8. Evaluation of lysozyme, complement C3, and total protein in different developmental stages of Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Razieh


    Full Text Available In this study, non–specific immune parameters in fertilized eggs, eyed embryos, larvae 10, 25, 50, 60, and 70 days post hatch (DPH, and female broodstock of Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamensky, were evaluated. The lysozyme activity, complement C3, and total protein levels were measured with the turbidimetric, immunoturbidimetric, and Bradford methods, respectively. The results showed that lysozyme levels decreased from levels noted in the fertilized eggs until the larvae were 10 days old. Subsequently, significant increases in lysozyme levels were observed until 70 DPH. An increasing trend of complement component C3 was noted from the levels in fertilized eggs to 10 DPH, following which it decreased significantly. Total protein levels differed significantly in early developmental stages of Caspian kutum. The higher values of complement component C3 than of lysozyme in the early life stages could be indicative of the former’s more fundamental role.

  9. Characterization and performance of Pt/SBA-15 for low-temperature SCR of NO by C3H6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyong Liu; Zhi Jiang; Mingxia Chen; Jianwei Shi; Wenfeng Shangguan; Yasutake Teraoka


    Pt supported on mesoporous silica SBA-15 was investigated as a catalyst for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by C3H6 in the presence of excess oxygen.The prepared catalysts were characterized by means of XRD,BET surface area,TEM,NO-TPD,NO/C3H6-TPO,NH3-TPD,XPS and 27Al MAS NMR.The effects of Pt loading amount,O2/C3H6 concentration,and incorporation of Al into SBA-15 have been studied.It was found that the removal efficiency increased significantly after Pt loading,but an optimal loading amount was observed.In particular,under an atmosphere of 150 ppm NO,150 ppm C3H6,and 18 vol.% O2,0.5% Pt/SBA-15 showed remarkably high catalytic performance giving 80.1% NOx reduction and 87.04% C3H6 conversion simultaneously at 140℃.The enhanced SCR activity of Pt/SBA-15 is associated with its outstanding oxidation activities of NO to NO2 and C3H6 to CO2 in low temperature range.The research results also suggested that higher concentration of O2 and higher concentration of C3H6 favored NO removal.The incorporation of A1 into SBA-15 improved catalytic performance,which could be ascribed to the enhancement of catalyst surface acidity caused by tetrahedrally coordinated AlO4.Moreover,the catalysts could be easily reused and possessed good stability.

  10. Complement C3a binding to its receptor as a negative modulator of Th2 response in liver injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mice. (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zha, Wan-sheng; Zhang, Jia-xiang; Li, Shu-long; Wang, Hui; Ye, Liang-ping; Shen, Tong; Wu, Chang-hao; Zhu, Qi-xing


    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a major occupational health hazard and causes occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis (OMLDT) and liver damage. Recent evidence suggests immune response as a distinct mode of action for TCE-induced liver damage. This study aimed to explore the role of the key complement activation product C3a and its receptor C3aR in TCE-induced immune liver injury. A mouse model of skin sensitization was induced by TCE in the presence and absence of the C3aR antagonist SB 290157. Liver function was evaluated by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in conjunction with histopathological characterizations. C3a and C3aR were detected by immunohistochemistry and C5b-9 was assessed by immunofluorescence. IFN-γ and IL4 expressions were determined by flow cytometry and ELISA. The total sensitization rate was 44.1%. TCE sensitization caused liver cell necrosis and inflammatory infiltration, elevated serum ALT and AST, expression of C3a and C3aR, and deposition of C5b-9 in the liver. IFN-γ and IL-4 expressions were up-regulated in spleen mononuclear cells and their serum levels were also increased. Pretreatment with SB 290157 resulted in more inflammatory infiltration in the liver, higher levels of AST, reduced C3aR expression on Kupffer cells, and decreased IL-4 levels while IFN-γ remained unchanged. These data demonstrate that blocking of C3a binding to C3aR reduces IL4, shifts IFN-γ and IL-4 balance, and aggravates TCE-sensitization induced liver damage. These findings reveal a novel mechanism whereby modulation of Th2 response by C3a binding to C3a receptor contributes to immune-mediated liver damage by TCE exposure.

  11. Complement system regulation and C3 glomerulopathy%补体系统调控异常与C3肾小球病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖慧捷; 何瑞娟


    Complement system is a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis. Excessive activation of complement system, especially the activation of alternative pathway may play a very important role in the pathogenesis of primary and secondary glomerulonephritis. C3 glomerulopathy is a newly named disease characterized by evident C3 deposition in the glomeruli with little or no immunoglobulin under immunofluorescence (IF). Its clinical and pathological manifestations vary a lot. The decreased plasma C3 and Factor H( FH) suggest that abnormal regulation of complement system plays an importment role in its pathogenesis. C3 glomerulopathy varies a lot as to its clinical manifestation, treatment and prognosis. The inhibition of excessive complement activation might be the key to treating C3 glomerulopathy.

  12. One-stage posterior C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation or combined anterior C2-C3 fusion for the treatment of unstable hangman's fracture. (United States)

    Liu, Jingchen; Li, Ye; Wu, Yuntao


    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of using one-stage posterior C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation or combined anterior C2-C3 fusion in the treatment of unstable hangman's fracture. A total of 13 patients with unstable hangman's fractures underwent C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation, lamina interbody fusion or combined anterior C2-C3 fusion and imaging examinations to evaluate the fracture fixation and healing condition at three days and three months following surgery. Postoperative X-ray and computed tomography (CT) results showed high fracture reduction, good internal fixation position and reliable fracture fixation. The three-month postoperative CT showed good vertebral fracture healing. C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation has a good curative effect in the treatment of unstable hangman's fracture. The direct fixation of the fracture enables early ambulation by the patients.

  13. C3-halogenation of cytisine generates potent and efficacious nicotinic receptor agonists. (United States)

    Abin-Carriquiry, J Andrés; Voutilainen, Merja H; Barik, Jacques; Cassels, Bruce K; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Bermudez, Isabel; Durand, Claudia; Dajas, Federico; Wonnacott, Susan


    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors subserve predominantly modulatory roles in the brain, making them attractive therapeutic targets. Natural products provide key leads in the quest for nicotinic receptor subtype-selective compounds. Cytisine, found in Leguminosae spp., binds with high affinity to alpha4beta2* nicotinic receptors. We have compared the effect of C3 and C5 halogenation of cytisine and methylcytisine (MCy) on their interaction with native rat nicotinic receptors. 3-Bromocytisine (3-BrCy) and 3-iodocytisine (3-ICy) exhibited increased binding affinity (especially at alpha7 nicotinic receptors; Ki approximately 0.1 microM) and functional potency, whereas C5-halogenation was detrimental. 3-BrCy and 3-ICy were more potent than cytisine at evoking [3H]dopamine release from striatal slices (EC50 approximately 11 nM), [3H]noradrenaline release from hippocampal slices (EC50 approximately 250 nM), increases in intracellular Ca2+ in PC12 cells and inward currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing human alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptor (EC50 approximately 2 microM). These compounds were also more efficacious than cytisine. C3-halogenation of cytisine is proposed to stabilize the open conformation of the nicotinic receptor but does not enhance subtype selectivity.

  14. P7C3 Attenuates the Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairments in C57BL/6J Mice. (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Song, Lu; Huang, Chao; Zhang, Wei


    Memory impairment is the most common symptom in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the memory enhancing effects of P7C3, a recently identified compound with robust proneurogenic and neuroprotective effects, on the cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. Different behavior tests including the Y-maze, Morris water maze, and passive avoidance tests were performed to measure cognitive functions. Scopolamine significantly decreased the spontaneous alternation and step-through latency of C57BL/6J mice in Y-maze test and passive avoidance test, whereas increased the time of mice spent to find the hidden platform in Morris water maze test. Importantly, intraperitoneal administration of P7C3 effectively reversed those Scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, P7C3 treatment significantly enhanced the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway in the cortex and hippocampus, and the usage of selective BDNF signaling inhibitor fully blocked the anti-amnesic effects of P7C3. Therefore, these findings suggest that P7C3 could improve the scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment possibly through activation of BDNF signaling pathway, thereby exhibiting a cognition-enhancing potential.

  15. The C3 Framework: One Year Later - an Interview with Kathy Swan (United States)

    Social Education, 2014


    On September 17, 2013 (Constitution Day), the C3 Framework was released under the title "The College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and lead writer was NCSS member Kathy Swan, who is…

  16. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, C3 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, C3. C3 board number 8215 (not coated) appears as board_id=32, task_id=23. C3 board number 771 (coated) appears...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement C3b inactivator immunological test... Systems § 866.5260 Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group...

  18. 26 CFR 1.662(c)-3 - Termination of existence of other beneficiaries. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of existence of other beneficiaries. 1.662(c)-3 Section 1.662(c)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Distribute Corpus § 1.662(c)-3 Termination of existence of other beneficiaries. If the existence of...

  19. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of Power... OF CONDUCT § 3c.3 Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with...

  20. 17 CFR 240.14c-3 - Annual report to be furnished security holders. (United States)


    ... security holders. 240.14c-3 Section 240.14c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Section 14(c) § 240.14c-3 Annual report to be furnished security holders. (a) If the information statement... such meeting, of security holders at which directors of the registrant, other than an...

  1. 17 CFR 270.6c-3 - Exemptions for certain registered variable life insurance separate accounts. (United States)


    ... registered variable life insurance separate accounts. 270.6c-3 Section 270.6c-3 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 270.6c-3 Exemptions for certain registered variable life insurance separate accounts. A separate account which meets the requirements of paragraph (a) of Rule 6e-2 (17 CFR 270.6e-2) or paragraph (a)...

  2. Thyroid status influence on adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP and complement C3 in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianhua


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid abnormalities (hyperthyroid and hypothyroid are accompanied by changes in intermediary metabolism including alterations in body weight, insulin resistance and lipid profile. The aims of this study were to examine plasma ASP, its precursor C3 and adiponectin in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects as compared to controls. Methods A total of 99 subjects were recruited from endocrinology/out-patient clinics: 46 hyperthyroid subjects, 23 hypothyroid subjects and 30 control subjects. Subjects were evaluated for FT4, FT3, TSH, glucose, insulin, complete lipid profile and the adipokines: adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP and complement C3. Results Hyperthyroidism was associated with a 95% increase in adiponectin (p = 0.0002, a 47% decrease in C3 (p Conclusion These changes suggest that thyroid disease may be accompanied by changes in adipokines, which may contribute to the phenotype expressed.

  3. Involvement of ClC-3 chloride/proton exchangers in controlling glutamatergic synaptic strength in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Enrique Guzman


    Full Text Available ClC-3 is a member of the CLC family of anion channels and transporters that localizes to early and late endosomes as well as to synaptic vesicles. Its genetic disruption in mouse models results in pronounced hippocampal and retinal neurodegeneration, suggesting that ClC-3 might be important for normal excitatory and/or inhibitory neurotransmission in central neurons. To characterize the role of ClC-3 in glutamate accumulation in synaptic vesicles we compared glutamatergic synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons from WT and Clcn3-/- mice. In Clcn3-/- neurons the amplitude and frequency of miniature as well as the amplitudes of action-potential evoked EPSCs were significantly increased as compared to WT neurons. The low-affinity competitive AMPA receptor antagonist -DGG reduced the quantal size of synaptic events more effectively in WT than in Clcn3-/- neurons, whereas no difference was observed for the high-affinity competitive non-NMDA antagonist NBQX. Paired pulse ratios of evoked EPSCs were significantly reduced, whereas the size of the readily releasable pool was not affected by the genetic ablation of ClC-3. Electron microscopy revealed increased volumes of synaptic vesicles in hippocampi of Clcn3-/- mice. Our findings demonstrate that ClC-3 controls fast excitatory synaptic transmission by regulating the amount of neurotransmitter as well as the release probability of synaptic vesicles. These results provide novel insights into the role of ClC-3 in synaptic transmission and identify excessive glutamate release as a likely basis of neurodegeneration in Clcn3-/-.

  4. Carcinogenicity of bisphenol-A in Fischer rats and B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Huff, J


    Bisphenol-A (BP-A; 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol) is a monomer of plastics commonly used in various consumer products, and is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of epoxy, polycarbonate, and polyester-styrene resins. A National Toxicology Program carcinogenesis bioassay of BP-A (>98% pure) was conducted by feeding diets containing 0, 1000, or 2000 ppm BP-A to groups of 50 male and 50 female Fischer (F)344 rats; 0, 1000, or 5000 ppm to groups of 50 male B6C3F1 mice; and 0, 5000, or 10,000 ppm to groups of 50 female B6C3F1 mice for 103 weeks. The mean body weights of the low- and high-dose rats and of female mice and high-dose male mice were lower than those of the controls throughout much of the study. Lower body weight gains in rats were likely caused by reduced food consumption. Survivals were comparable among groups. Regarding neoplasia, leukemias occurred at increased incidences in BP-A-dosed rats of both sexes: male, 13/50 controls vs 12/50 low-dose and 23/50 high-dose (P Toxicology Program concluded that there was no convincing evidence that BP-A was carcinogenic for rats or mice. However, the marginal increases in leukemias in male and female rats, along with increases in the combined incidence of lymphomas and leukemias in male mice, suggest that BP-A may be associated with increased cancers of the hematopoietic system. Increases in interstitial-cell tumors of the testes in rats were also evidence of carcinogenesis, as was the unusual occurrence of mammary gland fibroadenomas in male rats.

  5. The effects of berberine hydrochloride on complement system and complement c3 in Ctenopharyngodon idellus%盐酸小檗碱对草鱼补体系统及补体 c3作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭耀宗; 周霞; 韩冰; 黄涛; 黄利挂; 李学刚


    fish fed with berberine hydrochloride increased significantly when compared with the control (P <0.05 /P <0.01).The survival rate was significantly higher in groups fed with berberine hydrochloride than the control (P <0.01).In addition, complement consumption showed significant difference only when the concentration of ber -berine hydrochloride was higher than 5 mg/L.Berberine hydrochloride combined with complement molecules directly and the complement system was activated at this time.The pharmacokinetics experiment found that bimodal phenomena appeared after taking berberine hydrochloride and the value of two peaks was 0.243 mg/L and 0.117 mg/L, respectively, which was much lower than 5 mg/L.The results suggested that the berberine hydrochloride could enhance the immunity of C.idellus and the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the complement c 3 in C.idellus might not be by combining with com-plement molecules directly, but through up -regulating the mRNA expression of c3 to increase the quantity of c3 protein.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of low-cost g-C3N4/TiO2 composite with enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible-light irradiation (United States)

    Senthil, R. A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Selvi, A.; Madhavan, J.


    The influence of g-C3N4 in TiO2 photocatalyst on photodegradation of organic pollutant in aqueous solution has been investigated in the present study. The g-C3N4 was synthesized from low cost urea and used as precursor to synthesize g-C3N4/TiO2 composite by wet impregnation method. The synthesized g-C3N4 and g-C3N4/TiO2 composite photocatalysts were thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performance of pure g-C3N4, pure TiO2 and g-C3N4/TiO2 composite photocatalysts were evaluated for the photodegradation of acid orange 7 (AO7) under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic experiments demonstrated that the g-C3N4/TiO2 composite photocatalyst showed much better photocatalytic degradability of AO7 than the pure TiO2 and g-C3N4. This may be due to the increased absorption of light in the visible region and also by a lower recombination of charge-carriers. Further, the photoelectrochemical measurements of g-C3N4/TiO2 revealed the faster migration of photo-induced charge-carriers. This study demonstrates that g-C3N4/TiO2 composite can be a good candidate for environmental remediation of polluted waters.

  7. A Cost-Effective Solid-State Approach to Synthesize g-C3N4 Coated TiO2 Nanocomposites with Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Fu


    Full Text Available Novel graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by a facile and cost-effective solid-state method by thermal treatment of the mixture of urea and commercial TiO2. Because the C3N4 was dispersed and coated on the TiO2 nanoparticles, the as-prepared g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposites showed enhanced absorption and photocatalytic properties in visible light region. The as-prepared g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites under 450°C exhibited efficient visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of aqueous MB due to the increased visible light absorption and enhanced MB adsorption. The g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites would have wide applications in both environmental remediation and solar energy conversion.

  8. 含Ni单矿C3S晶型及早期水化特性研究%Research on Crystal Form and Early Hydration of C3S Doped with Ni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石立安; 柯凯


    Such chemically pure Ca(OH)2,SiO2 as raw materials were mixed with different mass fraction of Ni2O3 to prepare different crystal composition of C3S, with the use of chemical analysis, XRD, DTA, SEM, heat of hydration test method to research the phase formation, crystal structure and hydration properties of C3S mineral doped Ni2O3. The results show that: the effect of promoting the formation of C3S doped with Ni2O3 was general, when dosage was greater than 2%, increased step by step; at the same time, monoclinic type QS can be stabled by Ni2O3; there were some active sites and surface in C3S doped with Ni, high Ca2+ concentration was present in liquid because of the reaction, C3S hydration was accelerated at a slight extent of accelerated rate, and with hydration products of smaller particles, high degree of dispersion and hydration.%以Ca(OH)2、SiO2化学纯为原料,分别掺入不同质量分数的Ni2O3制备不同晶型的G3S相,运用化学分析、XRD、DTA、SEM、水化热测试方法,研究了掺Ni2O3后C3S矿物相形成、晶型及其水化特性变化趋势.结果表明,Ni2O3促进C3S形成效应一般,掺量大于2%后促进效应增强;且掺量大于2%时,Ni2O3可稳定单斜型C3S存在;合Ni的G3S具有一定的活性点或活性面,水化后会导致液相呈现较高的Ca2+浓度,轻微地加快了G3S水化速率,且水化产物颗粒较小,分散度和水化程度高.

  9. The Role of Chitinase Production by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain C3 in Biological Control of Bipolaris sorokiniana. (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Yuen, G Y


    ABSTRACT The role of chitinase production by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C3 in biological control of leaf spot on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The filtrate of a broth culture of C3, with chitin as the carbon source, was separated into fractions. A high molecular-weight fraction (>8 kDa) was chitinolytic and more inhibitory than a low-molecular-weight, nonchitinolytic fraction to conidial germination and hyphal growth by B. sorokiniana and to leaf spot development. A protein fraction derived by ammonium sulfate precipitation and a chitinase fraction purified by chitin affinity chromatography also were chitinolytic and highly antifungal. The chitinolytic fractions caused swelling and vacuolation of conidia and discoloration, malformation, and degradation of germ tubes. When boiled, the chitinolytic fractions lost chitinase activity along with most of the antifungal properties. Two chitinase-deficient and two chitinase-reduced mutants of C3 were compared with the wild-type strain for inhibition of germination of B. sorokiniana conidia on tall fescue leaves and for suppression of leaf spot development in vivo. The mutants exhibited reduced antifungal activity and biocontrol efficacy, but did not lose all biocontrol activity. An aqueous extract of leaves colonized by wild-type C3 had higher chitinase activity than that of noncolonized leaves and was inhibitory to conidial germination. The addition of chitin to leaves along with the wild-type strain increased both chitinase and antifungal activity. The chitinase activity level of extracts from leaves colonized by a chitinase-deficient mutant of C3, with and without added chitin, was no higher than the background, and the extracts lacked antifungal activity. Chitinolysis appears to be one mechanism of biological control by strain C3, and it functions in concert with other mechanisms.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of ClC-3 chloride channel in glutamate-induced retinal ganglion cell RGC-5 apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yu; Ning Han; Ligang Jiang; Yajuan Zheng; Lifeng Liu


    Transforming growth factor β plays a role in regulation of apoptosis in ClC-3 and the Smads signaling pathway, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study determined possible signal transduction mechanisms based on CIC-3 expression, which accordingly affected apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells in a glutamate-induced retinal ganglion cell RGC-5 apoptosis model. Results revealed significantly increased cell survival rate and significantly decreased apoptosis rate following apoptosis of ClC-3 cDNA-transfected glutamate-induced retinal ganglion cells. Following inhibition of the ClC-3 chloride channel using RNAi technology, cell survival and apoptosis rates were reversed. In addition, expression of transforming growth factor β2, Smads2, Smads3, Smads4, and Smads7 increased to varying degrees. These results suggest that ClC-3 chloride channel plays a protective role in glutamate-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, and transforming growth factor β/Smads signal transduction pathways are involved in this process.

  11. Mutational analysis of the complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21)-C3d interaction reveals a putative charged SCR1 binding site for C3d. (United States)

    Hannan, Jonathan P; Young, Kendra A; Guthridge, Joel M; Asokan, Rengasamy; Szakonyi, Gerda; Chen, Xiaojiang S; Holers, V Michael


    We have characterized the interaction between the first two short consensus repeats (SCR1-2) of complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) and C3d in solution, by utilising the available crystal structures of free and C3d-bound forms of CR2 to create a series of informative mutations targeting specific areas of the CR2-C3d complex. Wild-type and mutant forms of CR2 were expressed on the surface of K562 erythroleukemia cells and their binding ability assessed using C3dg-biotin tetramers complexed to fluorochrome conjugated streptavidin and measured by flow cytometry. Mutations directed at the SCR2-C3d interface (R83A, R83E, G84Y) were found to strongly disrupt C3dg binding, supporting the conclusion that the SCR2 interface reflected in the crystal structure is correct. Previous epitope and peptide mapping studies have also indicated that the PILN11GR13IS sequence of the first inter-cysteine region of SCR1 is essential for the binding of iC3b. Mutations targeting residues within or in close spatial proximity to this area (N11A, N11E, R13A, R13E, Y16A, S32A, S32E), and a number of other positively charged residues located primarily on a contiguous face of SCR1 (R28A, R28E, R36A, R36E, K41A, K41E, K50A, K50E, K57A, K57E, K67A, K67E), have allowed us to reassess those regions on SCR1 that are essential for CR2-C3d binding. The nature of this interaction and the possibility of a direct SCR1-C3d association are discussed extensively. Finally, a D52N mutant was constructed introducing an N-glycosylation sequence at an area central to the CR2 dimer interface. This mutation was designed to disrupt the CR2-C3d interaction, either directly through steric inhibition, or indirectly through disruption of a physiological dimer. However, no difference in C3dg binding relative to wild-type CR2 could be observed for this mutant, suggesting that the dimer may only be found in the crystal form of CR2.

  12. Construction of stable Ta3N5/g-C3N4 metal/non-metal nitride hybrids with enhanced visible-light photocatalysis (United States)

    Jiang, Yinhua; Liu, Peipei; Chen, YeCheng; Zhou, Zhengzhong; Yang, Haijian; Hong, Yuanzhi; Li, Fan; Ni, Liang; Yan, Yongsheng; Gregory, Duncan H.


    In this paper, a novel Ta3N5/g-C3N4 metal/non-metal nitride hybrid was successfully synthesized by a facile impregnation method. The photocatalytic activity of Ta3N5/g-C3N4 hybrid nitrides was evaluated by the degradation of organic dye rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, and the result indicated that all Ta3N5/g-C3N4 samples exhibited distinctly enhanced photocatalytic activities for the degradation of RhB than pure g-C3N4. The optimal Ta3N5/g-C3N4 composite sample, with Ta3N5 mass ratio of 2%, demonstrated the highest photocatalytic activity, and its degradation rate constant was 2.71 times as high as that of pure g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of this Ta3N5/g-C3N4 metal/metal-free nitride was predominantly attributed to the synergistic effect which increased visible-light absorption and facilitated the efficient separation of photoinduced electrons and holes. The Ta3N5/g-C3N4 hybrid nitride exhibited excellent photostability and reusability. The possible mechanism for improved photocatalytic performance was proposed. Overall, this work may provide a facile way to synthesize the highly efficient metal/metal-free hybrid nitride photocatalysts with promising applications in environmental purification and energy conversion.

  13. Comparison of Methods of Identifying Helicobacter hepaticus in B6C3F1 Mice Used in a Carcinogenesis Bioassay


    Fox, James G.; MacGregor, Judith A.; Shen, Zeli; Li, Xiantang; Lewis, Robert; Dangler, Charles A.


    In a long-term rodent bioassay evaluating the carcinogenicity of triethanolamine, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice, based on a marginal increase in the number of hepatocellular adenomas and hepatoblastomas. Interpretation was complicated by the presence of Helicobacter hepaticus in selected silver-stained liver sections which also had histological evidence of karyomegaly and oval cell hyperplasia. An increase in numbers of liver tumors, as evidence of ...

  14. The generation of C-3α epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and its biological effects on bone mineral density in adult rodents. (United States)

    Bianchini, Christina; Lavery, Paula; Agellon, Sherry; Weiler, Hope A


    The source and function of C-3α epimer of 25(OH)D (C-3 epimer) is unknown. The objectives were to (1) establish if increasing doses of vitamin D (VD) results in a proportionate dose-response in C-3 epimer; and (2) determine the biological response of bone to C-3 epimer treatment. Sprague Dawley rats (12 weeks, n = 36 female, n = 36 male) were randomized to control AIN93-M diet (1 IU VD3/g diet) or an experimental diet for 8 weeks containing VD3 at 2 or 4 IU/g diet, C-3 epimer at 0.5 or 1 IU/g diet or 25(OH)D (0.5 IU/g diet). BW and food consumption were measured weekly. Blood was sampled at week 0, 4, and 8 for assessment of VD metabolites and bone metabolism biomarkers. DXA (week 0, 4, and 8) and in vivo micro CT (μCT) (week 0 and 8) were performed in vivo plus ex vivo μCT imaging and bone biomechanics. Dietary intake and anthropometry did not differ among diet groups. The dose-response of VD generated significantly elevated C-3 epimer only in females with concentrations of 4 IU VD diet group [mean 84.6 (62.5) nmol/L] exceeding control [mean 21.4 (18.5) nmol/L, p = 0.005]. Both sexes in the 25(OH)D group did not show significant increases in C-3 epimer, whereas 0.5 and 1 IU epimer groups exceeded 100 nmol/L of C-3 epimer by 8 weeks. These data suggest C-3 epimer is endogenously generated with higher intakes of VD. Endogenous and exogenous C-3 epimer accumulates in serum without impact upon bone health outcomes in a healthy young adult model over 8 weeks.

  15. Nqrs Data for C3H12INO7 [C3H7NO2·HIO3·2(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0646) (United States)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C3H12INO7 [C3H7NO2·HIO3·2(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0646)

  16. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in male and female B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Ghanayem, Burhan I; Nyska, Abraham; Haseman, Joseph K; Bucher, John R


    Acrylonitrile is a heavily produced unsaturated nitrile, which is used in the production of synthetic fibers, plastics, resins, and rubber. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in rats after exposure via gavage, drinking water, or inhalation. No carcinogenicity studies of acrylonitrile in a second animal species were available. The current studies were designed to assess the carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile in B6C3F1 mice of both sexes. Acrylonitrile was administered by gavage at 0, 2.5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/day, 5 days per week, for 2 years. Urinary thiocyanate and N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine were measured as markers of exposure to acrylonitrile. In general, there were dose-related increases in urinary thiocyanate and N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine concentrations in all dosed groups of mice and at all time points. Survival was significantly (p acrylonitrile-dosed groups. In female mice, the incidence of benign or malignant granulosa cell tumors (combined) in the ovary in the 10 mg/kg dose group was greater than that in the vehicle control group, but because of a lack of dose response, this was considered an equivocal finding. In addition, the incidences of atrophy and cysts in the ovary of the 10 and 20 mg/kg dose groups were significantly increased. The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased in female mice treated with acrylonitrile at 10 mg/kg/day for 2 years. This was also considered an equivocal result. In conclusion, these studies demonstrated that acrylonitrile causes multiple carcinogenic effects after gavage administration to male and female B6C3F1 mice for 2 years.

  17. Effects of ClC-3 gene overexpression on bone mass and structure in mice%ClC-3基因过表达对小鼠骨量和骨结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪源; 王立伟; 陈丽新; 邓志钦; 吕瑞玲; 王海波; 高宏; 梁协稠; 谭秋婵; 朱林燕; 李青南


    [ ABSTRACT] AIM:To investigate the effect of the overexpression of voltage-gated chloride channel family protein 3 ( ClC-3) gene on bones of mice .METHODS: The tail gene detection assay was used to confirm the overexpression of ClC-3.The male FVB mice of three months old were divided into two groups , the wild type ( WT) group and the ClC-3 overexpressed (ClC-3 transgene) group.The body weight, length and weight of the right tibias were measured .The upper and middle parts of the tibias were dissected , decalcified, paraffin-imbed, sectioned and stained with HE staining .The bone morphology metrology was used to analyze the changes of bone structures .The percent trabecular area (%Tb.Ar), trabecular number ( Tb.N) , trabecular width ( Tb.Wi) and trabecular separation ( Tb.Sp) of cancellous bone in the upper part of the tibia were measured.The total tissue area (T.Ar), cortical area (Ct.Ar), percent cortical area (%Ct.Ar), marrow area ( Ma.Ar) and percent marrow area (%Ma.Ar) of the cortical bone in the middle part of the tibia were detec-ted .RESULTS:The wild type mice and the ClC-3-overexpressed mice were verified by the tail gene detection assay . Compared with WT group , the body weight and the length and weight of the tibia were decreased in ClC -3 transgene mice (P<0.05).In the cancellous bones of ClC-3 transgene mice, the%Tb.Ar and Tb.Wi were decreased (P<0.05), the Tb.Sp was increased (P<0.05) and the Tb.N was not significantly changed .In the cortical bones of ClC-3 transgene mice, the T.Ar, Ct.Ar and%Ct.Ar were decreased (P<0.05), the%Ma.Ar was increased (P<0.05), and the Ma. Ar was not significantly changed .CONCLUSION:ClC-3 overexpression may lead to the reduction of the bone mass and the destructure of the cancellous and cortical bones .The results suggest that ClC-3 may be involved in the regulation of bone resorption and/or formation.%目的:研究过表达电压门控氯通道家族蛋白成员3(voltage-gated chloride channel family protein 3

  18. Molecular Cloning and Characteristics of Sheep C3d Gene%绵羊C3d基因克隆及分子特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳耀敬; 焦硕; 郭宪; 冯瑞林


    从绵羊(Ovis aries)肝脏组织克隆到了补体C3d基因并对其核苷酸序列和推导的氨基酸序列以及蛋白结构进行了分析.绵羊补体C3d基因的编码区含有909个核苷酸,编码303个氨基酸残基(GenBank No.EF681138).绵羊C3d与人(Homo sapiens)、牛(Bos taurus)、山羊(Capra hircus)、野猪(Sus scrofa)、金仓鼠(Mesocricetus auratus)、小鼠(Mus musculus)、褐鼠(Rattus norvegicus)、大袋鼠(Macropus eugenii)、兔(Oryctolagus cuniculus)和原鸡(Gallus gallus)推导出的C3d氨基酸序列的一致性分别为80.4%,94.7%,96.9%,82.8%,81.1%,80.6%,80.2%,71.0%,75.2%和60.3%.绵羊与原鸡C3d的一致性最低为60.3%,而与其它动物C3d之间的一致性则较高为71.0%~96.9%.生物学软件分析发现,绵羊C3d蛋白有2个蛋白激酶C磷酸化位点,1个氨基葡聚糖附着位点,1个酪蛋白激酶Ⅱ磷酸化位点,1个酪氨酸激酶磷酸化位点,1个十四(烷)酰化位点.绵羊C3d二级结构中螺旋和转角交替出现,其中α螺旋占55.12%,β折叠为2.31%,转角区域为42.57%,这样的结构有利于其桶状结构的形成.ESyPred3D同源建模预测可知绵羊C3d三级结构与人C3d一样也形成由核心和外层构成的桶状分子结构.

  19. Altered cognitive performance and synaptic function in the hippocampus of mice lacking C3. (United States)

    Perez-Alcazar, Marta; Daborg, Jonny; Stokowska, Anna; Wasling, Pontus; Björefeldt, Andreas; Kalm, Marie; Zetterberg, Henrik; Carlström, Karl E; Blomgren, Klas; Ekdahl, Christine T; Hanse, Eric; Pekna, Marcela


    Previous work implicated the complement system in adult neurogenesis as well as elimination of synapses in the developing and injured CNS. In the present study, we used mice lacking the third complement component (C3) to elucidate the role the complement system plays in hippocampus-dependent learning and synaptic function. We found that the constitutive absence of C3 is associated with enhanced place and reversal learning in adult mice. Our findings of lower release probability at CA3-CA1 glutamatergic synapses in combination with unaltered overall efficacy of these synapses in C3 deficient mice implicate C3 as a negative regulator of the number of functional glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus. The C3 deficient mice showed no signs of spontaneous epileptiform activity in the hippocampus. We conclude that C3 plays a role in the regulation of the number and function of glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus and exerts negative effects on hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance.

  20. The Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Hypoxic Fraction of C3H Mouse Fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yi, Chun Ja; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Purpose : To investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on hypoxic cell fraction and metabolic status in fibrosarcoma (FSa II) of C3H mouse. Materials and Methods : Fibrosarcoma (Fsa II), 6mm in diameter, growing in the right hind leg muscle of C3H mouse was used for estimation of hypoxic cell fraction using comparison of TCD{sub 50}. Radiation was given one hour after administration of GBE (100 mg/Kg, i.p.) with or without priming dose of GBE (100 mg/Kg, i.p.) given 24 hours earlier. Radiation was also given under air breathing condition or clamp hypoxia without GBE as controls. {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy was performed before and one hour after administration of GBE with or without priming dose of GBE. Results : TCD{sub 50/120's} were 81.7(77.7-86.0) Gy when irradiated under clamped hypoxia, 69.6 (66.8-72.5) Gy under air breathing condition,67.5(64.1-71.1) Gy with a single dose of GBE (100 mg/kg) given one hour before irradiation, and 62.2(59.1-65.5) Gy with two doses of GBE given at 25 hours and one hour before irradiation. The hypoxic cell fractions, estimated from TCD50/120's were 1.6% under air breathing condition, 7.2% after single dose of GBE, and 2.7% after two doses of GBE. Metabolic status of tumor, probably by increasing the blood flow and delivery of oxygen and nutrients, resulting in increased radiosensitivity of tumor.

  1. Benzene-induced hematotoxicity and bone marrow compensation in B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Farris, G M; Robinson, S N; Gaido, K W; Wong, B A; Wong, V A; Hahn, W P; Shah, R S


    Long-term inhalation exposure of benzene has been shown to cause hematotoxicity and an increased incidence of acute myelogenous leukemia in humans. The progression of benzene-induced hematotoxicity and the features of the toxicity that may play a major role in the leukemogenesis are not known. We report the hematological consequences of benzene inhalation in B6C3F1 mice exposed to 1, 5, 10, 100, and 200 ppm benzene for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 1, 2, 4, or 8 weeks and a recovery group. There were no significant effects on hematopoietic parameters from exposure to 10 ppm benzene or less. Exposure of mice to 100 and 200 ppm benzene reduced the number of total bone marrow cells, progenitor cells, differentiating hematopoietic cells, and most blood parameters. Replication of primitive progenitor cells in the bone marrow was increased during the exposure period as a compensation for the cytotoxicity induced by 100 and 200 ppm benzene. In mice exposed to 200 ppm benzene, the primitive progenitor cells maintained an increased percentage of cells in S-phase through 25 days of recovery compared with controls. The increased replication of primitive progenitor cells in concert with the reported genotoxicity induced by benzene provides the components necessary for producing an increased incidence of lymphoma in mice. Furthermore, we propose this mode of action as a biologically plausible mechanism for benzene-induced leukemia in humans exposed to high concentrations of benzene.

  2. C3 polymorphism in a Danish cystic fibrosis population and its possible association with antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, P O; Høiby, N; Morling, N;


    The C3 types of human serum are reported for a material of 113 Danish cystic fibrosis patients, age 0-30 years. The frequency of the C3F gene was 0.2832 which was significantly higher (p less than 0.0005) than the frequency found in a control group of 224 healthy babies (C3F = 0.1585). It also di...... these bacteria was not found....

  3. Functional Characterization of Autoantibodies against Complement Component C3 in Patients with Lupus Nephritis* (United States)

    Vasilev, Vasil V.; Noe, Remi; Dragon-Durey, Marie-Agnes; Chauvet, Sophie; Lazarov, Valentin J.; Deliyska, Boriana P.; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Dimitrov, Jordan D.; Roumenina, Lubka T.


    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a complication of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus. Because the complement system plays a critical role in orchestrating inflammatory and immune responses as well as in the clearance of immune complexes, autoreactivity to complement components may have considerable pathological consequences. Autoantibodies against the central complement component C3 have been reported in systemic lupus erythematosus, but their molecular mechanism and functional relevance are not well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and the functional properties of the anti-C3 autoantibodies. Anti-C3 autoantibodies were measured in plasma of 39 LN patients, and identification of their epitopes on the C3 molecule was performed. By using surface plasmon resonance, we analyzed the influence of patient-derived IgG antibodies on the interaction of C3b with Factor B, Factor H, and complement receptor 1. The capacity of these antibodies to dysregulate the C3 convertase on the surface of endothelial cell was measured by flow cytometry. Here we report that the frequency of anti-C3 autoantibodies in LN is ∼30%. They inhibited interactions of the negative complement regulators Factor H and complement receptor 1 with C3b. An enhanced C3 deposition was also observed on human endothelial cells in the presence of C3 autoantibodies. In addition, anti-C3 autoantibody levels correlated with disease activity. In conclusion, the anti-C3 autoantibodies in LN may contribute to the autoimmune pathology by their capacity to overactivate the complement system. PMID:26245903

  4. Pyrolysis Synthesized g-C3N4 for Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xin


    Full Text Available Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4 was synthesized at 520°C by the pyrolysis of cyanamide, dicyandiamide, and melamine. The samples were characterized by X–ray diffraction (XRD, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and elemental analyzer. The photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 was evaluated by the photodegrading experiments of methylene blue (MB. The results indicated that g-C3N4. A photocatalytic mechanism presumed the MB photodegradation over the C3N4 photocatalyst is attributed to photogenerated electron impelled multistep reduction of O2.

  5. Constellation C3I Crew-Ground-Experimenter-Developer Collaboration Services Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) environment will be significantly different for Constellation than for Shuttle and International Space...

  6. Two Novel C3N4 Phases: Structural, Mechanical and Electronic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Fan


    Full Text Available We systematically studied the physical properties of a novel superhard (t-C3N4 and a novel hard (m-C3N4 C3N4 allotrope. Detailed theoretical studies of the structural properties, elastic properties, density of states, and mechanical properties of these two C3N4 phases were carried out using first-principles calculations. The calculated elastic constants and the hardness revealed that t-C3N4 is ultra-incompressible and superhard, with a high bulk modulus of 375 GPa and a high hardness of 80 GPa. m-C3N4 and t-C3N4 both exhibit large anisotropy with respect to Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, and Young’s modulus. Moreover, m-C3N4 is a quasi-direct-bandgap semiconductor, with a band gap of 4.522 eV, and t-C3N4 is also a quasi-direct-band-gap semiconductor, with a band gap of 4.210 eV, with the HSE06 functional.

  7. Proteome Alterations of Hippocampal Cells Caused by Clostridium botulinum C3 Exoenzyme. (United States)

    Schröder, Anke; Rohrbeck, Astrid; Just, Ingo; Pich, Andreas


    C3bot from Clostridium botulinum is a bacterial mono-ADP-ribosylating enzyme, which transfers an ADP-ribose moiety onto the small GTPases Rho A/B/C. C3bot and the catalytic inactive mutant (C3E174Q) cause axonal and dendritic growth as well as branching in primary hippocampal neurons. In cultured murine hippocampal HT22 cells, protein abundances were analyzed in response to C3bot or C3E174Q treatment using a shotgun proteomics approach. Proteome analyses were performed at four time points over 6 days. More than 4000 protein groups were identified at each time point and quantified in triplicate analyses. On day one, 46 proteins showed an altered abundance, and after 6 days, more than 700 proteins responded to C3bot with an up- or down-regulation. In contrast, C3E174Q had no provable impact on protein abundance. Protein quantification was verified for several proteins by multiple reaction monitoring. Data analysis of altered proteins revealed different cellular processes that were affected by C3bot. They are particularly involved in mitochondrial and lysosomal processes, adhesion, carbohydrate and glucose metabolism, signal transduction, and nuclear proteins of translation and ribosome biogenesis. The results of this study gain novel insights into the function of C3bot in hippocampal cells.

  8. Growth characteristics of primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Zhou, Yefei; Xing, Xiaolei; Wang, Jibo; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Qingxiang


    The microstructure of the hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is observed by optical microscopy (OM). The initial growth morphology, the crystallographic structure, the semi-molten morphology and the stacking faults of the primary M7C3 carbide are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in-suit growth process of the primary M7C3 carbide was observed by confocal laser microscope (CLM). It is found that the primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is irregular polygonal shape with several hollows in the center and gaps on the edge. Some primary M7C3 carbides are formed by layers of shell or/and consist of multiple parts. In the initial growth period, the primary M7C3 carbide forms protrusion parallel to {} crystal planes. The extending and revolving protrusion forms the carbide shell. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show that the primary M7C3 carbide consists of multiple parts. The semi-molten M7C3 carbide contains unmelted shell and several small-scale carbides inside, which further proves that the primary M7C3 carbide is not an overall block. It is believed that the coalescence of the primary M7C3 carbides is ascribed to the growing condition of the protrusion and the gap filling process.

  9. C3 glomerulonephritis and autoimmune disease: more than a fortuitous association? (United States)

    Alexander, Mariam P; Fervenza, Fernando C; De Vriese, An S; Smith, Richard J H; Nasr, Samih H; Cornell, Lynn D; Herrera Hernandez, Loren P; Zhang, Yuzhou; Sethi, Sanjeev


    C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) results from genetic or acquired dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. A subset of patients may have clinical and biochemical characteristics compatible with an autoimmune disorder. We studied a cohort of 85 patients with confirmed C3GN (2007-2014), of which ten patients (3 male, 7 female; mean age 38.5 years) had an associated autoimmune disorder. All patients had abnormal ANA titers, 6 also had positive ds-DNA titers. At the time of presentation with C3GN, all 7 female patients had autoimmune-related presentations. Of the 3 male patients, only 1 patient had autoimmune-related presentations. Kidney biopsy showed predominantly mesangial proliferative or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. In 5 patients, the alternative pathway was evaluated. All had allele variants/polymorphisms associated with C3GN. One patient was also positive for C3Nefs. Treatment varied form conservative management to the use of prednisone alone or with cytotoxic therapy. Mean serum creatinine decreased from 2.0 to 1.4 mg/dL while proteinuria decreased from 2300 to 994 mg/24 h in 8 patients with follow-up. The study highlights the association between C3GN and autoimmune disorders, particularly in female patients. The study suggests that an autoimmune milieu may act as a trigger for the development of C3GN in genetically susceptible patients. Short-term prognosis of C3GN associated with autoimmune disorders appears excellent.

  10. Hydrogen isotopic differences between C3 and C4 land plant lipids: consequences of compartmentation in C4 photosynthetic chemistry and C3 photorespiration. (United States)

    Zhou, Youping; Grice, Kliti; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Hocart, Charles H; Gessler, Arthur; Farquhar, Graham D


    The (2) H/(1) H ratio of carbon-bound H in biolipids holds potential for probing plant lipid biosynthesis and metabolism. The biochemical mechanism underlying the isotopic differences between lipids from C3 and C4 plants is still poorly understood. GC-pyrolysis-IRMS (gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry) measurement of the (2) H/(1) H ratio of leaf lipids from controlled and field grown plants indicates that the biochemical isotopic fractionation (ε(2) Hlipid_biochem ) differed between C3 and C4 plants in a pathway-dependent manner: ε(2) HC4  > ε(2) HC3 for the acetogenic pathway, ε(2) HC4  photorespiration in C4 M and BS cells both result in C4 M chloroplastic pyruvate - the precursor for acetogenic pathway - being more depleted in (2) H relative to pyruvate in C3 cells. In addition, compartmentation in C4 plants also results in (i) the transferable H of NADPH being enriched in (2) H in C4 M chloroplasts compared with that in C3 chloroplasts for the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway pathway and (ii) pyruvate relatively (2) H-enriched being used for the mevalonic acid pathway in the cytosol of BS cells in comparison with that in C3 cells.

  11. Relative quantum yield of I-asterisk(2P1/2) in the tunable laser UV photodissociation of i-C3F7I and n-C3F7I - Effect of temperature and exciplex emission (United States)

    Smedley, J. E.; Leone, S. R.


    Wavelength-specific relative quantum yields of metastable I from pulsed laser photodissociation of i-C3F7I and n-C3F7I in the range 265-336 nm are determined by measuring the time-resolved infrared emission from the atomic I(P-2(1/2) P-2(3/2) transition. It is shown that although this yield appears to be unity from 265 to 298 nm, it decreases dramatically at longer wavelengths. Values are also reported for the enhancement of emission from metastable I due to exciplex formation at several temperatures. The exciplex formation emission increases linearly with parent gas pressure, but decreases with increasing temperature. Absorption spectra of i- and n-C3F7I between 303 and 497 K are presented, and the effect of temperature on the quantum yields at selected wavelengths greater than 300 nm, where increasing the temperature enhances the absorption considerably, are given. The results are discussed in regard to the development of solar-pumped iodine lasers.

  12. C3 rho-inhibitor for targeted pharmacological manipulation of osteoclast-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tautzenberger

    Full Text Available The C3 toxins from Clostridium botulinum (C3bot and Clostridium limosum (C3lim as well as C3-derived fusion proteins are selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytes/macrophages where the C3-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of Rho results in inhibition of Rho-signalling and characteristic morphological changes. Since the fusion toxin C2IN-C3lim was efficiently taken up into and inhibited proliferation of murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells, its effects on RAW 264.7-derived osteoclasts were investigated. C2IN-C3lim was taken up into differentiated osteoclasts and decreased their resorption activity. In undifferentiated RAW 264.7 cells, C2IN-C3lim-treatment significantly decreased their differentiation into osteoclasts as determined by counting the multi-nucleated, TRAP-positive cells. This inhibitory effect was concentration- and time-dependent and most efficient when C2IN-C3lim was applied in the early stage of osteoclast-formation. A single-dose application of C2IN-C3lim at day 0 and its subsequent removal at day 1 reduced the number of osteoclasts in a comparable manner while C2IN-C3lim-application at later time points did not reduce the number of osteoclasts to a comparable degree. Control experiments with an enzymatically inactive C3 protein revealed that the ADP-ribosylation of Rho was essential for the observed effects. In conclusion, the results indicate that Rho-activity is crucial during the early phase of osteoclast-differentiation. Other bone cell types such as pre-osteoblastic cells were not affected by C2IN-C3lim. Due to their cell-type selective and specific mode of action, C3 proteins and C3-fusions might be valuable tools for targeted pharmacological manipulation of osteoclast formation and activity, which could lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies against osteoclast-associated diseases.

  13. Glycidol modulation of the immune responses in female B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Guo, T L; McCay, J A; Brown, R D; Musgrove, D L; Butterworth, L; Munson, A E; Germolec, D R; White, K L


    The immunotoxic potential of glycidol was evaluated in female B6C3F1 mice using a battery of functional assays and three host resistance models. Glycidol was administered to the animals by oral gavage as a solution in sterile distilled water daily for 14 days at doses of 25, 125 and 250 mg/kg. In tier I, we observed that glycidol exposure produced a dose-related decrease in splenocyte IgM antibody-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells (sRBC); the spleen natural killer (NK) cell activity was also decreased. A decrease in B cell proliferative responses to anti-IgM F(ab')2 and/or interleukin-4 (IL-4) was observed while the splenocyte proliferative responses to T cell mitogen ConA and B cell mitogen LPS were not affected. The splenocyte proliferative response to allogeneic cells as evaluated in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) to DBA/2 spleen cells was not affected. In tier II, we found that exposure to glycidol decreased the number and percentage of B cells and the absolute number of CD4+ T cells in the spleen while the number of total T cells, CD8+ T cells and CD4+CD8+ T cells was not affected. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to mitomycin C-treated P815 mastocytoma was not affected; the cytotoxic activity of peritoneal macrophages was not suppressed. Moreover, the host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes was not affected although a slight increase in host resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae was observed. However, exposure to glycidol decreased host resistance to the B16F10 melanoma tumor model with the maximal tumor formation in lung observed in the high dose group. Overall, these dada support the finding that glycidol is an immunosuppressive agent in female B6C3F1 mice.

  14. C3D及其与传统侧扫声纳的比较%Comparison Between C3D and Traditional Side-scan Sonar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张济博; 潘国富; 苟诤慷; 丁维凤; 蒋维杰



  15. Linkage and association of haplotypes at the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster to familial combined hyperlipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenbaum-Voline, Sophie; Olivier, Michael; Jones, Emma L.; Naoumova, Rossitza P.; Jones, Bethan; Gau, Brian; Seed, Mary; Betteridge,D. John; Galton, David J.; Rubin, Edward M.; Scott, James; Shoulders,Carol C.; Pennacchio, Len A.


    Combined hyperlipidemia (CHL) is a common disorder of lipidmetabolism that leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thelipid profile of CHL is characterised by high levels of atherogeniclipoproteins and low levels of high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol.Apolipoprotein (APO) A5 is a newly discovered gene involved in lipidmetabolism located within 30kbp of the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Previousstudies have indicated that sequence variants in this cluster areassociated with increased plasma lipid levels. To establish whethervariation at the APOA5 gene contributes to the transmission of CHL, weperformed linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests on a large cohortof families (n=128) with familial CHL (FCHL). The linkage data producedevidence for linkage of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genomic interval to FCHL (NPL= 1.7, P = 0.042). The LD studies substantiated these data. Twoindependent rare alleles, APOA5c.56G and APOC3c.386G of this gene clusterwere over-transmitted in FCHL (P = 0.004 and 0.007, respectively), andthis was associated with a reduced transmission of the most commonAPOA1/C3/A4/A5 haplotype (frequency 0.4425) to affected subjects (P =0.013). The APOA5c.56G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL probands, whereas the second, andindependent, APOC3c.386G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL pedigree founders. Thus, this allele (or anallele in LD) may mark a quantitative trait associated with FCHL, as wellas representing a disease susceptibility locus for the condition. Thisstudy establishes that sequence variation in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster contributes to the transmission of FCHL in a substantialproportion of affected families, and that these sequence variants mayalso contribute to the lipid abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome,which is present in up to 40 percent of persons with cardiovasculardisease.

  16. TI-VAMP/VAMP7 is required for optimal phagocytosis of opsonised particles in macrophages. (United States)

    Braun, Virginie; Fraisier, Vincent; Raposo, Graça; Hurbain, Ilse; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Chavrier, Philippe; Galli, Thierry; Niedergang, Florence


    Phagocytosis relies on extension of plasmalemmal pseudopods generated by focal actin polymerisation and delivery of membranes from intracellular pools. Here we show that compartments of the late endocytic pathway, bearing the tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP/VAMP7), are recruited upon particle binding and undergo exocytosis before phagosome sealing in macrophages during Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated phagocytosis. Expression of the dominant-negative amino-terminal domain of TI-VAMP or depletion of TI-VAMP with small interfering RNAs inhibited phagocytosis mediated by Fc or complement receptors. In addition, inhibition of TI-VAMP activity led to a reduced exocytosis of late endocytic vesicles and this resulted in an early blockade of pseudopod extension, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, TI-VAMP defines a new pathway of membrane delivery required for optimal FcR-mediated phagocytosis.

  17. A combined crossed beam and theoretical investigation of O(3P)+C3H3→C3H2+OH (United States)

    Lee, Hohjai; Joo, Sun-Kyu; Kwon, Lee-Kyoung; Choi, Jong-Ho


    The radical-radical reaction dynamics of ground-state atomic oxygen [O(3P)] with propargyl radicals (C3H3) has first been investigated in a crossed beam configuration. The radical reactants O(3P) and C3H3 were produced by the photodissociation of NO2 and the supersonic flash pyrolysis of precursor propargyl bromide, respectively. A new exothermic channel of O(3P)+C3H3→C3H2+OH was identified and the nascent distributions of the product OH in the ground vibrational state (X 2Π:ν″=0) showed bimodal rotational excitations composed of the low- and high-N″ components without spin-orbit propensities. The averaged ratios of Π(A')/Π(A″) were determined to be 0.60±0.28. With the aid of ab initio theory it is predicted that on the lowest doublet potential energy surface, the reaction proceeds via the addition complexes formed through the barrierless addition of O(3P) to C3H3. The common direct abstraction pathway through a collinear geometry does not occur due to the high entrance barrier in our low collision energy regime. In addition, the major reaction channel is calculated to be the formation of propynal (CHCCHO)+H, and the counterpart C3H2 of the probed OH product in the title reaction is cyclopropenylidene (1c-C3H2) after considering the factors of barrier height, reaction enthalpy and structural features of the intermediates formed along the reaction coordinate. On the basis of the statistical prior and rotational surprisal analyses, the ratio of population partitioning for the low- and high-N″ is found to be about 1:2, and the reaction is described in terms of two competing addition-complex mechanisms: a major short-lived dynamic complex and a minor long-lived statistical complex. The observed unusual reaction mechanism stands in sharp contrast with the reaction of O(3P) with allyl radical (C3H5), a second significant conjugated hydrocarbon radical, which shows totally dynamic processes [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2017 (2002)], and should be understood based

  18. The abundance of C3H2 and other small hydrocarbons in the diffuse interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Liszt, Harvey; Cordiner, Martin; Gerin, Maryvonne


    Hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, observed in diverse environments ranging from diffuse to molecular dark clouds and strong photon-dominated regions near HII regions. Recently, two broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 4881{\\AA} and 5450{\\AA} were attributed to the linear version of propynylidene l-C3H2, a species whose more stable cyclic conformer c-C3H2 has been widely observed in the diffuse interstellar medium at radio wavelengths. This attribution has already been criticized on the basis of indirect plausibility arguments because the required column densities are quite large, N(l-C3H2)/EB-V = 4 \\times 1014 cm-2 mag-1. Here we present new measurements of N(l-C3H2) based on simultaneous 18-21 GHz VLA absorption profiles of cyclic and linear C3H2 taken along sightlines toward extragalactic radiocontinuum background sources with foreground Galactic reddening EB-V = 0.1 - 1.6 mag. We find that N(l-C3H2)/N(c-C3H2) ? 1/15 - 1/40 and N(l-C3H2)/EB-V ? 2 \\pm 1 \\times 1011 cm-2 mag-1, so ...

  19. 26 CFR 1.652(c)-3 - Termination of existence of other beneficiaries. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of existence of other beneficiaries. 1.652(c)-3 Section 1.652(c)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Termination of existence of other beneficiaries. If the existence of a beneficiary which is not an...

  20. On localized tachyon condensation in C2/Zn and C3/Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Tapobrata [Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera, 11-34014 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail:


    We study some aspects of localized tachyon condensation on non-supersymmetric orbifolds of the form C2/Zn and C3/Zn. We discuss the gauged linear sigma models for these orbifolds. We show how several features of the decay of orbifolds of C3 can be realised in terms of orbifolds of C2.

  1. Guiding Inquiry with Biography Breaks and the C3 Framework: Can One Person Make a Difference? (United States)

    Young, Terrell A.; Miner, Amy Baird


    The purpose of this article is to explore how teachers can use biography breaks to address the National Council of the Social Studies C3 inquiry framework and in the process meet requirements of the Common Core State Standards. We begin by illustrating and explaining biography breaks. Then we introduce the C3 framework and explain as well as…

  2. 76 FR 44800 - Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3) (United States)


    ... [TD 9539] RIN 1545-BI09 Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3) AGENCY: Internal... dates of applicability, see Sec. 1.280C- 4(c). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Selig, (202) 622... research credit under section 280C(c)(3). On July 16, 2009, a notice of proposed rulemaking...

  3. Electronic and Rovibrational Quantum Chemical Analysis of C$_3$P$^-$: The Next Interstellar Anion?

    CERN Document Server

    Fortenberry, Ryan C


    C$_3$P$^-$ is analogous to the known interstellar anion C$_3$N$^-$ with phosphorus replacing the nitrogen in a simple step down the periodic table. In this work, it is shown that C$_3$P$^-$ is likely to possess a dipole-bound excited state. It has been hypothesized and observationally supported that dipole-bound excited states are an avenue through which anions could be formed in the interstellar medium. Additionally, C$_3$P$^-$ has a valence excited state that may lead to further stabilization of this molecule, and C$_3$P$^-$ has a larger dipole moment than neutral C$_3$P ($\\sim 6$ D vs. $\\sim 4$ D). As such, C$_3$P$^-$ is probably a more detectable astromolecule than even its corresponding neutral radical. Highly-accurate quantum chemical quartic force fields are also applied to C$_3$P$^-$ and its singly $^{13}$C substituted isotopologues in order to provide structures, vibrational frequencies, and spectroscopic constants that may aid in its detection.

  4. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield


    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  5. Complement C3-Deficient Mice Fail to Display Age-Related Hippocampal Decline. (United States)

    Shi, Qiaoqiao; Colodner, Kenneth J; Matousek, Sarah B; Merry, Katherine; Hong, Soyon; Kenison, Jessica E; Frost, Jeffrey L; Le, Kevin X; Li, Shaomin; Dodart, Jean-Cosme; Caldarone, Barbara J; Stevens, Beth; Lemere, Cynthia A


    The complement system is part of the innate immune response responsible for removing pathogens and cellular debris, in addition to helping to refine CNS neuronal connections via microglia-mediated pruning of inappropriate synapses during brain development. However, less is known about the role of complement during normal aging. Here, we studied the role of the central complement component, C3, in synaptic health and aging. We examined behavior as well as electrophysiological, synaptic, and neuronal changes in the brains of C3-deficient male mice (C3 KO) compared with age-, strain-, and gender-matched C57BL/6J (wild-type, WT) control mice at postnatal day 30, 4 months, and 16 months of age. We found the following: (1) region-specific and age-dependent synapse loss in aged WT mice that was not observed in C3 KO mice; (2) age-dependent neuron loss in hippocampal CA3 (but not in CA1) that followed synapse loss in aged WT mice, neither of which were observed in aged C3 KO mice; and (3) significantly enhanced LTP and cognition and less anxiety in aged C3 KO mice compared with aged WT mice. Importantly, CA3 synaptic puncta were similar between WT and C3 KO mice at P30. Together, our results suggest a novel and prominent role for complement protein C3 in mediating aged-related and region-specific changes in synaptic function and plasticity in the aging brain. Significance statement: The complement cascade, part of the innate immune response to remove pathogens, also plays a role in synaptic refinement during brain development by the removal of weak synapses. We investigated whether complement C3, a central component, affects synapse loss during aging. Wild-type (WT) and C3 knock-out (C3 KO) mice were examined at different ages. The mice were similar at 1 month of age. However, with aging, WT mice lost synapses in specific brain regions, especially in hippocampus, an area important for memory, whereas C3 KO mice were protected. Aged C3 KO mice also performed better on

  6. Structural basis for duplex RNA recognition and cleavage by Archaeoglobus fulgidus C3PO (United States)

    Parizotto, Eneida A; Lowe, Edward D; Parker, James S


    Oligomeric complexes of Trax and Translin proteins, known as C3POs, participate in a variety of eukaryotic nucleic acid metabolism pathways including RNAi and tRNA processing. In RNAi in humans and Drosophila, C3PO activates pre-RISC by removing the passenger strand of the siRNA precursor duplex using nuclease activity present in Trax. It is not known how C3POs engage with nucleic acid substrates. Here we identify a single protein from Archaeoglobus fulgidus that assembles into an octamer with striking similarity to human C3PO. The structure in complex with duplex RNA reveals that the octamer entirely encapsulates a single thirteen base-pair RNA duplex inside a large inner cavity. Trax-like subunit catalytic sites target opposite strands of the duplex for cleavage, separated by seven base pairs. The structure provides insight into the mechanism of RNA recognition and cleavage by an archaeal C3PO-like complex. PMID:23353787

  7. Structural insight into the recognition of complement C3 activation products by integrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajic, Goran


    associated with microbes and apoptotic or necrotic cells. Complement not only protects against pathogens but also maintains body homeostasis. Activation of complement leads to cleavage of the complement proteins C4, C3 and C5, and their fragments have effector functions through binding to pathogen surfaces...... fragment C3a called anaphylatoxin. Complement leads to opsonization as the proteolytic fragment C3b becomes covalently linked to the activator surface through a reactive thioester. Self-surfaces are protected by complement regulators, whereas complement activation vividly amplifies on pathogens...... and their clearance by dendritic cells is mediated by αMβ2. The central molecule in my project, αMβ2 integrin, recognizes many diverse ligands including iC3b, but the molecular basis for such recognition was lacking. During my PhD I have obtained a major breakthrough in the dissection of iC3b interaction with αMβ2. I...

  8. Rare bilateral C3 cervical spondylolysis:Report of four cases and a literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaiyu Tong; Hongzhen Jiang; Xinguang Yu; Yuanzheng Zhang


    Objective:To review and discuss the etiology, diagnosis and treatment C3 of bilateral cervical spondylolysis. Methods:This was a retrospective review of the clinical features, imaginge findings, and treatment of 4 cases of bilateral C3 cervical spondylolysis, with a review of the literature. Results:A 21‐year‐old woman, a 26‐year‐old man, a 14‐year‐old boy, and a 46‐year‐old man were diagnosed with bilateral C3 cervical spondylolysis. The patients had characteristic bilateral clefts between the articular pillar and the facets of C3, as well as spina bifida on CT. Although spondylolisthesis was not observed, spinal cord compression was definitive. All patients underwent posterior decompression with satisfactory results. Conclusions:C3 cervical spondylolysis is rare condition. The cause is most likely congenital. Diagnosis is dependent on characteristic radiological features. Surgical treatment is the first choice.

  9. [Effect of CO2 fertilization on residual concentration of cypermethrin in rhizosphere of C3 and C4 plant]. (United States)

    Mu, Nan; Diao, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shu-Guang; Wang, Peng-Teng; Li, Pan-Feng


    In order to achieve sustainable economic and environmental development in China, CO2-emission reduction and phytoremediation of polluted soil must be resolved. According to the effect of biological carbon sequestration on rhizosphere microenvironment, we propose that phytoremediation of polluted soil can be enhanced by CO2 fertilization, and hope to provide information for resolving dilemma of CO2-emission reduction and phytoremediation technology. In this study, effects of CO2 fertilization on cypermethrin reduction in rhizosphere of C3-plant (bush bean) and C4-plant (maize) were investigated. Results showed that dry weight of shoot and root of bush bean (C3 plant) was increased by CO2 fertilization. Relative to ambient CO2, dry weight of root was increased by 54.3%, 31.9% and 30.0% in soil added with 0, 20 and 40 mg x kg(-1) cypermethrin respectively. Microbial biomass was increased by CO2 fertilization in rhizosphere soil added with 0 mg x kg(-1) cypermethrin, but negative effect was found in rhizosphere soil added with 20 and 40 mg x kg(-1) cypermethrin. CO2 fertilization slightly affected residual concentration of cypermethrin in rhizosphere soil added with 0 mg x kg(-1) cypermethrin, but significantly decreased residual concentration of cypermethrin as 24.0% and 16.9% in soil added with 20 and 40 mg x kg(-1) relative to ambient CO2. In maize plant, however, plant growth, microbial biomass and residual cypermethrin concentration in rhizosphere was slightly affected by CO2 fertilization, and even negative effect was observed. This study indicated that CO2 fertilization decreases the residual concentration of cypermethrin in rhizosphere of C3-plant, and it is possible to enhance phytoremediation of organic-polluted soil by C3-plant through CO2 fertilization. However, further study is needed for C4-plant.

  10. Immobilization of polymeric g-C3N4 on structured ceramic foam for efficient visible light photocatalytic air purification with real indoor illumination. (United States)

    Dong, Fan; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Yuhan; Ho, Wing-Kei; Lee, S C


    The immobilization of a photocatalyst on a proper support is pivotal for practical environmental applications. In this work, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as a rising visible light photocatalyst was first immobilized on structured Al2O3 ceramic foam by a novel in situ approach. Immobilized g-C3N4 was applied for photocatalytic removal of 600 ppb level NO in air under real indoor illumination of an energy-saving lamp. The photocatalytic activity of immobilized g-C3N4 was gradually improved as the pyrolysis temperature was increased from 450 to 600 °C. The optimized conditions for g-C3N4 immobilization on Al2O3 supports can be achieved at 600 °C for 2 h. The NO removal ratio could reach up to 77.1%, exceeding that of other types of well-known immobilized photocatalysts. Immobilized g-C3N4 was stable in activity and can be used repeatedly without deactivation. The immobilization of g-C3N4 on Al2O3 ceramic foam was found to be firm enough to overwhelm the continuous air flowing, which can be ascribed to the special chemical interaction between g-C3N4 and Al2O3. On the basis of the 5,5'-dimethyl-1-pirroline-N-oxide electron spin resonance (DMPO ESR) spin trapping and reaction intermediate monitoring, the active species produced from g-C3N4 under illumination were confirmed and the reaction mechanism of photocatalytic NO oxidation by g-C3N4 was revealed. The present work could provide new perspectives for promoting large-scale environmental applications of supported photocatalysts.

  11. Control of the collective migration of enteric neural crest cells by the Complement anaphylatoxin C3a and N-cadherin. (United States)

    Broders-Bondon, Florence; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Gazquez, Elodie; Heysch, Julie; Piel, Matthieu; Mayor, Roberto; Lambris, John D; Dufour, Sylvie


    We analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing the adhesive and migratory behavior of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) during their collective migration within the developing mouse gut. We aimed to decipher the role of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a during this process, because this well-known immune system attractant has been implicated in cephalic NCC co-attraction, a process controlling directional migration. We used the conditional Ht-PA-cre transgenic mouse model allowing a specific ablation of the N-cadherin gene and the expression of a fluorescent reporter in migratory ENCCs without affecting the central nervous system. We performed time-lapse videomicroscopy of ENCCs from control and N-cadherin mutant gut explants cultured on fibronectin (FN) and micropatterned FN-stripes with C3a or C3aR antagonist, and studied cell migration behavior with the use of triangulation analysis to quantify cell dispersion. We performed ex vivo gut cultures with or without C3aR antagonist to determine the effect on ENCC behavior. Confocal microscopy was used to analyze the cell-matrix adhesion properties. We provide the first demonstration of the localization of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a and its receptor on ENCCs during their migration in the embryonic gut. C3aR receptor inhibition alters ENCC adhesion and migration, perturbing directionality and increasing cell dispersion both in vitro and ex vivo. N-cadherin-null ENCCs do not respond to C3a co-attraction. These findings indicate that C3a regulates cell migration in a N-cadherin-dependent process. Our results shed light on the role of C3a in regulating collective and directional cell migration, and in ganglia network organization during enteric nervous system ontogenesis. The detection of an immune system chemokine in ENCCs during ENS development may also shed light on new mechanisms for gastrointestinal disorders.

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Differences in Murine Third Complement Component (C3) Opsonization and Macrophage/Leukocyte Responses to Antibody-Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoworms (United States)

    Wang, Guankui; Griffin, James I.; Inturi, Swetha; Brenneman, Barbara; Banda, Nirmal K.; Holers, V. Michael; Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Simberg, Dmitri


    Balancing surface functionalization and low immune recognition of nanomedicines is a major challenge. Opsonization with the third component of the complement protein (C3) plays a major role in immune cell recognition of nanomedicines. We used dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoworms (SPIO NWs) to study the effect of surface functionalization on C3 opsonization in mouse serum and subsequent macrophage/leukocyte recognition in vitro as well as on intravenous injection into mice. Previously, we found that in mouse serum, SPIO NWs became opsonized with C3 via complement lectin pathway. Crosslinking the dextran shell with epichlorohydrin significantly decreased C3 opsonization and uptake by mouse peritoneal macrophages. Crosslinked nanoworms (NWs) further functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or with PEG-antibody (Ab) (~160 IgG molecules/particle) did not show an increase in C3 opsonization and peritoneal macrophage uptake in vitro. Following tail vein injection into mice, plain crosslinked NWs and PEGylated crosslinked NWs showed very low C3 opsonization and mouse leukocyte uptake. However, Ab-decorated crosslinked NWs showed significant C3 opsonization and high level of complement-dependent uptake by leukocytes in mice. Decreasing the number of conjugated Abs to 46 IgG molecules/particle significantly reduced C3 opsonization and leukocyte uptake. Using fresh mouse lepirudin plasma rather than serum showed better correlation with C3 opsonization in vivo. The reason for this difference could be related to the known instability of complement classical pathway in mouse sera. Our data illustrate that fine-tuning in nanoparticle surface functionalization with Abs is required to avoid excessive complement activation and complement-mediated immune uptake in mice, and raise issues with in vitro immunological assays of nanomedicines intended to mimic in vivo conditions. PMID:28239384

  13. Removing lignin model pollutants with BiFeO3-g-C3N4 compound as an efficient visible-light-heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst. (United States)

    An, Junjian; Zhang, Guangyan; Zheng, Rongfeng; Wang, Peng


    BiFeO3-g-C3N4 nanoscaled composite was prepared with a hydrothermal method and evaluated as a highly efficient photo-Fenton like catalyst under visible light irradiation. The BiFeO3-g-C3N4 composite exhibited much stronger adsorption ability to lignin model pollutant (guaiacol) than that of BiFeO3, which may be due to the higher specific surface area (BiFeO3-g-C3N4: 35.59m(2)/g>BiFeO3: 7.42m(2)/g) and the adsorption form of π-π stack between g-C3N4 and guaiacol. The composite exhibited excellent visible light-Fenton like catalysis activity, being influenced by the solution pH value and the proportions of BiFeO3 and g-C3N4 nanosheets. Under optimal conditions with visible light irradiation, the BiFeO3-g-C3N4 composite yielded fast degradation of guaiacol with an apparent rate constant of 0.0452min(-1), which were 5.21 and 6.80 folds of that achieved by using BiFeO3 and the mixture of BiFeO3 and g-C3N4 nanosheets, respectively. The significantly enhanced visible light-Fenton like catalytic properties of the BiFeO3-g-C3N4 composite in comparison with that of BiFeO3 was attributed to a large surface area, much increased adsorption capacity and the semiconductor coupling effect between BiFeO3 and g-C3N4 in the composite.

  14. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1a - Options (Appendix A to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). (United States)


    ... paragraphs (b)(1)(v)(C) or (b)(2) of this section. Theoretical Pricing Charges (1)(i) Definitions. (A) The... Options (Appendix A to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). (a) Definitions. (1) The term unlisted option shall mean any option not included in the definition of listed option provided in paragraph (c)(2)(x) of §...

  15. Boron-Catalyzed C3-Polymerization of ω-2-Methyl Allylarsonium Ylide and Its C3/C1 Copolymers with Dimethylsulfoxonium Methylide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De


    A novel arsonium ylide, ω-2-methylallylarsonium ylide, was synthesized and used as monomer for polyhomologation with triethyborane as initiator. It was found that the terminal methyl group leads to C3 polymerization. Furthermore, the copolyhomologation of arsonium ylide with dimethylsulfoxonium methylide is reported for the first time. (Chemical Equation Presented). © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  16. Complement C3 deficiency leads to accelerated amyloid beta plaque deposition and neurodegeneration and modulation of the microglia/macrophage phenotype in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. (United States)

    Maier, Marcel; Peng, Ying; Jiang, Liying; Seabrook, Timothy J; Carroll, Michael C; Lemere, Cynthia A


    Complement factor C3 is the central component of the complement system and a key inflammatory protein activated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies demonstrated that inhibition of C3 by overexpression of soluble complement receptor-related protein y in an AD mouse model led to reduced microgliosis, increased amyloid beta (Abeta) plaque burden, and neurodegeneration. To further address the role of C3 in AD pathology, we generated a complement C3-deficient amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic AD mouse model (APP;C3(-/-)). Brains were analyzed at 8, 12, and 17 months of age by immunohistochemical and biochemical methods and compared with age-matched APP transgenic mice. At younger ages (8-12 months), no significant neuropathological differences were observed between the two transgenic lines. In contrast, at 17 months of age, APP;C3(-/-) mice showed significant changes of up to twofold increased total Abeta and fibrillar amyloid plaque burden in midfrontal cortex and hippocampus, which correlated with (1) significantly increased Tris-buffered saline (TBS)-insoluble Abeta(42) levels and reduced TBS-soluble Abeta(42) and Abeta(40) levels in brain homogenates, (2) a trend for increased Abeta levels in the plasma, (3) a significant loss of neuronal-specific nuclear protein-positive neurons in the hippocampus, and (4) differential activation of microglia toward a more alternative phenotype (e.g., significantly increased CD45-positive microglia, increased brain levels of interleukins 4 and 10, and reduced levels of CD68, F4/80, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor). Our results suggest a beneficial role for complement C3 in plaque clearance and neuronal health as well as in modulation of the microglia phenotype.

  17. 298 K rate coefficients for the reaction of OH with i-C3H7I, n-C3H7I and C3H8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Crowley


    Full Text Available The kinetics of the title reactions were investigated using the laser photolysis - resonance fluorescence method, employing the sequential two-photon dissociation of NO2 in the presence of H2 as the OH source. The 298 K rate constant for OH + C3H8 was found to be (1.15±0.1 × 10-12 cm3 s-1, in excellent agreement with the literature recommendation, and with a separate determination using HNO3 photolysis at 248 nm as the OH source. The 298 K rate constants for OH + n-C3H7I and i-C3H7I were measured for the first time and found to be (1.47±0.08 and (1.22±0.06 × 10-12 cm3 s-1, respectively. The errors include an assessment of systematic error due to concentration measurement, which, for the propyl-iodides was minimised by on-line UV-absorption spectroscopy. The implications of these results for the reactive iodine budget of the marine boundary layer are discussed.

  18. The Effect of Mental Stress on Alopecia Areata Incidence in C3H/HeJ Mice%精神压力对C3H/HeJ小鼠斑秃发病率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤球; 蔡丽萍; 江鹏亮


    Objective To study the effect of mental stress on the alopecia areata incidence in C3H/HeJ mice. Methods Eighty C3H/HeJ mice were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups: mental stress group, drug-induced group, mental stress and drug-induced group, and control group, each group including 20 mice. Follow-up a period and observe the incidence of alopecia areata after intervention, and compare the differences among groups. Results The alopecia areata incidence of mental stress group was 10%, the control group did not occur; the incidence of mental stress and drug-induced group was 90%, incidence of drug-induced group was 60%, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion The mental stress significantly increased the alopecia areata incidence of C3H/HeJ mouse.%目的 研究精神压力对C3H/HeJ小鼠斑秃发病率的影响.方法 选取C3H/HeJ小鼠80只,随机分为4组,即精神压力组、药物诱导组、精神压力与药物诱导组和对照组,每组20只,干预后观察4个月,统计斑秃发病率,并比较各组差异.结果 精神压力组斑秃发病率为10%,对照组没有发生;精神压力与药物诱导组发病率为90%,药物诱导组发病率为60%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 精神压力在药物诱导下显著提高C3H/HeJ小鼠斑秃发病率.

  19. Effects of gaseous ammonia on intracellular pH values in leaves of C 3- and C 4-plants (United States)

    Yin, Zu-Hua; Kaiser, Werner; Heber, Ulrich; Raven, John A.

    Responses of cytosolic and vacuolar pH to different concentrations (1.3-5.4 μmol NH 3 mol -1 gas or 0.940-3.825 mg NH 3 m -3 gas) of gaseous NH 3 were studied in experiments of 3 h duration by recording changes in fluorescence of pyranine and esculin in leaves of C 3 and C 4 plants. After a lag phase of 0.5-4 min, the uptake of NH 3 at 50-200 nmol m -2 leaf area s -1 increased pyranine fluorescence, indicating cytosolic alkalinization in leaves of Pelargonium zonale L. (C 3) and Amaranthus caudatus L. (C 4). A smaller increase in esculin fluorescence induced by NH 3 indicated some vacuolar alkalization in a Spinacia oleracea L. leaf. Photosynthesis and transpiration remained unchanged during exposure of illuminated leaves to NH 3 for up to 30 min (the maximum tested). CO 2 concentrations influenced the extent of cytosolic alkalinization. 500 μmol CO 2 mol -1 gas suppressed the NH 3-induced cytosolic alkalinization relative to that found in 16 μmol CO 2 mol -1 gas. The suppressing effect of CO 2 on NH 3-induced alkalization was larger in illuminated leaves of the C 4Amaranthus than the C 3Pelargonium. These results indicate that the alkaline pH shift caused by solution and protonation of NH 3 in aqueous leaf compartments is affected by assimilation of NH 3.

  20. Carcinogenicity of glycidol in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Irwin, R D; Eustis, S L; Stefanski, S; Haseman, J K


    Glycidol, a simple aliphatic epoxide, was administered by gavage in water to groups of male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Rats received 0, 37.5 or 75 mg kg-1 and mice received 0, 25 or 50 mg kg-1 daily, 5 days per week for 2 years. Exposure to glycidol was associated with dose-related increases in the incidences of neoplasms in numerous tissues in both rats and mice. Survival of rats that received glycidol was markedly reduced compared to the control because of the early induction of neoplastic disease. In male rats, mesothelioma arising in the tunica vaginalis and frequently metastasizing to the peritoneum were considered the major cause of early death. Early deaths in female rats were associated with mammary gland neoplasms. Survival of female mice that received 50 mg kg-1 was lower than the control after week 101 due primarily to euthanasia of moribund animals with mammary gland neoplasms. Survival of male mice and female mice that received 25 mg kg-1 was comparable to the control. In mice, exposure to glycidol was associated with increased incidences of neoplasms of the harderian gland in males and females, the forestomach in males and the mammary gland in females.

  1. Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Serum Complement (C3,C4) and Immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM) Levels in Post-menopausal Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi LIU; Liqun LV


    Serum C3, C4, IgG and IgM levels were evaluated in healthy post-menopausal women receiving short-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) regimens and in untreated women. Serum C3, C4, IgM and IgG levels were assessed in 54 women receiving HRT therapy (CEE 0.625 mg+MPA 2.5 mg/day), and in 54 control women not receiving HRT. The results showed that the mean serum C3 and C4 levels were significantly higher in women receiving HRT than those untreated women (P<0.01). There was significant difference in lgG and IgM levels between two groups. It was con-cluded that HRT might be involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases through inflamma- tory mechanisms, as suggested by increased serum levels of C3 and C4.

  2. Temperature dependent product yields for the spin forbidden singlet channel of the C(3P) + C2H2 reaction (United States)

    Hickson, Kevin M.; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Wakelam, Valentine


    The atomic hydrogen formation channels of the C + C2H2 reaction have been investigated using a continuous supersonic flow reactor over the 52-296 K temperature range. H-atoms were detected directly at 121.567 nm by vacuum ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence. Absolute H-atom yields were determined by comparison with the H-atom signal generated by the C + C2H4 reaction. The product yields agree with earlier crossed beam experiments employing universal detection methods. Incorporating these branching ratios in a gas-grain model of dense interstellar clouds increases the c-C3H abundance. This reaction is a minor source of C3-containing molecules in the present simulations.

  3. Temperature Dependent Product Yields for the Spin Forbidden Singlet Channel of the C(3P) + C2H2 Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Hickson, Kevin M; Wakelam, Valentine


    The atomic hydrogen formation channels of the C + C2H2 reaction have been investigated using a continuous supersonic flow reactor over the 52 K 296 K temperature range. H-atoms were detected directly at 121.567 nm by vacuum ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence. Absolute H-atom yields were determined by comparison with the H-atom signal generated by the C + C2H4 reaction. The product yields agree with earlier crossed beam experiments employing universal detection methods. Incorporating these branching ratios in a gas-grain model of dense interstellar clouds increases the cC3H abundance. This reaction is a minor source of C3 containing molecules in the present simulations.

  4. C3 glomerulonephritis: a new category of glomerulonephritis with etiopathogenic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taborda Murillo, Alejandra


    Full Text Available Introduction: Glomerulonephritis with only deposits of C3 (GN-C3 could involve alteration on the complement alternative pathway.Objective: To describe retrospectively a series of GNC3 cases and to determine the frequency with which patients continue with renal alterations and/or hypocomplementemia. Methods: The 22 cases of GN-C3 diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 at the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Antioquia (Medellin, Colombia were included. Their histological and clinical characteristics and their outcome were evaluated. Results: 14 patients were children and 12 were males. Mean age was 13 years (range: 3-65. Ten presented as a nephritic syndrome, seven as a rapidly progressive GN, three as acute renal failure, one as chronic renal failure, and one as a nephrotic-nephritic syndrome. The C3 fraction of complement was low in 21 cases. All biopsies showed proliferative GN. There was complete remission in eight patients, persistent urinalysis alterations in four, chronic renal failure in six, five of them end- stage. No follow-up was done in four. In nine patients follow-up determination of C3 serum levels was done; in all of them they normalized between 1 to 3 months after biopsy. Conclusions: GN-C3 can produce persistent or recurrent kidney alterations and end-stage renal disease. Long-term follow-up with repeated determinations of C3 is advisable.

  5. Discovery of Small Molecules for Fluorescent Detection of Complement Activation Product C3d. (United States)

    Gorham, Ronald D; Nuñez, Vicente; Lin, Jung-Hsin; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Vullev, Valentine I; Morikis, Dimitrios


    Complement activation plays a major role in many acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. C3d, a terminal product of complement activation, remains covalently attached to cells and is an excellent biomarker of complement-mediated inflammation. We employed a virtual high-throughput screening protocol to identify molecules with predicted binding to complement C3d and with intrinsic fluorescence properties to enable detection. Pharmacophore models were developed based on known C3d-ligand interactions and information from computational analysis of structural and molecular dynamics data. Iterative pharmacophore-based virtual screening was performed to identify druglike molecules with physicochemical similarity to the natural C3d ligand CR2. Hits from the pharmacophore screens were docked to C3d and ranked based on predicted binding free energies. Top-ranked molecules were selected for experimental validation of binding affinity to C3d, using microscale thermophoresis, and for their suitability to become molecular imaging agents, using fluorescence spectroscopy. This work serves as a foundation for identifying additional fluorescent molecules with high-affinity for C3d that will subsequently be explored as noninvasive in vivo diagnostics of complement-mediated inflammation, for spatiotemporal monitoring of disease progression, and for targeting therapeutics to sites of inflammation.

  6. Microstructure and Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Fe-Based (Cr, Fe)7C3 Composite Coating Fabricated by PTA Welding Process (United States)

    Yuan, Y. L.; Li, Z. G.


    Using Cr3C2 and Fe-CrNiBSi powder blends as raw materials, an α-Fe matrix composite coating reinforced by in situ (Cr, Fe)7C3 rods, with a thickness of about 3.6 mm, was fabricated on the surface of AISI A36 low carbon steel by means of plasma-transferred arc welding. The results of microstructural analysis show that in the coating, a large number of carbides, (Cr, Fe)7C3, in rod shape grow, and radiate around some half-dissolved Cr3C2 particles. The results of dry sliding wear tests at loads 100, 200, and 300 N show that the wear resistances of (Cr, Fe)7C3-reinforced coating, respectively, are about 6.9, 14.9, and 17 times higher than that of nonreinforced pure Fe-CrNiBSi alloy coating; the average value and fluctuation range of friction coefficient (FC) of (Cr, Fe)7C3-reinforced coating are less than those of pure Fe-CrNiBSi alloy coating; the main wear mechanisms of pure Fe-CrNiBSi alloy coating are ploughing, deformation, and adhesive wear, whereas those of (Cr, Fe)7C3-reinforced coating are microcutting, abrasive, and oxidation wear; the cracks on surfaces of (Cr, Fe)7C3 rods increased with the increasing loads; and the matrix α-Fe can prevent them from extending further in the composite coating.

  7. The acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration to temperature in the C3 -C4 intermediate Salsola divaricata: induction of high respiratory CO2 release under low temperature. (United States)

    Gandin, Anthony; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E; Cousins, Asaph B


    Photosynthesis in C(3) -C(4) intermediates reduces carbon loss by photorespiration through refixing photorespired CO(2) within bundle sheath cells. This is beneficial under warm temperatures where rates of photorespiration are high; however, it is unknown how photosynthesis in C(3) -C(4) plants acclimates to growth under cold conditions. Therefore, the cold tolerance of the C(3) -C(4) Salsola divaricata was tested to determine whether it reverts to C(3) photosynthesis when grown under low temperatures. Plants were grown under cold (15/10 °C), moderate (25/18 °C) or hot (35/25 °C) day/night temperatures and analysed to determine how photosynthesis, respiration and C(3) -C(4) features acclimate to these growth conditions. The CO(2) compensation point and net rates of CO(2) assimilation in cold-grown plants changed dramatically when measured in response to temperature. However, this was not due to the loss of C(3) -C(4) intermediacy, but rather to a large increase in mitochondrial respiration supported primarily by the non-phosphorylating alternative oxidative pathway (AOP) and, to a lesser degree, the cytochrome oxidative pathway (COP). The increase in respiration and AOP capacity in cold-grown plants likely protects against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria and photodamage in chloroplasts by consuming excess reductant via the alternative mitochondrial respiratory electron transport chain.

  8. Induced Resistance as a Mechanism of Biological Control by Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain C3. (United States)

    Kilic-Ekici, Ozlem; Yuen, Gary Y


    ABSTRACT Induced resistance was found to be a mechanism for biological control of leaf spot, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) using the bacterium Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3. Resistance elicited by C3 suppressed germination of B. sorokiniana conidia on the phylloplane in addition to reducing the severity of leaf spot. The pathogen-inhibitory effect could be separated from antibiosis by using heat-inactivated cells of C3 that retained no antifungal activity. Application of live or heat-killed cells to tall fescue leaves resulted only in localized resistance confined to the treated leaf, whereas treatment of roots resulted in systemic resistance expressed in the foliage. The effects of foliar and root applications of C3 were long lasting, as evidenced by suppression of conidial germination and leaf spot development even when pathogen inoculation was delayed 15 days after bacterial treatment. When C3 population levels and germination of pathogen conidia was examined on leaf segments, germination percentage was reduced on all segments from C3-treated leaves compared with segments from non-treated leaves, but no dose-response relationship typical of antagonism was found. Induced resistance by C3 was not host or pathogen specific; foliar application of heat-killed C3 cells controlled B. sorokiniana on wheat and also was effective in reducing the severity of brown patch, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, on tall fescue. Treatments of tall fescue foliage or roots with C3 resulted in significantly elevated peroxidase activity compared with the control.

  9. Abundances of C3Hx Hydrocarbons in Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini CIRS (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Bezard, B.; Vinatier, S.; Teanby, N. A.; Sung, K.; Ansty, T. M.; Irwin, P. G.; Gorius, N.; Cottini, V.; Coustenis, A.; Flasar, F. M.


    During the ten years since entry into Saturn orbit in 2004, the Cassini spacecraft has made more than 100 close flybys of Titan, measuring the properties of the atmosphere by both in situ and remote sensing techniques. Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) senses the infrared spectrum from 7-1000 μm (1400-10 cm-1), a region which exhibits the vibrational emissions of many different molecular species. CIRS has therefore been able to map the spatial distributions and temporal variations of hydrocarbons, nitriles and other gas species in Titan's atmosphere, yielding information about the chemistry and dynamics. Recently, Nixon et al. (2013) made the first detection of a new stratospheric gas species from Cassini using CIRS - the C3H6 molecule (propene). This filled in a long-time missing link in the chemical picture of Titan's lower atmosphere, since the C3H4 (propyne) and C3H8 (propane) molecules had been detected in 1981 by Voyager 1 IRIS. The inferred abundance of C3H6 is less than both C3H8 and C3H4, and this pattern is repeated also in the C2Hx molecules where C2H4 is less abundant than C2H2 and C2H6. Therefore a pattern emerges whereby: alkanes > alkynes > alkenes within the C2Hx and C3Hx chemical families in the lower stratosphere. We comment on how this trend compares to published photochemical model predictions, and also give updates on the search for C3Hx isomers (allene: CH2CCH2, and cyclopropane: c-C3H6) and C4Hx species using CIRS.

  10. Capillary Deposition of Complement C4d and C3d in Chinese Renal Allograft Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lv


    Full Text Available Background. C3d is a product of both the classic and the alternative complement cascades; however, few studies have addressed the role of C3d in renal biopsies and its relationship with long-term graft survival rate is not very clear. Methods. 94 patients with biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes were included in the study. We investigated the associations between histological findings, clinical examinations, and outcome. Results. The overall prevalence for C4dPTC and C3dPTC was 42.6% and 29.8%. There was a significant association between C3dPTC and C4dPTC (P<0.001. C3dPTC and C4dPTC were related with histological types (P=0.024 and P<0.001, resp.. The long-term survival rate for C4dPTC positive transplants was lower than that of C4dPTC negative transplants, but it was not statistic significant in our study (P=0.150. The survival rate of C3dPTC positive group was much lower than the negative group (P=0.014. Patients with double positives for C4dPTC and C3dPTC exhibited the lowest survival rate significantly different from those of the C3dPTC only and C4dPTC only groups (P=0.01 and P=0.0037. Conclusions. This longitudinal cohort study has demonstrated that C3d deposition in the PTC was closely related to renal dysfunction and pathological changes.

  11. Glomerular C3d as a novel prognostic marker for renal vasculitis. (United States)

    Villacorta, Javier; Diaz-Crespo, Francisco; Acevedo, Mercedes; Guerrero, Carmen; Campos-Martin, Yolanda; García-Díaz, Eugenio; Mollejo, Manuela; Fernandez-Juarez, Gema


    Pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis is the histologic substrate of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. Several studies in animal models have demonstrated the crucial role of complement activation in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis, but only small series have analyzed the prognostic implications of complement glomerular deposits. This study aimed to assess the clinical and prognostic implications of C3d- and C4d-positive glomerular staining in renal vasculitis. Eighty-five patients with a diagnosis of pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis were included in the study. C3d and C4d were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal antibody. The primary predictors were glomerular C3d- and C4d-positive staining. The primary end point was the cumulative percentage of patients who developed end-stage renal disease. Glomerular staining for C3d and C4d was observed in 42 (49.4%) of 85 biopsies and 38 (44.7%) of 85 biopsies, respectively. C3d-positive staining was associated with the severity of renal impairment and with a lower response rate to treatment (P=.003 and P=.04, respectively). Renal survival at 2 and 5 years was 60.9% and 51.8% in C3d-positive patients compared with 87.7% and 78.9% in C3d-negative patients (P=.04). C4d-positive staining did not show any impact in renal outcome. When adjusted by renal function and other histologic parameters, C3d staining remained as an independent predictor for renal survival (hazard ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.7; P=.03). Therefore, this study demonstrates that C3d-positive glomerular staining is an independent risk factor for the development of end-stage renal disease in ANCA-associated renal vasculitis.

  12. Rho-independent stimulation of axon outgrowth and activation of the ERK and Akt signaling pathways by C3 transferase in sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eAuer


    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury triggers the activation of RhoA in spinal motor and peripheral sensory neurons. RhoA activates a number of effector proteins including the Rho-associated kinase, ROCK, which targets the cytoskeleton and leads to inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Blockade of the Rho/ROCK pathway by pharmacological means improves axon regeneration after experimental injury. C3bot transferase, an exoenzyme produced by Clostridium botulinum, inactivates RhoA by ADP-ribosylation. Up to now it was not investigated thoroughly whether C3bot exerts positive effects on peripheral axon regeneration as well. In the present study, recombinant membrane permeable C3bot produced a small, but significant, axon outgrowth effect on peripheral sensory neurons dissociated from adult dorsal root ganglia of the rat. Neuronal overexpression of C3, however, did not enhance axonal growth. Moreover, transfection of plasmids encoding dominant negative RhoA or RhoA specific shRNAs failed to increase axonal growth. Furthermore, we show that the C3bot mutant, C3E174Q, which lacks RhoA inhibitory activity, still stimulates axonal growth. When analyzing possible signaling mechanisms we found that ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt are activated by C3bot and ERK is induced by the C3E174Q mutant. Upregulation of kinase activities by C3bot occurs significantly faster than inactivation of RhoA indicating a RhoA-independent pathway of action by C3bot. The induction of ERK signaling by C3bot was detected in embryonic hippocampal neurons, too. Taken together, although RhoA plays a central role for inhibition of axon outgrowth by myelin-derived inhibitors, it does not interfere with axonal growth of sensory neurons on a permissive substrate in vitro. C3bot blocks neuronal RhoA activity, but its positive effects on axon elongation and branching appear to be mediated by Rho independent mechanisms involving activation of axon growth promoting ERK and Akt kinases.

  13. TiO2对高C3S熟料烧成的影响%Effect of TiO2 on formation of clinker with high C3S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The effect of TiO2 on the formation of clinker with high C3S was investigated. 7 cement raw meals introduced 0, 0.5%, 1.0%,1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 3% TiO2 respectively were prepared, with potential phases components, i.e., w(C3S)=75%, w(C3A)=7%, and w(C4AF)=18%. After being calcined, the f-CaO content and paste strength of clinkers were determined. The phases and its microstructure features, the solubility of TiO2 in C3S were further analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The results showed that f-CaO content of clinker decreased significantly as the addition of TiO2 increased when the addition was below 2%, but it remained unchanged when beyond 2%, and a new phase CaO*TiO2 could be found when the addition of TiO2 was up to 3% at both 1 350 and 1 400 ℃, the limit of solubility of TiO2 in C3S at 1 400 ℃ was about 1.7% when the addition of TiO2 was 2%, with suitable addition of TiO2, C3S crystal was well-formed in clinker and the strength of clinker was higher than the controlled one. It was concluded that suitable addition of TiO2 in raw meal would improve the burnability and the strength of the clinker with high C3S.%通过外掺TiO2来改善高C3S熟料的烧成.配制7个生料样品,其潜在矿物组成均为w(C3S)=75%、w(C3A)=7%、w(C4AF)=18%,TiO2掺量分别为0、0.5%、1.0%、1.5%、2.0%、2.5%、3.0%,在设定的高温下煅烧成熟料,通过化学分析、XRD、SEM/EDS等方法,研究了TiO2对熟料易烧性、矿相形成、C3S晶体形貌和熟料强度等的影响.结果表明,掺入少量TiO2明显提高了熟料的易烧性;当TiO2掺量小于2%时,f-CaO随TiO2掺量的增加而显著降低;当TiO2掺量超过2%后,f-CaO随TiO2掺量的变化不大;当TiO2掺量达到3%时,在1 350和1 400 ℃温度煅烧的熟料中均发现了CaO*TiO2新相;掺2%TiO2在1 400℃煅烧条件下的熟料,TiO2在C3S中的固溶量约1.7%;掺入适量的TiO2,熟料中C3S结晶比较完整、

  14. Pyrolysis Synthesized g-C3N4 for Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue



    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was synthesized at 520°C by the pyrolysis of cyanamide, dicyandiamide, and melamine. The samples were characterized by X–ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and elemental analyzer. The photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 was evaluated by the photodegrading experiments of methylene blue (MB). The results indicated that g-C3N4. A photocatalytic mechanism presumed the MB photodegradation o...

  15. Improving our understanding of environmental controls on the distribution of C3 and C4 grasses. (United States)

    Pau, Stephanie; Edwards, Erika J; Still, Christopher J


    A number of studies have demonstrated the ecological sorting of C3 and C4 grasses along temperature and moisture gradients. However, previous studies of C3 and C4 grass biogeography have often inadvertently compared species in different and relatively unrelated lineages, which are associated with different environmental settings and distinct adaptive traits. Such confounded comparisons of C3 and C4 grasses may bias our understanding of ecological sorting imposed strictly by photosynthetic pathway. Here, we used MaxEnt species distribution modeling in combination with satellite data to understand the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses by comparing both large clades and closely related sister taxa. Similar to previous work, we found that C4 grasses showed a preference for regions with higher temperatures and lower precipitation compared with grasses using the C3 pathway. However, air temperature differences were smaller (2 °C vs. 4 °C) and precipitation and % tree cover differences were larger (1783 mm vs. 755 mm, 21.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively) when comparing C3 and C4 grasses within the same clade vs. comparing all C4 and all C3 grasses (i.e., ignoring phylogenetic structure). These results were due to important differences in the environmental preferences of C3 BEP and PACMAD clades (the two main grass clades). Winter precipitation was found to be more important for understanding the distribution and environmental niche of C3 PACMADs in comparison with both C3 BEPs and C4 taxa, for which temperature was much more important. Results comparing closely related C3 -C4 sister taxa supported the patterns derived from our modeling of the larger clade groupings. Our findings, which are novel in comparing the distribution and niches of clades, demonstrate that the evolutionary history of taxa is important for understanding the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses, and should have implications for how grasslands will respond to global change.

  16. A recombinant fusion toxin based on enzymatic inactive C3bot1 selectively targets macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Dmochewitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The C3bot1 protein (~23 kDa from Clostridium botulinum ADP-ribosylates and thereby inactivates Rho. C3bot1 is selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytes/macrophages but not of other cell types such as epithelial cells or fibroblasts. Most likely, the internalization occurs by a specific endocytotic pathway via acidified endosomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we tested whether enzymatic inactive C3bot1E174Q serves as a macrophage-selective transport system for delivery of enzymatic active proteins into the cytosol of such cells. Having confirmed that C3bot1E174Q does not induce macrophage activation, we used the actin ADP-ribosylating C2I (∼50 kDa from Clostridium botulinum as a reporter enzyme for C3bot1E174Q-mediated delivery into macrophages. The recombinant C3bot1E174Q-C2I fusion toxin was cloned and expressed as GST-protein in Escherichia coli. Purified C3bot1E174Q-C2I was recognized by antibodies against C2I and C3bot and showed C2I-specific enzyme activity in vitro. When applied to cultured cells C3bot1E174Q-C2I ADP-ribosylated actin in the cytosol of macrophages including J774A.1 and RAW264.7 cell lines as well as primary cultured human macrophages but not of epithelial cells. Together with confocal fluorescence microscopy experiments, the biochemical data indicate the selective uptake of a recombinant C3-fusion toxin into the cytosol of macrophages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we demonstrated that C3bot1E174Q can be used as a delivery system for fast, selective and specific transport of enzymes into the cytosol of living macrophages. Therefore, C3-based fusion toxins can represent valuable molecular tools in experimental macrophage pharmacology and cell biology as well as attractive candidates to develop new therapeutic approaches against macrophage-associated diseases.

  17. 17 CFR 240.15c3-3a - Exhibit A-formula for determination reserve requirement of brokers and dealers under § 240.15c3-3. (United States)


    ... determination reserve requirement of brokers and dealers under § 240.15c3-3. 240.15c3-3a Section 240.15c3-3a... Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-3a Exhibit A—formula for determination reserve requirement of brokers and dealers under § 240.15c3-3. Credits Debits 1. Free credit balances and other...

  18. In vivo evaluation of [{sup 11}C]-3-[2-[(3-methoxyphenylamino)carbonyl]ethenyl]-4,6-dichloroindole- 2-carboxylic acid ([{sup 11}C]3MPICA) as a PET radiotracer for the glycine site of the NMDA ion channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, Rikki N. E-mail:; Sultana, Abida; Laruelle, M


    Alterations in normal NMDA receptor composition, densities and function have been implicated in the pathophysiology of certain neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Chorea, schizophrenia, alcoholism and stroke. In our first effort to provide PET ligands for the NMDA/glycine site, we reported the synthesis of a novel high affinity glycine site ligand, 3-[2-[(3-methoxyphenylamino)carbonyl]ethenyl]-4,6-dichloroindole-2 -carboxylic acid ((3MPICA), Ki=4.8{+-}0.9 nM) and the corresponding carbon-11 labeled PET ligand, [{sup 11}C]3MPICA. We report here the in vivo evaluation of [{sup 11}C]3MPICA in rats. Biodistribution analysis revealed that [{sup 11}C]3MPICA exhibited low degree of brain penetration and high blood concentration. The average uptake at two minutes was highest in the cerebellum (0.19{+-}0.04 %ID/g) and thalamus (0.18{+-}0.05 %ID/g) and lower in the hippocampus (0.13{+-}0.03) and frontal cortex (0.11{+-}0.04 %ID/g). The radioactivity cleared quickly from all brain regions examined. Administration of unlabeled 3MPICA (1 mg/kg, i.v.) revealed at 60 minutes a small general reduction in regional brain radioactivity concentrations in treated animals versus controls, however, the blood radioactivity concentration was also lowered, confounding the assessment of the degree of saturable binding. Warfarin co-administration (100 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly lowered blood activity at 5 minutes post-injection (-27%, P<0.01) but failed to significantly increase the brain uptake of the radiotracer. In view of these results, and especially considering the low brain penetration of this tracer, [{sup 11}C]3MPICA does not appear to be a promising PET radiotracer for in vivo use.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-jin Qiu; Mei-xiang Wan


    4-(3-(4-((4-Nitrophenyl)azo)phenyloxy)propyl)aminobenzene sulfonic acid (C3-ABSA) was synthesized by the reaction of 3-bromide-l-(4-((4-nitrophenyl)azo)phenyloxy)propane (B3) with sodiump-aminobenzene sulfonic acid (ABSA)and acidification with hydrochloric acid. The C3-ABSA was characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR and second ion mass spectrum (SIMS). The molecular formula of dehydrated C3-ABSA was estimated to be ca. C21H20O6N4S by SIMS. Its decomposition temperature was measured by TGA to be ca. 232°C. It was found that tubular polyaniline (PANI) with a conductivity of 1.1 S/cm at room temperature was successfully synthesized by in-situ doping polymerization in the presence of C3-ABSA as a dopant.

  20. Photocatalytic C−H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g‑C3N4 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A highly selective and sustainable method has been developed for the oxidation of methyl arenes and their analogues. The VO@g-C3N4 catalyst is very efficient in the...

  1. Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Photoactive VO@g‑C3N4 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A photoactive VO@g-C3N4 catalyst has been developed for the selective oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. The visible light mediated...

  2. Recent Progress in Photocatalysis of g-C3N4%g-C3N4光催化性能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚增勇; 原博; 颜廷楠


    利用光催化剂将太阳能转化为人类可以直接利用的能量,并用其解决地球资源的枯竭和生存环境的恶化是可再生清洁能源研究的一个方向。g-C3N4的独特结构赋予其良好的光催化性能,使之成为光催化领域的研究热点。目前在光催化领域, g-C3N4主要用于催化污染物分解、水解制氢制氧、有机合成及氧气还原。在实际应用中,为进一步提高 g-C3N4的光催化效果,科研工作者开发了多种改进方法,例如物理复合改性、化学掺杂改性、微观结构调整等。本文主要论述了 g-C3N4在光催化领域的应用以及光催化性能的改进方法,简要阐述了光催化和各种改进方法的机理,分析了目前g-C3N4在光催化领域面临的问题和挑战,展望了g-C3N4的应用前景。%Based on photocatalysts, solar energy can be converted into the energy that human can directly utilize, so as to solve the problems such as the depletion of the Earth’s resources and the deterioration of living environments. The unique structure of g-C3N4 gives it good photocatalytic performance. Its development and utilization have been a research hotspot recently. Generally, g-C3N4 can be used in the degradation of pollutions, hydrolysis to generate hy-drogen and oxygen, organic synthesis and oxygen reduction. However, in practical, its performance is not satisfactory. Researchers have tried many new methods to improve its photocatalysis, which include physical coupling modification, chemical bonding modification and microstructural modification. The review summarizes its photocatalysis and im-proving methods, briefly illustrates the catalysis mechanism, and presents detailed discussions and analysis on the ex-isting problems as well as potential applications.

  3. Surgical treatment for Pilon fracture of C2 and C3 type%C2、C3型Pilon骨折的手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓民; 谢金兔



  4. Maternal and offspring genetic variants of AKR1C3 and the risk of childhood leukemia


    Liu, Chen-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Pan, Pi-Chen; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Chi-Kung; Su, Li; Xu, Xin; Li, Yi; Christiani, David C.


    The aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) gene located on chromosome 10p15-p14, a regulator of myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation, represents an important candidate gene for studying human carcinogenesis. In a prospectively enrolled population-based case–control study of Han Chinese conducted in Kaohsiung in southern Taiwan, a total of 114 leukemia cases and 221 controls

  5. Introduction to Command, Control and Communications (C3) through comparative case analysis


    Berg, Scott A.


    Approved for public rerlease; distribution is unlimited This thesis contains material for the course, Introduction to Command, Control and Communications (C3). The first part of the thesis describes selected principles and concepts of C3 related to communication management, interoperability, command structure and standardization. The Crisis Action System is described emphasizing the roles and functions of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. A discussion of...

  6. Effect of CuO on Crystal Grain Size and Crystal Structure of C3S%CuO对C3S亚晶尺寸及晶型的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石立安; 柯凯


    Polymorphism of tricalcium silicate were prepared using Ca( OH)2 and SiO2 as crude materials and CuO as doping agent by calcination method. The influences of CuO agent on tricalcium silicate phase polymorphism transformation proeess and grains growth were studied wilh phase diagram analysis, XRD, IR and MDI jade 5. 0 sofeware. The results showed that; according to phase analysis of CaO-CuO and CuO-SiO2, CuO accelerated solid reaction of CaO-SiO2; when added CuO addition, the crystal form and partieles growth were both effected. When CuO addition was below 1. 5% , the reducing tendency of C3S grain growth was prominent; if the addtion exceed 1.5%, the reducing tendency become slow, and crystal form changed from T to R when adding,but when the addition exceed 2.0% , R form change hack to M1. From IR analysis, the symmetrical eharateristic of C3S crystal increased through observation of the spectral at 818 cm-1 and 999 cm-1 fade and appear, and the advection increment and decrease of dilation-libration at 497 cm-1 .%以Ca(OH)2、SiO2化学纯为原料,分别掺人不同质量分数的CuO制备不同晶型组成的C3S,运用相图分析、XRD、IR测试方法及MDI jade5.0软件对C3S亚晶生长、晶型转变过程进行研究.结果表明:由CaO-CuO、CuO-SiO2二元相图分析,CuO促进CaO-SiO2固相反应效应明显;C3S经CuO掺杂后,其晶型转变和亚晶成长均受到影响.当CuO掺量小于1.5%时,C3S亚晶尺寸减小趋势明显,大于1.5%时,减小趋势减缓.且C3S晶型随掺量变化先由T型向R型转换,但掺量大于2.0%时,R型又逐步转换为M1型.同时IR分析表明,818cm-1、999cm-1谱带处的先减弱后增强及497 cm-1伸缩振动平移先增大后减小,均说明C3S晶体对称性先增大后减小的变化趋势.

  7. 小檗碱对C3H10T1/2脂肪细胞自噬的影响%Effects of berberine on autophagy in C3H10T1/2 adipocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓燕; 邓玉杰; 杨键; 吕鹏飞; 杨颖


    Objective To assess the effects ofberberine on autophagy in C3H10T1/2 adipocytes.Methods C3H10T1/2 cells,a pluripotent stem-cell line of mesodermal origin,were induced to differentiate into mature adipocytes,and then were treated with berberine,The expression of autophagy marker protein LC3 Ⅱ/Ⅰ and autophagy substrate P62 was determined by Western blot ; after treating C3 H 10T1/2 cells with berberine and lysosomal inhibitor,chloroquine,autophagy flux was assessed by Western blot.Autophagosome was observed by transmission electron microscopy after berberine treatment.Results (1) After berberine treatment,the expression of LC3 Ⅱ / Ⅰin C3H10T1/2 adipocytes was reduced and P62 was increased in a time-and dose-dependent manner(P<0.05 or P<0.01) ; (2) Following treatment with chloroquine and berberine,the protein level of LC3 Ⅱ/Ⅰ was decreased (P<0.05); (3) The number of autophagosome was decreased apparently after berberine treatment.Conclusions Berberine inhibits autophagy in C3H10T1/2 adipocytes.%目的 探讨小檗碱对C3H10T1/2脂肪细胞自噬的影响.方法 诱导中胚层的多能干细胞株C3H10T1/2分化成脂肪细胞,用小檗碱处理,Western印迹监测自噬标志蛋白LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ及自噬底物P62的变化;用小檗碱和溶酶体抑制剂氯喹共同处理,Western印迹监测自噬通量变化;透射电子显微镜观察小檗碱处理后自噬体的数量变化.结果 (1)小檗碱处理后,Western印迹显示LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ降低,P62增高,并呈时间与剂量依赖性(P<0.05或P<0.01);(2)氯喹处理后,Western印迹显示LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ增高,与氯喹组相比,氯喹和小檗碱共同处理后,Western印迹显示LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ降低(P<0.05);(3)透射电子显微镜显示小檗碱处理后自噬体数量明显减少.结论 小檗碱能够抑制C3H10T1/2脂肪细胞的自噬.

  8. Detection of inhibitors of Candida albicans Cdr transporters using a diS-C3(3 fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eSzczepaniak


    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major cause of opportunistic and life-threatening, systemic fungal infections. Hence new antifungal agents, as well as new methods to treat fungal infections, are still needed. The application of inhibitors of drug-efflux pumps may increase the susceptibility of C. albicans to drugs. We developed a new fluorescence method that allows the in vivo activity evaluation of compounds inhibiting of C. albicans transporters. We show that the potentiometric dye 3,3′-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide diS-C3(3 is pumped out by both Cdr1 and Cdr2 transporters. The fluorescence labeling with diS-C3(3 enables a real-time observation of the activity of C. albicans Cdr1 and Cdr2 transporters. We demonstrate that enniatin A and beauvericin show different specificities toward these transporters. Enniatin A inhibits diS-C3(3 efflux by Cdr1 while beauvericin inhibits both Cdr1p and Cdr2p.

  9. Carbon isotope discrimination as a diagnostic tool for C4 photosynthesis in C3-C4 intermediate species. (United States)

    Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; von Caemmerer, Susanne


    The presence and activity of the C4 cycle in C3-C4 intermediate species have proven difficult to analyze, especially when such activity is low. This study proposes a strategy to detect C4 activity and estimate its contribution to overall photosynthesis in intermediate plants, by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) coupled to gas exchange systems to simultaneously measure the CO2 responses of CO2 assimilation (A) and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) under low O2 partial pressure. Mathematical models of C3-C4 photosynthesis and Δ are then fitted concurrently to both responses using the same set of constants. This strategy was applied to the intermediate species Flaveria floridana and F. brownii, and to F. pringlei and F. bidentis as C3 and C4 controls, respectively. Our results support the presence of a functional C4 cycle in F. floridana, that can fix 12-21% of carbon. In F. brownii, 75-100% of carbon is fixed via the C4 cycle, and the contribution of mesophyll Rubisco to overall carbon assimilation increases with CO2 partial pressure in both intermediate plants. Combined gas exchange and Δ measurement and modeling is a powerful diagnostic tool for C4 photosynthesis.

  10. 基于PSoC3的步进电机控制的研究%Study of stepper motor control based on PSoC3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峰; 李智华; 张帅


    电路结构简单,控制策略高效可靠的控制技术是所有步进电机控制的共同目标.本文介绍了一款基于PSoC3芯片设计的步进电机控制技术.整个设计采用两相双极控制技术,外围电路简单可靠,节省时间和开支.设计的步进电机具有微步数(pace)可调,电机转速可调,转向可调等多种可控功能.样机测试表明电机工作稳定高效,安全可靠.%Simple circuit structure, efficient control strategy, and reliable control are the common goals of control of all stepper motors. Fortunately, Cypress introduced the new PSoC3 in 2009,and simultaneously launched an integrated development environment dedicated to PSoC3-PSoC Creator, and this brings a new pattern to stepper motor control and provides the maximum possibility for its implementation. This article describes a stepper motor control technology based on PSoC3 chip. The design used two-phase bipolar control technology with simple external circuit which will save time and money. The stepper motor to be designed has many control functions; adjustable micro-step pace, adjustable motor speed, adjustable steering and so on. Finally, under the various subdivision paces of a prototype the voltage of MOS pin has been tested, and good waveform and data have been obtained.

  11. Immune complex glomerulonephritis following bone marrow transplantation in C3 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Welch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of circulating complement in host defense and immune disease is well established. Although a number of cells and tissues are capable of synthesizing complement components locally, the importance of such local synthesis in immune disease has been difficult to establish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used bone marrow transplantation (BMT between C3 knockout (C3KO and wild type (WT mice to construct animals that were discordant for systemic (hepatic and local (monocytic C3 synthetic capacity. An immune complex glomerulonephritis (GN was then induced using intraperitoneal injections of horse spleen apoferritin (HSA with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS adjuvant. All HSA/LPS animals developed a proliferative GN with glomerular infiltration by monocytes. By sensitive ELISA, monocyte C3 synthesis could be detected in C3KO animals transplanted with WT bone marrow cells. Despite this, there were no significant differences among groups of mice in measures of clinical (proteinuria, renal function or histologic (glomerular cellularity, crescents disease severity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this model of GN, local synthesis of C3 by infiltrating cells does not appear to be of pathologic importance.

  12. Synthesis and photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4 nanosheets via liquid phase stripping (United States)

    Miao, Jilin; Xu, Guangqing; Liu, Jiaqin; Lv, Jun; Wu, Yucheng


    Well dispersed g-C3N4 nanosheets were prepared by exfoliating the bulk g-C3N4 in concentrated sulfuric acid. Phase structures, morphologies and elemental compositions were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, respectively. Optical absorption and photoluminescence were also used to explain the optical performances of samples. NaI, BQ and IPA were used as the sacrificial agents for studying the surface reactions in the photocatalytic process. By the precipitation of g-C3N4 nanosheets in ethanol with different ratios between concentrated sulfuric acid and ethyl alcohol, well dispersed g-C3N4 nanosheets with high specific surface area can be obtained. The optimized g-C3N4 (1:10) nanosheets achieve the highest photocatalytic activities under UV light illumination, which can degrade 10 mg/L RhB about 98% in 60 min, which is 6 times that of bulk g-C3N4 under UV light.

  13. Thermomagnetic analysis of meteorites, 3. C3 and C4 chondrites (United States)

    Herndon, J.M.; Rowe, M.W.; Larson, E.E.; Watson, D.E.


    Thermomagnetic analysis was made on samples of all known C3 and C4 chondrites in a controlled oxygen atmosphere. Considerable variation was noted in the occurrence of magnetic minerals, comparable to the variation observed earlier in the C2 chondrites. Magnetite was found as the only major magnetic phase in samples of only three C3 chondrites (2-4 wt.%) and the Karoonda C4 chondrite (7.7 wt.%). The magnetite content of these three C3 chondrites is only about one-third that observed in the C1 and C2 chondrites which were found to contain magnetite as the only magnetic phase. Five C3 chondrites were observed to undergo chemical change during heating, producing magnetite: this behavior is characteristic of troilite oxidation. Upper limits on initial magnetite content of about 1-9% were established for these meteorites. Samples of the remaining five C3 chondrites and the Coolidge C4 chondrite were found to contain both magnetite and metallic iron. In two samples, iron containing ???2% Ni was observed, while in the other four, the iron contained 6-8 wt.% Ni. In addition to containing both magnetite and iron metal, three of these samples reacted during heating to form additional magnetite. Variations in the magnetic mineralogy and, hence by inference bulk mineralogy, of C3 and C4 chondrites indicate a more complex genesis than is evident from whole-rock elemental abundance patterns. ?? 1976.

  14. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits: case report and literature review. (United States)

    Darouich, Sihem; Goucha, Rym; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Zekri, Semy; Kheder, Adel; Ben Maiz, Hédi


    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits (MPGNC3) is an uncommon condition characterized by overt glomerular C3 deposits in the absence of immunoglobulins and intramembranous dense deposits. Here the authors describe the clinical and morphological features of primary MPGNC3 in a 13-year-old boy and critically review the previously published cases. The patient presented with nephrotic syndrome and microscopic hematuria. Blood tests revealed very low circulating C3 levels. The renal biopsy exhibited subendothelial, subepithelial, and mesangial deposits, with C3 but not immunoglobulins seen on immunofluorescence. This case and the review of the literature indicate that the serum complement profile with decreased levels of C3 and normal levels of classical pathway components together with glomerular deposits containing exclusively complement C3 is highly suggestive of alternative pathway activation. The diagnosis of acquired and/or genetic complement abnormalities in some cases supports that complement dysregulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of MPGNC3. Such data show great promise to provide new therapy strategies based on modulation of the complement system activity.

  15. The Hydration and Carbonation of Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) in the Presence of Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Quanyuan; C. D. Hills; M. Tyrer; I. Slipper


    The hydration of tricalcium aluminate (C3A) has a significant effect on the effectiveness of cement-based systems. In addition, the carbonation of hydration products of C3A is particularly important in respect of durability performance. The present work investigates the hydration and carbonation reactions of C3A and the changes induced by the presence of the heavy metal ions such as Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). During hydration of C3A, gehlenite hydrate, hydrogarnet, calcium monoaluminate (C4AHx) and calcium carboaluminate were detected in C3A pastes except the Zn2+doped paste, where hydrogarnet did not form. The examinations revealed that heavy metals coexisted with gehlenite hydrate, calcium monoaluminate (C4AHx) and calcium carboaluminate, inhibiting the formation of hydrogarnet. Hydrating C3A was liable to be carbonated on exposure to air and carbon dioxide, especially in the presence of heavy metals, resulting in the formation of carboaluminate and/or calcium carbonate. The presence of heavy metals in-fluenced the polymorphism of calcium carbonate,ndicating that heavy metals could co-precipitate with calcium to form a carbonate solid solution.

  16. C3G regulates cortical neuron migration, preplate splitting and radial glial cell attachment. (United States)

    Voss, Anne K; Britto, Joanne M; Dixon, Mathew P; Sheikh, Bilal N; Collin, Caitlin; Tan, Seong-Seng; Thomas, Tim


    Neuronal migration is integral to the development of the cerebral cortex and higher brain function. Cortical neuron migration defects lead to mental disorders such as lissencephaly and epilepsy. Interaction of neurons with their extracellular environment regulates cortical neuron migration through cell surface receptors. However, it is unclear how the signals from extracellular matrix proteins are transduced intracellularly. We report here that mouse embryos lacking the Ras family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, C3G (Rapgef1, Grf2), exhibit a cortical neuron migration defect resulting in a failure to split the preplate into marginal zone and subplate and a failure to form a cortical plate. C3G-deficient cortical neurons fail to migrate. Instead, they arrest in a multipolar state and accumulate below the preplate. The basement membrane is disrupted and radial glial processes are disorganised and lack attachment in C3G-deficient brains. C3G is activated in response to reelin in cortical neurons, which, in turn, leads to activation of the small GTPase Rap1. In C3G-deficient cells, Rap1 GTP loading in response to reelin stimulation is reduced. In conclusion, the Ras family regulator C3G is essential for two aspects of cortex development, namely radial glial attachment and neuronal migration.

  17. Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants. (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder


    A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate.

  18. The g-C3 N4 /C2 N Nanocomposite: A g-C3 N4 -Based Water-Splitting Photocatalyst with Enhanced Energy Efficiency. (United States)

    Wang, Huimin; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Jinlong


    Water-splitting photocatalysts with good energy efficiency are highly desirable, among which metal-free graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) is considered to be very promising and has been intensively studied in recent years. However, its practical application is hindered by the relatively low efficiencies of visible-light absorption and electron-hole separation. Herein, based on first-principles calculations, it is predicted that, by forming nanocomposites with another carbon nitride (C2 N), the energy efficiency of g-C3 N4 can be significantly improved. On one hand, C2 N has a wide, strong optical absorption in the visible-light region, which acts as a photosensitizer and enhances the photoabsorption efficiency of the composite photocatalyst. On the other hand, C2 N forms a type II heterojunction with g-C3 N4 , which leads to efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs through the chemical potential difference between the two components. These results provide a potential route to achieve highly efficient metal-free photocatalysts for water splitting.

  19. The third replicon of members of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex, plasmid pC3, plays a role in stress tolerance. (United States)

    Agnoli, Kirsty; Frauenknecht, Carmen; Freitag, Roman; Schwager, Stephan; Jenul, Christian; Vergunst, Annette; Carlier, Aurelien; Eberl, Leo


    The metabolically versatile Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) occupies a variety of niches, including the plant rhizosphere and the cystic fibrosis lung (where it is often fatal to the patient). Bcc members have multipartite genomes, of which the third replicon, pC3 (previously chromosome 3), has been shown to be a nonessential megaplasmid which confers virulence and both antifungal and proteolytic activity on several strains. In this study, pC3 curing was extended to cover strains of 16 of the 17 members of the Bcc, and the phenotypes conferred by pC3 were determined. B. cenocepacia strains H111, MCO-3, and HI2424 were previously cured of pC3; however, this had not proved possible in the epidemic strain K56-2. Here, we investigated the mechanism of this unexpected stability and found that efficient toxin-antitoxin systems are responsible for maintaining pC3 of strain K56-2. Identification of these systems allowed neutralization of the toxins and the subsequent deletion of K56-2pC3. The cured strain was found to exhibit reduced antifungal activity and was attenuated in both the zebrafish and the Caenorhabditis elegans model of infection. We used a PCR screening method to examine the prevalence of pC3 within 110 Bcc isolates and found that this replicon was absent in only four cases, suggesting evolutionary fixation. It is shown that plasmid pC3 increases the resistance of B. cenocepacia H111 to various stresses (oxidative, osmotic, high-temperature, and chlorhexidine-induced stresses), explaining the prevalence of this replicon within the Bcc.

  20. Novel ternary component Ag-SrTa2O6/g-C3N4 photocatalyst: Synthesis, optical properties and visible light photocatalytic activity (United States)

    Su, Yiguo; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhao, Yingjie; Lang, Junyu; Xin, Xin; Wang, Xiaojing


    In this work, we report on the synthesis of a novel ternary component Ag-SrTa2O6/g-C3N4 photocatalytic system with efficient visible light photocatalytic activity toward Cr(VI) photoreduction and methyl orange degradation. The samples were carefully characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and photocatalytic test. It is found that SrTa2O6 was deposited on the surface of g-C3N4 and that obtained SrTa2O6/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalyst showed strong absorption in the visible light region. Photocatalytic test indicated that the as-prepared SrTa2O6/g-C3N4 heterojunction showed increased photocatalytic activity toward Cr(VI) photoreduction and methyl orange degradation in comparison with the bare SrTa2O6 and g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation. The matching of the band structure between SrTa2O6 and g-C3N4 induced an efficient photogenerated electron transfer from the conduction band of g-C3N4 to the conduction band of SrTa2O6, resulting in efficient separation of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs and the subsequent promotion of photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the decoration of Ag on SrTa2O6/g-C3N4 led to the formation of ternary component Ag-SrTa2O6/g-C3N4 photocatalyst, which can highly enhance the visible light absorption efficiency and robustlypromote the photocatalytic activity by a factor of 2.8 for Cr(VI) photoreduction and 4.6 for methyl orange degradation, respectively. Ag decoration on SrTa2O6/g-C3N4 can not only extend the visible light absorption region due to surface plasmon resonance effects, but also act as an electron mediator for efficient migration of photogenerated electrons and simultaneously prevent the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs as much as possible. Finally, a possible photocatalytic mechanism of the charge transfer in Ag-SrTa2O6/g-C3N4 photocatalyst was proposed.

  1. Effect of TiO2 on the Hydration of High C3S Clinker%TiO2对高C3S熟料水化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马先伟; 李好新; 王培铭


    In order to understand the mechanism of TiO2 in the hydration process of high C3S clinker,the effect of TiO2 on the compositions and compressive strength of the hydrated mortar and the relation between the early hydration and the strength were analyzed by XRD,TEM and isothermal conduction calorimetry in this paper.The results show that 0.5% TiO2 decreases the initial hydration and shortens the induction period so that the 3-day strength is raised,but more than 2.0%TiO2 prolongs the induction period and decreases 3-day strength.The results indicate that the 3-day strength has certain relation with the lasting time of the induction period.In addition,the increase of C3 S crystal defects doesn't indicate that the 3 day strength of high C3 S clinker would be raised.%为了探讨TiO2在高C3S熟料水化过程中的作用机制,分析了TiO2对水泥水化组成和抗压强度的影响,并借助微量量热法和熟料矿物的高分辨图像分析了熟料的早期水化与抗压强度之间的关系.结果发现:0.5%TiO2虽延缓熟料的初始水化,但缩短了诱导期,提高了3天抗压强度,而掺量超过2.0%后,熟料的诱导期变长和3天强度降低,即诱导期的长短会影响到强度的变化.此外,TiO2对C3S晶格缺陷增加的贡献并没有引起3天强度的提高.

  2. Effects of substitution on counterflow ignition and extinction of C3 and C4 alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu


    Dwindling reserves and inherent uncertainty in the price of conventional fuels necessitates a search for alternative fuels. Alcohols represent a potential source of energy for the future. The structural features of an alcohol fuel have a direct impact on combustion properties. In particular, substitution in alcohols can alter the global combustion reactivity. In this study, experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the critical conditions of extinction and autoignition of n-propanol, 1-butanol, iso-propanol and iso-butanol in non-premixed diffusion flames. Experiments were carried out in the counterflow configuration, while simulations were conducted using a skeletal chemical kinetic model for the C3 and C4 alcohols. The fuel stream consists of the pre-vaporized fuel diluted with nitrogen, while the oxidizer stream is air. The experimental results show that autoignition temperatures of the tested alcohols increase in the following order: iso-propanol > iso-butanol > 1-butanol ≈ n-propanol. The simulated results for the branched alcohols agree with the experiments, while the autoignition temperature of 1-butanol is slightly higher than that of n-propanol. For extinction, the experiments show that the extinction limits of the tested fuels increase in the following order: n-propanol ≈ 1-butanol > iso-butanol > iso-propanol. The model suggests that the extinction limits of 1-butanol is slightly higher than n-propanol with extinction strain rate of iso-butanol and iso-propanol maintaining the experimentally observed trend. The transport weighted enthalpy (TWE) and radical index (Ri) concepts were utilized to rationalize the observed reactivity trends for these fuels.

  3. Differential freezing resistance and photoprotection in C3 and C4 eudicots and grasses. (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P


    Globally, C4 plants dominate hot, open environments, but this general pattern is underpinned by important differences in the biogeography of C4 lineages. In particular, the species richness of C4 Poaceae (grasses) increases strongly with increasing temperature, whereas that of the major C4 eudicot group Chenopodiaceae correlates positively with aridity. Freezing tolerance is a crucial determinant of biogeographical relationships with temperature and is mediated by photodamage and cellular disruption by desiccation, but little is known about differences between C4 families. This study hypothesized that there is a greater risk of freezing damage via these mechanisms in C4 Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae, that freezing protection differs between the taxonomic groups, and that freezing tolerance of species is linked to arid habitat preference. Chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and freezing injury were compared in four C3 and six C4 species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae from the same Mongolian flora. Contrary to expectations, freezing-induced leaf mortality and photodamage were lower in Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae species, and unrelated to photosynthetic pathway. The freezing resistance of Poaceae species resulted from constitutive protection and cold acclimation and an ability to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Freezing protection was associated with low osmotic potential and low tissue elasticity, and freezing damage was accompanied by electrolyte leakage, consistent with cell-membrane disruption by ice. Both Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae had the potential to develop cold acclimation and withstand freezing during the growing season, which conflicted with the hypothesis. Instead, freezing tolerance was more closely associated with life history and ecological preference in these Mongolian species.

  4. Structural influence of gene networks on their inference: analysis of C3NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmert-Streib Frank


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of large-scale high-throughput data possesses considerable challenges toward their functional analysis. For this reason gene network inference methods gained considerable interest. However, our current knowledge, especially about the influence of the structure of a gene network on its inference, is limited. Results In this paper we present a comprehensive investigation of the structural influence of gene networks on the inferential characteristics of C3NET - a recently introduced gene network inference algorithm. We employ local as well as global performance metrics in combination with an ensemble approach. The results from our numerical study for various biological and synthetic network structures and simulation conditions, also comparing C3NET with other inference algorithms, lead a multitude of theoretical and practical insights into the working behavior of C3NET. In addition, in order to facilitate the practical usage of C3NET we provide an user-friendly R package, called c3net, and describe its functionality. It is available from and from the CRAN package repository. Conclusions The availability of gene network inference algorithms with known inferential properties opens a new era of large-scale screening experiments that could be equally beneficial for basic biological and biomedical research with auspicious prospects. The availability of our easy to use software package c3net may contribute to the popularization of such methods. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Lev Klebanov, Joel Bader and Yuriy Gusev.

  5. Oxygen evolution from tomato (C3) plants with and without mycorrhiza: Open photoacoustic cell measurement and statistical analysis (United States)

    Sanchez-Rocha, S.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Huerta Franco, R.; Madueño, L.; Olalde-Portugal, V.


    Mycorrhiza, a common association between root plants and mycorrhizic fungus provides some benefits to the plant, improving its nutrient uptake and increasing the drought resistance as well as the photosynthetic rate. Open photoacoustic (OPC) cell technique was used here to study oxygen evolution from C3 plants (tomato) with and with mycorrhizic fungus (Glomus Fasciculatum) under the lighting conditions similar to those characteristic for the mid-day sunlight. The OPC was found capable of discriminating between the two contributions to photoacoustic signal. The experimental evidence was collected for statistically significant differences between photobaric signals from plants with and without mycorrhiza.

  6. Ti-decorated graphitic-C3N4 monolayer: A promising material for hydrogen storage (United States)

    Zhang, Weibin; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Fuchun; Yang, Woochul


    Ti-decorated graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) monolayer as a promising material system for high-capacity hydrogen storage is proposed through density functional theory calculations. The stability and hydrogen adsorption of Ti-decorated g-C3N4 is analyzed by computing the adsorption energy, the charge population, and electronic density of states. The most stable decoration site of Ti atom is the triangular N hole in g-C3N4 with an adsorption energy of -7.58 eV. The large diffusion energy barrier of the adsorbed Ti atom of ∼6.00 eV prohibits the cluster formation of Ti atoms. The electric field induced by electron redistribution of Ti-adsorbed porous g-C3N4 significantly enhanced hydrogen adsorption up to five H2 molecules at each Ti atom with an average adsorption energy of -0.30 eV/H2. The corresponding hydrogen capacity reaches up to 9.70 wt% at 0 K. In addition, the hydrogen capacity is predicted to be 6.30 wt% at 233 K and all adsorbed H2 are released at 393 K according to molecular dynamics simulation. Thus, the Ti-decorated g-C3N4 monolayer is suggested to be a promising material for hydrogen storage suggested by the DOE for commercial applications.

  7. A review on g-C3N4-based photocatalysts (United States)

    Wen, Jiuqing; Xie, Jun; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xin


    As one of the most appealing and attractive technologies, heterogeneous photocatalysis has been utilized to directly harvest, convert and store renewable solar energy for producing sustainable and green solar fuels and a broad range of environmental applications. Due to their unique physicochemical, optical and electrical properties, a wide variety of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts have been designed to drive various reduction and oxidation reactions under light irradiation with suitable wavelengths. In this review, we have systematically summarized the photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts, including fundamental mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis, advantages, challenges and the design considerations of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts. The versatile properties of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts are highlighted, including their crystal structural, surface phisicochemical, stability, optical, adsorption, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical and electronic properties. Various design strategies are also thoroughly reviewed, including band-gap engineering, defect control, dimensionality tuning, pore texture tailoring, surface sensitization, heterojunction construction, co-catalyst and nanocarbon loading. Many important applications are also addressed, such as photocatalytic water splitting (H2 evolution and overall water splitting), degradation of pollutants, carbon dioxide reduction, selective organic transformations and disinfection. Through reviewing the important state-of-the-art advances on this topic, it may provide new opportunities for designing and constructing highly effective g-C3N4-based photocatalysts for various applications in photocatalysis and other related fields, such as solar cell, photoelectrocatalysis, electrocatalysis, lithium battery, supercapacitor, fuel cell and separation and purification.

  8. Research on C3N4 Superhard Compound Thin Film and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Da-wei; Peng Li-li; Lu Ning; Peng You-gui


    By combination of DC reactive magnetron sputtering with multiple arcplating, the alternating C3 N4/TiN compound film is deposited onto HSS. The core level binding energy and the contents of carbon and nitrogen are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. X-ray diffraction(XRD) shows that compound thin film contains hard crystalline phases of α-C3N4 and β-C3N4. The Knoop microhardness in the load range of 50.5-54.1 GPa is measured. According to acoustic emission scratch test, the critical load values for the coatings on HSS substrates are in the range of 40-80 N. The metal coated with C3N4/TiN compound films has a great improvement in the resistance against corrosion. Many tests show that such a coating has a very high wearability. Compared with the uncoated and TiN coated tools, the C3N4/TiN coated tools have a much longer cutting life.

  9. High cervical C3-4 ′disc′ compression associated with basilar invagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Atul


    Full Text Available A 20-year-old male had torticollis and short neck since birth. He presented with symptom of progressive quadriparesis over a two-year period. Investigations revealed basilar invagination with marked rotation in the craniovertebral region and relatively large C3-4 region osteophytes. Serial MRI over two years showed persistent signal opposite C3-4 disc space suggestive of cord compression. Although the cord was humped over the odontoid process, there was no clear radiological evidence that the cord was compromised at this level. During surgery, instability was identified only at the craniovertebral region and not at the level of C3-4. Distraction of the lateral masses of atlas and axis and fixation using interarticular spacers and bone graft and direct screw implantation in the lateral mass of the atlas and pars of the axis resulted in reduction of the basilar invagination and of atlantoaxial dislocation. The patient had marked clinical recovery, despite the fact that no direct procedure was done for C3-4 disc decompression. The case suggests that C3-4 disc changes could be secondary to primary instability at the craniovertebral junction.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity of g-C3N4/KTaO3 Composites under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Yong


    Full Text Available Novel graphitic carbon nitride/KTaO3 (g-C3N4/KTaO3 nanocomposite photocatalysts have been successfully synthesized via a facile and simple ultrasonic dispersion method. Compared to either g-C3N4 or KTaO3, the composite photocatalysts show significantly increased photocatalytic activity for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB under visible light irradiation. The increased photocatalytic performance of the composite could be attributed to the enhanced photogenerated charge carrier separation capacity. Moreover, it is observed that ∙O2- is the main active species in the photocatalytic degradation of RhB using the g-C3N4/KTaO3 composite photocatalysts.

  11. Variations in carbon isotope ratios of C_3 plants and distribution of C_4 plants along an altitudinal transect on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JiaZhu; WANG GuoAn; LIU XianZhao; HAN JiaMao; LIU Min; LIU XiaoJuan


    Variations in carbon isotopic ratios (δ~(13)C) of C_3 plants and distribution of C_4 plants were investigated along an altitudinal transect on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga,and the environmental effects on them were discussed,it is shown that plants with C_4 photosynthetic pathway mainly occur at altitudes below 2100 m a.a.l.,suggesting that the low summer temperature is responsible for the distributional pattern.In addition,δ~(13)C of C_3 plants increases with elevation at the region above 2000 m a.s.l,with the characteristics of humid climate,and the increase rate in δ~(13)C for C_3 plants is about 1.3‰ per kilometer.Temperature determines the altitudinal trend of δ~(13)C.

  12. Ab initio study of the electronic structure andelastic properties of Al5C3N

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xue-Wen; Hu Long; Yu Xiao; Lu Zun-Ming; Fan Ying; Li Yang-xian; Tang Cheng-Chun


    We investigate the electronic structure,chemical bonding and elastic properties of the hexagonal aluminum carbonitride,Al5C3N,by ab initio calculations.Al5C3N is a semiconductor with a narrow indirect gap of 0.81 eV.The valence bands below the Fermi level (EF) originate from the hybridized Al p-C p and Al p-N p states.The calculated bulk and Young's moduli are 201 GPa and 292 GPa,which are slightly lower than those of Ti3SiC2.The values of the bulk-to-shear-modulus and bulk-modulus-to-c44 are 1.73 and 1.97,respectively,which axe higher than those of Ti2AlCand Ti2AlN,indicating that Al5C3N is a ductile ceramic.

  13. Analysis of cubic and orthorhombic C3A hydration in presence of gypsum and lime

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.


    Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to study the microstructural changes and phase development that take place during the hydration of cubic (pure) and orthorhombic (Na-doped) tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and gypsum in the absence and presence of lime. The results demonstrate that important differences occur in the hydration of each C3A polymorph and gypsum when no lime is added; orthorhombic C3A reacts faster with gypsum than the cubic phase, forming longer ettringite needles; however, the presence of lime slows down the formation of ettringite in the orthorhombic sample. Additional rheometric tests showed the possible effects on the setting time in these cementitious mixes.

  14. Reduction of U(VI) and Toxic Metals by Desulfovibrio Cytochrome C3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D


    The central objective of our proposed research was twofold: 1) to investigate the structure-function relationship of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (now Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20) cytochrome c3 with uranium and 2) to elucidate the mechanism for uranium reduction in vitro and in vivo. Physiological analysis of a mutant of D. desulfuricans with a mutation of the gene encoding the type 1 tetraheme cytochrome c3 had demonstrated that uranium reduction was negatively impacted while sulfate reduction was not if lactate were the electron donor. This was thought to be due to the presence of a branched pathway of electron flow from lactate leading to sulfate reduction. Our experimental plan was to elucidate the structural and mechanistic details of uranium reduction involving cytochrome c3.

  15. PTA clad (Cr,Fe)7C3/γ-Fe in situ ceramal composite coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junbo Liu; Limei Wang; Jihua Huang


    A wear-resistant (Cr, Fe)7C3/γ-Fe in situ ceramal composite coating was fabricated on the substrate of 0.45wt%C carbon steel by a plasma-transferred arc cladding process using the Fe-Cr-C elemental powder blends. The microstructure, microhardness, and dry-sliding wear resistance of the coating were evaluated. The results indicate that the microstructure of the coating, which was composed of (Cr, Fe)7C3 primary phase uniformly distributed in the γ-Fe, and the (Cr, Fe)7C3 eutectic matrix was metallurgically bonded to the 0.45wt%C carbon steel substrate. From substrate to coating, the microstructure of the coating exhibited an evident epitaxial growth character. The coating, indehiscent and tack-free, had high hardness and appropriate gradient. It had excellent wear resistance under the dry sliding wear test condition.

  16. Nanoscale charge transport in cytochrome c3/DNA network: Comparative studies between redox-active molecules (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Harumasa; Che, Dock-Chil; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Masayuki; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Matsumoto, Takuya


    The redox-active molecule of a cytochrome c3/DNA network exhibits nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a threshold bias voltage at low temperature and zero-bias conductance at room temperature. I-V curves for the cytochrome c3/DNA network are well matched with the Coulomb blockade network model. Comparative studies of the Mn12 cluster, cytochrome c, and cytochrome c3, which have a wide variety of redox potentials, indicate no difference in charge transport, which suggests that the conduction mechanism is not directly related to the redox states. The charge transport mechanism has been discussed in terms of the newly-formed electronic energy states near the Fermi level, induced by the ionic interaction between redox-active molecules with the DNA network.

  17. Stepper Motor Control Based on PSoC3%基于PSoC3的步进电机控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峰; 李智华; 顾全


    电路结构简单、控制策略高效可靠的控制技术是所有步进电机控制的共同目标.介绍了一款基于PSoC3芯片来设计的步进电机控制技术.整个设计采用两相双极控制技术,外围电路简单可靠,节省时间和开支.设计的步进电机具有微步数可调,电机转速可调,转向可调等多种可控功能.样机测试表明电机工作稳定高效,安全可靠.%Simple circuit structure, efficient control strategy, reliable control is the common goal of the all stepper motor control. A stepper motor control technology based on PSoC3 chip was described. The design used two-phase bipolar control technology with simple external circuit which will save time and money. The stepper motor to be designed has many control functions; micro-step pace adjustable, motor speed adjustable, steering adjustable and so on. Prototype testing showed thai the motor is stable and efficient, safe and reliable.

  18. A study of immunoglobulins and complements (C3 &C4 in alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R


    Full Text Available Estimation of serum Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA and complements (C3 and C4 was carried out in 100 cases of alopecia areata as per method described by Mancini (1965.[1] Clinically patients were divided in two groups, alopecia areata circumscribed (group I and severe alopecia areata (group II. Significant decrease in levels of one or more Immunoglobulins were observed in most of the patients. However, Serum complements (C3 and C4 were within range of normal control values

  19. A quantum model for bending vibrations and thermodynamic properties of C3. (United States)

    Hansen, C. F.; Pearson, W. E.


    The investigation reported was conducted to clarify the thermodynamic properties of C3 by further developing the limit to the partition function suggested by Strauss and Thiele (1967). A quantum solution for the energy levels of a quadratically perturbed square well potential is presented and the consistency of this limit with observed energy levels is established. In the process a more complete physical picture of the bending C3 molecules emerges. The values of entropy deduced from various measurements of graphite pressure are compared with this limit, and the thermodynamic properties predicted for the limiting case are evaluated.

  20. beta-Scission of C-3 (beta-carbon) alkoxyl radicals on peptides and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, H A; Mortimer, A; Easton, C J


    of new reactive groups, including hydroperoxides. These processes can result in the loss of structural or enzymatic activity. Backbone fragmentation is known to occur via a number of mechanisms, most of which involve hydrogen abstraction from the alpha-carbon site on the backbone. In this study, we...... demonstrate that initial attack at a side chain site, the beta-position (C-3), can give rise to formation of alpha-carbon radicals, and hence backbone cleavage, via the formation and subsequent beta-scission of C-3 alkoxyl radicals. This beta-scission reaction is rapid (k estimated to be >10(7) s(-)(1)) even...

  1. Effect of Complement Component C3 Deficiency on Experimental Lyme Borreliosis in Mice


    Lawrenz, Matthew B.; Wooten, R. Mark; Zachary, James F.; Drouin, Scott M.; Weis, Janis J.; Wetsel, Rick A.; Norris, Steven J.


    Mice deficient in complement component C3 (C3−/−) and syngeneic C57BL/6 control mice were challenged with Borrelia burgdorferi to determine the role of complement in immune clearance and joint histopathology during experimental Lyme borreliosis. Tibiotarsal joint, ear, and heart tissues were monitored for spirochete numbers at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postinoculation with 105 B. burgdorferi B31 clone 5A4 by using quantitative real-time PCR. The spirochete load in joint and ear tissue remained hi...

  2. Shock tube measurements of the optical absorption of triatomic carbon, C3 (United States)

    Jones, J. J.


    The spectral absorption of C3 has been measured in a shock tube using a test gas mixture of acetylene diluted with argon. The absorption of a pulsed xenon light source was measured by means of eight photomultiplier channels to a spectrograph and an accompanying drum camera. The postshock test gas temperature and pressure were varied over the range 3300-4300 K and 0.36 to 2.13 atmospheres, respectively. The results showed appreciable absorption from C3 for the wavelength range 300 to 540 nanometers. The computed electronic oscillator strength varied from 0.12 to 0.06 as a function of temperature.

  3. Establishment of DEN-induced Hepatocarcinoma Model in C3H/HeN Mice%二乙基亚硝胺诱发C3H/HeN小鼠肝癌模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寿旗扬; 陈方明; 赵泓舒; 满曼; 张利棕; 周卫民; 陈民利


    [Objective] Establish DEN-induced hepatocarcinoma model in C3H/HeN mice, provide induced liver cancer model in mice for studying hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis and carry out the treatment of liver cancer drug. [Methods] Twenty C3H/HeN mice were induced by administering 30 μg/mL DEN water for 23 weeks; observe the occurrence of liver cancer. Take another six C3H/HEN mice as normal control. [Results] Induced after 23 weeks, the serum ALP, ALT, AST, TBIL level and liver Inde, nodules, 7-GT increased significantly in mice(P<0.01). Weight, serum TP, ALB, BUN, CREA and liver total protein content decreased signincandy in mice. Thirteen mice had liver cancer by naked-eye observations of survival 15 mice, liver cancer incidence rate of 86.67%. More nodules of the liver surface in mice, the volume increased, surface roughness, color dim gray rounded nodules of several different sizes, histological type of HCC, in which the majority was of the trabecular type and adenoid type. [Conclusion] Application of DEN-induced mouse liver cancer, for the occurrence of human hepatoma, is an ideal induced liver cancer animal models, but the specific experimental methods need further improvement and research.%[目的]建立C3H/HeN小鼠诱发性肝癌动物模型,为研究肝癌发病机理及开展肝癌药物治疗提供小鼠诱发性肝癌模型.[方法]取20只C3H/HeN小鼠作为模型组,每日喂予含30μg·mL-1二乙基亚硝胺(DEN)的饮水,连续23周后,观察其肝癌的发生情况.另取6只C3H/HeN小鼠作为正常组.[结果]造模23周后,模型组小鼠血清中ALP、ALT、AST、TBIL、肝脏指数、结节数和γ-GT活力显著增加(P<0.01),小鼠体重、血清中TP、ALB、BUN、CREA和肝脏中TP含量显著降低(P<0.01),存活15只小鼠中有13只肉眼能观测到肝癌发生,肝癌发生率为86.67%,小鼠肝脏表面较多结节,体积增大,表面粗糙、色彩暗淡,多个大小不一的灰白色圆形结节,组织学类型为肝细胞癌,

  4. Three-Dimensional Porous Aerogel Constructed by g-C3N4 and Graphene Oxide Nanosheets with Excellent Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance. (United States)

    Tong, Zhenwei; Yang, Dong; Shi, Jiafu; Nan, Yanhu; Sun, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Zhongyi


    It is curial to develop a high-efficient, low-cost visible-light responsive photocatalyst for the application in solar energy conversion and environment remediation. Here, a three-dimensional (3D) porous g-C3N4/graphene oxide aerogel (CNGA) has been prepared by the hydrothermal coassembly of two-dimensional g-C3N4 and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, in which g-C3N4 acts as an efficient photocatalyst, and GO supports the 3D framework and promotes the electron transfer simultaneously. In CNGA, the highly interconnected porous network renders numerous pathways for rapid mass transport, strong adsorption and multireflection of incident light; meanwhile, the large planar interface between g-C3N4 and GO nanosheets increases the active site and electron transfer rate. Consequently, the methyl orange removal ratio over the CNGA photocatalyst reaches up to 92% within 4 h, which is much higher than that of pure g-C3N4 (12%), 2D hybrid counterpart (30%) and most of representative g-C3N4-based photocatalysts. In addition, the dye is mostly decomposed into CO2 under natural sunlight irradiation, and the catalyst can also be easily recycled from solution. Significantly, when utilized for CO2 photoreduction, the optimized CNGA sample could reduce CO2 into CO with a high yield of 23 mmol g(-1) (within 6 h), exhibiting about 2.3-fold increment compared to pure g-C3N4. The photocatalyst exploited in this study may become an attractive material in many environmental and energy related applications.

  5. Improving the photocatalytic hydrogen production of Ag/g-C3N4 nanocomposites by dye-sensitization under visible light irradiation (United States)

    Qin, Jiayi; Huo, Jingpei; Zhang, Piyong; Zeng, Jian; Wang, Tingting; Zeng, Heping


    Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of g-C3N4 by a chemical reduction method to increase visible-light absorption via the localized surface plasmon resonance effect, resulting in the reduced recombination of photo-generated electron-holes and enhanced photocatalytic activity. The Ag/g-C3N4 composite with a Ag loading of 3 wt% has the optimum photoactivity that is almost 3.6 and 3.4 times higher than pure g-C3N4 and the same photocatalysis system which has been reported, respectively. Fluorescein was introduced as a photosensitizer and H2 evolution soared to 2014.20 μmol g-1 h-1 and the rate is even about 4.8 times higher than that of the 3 wt% Ag/g-C3N4 composite. The chemical structure, composites, morphologies and optical properties of the obtained products are well-characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM, EDS, XPS and UV-Vis DRS. Meanwhile, the photocatalyst exhibits high stability and reusability.Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of g-C3N4 by a chemical reduction method to increase visible-light absorption via the localized surface plasmon resonance effect, resulting in the reduced recombination of photo-generated electron-holes and enhanced photocatalytic activity. The Ag/g-C3N4 composite with a Ag loading of 3 wt% has the optimum photoactivity that is almost 3.6 and 3.4 times higher than pure g-C3N4 and the same photocatalysis system which has been reported, respectively. Fluorescein was introduced as a photosensitizer and H2 evolution soared to 2014.20 μmol g-1 h-1 and the rate is even about 4.8 times higher than that of the 3 wt% Ag/g-C3N4 composite. The chemical structure, composites, morphologies and optical properties of the obtained products are well-characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM, EDS, XPS and UV-Vis DRS. Meanwhile, the photocatalyst exhibits high stability and reusability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images, TGA curves, PXRD and FTIR spectra, the recycling experiment of 3% Ag/g-C3N4, the specific

  6. The role of the humoral immune response in the molecular evolution of the envelope C2, V3 and C3 regions in chronically HIV-2 infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novo Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to investigate, for the first time, the short-term molecular evolution of the HIV-2 C2, V3 and C3 envelope regions and its association with the immune response. Clonal sequences of the env C2V3C3 region were obtained from a cohort of eighteen HIV-2 chronically infected patients followed prospectively during 2–4 years. Genetic diversity, divergence, positive selection and glycosylation in the C2V3C3 region were analysed as a function of the number of CD4+ T cells and the anti-C2V3C3 IgG and IgA antibody reactivity Results The mean intra-host nucleotide diversity was 2.1% (SD, 1.1%, increasing along the course of infection in most patients. Diversity at the amino acid level was significantly lower for the V3 region and higher for the C2 region. The average divergence rate was 0.014 substitutions/site/year, which is similar to that reported in chronic HIV-1 infection. The number and position of positively selected sites was highly variable, except for codons 267 and 270 in C2 that were under strong and persistent positive selection in most patients. N-glycosylation sites located in C2 and V3 were conserved in all patients along the course of infection. Intra-host variation of C2V3C3-specific IgG response over time was inversely associated with the variation in nucleotide and amino acid diversity of the C2V3C3 region. Variation of the C2V3C3-specific IgA response was inversely associated with variation in the number of N-glycosylation sites. Conclusion The evolutionary dynamics of HIV-2 envelope during chronic aviremic infection is similar to HIV-1 implying that the virus should be actively replicating in cellular compartments. Convergent evolution of N-glycosylation in C2 and V3, and the limited diversification of V3, indicates that there are important functional constraints to the potential diversity of the HIV-2 envelope. C2V3C3-specific IgG antibodies are effective at reducing viral population size

  7. 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate recognized by the antibody HS4C3 contributes [corrected] to the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells via fas signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Hirano

    Full Text Available Maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs is regulated by the balance between several extrinsic signaling pathways. Recently, we demonstrated that heparan sulfate (HS chains play important roles in the maintenance and differentiation of mESCs by regulating extrinsic signaling. Sulfated HS structures are modified by various sulfotransferases during development. However, the significance of specific HS structures during development remains unclear. Here, we show that 3-O-sulfated HS structures synthesized by HS 3-O-sulfotransferases (3OSTs and recognized by the antibody HS4C3 increase during differentiation of mESCs. Furthermore, expression of Fas on the cell surface of the differentiated cells also increased. Overexpression of the HS4C3-binding epitope in mESCs induced apoptosis and spontaneous differentiation even in the presence of LIF and serum. These data showed that the HS4C3-binding epitope was required for differentiation of mESCs. Up-regulation of the HS4C3-binding epitope resulted in the recruitment of Fas from the cytoplasm to lipid rafts on the cell surface followed by activation of Fas signaling. Indeed, the HS4C3-binding epitope interacted with a region that included the heparin-binding domain (KLRRRVH of Fas. Reduced self-renewal capability in cells overexpressing 3OST resulted from the degradation of Nanog by activated caspase-3, which is downstream of Fas signaling, and was rescued by the inhibition of Fas signaling. We also found that knockdown of 3OST and inhibition of Fas signaling reduced the potential for differentiation into the three germ layers during embryoid body formation. This is the first demonstration that activation of Fas signaling is mediated by an increase in the HS4C3-binding epitope and indicates a novel signaling pathway for differentiation in mESCs.

  8. The effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration on carbon isotope fractionation in C3 land plants (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Jahren, A. Hope


    Because atmospheric carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of all land-plant carbon, workers have suggested that pCO2 level may exert control over the amount of 13C incorporated into plant tissues. However, experiments growing plants under elevated pCO2 in both chamber and field settings, as well as meta-analyses of ecological and agricultural data, have yielded a wide range of estimates for the effect of pCO2 on the net isotopic discrimination (Δδ13Cp) between plant tissue (δ13Cp) and atmospheric CO2 (δ13CCO2). Because plant stomata respond sensitively to plant water status and simultaneously alter the concentration of pCO2 inside the plant (ci) relative to outside the plant (ca), any experiment that lacks environmental control over water availability across treatments could result in additional isotopic variation sufficient to mask or cancel the direct influence of pCO2 on Δδ13Cp. We present new data from plant growth chambers featuring enhanced dynamic stabilization of moisture availability and relative humidity, in addition to providing constant light, nutrient, δ13CCO2, and pCO2 level for up to four weeks of plant growth. Within these chambers, we grew a total of 191 C3 plants (128 Raphanus sativus plants and 63 Arabidopsis thaliana) across fifteen levels of pCO2 ranging from 370 to 4200 ppm. Three types of plant tissue were harvested and analyzed for carbon isotope value: above-ground tissues, below-ground tissues, and leaf-extracted nC31-alkanes. We observed strong hyperbolic correlations (R ⩾ 0.94) between the pCO2 level and Δδ13Cp for each type of plant tissue analyzed; furthermore the linear relationships previously suggested by experiments across small (10-350 ppm) changes in pCO2 (e.g., 300-310 ppm or 350-700 ppm) closely agree with the amount of fractionation per ppm increase in pCO2 calculated from our hyperbolic relationship. In this way, our work is consistent with, and provides a unifying relationship for, previous work on carbon isotopes

  9. CO and C3H8 total oxidation over Pd/La-Al2O3 catalysts:Effect of calcination temperature and hydrothermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周仁美; 邢丰; 王树元; 鲁继青; 金凌云; 罗孟飞


    A series of Pd/La-Al2O3 (PLA) catalysts with La-Al2O3 (LA) support calcined at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1050 ºC) were prepared using an incipient wetness impregnation method. The activity of the fresh and hydrothermally aged PLA catalysts were tested for total oxidation of CO and C3H8. The activity of the fresh PLA catalysts for CO and C3H8 oxidation increased with increasing calcination temperature of the support, while the activities of the aged catalysts declined and became essentially the same. CO chemisorption results revealed that the suppressed activities of the aged catalysts were mainly due to the decline of palla-dium dispersion. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CO oxidation increased with increasing reduction ability of the catalysts, with a fresh catalyst calcined at 1050 ºC having the highest value (0.048 s-1). However, the TOF of C3H8 total oxidation was affected by not only the redox properties of catalysts but also the size of Pd particle, and large Pd particles possessed higher TOF value of C3H8 oxi-dation, with the highest value (0.125 s-1) being obtained on an aged catalyst calcined at 500 ºC.

  10. Uptake of clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme into intact HT22 and J774A.1 cells. (United States)

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; von Elsner, Leonie; Hagemann, Sandra; Just, Ingo


    The Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme selectively ADP-ribosylates low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins RhoA, B and C. This covalent modification inhibits Rho signaling activity, resulting in distinct actin cytoskeleton changes. Although C3 exoenzyme has no binding, the translocation domain assures that C3 enters cells and acts intracellularly. C3 uptake is thought to occur due to the high concentration of the C3 enzyme. However, recent work indicates that C3 is selectively endocytosed, suggesting a specific endocytotic pathway, which is not yet understood. In this study, we show that the C3 exoenzyme binds to cell surfaces and is internalized in a time-dependent manner. We show that the intermediate filament, vimentin, is involved in C3 uptake, as indicated by the inhibition of C3 internalization by acrylamide, a known vimentin disruption agent. Inhibition of C3 internalization was not observed by chemical inhibitors, like bafilomycin A, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, nocodazole or latrunculin B. Furthermore, the internalization of C3 exoenzyme was markedly inhibited in dynasore-treated HT22 cells. Our results indicate that C3 internalization depends on vimentin and does not depend strictly on both clathrin and caveolae.

  11. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with C3-monocarboxylates and C4-dicarboxylates (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to examine aerobic growth of Campylobacter spp. in media supplemented with C4-dicarboxylates (fumarate, succinate, or malate) and C3-monocarboxylates (pyruvate or lactate). Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplement...

  12. Photocatalytic oxidation of aqueous ammonia using atomic single layer graphitic-C3N4. (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Su, Yan; Zhao, Huanxin; Yu, Hongtao; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie


    Direct utilization of solar energy for photocatalytic removal of ammonia from water is a topic of strong interest. However, most of the photocatalysts with effective performance are solely metal-based semiconductors. Here, we report for the first time that a new type of atomic single layer graphitic-C(3)N(4) (SL g-C(3)N(4)), a metal-free photocatalyst, has an excellent photocatalytic activity for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) removal from water. The results demonstrated that over 80% of TAN (initial concentration 1.50 mg · L(-1)) could be removed in 6 h under Xe lamp irradiation (195 mW · cm(-2)). Furthermore, the SL g-C(3)N(4) exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity in alkaline solution than that in neutral or acidic solutions. The investigation suggested that both photogenerated holes and hydroxyl radicals were involved the TAN photocatalytic oxidation process and that the major oxidation product was NO3(-)-N. In addition, SL g-C(3)N(4) exhibited good photocatalytic stability in aqueous solution. This work highlights the appealing application of an inexpensive metal-free photocatalyst in aqueous ammonia treatment.

  13. Synthesis of 2-substituted tryptophans via a C3- to C2-alkyl migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mari


    Full Text Available The reaction of 3-substituted indoles with dehydroalanine (Dha derivatives under Lewis acid-mediated conditions has been investigated. The formation of 2-substituted tryptophans is proposed to occur through a selective alkylative dearomatization–cyclization followed by C3- to C2-alkyl migration and rearomatization.

  14. Composition Design for High C3S Cement Clinker and Its Mineral Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Guihua; SHEN Xiaodong; XU Zhongzi


    A new composition of Portland cement clinker was studied, in which KH, SM and IM was 0.98,2.4 and 2.4 respectively as well as its meal added 1%CuO (in mass). Fired at 1 200 ℃,1 350 ℃,1 400℃ and 1 450 ℃ for 30 min, the resultant mineral phases component and mineral morphology were analyzed.The performances of the cement which was made of clinker burned at 1 450 ℃ and fly ash were determined. By means of QXRD, XRD and optical microscopy, it is shown that the clinker burnt at 1 450 ℃ has the larger size crystals and distinct crystal interface, in which the C3S content is 73.37% and the mineral phases is dominantly C3S, following by minor C2S, C3A and tetracalcium aluminoferrite. The results reveal that a new type of high C3S content clinker can completely be made by traditional temperature-time schedule. The performances of the cement produced from this clinker with addtion of 50% fly ash and 5% gupsum were in agreement with the 32.5 strength grade of Portland fly-ash cement. The results also show that the clinker has a significant effect of saving energy and utilizing waste slag.

  15. Detection of Interstellar C_2 and C_3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Welty, Daniel E; Lehner, Nicolas; Black, John H


    We report the detection of absorption from interstellar C_2 and C_3 toward the moderately reddened star Sk 143, located in the near 'wing' region of the SMC, in optical spectra obtained with the ESO VLT/UVES. These detections of C_2 (rotational levels J=0-8) and C_3 (J=0-12) absorption in the SMC are the first beyond our Galaxy. The total abundances of C_2 and C_3 (relative to H_2) are similar to those found in diffuse Galactic molecular clouds -- as previously found for CH and CN -- despite the significantly lower average metallicity of the SMC. Analysis of the rotational excitation of C_2 yields an estimated kinetic temperature T_k ~ 25 K and a moderately high total hydrogen density n_H ~ 870 cm^-3 -- compared to the T_01 ~ 45 K and n_H ~ 85-300 cm^-3 obtained from H_2. The populations of the lower rotational levels of C_3 are consistent with an excitation temperature of about 34 K.

  16. C3Conflict a Simulation Environment for Studying Teamwork in Command and Control (United States)


    Platon leader goes to E5. Structured Log Files SQL Database Figure 13. The log process in C3Conflict. At the conclusion of a session, the log...Diary 10:56 Platon leader goes to E5. Structured Log Files SQL Database Santa Anna IT Research Institute Behavioral indicators

  17. Photocatalytic C−H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g‑C3N4 (United States)

    A highly selective and sustainable method has beendeveloped for the oxidation of methyl arenes and their analogues.The VO@g-C3N4 catalyst is very efficient in the C−H activation andoxygen insertion reaction resulting in formation of the correspondingcarbonyl compounds and phenols...

  18. Complement protein C3 exacerbates prion disease in a mouse model of chronic wasting disease. (United States)

    Michel, Brady; Ferguson, Adam; Johnson, Theodore; Bender, Heather; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Wyckoff, A Christy; Pulford, Bruce; Telling, Glenn C; Zabel, Mark D


    Accumulating evidence shows a critical role of the complement system in facilitating attachment of prions to both B cells and follicular dendritic cells and assisting in prion replication. Complement activation intensifies disease in prion-infected animals, and elimination of complement components inhibits prion accumulation, replication and pathogenesis. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a highly infectious prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervid populations that utilizes the complement system for efficient peripheral prion replication and most likely efficient horizontal transmission. Here we show that complete genetic or transient pharmacological depletion of C3 prolongs incubation times and significantly delays splenic accumulation in a CWD transgenic mouse model. Using a semi-quantitative prion amplification scoring system we show that C3 impacts disease progression in the early stages of disease by slowing the rate of prion accumulation and/or replication. The delayed kinetics in prion replication correlate with delayed disease kinetics in mice deficient in C3. Taken together, these data support a critical role of C3 in peripheral CWD prion pathogenesis.

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers. (United States)


    ... qualified securities are required to be on deposit and are deposited in a “Special Reserve Bank Account for... ratio requirement under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, or to any of its activities under paragraph (a... pursuant to appendix C, § 240.15c3-1c. Ratio Requirements Aggregate Indebtedness Standard (1)(i) No...

  20. Common evolutionary origin of alpha 2-macroglobulin and complement components C3 and C4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sottrup-Jensen, Lars; Stepanik, T M; Kristensen, Torsten;


    A comparison of the sequence of the subunit of human alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M; 1451 amino acid residues) with that of murine complement component pro-C3 (1639 amino acid residues) reveals eight extended regions of sequence similarity. These regions contain between 19% and 31% identically p...... portions, which extend beyond the COOH terminus of alpha 2M...

  1. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium (United States)

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong


    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  2. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)-3 - Employment; excepted services in general. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(c)-3... do not constitute employment for purposes of the tax if they are specifically excepted...

  3. Mass spectral analysis of C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acid derivatives. (United States)

    Lawless, J. G.; Chadha, M. S.


    Diagnostic criteria are obtained for the distinction of alpha, beta, gamma, and N-methyl isomers of the C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acids, using mass spectral analysis of the derivatives of these acids. The use of deuterium labeling has helped in the understanding of certain fragmentation pathways.

  4. Detection of C3O in the low-mass protostar Elias 18

    CERN Document Server

    Palumbo, M E; Siringo, C; Trigilio, C


    We have performed new laboratory experiments which gave us the possibility to obtain an estimate of the amount of carbon chain oxides (namely C3O2, C2O, and C3O) formed after irradiation (with 200 keV protons) of pure CO ice, at 16 K. The analysis of laboratory data indicates that in dense molecular clouds, when high CO depletion occurs, an amount of carbon chain oxides as high as 2-3x10^-3 with respect to gas phase carbon monoxide can be formed after ion irradiation of icy grain mantles. Then we have searched for gas phase C2O and C3O towards ten low-mass young stellar objects. Among these we have detected the C3O line at 38486.891 MHz towards the low-mass protostar Elias 18. On the basis of the laboratory results we suggest that in dense molecular clouds gas phase carbon chain oxides are formed in the solid phase after cosmic ion irradiation of CO-rich icy mantles and released to the gas phase after desorption of icy mantles. We expect that the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), thanks to its high sensi...

  5. Computer navigation assisted fixation in neglected C2-C3 dislocation in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rajasekaran


    Full Text Available A 49-year-old male presented with neck pain and deformity following an industrial accident sustained two months back. His neurology was normal except for a minimal weakness in left biceps (grade 4/5. Radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scan revealed fracture dislocation of C2-C3 with significant lateral translation of C2 over C3 without disc herniation. In view of unsuccessful closed reduction and absent disc herniation at the level of dislocation, a posterior only reduction, stabilisation and fusion with Iso-C 3D computer navigation-assisted cervical pedicle screw fixation with transverse rod-screw construct was performed. At 6 months followup the patient was completely relieved of his symptoms and was able to return to his previous occupation. The rare case is reported for the management by Iso-C 3D computer navigation assisted cervical pedicle screw fixation and reduction with transverse rod-screw construct at each involved level.

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AD0C-3FCTB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  7. Effect of Ductile Agents on the Dynamic Behavior of SiC3D Network Composites (United States)

    Zhu, Jingbo; Wang, Yangwei; Wang, Fuchi; Fan, Qunbo


    Co-continuous SiC ceramic composites using pure aluminum, epoxy, and polyurethane (PU) as ductile agents were developed. The dynamic mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms were investigated experimentally using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) method and computationally by finite element (FE) simulations. The results show that the SiC3D/Al composite has the best overall performance in comparison with SiC3D/epoxy and SiC3D/PU composites. FE simulations are generally consistent with experimental data. These simulations provide valuable help in predicting mechanical strength and in interpreting the experimental results and failure mechanisms. They may be combined with micrographs for fracture characterizations of the composites. We found that interactions between the SiC phase and ductile agents under dynamic compression in the SHPB method are complex, and that interfacial condition is an important parameter that determines the mechanical response of SiC3D composites with a characteristic interlocking structure during dynamic compression. However, the effect of the mechanical properties of ductile agents on dynamic behavior of the composites is a second consideration in the production of the composites.

  8. Photocatalytic C–H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g-C3N4 (United States)

    A highly selective and sustainable method has been developed for the oxidation of methyl arenes and their analogues. The VO@g-C3N4 catalyst is very efficient in the C–H activation and oxygen insertion reaction resulting in formation of the corresponding carbonyl compounds a...

  9. Detection of interstellar C2 and C3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (United States)

    Welty, Daniel E.; Howk, J. Christopher; Lehner, Nicolas; Black, John H.


    We report the detection of absorption from interstellar C2 and C3 towards the moderately reddened star Sk 143, located in the near `wing' region of the SMC, in optical spectra obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (VLT)/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph. These detections of C2 (rotational levels J = 0-8) and C3 (J = 0-12) absorption in the SMC are the first beyond our Galaxy. The total abundances of C2 and C3 (relative to H2) are similar to those found in diffuse Galactic molecular clouds - as previously found for CH and CN - despite the significantly lower average metallicity of the Small Magellanic Cloud. Analysis of the rotational excitation of C2 yields an estimated kinetic temperature Tk ˜ 25 K and a moderately high total hydrogen density nH ˜ 870 cm-3 - compared to the T01 ˜ 45 K and nH ˜ 85-300 cm-3 obtained from H2. The populations of the lower rotational levels of C3 are consistent with an excitation temperature of about 34 K.

  10. 真菌Penicillium C3a培养条件的优化%Culture condition optimization of fungi Penicillium C3a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏永茂; 张伟伟


    在碳源、氮源、表面活性剂、最适温度和最适pH等方面对其培养条件进行优化,用DNS法测定在不同培养条件下纤维素酶的活性.真菌Penicillium C3a的最适产酶培养条件为:1.5 g/L的葡糖糖为碳源,1.5g/L的尿素为氮源,添加0.5 ml/L的表面活性剂吐温-20,pH5.0,培养温度为35℃.

  11. Conformational states of a bacterial α2-macroglobulin resemble those of human complement C3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Neves

    Full Text Available α(2 macroglobulins (α(2Ms are broad-spectrum protease inhibitors that play essential roles in the innate immune system of eukaryotic species. These large, multi-domain proteins are characterized by a broad-spectrum bait region and an internal thioester, which, upon cleavage, becomes covalently associated to the target protease, allowing its entrapment by a large conformational modification. Notably, α(2Ms are part of a larger protein superfamily that includes proteins of the complement system, such as C3, a multi-domain macromolecule which is also characterized by an internal thioester-carrying domain and whose activation represents the pivotal step in the complement cascade. Recently, α(2M/C3-like genes were identified in a large number of bacterial genomes, and the Escherichia coli α(2M homolog (ECAM was shown to be activated by proteases. In this work, we have structurally characterized ECAM by electron microscopy and small angle scattering (SAXS techniques. ECAM is an elongated, flexible molecule with overall similarities to C3 in its inactive form; activation by methylamine, chymotrypsin, or elastase induces a conformational modification reminiscent of the one undergone by the transformation of C3 into its active form, C3b. In addition, the proposed C-terminus of ECAM displays high flexibility and different conformations, and could be the recognition site for partner macromolecules. This work sheds light on a potential bacterial defense mechanism that mimics structural rearrangements essential for activation of the complement cascade in eukaryotes, and represents a possible novel target for the development of antibacterials.

  12. Complement C3 serum levels in anorexia nervosa: a potential biomarker for the severity of disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Carlin S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anorexia nervosa carries the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder. Even the most critically ill anorexic patients may present with normal 'standard' laboratory values, underscoring the need for a new sensitive biomarker. The complement cascade, a major component of innate immunity, represents a driving force in the pathophysiology of multiple inflammatory disorders. The role of complement in anorexia nervosa remains poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of complement C3 levels, the extent of complement activation and of complement hemolytic activity in serum, as potential new biomarkers for the severity of anorexia nervosa. Patients and methods This was a prospective cohort study on 14 patients with severe anorexia nervosa, as defined by a body mass index (BMI 2. Serum samples were obtained in a biweekly manner until hospital discharge. A total of 17 healthy subjects with normal BMI values served as controls. The serum levels of complement C3, C3a, C5a, sC5b-9, and of the 50% hemolytic complement activity (CH50 were quantified and correlated with the BMIs of patients and control subjects. Results Serum C3 levels were significantly lower in patients with anorexia nervosa than in controls (median 3.7 (interquartile range (IQR 2.5-4.9 vs 11.4 (IQR 8.9-13.7, P P Conclusions Complement C3 serum levels may represent a sensitive new biomarker for monitoring the severity of disease in anorexia nervosa. The finding from this preliminary pilot study will require further investigation in future prospective large-scale multicenter trials.

  13. Development of doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Varsha G., E-mail: [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Herman, Eugene H. [Division of Drug Safety Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Moland, Carrie L.; Branham, William S. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lewis, Sherry M. [Office of Scientific Coordination, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Davis, Kelly J. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); George, Nysia I. [Division Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lee, Taewon [Department of Information and Mathematics, Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kerr, Susan [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR 72211 (United States); Fuscoe, James C. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)


    Serum levels of cardiac troponins serve as biomarkers of myocardial injury. However, troponins are released into the serum only after damage to cardiac tissue has occurred. Here, we report development of a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced chronic cardiotoxicity to aid in the identification of predictive biomarkers of early events of cardiac tissue injury. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were administered intravenous DOX at 3 mg/kg body weight, or an equivalent volume of saline, once a week for 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 weeks, resulting in cumulative DOX doses of 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 mg/kg, respectively. Mice were sacrificed a week following the last dose. A significant reduction in body weight gain was observed in mice following exposure to a weekly DOX dose for 1 week and longer compared to saline-treated controls. DOX treatment also resulted in declines in red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit compared to saline-treated controls after the 2nd weekly dose until the 8th and 9th doses, followed by a modest recovery. All DOX-treated mice had significant elevations in cardiac troponin T concentrations in plasma compared to saline-treated controls, indicating cardiac tissue injury. Also, a dose-related increase in the severity of cardiac lesions was seen in mice exposed to 24 mg/kg DOX and higher cumulative doses. Mice treated with cumulative DOX doses of 30 mg/kg and higher showed a significant decline in heart rate, suggesting drug-induced cardiac dysfunction. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the development of DOX-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} mice. -- Highlights: ► 24 mg/kg was a cumulative cardiotoxic dose of doxorubicin in male B6C3F{sub 1} mice. ► Doxorubicin-induced hematological toxicity was in association with splenomegaly. ► Doxorubicin induced severe testicular toxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} male mice.

  14. Patterns of hepatitis C virus RNA levels during acute infection: the InC3 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Hajarizadeh

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns of HCV RNA levels during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection provides insights into immunopathogenesis and is important for vaccine design. This study evaluated patterns of HCV RNA levels and associated factors among individuals with acute infection.Data were from an international collaboration of nine prospective cohorts of acute HCV (InC3 Study. Participants with well-characterized acute HCV infection (detected within three months post-infection and interval between the peak and subsequent HCV RNA levels ≤ 120 days were categorised by a priori-defined patterns of HCV RNA levels: i spontaneous clearance, ii partial viral control with persistence (≥ 1 log IU/mL decline in HCV RNA levels following peak and iii viral plateau with persistence (increase or <1 log IU/mL decline in HCV RNA levels following peak. Factors associated with HCV RNA patterns were assessed using multinomial logistic regression.Among 643 individuals with acute HCV, 162 with well-characterized acute HCV were identified: spontaneous clearance (32%, partial viral control with persistence (27%, and viral plateau with persistence (41%. HCV RNA levels reached a high viraemic phase within two months following infection, with higher levels in the spontaneous clearance and partial viral control groups, compared to the viral plateau group (median: 6.0, 6.2, 5.3 log IU/mL, respectively; P = 0.018. In the two groups with persistence, Interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3 CC genotype was independently associated with partial viral control compared to viral plateau (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.08, 7.02. In the two groups with viral control, female sex was independently associated with spontaneous clearance compared to partial viral control (AOR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.04, 7.83.Among individuals with acute HCV, a spectrum of HCV RNA patterns is evident. IFNL3 CC genotype is associated with initial viral control, while female sex is associated with ultimate

  15. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3) (United States)


    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  16. Mechanism of NO Photocatalytic Oxidationon g-C3N4 Was Changed by Pd-QDs Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Li


    Full Text Available Quantum dot (QD sensitization can increase the light absorption and electronic transmission of photocatalysts. However, limited studies have been conducted on the photocatalytic activity of photocatalysts after modification by noble metal QDs. In this study, we developed a simple method for fabricating Pd-QD-modified g-C3N4. Results showed that the modification of Pd-QDs can improve the NO photocatalytic oxidation activity of g-C3N4. Moreover, Pd-QD modification changed the NO oxidation mechanism from the synergistic action of h+ and O2− to the single action of ·OH. We found that the main reason for the mechanism change was that Pd-QD modification changed the molecular oxygen activation pathway from single-electron reduction to two-electron reduction. This study can not only develop a novel strategy for modifying Pd-QDs on the surface of photocatalysts, but also provides insight into the relationship between Pd-QD modification and the NO photocatalytic oxidation activity of semiconductor photocatalysts.

  17. Development of Predictive Thermodynamic Model for Liquefaction of Natural Gas Using the C3-Mr Refrigeration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagde, Kenneth, K.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a propane precooled mixed refrigerant (C3-MR liquefaction plant with 4 pressure levels of propane cooling operational in Nigeria and demonstrates the procedure for developing a thermodynamic model that predicts the liquefied natural gas (LNG production rate. The model prediction was validated with plant data with a maximum deviation of 3%. The thermodynamic efficiency of the natural gas liquefaction plant was estimated to be 45.1%. Simulations reveals that LNG production rate for the C3-MR plant depends on cooling water supply temperature (1 ͦC rise results to 92 tonnes per day of LNG loss, thermodynamic efficiency of the overall liquefaction process (1% drop results to 215 tonnes per day of LNG loss, LNG outlet temperature (1 ͦC decrease results to 108 tonnes per day of LNG loss, LNG production to feed gas supply ratio (1% rise results to 37 tonnes per day rise in LNG, thermal efficiency of gas turbine drivers (1% drop results to 277 tonnes per day of LNG loss, ambient air temperature (1 ͦC drop results to 67 tonnes per day of LNG increase and feed gas supply pressure.

  18. Effects of AKR1C3 on kidney damage of preeclamptic rats%AKR1C3对子痫前期大鼠肾损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金娅; 孙成娟; 张为远


    randomly divided into 4 groups of preeclampsia (pregnant rats and L-NAME),treatment (pregnant rats,L-NAME and glyburide),non-pregnancy (L-NAME) and control (pregnant rats and NS) (n =10 each).The rats in treatment group received an intragastric dose of glyburide.Successful modeling was confirmed by measuring blood pressure and 24 h urine protein content and observing the structure of kidney under transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The methods of reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were employed to detect the expression levels of AKR1C3,superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA).Results The blood pressures of all rats had no significant difference prior to modeling.After modeling,the blood pressure of preeclampsia group was significantly higher than those of control and treatment groups [(143.83 ±9.62),(120.83 ±4.31),(129.43 ± 14.4) mmHg,both P < 0.05].The 24 h urine protein content of all rats had no significant difference prior to modeling.After modeling,the 24 h urine protein content of preeclampsia group was higher than those of control and treatment groups.The TEM observation of kidney slices verified the success of modeling.In preeclampsia group,the expression levels of AKR1 C3 in protein and mRNA were significantly lower than control group [(0.48 ± 0.09) vs (0.98 ±0.27),(0.05 ± 0.02) vs (0.87 ± 0.45),both P <0.05].Compared with preeclampsia group,the expression levels of AKR1C3 in protein and mRNA significantly increased in treatment group [(0.48 ± 0.09) vs (1.05 ± 0.20),(0.05 ± 0.02) vs (0.22 ± 0.06),both P < 0.05].As compared with control group,the levels of SOD,CAT and GSH-Px were significantly lower while MDA was higher.Compared with preeclampsia group,the levels of SOD,CAT and GSH-Px in treatment group were significantly higher while MDA was lower.Conclusion The expression level of AKR1 C3 decreases in kidney of preeelamptic rats and the mechanism

  19. C3-Luc Cells Are an Excellent Model for Evaluation of Cellular Immunity following HPV16L1 Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Li

    Full Text Available C3 and TC-1 are the two model cell lines most commonly used in studies of vaccines and drugs against human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Because C3 cells contain both the HPV16 E and L genes, but TC-1 cells contain only the HPV16 E genes, C3 cells are usually used as the model cell line in studies targeting the HPV16 L protein. However, expression of the L1 protein is difficult to detect in C3 cells using common methods. In our study, Short tandem repeat analysis (STR was used to demonstrate that C3 cells are indeed derived from mice, PCR results show that HPV16 L1, E6 and E7 genes were detected in C3 genomic DNA, and RT-PCR results demonstrated that L1 transcription had occurred in C3 cells. However, the expression of C3 protein was not found in the results of western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Growth and proliferation of C3 were inhibited by mice spleen lymphocytes that had been immunized with a vaccine against HPV16L1. The luciferase gene was integrated into C3 cells, and it was confirmed that addition of the exogenous gene had no effect on C3 cells by comparing cell growth and tumor formation with untransformed cells. Cells stably expressing luciferase (C3-luc were screened and subcutaneously injected into the mice. Tumors became established and were observed using a Spectrum Pre-clinical in Vivo Imaging System. Tumor size of mice in the different groups at various time points was calculated by counting photons. The sensitivity of the animals to the vaccine was quantified by statistical comparison. Ten or 30 days following injection of the C3-luc cells, tumor size differed significantly between the PBS and vaccine groups, indicating that C3 cells were susceptible to vaccination even after tumors were formed in vivo.

  20. Anthracycline resistance mediated by reductive metabolism in cancer cells: The role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Jakub; Malcekova, Beata; Skarka, Adam; Novotna, Eva; Wsol, Vladimir, E-mail:


    Pharmacokinetic drug resistance is a serious obstacle that emerges during cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the possible role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in the resistance of cancer cells to anthracyclines. First, the reducing activity of AKR1C3 toward anthracyclines was tested using incubations with a purified recombinant enzyme. Furthermore, the intracellular reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin was examined by employing the transfection of A549, HeLa, MCF7 and HCT 116 cancer cells with an AKR1C3 encoding vector. To investigate the participation of AKR1C3 in anthracycline resistance, we conducted MTT cytotoxicity assays with these cells, and observed that AKR1C3 significantly contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to daunorubicin and idarubicin, whereas this resistance was reversible by the simultaneous administration of 2′-hydroxyflavanone, a specific AKR1C3 inhibitor. In the final part of our work, we tracked the changes in AKR1C3 expression after anthracycline exposure. Interestingly, a reciprocal correlation between the extent of induction and endogenous levels of AKR1C3 was recorded in particular cell lines. Therefore, we suggest that the induction of AKR1C3 following exposure to daunorubicin and idarubicin, which seems to be dependent on endogenous AKR1C3 expression, eventually might potentiate an intrinsic resistance given by the normal expression of AKR1C3. In conclusion, our data suggest a substantial impact of AKR1C3 on the metabolism of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which affects their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior. In addition, we demonstrate that the reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which is catalyzed by AKR1C3, contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to anthracycline treatment. - Highlights: • Metabolism of anthracyclines by AKR1C3 was studied at enzyme and cellular levels. • Anthracycline resistance mediated by AKR1C3 was demonstrated in cancer cells. • Induction of AKR1C3

  1. Delineation of the complement receptor type 2-C3d complex by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular docking. (United States)

    Shaw, Craig D; Storek, Michael J; Young, Kendra A; Kovacs, James M; Thurman, Joshua M; Holers, V Michael; Hannan, Jonathan P


    The interactions between the complement receptor type 2 (CR2) and the C3 complement fragments C3d, C3dg, and iC3b are essential for the initiation of a normal immune response. A crystal-derived structure of the two N-terminal short consensus repeat (SCR1-2) domains of CR2 in complex with C3d has previously been elucidated. However, a number of biochemical and biophysical studies targeting both CR2 and C3d appear to be in conflict with these structural data. Previous mutagenesis and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy studies directed toward the C3d-binding site on CR2 have indicated that the CR2-C3d cocrystal structure may represent an encounter/intermediate or nonphysiological complex. With regard to the CR2-binding site on C3d, mutagenesis studies by Isenman and coworkers [Isenman, D. E., Leung, E., Mackay, J. D., Bagby, S. & van den Elsen, J. M. H. (2010). Mutational analyses reveal that the staphylococcal immune evasion molecule Sbi and complement receptor 2 (CR2) share overlapping contact residues on C3d: Implications for the controversy regarding the CR2/C3d cocrystal structure. J. Immunol. 184, 1946-1955] have implicated an electronegative "concave" surface on C3d in the binding process. This surface is discrete from the CR2-C3d interface identified in the crystal structure. We generated a total of 18 mutations targeting the two (X-ray crystallographic- and mutagenesis-based) proposed CR2 SCR1-2 binding sites on C3d. Using ELISA analyses, we were able to assess binding of mutant forms of C3d to CR2. Mutations directed toward the concave surface of C3d result in substantially compromised CR2 binding. By contrast, targeting the CR2-C3d interface identified in the cocrystal structure and the surrounding area results in significantly lower levels of disruption in binding. Molecular modeling approaches used to investigate disparities between the biochemical data and the X-ray structure of the CR2-C3d cocrystal result in highest-scoring solutions in which CR2 SCR1-2 is

  2. Antibody-mediated complement C3b/iC3b binding to group B Streptococcus in paired mother and baby serum samples in a refugee population on the Thailand-Myanmar border. (United States)

    Herbert, Jenny; Thomas, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Turner, Claudia; Turner, Paul; Nosten, Francois; Le Doare, Kirsty; Hudson, Michael; Heath, Paul T; Gorringe, Andrew; Taylor, Stephen


    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. In this study, we determined antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b onto the bacterial cell surface of GBS serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V. This was determined for 520 mother and umbilical cord serum sample pairs obtained at the time of birth from a population on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b was detected to at least one serotype in 91% of mothers, despite a known carriage rate in this population of only 12%. Antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition corresponded to known carriage rates, with the highest levels of complement deposition observed onto the most prevalent serotype (serotype II) followed by serotypes Ia, III, V, and Ib. Finally, neonates born to mothers carrying serotype II GBS at the time of birth showed higher antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against serotype II GBS than neonates born to mothers with no serotype II carriage. Assessment of antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against GBS may provide insights into the seroepidemiology of anti-GBS antibodies in mothers and infants in different populations.

  3. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-2L C$_3$F$_8$ Bubble Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Asner, D M; Baxter, D; Behnke, E; Bhattacharjee, P; Borsodi, H; Bou-Cabo, M; Brice, S J; Broemmelsiek, D; Clark, K; Collar, J I; Cooper, P S; Crisler, M; Dahl, C E; Daley, S; Das, M; Debris, F; Dhungana, N; Farine, J; Felis, I; Filgas, R; Fines-Neuschild, M; Girard, F; Giroux, G; Hai, M; Hall, J; Harris, O; Jackson, C M; Jin, M; Krauss, C B; Lafrenière, M; Laurin, M; Lawson, I; Levine, I; Lippincott, W H; Mann, E; Martin, J P; Maurya, D; Mitra, P; Neilson, R; Noble, A J; Plante, A; Podviianiuk, R B; Priya, S; Robinson, A E; Ruschman, M; Scallon, O; Seth, S; Sonnenschein, A; Starinski, N; Štekl, I; Vàzquez-Jaùregui, E; Wells, J; Wichoski, U; Zacek, V; Zhang, J


    New data are reported from the operation of a 2-liter C$_3$F$_8$ bubble chamber in the 2100 meter deep SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg-days at four different recoil energy thresholds ranging from 3.2 keV to 8.1 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds, including the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. These data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  4. A special irreducible matrix representation of the real Clifford algebra C(3,1)

    CERN Document Server

    Scharnhorst, K


    4x4 Dirac (gamma) matrices (irreducible matrix representations of the Clifford algebras C(3,1), C(1,3), C(4,0)) are an essential part of many calculations in quantum physics. Although the final physical results do not depend on any particular representation of the Dirac matrices (e.g. due to the invariance of traces of products of Dirac matrices), the appropriate choice of the representation used may facilitate the analysis. The present paper introduces a particularly symmetric real representation of 4x4 Dirac matrices (Majorana representation) which may prove useful in the future. The consideration is based on the role played by isoclinic 2-planes in the geometry of the real Clifford algebra C(3,0) which provide an invariant geometric frame for it.

  5. Simulation of leaf photosynthesis of C3 plants under fluctuating light and different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öztürk, Isik; Holst, Niels; Ottosen, Carl-Otto


    An induction-dependent empirical model was developed to simulate the C3 leaf photosynthesis under fluctuating light and different temperatures. The model also takes into account the stomatal conductance when the light intensity just exceeds the compensation point after a prolonged period of darkn......An induction-dependent empirical model was developed to simulate the C3 leaf photosynthesis under fluctuating light and different temperatures. The model also takes into account the stomatal conductance when the light intensity just exceeds the compensation point after a prolonged period...... to partial cloud cover and varying temperatures. The temporal course of observed photosynthesis rate and the carbon gain was compared to the simulation. The ability of the current model to predict the carbon assimilation rate was assessed using different statistical indexes. The model predictions were...

  6. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-2L C3F8 Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, David M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P. S.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Clark, K.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Daley, S.; Das, Madhusmita; Debris, F.; Dhungana, N.; Farine, J.; Felis, I.; Filgas, R.; Fines-Neuschild, M.; Girard, Francoise; Giroux, G.; Hai, M.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, O.; Jackson, C. M.; Jin, M.; Krauss, C. B.; Lafreniere, M.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Mann, E.; Martin, J. P.; Maurya, D.; Mitra, Pitam; Neilson, R.; Noble, A. J.; Plante, A.; Podviianiuk, R. B.; Priya, S.; Robinson, A. E.; Ruschman, M.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Starinski, N.; Stekl, I.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Wells, J.; Wichoski, U.; Zacek, V.; Zhang, J.


    New data are reported from the operation of a 2-liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the 2100 meter deep SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg-days at four different recoil energy thresholds ranging from 3.2 keV to 8.1 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds, including the rst observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. These data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with signicant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in offspring born to chagasic C3H/He mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Marques de Araújo


    Full Text Available This study reports the effects of Trypanosoma cruzi infection induced in C3H/He male and female mice born to chagasic mice. An experimental model was established infecting female C3H/He mice with a low virulent T. cruzi clone. In this model, mating, fertilization, pregnancy evolution and delivery was carried out successfully. The offspring was infected at four, six and eigth weeks of age. The results showed that the offspring born to chagasic mothers present decreased resistance to acquired T. cruzi infection. This decreased resistance was expressed by higher levels of parasitaemia and higher mortality rates in offspring born to chagasic mothers than in controls. Age and sex were shown to be important factors of this phenomenon. The results suggest that maternal immune system products can modulate the immune response of the offspring.

  8. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 C$_3$F$_8$ Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C.; et al.


    New results are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C$_3$F$_8$ located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. As in previous PICO bubble chambers, PICO-60 C$_3$F$_8$ exhibits excellent electron recoil and alpha decay rejection, and the observed multiple-scattering neutron rate indicates a single-scatter neutron background of less than 1 event per month. A blind analysis of an efficiency-corrected 1167-kg-day exposure at a 3.3-keV thermodynamic threshold reveals no single-scattering nuclear recoil candidates, consistent with the predicted background. These results set the most stringent direct-detection constraint to date on the WIMP-proton spin-dependent cross section at 3.4 $\\times$ 10$^{-41}$ cm$^2$ for a 30-GeV$\\thinspace$c$^{-2}$ WIMP, more than one order of magnitude improvement from previous PICO results.

  9. The C3 Framework: Evaluating Classroom Response System Interactions in University Classrooms (United States)

    Fies, Carmen; Marshall, Jill


    The larger the classroom, the more likely is it that communications consist of a one-way flow from the instructor to students. Classroom Response Systems (CRSs) are frequently hailed as technologies capable of improving communications by opening the space for dialogic engagement; yet, a causal relationship is not documented in the literature. The data reported on here stem from a mixed methodology study and provide insights into motivations for CRS use and enacted CRS use across disciplines, as well as student and instructor perceptions of the tool's effects on teaching and learning. From these data emerged a framework of interaction (the C3 Framework) that situates CRS use from both the instructors' and learners' perspectives. The framework consists of an interdependent relationship between Concerns, Centeredness, and Control of discourse. Although this study took place in university classrooms, the C3 Framework presented here applies across educational settings.

  10. Calix[3]carbazole: A C3-symmetrical receptor for barium ion (United States)

    Yang, Zhaozheng; Tian, Zhangmin; Yang, Peng; Deng, Tuo; Li, Gang; Zhou, Xue; Chen, Yan; Zhao, Liang; Shen, Hongyan


    The binding ability of calix[3]carbazole (1) to metal ions has been investigated. It is found that 1 could serve as a non crown ether based, C3-symmetrical receptor for Ba2 + via the marriage of cation-π and cation-dipole interactions. FID assay further illustrates that 1 could selectively interact with Ba2 + over Pd2 +. A possible binding mechanism for [1-Ba2 +] complex is proposed.

  11. Studies towards C-3 functionalization of β-lactams using substituted allylsilanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    An effective and stereoselective synthesis of 3-(1'-methyl/phenylallyl)-3-phenylthio-β-lactams (3/4) using substituted allylsilane and Lewis acid is described. The reaction leads to the formation of a mixture of C-3 substituted allyl β-Lactams. However, these compounds on desulphurisation using tri-n-butyltinhydride and Raney Ni provide two separable diastereomers of the reduced product.

  12. Kinetics of Combustion Synthesis in Ti-C-3Ni-Al System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Kinetics and mechanisms of the combustion reaction in the Ti-C-3Ni-Al system were studied. Samples were prepared by igniting compacts of elemental Ti, C, Ni and Al powders with a heating tungsten coil under an inert argon atmosphere. The activation energies of Ti+C+50wt%(3Ni+Al)→TiC+50%Ni3Al and Ti+C+80wt%(3Ni+Al) →TiC+80%Ni3Al exothermic reactions were determined by measuring the combustion wave velocity and the combustion temperature, which are 129kJ.mol-1 and 79kJ*mol-1, respectively. The mechanism of formation of products for Ti-C-3Ni-Al system was found:metal phases (Ti-3Ni-Al) are melted in combustion process,and carbon dissolves into the liquid metal and TiC is subsequently precipitated out of solution, and Ni3Al is crystallized during the cooling process. The mechanism is fairly similar with that of Ti+C→TiC and Ti+C+Ni→TiC+Ni. There are two reactions (Ti+C→TiC, 3Ni+Al→Ni3Al) in the Ti+C+3Ni+Al system, and the wave velocity is mainly controlled by the velocity of Ti + C→TiC, but the velosity of 3Ni+Al→Ni3Al may play a significant role when Ni3Al contents are higher than 70wt%.

  13. Modeling the Impact of Value of Information on Situational Awareness using C3TRACE (United States)


    Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Situational awareness (SA) is critical to making good decisions on the battlefield. For the military intelligence analyst...researchers use C3TRACE software to simulate a basic human intelligence reports analysis process and observe if the results support the hypothesis that the VoI

  14. Measurement of the figure of merit M for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørn Erik Berril; McAllister, Iain Wilson


    High precision measurements of the linear part of the Paschen curve are reported for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures. From these measurements, values for the pressure-reduced limiting electric field strength (E/p)lim and the associated figure of merit M are derived. These two parameters can be used...... to characterise the insulating properties of a strongly electronegative gas or gas mixture. The present measurements confirm the existence of positive synergism....

  15. Characterization of a C3 Deoxygenation Pathway Reveals a Key Branch Point in Aminoglycoside Biosynthesis. (United States)

    Lv, Meinan; Ji, Xinjian; Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Yongzhen; Zhang, Chen; Su, Li; Ding, Wei; Deng, Zixin; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Qi


    Apramycin is a clinically interesting aminoglycoside antibiotic (AGA) containing a highly unique bicyclic octose moiety, and this octose is deoxygenated at the C3 position. Although the biosynthetic pathways for most 2-deoxystreptamine-containing AGAs have been well characterized, the pathway for apramycin biosynthesis, including the C3 deoxygenation process, has long remained unknown. Here we report detailed investigation of apramycin biosynthesis by a series of genetic, biochemical and bioinformatical studies. We show that AprD4 is a novel radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzyme, which uses a noncanonical CX3CX3C motif for binding of a [4Fe-4S] cluster and catalyzes the dehydration of paromamine, a pseudodisaccharide intermediate in apramycin biosynthesis. We also show that AprD3 is an NADPH-dependent reductase that catalyzes the reduction of the dehydrated product from AprD4-catalyzed reaction to generate lividamine, a C3' deoxygenated product of paromamine. AprD4 and AprD3 do not form a tight catalytic complex, as shown by protein complex immunoprecipitation and other assays. The AprD4/AprD3 enzyme system acts on different pseudodisaccharide substrates but does not catalyze the deoxygenation of oxyapramycin, an apramycin analogue containing a C3 hydroxyl group on the octose moiety, suggesting that oxyapramycin and apramycin are partitioned into two parallel pathways at an early biosynthetic stage. Functional dissection of the C6 dehydrogenase AprQ shows the crosstalk between different AGA biosynthetic gene clusters from the apramycin producer Streptomyces tenebrarius, and reveals the remarkable catalytic versatility of AprQ. Our study highlights the intriguing chemistry in apramycin biosynthesis and nature's ingenuity in combinatorial biosynthesis of natural products.

  16. Versatile C3-symmetric scaffolds and their use for covalent stabilization of the foldon trimer


    Berthelmann, Arne; Lach, Johannes; Gräwert, Melissa A.; Groll, Michael; Eichler, Jutta


    C 3-Symmetric trimesic acid scaffolds, functionalized with bromoacetyl, aminooxyacetyl and azidoacetyl moieties, respectively, were synthesized and compared regarding their utility for the trivalent presentation of peptides using three different chemoselective ligation reactions, i.e. thioether and oxime formation, as well as the “click” reaction. The latter ligation method was then used to covalently stabilize the trimer of foldon, a 27 amino acid trimerization domain of bacteriophage T4 fib...

  17. Effects of mannitol induced osmotic stress on proline accumulation, pigment degradation, photosynthetic abilities and growth characters in C3 rice and C4 sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suriyan CHA-UM; Souvanh THADAVONG; Chalermpol KIRDMANEE


    Osmotic stress is one of the most important abiotic factors which inhibit growth and development in both the vegetative and reproductive stages of many plant species. The aim of this investigation was to compare the biochemical and physiological responses in C3 rice and C4 sorghum to water deficit. Chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), total chlorophyll (TC) and total carotenoid (Cx+c) contents in both rice and sorghum seedlings under osmotic stress were adversely affected, related to increasing osmotic pressure in the culture media. In addition, the chlorophyll's fluorescence parameters and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased, leading to growth reduction. Also, a positive correlation was found between physiological and biochemical data, while proline accumulation showed a negative relationship. The Chlb, Pn and fresh weight were maintained better in osmotic-stressed (-1.205 MPa) C4 sorghum seedlings than those in C3 rice seedlings. The growth and physiological responses of C3 rice and C4 sorghum decreased depending on the plant species, the osmotic pressure in the media and their interactions. Pigment content and Pn ability in C4 sorghum grown under mannitol-induced osmotic stress increased to a greater degree than in C3 rice, resulting in maintenance of growth.

  18. Synthesis of porous g-C3N4/La and enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of phenol under visible light irradiation (United States)

    Rong, Xinshan; Qiu, Fengxian; Rong, Jian; Yan, Jie; Zhao, Hao; Zhu, Xiaolu; Yang, Dongya


    A series of porous g-C3N4/La (PGCN/La) materials used as photocatalyst for the degradation of phenol were prepared by two steps. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), thermogravimetry (TG), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From the TEM morphology, the porous structure of g-C3N4 could be successfully controlled; from BET results, BET specific surface area of porous g-C3N4 (PGCN) sample increases with the increasing of urea mass ratio. Compared with PGCN material (PGCN-50), PGCN/La sample (PGCN-50/La-5) could exhibit an enhanced photocatalytic activity and has the best degradation efficiency of 98.6% within 50 min under visible light irradiation. Photocatalytic reaction follows the first-order model kinetics; and PGCN-50/La-5 photocatalyst shows the largest reaction rate among all samples which is nearly 2.96 times higher than that of pure PGCN-50. The present work illustrates that the photocatalytic activity of porous g-C3N4 was improved by the addition of La and PGCN-50/La-5 has potential application in the removal of phenol or other organic molecular from wastewater.

  19. Scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 laser, and perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 for retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chaturvedi


    Full Text Available Purpose : To review the characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C3F8 gas for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients who underwent primary repair of RRD by PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 was conducted. Patients with less than 3 months follow-up, previous retinal surgery, and higher than grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy were excluded. Results : Ninety-one eyes were included in the study. The mean age was 60.1 years. The mean follow-up was 13.7 months. The macula was detached in 63% (58/91 of the eyes. The reattachment rate after one surgical procedure was 95% (86/91 while overall reattachment rate was 100%. There was no statistically significant difference between reattachment rates of superior, nasal/temporal, or inferior RRDs. The mean final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/40. Of all the patients, 66% of patients with macula-off RRDs had a final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusions: PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C 3 F 8 leads to successful anatomical reattachment with visual improvement in patients with primary RRD.

  20. Dynamic Entangled Porous Framework for Hydrocarbon (C2-C3) Storage, CO2 Capture, and Separation. (United States)

    Sikdar, Nivedita; Bonakala, Satyanarayana; Haldar, Ritesh; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Maji, Tapas Kumar


    Storage and separation of small (C1-C3) hydrocarbons are of great significance as these are alternative energy resources and also can be used as raw materials for many industrially important materials. Selective capture of greenhouse gas, CO2 from CH4 is important to improve the quality of natural gas. Among the available porous materials, MOFs with permanent porosity are the most suitable to serve these purposes. Herein, a two-fold entangled dynamic framework {[Zn2 (bdc)2 (bpNDI)]⋅4DMF}n with pore surface carved with polar functional groups and aromatic π clouds is exploited for selective capture of CO2 , C2, and C3 hydrocarbons at ambient condition. The framework shows stepwise CO2 and C2 H2 uptake at 195 K but type I profiles are observed at 298 K. The IAST selectivity of CO2 over CH4 is the highest (598 at 298 K) among the MOFs without open metal sites reported till date. It also shows high selectivity for C2 H2 , C2 H4 , C2 H6 , and C3 H8 over CH4 at 298 K. DFT calculations reveal that aromatic π surface and the polar imide (RNC=O) functional groups are the primary adsorption sites for adsorption. Furthermore, breakthrough column experiments showed CO2 /CH4 C2 H6 /CH4 and CO2 /N2 separation capability at ambient condition.

  1. High efficiency photocatalysis for pollutant degradation with MoS2/C3N4 heterostructures. (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhang, Ning; Yang, Yong; Wang, Guozhong; Ng, Dickon H L


    Porous graphitic carbon nitride was synthesized by controllable thermal polymerization of urea in air. Their textural, electrical, and optical properties were tuned by varying the heating rate. The presence of proper residual oxygen in carbon nitride matrix had enhanced light absorption and inhibited the recombination of charge carriers. Furthermore, the MoS2 nanosheets were coupled into the carbon nitride to form MoS2/C3N4 heterostructures via a facile ultrasonic chemical method. The optimized MoS2/C3N4 heterostructure with 0.05 wt % MoS2 showed a reaction rate constant as high as 0.301 min(-1), which was 3.6 times that of bare carbon nitride. As analyzed by SEM, TEM, UV-vis absorption, PL and photoelectrochemical measurements, intimate contact interface, extended light response range, enhanced separation speed of charge carriers, and high photocurrent density upon MoS2 coupling led to the photocatalytic promotion of the MoS2/C3N4 heterostructures. In this architecture, MoS2 served as electron trapper to extend the lifetime of separated electron-hole pairs. Meanwhile, the accumulated holes on the surface of carbon nitride oxidized the organic dye directly, which was a predominant process in the photodegradation of organic pollutants in water treatment. The promotional mechanisms and principles reported here would have great significance in heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  2. Kinetic Modeling of C3H6 Inhibition on NO Oxidation over Pt Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mufti Azis


    Full Text Available Exhaust after treatment for lean burn and diesel engine is a complex catalytic system that consists of a number of catalytic units. Pt/Al2O3 is often used as a model Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC that plays an important role to facilitate oxidation of NO to NO2. In the present study, we proposed a detailed kinetic model of NO oxidation as well as low temperature C3H6 inhibition to simulate temperature-programmed reaction (TPR data for NO oxidation over Pt/Al2O3. A steady-state microkinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism for NO oxidation was proposed. In addition, low temperature C3H6 inhibition was proposed as a result of site blocking as well as surface nitrite consumption. The model can explain the experimental data well over the studied temperature range. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 1st February 2016; Accepted: 1st February 2016 How to Cite: Azis, M.M., Creaser, D. (2016. Kinetic Modeling of C3H6 Inhibition on NO Oxidation over Pt Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 27-33. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.403.27-33 Permalink/DOI:

  3. Dark Matter Limits From a 2L C3F8 Filled Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alan Edward [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)


    The PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber search forWeakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter was operated in the SNOLAB underground laboratory at the same location as the previous CF3I lled COUPP-4kg detector. Neutron calibrations using photoneutron sources in C3F8 and CF3I lled calibration bubble chambers were performed to verify the sensitivity of these target uids to dark matter scattering. This data was combined with similar measurements using a low-energy neutron beam at the University of Montreal and in situ calibrations of the PICO-2L and COUPP-4kg detectors. C3F8 provides much greater sensitivity to WIMP-proton scattering than CF3I in bubble chamber detectors. PICO-2L searched for dark matter recoils with energy thresholds below 10 keV. Radiopurity assays of detector materials were performed and the expected neutron recoil background was evaluated to be 1.6+0:3

  4. Laboratory detection of the C3N an C4H free radicals (United States)

    Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Thaddeus, P.; Kawamura, H.


    The millimeter-wave spectra of the linear carbon chain free radicals C3N and C4H, first identified in IRC + 10216 and hitherto observed only in a few astronomical sources, have been detected with a Zeeman-modulated spectrometer in laboratory glow discharges through low pressure flowing mixtures of N2 + HC3N and He + HCCH, respectively. Four successive rotational transitions between 168 and 198 GHz have been measured for C3N, and five rotational transitions between 143 and 200 GHz for C4H; each is a well-resolved spin doublet owing to the unpaired electron present in both species. Precise values for the rotational, centrifugal distortion, and spin doubling constants have been obtained, which, with hyperfine constants derived from observations of the lower rotational transitions in the astronomical source TMC 1, allow all the rotational transitions of C3N and C4H at frequencies less than 300 GHz to be calculated to an absolute accuracy exceeding 1 ppm.

  5. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kranz


    Full Text Available In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austria does not formally recognise this as a threat.

  6. One-stage posterior C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation or combined anterior C2-C3 fusion for the treatment of unstable hangman’s fracture


    Liu, Jingchen; Li, Ye; Wu, Yuntao


    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of using one-stage posterior C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation or combined anterior C2-C3 fusion in the treatment of unstable hangman’s fracture. A total of 13 patients with unstable hangman’s fractures underwent C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation, lamina interbody fusion or combined anterior C2-C3 fusion and imaging examinations to evaluate the fracture fixation and healing condition at three days and three months following surgery. Postoperative X...

  7. The spatial distribution of C3 and C4 grasses in North America through the next century (United States)

    Cotton, J. M.; Mosier, T. M.; Cerling, T. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Hoppe, K. A.; Still, C. J.


    C4 grasses currently cover ~18% of the earth's surface and are economically important as food sources, but their distributions are likely to change with future climate changes. As a result of the opposing impacts of atmospheric CO2 and temperature on C3 and C4 physiology, future changes to the productivity and distributions of these grasses have remained unclear. We have used past and present tooth enamel, collagen, and bone carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of Bison and Mammoth grazers to record the δ13C values of their diet, and the abundance of C3 and C4 vegetation in these habitats. Thus, the δ13C values of bison and mammoth tissues serve as a proxy for vegetation composition across North America through time. We combine these isotope data with ensemble CMIP5 climate model outputs, eight different climatic and fire predictor variables and advanced statistical techniques to model the spatial distribution of C3 and C4 grasses up through the year 2100 for two different emissions scenarios. Using the Random Forest algorithm, our model explains 91% of the spatial and temporal isotopic variability in bison and mammoth tissues and infers that mean summer temperature is the strongest predictor of all climate variables. For the emission scenario RCP4.5, in which atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to rise to ~540 ppm by 2100, we find decreases in the abundance of C4 grasses of up to 30% in the south-central Great Plains and the Florida peninsula, and increases of up to 50% in the northern Great Plains. For the RCP8.5 scenario, in which atmospheric CO2 levels are expected to rise to ~930 ppm by 2100, our model predicts minor decreases in the abundance of C4 grasses in Texas and Oklahoma, but increases of 30-50% over the majority of the Great Plains. The overall effect of these changes is a homogenization of the Great Plains ecoregion in terms of grassland type distributions, and the loss of the highest abundance of C4 ecosystems of the panhandles of Texas, Oklahoma and

  8. Protective effect of sulfated chitosan of C3 sulfation on glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rat kidney. (United States)

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Qin, Yukun; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of sulfated chitosan of C3 sulfation (TCTS) on the glycerol-induced acute renal failure. Compared with the normal group, rats from model group exhibited collecting duct and medullary ascending limb dilation and casts by glycerol treating. TCTS, which was injected to pretreat rats by glycerol, exerted a protective effect. The results showed that serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were markedly increased in glycerol-treated rats. It is proved that TCTS reduced their levels significantly. Ions level in plasma and urine were significantly changed in glycerol-treated rats, whereas TCTS almost recovered their levels back to normal. For female rats, administration of TCTS reduced their mortality. This study showed a noticeable renal morphologic and functional protection by TCTS in glycerol-induced acute renal failure.

  9. CEO expectation: the Star Wars materiel manager of the 1990s, or C-3PO as role model. (United States)

    Zenty, T F; Olson, M R


    Materiel-intensive expenditures account for a significant portion of all hospital costs, second only to salaries and wages, yet materiel managers may often be overlooked as key members of the management team. This is alarming since the potential exists for materiel managers to impact annual savings of hundreds of thousands of dollars by operating efficient departments. Materiel managers have a tremendous opportunity to enhance their image and improve hospital productivity in the coming decade. The challenges of the 1990s will stretch materiel managers' skills toward enhancing their professionalism and achieving the expectations of themselves and top management. If materiel managers will effectively utilize (C3)PO they will increase their educational levels, continue to learn new skills, maintain a customer-oriented management style, exercise creativity, develop and adhere to standards, and be proactive in their responsibilities. The benefits of their success will be felt by patients, hospitals, the industry, and materiel managers everywhere.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Cu2O supported on C3N4: An efficient visible light responsive semiconductor photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganesh Babu


    Full Text Available Herein, Cu2O spheres were prepared and encapsulated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 composite covered the whole solar spectrum with significant absorption intensity. rGO wrapped Cu2O loading caused a red shift in the absorption with respect to considering the absorption of bare C3N4. The photoluminescence study confirms that rGO exploited as an electron transport layer at the interface of Cu2O and C3N4 heterojunction. Utmost, ∼2 fold synergistic effect was achieved with Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in comparison with Cu2O–rGO and C3N4. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 photocatalyst was reused for four times without loss in its activity.

  11. Improved C3-4 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk Animal experiments and clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zou; Xuecheng Cao; Jing Li; Lifeng Liu; Pingshan Wang; Jinfang Cai


    Experimental rats with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were treated with the improved C3-4 transfer for neurotization of C5-6. Results showed that Terzis grooming test scores were significantly increased at 6 months after treatment, the latency of C5-6 motor evoked potential was gradually shortened, and the amplitude was gradually increased. The rate of C3 instead of C5 and the C4 + phrenic nerve instead of C6 myelinated nerve fibers crossing through the anastomotic stoma was approximately 80%. Myelinated nerve fibers were arranged loosely but the thickness of the myelin sheath was similar to that of the healthy side. In clinical applications,39 patients with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were followed for 6 months to 4.5 years after treatment using the improved C3 instead of C5 nerve root transfer and C4 nerve root and phrenic nerve instead of C6 nerve root transfer. Results showed that the strength of the brachial biceps and deltoid muscles recovered to level III-IV, scapular muscle to level III-IV, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major muscles to above level III, and the brachial triceps muscle to level 0-III. Results showed that the improved C3-4 transfer for root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk in animal models is similar to clinical findings and that C3-4 and the phrenic nerve transfer for neurotization of C5-6 can innervate the avulsed brachial plexus upper trunk and promote the recovery of nerve function in the upper extremity.

  12. Enhanced Rayleigh waves tomography of Mexico using ambient noise cross-correlations (C1) and correlations of coda of correlations (C3) (United States)

    Spica, Z. J.; Perton, M.; Calo, M.; Cordoba-Montiel, F.; Legrand, D.; Iglesias, A.


    Standard application of the seismic ambient noise tomography considers the existence of synchronous records at stations for green's functions retrieval. More recent theoretical and experimental observations showed the possibility to apply correlation of coda of noise correlation (C3) to obtain green's functions between stations of asynchronous seismic networks making possible to dramatically increase databases for imagining the Earth's interior. However, this possibility has not been fully exploited yet, and right now the data C3 are not included into tomographic inversions to refine seismic structures. Here we show for the first time how to incorporate the data of C1 and C3 to calculate dispersion maps of Rayleigh waves in the range period of 10-120s, and how the merging of these datasets improves the resolution of the structures imaged. Tomographic images are obtained for an area covering Mexico, the Gulf of Mexico and the southern U.S. We show dispersion maps calculated using both data of C1 and the complete dataset (C1+C3). The latter provide new details of the seismic structure of the region allowing a better understanding of their role on the geodynamics of the study area. The resolving power obtained in our study is several times higher than in previous studies based on ambient noise. This demonstrates the new possibilities for imaging the Earth's crust and upper mantle using this enlarged database.

  13. Climate controls on C3 vs. C4 productivity in North American grasslands from carbon isotope composition of soil organic matter (United States)

    von Fischer, J.C.; Tieszen, L.L.; Schimel, D.S.


    We analyzed the ??13 C of soil organic matter (SOM) and fine roots from 55 native grassland sites widely distributed across the US and Canadian Great Plains to examine the relative production of C3 vs. C4 plants (hereafter %C4) at the continental scale. Our climate vs. %C4 results agreed well with North American field studies on %C4, but showed bias with respect to %C4 from a US vegetation database (statsgo) and weak agreement with a physiologically based prediction that depends on crossover temperature. Although monthly average temperatures have been used in many studies to predict %C4, our analysis shows that high temperatures are better predictors of %C4. In particular, we found that July climate (average of daily high temperature and month's total rainfall) predicted %C4 better than other months, seasons or annual averages, suggesting that the outcome of competition between C3 and C4 plants in North American grasslands was particularly sensitive to climate during this narrow window of time. Root ??13 C increased about 1??? between the A and B horizon, suggesting that C 4 roots become relatively more common than C3 roots with depth. These differences in depth distribution likely contribute to the isotopic enrichment with depth in SOM where both C3 and C4 grasses are present. ?? 2008 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Photocatalytic Properties of g-C3N4–TiO2 Heterojunctions under UV and Visible Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Fagan


    Full Text Available Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 were chosen as a model system to investigate photocatalytic abilities of heterojunction system under UV and visible light conditions. The use of g-C3N4 has been shown to be effective in the reduction in recombination through the interaction between the two interfaces of TiO2 and g-C3N4. A simple method of preparing g-C3N4 through the pyrolysis of melamine was employed, which was then added to undoped TiO2 material to form the g-C3N4–TiO2 system. These materials were then fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET, and various spectroscopic techniques including Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, diffuse absorbance, and photoluminescence analysis. Photocatalysis studies were conducted using the model dye, rhodamine 6G utilizing visible and UV light irradiation. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that a composite of the materials was formed as opposed to a mixture of the two. Using XPS analysis, a shift in the nitrogen peak to that indicative of substitutional nitrogen was detected for all doped samples. This is then mirrored in the diffuse absorbance results, which show a clear decrease in band gap values for these samples, showing the effective band gap alteration achieved through this preparation process. When g-C3N4–TiO2 samples were analyzed under visible light irradiation, no significant improvement was observed compared that of pure TiO2. However, under UV light irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic ability of the doped samples exhibited an increased reactivity when compared to the undoped TiO2 (0.130 min−1, with 4% g-C3N4–TiO2 (0.187 min−1, showing a 43.9% increase in reactivity. Further doping to 8% g-C3N4–TiO2 lead to a decrease in reactivity against rhodamine 6G. BET analysis determined that the surface area of the 4% and 8% g-C3N4–TiO2 samples were very similar, with values

  15. C 3, A Command-line Catalog Cross-match Tool for Large Astrophysical Catalogs (United States)

    Riccio, Giuseppe; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Mercurio, Amata; di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Molinari, Sergio


    Modern Astrophysics is based on multi-wavelength data organized into large and heterogeneous catalogs. Hence, the need for efficient, reliable and scalable catalog cross-matching methods plays a crucial role in the era of the petabyte scale. Furthermore, multi-band data have often very different angular resolution, requiring the highest generality of cross-matching features, mainly in terms of region shape and resolution. In this work we present C 3 (Command-line Catalog Cross-match), a multi-platform application designed to efficiently cross-match massive catalogs. It is based on a multi-core parallel processing paradigm and conceived to be executed as a stand-alone command-line process or integrated within any generic data reduction/analysis pipeline, providing the maximum flexibility to the end-user, in terms of portability, parameter configuration, catalog formats, angular resolution, region shapes, coordinate units and cross-matching types. Using real data, extracted from public surveys, we discuss the cross-matching capabilities and computing time efficiency also through a direct comparison with some publicly available tools, chosen among the most used within the community, and representative of different interface paradigms. We verified that the C 3 tool has excellent capabilities to perform an efficient and reliable cross-matching between large data sets. Although the elliptical cross-match and the parametric handling of angular orientation and offset are known concepts in the astrophysical context, their availability in the presented command-line tool makes C 3 competitive in the context of public astronomical tools.

  16. Influences of C3H8O3 Concentration on Formation and Characteristics of MAO Coatings on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy%C3H8O3含量对AZ91D镁合金微弧氧化过程及膜层特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑艳; 夏永平; 刘莉


    在含有不同C3H8O3含量的硅铝复合电解液中,利用交流脉冲电源在AZ91D镁合金基体上制备了一系列微弧氧化膜.利用SEM和膜层测厚仪分别研究了陶瓷膜层的微观形貌特征及厚度,采用全浸泡实验和电化学阻抗谱测试了膜层在3.5%NaCl中性溶液中的耐蚀性能.结果表明,微弧氧化过程中的起弧电压和终止电压均随C3H8O3含量的增加而呈上升的变化趋势.随着C3H8O3含量的增加,膜层耐蚀性先提高后降低,而膜厚变化幅度不大.膜层的耐蚀性主要取决于内部致密层,当C3H8O3含量为5mL/L时,膜层相对较致密,因而表现出良好的耐蚀性能.%Microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings were obtained on the AZ91D magnesium alloy by AC pulse electrical source in a silicate-aluminate based composite electrolyte containing various concentrations of C3H8O3.The morphologies and thickness of ceramic coatings were characterized by SEM and layer thickness meter,respectively.The corrosion resistance of coatings in a 3.5%NaCl neutral solution was evaluated by the immersion test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).The results showed that the striking voltage and final voltage increased gradually with the increase of C3H8O3 concentration during the MAO process.With the increase of C3H8O3 concentration in the electrolyte,the corrosion resistance of the coatings increased at first and then decreased gradually,however,the variation of the coating thickness was not obvious.The EIS results showed that the corrosion resistance of the coatings was influenced by the inner dense layer.The coating exhibited better corrosion resistance in the electrolyte containing 5 mL/L C3H8O3due to its relatively compact microstructure.

  17. Local neutrophil influx following lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats is associated with accumulation of complement activation fragments of the third component (C3) of the complement system. (United States)

    Keeling, K L; Hicks, R R; Mahesh, J; Billings, B B; Kotwal, G J


    Traumatic brain injury can lead to locally destructive secondary events mediated by several inflammatory components. Following lateral fluid-percussion (FP) brain injury in rats, we examined cortical and hippocampal sections for neutrophil infiltration and accumulation of complement component C3. Neutrophil influx into the brain after injury was detected by an improved myeloperoxidase (MPO) microassay and manual cell counting, while C3 accumulation was detected using immunocytochemistry. MPO levels were elevated in the injured cortical tissue, whereas C3 immunoreactivity was increased in both injured cortical and ipsilateral hippocampal sections. These results show that the FP model of head injury leads to an intense local inflammatory reaction and subsequent tissue destruction.

  18. C3I and Modelling and Simulation (M&S) Interoperability (United States)


    évaluation, entraînement et mise en œuvre des fonctions nécessaires dans le cadre des opérations en cours. Le soutien de l’interopérabilité passe par...Des solutions nationales peuvent être établies en fonction de ces TRM afin de faciliter la conception de fédérations et de systèmes C3I...Implementation of the model was performed in MATLAB . The implementation is a BN model which uses some of the classes and variables represented by a

  19. Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of fluoroquinolone C3 fused heterocycles (Ⅱ): From triazolothiadiazines to pyrazolotriazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qiang Hu; Wen Long Huang; Li Li Hou; Yong Yang; Lei Yi; Song Qiang Xie; Guo Qiang Wang; Nan Nan Duan; Tie Yao Chao; Xiao Yi Wen


    To further expand an effective modified route for the shift from an antibacterial fluoroquinolone (FQ) to an antitumor FQ, two series of title compounds based on an isostere of the FQ C3 carboxylic group with two fused heterocyclic rings, [l,2,4]triazolo[3,4-6][l,3,4]thiadiazine and pyrazolo[5,l-c][l,2,4]triazole, respectively, were designed and synthesized starting from the current antibacterial FQs, and their in vitro antitumor activity against L1210, CHO cell lines were evaluated via their respective IC50 values.

  20. C3-heteroaroyl cannabinoids as photolabeling ligands for the CB2 cannabinoid receptor. (United States)

    Dixon, Darryl D; Tius, Marcus A; Thakur, Ganesh A; Zhou, Han; Bowman, Anna L; Shukla, Vidyanand G; Peng, Yan; Makriyannis, Alexandros


    A series of tricyclic cannabinoids incorporating a heteroaroyl group at C3 were prepared as probes to explore the binding site(s) of the CB1 and CB2 receptors. This relatively unexplored structural motif is shown to be CB2 selective with K(i) values at low nanomolar concentrations when the heteroaromatic group is 3-benzothiophenyl (41) or 3-indolyl (50). When photoactivated, the lead compound 41 was shown to successfully label the CB2 receptor through covalent attachment at the active site while 50 failed to label. The benzothiophenone moiety may be a photoactivatable moiety suitable for selective labeling.

  1. Metabolism of methapyrilene by Fischer-344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes. (United States)

    Kelly, D W; Holder, C L; Korfmacher, W A; Getek, T A; Lay, J O; Casciano, D A; Shaddock, J G; Duhart, H M; Slikker, W


    1. Suspension cultures of freshly isolated F344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes were compared for their ability to transform various concentrations of methapyrilene (MP). 2. MP metabolites were isolated and purified by h.p.l.c., and were identified by comparing their chromatographic and mass spectral properties with those of authentic standards. 3. Both rat and mouse hepatocytes transformed MP to tentatively identified 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid (I), and definitively identified mono-N-desmethyl methapyrilene glucuronide (II), methapyrilene glucuronide (III), methapyrilene N-oxide (V), and mono-N-desmethyl methapyrilene (VII).

  2. Adsorption behavior of conjugated {C}3-oligomers on Si(100) and HOPG surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, G; Stiévenard, Didier; Krzeminski, Christophe; Delerue, Christophe; Roncali, Jean; Martineau, C; 10.1021/la026907n


    A pi-conjugated {C}3h-oligomer involving three dithienylethylene branches bridged at the meta positions of a central benzenic core has been synthesized and deposited either on the Si(100) surface or on the HOPG surface. On the silicon surface, scanning tunneling microscopy allows the observation of isolated molecules. Conversely, by substituting the thiophene rings of the oligomers with alkyl chains, a spontaneous ordered film is observed on the HOPG surface. As the interaction of the oligomers is different with both surfaces, the utility of the Si(100) surface to characterize individual oligomers prior to their use into a 2D layer is discussed.

  3. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Tai L., E-mail: [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Wang, Yunbiao [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102 (China); Xiong, Tao [College of Animal Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou City, Hubei Province 434025 (China); Ling, Xiao [Institute for Food and Drug Control of Shandong Province, Jinan City, Shandong 250012 (China); Zheng, Jianfeng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0613 (United States)


    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  4. Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of C3/C3 fluoroquinolone dimers (I): Tethered with a fused heterocyclic s-triazolo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Five C3/C3 fluoroquinolone dimers tethered with a fused heterocyclic ring of s-triazolo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derived from antibacterial quinolones were synthesized and characterized, and their in vitro antitumor activity against L1210, CHO cell lines was evaluated via the respective IC50 values.

  5. Preparation of WO3/g-C3N4 composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization (United States)

    Zhao, Rongxiang; Li, Xiuping; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan


    WO3/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO3 and g-C3N4 at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO3 was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C3N4 was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO3/g-C3N4 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). The WO3/g-C3N4 composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO3 and g-C3N4 than the WO3 and pure g-C3N4. In addition, two WO3 peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% -WO3/g-C3N4 composite. This finding indicated that WO3 was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C3N4 nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO3. The WO3/g-C3N4 composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO3 or pure g-C3N4, which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  6. Experimental cross-sections energy dependence and an ab initio electronic structure survey of the ground singlet potential surface for reactive Li(+) + n-C(3)H(7)Cl collisions at low energies. (United States)

    Lucas, José María; de Andrés, Jaime; Albertí, Margarita; Bofill, Josep Maria; Bassi, Davide; Aguilar, Antonio


    Reactive collisions between n-C(3)H(7)Cl molecules and lithium ions both in their ground electronic state have been studied in the 0.05-7.00 eV center of mass energy range using an octopole radio frequency guided-ion beam apparatus developed in our laboratory and recently modified. At low collision energies, dehydrohalogenation reactions leading to Li(C(3)H(6))(+) and Li(HCl)(+) are the main reaction channels, while on increasing energies C(3)H(7)(+) and C(2)H(3)(+) formation become dominant. Cross section energy dependences in arbitrary units for all these reactions have been measured. Also, ab initio electronic structure calculations at the MP2 level have been performed to obtain information about the potential energy surface on which the reactive processes take place. The reactants' entrance channel leads to the formation of a stable [Li-n-C(3)H(7)Cl](+) ion-molecule adduct that, following an intrinsic-reaction-coordinate pathway and surmounting a transition state, isomerizes to [Li-i-C(3)H(7)Cl](+). From this second minimum, dehydrohalogenation reactions for both n-C(3)H(7)Cl and i-C(3)H(7)Cl share a common reaction pathway leading to the same products. All potential barriers explored by reactions always lie below the reactants' energy. The entrance reaction channel [Li-n-C(3)H(7)Cl](+) adduct also leads adiabatically to C(3)H(7)(+) formation which, on increasing collision energy generates C(2)H(3)(+)via a unimolecular decomposition. A qualitative interpretation of the experimental results based on our ab initio calculations is also given.

  7. On the gracefulness of the(St(r),St(r),Gr)-corona of the cycle C3%圈C3的(St(r),St(r),Gr)-冠的优美性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    给出了圈C3的(St(r),St(r),Gr)-冠的定义,讨论了圈C3的(St(r),St(r),Gr)-冠的优美性,用构造性的方法给出了圈C3的(St(r),St(r),Gr)-冠的优美标号。%Gave the definition of the (St(r),St(r),Gr)-corona of the cycle C3.Discussed the gracefulness of the (St(r),St(r),Gr)-corona of the cycle C3.The graceful labelings was given by the method of construction.

  8. Mechanism of promoting effect of inhibition of ClC-3 expression on apoptosis of human ovarian cancer SKOV3/DDP cells induced by cisplatin%抑制ClC-3表达促进顺铂诱导人卵巢癌SKOV3/DDP细胞凋亡的作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于春艳; 刘希; 苏静; 钟加滕; 孙连坤; 刘玉和


    Objective: To explore the specific mechanism of promoting effect of inhibition of chloride channel -3 ( C1C -3) expression on human ovarian cancer SKOV3/DDP cell injury induced by cisplatin, and provide an experimental basis for treating ovarian cancer with DDP. Methods: pSHl - siRNA - C1C - 3 recombinant plasmid was transfected into human ovarian cancer SKOV3/DDP cells, Western blotting was used to observe the expressions of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and lysosomal cathepsin D (cathepsin D) . Results: Compared with SKOV3 cells, HSP70 expression increased in SKOV3/DDP cells (P <0. 05) . HSP70 expression decreased (P <0. 05) and cathepsin D expression increased in human ovarian cancer SKOV3/DDP cells after treated with transfection of pSHl - siRNA - C1C - 3 recombinant plasmid combined with DDP. Conclusion: The mechanism of promting effect of inhibition of C1C - 3 expression on apoptosis of human ovarian cancer SKOV3/DDP cells induced by cisplatin may be related to increase of permeability of lysosomal membrane.%目的:探讨抑制ClC-3基因表达对顺铂(DDP)复制的人卵巢癌SKOV3/DDP细胞损伤促进作用过程中的具体作用机制,为应用DDP治疗卵巢癌提供实验依据.方法:转染pSH1-siRNA-ClC-3重组质粒到人卵巢癌SKOV3/DDP细胞,Western blotting方法观察热休克蛋白(HSP70)、溶酶体组织蛋白酶D(cathepsin D)蛋白表达.结果:与SKOV3细胞比较,SKOV3/DDP细胞中HSP70蛋白表达增加(P<0.05).转染pSH1-siRNA-ClC-3重组质粒联合DDP作用后,SKOV3/DDP细胞中HSP70蛋白表达降低(P<0.05),cathepsin D蛋白表达增加(P<0.05).结论:抑制C1C-3基因表达促进顺铂诱导SKOV3/DDP细胞凋亡的可能作用机制与溶酶体膜通透性(LMP)增加有关.

  9. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-2L C3F8 Bubble Chamber. (United States)

    Amole, C; Ardid, M; Asner, D M; Baxter, D; Behnke, E; Bhattacharjee, P; Borsodi, H; Bou-Cabo, M; Brice, S J; Broemmelsiek, D; Clark, K; Collar, J I; Cooper, P S; Crisler, M; Dahl, C E; Daley, S; Das, M; Debris, F; Dhungana, N; Farine, J; Felis, I; Filgas, R; Fines-Neuschild, M; Girard, F; Giroux, G; Hai, M; Hall, J; Harris, O; Jackson, C M; Jin, M; Krauss, C B; Lafrenière, M; Laurin, M; Lawson, I; Levine, I; Lippincott, W H; Mann, E; Martin, J P; Maurya, D; Mitra, P; Neilson, R; Noble, A J; Plante, A; Podviianiuk, R B; Priya, S; Robinson, A E; Ruschman, M; Scallon, O; Seth, S; Sonnenschein, A; Starinski, N; Štekl, I; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E; Wells, J; Wichoski, U; Zacek, V; Zhang, J


    New data are reported from the operation of a 2 liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg days at four different energy thresholds below 10 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron-recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds. The chamber exhibits an electron-recoil sensitivity of 98.2%. These data also include the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. These data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  10. Modeling of C3 I system in laser countermeasure weapon system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-xi; GUO Li-hong


    With the spectrum extended in modem Electronic War, Laser Countermeasure Weapon will be re-quested in order to snatch up and keep the Electromagnetism-Power in war field. If Command, Control, Com-munications and Intelligence called Double-Army-Power-Implement is applied to general design of Laser Coun-termeasure Weapon System, the efficiency of Weapon System can be greatly improved. The Object-Oriented a-nalysis and design approach based on UML for C3I system architecture was put forward, by which logical archi-tecture described by class diagrams and behavior diagrams can be developed through Object-Oriented analysis,and physical architecture described by component diagrams and deployment diagrams can be developed through Object-Oriented design. The framework of Modeling based UML was firstly set forth, the high process of Com-mand, Control, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance and UML Architecture was utilized., Then the Modeling process was particularly discussed through following the core ideology and basic principle of RUP(Rational Unified Process). Next, a series of diagrams of UML diagram which include Activity diagrams, Use Case diagrams, Sequence diagrams, Package diagrams and Class diagrams of system analysis, Component dia-grams, and Deployment diagrams of system design are illustrated in the process of Modeling of C3I system soft-ware. Lastly, some problems that should be noticed in the Modeling process, merit and demerit of model, next works were also put forward.

  11. Photodetachment as destruction mechanism for CN- and C3N- anions in circumstellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S S; Jindra, R; Best, T; Roucka, S; Geppert, W D; Millar, T J; Wester, R


    Absolute photodetachment cross sections of two anions of astrophysical importance CN- and C3N- were measured to be (1.18 +- (0.03)_stat (0.17)_sys) * 10^-17 cm^2 and (1.43 +- (0.14)_stat (0.37)_sys) * 10^-17 cm^2 respectively at the ultraviolet wavelength of 266 nm (4.66 eV). These relatively large values of the cross sections imply that photodetachment can play a major role in the destruction mechanisms of these anions particularly in photon-dominated regions. We have therefore carried out model calculations using the newly measured cross sections to investigate the abundance of these molecular anions in the cirumstellar envelope of the carbon-rich star IRC+10216. The model predicts the relative importance of the various mechanisms of formation and destruction of these species in different regions of the envelope. UV photodetachment was found to be the major destruction mechanism for both CN- and C3N- anions in those regions of the envelope, where they occur in peak abundance. It was also found that photodet...

  12. The Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S): A European Answer to Climate Change (United States)

    Thepaut, Jean-Noel


    Copernicus is the European Commission's flagship Earth observation programme that delivers freely accessible operational data and information services. ECMWF has been entrusted to operate two key parts of the Copernicus programme, which will bring a consistent standard to the measurement, forecasting and prediction of atmospheric conditions and climate change: • The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service, CAMS, provides daily forecasts detailing the makeup composition of the atmosphere from the ground up to the stratosphere. • The Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) (in development) will routinely monitor and analyse more than 20 essential climate variables to build a global picture of our climate, from the past to the future, as well as developing customisable climate indicators for relevant economic sectors, such as energy, water management, agriculture, insurance, health…. C3S has now taken off and a number of proof-of-concept sectoral climate services have been initiated. This paper will focus on the description and expected outcome of these proof-of-concept activities as well as the definition of a roadmap towards a fully operational European Climate Change Service.

  13. The superfamily of C3b/C4b-binding proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; D'Eustachio, P; Ogata, R T


    The determination of primary structures by amino acid and nucleotide sequencing for the C3b-and/or C4b-binding proteins H, C4BP, CR1, B, and C2 has revealed the presence of a common structural element. This element is approximately 60 amino acids long and is repeated in a tandem fashion, commenci......, which have more limited homology with the repetitive regions in this family. All available data indicate that multiple gene duplications and exon shuffling have been important features in the divergence of this family of proteins with the 60-amino-acid repeat.......The determination of primary structures by amino acid and nucleotide sequencing for the C3b-and/or C4b-binding proteins H, C4BP, CR1, B, and C2 has revealed the presence of a common structural element. This element is approximately 60 amino acids long and is repeated in a tandem fashion, commencing...... at the amino-terminal end of each molecule. Two other complement components, C1r and C1s, have two of these repeating units in the carboxy-terminal region of their noncatalytic A chains. Three noncomplement proteins, beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2I), the interleukin 2 receptor (IL 2 receptor), and the b chain...

  14. Engineering C4 photosynthesis into C3 chassis in the synthetic biology age. (United States)

    Schuler, Mara L; Mantegazza, Otho; Weber, Andreas P M


    C4 photosynthetic plants outperform C3 plants in hot and arid climates. By concentrating carbon dioxide around Rubisco C4 plants drastically reduce photorespiration. The frequency with which plants evolved C4 photosynthesis independently challenges researchers to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying this convergent evolutionary switch. The conversion of C3 crops, such as rice, towards C4 photosynthesis is a long-standing goal. Nevertheless, at the present time, in the age of synthetic biology, this still remains a monumental task, partially because the C4 carbon-concentrating biochemical cycle spans two cell types and thus requires specialized anatomy. Here we review the advances in understanding the molecular basis and the evolution of the C4 trait, advances in the last decades that were driven by systems biology methods. In this review we emphasise essential genetic engineering tools needed to translate our theoretical knowledge into engineering approaches. With our current molecular understanding of the biochemical C4 pathway, we propose a simplified rational engineering model exclusively built with known C4 metabolic components. Moreover, we discuss an alternative approach to the progressing international engineering attempts that would combine targeted mutagenesis and directed evolution.

  15. Postoperative Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Associated with Complement C3 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Matsukuma


    Full Text Available Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS can be distinguished from typical or Shiga-like toxin-induced HUS. The clinical outcome is unfavorable; up to 50% of affected patients progress to end-stage renal failure and 25% die during the acute phase. Multiple conditions have been associated with aHUS, including infections, drugs, autoimmune conditions, transplantation, pregnancy, and metabolic conditions. aHUS in the nontransplant postsurgical period, however, is rare. An 8-month-old boy underwent surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia developed 25 days later, and aHUS was diagnosed. Further evaluation revealed that his complement factor H (CFH level was normal and that anti-FH antibodies were not detected in his plasma. Sequencing of his CFH, complement factor I, membrane cofactor protein, complement factor B, and thrombomodulin genes was normal. His ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin-1 repeats 13 activity was also normal. However, he had a potentially causative mutation (R425C in complement component C3. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that his father and aunt also had this mutation; however, they had no symptoms of aHUS. We herein report a case of aHUS that developed after cardiovascular surgery and was caused by a complement C3 mutation.

  16. Participation of complement 3a receptor (C3aR) in the sensitization phase of Th2 mediated allergic contact dermatitis. (United States)

    Niebuhr, Margarete; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Kietzmann, Manfred; Wichmann, Katja; Heratizadeh, Annice; Werfel, Thomas


    The complement system has emerged as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. An involvement of C3aR has been described during skin inflammation. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of C3a in a mouse model of allergic skin inflammation, such as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) which is a clinical manifestation of contact sensitivity (CS). The sensitization phase was studied using the local lymph node test: Mice were sensitized on three consecutive days by application of non-irritant concentrations of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI; 0.5%) onto the ear skin. On day 5, auricular draining lymph nodes were obtained. The elicitation phase was investigated by sensitization with TDI on the depilated and tape-stripped abdominal skin and challenge with TDI on the ear skin and measuring of ear swelling in vivo and cytokine secretion in activated splenocytes in vitro respectively. Complement 3a receptor deficient (C3aRKO) mice showed increased cytokine responses (interleukin[IL]-5, IL-6, IL-17, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in the sensitization phase of ACD to TDI. However, no differences in CS responses to TDI were observed in C3aR KO mice compared with WT controls in the elicitation phase of ACD as assessed by measuring of ear swelling in vivo and cytokines in skin and in activated splenocytes in vitro, namely IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), GM-CSF and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. These findings provide a new insight into the participation of C3a in the sensitization phase of CS immune responses.

  17. The influence of C3 and C4 vegetation on soil organic matter dynamics in contrasting semi-natural tropical ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saiz


    Full Text Available Variations in the carbon isotopic composition of soil organic matter (SOM in bulk and fractionated samples were used to assess the influence of C3 and C4 vegetation on SOM dynamics in semi-natural tropical ecosystems sampled along a precipitation gradient in West Africa. Differential patterns in SOM dynamics in C3/C4 mixed ecosystems occurred at various spatial scales. Relative changes in C / N ratios between two contrasting SOM fractions were used to evaluate potential site-scale differences in SOM dynamics between C3- and C4-dominated locations. These differences were strongly controlled by soil texture across the precipitation gradient, with a function driven by bulk δ13C and sand content explaining 0.63 of the observed variability. The variation of δ13C with soil depth indicated a greater accumulation of C3-derived carbon with increasing precipitation, with this trend being also strongly dependant on soil characteristics. The influence of vegetation thickening on SOM dynamics was also assessed in two adjacent, but structurally contrasting, transitional ecosystems occurring on comparable soils to minimise confounding effects posed by climatic and edaphic factors. Radiocarbon analyses of sand-size aggregates yielded relatively short mean residence times (τ even deep in the soil, while the most stable SOM fraction associated to silt and clay exhibited shorter τ in the savanna woodland than in the neighbouring forest stand. These results together with the vertical variation observed in δ13C values, strongly suggest that both ecosystems are undergoing a rapid transition towards denser closed canopy formations. However, vegetation thickening varied in intensity at each site and exerted contrasting effects on SOM dynamics. This study shows that the interdependence between biotic and abiotic factors ultimately determine whether SOM dynamics of C3- and C4-derived vegetation are at variance in ecosystems where both vegetation types coexist. The

  18. Effect of rutile TiO2 on the photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4/brookite-TiO2-xNy photocatalyst for NO decomposition (United States)

    Li, Huihui; Wu, Xiaoyong; Yin, Shu; Katsumata, Kenichi; Wang, Yuhua


    Novel g-C3N4/rutile-brookite TiO2-xNy composite photocatalysts were fabricated through a facile solvothermal approach. The effect of rutile phase TiO2 with brookite TiO2 and g-C3N4 on the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4/nitrogen-doped TiO2 composite was studied. The photocatalytic performance of the photocatalyst was evaluated by measuring the degradation of NO gas under visible and UV light irradiation. It is suggested that g-C3N4/rutile-brookite TiO2-xNy forms a Z-scheme photocatalytic system, which shows improvement on the photocatalytic activity than that of g-C3N4/single brookite TiO2-xNy. By importing rutile phase TiO2-xNy, the photogenerated electrons can efficiently transfer from rutile TiO2 to g-C3N4, which results in the separation of electron and hole pairs, enhancing the photocatalytic ability. However, single brookite TiO2-xNy can not remove the photogenerated electrons efficiently and the photocatalytic performances of composites decrease with g-C3N4 amount increase.

  19. Mesophyll cells of C4 plants have fewer chloroplasts than those of closely related C3 plants. (United States)

    Stata, Matt; Sage, Tammy L; Rennie, Troy D; Khoshravesh, Roxana; Sultmanis, Stefanie; Khaikin, Yannay; Ludwig, Martha; Sage, Rowan F


    The evolution of C(4) photosynthesis from C(3) ancestors eliminates ribulose bisphosphate carboxylation in the mesophyll (M) cell chloroplast while activating phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation in the cytosol. These changes may lead to fewer chloroplasts and different chloroplast positioning within M cells. To evaluate these possibilities, we compared chloroplast number, size and position in M cells of closely related C(3), C(3) -C(4) intermediate and C(4) species from 12 lineages of C(4) evolution. All C(3) species had more chloroplasts per M cell area than their C(4) relatives in high-light growth conditions. C(3) species also had higher chloroplast coverage of the M cell periphery than C(4) species, particularly opposite intercellular air spaces. In M cells from 10 of the 12 C(4) lineages, a greater fraction of the chloroplast envelope was pulled away from the plasmalemma in the C(4) species than their C(3) relatives. C(3) -C(4) intermediate species generally exhibited similar patterns as their C(3) relatives. We interpret these results to reflect adaptive shifts that facilitate efficient C(4) function by enhancing diffusive access to the site of primary carbon fixation in the cytosol. Fewer chloroplasts in C(4) M cells would also reduce shading of the bundle sheath chloroplasts, which also generate energy required by C(4) photosynthesis.

  20. Starch Accumulation in the Bundle Sheaths of C3 Plants: A Possible Pre-Condition for C4 Photosynthesis. (United States)

    Miyake, Hiroshi


    C4 plants have evolved >60 times from their C3 ancestors. C4 photosynthesis requires a set of closely co-ordinated anatomical and biochemical characteristics. However, it is now recognized that the evolution of C4 plants requires fewer changes than had ever been considered, because of the genetic, biochemical and anatomical pre-conditions of C3 ancestors that were recruited into C4 photosynthesis. Therefore, the pre-conditions in C3 plants are now being actively investigated to clarify the evolutionary trajectory from C3 to C4 plants and to engineer C4 traits efficiently into C3 crops. In the present mini review, the anatomical characteristics of C3 and C4 plants are briefly reviewed and the importance of the bundle sheath for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis is described. For example, while the bundle sheath of C3 rice plants accumulates large amounts of starch in the developing leaf blade and at the lamina joint of the mature leaf, the starch sheath function is also observed during leaf development in starch accumulator grasses regardless of photosynthetic type. The starch sheath function of C3 plants is therefore also implicated as a possible pre-condition for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. The phylogenetic relationships between the types of storage carbohydrates and of photosynthesis need to be clarified in the future.

  1. Nanogold-functionalized g-C3N4 nanohybrids for sensitive impedimetric immunoassay of prostate-specific antigen using enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation. (United States)

    Ding, Li-Li; Ge, Jing-Ping; Zhou, Wen-Quan; Gao, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Xiong, Ya


    This work reports on a new impedimetric immunosensing strategy for sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in biological fluids. The assay was carried out on monoclonal anti-PSA capture antibody-modified glassy carbon electrode with a sandwich-type detection format. Gold nanoparticles-decorated g-C3N4 nanosheets (AuNP/g-C3N4), synthesized by the wet-chemistry method, were utilized for the labeling of polyclonal anti-PSA detection antibody and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Upon target PSA introduction, the sandwiched immunocomplex could be formed between capture antibody and detection antibody. Followed by the AuNP/g-C3N4, the labeled HRP could catalyze 4-choloro-1-naphthol into benzo-4-chlorohexadienone. The as-generated insoluble product was coated on the electrode surface, thus increasing the Faradaic impedance of Fe(CN)6(4-/3)(-) indicator between the solution and the base electrode. Under the optimal conditions, the impedance increased with the increasing target PSA in the sample, and exhibited a wide linear range from 10pgmL(-1) and 30ngmL(-1) with a detection limit of 5.2pgmL(-1). A repeatability and intermediate precision of <14% was accomplished. The specificity and method accuracy in comparison with commercial PSA ELISA kit for analysis of human serum specimens were relatively satisfactory.

  2. Elevated atmospheric CO2 triggers compensatory feeding by root herbivores on a C3 but not a C4 grass.

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    Scott N Johnson

    Full Text Available Predicted increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations often reduce nutritional quality for herbivores by increasing the C:N ratio of plant tissue. This frequently triggers compensatory feeding by aboveground herbivores, whereby they consume more shoot material in an attempt to meet their nutritional needs. Little, however, is known about how root herbivores respond to such changes. Grasslands are particularly vulnerable to root herbivores, which can collectively exceed the mass of mammals grazing aboveground. Here we provide novel evidence for compensatory feeding by a grass root herbivore, Sericesthis nigrolineata, under elevated atmospheric CO2 (600 µmol mol(-1 on a C3 (Microlaena stipoides but not a C4 (Cymbopogon refractus grass species. At ambient CO2 (400 µmol mol(-1 M. stipoides roots were 44% higher in nitrogen (N and 7% lower in carbon (C concentrations than C. refractus, with insects performing better on M. stipoides. Elevated CO2 decreased N and increased C:N in M. stipoides roots, but had no impact on C. refractus roots. Root-feeders displayed compensatory feeding on M. stipoides at elevated CO2, consuming 118% more tissue than at ambient atmospheric CO2. Despite this, root feeder biomass remained depressed by 24%. These results suggest that compensatory feeding under elevated atmospheric CO2 may make some grass species particularly vulnerable to attack, potentially leading to future shifts in the community composition of grasslands.

  3. Insight into the structural mechanism of the bi-modal action of an NCAM mimetic, the C3 peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Li, Shizhong; Berezin, Vladimir;


    C3, a synthetic peptide binding to the Ig1 module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) has previously been identified and shown to inhibit NCAM homophilic binding and NCAM-mediated activation of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR). However, C3 can also stimulate signalling...... on its own in a way similar to NCAM. Here we show that in the absence of NCAM, C3 can bind and activate FGFR, whereas in the presence of NCAM, C3 inhibits the NCAM-stimulated FGFR activation without activating FGFR on its own. Several competing models of FGFR activation by NCAM have been previously...... proposed. In one of them, the FGFR Ig2-Ig3 modules are involved in binding to NCAM, whereas in another - the FGFR "acid box" region mediates the interaction. The bi-modal effect of C3 can be explained in the context of the former model and is not consistent with the latter, thus providing evidence...

  4. Effect of anaphylatoxin C3a, C5a on the tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang; QIU Hong-yu; WEI Da-peng; GOU Rong; HUANG Jun; FU Ping; CHEN Feng; FAN Wen-xing; HUANG You-qun; ZANG Li; WU Min


    Background Tubulointerstitial renal fibrosis is the common end point of progressive kidney diseases,and tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (TEMT) plays a key role in the progress of tubulointerstitial renal fibrosis.Anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a are identified as novel profibrotic factors in renal disease and as potential new therapeutic targets.The aim of this study was to investigate whether C3a,C5a can regulate TEMT by transforming growth factor-β31 (TGF-β1)/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) signaling pathway and the effects of C3a and C5a receptor antagonists (C3aRA and C5aRA) on C3a- and C5a-induced TEMT.Methods HK-2 cells were divided into C3a and C5a groups which were subdivided into four subgroups:control group,10 ng/ml TGF-β1 group,50 nmol/L C3a group,50 nmol/L C3a plus 1 μmol/L C3aRA group; control group,10 ng/ml TGF-β31 group,50 nmol/L C5a group,50 nmol/L C5a plus 2.5 μmol/L C5aRA group.TGF-β1 receptor antagonist (TGF-β1 RA) 10 μg/ml was used to investigate the mechanism of C3a- and C5a-induced TEMT.Electron microscopy was used to observe the morphological changes.Immunocytochemistry staining,real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the expressions of α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA),E-cadherin,Col-I,C3a receptor (C3aR),C5aR,CTGF and TGF-β1.Results HK-2 cells cultured with C3a and C5a for 72 hours exhibited strong staining of α-SMA,lost the positive staining of E-cadherin,and showed a slightly spindle-like shape and loss of microvilli on the cell surface.The expressions of α-SMA,E-cadherin,Col-I,C3aR,C5aR,TGF-β1 and CTGF in C3a- and C5a-treated groups were higher than normal control group (P <0.05).C3aRA and C5aRA inhibited the expressions of α-SMA,Col-I,C3aR,C5aR,and up-regulated the expression of E-cadherin (P <0.05).TGF-β1 and CTGF mRNA expressions induced by C3a and C5a were partly blocked by TGF-β1 RA (P <0.05).Conclusion C3a and C5a can induce TEMT via the up-regulations of C3aR and C5aR m

  5. Mechanistic Characteristics of Surface Modified Organic Semiconductor g-C3N4 Nanotubes Alloyed with Titania

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    Lan Ching Sim


    Full Text Available The visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA was investigated using the binary composite of alkaline treated g-C3N4 (HT-g-C3N4 deposited over commercial TiO2 (Evonik Degussa GmbH, Essen, Germany. The existence and contribution of both TiO2 and g-C3N4/HT-g-C3N4 in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis-DRS, and photoluminescence (PL analysis. The results showed that the titania in the binary composite exhibited both pure rutile and anatase phases. The morphological analysis indicated that the spongy “morel-like” structure of g-C3N4 turned to nanotube form after alkaline hydrothermal treatment and thereby decreased the specific surface area of HT-g-C3N4. The low surface area of HT-g-C3N4 dominates its promising optical property and effective charge transfer, resulting in a deprived degradation efficiency of BPA two times lower than pure g-C3N4. The binary composite of HT-g-C3N4/TiO2 exhibited excellent degradation efficiency of BPA with 2.16 times higher than the pure HT-g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly due to the promising optical band gap structure with heterojunction interface, favorable specific surface area, and good charge separation.

  6. Distinct recognition of complement iC3b by integrins αXβ2 and αMβ2. (United States)

    Xu, Shutong; Wang, Jianchuan; Wang, Jia-Huai; Springer, Timothy A


    Recognition by the leukocyte integrins αXβ2 and αMβ2 of complement iC3b-opsonized targets is essential for effector functions including phagocytosis. The integrin-binding sites on iC3b remain incompletely characterized. Here, we describe negative-stain electron microscopy and biochemical studies of αXβ2 and αMβ2 in complex with iC3b. Despite high homology, the two integrins bind iC3b at multiple distinct sites. αXβ2 uses the αX αI domain to bind iC3b on its C3c moiety at one of two sites: a major site at the interface between macroglobulin (MG) 3 and MG4 domains, and a less frequently used site near the C345C domain. In contrast, αMβ2 uses its αI domain to bind iC3b at the thioester domain and simultaneously interacts through a region near the αM β-propeller and β2 βI domain with a region of the C3c moiety near the C345C domain. Remarkably, there is no overlap between the primary binding site of αXβ2 and the binding site of αMβ2 on iC3b. Distinctive binding sites on iC3b by integrins αXβ2 and αMβ2 may be biologically beneficial for leukocytes to more efficiently capture opsonized pathogens and to avoid subversion by pathogen factors.

  7. Roles for NHERF1 and NHERF2 on the regulation of C3a receptor signaling in human mast cells.

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    Hariharan Subramanian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anaphylatoxin C3a binds to the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR, C3aR and activates divergent signaling pathways to induce degranulation and cytokine production in human mast cells. Adapter proteins such as the Na(+/H(+ exchange regulatory factor (NHERF1 and NHERF2 have been implicated in regulating functions of certain GPCRs by binding to the class I PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/Zo1 motifs present on their cytoplasmic tails. Although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, the possibility that it interacts with NHERF proteins to modulate signaling in human mast cells has not been determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, we found that NHERF1 and NHERF2 are expressed in human mast cell lines (HMC-1, LAD2 and CD34(+-derived primary human mast cells. Surprisingly, however, C3aR did not associate with these adapter proteins. To assess the roles of NHERFs on signaling downstream of C3aR, we used lentiviral shRNA to stably knockdown the expression of these proteins in human mast cells. Silencing the expression of NHERF1 and NHERF2 had no effect on C3aR desensitization, agonist-induced receptor internalization, ERK/Akt phosphorylation or chemotaxis. However, loss of NHERF1 and NHERF2 resulted in significant inhibition of C3a-induced mast cell degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine production. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, it does not associate with NHERF1 and NHERF2. Surprisingly, these proteins provide stimulatory signals for C3a-induced degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine generation in human mast cells. These findings reveal a new level of complexity for the functional regulation of C3aR by NHERFs in human mast cells.

  8. Climate and CO2 modulate the C3/C4 balance and δ13C signal in simulated vegetation

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    D. Jolly


    Full Text Available Climate and atmospheric CO2 effects on the balance between C3 and C4 plants have received conflicting interpretations based on the analysis of carbon isotopic fractionation (δ13C in sediments. But, climate and CO2 effects on the C3/C4 balance and δ13C signal are rarely addressed together. Here, we use a process-based model (BIOME4 to disentangle these effects. We simulated the vegetation response to climate and CO2 atmospheric concentration (pCO2 in two sites in which vegetation changed oppositely, with respect to C3 and C4 plants abundance, during the Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene transition. The C3/C4 balance and δ13C signal were primarily sensitive to temperature and CO2 atmospheric partial pressure. The simulated variations were in agreement with patterns observed in palaeorecords. Water limitation favoured C4 plants in case of large negative deviation in rainfall. Although a global parameter, pCO2 affected the δ13C signal differently from one site to the other because of its effects on the C3/C4 balance and on carbon isotopic fractionation in C3 and C4 plants. Simulated Plant functional types (PFT also differed in their composition and response from one site to the other. The C3/C4 balance involved different competing C3 and C4 PFT, and not homogeneous C3 and C4 poles as often assumed. Process-based vegetation modelling emphasizes the need to account for multiple factors when a palaeo-δ13C signal is used to reconstruct the C3/C4 balance.

  9. The Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S): Open Access to a Climate Data Store (United States)

    Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick


    In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its Climate Data Store will provide • global and regional climate data reanalyses; • multi-model seasonal forecasts; • customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; • access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. At the heart of the Service is the provision of open access to a one stop shop (the Climate Data Store) of climate data and modelling, analysing more than 20 Essential Climate Variables to build a global picture of our past, present and future climate and developing

  10. POF-C3热收缩包装薄膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 1产品特点 POF-C3热收缩包装膜是以PE和PP为主要原料,经共挤吹塑工艺加工生产的一种多层环保无毒型热收缩包装材料.该产品的主要特点是:①透明度高、光泽性好.可清晰展示产品外观,提高展销效果,体现较高的商品档次.②柔韧性好,使用方便.由于这种柔韧性,可以使被包装物品在受到外部冲击时得到缓冲,用于脆性容器的包装还能防止容器破碎飞散.③收缩率大.收缩率最高可达75%,利用其高收缩率产生的收缩拉力可将一组要包装的物品裹紧,起到很好的捆扎作用,非常适用于多件物品的集合包装,尤其对异型物品的包装效果甚佳.而且经过特殊工艺处理的POF-C3薄膜的收缩力可控,满足不同商品对收缩力的要求.④焊封性好、强度高.适合手动、半自动和高速全自动包装.⑤耐寒性好.可在-50℃保持柔韧性而不发生脆裂,适合被包装物在寒冷环境下储存和运输.⑥环保无毒.POF-C3热收缩包装膜的主要原料包括LLDPE(线性低密度聚乙烯)、TPP(三元共聚聚丙烯)、PPC(二元共聚聚丙烯)及必要的功能性助剂,如爽滑剂、抗粘连剂、抗静电剂等均为无毒材料.符合美国FDA标准,可包装食品.⑦防潮防尘.⑧包装成本低,优于纸盒及其它材料包装.

  11. Design and development of TT30, a novel C3d-targeted C3/C5 convertase inhibitor for treatment of human complement alternative pathway-mediated diseases. (United States)

    Fridkis-Hareli, Masha; Storek, Michael; Mazsaroff, Istvan; Risitano, Antonio M; Lundberg, Ante S; Horvath, Christopher J; Holers, V Michael


    To selectively modulate human complement alternative pathway (CAP) activity implicated in a wide range of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and to provide local cell surface and tissue-based inhibition of complement-induced damage, we developed TT30, a novel therapeutic fusion protein linking the human complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) C3 fragment (C3frag = iC3b, C3dg, C3d)-binding domain with the CAP inhibitory domain of human factor H (fH). TT30 efficiently blocks ex vivo CAP-dependent C3frag accumulation on activated surfaces, membrane attack complex (MAC) formation and hemolysis of RBCs in a CR2-dependent manner, and with a ∼ 150-fold potency gain over fH, without interference of C3 activation or MAC formation through the classic and lectin pathways. TT30 protects RBCs from hemolysis and remains bound and detectable for at least 24 hours. TT30 selectively inhibits CAP in cynomolgus monkeys and is bioavailable after subcutaneous injection. Using a unique combination of targeting and effector domains, TT30 controls cell surface CAP activation and has substantial potential utility for the treatment of human CAP-mediated diseases.

  12. Deficiencia congénita de complemento: C3 y C4: Comunicación de un caso clínico Congenital deficiency of the C3 and C4 fractions of complement: A clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available La deficiencia congénita del 3er constituyente del Complemento (C3 es extremadamente rara, y se expresa clínicamente como un defecto de la inmunidad humoral. Se comunica un caso de deficiencia C3 y C4 en un lactante de sexo femenino de 1 año de edad, hijo de padres consanguíneos, que presentó un cuadro de meningoencefalitis aguda de etiología no precisada, con secuela neurológica severa e infecciones bacterianas recurrentes, respiratorias y urinarias, septicemia y osteomielitis, con respuesta parcial a antimicrobianos. El estudio de inmunidad humoral y celular (subpoblaciones linfocitarias, inmunoglobulinas séricas y subclases de IgG fue normal, demostrándose déficit de C3 y C4 con CH50 ausente en la niña y cifras bajas de C3 y C4, cercanas al 50% del valor normal en ambos padresCongenital deficiency of C3 fraction of the complement is a very rare condition. Clinically it is expressed as a deficiency of the humoral immunity. We report a case of C3 and C4 deficiency in a 1 year old infant girl. Her parents have a high consanguinity. She presented an acute meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology, and she evolved with severe neurological damage, and recurrent respiratory and urinary bacterial infections, sepsis and osteomielitis, with partial response to antimicrobials. The tests to investigate humoral and cellular immune response (lymphocyte subpopulations, serum immunoglobulins and subtypes of IgG were normal. The patient had a deficit of C3 and C4, mainly C3, with absence of CH50. Both of her parents had C3 and C4 about 50% of normal values, and CH50 slightly under the normal values

  13. C3 System Performance Simulation and User Manual. Getting Started: Guidelines for Users (United States)


    This document is a User's Manual describing the C3 Simulation capabilities. The subject work was designed to simulate the communications involved in the flight of a Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) using the Opnet software. Opnet provides a comprehensive development environment supporting the modeling of communication networks and distributed systems. It has tools for model design, simulation, data collection, and data analysis. Opnet models are hierarchical -- consisting of a project which contains node models which in turn contain process models. Nodes can be fixed, mobile, or satellite. Links between nodes can be physical or wireless. Communications are packet based. The model is very generic in its current form. Attributes such as frequency and bandwidth can easily be modified to better reflect a specific platform. The model is not fully developed at this stage -- there are still more enhancements to be added. Current issues are documented throughout this guide.

  14. Immunofluorescence staining for the detection of immunoglobulins and complement (C3) in dogs with renal disease. (United States)

    Aresu, L; Pregel, P; Bollo, E; Palmerini, D; Sereno, A; Valenza, F


    Renal cortical biopsies from 74 dogs with different degrees of renal failure were studied by immunofluorescence to assess the frequency and extent of the deposition of immunoglobulins G, M and A (IgG, IgM, IgA) and complement C3. The dogs were divided into two groups on the basis of their clinical signs, and standard histological and electron microscopical examinations, according to whether their disease was an immune-mediated nephropathy (IMN) or a non-immune-mediated nephropathy (NIMN). In the dogs with an imn there was strong immunofluorescence due to IgG in the mesangium and the glomerular basement membrane and to IgM in the mesangium. The mechanism of immune complex trapping in the glomerulus also resulted in positive reactions to IgM in the dogs with an NIMN.

  15. Carcinogenicity study of cochineal in B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Mori, H; Iwata, H; Tanaka, T; Morishita, Y; Mori, Y; Kojima, T; Okumura, A


    The carcinogenicity of cochineal, a red colouring used in food and other products, was studied in a 2-yr bioassay in B6C3F1 mice. Groups of 50-55 mice of each sex were given 0, 3 or 6% cochineal in the diet for 2 yr. Mice of all groups developed tumours including hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas, pulmonary adenomas or adenocarcinomas and lymphomas or lymphatic leukaemias, and the incidences of these tumours were not significantly different in treated and control groups. The results indicate that cochineal lacks carcinogenicity in mice and are consistent with those of in vitro short-term assays of cochineal and of carminic acid, an active principle of cochineal.

  16. Physical and mechanical properties of highly textured polycrystalline Nb4AlC3 ceramic

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    Chunfeng Hu, Yoshio Sakka, Toshiyuki Nishimura, Shuqi Guo, Salvatore Grasso and Hidehiko Tanaka


    Full Text Available Highly textured polycrystalline Nb4AlC3 ceramic was fabricated by slip casting in a strong magnetic field followed by spark plasma sintering. Its Lotgering orientation factor was determined on the textured top and side surfaces as f(00l ~1.0 and f(hk0=0.36, respectively. This ceramic showed layered microstructure at the scales ranging from nanometers to millimeters. The as-prepared ceramic had excellent anisotropic physical properties. Along the c-axis direction, it showed higher hardness, bending strength, and fracture toughness of 7.0 GPa, 881 MPa and 14.1 MPa m1/2, respectively, whereas higher values of electrical conductivity (0.81×106 Ω−1 m−1, thermal conductivity (21.20 W m−1 K−1 and Young's modulus (365 GPa were obtained along the a- or b-axis direction.

  17. Molecular Structure and Bonding in Plutonium Carbides: A Theoretical Study of PuC3. (United States)

    Molpeceres, Germán; Rayón, Víctor M; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio


    The most relevant species of plutonium tricarbide were characterized using theoretical methods. The global minimum is predicted to be a fan structure where the plutonium atom is bonded to a quasi-linear C3 unit. A rhombic isomer, shown to be a bicyclic species with transannular C-C bonding, lies about 39 kJ/mol above the fan isomer. A linear PuCCC isomer and a three-membered ring CPuC2 isomer were found to be higher in energy (150 and 195 kJ/mol, respectively, above the predicted global minimum). The possible processes for the formation of these species are discussed, and the IR spectra were predicted to help in possible experimental detection. The nature of the Pu-C interaction has been analyzed in terms of a topological analysis of the electronic density, showing that Pu-C bonding is essentially ionic with a certain degree of covalent character.

  18. The hydrocarbon ring C3H2 is ubiquitous in the Galaxy (United States)

    Matthews, H. E.; Irvine, W. M.


    The discovery of a strong microwave (1.6 cm-wavelength) spectral line, the carrier of which is common and widespread throughout the Galaxy is reported. A survey of a large number of sources shows that the line appears in emission in cold dust clouds, in absorption in the direction of the Galactic center, and exhibits complex profiles toward H II regions. Toward Cas A and distant H II regions, intervening 'spiral arm' clouds produce absorption. For almost all cases, the absorption features show a striking 1:1 radial velocity correspondence with those seen, e.g., in H2CO spectra of the same objects. The data indicate that the line arises between low-lying energy states of a rather polar molecule. Recent work by Thaddeus, Vrtilek, and Gottlieb (1985) incorporating the present data, shows that the line in question is the 1(10)-1(01) transition of the small hydrocarbon ring C3H2.

  19. Versatile C(3)-symmetric scaffolds and their use for covalent stabilization of the foldon trimer. (United States)

    Berthelmann, Arne; Lach, Johannes; Gräwert, Melissa A; Groll, Michael; Eichler, Jutta


    C3-Symmetric trimesic acid scaffolds, functionalized with bromoacetyl, aminooxyacetyl and azidoacetyl moieties, respectively, were synthesized and compared regarding their utility for the trivalent presentation of peptides using three different chemoselective ligation reactions, i.e. thioether and oxime formation, as well as the "click" reaction. The latter ligation method was then used to covalently stabilize the trimer of foldon, a 27 amino acid trimerization domain of bacteriophage T4 fibritin, by linking the three foldon monomers to the triazido-functionalized trimesic acid scaffold. This reaction dramatically enhanced the thermal stability of the trimer, while maintaining the correct fold, as demonstrated by CD spectroscopy and X-ray crystal structure analysis, respectively, of the foldon-scaffold conjugates.

  20. Textural and mechanical characterization of C-S-H gels from hydration of synthetic T1-C3S, β-C2S and their blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolado, J. S.


    Full Text Available The textural and mechanical characterization of C-S-H gels formed from the hydration of pure T1-C3S, β-C2S and their blends are studied by Nitrogen sorption and nanoindentation experiments. The surface area and nanoporosity of C-S-H gels formed from the hydration of β-C2S and the 30-70 (T1-C3S and β-C2S mixture are higher than those from hydration of T1-C3S, and 70-30, with the difference decreasing with hydration age. Such changes are well supported by findings of nanoindentation study, which shows the greater relative volume of C-S-H phases with lower densities in the β-C2S and the 30-70 pastes. With the increase in hydration age, the relative volume of C-S-H phases with higher densities increased at the expenses of those with lower density. Important quantitative correlations were found among these textural characteristics and the mean chain length, determined from 29Si magic-angle-spinning (MAS NMR, of the C-S-H gels.La caracterización textural y mecánica de geles C-S-H formados a partir de la hidratación de muestras puras de T1-C3S, ß-C2S y sus mezclas ha sido estudiada por medio de adsorción de nitrógeno y nanoindentación. El área superficial y la nano-porosidad de los geles formados durante la hidratación del ß-C2S y la mezcla 30-70 (T1-C3S- ß-C2S son mayores que los correspondientes a los geles del T1-C3S, y la mezcla 70-30; esta diferencia disminuye con el tiempo de hidratación. Estos cambios coinciden con los resultados de nanoindentación que indican un aumento de volumen relativo de las fases C-S-H con una densidad menor en el caso del ß-C2S y la mezcla 30-70. Al aumentar el tiempo de hidratación, el volumen relativo de fases C-S-H de mayor densidad aumenta a expensas de aquellas de menor densidad. Importantes correlaciones cuantitativas se establecen entre las características texturales y la longitud de cadena media del gel C-S-H, determinada mediante RMN-MAS de 29Si.

  1. Chitinases from the Plant Disease Biocontrol Agent, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia C3. (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Yuen, G Y; Sarath, G; Penheiter, A R


    ABSTRACT Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C3, a biocontrol agent of Bipolaris sorokiniana in turfgrass, produced chitinases in broth media containing chitin. Chitinases were partially purified from culture fluid by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chitin affinity chromatography. The chromatography fraction with the highest specific chitinase activity was inhibitory to conidial germination and germ-tube elongation of B. sorokiniana, but it was less inhibitory than the protein fraction or the raw culture filtrate. The fraction exhibited strong exochitinase and weak endo-chitinase activity. Optimum temperature and pH for chitinase activity were 45 to 50 degrees C and 4.5 to 5.0, respectively. Chitinase activity was inhibited by Hg(2+) and Fe(3+), but not by other metal ions or enzyme inhibitors. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the chromatography fraction revealed the presence of five protein bands of 25, 32, 48, 65, and 75 kDa. Partial amino acid sequences of the 32-, 65-, and 75-kDa proteins indicated that they are homologous to known bacterial chitinases. There was no homology found in the partial amino acid sequences of the 25- and 48-kDa proteins to any known chitinases. Five chitinase-active proteins were detected in the protein and chromatography fractions by activity gels, but when each protein was extracted and re-electrophoresed separately under denaturing conditions, only 32- or 48-kDa proteins were revealed. It was concluded that strain C3 produces at least two chitinases that are antifungal.

  2. Apolipoprotein C3 polymorphisms, cognitive function and diabetes in Caribbean origin Hispanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren E Smith

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3 modulates triglyceride metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase, but is itself regulated by insulin, so that APOC3 represents a potential mechanism by which glucose metabolism may affect lipid metabolism. Unfavorable lipoprotein profiles and impaired glucose metabolism are linked to cognitive decline, and all three conditions may decrease lifespan. Associations between apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3 gene polymorphisms and impaired lipid and glucose metabolism are well-established, but potential connections between APOC3 polymorphisms, cognitive decline and diabetes deserve further attention.We examined whether APOC3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs m482 (rs2854117 and 3u386 (rs5128 were related to cognitive measures, whether the associations between cognitive differences and genotype were related to metabolic differences, and how diabetes status affected these associations. Study subjects were Hispanics of Caribbean origin (n = 991, aged 45-74 living in the Boston metropolitan area.Cognitive and metabolic measures differed substantially by type II diabetes status. In multivariate regression models, APOC3 m482 AA subjects with diabetes exhibited lower executive function (P = 0.009, Stroop color naming score (P = 0.014 and Stroop color-word score (P = 0.022 compared to AG/GG subjects. APOC3 m482 AA subjects with diabetes exhibited significantly higher glucose (P = 0.032 and total cholesterol (P = 0.028 compared to AG/GG subjects. APOC3 3u386 GC/GG subjects with diabetes exhibited significantly higher triglyceride (P = 0.004, total cholesterol (P = 0.003 and glucose (P = 0.016 compared to CC subjects.In summary, we identified significant associations between APOC3 polymorphisms, impaired cognition and metabolic dysregulation in Caribbean Hispanics with diabetes. Further research investigating these relationships in other populations is warranted.

  3. Does total disc arthroplasty in C3/C4-segments change the kinematic features of axial rotation? (United States)

    Wachowski, Martin Michael; Wagner, Markus; Weiland, Jan; Dörner, Jochen; Raab, Björn Werner; Dathe, Henning; Gezzi, Riccardo; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Nägerl, Hans


    We analyze how kinematic properties of C3/C4-segments are modified after total disc arthroplasty (TDA) with PRESTIGE(®) and BRYAN(®) Cervical Discs. The measurements were focused on small ranges of axial rotation (TDA. External parameters: constant axially directed pre-load, constant flexional/extensional and lateral-flexional pre-torque. The applied axial torque and IHA-direction did not run parallel. The IHA-direction was found to be rotated backwards and largely independent of the rotational angle, amount of axial pre-load, size of pre-torque, and TDA. In the intact segments pre-flexion/extension hardly influenced IHA-positions. After TDA, IHA-position was shifted backwards significantly (BRYAN-TDA: ≈8mm; PRESTIGE-TDA: ≈6mm) and in some segments laterally as well. Furthermore it was significantly shifted ventrally by pre-flexion and dorsally by pre-extension. The rate of lateral IHA-migration increased significantly after BRYAN-TDA during rightward or leftward rotations. In conclusion after the TDA the IHA-positions shifted backwards with significant increase in variability of the IHA-positions after the BRYAN-TDA more than in PRESTIGE-TDA. The TDA-procedure altered the segment kinematics considerably. TDA causes additional translations of the vertebrae, which superimpose the kinematics of the adjacent levels. The occurrence of adjacent level disease (ALD) is not excluded after the TDA for kinematical reasons.

  4. The Jahn-Teller plus pseudo-Jahn-Teller vibronic problem in the C3 radical and its topological implications (United States)

    Rocha, C. M. R.; Varandas, A. J. C.


    The combined Jahn-Teller plus pseudo-Jahn-Teller [ ( E ' + A1 ' ) ⊗ e ' ] problem is discussed for the tricarbon radical (C3) by means of ab initio calculations at the multireference configuration interaction level of theory. For the 1E' electronic state arising from a e'2 valence configuration, three additional symmetry-equivalent C2v seams are found to lie in close proximity to the D3h symmetry-required seam over the entire range of the breathing coordinate here considered. As the perimeter of the molecule increases, the C2v disjoint seams approach the D3h one almost linearly and ultimately coalesce with it at Q1 = 5.005 a0, thence forming an intersection node or confluence. By further increasing the size of the molecular triangle, the C2v seams get rotated by ±π in the g-h plane. A three-state vibronic Hamiltonian is also proposed to model locally the title system and shown to accurately mimic the calculated data over the region close to the minimum energy crossing point. No net geometric phase effect is observed when the associated electronic wave functions are adiabatically transported along closed paths encircling the four singularity points. For all paths enclosing the intersection node, the sign reversal criterion is shown to be not fulfilled, even for infinitesimal loops. The results so obtained are expected to be valid for other ring systems experiencing similar topological attributes.

  5. Inhibitors of HIV-1 maturation: Development of structure-activity relationship for C-28 amides based on C-3 benzoic acid-modified triterpenoids. (United States)

    Swidorski, Jacob J; Liu, Zheng; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Chen, Jie; Chen, Yan; Sin, Ny; Venables, Brian L; Parker, Dawn D; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Terry, Brian J; Protack, Tricia; Rahematpura, Sandhya; Hanumegowda, Umesh; Jenkins, Susan; Krystal, Mark; Dicker, Ira B; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia


    We have recently reported on the discovery of a C-3 benzoic acid (1) as a suitable replacement for the dimethyl succinate side chain of bevirimat (2), an HIV-1 maturation inhibitor that reached Phase II clinical trials before being discontinued. Recent SAR studies aimed at improving the antiviral properties of 2 have shown that the benzoic acid moiety conferred topographical constraint to the pharmacophore and was associated with a lower shift in potency in the presence of human serum albumin. In this manuscript, we describe efforts to improve the polymorphic coverage of the C-3 benzoic acid chemotype through modifications at the C-28 position of the triterpenoid core. The dimethylaminoethyl amides 17 and 23 delivered improved potency toward bevirimat-resistant viruses while increasing C24 in rat oral PK studies.

  6. Electrostatic Contributions Drive the Interaction Between Staphylococcus aureus Protein Efb-C and its Complement Target C3d

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haspel, N.; Ricklin, D.; Geisbrecht, B.V.; Kavraki, L.E.; Lambris, J.D. (UPENN); (UMKC); (Rice)


    The C3-inhibitory domain of Staphylococcus aureus extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb-C) defines a novel three-helix bundle motif that regulates complement activation. Previous crystallographic studies of Efb-C bound to its cognate subdomain of human C3 (C3d) identified Arg-131 and Asn-138 of Efb-C as key residues for its activity. In order to characterize more completely the physical and chemical driving forces behind this important interaction, we employed in this study a combination of structural, biophysical, and computational methods to analyze the interaction of C3d with Efb-C and the single-point mutants R131A and N138A. Our results show that while these mutations do not drastically affect the structure of the Efb-C/C3d recognition complex, they have significant adverse effects on both the thermodynamic and kinetic profiles of the resulting complexes. We also characterized other key interactions along the Efb-C/C3d binding interface and found an intricate network of salt bridges and hydrogen bonds that anchor Efb-C to C3d, resulting in its potent complement inhibitory properties.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic activity. (United States)

    Xing, Chaosheng; Wu, Zhudong; Jiang, Deli; Chen, Min


    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was hybridized by In2S3 to form a novel In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalyst via a hydrothermal method. TEM and HRTEM results reveal that In2S3 nanoparticles and g-C3N4 closely contact with each other to form an intimate interface. The as-obtained In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than those of pure g-C3N4 and In2S3 for the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions could be attributed to its wide absorption in the visible region and efficient electron-hole separation. On the basis of radical scavenger experiments, superoxide radicals and holes are suggested to play a critical role in RhB degradation over In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions.

  8. Metabolomic and proteomic insights into carbaryl catabolism by Burkholderia sp. C3 and degradation of ten N-methylcarbamates. (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Qing X


    Burkholderia sp. C3, an efficient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrader, can utilize nine of the ten N-methylcarbamate insecticides including carbaryl as a sole source of carbon. Rapid hydrolysis of carbaryl in C3 is followed by slow catabolism of the resulting 1-naphthol. This study focused on metabolomes and proteomes in C3 cells utilizing carbaryl in comparison to those using glucose or nutrient broth. Sixty of the 867 detected proteins were involved in primary metabolism, adaptive sensing and regulation, transport, stress response, and detoxification. Among the 41 proteins expressed in response to carbaryl were formate dehydrogenase, aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanolamine utilization protein involved in one carbon metabolism. Acetate kinase and phasin were 2 of the 19 proteins that were not detected in carbaryl-supported C3 cells, but detected in glucose-supported C3 cells. Down-production of phasin and polyhydroxyalkanoates in carbaryl-supported C3 cells suggests insufficient carbon sources and lower levels of primary metabolites to maintain an ordinary level of metabolism. Differential metabolomes (~196 identified polar metabolites) showed up-production of metabolites in pentose phosphate pathways and metabolisms of cysteine, cystine and some other amino acids, disaccharides and nicotinate, in contract to down-production of most of the other amino acids and hexoses. The proteomic and metabolomic analyses showed that carbaryl-supported C3 cells experienced strong toxic effects, oxidative stresses, DNA/RNA damages and carbon nutrient deficiency.

  9. LegC3, an effector protein from Legionella pneumophila, inhibits homotypic yeast vacuole fusion in vivo and in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L Bennett

    Full Text Available During infection, the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila causes an extensive remodeling of host membrane trafficking pathways, both in the construction of a replication-competent vacuole comprised of ER-derived vesicles and plasma membrane components, and in the inhibition of normal phagosome:endosome/lysosome fusion pathways. Here, we identify the LegC3 secreted effector protein from L. pneumophila as able to inhibit a SNARE- and Rab GTPase-dependent membrane fusion pathway in vitro, the homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles (lysosomes. This vacuole fusion inhibition appeared to be specific, as similar secreted coiled-coiled domain containing proteins from L. pneumophila, LegC7/YlfA and LegC2/YlfB, did not inhibit vacuole fusion. The LegC3-mediated fusion inhibition was reversible by a yeast cytosolic extract, as well as by a purified soluble SNARE, Vam7p. LegC3 blocked the formation of trans-SNARE complexes during vacuole fusion, although we did not detect a direct interaction of LegC3 with the vacuolar SNARE protein complexes required for fusion. Additionally, LegC3 was incapable of inhibiting a defined synthetic model of vacuolar SNARE-driven membrane fusion, further suggesting that LegC3 does not directly inhibit the activity of vacuolar SNAREs, HOPS complex, or Sec17p/18p during membrane fusion. LegC3 is likely utilized by Legionella to modulate eukaryotic membrane fusion events during pathogenesis.

  10. Ca2LiC3H: a new complex carbide hydride phase grown in metal flux. (United States)

    Lang, David A; Zaikina, Julia V; Lovingood, Derek D; Gedris, Thomas E; Latturner, Susan E


    The reaction of carbon and CaH2 in a calcium/lithium flux mixture produces crystals of the new compound Ca2LiC3H. This phase forms with a new structure type in tetragonal space group P4/mbm (a = 6.8236(1) Å, c = 3.7518(1) Å, Z = 2, R1 = 0.0151). This is a stuffed variant of the Cs2(NH2)N3 structure, containing hydride anions in octahedral sites; the structure determination by single-crystal X-ray diffraction surprisingly allowed the hydrogen to be detected. The Ca2LiC3H structure also features the rarely seen C3(4-) carbide anion; the protolysis reaction of this compound with ammonium chloride produces C3H4. The electronic properties of Ca2LiC3H were studied by quantum-chemical calculations including band structure and electron localization function (ELF) analysis; the phase is a charge-balanced semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 0.48 eV. This is in agreement with (7)Li, (13)C, and (1)H MAS NMR data, which show resonances in the ionic region instead of the Knight shifted region. ELF analysis of the theoretical nonhydrided Ca2LiC3 structure confirms the ability of these calculations to properly locate hydrides and supports the structural model based on X-ray diffraction data.

  11. The evolutionary analysis on complement genes reveals that fishes C3 and C9 experience different evolutionary patterns. (United States)

    Wang, Shanchen; Wang, Rixin; Xu, Tianjun


    Complement is a humoral factor of innate immunity and plays an essential role in altering the host of the presence of potential pathogens and clearing of invading microorganisms. The third complement component (C3) not only is regarded as the crossing of the three pathways of complement activation, but also serves one of the bridges linking innate and acquired immunity. The nine complement component (C9) can combine with C5b, C6, C7 and C8 to form MAC which bounds to the surface of microorganisms to kill them. The evidence of evolution on C3 genes which have multiple functions and plays central role in innate immunity was documented in our previous study. Now we were interested in the evolution of C9 genes which were the terminal complement components. For these reasons, we want to explore the evolutionary patterns of C9 and whether C3 and C9 experience different evolutionary patterns. In our study, we used the sliding window method to separately calculate the values of ω among fishes and mammals of C3 and C9 codons. In order to detect the positive selection sites, we used the maximum likelihood (ML) method to study the evolutionary pattern on C3 and C9 genes. Positive selection sites were detected in mammalian C9 genes and no positive selection sites were detected in fishes C9 genes. However, no positive selection sites were detected in mammalian C3 genes and positive selection sites were detected in fishes C3 genes. The result indicated that C3 and C9 had different evolutionary patterns on mammals and fishes. In conclusion, different living environments lead to different evolutionary patterns on C3 and C9 in mammals and fishes. Besides, different complement components may have different evolutionary patterns on mammals and fishes.

  12. Structural rearrangement in gas phase niobium carbide clusters, NbnC3 and NbnC6 (United States)

    Miyajima, Ken; Sobhan, Mushtaq Ahmed; Hardy, Robert A.; Metha, Gregory F.; Mafuné, Fumitaka


    Niobium carbide clusters were formed in the gas phase by mixing vapors of niobium and carbon. When a carbon trimer, C3, was richly formed in the vapor, clusters with compositions NbnC3k+ (n = 2-10, k = 0-4) were abundantly observed after photoionization at 215 nm, enabling the presumption that a C3 unit could be a building block of the observed clusters. Contrary to this presumption, photoionization efficiency spectra in 215-286 nm suggest that the clusters should be assigned to atomically mixed niobium carbide. Structural rearrangement of the clusters into the atomically mixed form is consistent with the results of DFT calculations.

  13. Tunable far-IR laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled carbon clusters: the nu 2 bending vibration of C3. (United States)

    Schmuttenmaer, C A; Cohen, R C; Pugliano, N; Heath, J R; Cooksy, A L; Busarow, K L; Saykally, R J


    Seven rovibrational transitions of the (01(1)0) fundamental bending band of C3 have been measured with high precision with the use of a tunable far-infrared laser spectrometer. The C3 molecules were produced by laser vaporization of a graphite rod and cooled in a supersonic expansion. The astrophysically important nu 2 fundamental frequency is determined to be 63.416529(40) cm-1. These measurements provide the basis for studies of C3 in the interstellar medium with far-infrared astronomy.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Commercial Textile Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Bacillus subtilis Strain C3 Isolated in India (United States)

    Kunadia, Khushbu; Nathani, Neelam M.; Kothari, Vishal; Kotadia, Rohit J.; Kothari, Charmy R.; Joshi, Anjali; Rank, Jalpa K.; Faldu, Priti R.; Shekar, M. Chandra; Viroja, Mitkumar J.; Patel, Priyank A.; Jadeja, Divyarajsinh; Reddy, Bhaskar; Pal Singh, Ravindra; Koringa, Prakash G.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.


    Bacillus subtilis C3, a commercial textile dye-decolorizing and -degrading bacterium, was isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CEPT) of the Jetpur textile dyeing and printing industrial sector situated in the district of Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Here, we present the annotated 4.18-Mb draft genome sequence of B. subtilis C3, providing information about the metabolic pathways involved in decolorization and degradation of several commercial textile azo dyes. Thus, we confirm B. subtilis C3 as a potential candidate for bioremediation of textile effluents. PMID:26966205

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Commercial Textile Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Bacillus subtilis Strain C3 Isolated in India. (United States)

    Kunadia, Khushbu; Nathani, Neelam M; Kothari, Vishal; Kotadia, Rohit J; Kothari, Charmy R; Joshi, Anjali; Rank, Jalpa K; Faldu, Priti R; Shekar, M Chandra; Viroja, Mitkumar J; Patel, Priyank A; Jadeja, Divyarajsinh; Reddy, Bhaskar; Pal Singh, Ravindra; Koringa, Prakash G; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Kothari, Ramesh K


    Bacillus subtilis C3, a commercial textile dye-decolorizing and -degrading bacterium, was isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CEPT) of the Jetpur textile dyeing and printing industrial sector situated in the district of Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Here, we present the annotated 4.18-Mb draft genome sequence of B. subtilis C3, providing information about the metabolic pathways involved in decolorization and degradation of several commercial textile azo dyes. Thus, we confirm B. subtilis C3 as a potential candidate for bioremediation of textile effluents.

  16. Graphitic C3N4 Sensitized TiO2 Nanotube Layers: A Visible Light Activated Efficient Antimicrobial Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jingwen; Zhou, Xuemei; Li, Yuzhen; Gao, Zhi-Da; Song, Yan-Yan; Schmuki, Patrik


    In this work, we introduce a facile procedure to graft a thin graphitic C3N4 (g-C3N4) layer on aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiNT) by one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. This provides a platform to enhance the visible-light response of TiO2 nanotubes for antimicrobial applications. The formed g- C3N4/TiNT binary nanocomposite exhibits excellent bactericidal efficiency against E. coli as a visiblelight activated antibacterial coating.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of C3N4 crystal ( Ⅰ )——Growth on silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩哥; 陈岩; 郭丽萍; 陈峰


    A successful experimental synthesis of pure crystalline β-and α-C3N4 films on Si( 100) substrate was carried out by bias-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition (bias-HFCVD). It is found that a mixed-phase C3-x-Six-Ny buffer layer was formed between the Si substrate and the C-N film. A "lattice match selection" was proposed to study the growth mechanism of C3N4 clusters composed of many crystal columns with hexagonal facets.

  18. Dehydrohalogenation and Dehydration Reactions of i-C3H7Br and i-C3H7OH by Sodium Ions Studied by Guided Ion Beam Techniques and Quantum Chemical Methods. (United States)

    López, E; Lucas, J M; de Andrés, J; Albertí, M; Bofill, J M; Aguilar, A


    Dehydrohalogenation and dehydration reactions of gas-phase i-C3H7Br and i-C3H7OH molecules induced by collision with Na(+), all participants being in their electronic ground state, were studied experimentally in our laboratory using a radiofrequency-guided ion beam apparatus and covering the 0.10-10.00 eV center of mass (CM) energy range. In Na(+) + i-C3H7Br collisions the formation of [C3H6-Na](+) and [HBr-Na](+) by dehydrohalogenation was observed and quantified, as well as that of the ion-molecule adduct [Na-i-C3H7Br](+) together with its decomposition products C3H7(+) and NaBr. In Na(+) + i-C3H7OH collisions the dehydration product [H2O-Na](+) was also found, while [C3H6-Na](+) was hardly detected. Moreover, the [Na-i-C3H7OH](+) adduct formation as well as its decomposition into C3H7(+) and NaOH were also quantified. For all these processes, absolute reaction cross sections were measured as a function of the CM collision energy. From measured excitation functions, rate constants for the formation of [C3H6-Na](+), [HBr-Na](+), and [H2O-Na](+) at 303 K were obtained. Complementing the experiments, exhaustive ab initio structure calculations at the MP2 level of theory were performed, giving information on the most relevant features of the potential energy surfaces (PESs) where the dehydrohalogenation, dehydration, and decomposition reactions take place adiabatically for both collision systems. On these PESs different stationary points associated with potential energy minima and transition state barriers were characterized, and their connectivity was ensured using the intrinsic-reaction-coordinate method. The main topology features of the ab initio calculated PESs allowed a qualitative interpretation of the experimental data also exposing the role of the sodium ion as a catalyst in elimination reactions.

  19. Nqrs Data for C3H10INO6 [C3H7NO2·HIO3·(1/2)(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0642) (United States)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C3H10INO6 [C3H7NO2·HIO3·(1/2)(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0642)

  20. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of endogenous cortisol in hair using (13)C3-labeled cortisol as surrogate analyte. (United States)

    Binz, Tina M; Braun, Ueli; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas


    Hair cortisol levels are increasingly applied as a measure for stress in humans and mammals. Cortisol is an endogenous compound and is always present within the hair matrix. Therefore, "cortisol-free hair matrix" is a critical point for any analytical method to accurately quantify especially low cortisol levels. The aim of this project was to modify current methods used for hair cortisol analysis to more accurately determine low endogenous cortisol concentrations in hair. For that purpose, (13)C3-labeled cortisol, which is not naturally present in hair (above 13C natural abundance levels), was used for calibration and comparative validation applying cortisol versus (13)C3-labeled cortisol. Cortisol was extracted from 20mg hair (standard sample amount) applying an optimized single step extraction protocol. An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of cortisol using either cortisol or (13)C3-cortisol as calibrators and D7-cortisone as internal standard (IS). The two methods (cortisol/(13)C3-labeled cortisol) were validated in a concentration range up to 500pg/mg and showed good linearity for both analytes (cortisol: R(2)=0.9995; (13)C3-cortisol R(2)=0.9992). Slight differences were observed for limit of detection (LOD) (0.2pg/mg/0.1pg/mg) and limit of quantification (LOQ) (1pg/mg/0.5pg/mg). Precision was good with a maximum deviation of 8.8% and 10% for cortisol and (13)C3-cortisol respectively. Accuracy and matrix effects were good for both analytes except for the quality control (QC) low cortisol. QC low (2.5pg/mg) showed matrix effects (126.5%, RSD 35.5%) and accuracy showed a deviation of 26% when using cortisol to spike. These effects are likely to be caused by the unknown amount of endogenous cortisol in the different hair samples used to determine validation parameters like matrix effect, LOQ and accuracy. No matrix effects were observed for the high QC (400pg/mg) samples. Recovery was good with 92.7%/87.3% (RSD 9.9%/6.2%) for QC low and

  1. Characterization of the myelotoxicity of chloramphenicol succinate in the B6C3F1 mouse. (United States)

    Turton, John A; Fagg, Rajni; Sones, William R; Williams, Thomas C; Andrews, C Michael


    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is haemotoxic in man, inducing two types of toxicity. First, a dose-related, reversible anaemia with reticulocytopenia, sometimes seen in conjunction with leucopenia and thrombocytopenia; this form of toxicity develops during drug treatment. The second haemotoxicity is aplastic anaemia (AA) which is evident in the blood as severe pancytopenia. AA development is not dose-related and occurs weeks or months after treatment. We wish, in the longer term, to investigate CAP-induced AA in the busulphan-pretreated mouse. However, as a prelude to that study, we wanted to characterize in detail the reversible haemotoxicity of CAP succinate (CAPS), administered at high dose levels in the mouse, and follow the recovery of the bone marrow in the post-dosing period. Female B6C3F1 mice were gavaged with CAPS at 0, 2500 and 3500 mg/kg, daily, for 5 days and sampled (n = 5) at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days post-dosing. Blood, bone marrow and spleen samples were analysed and clonogenic assays carried out. At day 1 post-dosing, at both CAPS dose levels, decreases were seen in erythrocytes and erythrocyte precursors; marrow erythroid cells were reduced. Reductions were also evident in splenic nucleated cell counts, blood high fluorescence ratio (HFR) reticulocyte counts and total reticulocyte counts; burst-forming units-erythroid and colony-forming units-erythroid showed decreases. At day 7 post-dosing (2500 mg/kg CAPS), there was regeneration of erythrocyte production, with marked splenic erythropoietic activity, and raised blood HFR reticulocytes. At day 7, at 3500 mg/kg CAPS, erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters remained depressed. At 14 days post-dosing (2500 mg/kg CAPS), many erythrocyte parameters had returned to normal; at 3500 mg/kg CAPS, there was erythroid regeneration. By 21 days post-dosing, at both CAPS dose levels, most erythrocytic parameters were equivalent to control values. For leucocyte parameters, there was some depression at day 1 post-dosing (at

  2. Investigate Chronic Urticaria Patient' s Condition Correlating to C3, C4 of Peripheral Blood%外周血C3,C4与慢性荨麻疹患者病情的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何泽生; 安国芝; 赵海春


    目的 探讨慢性荨麻疹(chronic urticaria,CU)患者外周血C3,C4水平与病情的相关性.方法 采用免疫比浊法检测19例急性荨麻疹(acute urticaria,AU)、146例CU患者的外周血C3,C4及IgG水平,并以20例健康人为对照.并通过荨麻疹活动评分(UAS)对165例荨麻疹患者的病情进行评分.结果 AU,CU患者外周血的C3,C4及IgG水平差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05).男女性CU患者外周血的C3,C4及IgG水平差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05).32例CU患者IgG水平高于正常值(IgG> 17g/L),与C3,C4水平呈负相关(P<0.05).UAS与荨麻疹外用血的C3,C4及IgG水平相关性差,差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05),但与IgG水平升高CU患者的C3,C4水平呈负相关,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 外周血C3,C4水平可以反应IgG水平升高的CU患者的病情.%Objective To investigate the expression of C3, C4 and IgG in peripheral blood of patients with chronic urti-caria(CU) and its correlationship with CU patients' severity. Methods The expression of C3, C4 and IgG was measured by Immune Turbidimetry in 19 patients with acute urticaria( AU), 146 patients with CU and 20 normal controls. The severity of 165 patients with uricaria was evaluated by Urticaria Activity Score (UAS). Results There were no statistically difference in the expression of C3, C4 and IgG between AU and CU patients(P>0.05) , between male and female CU patients respectively(P>0. 05). The expression of IgG was higher than normal control(IgC > 17g/L) in 32 CU patients, and showed negative correlation with the expression of C3 and C4( P < 0. 05 ). UAS was poor relation to the expression of C3 , C4 and IgG in urticaria patient's peripheral blood, but was negative correlation to the levels of C3, C4 in CU patients whose expression of IgG was higher than normal control( P <0.05). Conclusion The expression of C3, C4 could respond to the severity of CU patients whose expression of IgG is higher than normal control.

  3. Enhancement of photocatalytic activity of combustion-synthesized CeO2/C3N4 nanoparticles (United States)

    Li, Dong-Feng; Yang, Ke; Wang, Xiao-qin; Ma, Ya-Li; Huang, Gui-Fang; Huang, Wei-Qing


    Nanocrystalline CeO2/C3N4 was synthesized via a one-step solution combustion method using urea as fuel for the first time. The effects of the molar ratio of urea to cerium chloride on the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized samples were investigated. The synthesized nanocrystalline CeO2/C3N4 shows small size and large surface exposure area. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue demonstrates that the synthesized nanocrystalline CeO2/C3N4 possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity. It is proposed that the enhanced photocatalytic activity might be related to the favorable morphology and structure, and the effective charge separation between C3N4 and CeO2 in the photocatalytic process.

  4. Pseudosubluxación C2-C3: un hallazgo radiológico frecuente en la infancia


    Pellicer García, V.; Baeza Oliete, J.; Miranda, L.; Bas Hermida, T.; Bas Hermida, P.


    Objetivo: Mostrar un hallazgo radiológico fisiológico de la columna cervical infantil que tiende a ser malinterpretado como patológico: la pseudosubluxación C2-C3. Se presenta un caso de una niña de 14 meses de edad remitida a nuestro centro bajo sospecha de subluxación C2-C3. Se aporta una metodología para el diagnóstico diferencial entre pseudosubluxación C2-C3 y subluxación C2-C3 verdadera. Una anamnesis detallada así como una exploración clínica y radiográfica minuciosas, perm...

  5. Magnetic Fe@g‑C3N4: A Photoactive Catalyst for the Hydrogenation of Alkenes and Alkynes (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A photoactive catalyst, Fe@g-C3N4, has been developed for the hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes using hydrazine hydrate as a source of hydrogen. The magnetically...

  6. Identification and Antagonism Study of a Novel Chitinase-producing Bacterium Burkholderia Sp.C3 against Phytopathogenic Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金虹; TAO Yong


    Through a modified agar well diffusion assay, antagonism of a novel chitinase-producing strain C3 against the phytopathogenic fungi including Phoma wasabiae Yokogi,Heterostrophus, Exserohilum Turcicum, Curwularia (Walk) Boed, Thantephorus cucumris, Fusarium graminearum was tested. The data showed that the crude cxtracts of strain C3 had stable antifungal activity in the range of pH 5.0 to pH 8.0. The active components were heat labile and sensitive to proteinase K. A series of experiments supported that the compound responsible for inhibitory activity appeared to be ehitinase. The 16s rDNA analysis indicated that C3 was subject to genus Burkholderia. Pbenotypic characterization of C3 was also consisted with the result of molecular identification.

  7. Preparation of electrospun Ag/g-C3N4 loaded composite carbon nanofibers for catalytic applications (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Liu, Yongkun; Jiang, Guohua; Liu, Depeng; Yu, Weijiang; Chen, Hua; Li, Lei; Huang, Qin


    In this paper, the electrospun Ag nanoparticles and g-C3N4 (Ag/g-C3N4) loaded composite carbon nanofibers were successfully prepared combing the electrospinning technology and carbonization treatment. The composition and microstructure of the resultant composite nanofibers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). Due to the synergistic effect between catalytic activity of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and g-C3N4 and excellent adsorption capacity of carbon nanofibers, the resultant electrospun Ag/g-C3N4 loaded composite carbon nanofibers exhibited excellent conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and benzylamine to N-benzylbenzaldimine. The resultant hybrid carbon composite nanofibers offer the significant advantages, such as low dosage, high catalytic activity, easy recycling and excellent stability.

  8. Stereoselective Functionalization at C-2 and C-3 of the Gibberellin via an Intramolecular Free Radical Cyclization Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Stereoselective functionalization at C-2 and C-3 of the gibberellin skeleton was achieved via an intramolecular free radical cyclization approach using a tethered C-19 halomethyl ester as the radical precursor.

  9. Opsonisation and phagocytosis of group B meningococci by polymorphonuclear leucocytes: comparison of sulphonamide sensitive and resistant strains.


    Ward, K N; Fleer, A; Verhoef, J; Jones, D M


    A large proportion of disease caused by sulphonamide resistant strains of group B type 15 meningococci affects patients 10-24 years. In contrast, disease caused by sulphonamide sensitive strains conforms to the usual pattern, and most infection occurs in early childhood. In an attempt to explain this phenomenon possible differences in susceptibility of resistant and sensitive strains to phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leucocytes were investigated, using radioactively labelled bacteria. In i...

  10. Streptococcus pyogenes Employs Strain-dependent Mechanisms of C3b Inactivation to Inhibit Phagocytosis and Killing of Bacteria. (United States)

    Agrahari, Garima; Liang, Zhong; Glinton, Kristofor; Lee, Shaun W; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J


    Evasion of complement-mediated opsonophagocytosis enables group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) to establish infection. Different strain-dependent mechanisms are employed by the host to accomplish this goal. In general, GAS inhibits the amplification of the complement cascade on its cell surface by facilitating the degradation of C3b, an opsonin, to an inactive product, inactivated C3b (iC3b), in a step catalyzed by factor I (FI) and its cofactor, factor H (FH), with or without the participation of human host plasmin (hPm). GAS recruits FH to its cell surface via FH receptors, which are transcriptionally controlled by the two-component cluster of virulence responder-sensor system. The manner in which FI-FH and hPm function together on GAS cells is unknown. Using GAS strain AP53, which strongly binds host human plasminogen/plasmin (hPg/hPm) directly via an hPg/hPm surface receptor (PAM), we show that both FI-FH and hPm sequentially cleave C3b. Whereas FI-FH proteolytically cleaves C3b into iC3b, PAM-bound hPm catalyzes cleavage of iC3b into multiple smaller peptides. Unlike AP53, GAS strain M23ND weakly binds FH and recruits hPg/hPm to its cell surface indirectly via fibrinogen bound to M-protein, M23. In this case, FH-FI cleaves C3b into iC3b, with negligible degradation of iC3b by hPm that is bound to fibrinogen on the cells. AP53 and M23ND display similar resistance to human neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis, which results in a corresponding high lethality in mice after injection of these cells. These results suggest that GAS utilizes diverse mechanisms to degrade C3b and thus to protect bacterial cells from the complement response of the host.

  11. Fabrication of AgFeO2/g-C3N4 nanocatalyst with enhanced and stable photocatalytic performance (United States)

    Tang, Dandan; Zhang, Gaoke


    This work reported a novel AgFeO2/g-C3N4 composite with enhanced photocatalytic activity, which was fabricated by a simple precipitation method. The g-C3N4 sheets with thickness of 2•4 nm were successfully loaded on the surface of the AgFeO2 particles. As compared to pure AgFeO2 and pure g-C3N4, the as-prepared AgFeO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts exhibited superior absorption in the visible-light region and displayed promising visible-light photocatalytic performance in the degradation of organic contaminations both in water and in air. About 94% of Acid red G (ARG) can be degraded by the optimized AgFeO2/g-C3N4 sample, which is ∱/47.5 and ∱/410.7 times higher than that by pure AgFeO2 and pure g-C3N4, respectively. Meanwhile, it can also effectively degrade ∱/487% of gaseous formaldehyde to CO2 within 9 h. The enhanced photocatalytic property and stability of the AgFeO2/g-C3N4 composite can be attributed to its specific nanostructure, effective electron-hole separation and the formation of Z-scheme heterostructure between AgFeO2 and g-C3N4. This work could provide new and helpful insights into the photocatalytic application of Ag-based delafossite materials.

  12. D-brane gauge theories from toric singularities of the form $C^3/\\Gamma$ and $C^4/\\Gamma$


    Sarkar, Tapobrata


    We discuss examples of D-branes probing toric singularities, and the computation of their world-volume gauge theories from the geometric data of the singularities. We consider several such examples of D-branes on partial resolutions of the orbifolds ${\\bf C^3/Z_2\\times Z_2}$,${\\bf C^3/Z_2\\times Z_3}$ and ${\\bf C^4/Z_2\\times Z_2 \\times Z_2}$.

  13. Air Force Technical Objective Document (TOD) C(3)I (command, control, communications and intelligence) - fiscal year 1985 (United States)

    Crocetti, C. P.


    This TOD describes the technical programs of the Rome Air Development Center in support of the Air Force Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) mission. The technical objectives have been aligned with the VANGUARD mission areas of Command, Control, and Communications (C3), Reconnaissance and Intelligence, Strategic Systems (Defense), and Technology as a means of focusing the RADC support of VANGUARD. This document is prepared to provide industry and universities with the midterm technical objectives in these areas.

  14. Reibergrama para la evaluación de la síntesis intratecal de C3c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorta-Contreras Alberto Juan


    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: El diagrama de las razones de Reiber o reibergrama cobra cada día mayores usos para la caracterización de la síntesis intratecal de proteínas. El reibergrama fue definido para las clases mayores de inmunoglobulinas pero luego ha sido utilizado para evaluar otras proteínas basado en la teoría de la difusión molecular/velocidad de flujo del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR. MÉTODO: El C3c, producto de la degradación del factor del complemento C3 y con una masa molecular de 145 KDa, se acerca a las características moleculares de la IgG para las leyes de la difusión de Fick. Se asume las constantes de la IgG en la fórmula de Reiber para evaluar la síntesis intratecal de C3c así como su correspondiente reibergrama. Se estudiaron 27 pacientes y 27 controles a los que se les dosificó albúmina y C3c en suero y LCR por inmunodifusión radial. RESULTADOS: Con el reibergrama propuesto para el C3c se evaluaron estos pacientes. Se comprueba la validez de este reibergrama para distintas condiciones de barrera con o sin síntesis intratecal de C3c. CONCLUSION: El reibergrama y su fórmula correspondiente propuesto para la C3c puede ser usado para la evaluación de la síntesis intratecal de C3c.

  15. Phenology of Australian temperate grasslands: linking near-surface phenology to C3/C4 community composition (United States)

    Watson, C. J.


    Vegetation phenology is relatively well-studied in northern hemisphere temperate biomes, but limited research has been conducted on phenological drivers and responses in Australian temperate ecosystems. Australian temperate grasslands represent a broad range of plant communities from exotic pastures to native grasslands, but all are important for food security (livestock grazing) and biodiversity retention. Climate predictions for temperate Australia include higher temperatures, altered rainfall frequency/seasonality, increased drought severity and more regular wildfires. The ecosystem response to these climatic factors is unknown, and the need to improve the monitoring of these highly dynamic grassland systems at a landscape scale is acute. The aim of this research is to use high-frequency phenological data to improve the identification of grassland functional types and ultimately use this to improve the inter-annual monitoring of dynamic grassland systems. We use hourly repeat photography and the Green Chromatic Coordinate vegetation index to characterize the vegetative phenology of several native and exotic grassland communities. Monthly vegetation surveys allow us to correlate plant functional groups with indicator features on the phenology profile. C4-dominated grasslands are characterized by a consistent low greenness during winter, the commencement of greening in late spring/early summer and the retention of green vegetation throughout the summer. Exotic C4 grasslands can be distinguished from native ecosystems by their early-spring flush of annual grasses and forbs prior to the primary greening in late spring/early summer. Native C3 grasslands are more variable in response to rainfall and exhibit multiple greening/browning cycles within the year. They tend to green up earlier in the spring and brown off rapidly in response to high temperatures and low rainfall. Exotic C3 grasslands also green up in early spring but exhibit a more traditional unimodal

  16. The maximal C(3) self-complementary trinucleotide circular code X in genes of bacteria, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses. (United States)

    Michel, Christian J


    In 1996, a set X of 20 trinucleotides is identified in genes of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes which has in average the highest occurrence in reading frame compared to the two shifted frames (Arquès and Michel, 1996). Furthermore, this set X has an interesting mathematical property as X is a maximal C(3) self-complementary trinucleotide circular code (Arquès and Michel, 1996). In 2014, the number of trinucleotides in prokaryotic genes has been multiplied by a factor of 527. Furthermore, two new gene kingdoms of plasmids and viruses contain enough trinucleotide data to be analysed. The approach used in 1996 for identifying a preferential frame for a trinucleotide is quantified here with a new definition analysing the occurrence probability of a complementary/permutation (CP) trinucleotide set in a gene kingdom. Furthermore, in order to increase the statistical significance of results compared to those of 1996, the circular code X is studied on several gene taxonomic groups in a kingdom. Based on this new statistical approach, the circular code X is strengthened in genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and now also identified in genes of plasmids. A subset of X with 18 or 16 trinucleotides is identified in genes of viruses. Furthermore, a simple probabilistic model based on the independent occurrence of trinucleotides in reading frame of genes explains the circular code frequencies and asymmetries observed in the shifted frames in all studied gene kingdoms. Finally, the developed approach allows to identify variant X codes in genes, i.e. trinucleotide codes which differ from X. In genes of bacteria, eukaryotes and plasmids, 14 among the 47 studied gene taxonomic groups (about 30%) have variant X codes. Seven variant X codes are identified with at least 16 trinucleotides of X. Two variant X codes XA in cyanobacteria and plasmids of cyanobacteria, and XD in birds are self-complementary, without permuted trinucleotides but non-circular. Five variant X codes XB in

  17. Room-temperature synthesis of nanoporous 1D microrods of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability (United States)

    Pawar, Rajendra C.; Kang, Suhee; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Ahn, Sunghoon; Lee, Caroline S.


    A one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure having a porous network is an exceptional photocatalytic material to generate hydrogen (H2) and decontaminate wastewater using solar energy. In this report, we synthesized nanoporous 1D microrods of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) via a facile and template-free chemical approach at room temperature. The use of concentrated acids induced etching and lift-off because of strong oxidation and protonation. Compared with the bulk g-C3N4, the porous 1D microrod structure showed five times higher photocatalytic degradation performance toward methylene blue dye (MB) under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic H2 evolution of the 1D nanostructure (34 μmol g-1) was almost 26 times higher than that of the bulk g-C3N4 structure (1.26 μmol g-1). Additionally, the photocurrent stability of this nanoporous 1D morphology over 24 h indicated remarkable photocorrosion resistance. The improved photocatalytic activities were attributed to prolonged carrier lifetime because of its quantum confinement effect, effective separation and transport of charge carriers, and increased number of active sites from interconnected nanopores throughout the microrods. The present 1D nanostructure would be highly suited for photocatalytic water purification as well as water splitting devices. Finally, this facile and room temperature strategy to fabricate the nanostructures is very cost-effective.

  18. Enhancing the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by modifying TiO2 photoanodes with layered structure g-C3N4 (United States)

    Lv, Huiru; Yuan, Xiaowei; Cui, Can


    The layered structure graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) makes it possible to form good interfacial contact with metal oxide nanoparticles. In this paper, we obtain the TiO2/g-C3N4 (TC) composite via ultra-sonication and apply it as photoanode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The TC photoanodes decrease the energy barrier of electron transport and improve the injection efficiency of photo-generated electrons. Moreover, the g-C3N4 broadens the absorption spectrum of the TiO2 based photoanode to visible region and enhances the light harvesting. As a result, the short-circuit current density (Jsc) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs based on TC photoanode have been considerably increased from 9.75 mA/cm-2 to 11.29 mA/cm-2, 3.87% to 4.51%, compared with pure TiO2 photoanode, enhanced by 15.8% and 16.8%, respectively.

  19. The effects of nonmetal dopants on the electronic, optical and chemical performances of monolayer g-C3N4 by first-principles study (United States)

    Lu, S.; Li, C.; Li, H. H.; Zhao, Y. F.; Gong, Y. Y.; Niu, L. Y.; Liu, X. J.; Wang, T.


    Doping is an effective means to alter the electronic behavior of materials by forming new chemical bond and relaxing the surrounding chemical bonds. With the aid of first-principle studies, the effects of a series of nonmetal (NM) dopants on the geometric, thermodynamic, electronic and optical performances of monolayer g-C3N4 have been investigated. Results shown that, all considered NM atoms except Br and I atoms can be introduced into the monolayer g-C3N4 on account of the thermal stability, the supercell parameter and film thickness have been altered by the newly formed Csbnd NM bonds and the relaxed chemical bonds around them, which have affected their electronic structure. The band gap values were altered less than ±0.14 eV. The optical absorption edge (and intensity) in visible light of all doped specimens red-shift 10-75 nm (and increase about 14%-71%) except for O- and S-doped specimens, and thus the NM dopants can enhance the visible-light response capability. Moreover, the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of H-, B-, O-, S-, F- and As-doped specimens have been separated adequately, it can effectively separate the photogenerated e-/h+ pairs and enhance the photocatalytic efficiency. Finally, we have confirmed six high efficiency monolayer g-C3N4 based photocatalysts by doping H, B, O, S, F and As atoms.

  20. Genetic studies on the APOA1-C3-A5 gene cluster in Asian Indians with premature coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebbagodi Sridhara


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The APOA1-C3-A5 gene cluster plays an important role in the regulation of lipids. Asian Indians have an increased tendency for abnormal lipid levels and high risk of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the relationship of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the Apo11q cluster, namely the -75G>A, +83C>T SNPs in the APOA1 gene, the Sac1 SNP in the APOC3 gene and the S19W variant in the APOA5 gene to plasma lipids and CAD in 190 affected sibling pairs (ASPs belonging to Asian Indian families with a strong CAD history. Methods & results Genotyping and lipid assays were carried out using standard protocols. Plasma lipids showed a strong heritability (h2 48% – 70%; P P A (LOD score 2.77 SNPs by single-point analysis (P A (pi 0.56 and +83C>T (pi 0.52 (P P A SNPs along with hypertension showed maximized correlations with TC, TG and Apo B by association analysis. Conclusion The APOC3-Sac1 SNP is an important genetic variant that is associated with CAD through its interaction with plasma lipids and other standard risk factors among Asian Indians.

  1. Electronic nonadiabatic effects in low temperature radical-radical reactions. I. C(3P) + OH(2Π). (United States)

    Maergoiz, A I; Nikitin, E E; Troe, J


    The formation of collision complexes, as a first step towards reaction, in collisions between two open-electronic shell radicals is treated within an adiabatic channel approach. Adiabatic channel potentials are constructed on the basis of asymptotic electrostatic, induction, dispersion, and exchange interactions, accounting for spin-orbit coupling within the multitude of electronic states arising from the separated reactants. Suitable coupling schemes (such as rotational + electronic) are designed to secure maximum adiabaticity of the channels. The reaction between C((3)P) and OH((2)Π) is treated as a representative example. The results show that the low temperature association rate coefficients in general cannot be represented by results obtained with a single (generally the lowest) potential energy surface of the adduct, asymptotically reaching the lowest fine-structure states of the reactants, and a factor accounting for the thermal population of the latter states. Instead, the influence of non-Born-Oppenheimer couplings within the multitude of electronic states arising during the encounter markedly increases the capture rates. This effect extends up to temperatures of several hundred K.

  2. Genetic improvement of leaf photosynthesis and intrinsic water use efficiency in C3 plants: Why so much little success? (United States)

    Flexas, J


    There is an urgent need for simultaneously increasing photosynthesis/yields and water use efficiency (WUE) in C3 crops. Potentially, this can be achieved by genetic manipulation of the key traits involved. However, despite significant efforts in the past two decades very limited success has been achieved. Here I argue that this is mostly due to the fact that single gene/single trait approaches have been used thus far. Photosynthesis models demonstrate that only limited improving of photosynthesis can be expected by large improvements of any of its single limiting factors, i.e. stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, and the biochemical capacity for photosynthesis, the latter co-limited by Rubisco and the orchestrated activity of thylakoid electron transport and the Calvin cycle enzymes. Accordingly, only limited improvements of photosynthesis have been obtained by genetic manipulation of any of these single factors. In addition, improving photosynthesis by genetic manipulation in general reduced WUE, and vice-versa, and in many cases pleiotropic effects appear that cancel out some of the expected benefits. I propose that success in genetic manipulation for simultaneous improvement of photosynthesis and WUE efficiency may take longer than suggested in previous reports, and that it can be achieved only by joint projects addressing multi-gene manipulation for simultaneous alterations of all the limiting factors of photosynthesis, including the often neglected phloem capacity for loading and transport the expected surplus of carbohydrates in plants with improved photosynthesis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodo Djuanda


    Full Text Available Cancer has been caused by several factors, such as : Virus             :  biological factorRadiation      : physical factorCarcinogenic chemical compound : chemical factor. The study of the transmission of MTV on experimental animals and its descendants has been tried since 1963. Several strains of mice have been bred successfully, one of which is the C3H strain. This strain is known to'have a high mammary tumor incidence due to the high content of the MTV (Bittner virus in mother's milk. The transmission of MTV can be observed by foster nursing or reciprocal crossing between strains with high and low mammary tumor incidence. All females used in this experiment were force bred and observed for the appearance of a tumor until the age of one year. Some conclusions from this experiment are that: MTV was transmitted through mother's milk.Other strains (Balb/c and AJ could develop mammary tumor when infected by MTV.There is a different susceptibility between Balb/c and AJ to MTV. The transmission of MTV from parent to off spring is -called the vertical transmission. This virus has been known as Bittner virus and it can be identifed by the electrone microscope, immunodiffusion test (Ouchterlony or immunofluorescence test. The result of this experiment may be useful for studying the problem of Cancer tumor in human beings.

  4. The chloroplast genome of a symbiodinium sp. clade C3 isolate

    KAUST Repository

    Barbrook, Adrian C.


    Dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium form important symbioses within corals and other benthic marine animals. Dinoflagellates possess an extremely reduced plastid genome relative to those examined in plants and other algae. In dinoflagellates the plastid genes are located on small plasmids, commonly referred to as \\'minicircles\\'. However, the chloroplast genomes of dinoflagellates have only been extensively characterised from a handful of species. There is also evidence of considerable variation in the chloroplast genome organisation across those species that have been examined. We therefore characterised the chloroplast genome from an environmental coral isolate, in this case containing a symbiont belonging to the Symbiodinium sp. clade C3. The gene content of the genome is well conserved with respect to previously characterised genomes. However, unlike previously characterised dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes we did not identify any \\'empty\\' minicircles. The sequences of this chloroplast genome show a high rate of evolution relative to other algal species. Particularly notable was a surprisingly high level of sequence divergence within the core polypeptides of photosystem I, the reasons for which are currently unknown. This chloroplast genome also possesses distinctive codon usage and GC content. These features suggest that chloroplast genomes in Symbiodinium are highly plastic. © 2013 Adrian C. Barbrook.

  5. Bacillus anthracis interacts with plasmin(ogen to evade C3b-dependent innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Chul Chung

    Full Text Available The causative agent of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, is capable of circumventing the humoral and innate immune defense of the host and modulating the blood chemistry in circulation to initiate a productive infection. It has been shown that the pathogen employs a number of strategies against immune cells using secreted pathogenic factors such as toxins. However, interference of B. anthracis with the innate immune system through specific interaction of the spore surface with host proteins such as the complement system has heretofore attracted little attention. In order to assess the mechanisms by which B. anthracis evades the defense system, we employed a proteomic analysis to identify human serum proteins interacting with B. anthracis spores, and found that plasminogen (PLG is a major surface-bound protein. PLG efficiently bound to spores in a lysine- and exosporium-dependent manner. We identified α-enolase and elongation factor tu as PLG receptors. PLG-bound spores were capable of exhibiting anti-opsonic properties by cleaving C3b molecules in vitro and in rabbit bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, resulting in a decrease in macrophage phagocytosis. Our findings represent a step forward in understanding the mechanisms involved in the evasion of innate immunity by B. anthracis through recruitment of PLG resulting in the enhancement of anti-complement and anti-opsonization properties of the pathogen.

  6. Two-dimensional polyaniline (C3N) from carbonized organic single crystals in solid state. (United States)

    Mahmood, Javeed; Lee, Eun Kwang; Jung, Minbok; Shin, Dongbin; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Jung, Sun-Min; Kim, Dongwook; Li, Feng; Lah, Myoung Soo; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Oh, Joon Hak; Baek, Jong-Beom


    The formation of 2D polyaniline (PANI) has attracted considerable interest due to its expected electronic and optoelectronic properties. Although PANI was discovered over 150 y ago, obtaining an atomically well-defined 2D PANI framework has been a longstanding challenge. Here, we describe the synthesis of 2D PANI via the direct pyrolysis of hexaaminobenzene trihydrochloride single crystals in solid state. The 2D PANI consists of three phenyl rings sharing six nitrogen atoms, and its structural unit has the empirical formula of C3N. The topological and electronic structures of the 2D PANI were revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with a first-principle density functional theory calculation. The electronic properties of pristine 2D PANI films (undoped) showed ambipolar behaviors with a Dirac point of -37 V and an average conductivity of 0.72 S/cm. After doping with hydrochloric acid, the conductivity jumped to 1.41 × 10(3) S/cm, which is the highest value for doped PANI reported to date. Although the structure of 2D PANI is analogous to graphene, it contains uniformly distributed nitrogen atoms for multifunctionality; hence, we anticipate that 2D PANI has strong potential, from wet chemistry to device applications, beyond linear PANI and other 2D materials.

  7. Structural, Antioxidant and Antivarial Studies of C-3-nitrophenyl CALIX[4]resorcinarene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohari M Yamin


    Full Text Available The calix[4]arene derivative C-3-nitrophenylcalix[4]resorcinarene was synthesized by using one-pot reaction of resorcinol with 3-nitrobenzaldehyde in the presence of concentrated HCl. The compound  was characterized by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. X-ray crystallographic study showed that this compound crystallized in a triclinic system with space group of Pī and the unit cell dimensions, a = 10.6143(3 Å ,b = 13.6262(4 Å, c = 14.7971(5 Å, α = 102.813(3°, β = 110.917(3°, γ = 90.885(2°. V= 1938.78(11 Å3 and Z =2. The biological Studies were also investigated. It has a stromg antioxidant property and high antiviral activity against HSV-1 . Cytotoxicity testing on Vero cells showed that it is non-toxic, with a CC50 of more than 0.4 mg/mL. Moderate antibacterial activity.

  8. Contribution of root respiration to soil respiration in a C3/C4 mixed grassland

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wei Wang; Kenji Ohse; Jianjun Liu; Wenhong Mo; Takehisa Oikawa


    The spatial and temporal variations of soil respiration were studied from May 2004 to June 2005 in a C3/C4 mixed grassland of Japan. The linear regression relationship between soil respiration and root biomass was used to determine the contribution of root respiration to soil respiration. The highest soil respiration rate of 11.54 mol m–2 s–1 was found in August 2004 and the lowest soil respiration rate of 4.99 mol m–2 s–1 was found in April 2005. Within-site variation was smaller than seasonal change in soil respiration. Root biomass varied from 0.71 kg m–2 in August 2004 to 1.02 in May 2005. Within-site variation in root biomass was larger than seasonal variation. Root respiration rate was highest in August 2004 (5.7 mol m–2 s–1) and lowest in October 2004 (1.7 mol m–2 s–1). Microbial respiration rate was highest in August 2004 (5.8 mol m–2 s–1) and lowest in April 2005 (2.59 mol m–2 s–1). We estimated that the contribution of root respiration to soil respiration ranged from 31% in October to 51% in August of 2004, and from 45% to 49% from April to June 2005.

  9. C3, A Command-line Catalogue Cross-match tool for large astrophysical catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Riccio, Giuseppe; Cavuoti, Stefano; Mercurio, Amata; di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Molinari, Sergio


    Modern Astrophysics is based on multi-wavelength data organized into large and heterogeneous catalogues. Hence, the need for efficient, reliable and scalable catalogue cross-matching methods plays a crucial role in the era of the petabyte scale. Furthermore, multi-band data have often very different angular resolution, requiring the highest generality of cross-matching features, mainly in terms of region shape and resolution. In this work we present $C^{3}$ (Command-line Catalogue Cross-match), a multi-platform application designed to efficiently cross-match massive catalogues. It is based on a multi-core parallel processing paradigm and conceived to be executed as a stand-alone command-line process or integrated within any generic data reduction/analysis pipeline, providing the maximum flexibility to the end-user, in terms of portability, parameter configuration, catalogue formats, angular resolution, region shapes, coordinate units and cross-matching types. Using real data, extracted from public surveys, we...

  10. Synergistic effect of efficient adsorption g-C3N4/ZnO composite for photocatalytic property (United States)

    Li, Xuefei; Li, Ming; Yang, Jinghai; Li, Xiuyan; Hu, Tingjing; Wang, Jingshu; Sui, Yingrui; Wu, Xingtong; Kong, Lingnan


    Novel g-C3N4/ZnO composite photocatalyst was synthesized from an oxygen-containing precursor by direct thermal decomposition urea in air without any other templates assistance. Different percentages of g-C3N4 were hybridized with ZnO via the monolayer-dispersed method. The prepared g-C3N4/ZnO composites were characterized by XRD, SEM, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), FT-IR, TEM and XPS. The composites showed much higher efficiency for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) than ZnO under UV and visible light irradiation. Especially, the photocatalytic efficiency was the highest under UV light irradiation when the percentage of g-C3N4 was 6%. The improved photocatalytic activity may be due to synergistic effect of photon acquisition and direct contact between organic dyestuff and photocatalyst. Then, effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at the interface of g-C3N4 is an important factor for improvement of photocatalytic activity. This work indicates that g-C3N4 hybrid semiconductors photocatalyst is a promising material in pollutants degradation.

  11. Effect of template-induced surface species on electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Xiaojuan; Bo, Xiangkun; Wang, Yongzheng; Guo, Xiangke; Xie, Mingjiang; Guo, Xuefeng


    In view of the fact that the photocatalytic activity of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is greatly influenced by its electronic structure, herein, effect of templates induced surface species variation on the electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of the templated g-C3N4 was investigated. By mixing the precursor of cyanamide with different templates (SiO2, Al2O3 and template-free) in the preparation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), carbon nitrides with different surface species were obtained. The obtained carbon nitride (g-C3N4-Si) templated by SiO2 nanoparticles exhibits enlarged band gap (3.26 eV) and enhanced photo-degradation ability towards Methyl Orange (MO) compared to that of bulk g-C3N4 (2.67 eV) synthesized from direct condensation/carbonization of melamine and Al2O3-templated g-C3N4-Al (2.76 eV). Detailed characterizations confirm that the introduction of templates in the synthesis process resulted in more non-graphitic species (sp3sbnd Csbnd Csbnd and sbnd NHx) on the surface of the derived carbon nitrides, exerting remarkable effect on the electronic structure and photocatalytic performance.

  12. Progress in the remote sensing of C3 and C4 grass species aboveground biomass over time and space (United States)

    Shoko, Cletah; Mutanga, Onisimo; Dube, Timothy


    The remote sensing of grass aboveground biomass (AGB) has gained considerable attention, with substantial research being conducted in the past decades. Of significant importance is their photosynthetic pathways (C3 and C4), which epitomizes a fundamental eco-physiological distinction of grasses functional types. With advances in technology and the availability of remotely sensed data at different spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolutions, coupled with the need for detailed information on vegetation condition, the monitoring of C3 and C4 grasses AGB has received renewed attention, especially in the light of global climate change, biodiversity and, most importantly, food security. This paper provides a detailed survey on the progress of remote sensing application in determining C3 and C4 grass species AGB. Importantly, the importance of species functional type is highlighted in conjunction with the availability and applicability of different remote sensing datasets, with refined resolutions, which provide an opportunity to monitor C3 and C4 grasses AGB. While some progress has been made, this review has revealed the need for further remote sensing studies to model the seasonal (cyclical) variability, as well as long-term AGB changes in C3 and C4 grasses, in the face of climate change and food security. Moreover, the findings of this study have shown the significance of shifting towards the application of advanced statistical models, to further improve C3 and C4 grasses AGB estimation accuracy.

  13. A Modified Thermal Time Model Quantifying Germination Response to Temperature for C3 and C4 Species in Temperate Grassland

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    Hongxiang Zhang


    Full Text Available Thermal-based germination models are widely used to predict germination rate and germination timing of plants. However, comparison of model parameters between large numbers of species is rare. In this study, seeds of 27 species including 12 C4 and 15 C3 species were germinated at a range of constant temperatures from 5 °C to 40 °C. We used a modified thermal time model to calculate germination parameters at suboptimal temperatures. Generally, the optimal germination temperature was higher for C4 species than for C3 species. The thermal time constant for the 50% germination percentile was significantly higher for C3 than C4 species. The thermal time constant of perennials was significantly higher than that of annuals. However, differences in base temperatures were not significant between C3 and C4, or annuals and perennial species. The relationship between germination rate and seed mass depended on plant functional type and temperature, while the base temperature and thermal time constant of C3 and C4 species exhibited no significant relationship with seed mass. The results illustrate differences in germination characteristics between C3 and C4 species. Seed mass does not affect germination parameters, plant life cycle matters, however.

  14. Atomically Thin B doped g-C3N4 Nanosheets: High-Temperature Ferromagnetism and calculated Half-Metallicity (United States)

    Gao, Daqiang; Liu, Yonggang; Liu, Peitao; Si, Mingsu; Xue, Desheng


    Since the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C4N3), which can be seen as C-doped graphitic-C3N4 (g-C3N4), was reported to display ferromagnetic ground state and intrinsic half-metallicity (Du et al., PRL,108,197207,2012), it has attracted numerous research interest to tune the electronic structure and magnetic properties of g-C3N4 due to their potential applications in spintronic devices. In this paper, we reported the experimentally achieving of high temperature ferromagnetism in metal-free ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets by introducing of B atoms. Further, first-principles calculation results revealed that the current flow in such a system was fully spin-polarized and the magnetic moment was mainly attributed to the p orbital of N atoms in B doped g-C3N4 monolayer, giving the theoretic evidence of the ferromagnetism and half-metallicity. Our finding provided a new perspective for B doped g-C3N4 spintronic devices in future.

  15. Complement C3a and C5a modulate osteoclast formation and inflammatory response of osteoblasts in synergism with IL-1β. (United States)

    Ignatius, Anita; Schoengraf, Philipp; Kreja, Ludwika; Liedert, Astrid; Recknagel, Stefan; Kandert, Sebastian; Brenner, Rolf E; Schneider, Marion; Lambris, John D; Huber-Lang, Markus


    There is a tight interaction of the bone and the immune system. However, little is known about the relevance of the complement system, an important part of innate immunity and a crucial trigger for inflammation. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the presence and function of complement in bone cells including osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and osteoclasts. qRT-PCR and immunostaining revealed that the central complement receptors C3aR and C5aR, complement C3 and C5, and membrane-bound regulatory proteins CD46, CD55, and CD59 were expressed in human MSC, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Furthermore, osteoblasts and particularly osteoclasts were able to activate complement by cleaving C5 to its active form C5a as measured by ELISA. Both C3a and C5a alone were unable to trigger the release of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from osteoblasts. However, co-stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β significantly induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression as well as the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) indicating that complement may modulate the inflammatory response of osteoblastic cells in a pro-inflammatory environment as well as osteoblast-osteoclast interaction. While C3a and C5a did not affect osteogenic differentiation, osteoclastogenesis was significantly induced even in the absence of RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) suggesting that complement could directly regulate osteoclast formation. It can therefore be proposed that complement may enhance the inflammatory response of osteoblasts and increase osteoclast formation, particularly in a pro-inflammatory environment, for example, during bone healing or in inflammatory bone disorders.

  16. In vitro evaluation of the effectiveness of new water-stable cationic carbosilane dendrimers against Acanthamoeba castellanii UAH-T17c3 trophozoites. (United States)

    Heredero-Bermejo, I; Copa-Patiño, J L; Soliveri, J; García-Gallego, S; Rasines, B; Gómez, R; de la Mata, F J; Pérez-Serrano, J


    Acanthamoeba is one of the most common free-living amoebas which is widespread in the environment and can infect humans, causing diseases such as keratitis and encephalitis. In this paper we examine for the first time the amebicidal activity of the family of cationic dendrimers nG-[Si{(CH(2))(3)N(+)(Me)(Et)(CH(2))(2)NMe(3) (+)}2I(-)]( x ) (where n denotes the generations: zero (n = 0, x = 1), first (n = 1, x = 4), and second (n = 2, x = 8); for simplicity, they were named as 0G-CNN2, 1G-CNN8, and 2G-CNN16, respectively) against Acanthamoeba castellanii UAH-T17c3 trophozoites. In order to test the amebicidal activity, we cultured the strain A. castellanii UAH-T17c3 in PYG-Bactocasitone medium and later, we treated it with different concentrations of these dendrimers and monitored the effects and damage by optical count, flow cytometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that all the nanosystems assayed had a strong amebicidal activity. The dendrimer 1G-CNN8 was the most effective against the amoeba. In the morphology of treated throphozoites of A. castellanii UAH-T17c3 analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy techniques, morphological changes were evident in amoeba cells, such as loss of pseudopodia, ectoplasm increase, roundness, and cellular lysis. Furthermore, flow cytometry results showed alterations in cell granularity, which was dose-time dependent. In conclusion, this family of cationic carbosilane dendrimers has a strong amebicidal activity against the trophozoites of A. castellanii UAH-T17c3 in vitro. They could potentially become new agents significant to the development of new amebicidal compounds for prevention and therapy of Acanthamoeba infections.

  17. Low temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO by C3H6 over CeOx loaded on AC treated by HNO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚英豪; 尹华强; 张腾腾; 朱晓帆; 郭家秀; 刘勇军; 刘超


    The activated carbons from coal were treated by HNO3 (named as NAC) and used as carriers to load 7% Ce (named as Ce(0.07)/NAC) by impregnation method. The physical and chemical properties were investigated by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and NH3-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and NO-temperature programmed desorption techniques. The catalytic activities of Ce(0.07)/NAC were evaluated for the low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with C3H6 using temperature-programmed reaction (TP-reaction) in NO, C3H6, O2 and N2 as a balance. The results showed that the specific surface area of Ce(0.07)/NAC was 850.8 m2/g and less than NAC, but Ce oxides could be dispersed highly on the acti-vated carbons. Ce oxides could change acid sites and NO adsorption as well as oxygen-containing functional groups of activated car-bons, and Ce4+ and Ce3+ coexisted in catalysts. The conversion of NO with C3H6 achieved 70% at 280 °C over Ce(0.07)/NAC, but with the increase of O2 concentration, heat accumulation and nonselective combustion were exacerbated, which could cause surface ashing and roughness, resulting in a sharp decrease of catalytic activities. The optimum O2 concentration used in the reaction system was 3% and achieved the high conversion of NO and the widest temperature window. The conversion of NO was closely related to the NO concentrations and [NO]/[C3H6] ratios, and the stoichiometric number was just close to 2:1, but the presence of H2O could af-fect the denitration efficiency of catalyst.

  18. STX140, but not paclitaxel, inhibits mammary tumour initiation and progression in C3(1/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice.

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    Florence Meyer-Losic

    Full Text Available Despite paclitxael's clinical success, treating hormone-refractory breast cancer remains challenging. Paclitaxel has a poor pharmacological profile, characterized by a low therapeutic index (TIX caused by severe dose limiting toxicities, such as neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy. Consequently, new drugs are urgently required. STX140, a compound previously shown to have excellent efficacy against many tumors, is here compared to paclitaxel in three translational in vivo breast cancer models, a rat model of peripheral neuropathy, and through pharmacological testing. Three different in vivo mouse models of breast cancer were used; the metastatic 4T1 orthotopic model, the C3(1/SV40 T-Ag model, and the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. To determine TIX and pharmacological profile of STX140, a comprehensive dosing regime was performed in mice bearing MDA-MD-231 xenografts. Finally, peripheral neuropathy was examined using a rat plantar thermal hyperalgesia model. In the 4T1 metastatic model, STX140 and paclitaxel significantly inhibited primary tumor growth and lung metastases. All C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice in the control and paclitaxel treated groups developed palpable mammary cancer. STX140 blocked 47% of tumors developing and significantly inhibited growth of tumors that did develop. STX140 treatment caused a significant (P<0.001 survival advantage for animals in early and late intervention groups. Conversely, in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice, paclitaxel failed to inhibit tumor growth and did not increase survival time. Furthermore, paclitaxel, but not STX140, induced significant peripheral neuropathy and neutropenia. These results show that STX140 has a greater anti-cancer efficacy, TIX, and reduced neurotoxicity compared to paclitaxel in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice and therefore may be of significant benefit to patients with breast cancer.

  19. Design of Cu-Cu2O/g-C3N4 nanocomponent photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation using water-soluble Erythrosin B dye sensitization (United States)

    Zhang, Piyong; Wang, Tingting; Zeng, Heping


    Cu-Cu2O nanoparticles (NPs) decorated porous graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) (Cu-Cu2O/g-C3N4) photocatalysts were prepared. When investment of copper source materials in the experiment increased to 7 wt%, the highest H2 evolution rate (400 μmol g-1 h-1) was obtained under visible light irradiation in triethanolamine solution. This is about triple of pure g-C3N4 (140 μmol g-1 h-1). Moreover, various amount of Erythrosin B dye was added into Cu-Cu2O/g-C3N4 photoreaction solution and a significant enhancement of H2 production rate was achieved. The highest H2 production rate was 5000 μmol g-1 h-1 with 5 mg Erythrosin B in photoreaction system. Erythrosin B dye sensitized Cu-Cu2O/g-C3N4 presented stable photocatalytic H2 evolution ability and no noticeable degradation or change of photocatalyst were detected after six recycles. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of Erythrosin B dye sensitized Cu-Cu2O/g-C3N4 for the enhancement of photocatalytic H2 evolution is proposed.

  20. miR-29c-3p promotes senescence of human mesenchymal stem cells by targeting CNOT6 through p53-p21 and p16-pRB pathways. (United States)

    Shang, Jin; Yao, Yuan; Fan, Xin; Shangguan, Lei; Li, Jie; Liu, Huan; Zhou, Yue


    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important seed cells for tissue engineering and are promising targets for cell-based therapies. However, the replicative senescence of MSCs during in vitro culture limits their research and clinical applications. The molecular mechanisms underlying the replicative senescence of MSCs are not fully understood. Evidence suggests that miRNAs play important roles in replicative senescence. A microarray analysis found that the miR-29c-3p level was significantly increased during the MSC senescence process. In our study, we investigated the roles of miR-29c-3p in senescence of MSCs. We cultured MSCs for long periods of time, up and down-regulated the miR-29c-3p expression in MSCs, and examined the senescent phenotype changes. The over-expression of miR-29c-3p led to enhanced senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP), senescence associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF), reduced proliferation ability, retarded osteogenic differentiation and corresponding changes in senescence markers, whereas the miR-29c-3p down-regulation had the opposite results. Dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that CNOT6 is the target gene of miR-29c-3p. Knockdown of CNOT6 confirmed its inhibitory effects on the senescence of MSCs. In addition, Western blot results showed that both the p53-p21 and the p16-pRB pathways were activated during the miR-29c-3p-induced senescence of MSCs. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that miR-29c-3p promotes the senescence of MSCs by targeting CNOT6 through p53-p21 and p16-pRB pathways and highlight the contribution of post-transcriptional regulation to stem cell senescence.

  1. Significance of complement C3, complement C4 combined with thyroid autoantibodies in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of Hashimoto thyroiditis%补体C3、补体C4联合甲状腺自身抗体检测对桥本甲状腺炎诊断和预后的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周柬; 庞珏; 刘志民; 陈向芳


    Objective It is to explore the significance of complement C3, complement C4, anti-thyroglobulin antibody ( TGAb ), thyroid peroxidase antibody ( TPOAb ) and TSH receptor stimulating antibody ( TSAb ) in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of Hashimoto thyroiditis( HT ). Methods 120 cases of patients with HT were chosen as HT group, 110 cases of Graves disease in the same period were chosen as Graves group and 30 health examination people were selected as control group. The complement C3, complement C4, TGAb and TPOAb in each group were detected and compared. Results The levels and positive rates of TGAb, TPOAb and TSAb in HT group and Gravesdiseases group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P <0. 01 ), the levels and positive rate of TGAb and TPOAb in HT group increased more significantly compared with the Graves diseases group, while the levels and positive rate of TSAb in Graves diseases group increased more significantly compared with the HT group . The levels of complement C3 and C4 in HT group were lower significantly than those in control group and Graves diseases group, the difference was statistically significant, while there was no significant difference between Graves diseases group and control group. The levels of complement C3 and C4 in hypothyroidism subgroup were lower significantly than those in the normal thyroid function subgroup and the hyperthyroidism subgroup from HT group, the difference was statistically significant( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion HT is the most common autoimmune thyroid diseases. Because of serum diagnosis standard without specificity, combined detection of complement C3,C4 and thyroid autoantibodies have certain clinical value for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation for HT.%目的 探讨补体C3、补体C4、抗甲状腺球蛋白抗体(TGAb)、甲状腺过氧化物酶抗体(TPOAb)和促甲状腺激素受体刺激抗体(TSAb)检测对桥本甲状腺炎(HT)的诊断价值和病情发展判定的意义.方法

  2. Over-expressing the C3 photosynthesis cycle enzyme Sedoheptulose-1-7 Bisphosphatase improves photosynthetic carbon gain and yield under fully open air CO2 fumigation (FACE

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    Ort Donald R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biochemical models predict that photosynthesis in C3 plants is most frequently limited by the slower of two processes, the maximum capacity of the enzyme Rubisco to carboxylate RuBP (Vc,max, or the regeneration of RuBP via electron transport (J. At current atmospheric [CO2] levels Rubisco is not saturated; consequently, elevating [CO2] increases the velocity of carboxylation and inhibits the competing oxygenation reaction which is also catalyzed by Rubisco. In the future, leaf photosynthesis (A should be increasingly limited by RuBP regeneration, as [CO2] is predicted to exceed 550 ppm by 2050. The C3 cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphatase (SBPase, EC has been shown to exert strong metabolic control over RuBP regeneration at light saturation. Results We tested the hypothesis that tobacco transformed to overexpressing SBPase will exhibit greater stimulation of A than wild type (WT tobacco when grown under field conditions at elevated [CO2] (585 ppm under fully open air fumigation. Growth under elevated [CO2] stimulated instantaneous A and the diurnal photosynthetic integral (A' more in transformants than WT. There was evidence of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO2] via downregulation of Vc,max in both WT and transformants. Nevertheless, greater carbon assimilation and electron transport rates (J and Jmax for transformants led to greater yield increases than WT at elevated [CO2] compared to ambient grown plants. Conclusion These results provide proof of concept that increasing content and activity of a single photosynthesis enzyme can enhance carbon assimilation and yield of C3 crops grown at [CO2] expected by the middle of the 21st century.

  3. Unique structure of iC3b resolved at a resolution of 24 Å by 3D-electron microscopy (United States)

    Alcorlo, Martin; Martínez-Barricarte, Ruben; Fernández, Francisco J.; Rodríguez-Gallego, César; Round, Adam; Vega, M. Cristina; Harris, Claire L.; de Cordoba, Santiago Rodríguez; Llorca, Oscar


    Activation of C3, deposition of C3b on the target surface, and subsequent amplification by formation of a C3-cleaving enzyme (C3-convertase; C3bBb) triggers the effector functions of complement that result in inflammation and cell lysis. Concurrently, surface-bound C3b is proteolyzed to iC3b by factor I and appropriate cofactors. iC3b then interacts with the complement receptors (CR) of the Ig superfamily, CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) on leukocytes, down-modulating inflammation, enhancing B cell-mediated immunity, and targeting pathogens for clearance by phagocytosis. Using EM and small-angle X-ray scattering, we now present a medium-resolution structure of iC3b (24 Å). iC3b displays a unique conformation with structural features distinct from any other C3 fragment. The macroglobulin ring in iC3b is similar to that in C3b, whereas the TED (thioester-containing domain) domain and the remnants of the CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain have moved to locations more similar to where they were in native C3. A consequence of this large conformational change is the disruption of the factor B binding site, which renders iC3b unable to assemble a C3-convertase. This structural model also justifies the decreased interaction between iC3b and complement regulators and the recognition of iC3b by the CR of the Ig superfamily, CR2, CR3, and CR4. These data further illustrate the extraordinary conformational versatility of C3 to accommodate a great diversity of functional activities. PMID:21788512

  4. Unique structure of iC3b resolved at a resolution of 24 Å by 3D-electron microscopy. (United States)

    Alcorlo, Martin; Martínez-Barricarte, Ruben; Fernández, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Gallego, César; Round, Adam; Vega, M Cristina; Harris, Claire L; de Cordoba, Santiago Rodríguez; Llorca, Oscar


    Activation of C3, deposition of C3b on the target surface, and subsequent amplification by formation of a C3-cleaving enzyme (C3-convertase; C3bBb) triggers the effector functions of complement that result in inflammation and cell lysis. Concurrently, surface-bound C3b is proteolyzed to iC3b by factor I and appropriate cofactors. iC3b then interacts with the complement receptors (CR) of the Ig superfamily, CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) on leukocytes, down-modulating inflammation, enhancing B cell-mediated immunity, and targeting pathogens for clearance by phagocytosis. Using EM and small-angle X-ray scattering, we now present a medium-resolution structure of iC3b (24 Å). iC3b displays a unique conformation with structural features distinct from any other C3 fragment. The macroglobulin ring in iC3b is similar to that in C3b, whereas the TED (thioester-containing domain) domain and the remnants of the CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain have moved to locations more similar to where they were in native C3. A consequence of this large conformational change is the disruption of the factor B binding site, which renders iC3b unable to assemble a C3-convertase. This structural model also justifies the decreased interaction between iC3b and complement regulators and the recognition of iC3b by the CR of the Ig superfamily, CR2, CR3, and CR4. These data further illustrate the extraordinary conformational versatility of C3 to accommodate a great diversity of functional activities.

  5. Interpain A, a cysteine proteinase from Prevotella intermedia, inhibits complement by degrading complement factor C3.

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    Michal Potempa


    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the teeth caused by, among other pathogens, Prevotella intermedia. Many strains of P. intermedia are resistant to killing by the human complement system, which is present at up to 70% of serum concentration in gingival crevicular fluid. Incubation of human serum with recombinant cysteine protease of P. intermedia (interpain A resulted in a drastic decrease in bactericidal activity of the serum. Furthermore, a clinical strain 59 expressing interpain A was more serum-resistant than another clinical strain 57, which did not express interpain A, as determined by Western blotting. Moreover, in the presence of the cysteine protease inhibitor E64, the killing of strain 59 by human serum was enhanced. Importantly, we found that the majority of P. intermedia strains isolated from chronic and aggressive periodontitis carry and express the interpain A gene. The protective effect of interpain A against serum bactericidal activity was found to be attributable to its ability to inhibit all three complement pathways through the efficient degradation of the alpha-chain of C3 -- the major complement factor common to all three pathways. P. intermedia has been known to co-aggregate with P. gingivalis, which produce gingipains to efficiently degrade complement factors. Here, interpain A was found to have a synergistic effect with gingipains on complement degradation. In addition, interpain A was able to activate the C1 complex in serum, causing deposition of C1q on inert and bacterial surfaces, which may be important at initial stages of infection when local inflammatory reaction may be beneficial for a pathogen. Taken together, the newly characterized interpain A proteinase appears to be an important virulence factor of P. intermedia.

  6. Early metabolomics changes in heart and plasma during chronic doxorubicin treatment in B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Laura K; Pence, Lisa; Vijay, Vikrant; Moland, Carrie L; George, Nysia; Cao, Zhijun; Yu, Li-Rong; Fuscoe, James C; Beger, Richard D; Desai, Varsha G


    The present study aimed to identify molecular markers of early stages of cardiotoxicity induced by a potent chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (DOX). Male B6C3F1 mice were dosed with 3 mg kg(-1) DOX or saline via tail vein weekly for 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8 weeks (cumulative DOX doses of 6, 9, 12, 18 or 24 mg kg(-1) , respectively) and euthanized a week after the last dose. Mass spectrometry-based and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry-based metabolic profiling were employed to identify initial biomarkers of cardiotoxicity before myocardial injury and cardiac pathology, which were not noted until after the 18 and 24 mg kg(-1) cumulative doses, respectively. After a cumulative dose of 6 mg kg(-1) , 18 amino acids and four biogenic amines (acetylornithine, kynurenine, putrescine and serotonin) were significantly increased in cardiac tissue; 16 amino acids and two biogenic amines (acetylornithine and hydroxyproline) were significantly altered in plasma. In addition, 16 acylcarnitines were significantly increased in plasma and five were significantly decreased in cardiac tissue compared to saline-treated controls. Plasma lactate and succinate, involved in the Krebs cycle, were significantly altered after a cumulative dose of 6 mg kg(-1) . A few metabolites remained altered at higher cumulative DOX doses, which could partly indicate a transition from injury processes at 2 weeks to repair processes with additional injury happening concurrently before myocardial injury at 8 weeks. These altered metabolic profiles in mouse heart and plasma during the initial stages of injury progression due to DOX treatment may suggest these metabolites as candidate early biomarkers of cardiotoxicity. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Controllable synthesis of CeO2/g-C3N4 composites and their applications in the environment. (United States)

    She, Xiaojie; Xu, Hui; Wang, Hefei; Xia, Jiexiang; Song, Yanhua; Yan, Jia; Xu, Yuanguo; Zhang, Qi; Du, Daolin; Li, Huaming


    This research has developed a photocatalytic reactor that includes circulating water, light, and a temperature control system. CeO2/g-C3N4 composites with high photocatalytic activity and stability were synthesized by a simple and facile hydrothermal method. The obtained photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that in the CeO2/g-C3N4 composites, the CeO2 nanoparticles were homogeneously cubic in shape (from 3 to 10 nm) and were evenly dispersed on the surface of the g-C3N4. At constant temperature (30 °C), 5% CeO2/g-C3N4 photocatalyst showed the best photocatalytic activity for degrading organic dye methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic reaction for degrading MB followed first-order kinetics and 5% CeO2/g-C3N4 exhibited a higher apparent rate of 1.2686 min(-1), 7.8 times higher than that of the pure g-C3N4 (0.1621 min(-1)). In addition, it was found that 5% CeO2/g-C3N4 had a new property that it could be used as a sensor for the determination of trace amounts of Cu(2+). Such unique design and one-step synthesis, with an exposed high-activity surface, are important for both technical applications and theoretical investigations.

  8. Posterior arthrodesis of C1-C3 for the stabilization of multiple unstable upper cervical fractures with spinal cord compromise (United States)

    Xue, Deting; Chen, Qixin; Chen, Gang; Zhuo, Wenhai; Li, Fangcai


    Abstract Background: Multiple fractures of the atlas and axis are rare. The management of multiple fragment axis fractures and unstable atlas fractures is still challenging for the spinal surgeon. There are no published reports of similar fractures with 3-part fracture of axis associated with an unstable atlas fracture. Case summary: We present a patient with concurrent axis and atlas fractures, which have not been reported. The patient suffered hyperextension injury with neck pain and numbness of the bilateral upper extremity associated with weakness after a 2-m fall. The axis fractures included an odontoid type IIA fracture and traumatic spondylolisthesis of C2-C3. The atlas fracture was unstable. The neurological examination manifested as central canal syndrome, which was due to the hyperextension injury of cervical spine and spondylolisthesis of C2-C3. The patient was diagnosed as multiple unstable upper cervical fractures with spinal cord compromise. We performed posterior arthrodesis of C1-C3. Postoperatively, the patient showed neurological improvement, and C1-C3 had fused at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusion: Posterior arthrodesis of C1-C3 could provide a stable fixation for the 3 parts of axis (an odontoid type IIA fracture and traumatic spondylolisthesis of C2-C3) combined an unstable atlas fracture. Both the patient and the doctor were satisfied with the results of the treatment. So posterior arthrodesis of C1-C3 is a suitable treatment option for the treatment of a concurrent unstable atlas fracture and multiple fractures of the axis. PMID:28072744

  9. Presence of multiple lesion types with vastly different microenvironments in C3HeB/FeJ mice following aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Scott M. Irwin


    Full Text Available Cost-effective animal models that accurately reflect the pathological progression of pulmonary tuberculosis are needed to screen and evaluate novel tuberculosis drugs and drug regimens. Pulmonary disease in humans is characterized by a number of heterogeneous lesion types that reflect differences in cellular composition and organization, extent of encapsulation, and degree of caseous necrosis. C3HeB/FeJ mice have been increasingly used to model tuberculosis infection because they produce hypoxic, well-defined granulomas exhibiting caseous necrosis following aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A comprehensive histopathological analysis revealed that C3HeB/FeJ mice develop three morphologically distinct lesion types in the lung that differ with respect to cellular composition, degree of immunopathology and control of bacterial replication. Mice displaying predominantly the fulminant necrotizing alveolitis lesion type had significantly higher pulmonary bacterial loads and displayed rapid and severe immunopathology characterized by increased mortality, highlighting the pathological role of an uncontrolled granulocytic response in the lung. Using a highly sensitive novel fluorescent acid-fast stain, we were able to visualize the spatial distribution and location of bacteria within each lesion type. Animal models that better reflect the heterogeneity of lesion types found in humans will permit more realistic modeling of drug penetration into solid caseous necrotic lesions and drug efficacy testing against metabolically distinct bacterial subpopulations. A more thorough understanding of the pathological progression of disease in C3HeB/FeJ mice could facilitate modulation of the immune response to produce the desired pathology, increasing the utility of this animal model.

  10. Limited internal fixation combined with external fixation in the treatment of Pilon fracture of C2 and C3 type%混合外固定治疗C2、C3型Pilon骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪前朝; 王守国


    目的 分析混合外固定治疗C2、C3型Pilon骨折的临床价值.方法 2004年9月至2009年9月,采用混合外固定治疗C2、C3型Pilon骨折21例.结果 所有患者获得随访,随访时间1~2年,平均1.3年.参照Mazur制定的踝关节功能评分标准,优12例,良6例,可2例,差1例.优良率85.7%.结论 混合外固定是治疗C2、C3型Pilon骨折的一种有效方法.

  11. The two sides of complement C3d: evolution of electrostatics in a link between innate and adaptive immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A Kieslich

    Full Text Available The interaction between complement fragment C3d and complement receptor 2 (CR2 is a key aspect of complement immune system activation, and is a component in a link between innate and adaptive immunities. The complement immune system is an ancient mechanism for defense, and can be found in species that have been on Earth for the last 600 million years. However, the link between the complement system and adaptive immunity, which is formed through the association of the B-cell co-receptor complex, including the C3d-CR2 interaction, is a much more recent adaptation. Human C3d and CR2 have net charges of -1 and +7 respectively, and are believed to have evolved favoring the role of electrostatics in their functions. To investigate the role of electrostatics in the function and evolution of human C3d and CR2, we have applied electrostatic similarity methods to identify regions of evolutionarily conserved electrostatic potential based on 24 homologues of complement C3d and 4 homologues of CR2. We also examine the effects of structural perturbation, as introduced through molecular dynamics and mutations, on spatial distributions of electrostatic potential to identify perturbation resistant regions, generated by so-called electrostatic "hot-spots". Distributions of electrostatic similarity based on families of perturbed structures illustrate the presence of electrostatic "hot-spots" at the two functional sites of C3d, while the surface of CR2 lacks electrostatic "hot-spots" despite its excessively positive nature. We propose that the electrostatic "hot-spots" of C3d have evolved to optimize its dual-functionality (covalently attaching to pathogen surfaces and interaction with CR2, which are both necessary for the formation B-cell co-receptor complexes. Comparison of the perturbation resistance of the electrostatic character of the homologues of C3d suggests that there was an emergence of a new role of electrostatics, and a transition in the function of C3

  12. The two sides of complement C3d: evolution of electrostatics in a link between innate and adaptive immunity. (United States)

    Kieslich, Chris A; Morikis, Dimitrios


    The interaction between complement fragment C3d and complement receptor 2 (CR2) is a key aspect of complement immune system activation, and is a component in a link between innate and adaptive immunities. The complement immune system is an ancient mechanism for defense, and can be found in species that have been on Earth for the last 600 million years. However, the link between the complement system and adaptive immunity, which is formed through the association of the B-cell co-receptor complex, including the C3d-CR2 interaction, is a much more recent adaptation. Human C3d and CR2 have net charges of -1 and +7 respectively, and are believed to have evolved favoring the role of electrostatics in their functions. To investigate the role of electrostatics in the function and evolution of human C3d and CR2, we have applied electrostatic similarity methods to identify regions of evolutionarily conserved electrostatic potential based on 24 homologues of complement C3d and 4 homologues of CR2. We also examine the effects of structural perturbation, as introduced through molecular dynamics and mutations, on spatial distributions of electrostatic potential to identify perturbation resistant regions, generated by so-called electrostatic "hot-spots". Distributions of electrostatic similarity based on families of perturbed structures illustrate the presence of electrostatic "hot-spots" at the two functional sites of C3d, while the surface of CR2 lacks electrostatic "hot-spots" despite its excessively positive nature. We propose that the electrostatic "hot-spots" of C3d have evolved to optimize its dual-functionality (covalently attaching to pathogen surfaces and interaction with CR2), which are both necessary for the formation B-cell co-receptor complexes. Comparison of the perturbation resistance of the electrostatic character of the homologues of C3d suggests that there was an emergence of a new role of electrostatics, and a transition in the function of C3d, after the

  13. g-C3N4/PVDF复合膜的制备及热解性能研究%Preparation and pyrolysis performance of g-C3N4/PVDF composite membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧雅; 杭祖圣; 卢向明; 应三九


    A g-C3N4/PVDF organic-inorganic hybrid membrane used in photodegradation of organic pollutants is prepared by rapid gel method with DMF as solvent. The microstructures of the hydrid membrane are characterized by XRD,FTIR and TG. The results show that the β phase crystallization of PVDF is not influenced by g-C3N4. Moreover,the thermal decomposition kinetics of the membrane is studied by the iterative procedure method. The results show that the thermal decomposition process is changed by g-C3 N4 , and is divided into two stages. The corresponding thermal decomposition dynamic functions of two stages are obtained respectively.%以DMF为溶剂,通过急骤凝胶法制备了一种用于光催化降解有机污染物的有机-无机复合膜g-C3N4/PVDF,并利用XRD、FTIR、TG等手段对该复合膜的微观结构进行了分析.分析结果表明,复合膜中的PVDF以β相结晶存在,g-C3N4不影响PVDF结晶的结构.此外,还利用迭代法研究了复合膜的热分解动力学,研究发现,g-C3N4的加入改变了PVDF的热分解过程,使热分解分为明显的2个阶段,并推导出了2个阶段的热分解动力学方程.

  14. The hybridization of Ag2CO3 rods with g-C3N4 sheets with improved photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konglin Wu


    Full Text Available A series of graphitic carbon nitride/silver carbonate (g-C3N4/Ag2CO3 rod-like composites with different weight contents of g-C3N4 have been prepared by a facile precipitation method. The g-C3N4/Ag2CO3 rod-like composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag2CO3 toward degradation of rhodamine B (RhB and methylene blue (MB under visible-light irradiation. The photocatalytic reaction follows a pseudo-first-order reaction and the rate constants for the degradation of RhB and MB by 3.5% g-C3N4/Ag2CO3 are about 2 times and 1.7 times that of pure Ag2CO3, respectively. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on the photoluminescence (PL spectra and a series of radical trapping experimental analyses. The remarkably improved photocatalytic performance should be ascribed to the heterostructure between Ag2CO3 and g-C3N4, which greatly promoted the photoinduced charge transfer and inhibited the recombination of electrons and holes.

  15. A simple two-step purification procedure for the iC3b binding collectin conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Meibom, Thomas; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Tornøe, Ida;


    Bovine conglutinin is a serum protein involved in innate immunity. It binds calcium dependently to iC3b, a product of the complement component C3 deposited on cell surfaces, immune complexes or artificial surfaces after complement activation. We here present a simple and efficient two-step proced......Bovine conglutinin is a serum protein involved in innate immunity. It binds calcium dependently to iC3b, a product of the complement component C3 deposited on cell surfaces, immune complexes or artificial surfaces after complement activation. We here present a simple and efficient two....... In the second step, conglutinin is separated from iC3b and IgM by ion-exchange chromatography. This purification procedure yielded 81 μg of conglutinin per ml of serum with a recovery of 61.2%. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the purified conglutinin had a high affinity for mannan (K(d)=2.3-3.2 n......M). SDS-PAGE and time-resolved immunofluorometric assays showed that the conglutinin was not contaminated with other serum collectins such as collectin-43 or mannan-binding lectin....

  16. 大鼠pEGFP-C3/BMP-2真核表达载体的构建%Construction of rat pEGFP-C3/BMP-2 recombinant eukaryotic expressing vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙欣; 曾荣; 郭伟韬; 肖启贤; 王斌; 黄云; 林颢


    目的 通过克隆大鼠的BMP2基因,构建EGFP-C3/BMP2基因的真核细胞表达载体.方法 把大鼠的基因组DNA通过PCR获得BMP2,克隆构建载体pEGFP/C3-BMP2,并将其转化到大肠杆菌里面,最后进行重组真核表达载体pEGFP-C3-BMP2的构建和鉴定,并可观察其在真核细胞中的表达.结果 以大鼠总DNA为模板扩增出1 200 bp左右的特异性条带,测序结果与Gene-Bank测序结果相比,翻译成的氨基酸序列相同并完全一致,并可在真核细胞中表达.对重组质粒pEGFP-C3/BMP2进行双酶切鉴定并测序,结果也完全一致.结论 为进一步研究利用BMP2基因修饰骨组织工程骨,促进骨折愈合再生提供实验基础.%Objective To construct a recombinant eukaryotic expressing vector pEGFP-C3/BMP-2 by using rat bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene clone. Methods BMP-2 was amplified with PCR and cloned into pEGFP-C3 vector after sequencing, recombinant eukaryotic expressing vector pEGFP-C3/BMP-2 was constructed and identified by sequencing, the expression of BMP-2 in eukaryotic cells was observed and analyzed. Results The sequencing of BMP-2 gene from the rat complied with the Gene-Bank result and with the same amino acid sequence after translation. The recombinant expressing vector pEGFP-C3/BMP-2 was confirmed by double enzyme digestion and sequencing, the successful expression of BMP-2 in eukaryotic cells was observed. Conclusion For the further study BMP2 genetic modification of bone tissue engineering, and promote the regeneration of fracture healing to provide the basis.

  17. Role of C3 plant species on carbon dioxide and methane emissions in Mediterranean constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Maucieri


    Full Text Available C3 plant species are widely used to vegetate constructed wetlands (CW, but so far no information is available on their effect on CW CO2(eq balance in the Mediterranean climate. The aim of this research was to study carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 emissions and CO2(eq budgets of CW horizontal sub-surface flow pilot-plant beds vegetated with Arundo donax L. and Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud. compared with an unvegetated bed in Sicily. The highest total plant biomass production was measured in the bed vegetated with A. donax (17.0 kg m–2, whereas P. australis produced 7.6 kg m–2. CO2 and CH4 emissions and showed significant correlation with average air temperature and solar radiation for each bed. The CO2 emission values ranged from 0.8±0.1 g m–2 d–1, for the unvegetated bed in April, to 24.9±0.6 g m–2 d–1 for the bed with P. australis in August. The average CO2 emissions of the whole monitored period were 15.5±7.2, 15.1±7.1 and 3.6±2.4 g m–2 d–1 for A. donax, P. australis and unvegetated beds respectively. The CH4 fluxes differed significantly over the monitored seasons, with the highest median value being measured during spring (0.963 g m–2 d–1. No statistical differences were found for CH4 flux among the studied beds. Cumulative estimated CH4 emissions during the study period (from April to December were 159.5, 134.1 and 114.7 g m–2 for A. donax, P. australis and unvegetated beds respectively. CO2(eq balance showed that the two vegetated beds act as CO2(eq sinks, while the unvegetated bed, as expected, acts as a CO2(eq source. Considering only the above-ground plant biomass in the CO2(eq budgets, P. australis and A. donax determined uptakes of 1.30 and 8.35 kg CO2(eq m–2 respectively.

  18. Benzene metabolite levels in blood and bone marrow of B6C3F{sub 1} mice after low-level exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, W.E.; Strunk, M.R.; Thornton-Manning, J.R. [and others


    Studies at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) have explored the species-specific uptake and metabolism of benzene. Results have shown that metabolism is dependent on both dose and route of administration. Of particular interest were shifts in the major metabolic pathways as a function of exposure concentration. In these studies, B6C3F{sub 1} mice were exposed to increasing levels of benzene by either gavage or inhalation. As benzene internal dose increased, the relative amounts of muconic acid and hydroquinone decreased. In contrast, the relative amount of catechol increased with increasing exposure. These results show that the relative levels of toxic metabolites are a function of exposure level. Based on these results and assuming a linear relationship between exposure concentration and levels of bone marrow metabolites, it would be difficult to detect an elevation of any phenolic metabolites above background after occupational exposures to the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit of 1 ppm benzene.

  19. The effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the fractionated radiation therapy in C3H mouse fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A gingko biloba extract (GBE) has been known as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer. Its mechanisms of action are increase of the red blood cell deformability, decrease the blood viscosity, and decrease the hypoxic cell fraction in the tumor. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of GBE on fractionated radiotherapy and to clarify the mechanism of action of the GBE by estimating the blood flow in tumor and normal muscle. Fibrosarcoma (FSall) growing in a C3H mouse leg muscle was used as the tumor model. When the tumor size reached 7 mm in diameter, the GBE was given intraperitoneally at 1 and 25 hours prior to irradiation. The tumor growth delay was measured according to the various doses of radiation (3, 6, 9, 12, Gy and 15 Gy) and to the fractionation (single and fractionated irradiation) with and without the GBE injection. The radiation dose to the tumor the response relationships and the enhancement ratio of the GBE were measured. In addition, the blood flow of a normal muscle and a tumor was compared by laser Doppler flowmetry according to the GBE treatment. When the GBE was used with single fraction irradiation with doses ranging from 3 to 12 Gy, GBE increased the tumor growth delay significantly ({rho} < 0.05) and the enhancement ratio of the GBE was 1.16. In fractionated irradiation with 3 Gy per day, the relationships between the radiation dose (D) and the tumor growth delay (TGD) were TGD (days) = 0.26 x D (Gy)+0.13 in the radiation alone group, and the TGD (days) = 0.30 x D (Gy) + 0.13 in the radiation with GBE group. As a result, the enhancement ratio was 1.19 (95% confidence interval; 1.13 {approx} 1.27). Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure the blood flow. The mean blood flow was higher in the muscle (7.78 mL/100 g/min in tumor and the 10.15 mL/100 g/min in muscle, {rho} = 0.0001) and the low blood flow fraction (less than 2 mL/100 g/min) was higher in the tumor (0.5% vs. 5.2%, {rho} = 0.005). The blood flow was not changed with the GBE

  20. Characterization of hepatocellular resistance and susceptibility to styrene toxicity in B6C3F1 mice. (United States)

    Mahler, J F; Price, H C; O'Connor, R W; Wilson, R F; Eldridge, S R; Moorman, M P; Morgan, D L


    Short-term inhalation exposure of B6C3F1 mice to styrene causes necrosis of centrilobular (CL) hepatocytes. However, in spite of continued exposure, the necrotic parenchyma is rapidly regenerated, indicating resistance by regenerated cells to styrene toxicity. These studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that resistance to repeated styrene exposure is due to sustained cell proliferation, with production of hepatocytes that have reduced metabolic capacity. Male mice were exposed to air or 500 ppm styrene (6 h/day); hepatotoxicity was evaluated by microscopic examination, serum liver enzyme levels, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeling index (LI). Metabolism was assessed by measurement of blood styrene and styrene oxide. Both single and repeated exposures to styrene resulted in mortality by Day 2; in mice that survived, there was CL necrosis with elevated BrdU LI at Day 6, and complete restoration of the necrotic parenchyma by Day 15. The BrdU LI in mice given a single exposure had returned to control levels by Day 15. Re-exposure of these mice on Day 15 resulted in additional mortality and hepatocellular necrosis, indicating that regenerated CL cells were again susceptible to the cytolethal effect of styrene following a 14-day recovery. However, in mice repeatedly exposed to styrene for 14 days, the BrdU LI remained significantly increased on Day 15, with preferential labeling of CL hepatocytes with enlarged nuclei (karyomegaly). If repeated exposures were followed by a 10-day recovery period, CL karyomegaly persisted, but the BrdU LI returned to control level and CL hepatocytes became susceptible again to styrene toxicity as demonstrated by additional mortality and acute necrosis after a challenge exposure. These findings indicated a requirement for continued styrene exposure and DNA synthesis in order to maintain this resistant phenotype. Analyses of proliferating-cell nuclear-antigen (PCNA) labeling were conducted to further characterize the cell cycle

  1. Dispersion C3 coefficients for the alkali-metal atoms interacting with a graphene layer and with a carbon nanotube

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Bindiya; Sahoo, B K


    We evaluate separation dependent van der Waal dispersion ($C_3$) coefficients for the interactions of the Li, Na, K and Rb alkali atoms with a graphene layer and with a single walled carbon nanotube (CNT) using the hydrodynamic and Dirac models. The results from both the models are evaluated using accurate values of the dynamic polarizabilities of the above atoms. Accountability of these accurate values of dynamical polarizabilities of the alkali atoms in determination of the above $C_3$ coefficients are accentuated by comparing them with the coefficients evaluated using the dynamic dipole polarizabilities estimated from the single oscillator approximation which are typically employed in the earlier calculations. For practical description of the atom-surface interaction potentials the radial dependent $C_3$ coefficients are given for a wide range of separation distances between the ground states of the considered atoms and the wall surfaces and also for different values of nanotube radii. The coefficients for...

  2. Successful Treatment of Infectious Endocarditis Associated Glomerulonephritis Mimicking C3 Glomerulonephritis in a Case with No Previous Cardiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kawamorita


    Full Text Available We report a 42-year-old man with subacute infectious endocarditis (IE with septic pulmonary embolism, presenting rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and positive proteinase 3-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (PR3-ANCA. He had no previous history of heart disease. Renal histology revealed diffuse endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis with complement 3- (C3- dominant staining and subendothelial electron dense deposit, mimicking C3 glomerulonephritis. Successful treatment of IE with valve plastic surgery gradually ameliorated hypocomplementemia and renal failure; thus C3 glomerulonephritis-like lesion in this case was classified as postinfectious glomerulonephritis. IE associated glomerulonephritis is relatively rare, especially in cases with no previous history of valvular disease of the heart like our case. This case also reemphasizes the broad differential diagnosis of renal involvement in IE.

  3. Regenerative Soot-IX: C3 as the dominant, stable carbon cluster in high pressure sooting discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Janjua, Sohail Ahmad; Khan, S D; Khalid, R; Aleem, A; Ahmad, Shoaib


    Results are presented that have been obtained while operating the graphite hollow cathode duoplasmatron ion source in dual mode under constant discharge current. This dual mode operation enabled us to obtain the mass and emission spectra simultaneously. In mass spectra C3 is the main feature but C4 and C5 are also prominent, whereas in emission spectra C2 is also there and its presence shows that it is in an excited state rather than in an ionic state. These facts provide evidence that C3 is produced due to the regeneration of a soot forming sequence and leave it in ionic state. C3 is a stable molecule and the only dominant species among the carbon clusters that survives in a regenerative sooting environment at high-pressure discharges.

  4. Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Cr7C3/γ-Fe Ceramal Composite Coating Fabricated by Plasma Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junbo


    A new type in situ Cr7C3/γ-Fe ceramal composite coating was fabricated on substrate of hardened and tempered grade C steel by plasma cladding with Fe-Cr-C alloy powders. The ceramal composite coating has a rapidly solidified microstructure consisting of primary Cr7C3 and the Cr7C3/γ-Fe eutectics, and is metallurgically bonded to the degree C steel substrate. The corrosion resistances of the coating in water solutions of 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 and 3.5% NaCl were evaluated utilizing the electrochemical polarization corrosion-test method. Because of the inherent excellent corrosion-resisting properties of the constituting phase and the rapidly solidified homogeneous microstructure, the plasma clad ceramal composite coating exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in the water solutions of 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 and 3.5% NaCl.

  5. Regioselective Synthesis of C-3-Functionalized Quinolines via Hetero-Diels-Alder Cycloaddition of Azadienes with Terminal Alkynes. (United States)

    Saunthwal, Rakesh K; Patel, Monika; Verma, Akhilesh K


    A highly efficient metal and protection-free approach for the regioselective synthesis of C-3-functionalized quinolines from azadienes (in situ generated from 2-aminobenzyl alcohol) and terminal alkynes through [4 + 2] cycloaddition has been developed. An unprecedented reaction of 2-aminobenzyl alcohol with 1,3- and 1,4-diethynylbenzene provided the C-3 tolylquinolines via [4 + 2] HDA and oxidative decarboxylation. The -NH2 group directed mechanistic approach was well supported by the control experiments and deuterium-labeling studies and by isolating the azadiene intermediate. The reactivity and selectivity of unprotected azadiene in metal-free base-assisted hetero-Diels-Alder reaction is exploited to quickly assemble an important class of C-3-functionalized quinolines, which are difficult to access.

  6. Derivatives of human complement component C3 for therapeutic complement depletion: a novel class of therapeutic agents. (United States)

    Fritzinger, David C; Hew, Brian E; Lee, June Q; Newhouse, James; Alam, Maqsudul; Ciallella, John R; Bowers, Mallory; Gorsuch, William B; Guikema, Benjamin J; Stahl, Gregory L; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm


    To obtain proteins with the complement-depleting activity of Cobra Venom Factor (CVF), but with less immunogenicity, we have prepared human C3/CVF hybrid proteins, in which the C-terminus of the alpha-chain of human C3 is exchanged with homologous regions of the C-terminus of the beta-chain of CVF. We show that these hybrid proteins are able to deplete complement, both in vitro and in vivo. One hybrid protein, HC3-1496, is shown to be effective in reducing complement-mediated damage in two disease models in mice, collagen-induced arthritis and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Human C3/CVF hybrid proteins represent a novel class ofbiologicals as potential therapeutic agents in many diseases where complement is involved in the pathogenesis.

  7. Rickettsia rickettsii outer membrane protein YbgF induces protective immunity in C3H/HeN mice. (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Qi, Yong; Xiong, Xiaolu; Jiao, Jun; Duan, Changsong; Wen, Bohai


    Rickettsia rickettsii is the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). YbgF and TolC are outer membrane-associated proteins of R. rickettsii that play important roles in its interaction with host cells. We investigated the immunogenicity of YbgF and TolC for protection against RMSF. We immunized C3H/HeN mice with recombinant R. rickettsii YbgF (rYbgF) or TolC (rTolC). Rickettsial burden and impairment in the lungs, spleens, and livers of rYbgF-immunized mice were significantly lower than in rTolC-immunized mice. The ratio of IgG2a to IgG1 in rYbgF-immunized mice continued to increase over the course of our experiments, while that in rTolC-immunized mice was reduced. The proliferation and cytokine secretion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells isolated from R. rickettsii-infected mice were analyzed following antigen stimulation. The results indicated that proliferation and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in R. rickettsii-infected mice were significantly greater than in uninfected mice after stimulation with rYbgF. YbgF is a novel protective antigen of R. rickettsii. Protection conferred by YbgF is dependent upon IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and IgG2a, which act in synergy to control R. rickettsii infection.

  8. Summary Report for National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) and Centro Para Prevencao da Poluicao (C3P) 2011 International Workshop on Environment and Alternative Energy (United States)

    Greene, Brian


    The C3P &. NASA International Workshop on Environment and Alternative Energy was held on November 15-18, 2011 at the European Space Agency (ESA)'s Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. The theme of the workshop was "Global Collaboration in Environmental and Alternative Energy Strategies". The workshop was held at ESTEC's conference center. More than 110 individuals from eleven countries attended the workshop. For the first time since the inception of NASA-C3P workshops, a full day was dedicated to a student session. Fifteen students from around the globe gave oral presentations along with poster displays relating to the latest technologies in environmental and alternative energy strategies. Judges from NASA, C3P and ESA awarded plaques to the top three students. In addition to the students, thirty eight U.S. and international subject matter experts presented on the following general environmental-related topics: (1) Hazardous materials management and substitution in support of space operations (2) Emerging renewable and alternative energy technologies (3) Sustainable development and redevelopment (4) Remediation technologies and strategies The workshop also included a panel discussion on the topic of the challenges of operating installations across borders. Throughout the workshop, attendees heard about the scope of environmental and energy challenges that industry and governments face. They heard about technologies for increasing energy efficiency and increasing use of renewable energy. They learned about ways companies and government agencies are using materials, processes, goods and services in a manner more respectful with the environment and in compliance with health and safety rules. The concept of partnerships and their inherent benefits was evidenced throughout the workshop. Partnering is a key aspect of sustainability because sustainable development is complicated. Through formal presentations and side discussions, attendees

  9. Detecting long-term metabolic shifts using isotopomers: CO2-driven suppression of photorespiration in C3 plants over the 20th century. (United States)

    Ehlers, Ina; Augusti, Angela; Betson, Tatiana R; Nilsson, Mats B; Marshall, John D; Schleucher, Jürgen


    Terrestrial vegetation currently absorbs approximately a third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, mitigating the rise of atmospheric CO2. However, terrestrial net primary production is highly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 levels and associated climatic changes. In C3 plants, which dominate terrestrial vegetation, net photosynthesis depends on the ratio between photorespiration and gross photosynthesis. This metabolic flux ratio depends strongly on CO2 levels, but changes in this ratio over the past CO2 rise have not been analyzed experimentally. Combining CO2 manipulation experiments and deuterium NMR, we first establish that the intramolecular deuterium distribution (deuterium isotopomers) of photosynthetic C3 glucose contains a signal of the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio. By tracing this isotopomer signal in herbarium samples of natural C3 vascular plant species, crops, and a Sphagnum moss species, we detect a consistent reduction in the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio in response to the ∼100-ppm CO2 increase between ∼1900 and 2013. No difference was detected in the isotopomer trends between beet sugar samples covering the 20th century and CO2 manipulation experiments, suggesting that photosynthetic metabolism in sugar beet has not acclimated to increasing CO2 over >100 y. This provides observational evidence that the reduction of the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio was ca. 25%. The Sphagnum results are consistent with the observed positive correlations between peat accumulation rates and photosynthetic rates over the Northern Hemisphere. Our results establish that isotopomers of plant archives contain metabolic information covering centuries. Our data provide direct quantitative information on the "CO2 fertilization" effect over decades, thus addressing a major uncertainty in Earth system models.

  10. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Growth Temperature on the Tolerance of Photosynthesis to Acute Heat Stress in C3 and C4 Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. William Hamilton Ⅲ; Scott A. Heckathorn; Puneet Joshi; Dan Wang; Deepak Barua


    Determining effects of elevated CO2 on the tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat-stress (heat wave) is necessary for predicting plant responses to global warming, as photosynthesis is thermolabile and acute heat-stress and atmospheric CO2 will increase in the future. Few studies have examined this, and past results are variable, which may be due to methodological variation. To address this, we grew two C3 and two C4 species at current or elevated CO2 and three different growth temperatures (GT). We assessed photosynthetic thermotolerance in both unacclimated (basal tolerance) and preheat-stressed (preHS = acclimated) plants. In C3 species, basal thermotolerance of net photosynthesis (Pn) was increased In high CO2, but in C4 species, Pn thermotlerance was decreased by high CO2 (except Zea maya at low GT); CO2 effects in preHS plants were mostly small or absent, though high CO2 was detrimental in one C3 and one C4 species at warmer GT. Though high CO2 generally decreased stomatal conductance, decreases in Pn during heat stress were mostly due to non-stomatal effects. Photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was often decreased by high CO2 during heat stress, especially at high GT; CO2 effects on post-PSll electron transport were variable. Thus, high CO2 often affected photosynthetic theromotolerance, and the effects varied with photosynthetic pathway, growth temperature, and acclimation state. Most importantly, in heat-stressed plants at normal or warmer growth temperatures, high CO2 may often decrease, or not benefit as expected, tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat stress. Therefore, interactive effects of elevated CO2 and warmer growth temperatures on acute heat tolerance may contribute to future changes in plant productivity, distribution, and diversity.

  11. A practical and highly sensitive C3N4-TYR fluorescent probe for convenient detection of dopamine (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yang, Manman; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Yalin; Yang, Yanmei; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui


    The C3N4-tyrosinase (TYR) hybrid is a highly accurate, sensitive and simple fluorescent probe for the detection of dopamine (DOPA). Under optimized conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of C3N4-TYR is proportional to the DOPA concentration in the range from 1 × 10-3 to 3 × 10-8 mol L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. In the present system, the detection limit achieved is as low as 3 × 10-8 mol L-1. Notably, these quantitative detection results for clinical samples are comparable to those of high performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, the enzyme-encapsulated C3N4 sensing arrays on both glass slide and test paper were evaluated, which revealed sensitive detection and excellent stability. The results reported here provide a new approach for the design of a multifunctional nanosensor for the detection of bio-molecules.The C3N4-tyrosinase (TYR) hybrid is a highly accurate, sensitive and simple fluorescent probe for the detection of dopamine (DOPA). Under optimized conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of C3N4-TYR is proportional to the DOPA concentration in the range from 1 × 10-3 to 3 × 10-8 mol L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. In the present system, the detection limit achieved is as low as 3 × 10-8 mol L-1. Notably, these quantitative detection results for clinical samples are comparable to those of high performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, the enzyme-encapsulated C3N4 sensing arrays on both glass slide and test paper were evaluated, which revealed sensitive detection and excellent stability. The results reported here provide a new approach for the design of a multifunctional nanosensor for the detection of bio-molecules. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03316k

  12. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) coated titanium oxide nanotube arrays with enhanced photo-electrochemical performance. (United States)

    Sun, Mingxuan; Fang, Yalin; Kong, Yuanyuan; Sun, Shanfu; Yu, Zhishui; Umar, Ahmad


    Herein, we report the successful formation of graphitic carbon nitride coated titanium oxide nanotube array thin films (g-C3N4/TiO2) via the facile thermal treatment of anodized Ti sheets over melamine. The proportion of C3N4 and TiO2 in the composite can be adjusted by changing the initial addition mass of melamine. The as-prepared samples are characterized by several techniques in order to understand the morphological, structural, compositional and optical properties. UV-vis absorption studies exhibit a remarkable red shift for the g-C3N4/TiO2 thin films as compared to the pristine TiO2 nanotubes. Importantly, the prepared composites exhibit an enhanced photocurrent and photo-potential under both UV-vis and visible light irradiation. Moreover, the observed maximum photo-conversion efficiency of the prepared composites is 1.59 times higher than that of the pristine TiO2 nanotubes. The optical and electrochemical impedance spectra analysis reveals that the better photo-electrochemical performance of the g-C3N4/TiO2 nanotubes is mainly due to the wider light absorption and reduced impedance compared to the bare TiO2 nanotube electrode. The presented work demonstrates a facile and simple method to fabricate g-C3N4/TiO2 nanotubes and clearly revealed that the introduction of g-C3N4 is a new and innovative approach to improve the photocurrent and photo-potential efficiencies of TiO2.

  13. Heterogeneous disease progression and treatment response in a C3HeB/FeJ mouse model of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Lanoix


    Full Text Available Mice are the most commonly used species for non-clinical evaluations of drug efficacy against tuberculosis (TB. Unlike commonly used strains, C3HeB/FeJ mice develop caseous necrosis in the lung, which might alter the representation of drug efficacy in a way that is more like human TB. Because the development of such pathology requires time, we investigated the effect of infection incubation period on the activity of six drugs in C3HeB/FeJ and BALB/c mice. Mice were aerosol infected and held for 6, 10 or 14 weeks before receiving therapy with rifampin (RIF, rifapentine (RPT, pyrazinamide (PZA, linezolid (LZD, sutezolid (PNU or metronidazole (MTZ for 4-8 weeks. Outcomes included pathological assessments, pH measurements of liquefied caseum and assessment of colony-forming unit (CFU counts from lung cultures. Remarkable heterogeneity in the timing and extent of disease progression was observed in C3HeB/FeJ mice, largely independent of incubation period. Likewise, drug efficacy in C3HeB/FeJ mice was not affected by incubation period. However, for PZA, LZD and PNU, dichotomous treatment effects correlating with the presence or absence of large caseous lesions were observed. In the case of PZA, its poor activity in the subset of C3HeB/FeJ mice with large caseous lesions might be explained by the pH of 7.36±0.09 measured in liquefied caseum. This study highlights the potential value of C3HeB/FeJ mice for non-clinical efficacy testing, especially for investigating the interaction of lesion pathology and drug effect. Careful use of this model could enhance the bridging of non-clinical results with clinical outcomes.

  14. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis. (United States)

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L


    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden.

  15. Alternative pathway dysfunction in kidney disease: a case report and review of dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulopathy. (United States)

    Hawfield, Amret; Iskandar, Samy S; Smith, Richard J H


    Dysfunction of the alternative pathway of complement activation provides a pathophysiologic link between the C3 glomerulopathies dense deposit disease and glomerulonephritis with C3 deposition and the clinically and histologically distinct atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Previously, dense deposit disease was known as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II, but paucity or complete lack of immunoglobulin deposition on immunofluorescence staining and advances in our understanding of alternative pathway dysregulation have separated it from immune complex-mediated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis types I and III. We discuss a case of dense deposit disease and review the current pathologic classification, clinical course, treatment options, and related conditions.

  16. Detection of C3O in IRC+10216: Oxygen-Carbon chain chemistry in the outer envelope


    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Apponi, A. J.; Ziurys, L. M.; Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José; Pardo Carrión, Juan Ramón; Guélin, Michel


    The oxygen-bearing species C3O has been identified in the circumstellar envelope of the carbon star IRC +10216. The J = 8-->7, 9-->8, 10-->9, 14-->13, and 15-->14 transitions were detected at 2 and 3 mm using the Arizona Radio Observatory’s 12 m telescope. Measurements of the J = 9-->8, 10-->9, and 12-->11 lines were simultaneously conducted at the IRAM 30 m telescope. The line profiles of C3O are roughly U-shaped, indicating an extended shell distribution for this molecule in IRC +10216. The...

  17. Subchronic toxicity of triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride in B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats. (United States)

    Greenman, D L; Morrissey, R L; Blakemore, W; Crowell, J; Siitonen, P; Felton, P; Allen, R; Cronin, G


    Triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride (trien-2HCl; CAS No. 38260-01-04), a chelating agent used to treat Wilson's disease patients who are intolerant of the drug of choice, was tested for subchronic toxicity in B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats. Mice and rats received trien-2HCl in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 120, 600, or 3000 ppm for up to 92 days. Twenty mice and 18 rats of each sex were assigned to each dose group fed either a cereal-based (NIH-31) or a purified (AIN-76A) diet, both containing nutritionally adequate levels of copper. An additional control group of rats and mice received a Cu-deficient AIN-76A diet. This low copper diet resulted in Cu-deficiency symptoms, such as anemia, liver periportal cytomegaly, pancreatic atrophy and multifocal necrosis, spleen hematopoietic cell proliferation, and increased heart weight, together with undetectable levels of plasma copper in rats but not in mice. Trien-2HCl lowered plasma copper levels some-what (at 600 and 3000 ppm) in rats fed the AIN-76A diet, but did not induce the usual signs of copper deficiency. Trien-2HCl caused an increased frequency of uterine dilatation at 3000 ppm in rats fed AIN-76A diet that was not noted in females fed the Cu-deficient diet. Trien-2HCl toxicity occurred only in mice in the highest dose group fed an AIN-76A diet. Increased frequencies of inflammation of the lung interstitium and liver periportal fatty infiltration were seen in both sexes, and hematopoietic cell proliferation was seen in the spleen of males. Kidney and body weights were reduced in males as was the incidence of renal cytoplasmic vacuolization. There were no signs of copper deficiency in mice exposed to trien-2HCl. The only effect of trien-2HCl in animals fed the NIH-31 diet was a reduced liver copper level in both rat sexes, noted at 3000 ppm.

  18. 舰载C3I系统人机可靠性模糊综合评估%Fuzzy Integrated Evaluation on Man-Machine Reliability of Shipboard C3I System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许腾; 盖世昌; 朱智


    Based on an analysis of man-machine relationship and the influential factors of the manmachine reliability of the shipboard CSI system, an index system for evaluating the man-machine reliability of a shipboard C3I system is proposed. By the method for fuzz sets and membership function, a membership function for the reliability of "man" factor is given. Two man-machine reliability evaluation models on fuzzy close-degree and ideal membership are built. The models are examined against surveys on naval ship forces. Results indicate that models are valid and usable.%基于舰载C3I系统人机关系和人机可靠性影响因素的全面分析,提出了舰载C3I系统人机可靠性的评估指标体系。利用模糊集和隶属度函数的方法,提出了人的可靠性隶属度函数,据此分别建立了基于模糊贴近度和理想隶属度的舰载C3I系统的人机可靠性评估模型,并根据舰艇部队实际调查数据对模型进行了验证。结果证明该评估模型有效、可行。

  19. 后路C2/C3椎弓根螺钉固定治疗Hangman骨折%Posterior C2/C3 pedicle screw fixation and fusion for treatment of Hangman fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡临; 田伟; 刘波; 李勤; 李志宇; 袁强; 王永庆


    目的 探讨后路C2/C3椎弓根螺钉固定治疗Hangman骨折的应用指征及疗效.方法 采用后路C2/C3椎弓根螺钉固定治疗18例Ⅱ型及Ⅱa型Hangman骨折患者,其中3例采用基于CT的导航,14例采用基于ICO-C 3D C臂的导航.结果 全部患者达到骨性愈合,没有出现椎动脉和神经损伤及其他合并症.结论 后路C2/C3椎弓根螺钉固定对于治疗Hangman骨折是一种有效的方法,术中导航技术使其更加准确和安全.

  20. C3分子线在激光场中的含时密度泛函理论研究%TDDFT Research of C3 Molecular Wire in the Laser Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志萍; 吴寿煜; 张秀梅; 王利光


    运用将含时密度泛函理论(TDDFT)和分子动力学相结合的方法,研究了C3分子线的光吸收谱以及它在强激光场中的电子和离子响应.计算结果表明,C3分子线光吸收谱可以分为两个区域,其中既包含独立的峰,又包含连续分布的峰.对C3分子线在激光场中的研究表明,在激光强度、极化方向及脉冲长度相同的情况下,当激光频率远低于共振频率时,分子的电离发生较晚而且电离较弱,分子沿激光极化方向的偶极矩与激光脉冲波包很相近,分子激发处于线性响应区;当激光频率处于共振频率范围时,C3分子线的电离增强,而且偶极矩的激发与激光脉冲波包完全不同,与分子的电离密切相关.%With the combination of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and the molecular dynamics, the optical-absorption spectrum and its ions and electrons response in the strong laser field were researched, respectively. The computation result shows that the total photo-absorption spectrum of C3 molecular wire is contributed by two parts, which includes both the independent peak and continuous peak. The research result of C3 molecular wire in the laser field shows that with the same laser intensity, polarization direction and pulse length, when the laser frequency is far below the resonant frequency, the ionization is weak and takes place later, the di-pole moment of the molecular in the laser polarization direction is close with the laser pulse wave packet, and the excitation is in the linear response region. When the laser frequency is in the resonant frequency region, the ionization of C3 molecular wire is enhanced, and a strong correlation between the excitation of the dipole moment and the ionization of the molecular is observed, but the former is totally different from the laser pulse wave packet.

  1. Effect of Al4C3 on Microstructure and Properties of AM60A Magnesium Alloy%Al4C3对AM60A镁合金组织和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 秦建军; 欧耀辉; 陈阳; 孙伟


    The microstructures and properties of AM60A magnesium alloy with different content of ALA were studied using the optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that the addition of AI4C3 can promote the refinement of AM60A magnesium alloy. A best refining result can be gained when 0.5 wt% ALA was added, and the best mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the alloy can be reached. Based on the calculation of the planar disregistry between ALA and a-Mg, AI4C3 particles can act as the heterogeneous nucleus of primary ot-Mg phase. But when the addition amount of ALA is over the range of 0.5% to 0.7%, the agglomeration and precipitation of ALA can decrease the grain refinement effect.%采用光学显微镜(OM)、扫描电镜(SEM)及能谱分析(EDS)等测试手段研究了不同含量的Al4C3对AM60A镁合金组织和性能的影响.结果表明,Al4C3的加入可以显著细化AM60A镁合金的晶粒;当其含量为0.5%时,晶粒最为细小,合金的强韧性与耐腐蚀性能得到最大改善.通过能谱分析及面错配度的计算证实:Al4C3可作为初生α-Mg的良好异质核心,但当Al4C3的加入量超过一定范围(大于0.5%~0.7%)时,大量的Al4C3生团聚和沉淀,造成晶粒细化效果下降.

  2. Microstructure and wear resistance of laser clad Cr7 C3 reinforced Cr-Ni-Si coating%激光熔覆Cr7C3增强铬镍硅涂层组织与耐磨性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁望勋; 汤海波; 方艳丽; 刘栋; 张述泉; 王华明


    A wear resistant Cr7C3 reinforced Cr-Ni-Si ternary metal silicide composite coating was fabricated on a substrate of A3 mild steel by means of laser cladding with Cr3C2 and 0. 47Cr-0. 50Ni-0. 03Si alloy powder as the precursor material. The microstructure and composition of the coating were investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Xray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer and electron probe micro-analyzer. Then the wear resistance of the coating was tested under dry sliding wear condition at room temperature. Results indicated that, microhardness of the Cr-Ni-Si coating was evidently improved because of the introduction of Cr7 C3. The laser clad Cr7 C3 reinforced Cr-Ni-Si ternary metal silicide composite coating shows excellent wear resistance under dry sliding wear test conditions.%为了提高材料耐磨性,以Cr3 C2和0.47Cr-0.50Ni 0.03Si合金粉末为原料,利用激光熔覆制备工艺,在A3钢表面制得了Cr7 C3硬质相增强Cr-Ni-Si金属硅化物复合材料涂层;利用光学显微镜、扫描电子显微镜、X射线衍射仪、能谱仪与电子探针等分析了涂层的显微组织,并在室温干滑动条件下测试其耐磨性能.结果表明,硬质颗粒相Cr7 C3的加入,显著提高了Cr-Ni-Si金属硅化物涂层的硬度,涂层具有良好的室温耐磨性能.